WorldWideScience

Sample records for artificial sensory organ

  1. Artificial sensory organs: latest progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuo; Inada, Yuji; Shigeno, Keiji

    2018-03-01

    This study introduces the latest progress on the study of artificial sensory organs, with a special emphasis on the clinical results of artificial nerves and the concept of in situ tissue engineering. Peripheral nerves have a strong potential for regeneration. An artificial nerve uses this potential to recover a damaged peripheral nerve. The polyglycolic acid collagen tube (PGA-C tube) is a bio-absorbable tube stuffed with collagen of multi-chamber structure that consists of thin collagen films. The clinical application of the PGA-C tube began in 2002 in Japan. The number of PGA-C tubes used is now beyond 300, and satisfactory results have been reported on peripheral nerve repairs. This PGA-C tube is also effective for patients suffering from neuropathic pain.

  2. [Artificial organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas.

  4. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  5. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  6. Biomaterials for artificial organs

    CERN Document Server

    Lysaght, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for organ transplants far exceeds available donor organs. Consequently some patients die whilst waiting for a transplant. Synthetic alternatives are therefore imperative to improve the quality of, and in some cases, save people's lives. Advances in biomaterials have generated a range of materials and devices for use either outside the body or through implantation to replace or assist functions which may have been lost through disease or injury. Biomaterials for artificial organs reviews the latest developments in biomaterials and investigates how they can be used to improve the quality and efficiency of artificial organs. Part one discusses commodity biomaterials including membranes for oxygenators and plasmafilters, titanium and cobalt chromium alloys for hips and knees, polymeric joint-bearing surfaces for total joint replacements, biomaterials for pacemakers, defibrillators and neurostimulators and mechanical and bioprosthetic heart valves. Part two goes on to investigate advanced and ...

  7. Physiological targets of artificial gravity: the sensory-motor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Clarke, A.; Bles, W.; Wuyts, F.; Paloski, W.; Clément, G.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial

  8. Antithrombotic artificial organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, T; Fukada, E; Saegusa, M; Hasegawa, T

    1971-07-12

    A new antithrombotic material useful for making artificial organs (artificial blood vessel, artificial heart, etc.) can be prepared by graft-polymerizing an acrylic ester (methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, etc.) with a synthetic fiber (teflon, etc.). The graft-polymerization can be carried out by means of gamma radiation with cobalt 60 (dose rate 2.6x10/sup 3/ r/min., total dose 8x10/sup 4/ to 3.5x10/sup 5/ r). A graft ratio of 5 to 80% is attainable. In one example, a tubular sample made of teflon fiber having an inner diameter of 5 to 10 mm was immersed into methyl methacrylate in an ampoule in the absence of air and exposed to cobalt 60 gamma ray at the dose rate of 3.18x10/sup 3/ rad/min. After extraction with acetone, the sample was dried. The total dose was 3.5x10/sup 5/ rad and the graft ratio was ca. 25%. The sample was transplanted to vena cava of dog. No formation of thrombus was observed by autopsy (4 months after the transplantation). In control (teflon tube not graft-polymerized) thrombus was observed by autopsy 7 days after the transplantation.

  9. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  10. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  11. Bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs

    OpenAIRE

    NOSENKO M.A.; DRUTSKAYA M.S.; MOISENOVICH M.M.; NEDOSPASOV S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cy...

  12. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  13. First artificial sensory organ applied in clinical medicine. Cochlear implant; Iryokai hatsu no jitsuyo jinko kankaku kikan - jinko naiji -. Jinko naiji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, S. [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-07-05

    The application of artificial internal ears and its present state in Japan as well as a children`s center for training speech perception run by the author are mentioned, and the composing elements (microphone, speech processor and receiver stimulator made of 22 electrodes) and the function of Newcreus Company`s artificial inner ear products - the only object of the health insurance admitted in this country - are described. Then, speech processors of the 2nd generation MSP and the 3rd generation SPEAK are compared in terms of the improvement of hearing coefficient closer to the cochleae activities and the fact that SPEAK is superior to MSP under all circumstances, in particular, for a word of single syllable excepting the case of a word without noise is explained. The state of artificial internal ears applied to children of high-degree impairment of hearing in the advanced countries is mentioned while pointing out the luck of understanding at deaf schools and their instructors in Japan. Further, an advancement of understanding achieved during the last decade with regard to the cochleae physiology is mentioned including the facts that, tough the utility of hearing aids for those with high-degree impairment of hearing is little as it is merely an amplifier, the auditory hearing of word has been improved by more than 20% with the latest SPEAK vocal processor over older ones, and it is prospected that they may live an every-day life without hindrance by the help of reading on written talk in combination. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Many polymeric materials have already been used in the field of artificial organs. However, the materials used in artificial organs are not necessarily created with the best material selectivity and materials design; therefore, the development of synthesized polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs based on well-defined designs is required. The approaches to the development of biocompatible polymeric materials fall into three categories: (1) control of physicochemical characteristics on material surfaces, (2) modification of material surfaces using biomolecules, and (3) construction of biomimetic membrane surfaces. This review will describe current issues regarding polymeric membrane materials for use in artificial organs.

  15. The Japanese artificial organs scene: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Murabayashi, Shun

    2005-08-01

    Artificial organs and regenerative medicine are the subjects of very active research and development (R&D) in Japan and various artificial organs are widely used in patients. Results of the R&D are presented at the annual conference of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs (JSAO). Progress in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are reviewed annually in the Japanese Journal of Artificial Organs. The official English-language journal of JSAO, Journal of Artificial Organs, also publishes many original articles by Japanese researchers. Although the annual conference and the publications of JSAO provide the world with update information on artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan, the information is not always understood appropriately in the rest of the world, mainly due to language problems. This article therefore introduces the current status of artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan. Artificial hearts and metabolic support systems are reviewed here and other interesting areas such as regenerative medicine can be found elsewhere.

  16. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy

  17. Artificial organs 2010: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2011-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2010 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2011, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Artificial organs 2011: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2012-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2011 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal would not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely well-received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2012, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Artificial Organs 2012: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2013-03-01

    In this editor's review, articles published in 2012 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected, and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2013, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Artificial Organs 2015: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2015 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for providing their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of their time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Artificial Organs 2013: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2013 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level". Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide so meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  2. Artificial Organs 2017: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2018-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2017 are organized by category and summarized. We provide a brief reflection of the research and progress in artificial organs intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of these technologies and methods. Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. Peer-reviewed Special Issues this year included contributions from the 12th International Conference on Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems and Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Perfusion edited by Dr. Akif Undar, Artificial Oxygen Carriers edited by Drs. Akira Kawaguchi and Jan Simoni, the 24th Congress of the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support edited by Dr. Toru Masuzawa, Challenges in the Field of Biomedical Devices: A Multidisciplinary Perspective edited by Dr. Vincenzo Piemonte and colleagues and Functional Electrical Stimulation edited by Dr. Winfried Mayr and colleagues. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. © 2018 International Center for

  3. Design of artificial human joints & organs

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the design science and methodology of artificial joints and organs.  It presents the mechanical characterization of the hard and soft tissues as well as the viscoelastic properties of the tissue.

  4. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  5. Sensory feedback in artificial control of human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.

    1999-01-01

    Artificial motor control systems may reduce the handicap of motor impaired individuals. Sensors are essential components in feedback control of these systems and in the information exchange with the user. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the applications of sensors in the

  6. Artificial organs 2014: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2014 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Artificial Organs 2016: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadsell, Angela T; Malchesky, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2016 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We were pleased to publish our second Virtual Issue in April 2016 on "Tissue Engineering in Bone" by Professor Tsuyoshi Takato. Our first was published in 2011 titled "Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping" by Dr. Ashraf Khir. Other peer-reviewed Special Issues this year included contributions from the 11th International Conference on Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems and Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Perfusion edited by Dr. Akif Ündar and selections from the 23rd Congress of the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps edited by Dr. Bojan Biocina. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and

  8. Tissue bioengineering and artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llames, Sara; García, Eva; Otero Hernández, Jesús; Meana, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    The scarcity of organs and tissues for transplant and the need of immunosuppressive drugs to avoid rejection constitute two reasons that justify organ and tissue production in the laboratory. Tissue engineering based tissues (TE) could allow to regenerate the whole organ from a fragment or even to produce several organs from an organ donor for grafting purposes. TE is based in: (1) the ex vivo expansion of cells, (2) the seeding of these expanded cells in tridimensional structures that mimic physiological conditions and, (3) grafting the prototype. In order to graft big structures it is necessary that the organ or tissue produced "ex vivo" bears a vascular tree to ensure the nutrition of its deep layers. At present, no technology has been developed to provide this vascular tree to TE derived products. Thus, these tissues must be thin enough to acquire nutrients during the first days by diffusion from surrounding tissues. This fact constitutes nowadays the greatest limitation of technologies for organ development in the laboratory.In this chapter, all these problems and their possible solutions are commented. Also, the present status of TE techniques in the regeneration of different organ systems is reviewed.

  9. Artificial organic networks artificial intelligence based on carbon networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce-Espinosa, Hiram; Molina, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    This monograph describes the synthesis and use of biologically-inspired artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHNs) for approximation models associated with machine learning and a novel computational algorithm with which to exploit them. The reader is first introduced to various kinds of algorithms designed to deal with approximation problems and then, via some conventional ideas of organic chemistry, to the creation and characterization of artificial organic networks and AHNs in particular. The advantages of using organic networks are discussed with the rules to be followed to adapt the network to its objectives. Graph theory is used as the basis of the necessary formalism. Simulated and experimental examples of the use of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms with organic neural networks are presented and a number of modeling problems suitable for treatment by AHNs are described: ·        approximation; ·        inference; ·        clustering; ·        control; ·        class...

  10. Artificial engineering of secondary lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan K H; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs such as spleen and lymph nodes are highly organized immune structures essential for the initiation of immune responses. They display distinct B cell and T cell compartments associated with specific stromal follicular dendritic cells and fibroblastic reticular cells, respectively. Interweaved through the parenchyma is a conduit system that distributes small antigens and chemokines directly to B and T cell zones. While most structural aspects between lymph nodes and spleen are common, the entry of lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells, and antigen into lymphoid tissues is regulated differently, reflecting the specialized functions of each organ in filtering either lymph or blood. The overall organization of lymphoid tissue is vital for effective antigen screening and recognition, and is a feature which artificially constructed lymphoid organoids endeavor to replicate. Synthesis of artificial lymphoid tissues is an emerging field that aims to provide therapeutic application for the treatment of severe infection, cancer, and age-related involution of secondary lymphoid tissues. The development of murine artificial lymphoid tissues has benefited greatly from an understanding of organogenesis of lymphoid organs, which has delineated cellular and molecular elements essential for the recruitment and organization of lymphocytes into lymphoid structures. Here, the field of artificial lymphoid tissue engineering is considered including elements of lymphoid structure and development relevant to organoid synthesis. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An artificial arm/hand system with a haptic sensory function using electric stimulation of peripheral sensory nerve fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    We are currently developing an artificial arm/hand system which is capable of sensing stimuli and then transferring these stimuli to users as somatic sensations. Presently, we are evoking the virtual somatic sensations by electrically stimulating a sensory nerve fiber which innervates a single mechanoreceptor unit at the target area; this is done using a tungsten microelectrode that was percutaneously inserted into the use's peripheral nerve (a microstimulation method). The artificial arm/hand system is composed of a robot hand equipped with a pressure sensor system on its fingers. The sensor system detects mechanical stimuli, which are transferred to the user by means of the microstimulation method so that the user experiences the stimuli as the corresponding somatic sensations. In trials, the system worked satisfactorily and there was a good correlation between the pressure applied to the pressure sensors on the robot fingers and the subjective intensities of the evoked pressure sensations.

  12. Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing.

  13. Artificial organs versus regenerative medicine: is it true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosé, Yukihiko; Okubo, Hisashi

    2003-09-01

    Individuals engaged in the fields of artificial kidney and artificial heart have often mistakenly stated that "the era of artificial organs is over; regenerative medicine is the future." Contrarily, we do not believe artificial organs and regenerative medicine are different medical technologies. As a matter of fact, artificial organs developed during the last 50 years have been used as a bridge to regeneration. The only difference between regenerative medicine and artificial organs is that artificial organs for the bridge to regeneration promote tissue regeneration in situ, instead of outside the body (for example, vascular prostheses, neuroprostheses, bladder substitutes, skin prostheses, bone prostheses, cartilage prostheses, ligament prostheses, etc.). All of these artificial organs are successful because tissue regeneration over a man-made prosthesis is established inside the patient's body (artificial organs to support regeneration). Another usage of the group of artificial organs for the bridge to regeneration is to sustain the functions of the patient's diseased organs during the regeneration process of the body's healthy tissues and/or organs. This particular group includes artificial kidney, hepatic assist, respiratory assist, and circulatory assist. Proof of regeneration of these healthy tissues and/or organs is demonstrated in the short-term recovery of end-stage organ failure patients (artificial organs for bridge to regeneration). A third group of artificial organs for the bridge to regeneration accelerates the regenerating process of the patient's healthy tissues and organs. This group includes neurostimulators, artificial blood (red cells) blood oxygenators, and plasmapheresis devices, including hemodiafiltrators. So-called "therapeutic artificial organs" fall into this category (artificial organs to accelerate regeneration). Thus, almost all of today's artificial organs are useful in the bridge to regeneration of healthy natural tissues and organs

  14. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Sensory Function in Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashur, Molly M; Johnston, Nicole K; Dixson, Danielle L

    2017-07-01

    Ocean acidification has been identified as a major contributor to ocean ecosystem decline, impacting the calcification, survival, and behavior of marine organisms. Numerous studies have observed altered sensory perception of chemical, auditory, and visual cues after exposure to elevated CO2. Sensory systems enable the observation of the external environment and therefore play a critical role in survival, communication, and behavior of marine organisms. This review seeks to (1) summarize the current knowledge of sensory impairment caused by ocean acidification, (2) discuss potential mechanisms behind this disruption, and (3) analyze the expected taxa differences in sensitivities to elevated CO2 conditions. Although a lack of standardized methodology makes cross-study comparisons challenging, trends and biases arise from this synthesis including a substantial focus on vertebrates, larvae or juveniles, the reef ecosystem, and chemosensory perception. Future studies must broaden the scope of the field by diversifying the taxa and ecosystems studied, incorporating ontogenetic comparisons, and focusing on cryptic sensory systems such as electroreception, magnetic sense, and the lateral line system. A discussion of possible mechanisms reveals GABAA receptor reversal as the conspicuous physiological mechanism. However, the potential remains for alternative disruption through structure or cue changes. Finally, a taxonomic comparison of physiological complexity reveals few trends in sensory sensitivities to lowered pH, but we hypothesize potential correlations relating to habitat, life history or relative use of sensory systems. Elevated CO2, in concordance with other global and local stressors, has the potential to drastically shift community composition and structure. Therefore research addressing the extent of sensory impairment, the underlying mechanisms, and the differences between taxa is vital for improved predictions of organismal response to ocean acidification.

  15. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity.

  16. Neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs of Aplysia californica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The opisthobranch gastropod Aplysia californica serves as a model organism in experimental neurobiology because of its simple and well-known nervous system. However, its nervous periphery has been less intensely studied. We have reconstructed the ontogeny of the cephalic sensory organs (labial...... tentacles, rhinophores, and lip) of planktonic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages. FMRFamide and serotonergic expression patterns have been examined by immunocytochemistry in conjunction with epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We have also applied scanning electron...

  17. Rapid Integration of Artificial Sensory Feedback during Operant Conditioning of Motor Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Mario; Galiñanes, Gregorio L; Huber, Daniel

    2017-02-22

    Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex. This artificial signal was necessary to rapidly learn to increase the conditioned activity, detect correct performance, and maintain the learned behavior. Population imaging in M1 revealed that learning-related activity changes are observed in the conditioned cell only, which highlights the functional potential of individual neurons in the neocortex. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of animals to use an artificially induced cortical channel in a behaviorally relevant way and reveal the remarkable speed and specificity at which this can occur. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BIOMEDICINE AND BIOMATERIAL: A STUDY OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS AND XENOTRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    So Yeon Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Organ demand is outpacing the supply of donated organs. In order to solve this problem, biomedicine is a rising trend in the science world. Biomedicine is a branch of medical science that applies biologic and other natural-science principles to clinical practice such as developing artificial organs. As biomedicine progressed artificial organs and xenotransplantation, which is transplantation of organs from one species to another, advanced. Biomedicine is hope to lots of people who are sufferi...

  19. Laser microdissection of sensory organ precursor cells of Drosophila microchaetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalie Buffin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Drosophila, each external sensory organ originates from the division of a unique precursor cell (the sensory organ precursor cell or SOP. Each SOP is specified from a cluster of equivalent cells, called a proneural cluster, all of them competent to become SOP. Although, it is well known how SOP cells are selected from proneural clusters, little is known about the downstream genes that are regulated during SOP fate specification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the mechanism involved in the specification of these precursor cells, we combined laser microdissection, toisolate SOP cells, with transcriptome analysis, to study their RNA profile. Using this procedure, we found that genes that exhibit a 2-fold or greater expression in SOPs versus epithelial cells were mainly associated with Gene Ontology (GO terms related with cell fate determination and sensory organ specification. Furthermore, we found that several genes such as pebbled/hindsight, scabrous, miranda, senseless, or cut, known to be expressed in SOP cells by independent procedures, are particularly detected in laser microdissected SOP cells rather than in epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm the feasibility and the specificity of our laser microdissection based procedure. We anticipate that this analysis will give new insight into the selection and specification of neural precursor cells.

  20. Locomotor Sensory Organization Test: How Sensory Conflict Affects the Temporal Structure of Sway Variability During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Mukherjee, Mukul; Siu, Ka-Chun; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    When maintaining postural stability temporally under increased sensory conflict, a more rigid response is used where the available degrees of freedom are essentially frozen. The current study investigated if such a strategy is also utilized during more dynamic situations of postural control as is the case with walking. This study attempted to answer this question by using the Locomotor Sensory Organization Test (LSOT). This apparatus incorporates SOT inspired perturbations of the visual and the somatosensory system. Ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT and the corresponding six conditions on the LSOT. The temporal structure of sway variability was evaluated from all conditions. The results showed that in the anterior posterior direction somatosensory input is crucial for postural control for both walking and standing; visual input also had an effect but was not as prominent as the somatosensory input. In the medial lateral direction and with respect to walking, visual input has a much larger effect than somatosensory input. This is possibly due to the added contributions by peripheral vision during walking; in standing such contributions may not be as significant for postural control. In sum, as sensory conflict increases more rigid and regular sway patterns are found during standing confirming the previous results presented in the literature, however the opposite was the case with walking where more exploratory and adaptive movement patterns are present.

  1. A self-organized internal models architecture for coding sensory-motor schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esaú eEscobar Juárez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive robotics research draws inspiration from theories and models on cognition, as conceived by neuroscience or cognitive psychology, to investigate biologically plausible computational models in artificial agents. In this field, the theoretical framework of Grounded Cognition provides epistemological and methodological grounds for the computational modeling of cognition. It has been stressed in the literature that textit{simulation}, textit{prediction}, and textit{multi-modal integration} are key aspects of cognition and that computational architectures capable of putting them into play in a biologically plausible way are a necessity.Research in this direction has brought extensive empirical evidencesuggesting that textit{Internal Models} are suitable mechanisms forsensory-motor integration. However, current Internal Models architectures show several drawbacks, mainly due to the lack of a unified substrate allowing for a true sensory-motor integration space, enabling flexible and scalable ways to model cognition under the embodiment hypothesis constraints.We propose the Self-Organized Internal ModelsArchitecture (SOIMA, a computational cognitive architecture coded by means of a network of self-organized maps, implementing coupled internal models that allow modeling multi-modal sensory-motor schemes. Our approach addresses integrally the issues of current implementations of Internal Models.We discuss the design and features of the architecture, and provide empirical results on a humanoid robot that demonstrate the benefits and potentialities of the SOIMA concept for studying cognition in artificial agents.

  2. Artificial induction of Sox21 regulates sensory cell formation in the embryonic chicken inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Freeman

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, hair cells and support cells in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear derive from progenitors that express Sox2, a member of the SoxB1 family of transcription factors. Sox2 is essential for sensory specification, but high levels of Sox2 expression appear to inhibit hair cell differentiation, suggesting that factors regulating Sox2 activity could be critical for both processes. Antagonistic interactions between SoxB1 and SoxB2 factors are known to regulate cell differentiation in neural tissue, which led us to investigate the potential roles of the SoxB2 member Sox21 during chicken inner ear development. Sox21 is normally expressed by sensory progenitors within vestibular and auditory regions of the early embryonic chicken inner ear. At later stages, Sox21 is differentially expressed in the vestibular and auditory organs. Sox21 is restricted to the support cell layer of the auditory epithelium, while it is enriched in the hair cell layer of the vestibular organs. To test Sox21 function, we used two temporally distinct gain-of-function approaches. Sustained over-expression of Sox21 from early developmental stages prevented prosensory specification, and abolished the formation of both hair cells and support cells. However, later induction of Sox21 expression at the time of hair cell formation in organotypic cultures of vestibular epithelia inhibited endogenous Sox2 expression and Notch activity, and biased progenitor cells towards a hair cell fate. Interestingly, Sox21 did not promote hair cell differentiation in the immature auditory epithelium, which fits with the expression of endogenous Sox21 within mature support cells in this tissue. These results suggest that interactions among endogenous SoxB family transcription factors may regulate sensory cell formation in the inner ear, but in a context-dependent manner.

  3. Hydrodynamic sensory threshold in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) for artificial flatfish breathing currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesterok, Benedikt; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2017-07-01

    Harbour seals have the ability to detect benthic fish such as flatfish using the water currents these fish emit through their gills (breathing currents). We investigated the sensory threshold in harbour seals for this specific hydrodynamic stimulus under conditions which are realistic for seals hunting in the wild. We used an experimental platform where an artificial breathing current was emitted through one of eight different nozzles. Two seals were trained to search for the active nozzle. Each experimental session consisted of eight test trials of a particular stimulus intensity and 16 supra-threshold trials of high stimulus intensity. Test trials were conducted with the animals blindfolded. To determine the threshold, a series of breathing currents differing in intensity was used. For each intensity, three sessions were run. The threshold in terms of maximum water velocity within the breathing current was 4.2 cm s -1 for one seal and 3.7 cm s -1 for the other. We measured background flow velocities from 1.8 to 3.4 cm s -1 Typical swimming speeds for both animals were around 0.5 m s -1 Swimming speed differed between successful and unsuccessful trials. It appears that swimming speed is restricted for the successful detection of a breathing current close to the threshold. Our study is the first to assess a sensory threshold of the vibrissal system for a moving harbour seal under near-natural conditions. Furthermore, this threshold was defined for a natural type of stimulus differing from classical dipole stimuli which have been widely used in threshold determination so far. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Disrupted modular organization of primary sensory brain areas in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bordier

    Full Text Available Abnormal brain resting-state functional connectivity has been consistently observed in patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ using functional MRI and other neuroimaging techniques. Graph theoretical methods provide a framework to investigate these defective functional interactions and their effects on the organization of brain connectivity networks. A few studies have shown altered distribution of connectivity within and between functional modules in SCZ patients, an indication of imbalanced functional segregation ad integration. However, no major alterations of modular organization have been reported in patients, and unambiguous identification of the neural substrates affected remains elusive. Recently, it has been demonstrated that current modularity analysis methods suffer from a fundamental and severe resolution limit, as they fail to detect features that are smaller than a scale determined by the size of the entire connectivity network. This resolution limit is likely to have hampered the ability to resolve differences between patients and controls in previous studies. Here, we apply Surprise, a novel resolution limit-free approach, to study the modular organization of resting state functional connectivity networks in a large cohort of SCZ patients and in matched healthy controls. Leveraging these important methodological advances we find new evidence of substantial fragmentation and reorganization involving primary sensory, auditory and visual areas in SCZ patients. Conversely, frontal and prefrontal areas, typically associated with higher cognitive functions, appear to be largely unaffected, with changes selectively involving language and speech processing areas. Our findings support the hypothesis that cognitive dysfunction in SCZ may involve deficits occurring already at early stages of sensory processing. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Surprise, Asymptotical surprise, Functional connectivity, Community detection, Modularity, Graph theory

  5. Artificial Cochlear Sensory Epithelium with Functions of Outer Hair Cells Mimicked Using Feedback Electrical Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tsuji

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel vibration control technique of an artificial auditory cochlear epithelium that mimics the function of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. The proposed piezoelectric and trapezoidal membrane not only has the acoustic/electric conversion and frequency selectivity of the previous device developed mainly by one of the authors and colleagues, but also has a function to control local vibration according to sound stimuli. Vibration control is achieved by applying local electrical stimuli to patterned electrodes on an epithelium made using micro-electro-mechanical system technology. By choosing appropriate phase differences between sound and electrical stimuli, it is shown that it is possible to both amplify and dampen membrane vibration, realizing better control of the response of the artificial cochlea. To be more specific, amplification and damping are achieved when the phase difference between the membrane vibration by sound stimuli and electrical stimuli is zero and π , respectively. We also demonstrate that the developed control system responds automatically to a change in sound frequency. The proposed technique can be applied to mimic the nonlinear response of the outer hair cells in a cochlea, and to realize a high-quality human auditory system.

  6. Bioengineering of Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells and Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Sun, Wujin; Ye, Yanqi; Bomba, Hunter N; Gu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The immune system protects the body against a wide range of infectious diseases and cancer by leveraging the efficiency of immune cells and lymphoid organs. Over the past decade, immune cell/organ therapies based on the manipulation, infusion, and implantation of autologous or allogeneic immune cells/organs into patients have been widely tested and have made great progress in clinical applications. Despite these advances, therapy with natural immune cells or lymphoid organs is relatively expensive and time-consuming. Alternatively, biomimetic materials and strategies have been applied to develop artificial immune cells and lymphoid organs, which have attracted considerable attentions. In this review, we survey the latest studies on engineering biomimetic materials for immunotherapy, focusing on the perspectives of bioengineering artificial antigen presenting cells and lymphoid organs. The opportunities and challenges of this field are also discussed.

  7. Occupational chemical exposures in artificial organic fiber industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirguis, S S; Cohen, M B

    1984-05-01

    This review discusses artificial organic fibers that are produced from materials of natural origin such as rayons, cellulose triacetates and proteins; or made from polymerised chemicals such as polyamides, polyesters, polyvinyls, modacrylics, carbon fibers, polyolefins, polyurethane and polytetrafluoroethylene. Chemicals involved include monomers, solvents, flame retardants, pigments and other additives. Occupational exposure to chemicals in the production stages are discussed and also the potential health hazards involved are reviewed. Current exposure levels, engineering controls and work practices for some of the chemicals used in the Ontario artificial fiber industry are discussed. Recommendations are made for areas that need further study and/or investigation.

  8. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  9. Role of nanotechnology in development of artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, G Z; Klanrit, P; Kasimatis, M; Seifalian, A M

    2015-02-01

    Improvements in our understanding of the interactions between implants and cells have directed attention towards nanoscale technologies. To date, nanotechnology has played a helping hand in the development of synthetic artificial organs and regenerative medicine. This includes the production of smart nanocomposite materials; fluorescent nanoparticles like Quantum Dots (QD) and magnetic nano particles (MNP) for stem cell tracking; and carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene for enhancement of material properties. The scope of this paper includes the role of nanoparticles in the development of nanomaterials; the chemical surface modifications possible to improve implant function and an overview of the performance of nano-engineered organs thus far. This includes implants developed for aesthetic purposes like nasal and auricular scaffolds, plastic and reconstructive surgical constructs (i.e. dermal grafts), hollow organs for cardiothoracic applications; and last but not least, orthopedic implants. The five-year outlook for nano-enhanced artificial organs is also discussed, highlighting the key research and development areas, available funds and the hurdles we face in accomplishing progression from prototypes on the laboratory bench to off-the-shelf products for the consumer market. Ultimately, this review aims to delineate the advantages of incorporating nanotechnology, as an individual entity or as a part of a construct for the development of tissue engineering scaffolds and/or artificial organs, and unravel the mechanisms of tissue cell-biomaterial interactions at the nanoscale, allowing for better progress in the development and optimization of unique nanoscale surface features for a wide range of applications.

  10. Self-Organizing Neural Circuits for Sensory-Guided Motor Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grossberg, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The reported projects developed mathematical models to explain how self-organizing neural circuits that operate under continuous or intermittent sensory guidance achieve flexible and accurate control of human movement...

  11. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  12. Organic and conventional nonflavored yogurts from the Italian market: study on sensory profiles and consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Valli, Enrico; Cezanne, Marie Louise; Buchecker, Kirsten; Canavari, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The sensory properties of food products are an important success factor, especially in the organic market, where many producers and distributors of organic food claim superior taste for their products compared to the conventional alternative. For this reason consumer expectations and preferences, as well as the sensory properties of conventional and organic yogurt, have to be investigated in depth. In this work, the sensory profiling and consumer data of six nonflavored organic and conventional Italian yogurts were elaborated. Some results on the data segmentation (heavy and light users of organic food) and on the effect of information on liking (blind and labeled test) were obtained. Multivariate analysis was carried out to study how the sensory characteristics of 'natural yogurts' drive consumer liking. Consumers' preferences were oriented towards a creamy mouthfeel and smooth visual appearance and for a less acid and fresh taste. In particular, a conventional yogurt was the least accepted, because it was not creamy enough. This paper shows there is room to improve unflavored yogurt to better meet consumer expectations. Sensory profiling did not allow a distinction in odor/taste/texture between organic and conventional samples. However, three of four organic samples were in the region of highest consumer acceptability, fitting well consumers' preference. There was no clear tendency that heavy or light users scored differently in the blind and labeled tests regarding overall liking but, for all, the most liked conventional yogurt scored higher when labeled as organic. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Prediction of pelvic organ prolapse using an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christopher J; Swift, Steven; Johnson, Donna D; Almeida, Jonas S

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to test the ability of a feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) to differentiate patients who have pelvic organ prolapse (POP) from those who retain good pelvic organ support. Following institutional review board approval, patients with POP (n = 87) and controls with good pelvic organ support (n = 368) were identified from the urogynecology research database. Historical and clinical information was extracted from the database. Data analysis included the training of a feedforward ANN, variable selection, and external validation of the model with an independent data set. Twenty variables were used. The median-performing ANN model used a median of 3 (quartile 1:3 to quartile 3:5) variables and achieved an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.90 (external, independent validation set). Ninety percent sensitivity and 83% specificity were obtained in the external validation by ANN classification. Feedforward ANN modeling is applicable to the identification and prediction of POP.

  14. Study of the tactile perception of bathroom tissues: Comparison between the sensory evaluation by a handfeel panel and a tribo-acoustic artificial finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieulin, C; Pailler-Mattei, C; Vargiolu, R; Lancelot, S; Zahouani, H

    2017-02-01

    Tactile perception is one of the sensorial modes most stimulated by our daily environment. In particular, perceived softness is an important parameter for judging the sensory quality of surfaces and fabrics. Unfortunately, its assessment greatly depends on the tactile sense of each person, which in turn depends on many factors. Currently, the predominant method for evaluating the tactile perception of fabrics is the human handfeel panel. This qualitative approach does not permit the quantitative measure of touch feel perception. In this study, we present a new artificial finger device to investigate the tactile sensing of ten bathroom tissues. It enables simultaneously measuring the friction and vibrations caused when sliding an artificial finger on the surface of the tissue. The comparison between the results obtained with the artificial finger and the tactile perception evaluated using a handfeel panel showed that the artificial finger is able to separate the two parts of the tactile perception of bathroom tissues: softness and surface texture (velvetiness). The statistical analysis suggests that there is a good correlation between the vibrations measured with the artificial finger and the softness evaluated by the panel. It then shows that the friction measured by the artificial finger is related to the surface texture of a bathroom tissue. The ability of the artificial finger to mimic human touch is demonstrated. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis orders the signatures of the tactile perception of the bathroom tissues in four different groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. THE DIFFERENCE IN COLOR AND SENSORY OF ORGANIC QUALITY WINE AND WINE FROM CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Šottníková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the colour and sensory evaluation of wines and organic wines from conventional cultivation. 6 organic wines and 6 wines from conventional cultivation were evaluated. The methodology describes colour measurements using spectrophotometry and sensory 20-point-scale system of scoring. The colour evaluation of different varieties did not clearly demonstrate impact of growing on lightness or hue and saturation of wine. Conclusive differences in colour (P <0.05 were established, especially for Pinot Blanc and Malverina from white varieties and Medina from red grapes. The greatest colour stability was demonstrated by Moravian Muscat. Sensory evaluation did not show any noticeable differences between the wines of conventional and organic production, there were, however, differences among varieties.

  16. Role of Sensory Attributes in the Food Marketing: An Exploratory Analysis in the Italian Organic Food Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Asioli, Daniele; Canavari, Maurizio; Pignatti, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores in-depth sensory experiences, expectations and perceptions of organic producers regarding the role played by sensory properties in organic market, using a qualitative marketing research technique. Ten in-depth interviews supported by semi-structured questionnaire were performed in Italy during 2009. Findings shows that organic producers stated that sensory tests are mainly carried out empirically, they are not systematic and often performed by non trained assessors, even i...

  17. Neural interface methods and apparatus to provide artificial sensory capabilities to a subject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, Stephen P.; Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Novick, David K.; Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.

    2017-01-24

    Embodiments of neural interfaces according to the present invention comprise sensor modules for sensing environmental attributes beyond the natural sensory capability of a subject, and communicating the attributes wirelessly to an external (ex-vivo) portable module attached to the subject. The ex-vivo module encodes and communicates the attributes via a transcutaneous inductively coupled link to an internal (in-vivo) module implanted within the subject. The in-vivo module converts the attribute information into electrical neural stimuli that are delivered to a peripheral nerve bundle within the subject, via an implanted electrode. Methods and apparatus according to the invention incorporate implantable batteries to power the in-vivo module allowing for transcutaneous bidirectional communication of low voltage (e.g. on the order of 5 volts) encoded signals as stimuli commands and neural responses, in a robust, low-error rate, communication channel with minimal effects to the subjects' skin.

  18. The effect of protein and lipid source in organic feed for (organic) rainbow trout on sensory quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    of vegetable protein. While the lipid sources were fish, linseed, sunflower, rapeseed and grape seed oil. After slaughtering all fish were frozen (-40°C) until the sensory experiment was performed, for which the trout were thawed and stored for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in ice respectively. The sensory experiment......-life is increased by feeding the fish with vegetable protein compared to fish meal. The conclusion of the experiment therefore was that both dietary vegetable protein and lipid sources can influence on sensory characteristics of trout stored in ice.......The aim of this work was to study which effects protein and lipid source in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncohynchus mykiss) may have on the sensory quality of the final product after up to 14 days of storage in ice. The protein sources used in the experiment were fishmeal and a mixture...

  19. The development of artificial organs and prostheses worldwide and in the Ottoman Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdane, Leman; Cingi, Cemal; Elçioğlu, Ömür; Muluk, Nuray Bayar

    2016-08-01

    An artificial organ or prosthesis is a man-made device that is implanted or integrated into a human to replace a natural organ. There were many historical steps in the development of artificial organs and prostheses. New surgical techniques, the development of prosthetic materials and the creative ideas of engineers led to progress in this field. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  20. Sensorial Organization as an Ethics of Space: Digital Media in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Bengtsson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines an analysis of the ethical organization of digital media and social and individual space in everyday life. This is made from a perspective of an ‘ethics of the ordinary’, highlighting the mundane negotiations and practices conducted to maintain a ‘good life’ with the media. The analysis shows a sensorial organization of space is conducted in relation to social space, as well as individually. The interviewees use facilities provided by media technologies in order to organize space, as well as organize their media devices spatially in order to construct space for specific purposes, and maintain a good life. These results call for a deepened analysis of the sensorial dimensions of everyday space, in order to understand the ethical struggles of a life with digital media. It is important to include the full spectrum of sensorial experiences in our approach to everyday life and to take the sensorial experiences of ordinary media users into account in our analysis of space as part of an everyday ethics.

  1. The effects of feed composition on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout during ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Pedersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    fishmeal and a mixture of protein from organic vegetable, while the lipid sources were fish oil and organic oil from linseed, sunflower, rapeseed and grape seed. Sensory analysis was performed after 3, 5, 7 and 14 days of storage in ice. The results showed that both protein and lipid source in the feed can...... after 14 days of storage, indicating that vegetable protein in the feed increases the self-life of organic rainbow trout.......The focus of this work was to study which effects the type of protein and lipid source in the feed for organic Rainbow trout influences had on the sensory quality of final product. Two and four different protein and lipid sources were used in the experiment respectively. The protein sources were...

  2. The artificial organ museum in Cleveland (1979-1999) moved to Houston, Texas, and named in 2002 as the ICMT Museum for Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosé, Yukihiko

    2003-09-01

    The artificial organ museum established in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1979 organized by the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation (ICAOT), was moved to Houston, Texas, in 1999. The museum with expanded and renewed artificial organ exhibits was officially opened on the 8th and 9th of November, 2002, at the Cullen Pavilion of the original Memorial Hermann Hospital. This building is the oldest in the Texas Medical Center, which was built in 1922. The ICMT (International Center for Medical Technologies) Museum for Artificial Organs (Museum) was completed after phase I, II, and III expansions of the exhibit booths, which were made over the last two years. Approximately 250 historically important and currently widely used artificial organs are exhibited in the Museum. The official opening of the Museum was coordinated with the "Symposium on Artificial Organs: Past, Present, and Future" during two days in November. There were approximately 225 participants at these events, and approximately 40 pioneers and clinical experts in the development and practice of various types of artificial organs contributed. During these programs, a proposal to maintain human resources in addition to artificial organ hardware and software was made in addition to the Museum. This new organization would be called the International Academy of Artificial Organ Pioneers (Academy). All contributors to the symposium were invited to be members of the Academy. The attendants of the symposium accepted this proposal unanimously. An additional 40 individuals, who were recognized as contributors to artificial organ technologies, were later added to the original Academy members. Later, the effective utilization of the Museum and Academy was encompassed in the International Faculty for Health and Medical Technologies (Faculty), a new addition to the activities of the ICMT. Dr. Michael DeBakey was elected as Dean of the Faculty. This is considered a "university without walls," a "university

  3. Sensory, yield and quality differences between organically and conventionally grown winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arncken, Christine M; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Weibel, Franco P

    2012-11-01

    Consumers expect organic produce to have higher environmental, health and sensory related qualities than conventional produce. In order to test sensory differences between bio-dynamically, bio-organically and conventionally grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Runal), we performed double-blinded triangle tests with two panels on dry wholemeal flour from the harvest years 2006, 2007 and 2009 and from two field replicates of the 'DOK' long-term farming system comparison field trial near Basel, Switzerland. Yield and quality parameters were also assessed. Significant farming system effects were found for yield (up to 42% reduction in the organic system), thousand kernel weight, hectolitre weight and crude protein content across the three years. In the triangle tests one out of 12 pair-wise farming system comparisons (PFSCs) on wholemeal flour made from the different wheat samples showed significant sensory differentiation (between bio-dynamically and conventionally grown wheat). When all data from the three harvest years and two panels were aggregated, a statistically significant effect (P = 0.045) of PFSCs on the number of correct answers became evident. Although testing of dry wholemeal flour was very challenging for panellists, we were able to show that sensory differences between farming systems can occur. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Modularity in developmental biology and artificial organs: a missing concept in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenas, Petros; Luyten, Frank P; Doblare, Manuel; Nicodemou-Lena, Eleni; Lanzara, Andreina Elena

    2011-06-01

    Tissue engineering is reviving itself, adopting the concept of biomimetics of in vivo tissue development. A basic concept of developmental biology is the modularity of the tissue architecture according to which intermediates in tissue development constitute semiautonomous entities. Both engineering and nature have chosen the modular architecture to optimize the product or organism development and evolution. Bioartificial tissues do not have a modular architecture. On the contrary, artificial organs of modular architecture have been already developed in the field of artificial organs. Therefore the conceptual support of tissue engineering by the field of artificial organs becomes critical in its new endeavor of recapitulating in vitro the in vivo tissue development. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sensory-Motor Adaptation to Space Flight: Human Balance Control and Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Gravity, which is sensed directly by the otolith organs and indirectly by proprioceptors and exteroceptors, provides the CNS a fundamental reference for estimating spatial orientation and coordinating movements in the terrestrial environment. The sustained absence of gravity during orbital space flight creates a unique environment that cannot be reproduced on Earth. Loss of this fundamental CNS reference upon insertion into orbit triggers neuro-adaptive processes that optimize performance for the microgravity environment, while its reintroduction upon return to Earth triggers neuro-adaptive processes that return performance to terrestrial norms. Five pioneering symposia on The Role of the Vestibular Organs in the Exploration of Space were convened between 1965 and 1970. These innovative meetings brought together the top physicians, physiologists, and engineers in the vestibular field to discuss and debate the challenges associated with human vestibular system adaptation to the then novel environment of space flight. These highly successful symposia addressed the perplexing problem of how to understand and ameliorate the adverse physiological effects on humans resulting from the reduction of gravitational stimulation of the vestibular receptors in space. The series resumed in 2002 with the Sixth Symposium, which focused on the microgravity environment as an essential tool for the study of fundamental vestibular functions. The three day meeting included presentations on historical perspectives, vestibular neurobiology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitter systems, theoretical considerations, spatial orientation, psychophysics, motor integration, adaptation, autonomic function, space motion sickness, clinical issues, countermeasures, and rehabilitation. Scientists and clinicians entered into lively exchanges on how to design and perform mutually productive research and countermeasure development projects in the future. The problems posed by long duration

  6. The Kinesin Adaptor Calsyntenin-1 Organizes Microtubule Polarity and Regulates Dynamics during Sensory Axon Arbor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Halloran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Axon growth and branching, and development of neuronal polarity are critically dependent on proper organization and dynamics of the microtubule (MT cytoskeleton. MTs must organize with correct polarity for delivery of diverse cargos to appropriate subcellular locations, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating MT polarity remain poorly understood. Moreover, how an actively branching axon reorganizes MTs to direct their plus ends distally at branch points is unknown. We used high-speed, in vivo imaging of polymerizing MT plus ends to characterize MT dynamics in developing sensory axon arbors in zebrafish embryos. We find that axonal MTs are highly dynamic throughout development, and that the peripheral and central axons of sensory neurons show differences in MT behaviors. Furthermore, we show that Calsyntenin-1 (Clstn-1, a kinesin adaptor required for sensory axon branching, also regulates MT polarity in developing axon arbors. In wild type neurons the vast majority of MTs are directed in the correct plus-end-distal orientation from early stages of development. Loss of Clstn-1 causes an increase in MTs polymerizing in the retrograde direction. These misoriented MTs most often are found near growth cones and branch points, suggesting Clstn-1 is particularly important for organizing MT polarity at these locations. Together, our results suggest that Clstn-1, in addition to regulating kinesin-mediated cargo transport, also organizes the underlying MT highway during axon arbor development.

  7. Artificial hearts-recent progress: republication of the article published in the Japanese Journal of Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    This review was created based on a translation of the Japanese review written in the Japanese Journal of Artificial Organs in 2015 (Vol.44, No. 3, pp.130-135), with some modifications regarding several references published in 2015 or later.

  8. Correlations of Sensory Processing and Visual Organization Ability with Participation in School-Aged Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has highlighted delays and differences in cognitive, language, and sensorimotor functions in children diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS). However, sensory processing and visual organization abilities have not been well-examined in DS to date. This study aimed to investigate the developmental profile of sensory processing and visual…

  9. Improvement Possibilities of Some Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Organically Produced Laying Hen Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Karaalp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Organically produced chicken eggs have more nutritional and sensory properties, and they do not contain any harmful substances to the health of the consumer. Research has shown that, unlike what is expected, there is no significant difference between dry matter, lipid and fatty acids of eggs produced in cages and organic. It has been reported that sold the organic egg about two times fee according to the cage egg has only psychological and ethical motivation. The Council of the European Union considers it necessary for chickens to have access to green roughage materials as well as basal rations in the production of organic eggs. However, if this access is provided, the organically produced egg may respond to consumer expectations. The studies shows that the 4m2 outdoor area allocated per chicken according to Turkey's Organic Agriculture Legislation is not enough to meet these demands. This situation necessitate an increase in the outdoor area separated to the chickens so as to provide rotation with the various plants or the supply of additional green feed materials to the outdoor area. Thus, in addition to obtaining a product with functional food characteristics, a production mode in which animal welfare is increased by the decrease of pecking and cannibalism will be attained. In this review, it is mentioned what applications are increasing the chemical contents such as carotenoids, fatty acids and improving the sensory properties such as color, smell and taste in organic egg production.

  10. Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Polese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ. Here, we describe the detailed morphology of young male and female Octopus vulgaris olfactory epithelium, and using a combination of classical morphology and 3D reconstruction techniques, we propose a new classification for O. vulgaris olfactory sensory neurons. Furthermore, using specific markers such as olfactory marker protein (OMP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA we have been able to identify and differentially localize both mature olfactory sensory neurons and olfactory sensory neurons involved in epithelium turnover. Taken together, our data suggest that the O. vulgaris olfactory organ is extremely plastic, capable of changing its shape and also proliferating its cells in older specimens.

  11. Three-dimensional Organotypic Cultures of Vestibular and Auditory Sensory Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedeva, Ksenia; Hudspeth, A J; Segil, Neil

    2018-06-01

    The sensory organs of the inner ear are challenging to study in mammals due to their inaccessibility to experimental manipulation and optical observation. Moreover, although existing culture techniques allow biochemical perturbations, these methods do not provide a means to study the effects of mechanical force and tissue stiffness during development of the inner ear sensory organs. Here we describe a method for three-dimensional organotypic culture of the intact murine utricle and cochlea that overcomes these limitations. The technique for adjustment of a three-dimensional matrix stiffness described here permits manipulation of the elastic force opposing tissue growth. This method can therefore be used to study the role of mechanical forces during inner ear development. Additionally, the cultures permit virus-mediated gene delivery, which can be used for gain- and loss-of-function experiments. This culture method preserves innate hair cells and supporting cells and serves as a potentially superior alternative to the traditional two-dimensional culture of vestibular and auditory sensory organs.

  12. Sensory irritating potency of some microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) and a mixture of five MVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, A; Kasanen, J P; Alarie, Y; Kosma, V M; Pasanen, A L

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the ability/potencies of 3 microbial volatile organic compounds and a mixture of 5 microbial volatile organic compounds to cause eye and upper respiratory tract irritation (i.e., sensory irritation), with an animal bioassay. The authors estimated potencies by determining the concentration capable of decreasing the respiratory frequency of mice by 50% (i.e., the RD50 value). The RD50 values for 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, and 3-octanone were 182 mg/m3 (35 ppm), 1359 mg/m3 (256 ppm), and 17586 mg/m3 (3360 ppm), respectively. Recommended indoor air levels calculated from the individual RD50 values for 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, and 3-octanone were 100, 1000, and 13000 microg/m3, respectively-values considerably higher than the reported measured indoor air levels for these compounds. The RD50 value for a mixture of 5 microbial volatile organic compounds was also determined and found to be 3.6 times lower than estimated from the fractional concentrations and the respective RD50s of the individual components. The data support the conclusion that a variety of microbial volatile organic compounds may have some synergistic effects for the sensory irritation response, which constrains the interpretation and application of recommended indoor air levels of individual microbial volatile organic compounds. The results also showed that if a particular component of a mixture was much more potent than the other components, it may dominate the sensory irritation effect. With respect to irritation symptoms reported in moldy houses, the results of this study indicate that the contribution of microbial volatile organic compounds to these symptoms seems less than previously supposed.

  13. Medical applications of membranes: Drug delivery, artificial organs and tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Papenburg, B.J.; Girones nogue, Miriam; Saiful, S.; Bettahalli Narasimha, M.S.; Schmitmeier, Stephanie; Wessling, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    This paper covers the main medical applications of artificial membranes. Specific attention is given to drug delivery systems, artificial organs and tissue engineering which seem to dominate the interest of the membrane community this period. In all cases, the materials, methods and the current

  14. Influence of dietary lipid and protein sources on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...... with lipid analyses of the fillet. Overall, the results showed that the sensory characteristics of the trout were affected in different ways during ice storage. The source of lipid seemed to affect the sensory quality at the beginning of the storage period, while the protein source seemed to have a more...

  15. Analysis of volatile organic compounds and sensory characteristics of pork loin samples irradiated to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhengchi; Sun Dakuan; Qin Zongying; Jin Jiang; Zhu Liandi; Yao Side; Sheng Kanglong

    2005-01-01

    Fresh pork loin samples, protein enzyme inactivated at (72 ± 3) degree C and vacuum packaged, were irradiated to up to 45 kGy at -20 degree C by 60 Co γ-rays. The irradiated samples were examined by various kinds of method to study high dose irradiation effects of sensory changes (meat color and off-odor), transverse shearing strength, weight loss in steam cooking, volatile organic compounds, and lipid oxidation. The results showed that the high dose irradiation produced no serious effects to the pork loin samples, and volunteer responses showed fine acceptability to the irradiated meat. (authors)

  16. Structural and Functional Components of the Skate Sensory Organ Ampullae of Lorenzini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Xia, Ke; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Fuming; Yu, Yanlei; St Ange, Kalib; Han, Xiaorui; Edsinger, Eric; Sohn, Joel; Linhardt, Robert J

    2018-05-09

    The skate, a cartilaginous fish related to sharks and rays, possesses a unique electrosensitive sensory organ known as the ampullae of Lorenzini (AoL). This organ is responsible for the detection of weak electric field changes caused by the muscle contractions of their prey. While keratan sulfate (KS) is believed to be a component of a jelly that fills this sensory organ and has been credited with its high proton conductivity, modern analytical methods have not been applied to its characterization. Surprisingly, total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis demonstrates that the KS from skate jelly is extraordinarily pure, containing no other GAGs. This KS had a molecular weight of 20 to 30 kDa, consisting primarily of N-linked KS comprised mostly of a monosulfated disaccharide repeating unit, →3) Gal (1→4) GlcNAc6S (1→. Proteomic analysis of AoL jelly suggests that transferrin, keratin, and mucin serve as KS core proteins. Actin and tropomyosin are responsible for assembling the macrostructure of the jelly, and parvalbumin α-like protein and calreticulin regulate calcium and potassium channels involved in the transduction of the electrical signal, once conducted down the AoL by the jelly, serving as the molecular basis for electroreception.

  17. The power of projectomes: genetic mosaic labeling in the larval zebrafish brain reveals organizing principles of sensory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Estuardo

    2017-09-01

    In no vertebrate species do we possess an accurate, comprehensive tally of neuron types in the brain. This is in no small part due to the vast diversity of neuronal types that comprise complex vertebrate nervous systems. A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to construct comprehensive catalogs of cell types defined by structure, connectivity, and physiological response properties. This type of information will be invaluable for generating models of how assemblies of neurons encode and distribute sensory information and correspondingly alter behavior. This review summarizes recent efforts in the larval zebrafish to construct sensory projectomes, comprehensive analyses of axonal morphologies in sensory axon tracts. Focusing on the olfactory and optic tract, these studies revealed principles of sensory information processing in the olfactory and visual systems that could not have been directly quantified by other methods. In essence, these studies reconstructed the optic and olfactory tract in a virtual manner, providing insights into patterns of neuronal growth that underlie the formation of sensory axon tracts. Quantitative analysis of neuronal diversity revealed organizing principles that determine information flow through sensory systems in the zebrafish that are likely to be conserved across vertebrate species. The generation of comprehensive cell type classifications based on structural, physiological, and molecular features will lead to testable hypotheses on the functional role of individual sensory neuron subtypes in controlling specific sensory-evoked behaviors.

  18. Diversity in cell motility reveals the dynamic nature of the formation of zebrafish taste sensory organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulika, Marina; Kaushik, Anna-Lila; Mathieu, Benjamin; Lourenço, Raquel; Komisarczuk, Anna Z; Romano, Sebastian Alejo; Jouary, Adrien; Lardennois, Alicia; Tissot, Nicolas; Okada, Shinji; Abe, Keiko; Becker, Thomas S; Kapsimali, Marika

    2016-06-01

    Taste buds are sensory organs in jawed vertebrates, composed of distinct cell types that detect and transduce specific taste qualities. Taste bud cells differentiate from oropharyngeal epithelial progenitors, which are localized mainly in proximity to the forming organs. Despite recent progress in elucidating the molecular interactions required for taste bud cell development and function, the cell behavior underlying the organ assembly is poorly defined. Here, we used time-lapse imaging to observe the formation of taste buds in live zebrafish larvae. We found that tg(fgf8a.dr17)-expressing cells form taste buds and get rearranged within the forming organs. In addition, differentiating cells move from the epithelium to the forming organs and can be displaced between developing organs. During organ formation, tg(fgf8a.dr17) and type II taste bud cells are displaced in random, directed or confined mode relative to the taste bud they join or by which they are maintained. Finally, ascl1a activity in the 5-HT/type III cell is required to direct and maintain tg(fgf8a.dr17)-expressing cells into the taste bud. We propose that diversity in displacement modes of differentiating cells acts as a key mechanism for the highly dynamic process of taste bud assembly. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. The active electric sense of weakly electric fish: from electric organ discharge to sensory processing and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krahe Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory systems have been shaped by evolution to extract information that is relevant for decision making. In order to understand the mechanisms used by sensory systems for filtering the incoming stream of sensory input, it is important to have a quantitative understanding of the natural sensory scenes that are to be processed. Weakly electric fish lead a rather cryptic nocturnal life in often turbid tropical rainforest streams. They produce electric discharges and sense perturbations of their selfgenerated electric field for prey detection and navigation, and also use their active sense for communication in the context of courtship and aggression. The fact that they produce their electric signals throughout day and night permits the use of electrode arrays to track the movements of multiple individual fish and monitor their communication interactions, thus offering a window into their electrosensory world. This approach yields unprecedented access to information on the biology of these fishes and also on the statistical properties of the sensory scenes that are to be processed by their electrosensory system. The electrosensory system shares many organizational features with other sensory systems, in particular, the use of multiple topographic maps. In fact, the sensory surface (the skin is represented in three parallel maps in the hindbrain, with each map covering the receptor organ array with six different cell types that project to the next higher level of processing. Thus, the electroreceptive body surface is represented a total of 18 times in the hindbrain, with each representation having its specific filter properties and degree of response plasticity. Thus, the access to the sensory world of these fish as well as the manifold filtering of the sensory input makes these fish an excellent model system for exploring the cell-intrinsic and network characteristics underlying the extraction of behaviourally relevant sensory information.

  20. Sensory and Physiological Effects on Humans of Combined Exposures to Air Temperatures and Volatile Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Liu, Zunyong; Jørgensen, Anne Hempel

    1993-01-01

    Ten healthy humans were exposed to combinations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air temperature (0 mg/m3 and 10 mg/m3 of a mixture of 22 volatile organic compounds and 18, 22 and 26° C). Previously demonstrated effects of VOCs and thermal exposures were replicated. For the first time nasal...... cross-sectional areas and nasal volumes, as measured by acoustic rhinometry, were shown to decrease with decreasing temperature and increasing VOC exposure. Temperature and pollutant exposures affected air quality, the need for more ventilation, skin humidity on the forehead, sweating, acute sensory...... irritation and possibly watering eyes in an additive way. Interactions were found for odor intensity (p = 0.1), perceived facial skin temperature and dryness, general well-being, tear film stability, and nasal cavity dimension. The presence of interactions implies that in the future guidelines for acceptable...

  1. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar

  2. The Role of Oscillatory Phase in Determining the Temporal Organization of Perception: Evidence from Sensory Entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Luca; Melcher, David

    2017-11-01

    Recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological studies have renewed the idea that the information processing within different temporal windows is linked to the phase and/or frequency of the ongoing oscillations, predominantly in the theta/alpha band (∼4-7 and 8-12 Hz, respectively). However, being correlational in nature, this evidence might reflect a nonfunctional byproduct rather than having a causal role. A more direct link can be shown with methods that manipulate oscillatory activity. Here, we used audiovisual entrainment at different frequencies in the prestimulus period of a temporal integration/segregation task. We hypothesized that entrainment would align ongoing oscillations and drive them toward the stimulation frequency. To reveal behavioral oscillations in temporal perception after the entrainment, we sampled the segregation/integration performance densely in time. In Experiment 1, two groups of human participants (both males and females) received stimulation either at the lower or the upper boundary of the alpha band (∼8.5 vs 11.5 Hz). For both entrainment frequencies, we found a phase alignment of the perceptual oscillation across subjects, but with two different power spectra that peaked near the entrainment frequency. These results were confirmed when perceptual oscillations were characterized in the time domain with sinusoidal fittings. In Experiment 2, we replicated the findings in a within-subject design, extending the results for frequencies in the theta (∼6.5 Hz), but not in the beta (∼15 Hz), range. Overall, these findings show that temporal segregation can be modified by sensory entrainment, providing evidence for a critical role of ongoing oscillations in the temporal organization of perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The continuous flow of sensory input is not processed in an analog fashion, but rather is grouped by the perceptual system over time. Recent studies pinpointed the phase and/or frequency of the neural

  3. Artificial neural network study on organ-targeting peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunkyoung; Kim, Junhyoung; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Minkyoung; Rhee, Hokyoung; Shin, Jae-Min; Choi, Kihang; Kang, Sang-Kee; Lee, Nam Kyung; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Jung, Dong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We report a new approach to studying organ targeting of peptides on the basis of peptide sequence information. The positive control data sets consist of organ-targeting peptide sequences identified by the peroral phage-display technique for four organs, and the negative control data are prepared from random sequences. The capacity of our models to make appropriate predictions is validated by statistical indicators including sensitivity, specificity, enrichment curve, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (the ROC score). VHSE descriptor produces statistically significant training models and the models with simple neural network architectures show slightly greater predictive power than those with complex ones. The training and test set statistics indicate that our models could discriminate between organ-targeting and random sequences. We anticipate that our models will be applicable to the selection of organ-targeting peptides for generating peptide drugs or peptidomimetics.

  4. Tissue engineering and cell-based therapy toward integrated strategy with artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojo, Satoshi; Toyoda, Masashi; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2011-09-01

    Research in order that artificial organs can supplement or completely replace the functions of impaired or damaged tissues and internal organs has been underway for many years. The recent clinical development of implantable left ventricular assist devices has revolutionized the treatment of patients with heart failure. The emerging field of regenerative medicine, which uses human cells and tissues to regenerate internal organs, is now advancing from basic and clinical research to clinical application. In this review, we focus on the novel biomaterials, i.e., fusion protein, and approaches such as three-dimensional and whole-organ tissue engineering. We also compare induced pluripotent stem cells, directly reprogrammed cardiomyocytes, and somatic stem cells for cell source of future cell-based therapy. Integrated strategy of artificial organ and tissue engineering/regenerative medicine should give rise to a new era of medical treatment to organ failure.

  5. New aspects of fenestrated vasculature and tissue dynamics in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eMiyata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood–brain barrier (BBB generally consists of endothelial tight junction barriers that prevent the free entry of blood-derived substances, thereby maintaining the extracellular environment of the brain. However, the circumventricular organs (CVOs, which are located along the midlines of the brain ventricles, lack these endothelial barriers and have fenestrated capillaries; therefore, they have a number of essential functions, including the transduction of information between the blood circulation and brain. Previous studies have demonstrated the extensive contribution of the CVOs to body fluid and thermal homeostasis, energy balance, the chemoreception of blood-derived substances, and neuroinflammation. In this review, recent advances have been discussed in fenestrated capillary characterization and dynamic tissue reconstruction accompanied by angiogenesis and neurogliogenesis in the sensory CVOs of adult brains. The sensory CVOs, including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT, subfornical organ (SFO, and area postrema (AP, have size-selective and heterogeneous vascular permeabilities. Astrocyte-/tanycyte-like neural stem cells (NSCs sense blood- and cerebrospinal fluid-derived information through the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a mechanical/osmotic receptor, Toll-like receptor 4, a lipopolysaccharide receptor, and Nax, a Na-sensing Na channel. They also express tight junction proteins and densely and tightly surround mature neurons to protect them from blood-derived neurotoxic substances, indicating that the NSCs of the CVOs perform BBB functions while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into new neurons and glial cells. In addition to neurogliogenesis, the density of fenestrated capillaries is regulated by angiogenesis, which is accompanied by the active proliferation and sprouting of endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling may be involved in angiogenesis and

  6. Hey2 functions in parallel with Hes1 and Hes5 for mammalian auditory sensory organ development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Michael T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During mouse development, the precursor cells that give rise to the auditory sensory organ, the organ of Corti, are specified prior to embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5. Subsequently, the sensory domain is patterned precisely into one row of inner and three rows of outer sensory hair cells interdigitated with supporting cells. Both the restriction of the sensory domain and the patterning of the sensory mosaic of the organ of Corti involve Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and cellular rearrangement characteristic of convergent extension. This study explores the expression and function of a putative Notch target gene. Results We report that a putative Notch target gene, hairy-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcriptional factor Hey2, is expressed in the cochlear epithelium prior to terminal differentiation. Its expression is subsequently restricted to supporting cells, overlapping with the expression domains of two known Notch target genes, Hairy and enhancer of split homolog genes Hes1 and Hes5. In combination with the loss of Hes1 or Hes5, genetic inactivation of Hey2 leads to increased numbers of mis-patterned inner or outer hair cells, respectively. Surprisingly, the ectopic hair cells in Hey2 mutants are accompanied by ectopic supporting cells. Furthermore, Hey2-/-;Hes1-/- and Hey2-/-;Hes1+/- mutants show a complete penetrance of early embryonic lethality. Conclusion Our results indicate that Hey2 functions in parallel with Hes1 and Hes5 in patterning the organ of Corti, and interacts genetically with Hes1 for early embryonic development and survival. Our data implicates expansion of the progenitor pool and/or the boundaries of the developing sensory organ to account for patterning defects observed in Hey2 mutants.

  7. The Analysis of Artificial Retina Organization for Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIHui

    2004-01-01

    Machine vision is an active branch of artificial intelligence. An important problem in this area is the trade-off among efficiency, accuracy and computation complexity. The human visual system can keep watchfulness to the perimeter of a viewing field while at the same time focus on the center of the field for fine information processing. This mechanism of appropriate assignment of computing resources can reduce the demand for huge and complex hardware structure. Therefore, the design of a computer model based on the biological visual mechanism is an effective approach to resolve problems in machine vision. In this paper, a multi-layer neural model is developed based on the features of receptive field of ganglion in retina to simulate multi-scale perceptive fields of ganglion cell. The neural model can maintain alert on the outer area of the image while capturing and processing more important information in the central part. It may provide valuable inspiration for the implementation of real-time processing and avoidance of huge computation in machine vision.

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of Sensory Experiences and Expectations in the European Organic Market: Findings from Italian and German Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Asioli, Daniele; Canavari, Maurizio; Pignatti, Erika; Obermowe, Tim; Sidali, Katia Laura; Vogt, Christine; Spiller, Achim

    2012-01-01

    The organic food market grew steadily during the past decade (Hamm and Gronefeld 2004, Spiller 2006). This increase is accompanied by challenges in market structures, distribution channels as well as differentiation of expectations and buying motives of organic food consumers. On this regard, the “hedonistic” motives for purchasing of organic food, that also include sensory features like taste or appearance, gained importance in comparison to other motivations. Therefore, some scientists poin...

  9. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  10. Taekwondo Training Improves Sensory Organization and Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tsang, William W. N.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer postural control and are more susceptible to falls and injuries than their healthy counterparts. Sports training may improve sensory organization and balance ability in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three months of Taekwondo (TKD) training on the…

  11. Avaliação sensorial, microbiologia e físico-química de suco artificial de laranja adicionado de diferentes agentes adoçantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iago Felipe da Silva Leite

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diante do aumento do consumo de adoçantes por vários fatores e a procura por uma dieta mais saudável,  para a redução dos riscos de doenças como, diabetes, obesidade, entre outras, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a diferença da doçura e aceitação dos diferentes agentes adoçantes em sucos artificiais. Foram formulados sucos em pó sabor laranja e adicionado os diferentes agentes adoçantes (sacarose, demerara, stevia pura, sacarina sódica + ciclamato de sódio e sacarina sódica + ciclamato de sódio + stevia. Realizou-se analises de pH e de sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix para as diferentes formulações, ocorrendo variações, além das análises microbiológicas para coliformes totais e Salmonella sp/25g, resultando em ausência para ambos Os resultados apontam que as amostras estão próprias para consumo segundo a legislação virgente. A análise foi aplicada no laboratório de análise sensorial da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande e avaliada por 93 provadores. Aplicou-se uma ficha sensorial levando em consideração a aceitação dos agentes adoçantes. Conclui-se que a sacarina sódica + ciclamato de sódio e sacarina sódica + ciclamato de sódio + stevia foi a formulação com maior índice de aprovação.SensoSensory, microbiological and physico-chemical evaluation of artificial orange juice added with different sweetening agents Abstract: The increase in the consumption of sweeteners by several factors. And the demand for a healthier diet with reduced risk of diseases such as, diabetes, obesity, among others, this study aimed to assess the degree of sweetness of difference and acceptance of different sweetening agents. Were formulated artificial juices powdered orange flavor and added different sweeteners (sucrose, demerara, pure stevia, saccharin + sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin + sodium cyclamate + stevia. We conducted analysis of pH and total soluble solids (° Brix for the different

  12. Artificial Synapses Based on in-Plane Gate Organic Electrochemical Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chuan; Sun, Jia; Kong, Ling-An; Gou, Guangyang; Yang, Junliang; He, Jun; Gao, Yongli; Wan, Qing

    2016-10-05

    Realization of biological synapses using electronic devices is regarded as the basic building blocks for neuromorphic engineering and artificial neural network. With the advantages of biocompatibility, low cost, flexibility, and compatible with printing and roll-to-roll processes, the artificial synapse based on organic transistor is of great interest. In this paper, the artificial synapse simulation by ion-gel gated organic field-effect transistors (FETs) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) active channel is demonstrated. Key features of the synaptic behaviors, such as paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), short-term plasticity (STP), self-tuning, the spike logic operation, spatiotemporal dentritic integration, and modulation are successfully mimicked. Furthermore, the interface doping processes of electrolyte ions between the active P3HT layer and ion gels is comprehensively studied for confirming the operating processes underlying the conductivity and excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) variations in the organic synaptic devices. This study represents an important step toward building future artificial neuromorphic systems with newly emerged ion gel gated organic synaptic devices.

  13. Chemical and sensory characterisation of Sangiovese red wines: comparison between biodynamic and organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Simoni, Marco; Versari, Andrea

    2015-01-15

    The effects of biodynamic production practices on composition and sensory attributes of Sangiovese wines were examined for 2 years (2009 and 2010) in a vineyard that was converted from organic (ORG) to biodynamic (BDN) viticulture. During the first year (2009), the BDN wines were characterised by low alcohol strength, colour intensity, total polyphenols, monomeric anthocyanins and catechin. Conversely, the second year BDN wines differed from the organic wines in terms of total polyphenols and phenolic compounds, including polymeric pigments, co-pigmentation, tannins and iron-reactive polyphenols. The effect of management practices, harvest and their interaction was analysed for each compound. Positive interaction was observed for total acidity, volatile acidity, cyanidin-3-glucoside, protocatechuic acid, (+)-catechin, quercetin and trans-resveratrol. ORG wine initially showed a more complex aroma profile; however, the differences were almost indistinguishable during the second year. Trained panellists highlighted differences in colour intensity between ORG and BDN wines although no preference was found by consumers. The concentrations of ochratoxin A and biogenic amines were far below the health-hazardous threshold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  15. The variability of standard artificial soils: Behaviour, extractability and bioavailability of organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Jakub; Hovorková, Ivana; Semple, Kirk T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Artificial soils from different laboratories revealed different fates, behaviour and bioavailability of lindane and phenanthrene. • Lindane behaviour was related to organic carbon. • Phenanthrene behaviour was significantly affected by degrading microorganisms from peat. • Sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability. -- Abstract: Artificial soil is an important standard medium and reference material for soil ecotoxicity bioassays. Recent studies have documented the significant variability of their basic properties among different laboratories. Our study investigated (i) the variability of ten artificial soils from different laboratories by means of the fate, extractability and bioavailability of phenanthrene and lindane, and (ii) the relationships of these results to soil properties and ageing. Soils were spiked with 14 C-phenanthrene and 14 C-lindane, and the total residues, fractions extractable by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and the fractions of phenanthrene mineralizable by bacteria were determined after 1, 14, 28 and 56 days. Significant temporal changes in total residues and extractable and mineralizable fractions were observed for phenanthrene, resulting in large differences between soils after 56 days. Phenanthrene mineralization by indigenous peat microorganisms was suggested as the main driver of that, outweighing the effects of organic matter. Lindane total residues and extractability displayed much smaller changes over time and smaller differences between soils related to organic matter. Roughly estimated, the variability between the artificial soils was comparable to natural soils. The implications of such variability for the results of toxicity tests and risk assessment decisions should be identified. We also suggested that the sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability

  16. The variability of standard artificial soils: Behaviour, extractability and bioavailability of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Jakub, E-mail: hofman@recetox.muni.cz [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Brno CZ-62500 (Czech Republic); Hovorková, Ivana [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Brno CZ-62500 (Czech Republic); Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Artificial soils from different laboratories revealed different fates, behaviour and bioavailability of lindane and phenanthrene. • Lindane behaviour was related to organic carbon. • Phenanthrene behaviour was significantly affected by degrading microorganisms from peat. • Sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability. -- Abstract: Artificial soil is an important standard medium and reference material for soil ecotoxicity bioassays. Recent studies have documented the significant variability of their basic properties among different laboratories. Our study investigated (i) the variability of ten artificial soils from different laboratories by means of the fate, extractability and bioavailability of phenanthrene and lindane, and (ii) the relationships of these results to soil properties and ageing. Soils were spiked with {sup 14}C-phenanthrene and {sup 14}C-lindane, and the total residues, fractions extractable by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and the fractions of phenanthrene mineralizable by bacteria were determined after 1, 14, 28 and 56 days. Significant temporal changes in total residues and extractable and mineralizable fractions were observed for phenanthrene, resulting in large differences between soils after 56 days. Phenanthrene mineralization by indigenous peat microorganisms was suggested as the main driver of that, outweighing the effects of organic matter. Lindane total residues and extractability displayed much smaller changes over time and smaller differences between soils related to organic matter. Roughly estimated, the variability between the artificial soils was comparable to natural soils. The implications of such variability for the results of toxicity tests and risk assessment decisions should be identified. We also suggested that the sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability.

  17. Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Hermansen, John E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional...... standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest...... of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron...

  18. The development of an artificial organic networks toolkit for LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Hiram; Ponce, Pedro; Molina, Arturo

    2015-03-15

    Two of the most challenging problems that scientists and researchers face when they want to experiment with new cutting-edge algorithms are the time-consuming for encoding and the difficulties for linking them with other technologies and devices. In that sense, this article introduces the artificial organic networks toolkit for LabVIEW™ (AON-TL) from the implementation point of view. The toolkit is based on the framework provided by the artificial organic networks technique, giving it the potential to add new algorithms in the future based on this technique. Moreover, the toolkit inherits both the rapid prototyping and the easy-to-use characteristics of the LabVIEW™ software (e.g., graphical programming, transparent usage of other softwares and devices, built-in programming event-driven for user interfaces), to make it simple for the end-user. In fact, the article describes the global architecture of the toolkit, with particular emphasis in the software implementation of the so-called artificial hydrocarbon networks algorithm. Lastly, the article includes two case studies for engineering purposes (i.e., sensor characterization) and chemistry applications (i.e., blood-brain barrier partitioning data model) to show the usage of the toolkit and the potential scalability of the artificial organic networks technique. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Where are the sensory organs of Nybelinia surmenicola (Trypanorhyncha)? A comparative analysis with Parachristianella sp. and other trypanorhynchean cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biserova, Natalia M; Gordeev, Ilya I; Korneva, Janetta V

    2016-01-01

    The sensory organs in tegument of two trypanorhynchean species--Nybelinia surmenicola (plerocercoid) and adult Parachristianella sp. (Cestoda, Trypanorhyncha)--were studied with the aim of ultrastructural description and a comparative analysis. The Nybelinia surmenicola plerocercoid lacks papillae with sensory cilia on the bothria adhesive surface. We found an unciliated sensory organ within the median bothria fold. This unciliated free nerve ending contains the central electron-dense disc, three dense supporting rings, and broad root. The nerve ending locates in the basal matrix under the tegument. The tegument of N. surmenicola has a number of ultrastructural features which make it significantly different from other Trypanorhyncha: (i) the tegumental cytoplasm has a plicated constitution in a form of high apical and deep basal folds, (ii) numerous layers of the basal matrix are presented in the subtegument, and (iii) the squamiform and bristlelike microtriches N. surmenicola lack the base and the basal plate. In contrast, numerous ciliated and unciliated receptors were found in Parachristianella sp.: six types on the bothria and one type in the strobila tegument. Ultrastructural constitution of sensory organs in the form of ciliated free nerve endings as well as unciliated basal nerve endings of Parachristianella sp. has many common features inside Eucestoda. In comparison with other Trypanorhyncha, all Nybelinia species studied have less quantity of the bothrial sensory organs. This fact may reflect behavioral patterns of Nybelinia as well as phylogenetic position into Trypanorhyncha. Our observations of living animals conventionally demonstrate the ability of N. surmenicola plerocercoids to locomote in forward direction on the Petri dish surface. The participation of the bothrial microtriches in a parasite movement has been discussed.

  20. Ongoing cell death and immune influences on regeneration in the vestibular sensory organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchol, M. E.; Matsui, J. I.; Simkus, E. L.; Ogilive, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Hair cells in the vestibular organs of birds have a relatively short life span. Mature hair cells appear to die spontaneously and are then quickly replaced by new hair cells that arise from the division of epithelial supporting cells. A similar regenerative mechanism also results in hair cell replacement after ototoxic damage. The cellular basis of hair cell turnover in the avian ear is not understood. We are investigating the signaling pathways that lead to hair cell death and the relationship between ongoing cell death and cell production. In addition, work from our lab and others has demonstrated that the avian inner ear contains a resident population of macrophages and that enhanced numbers of macrophages are recruited to sites of hair cells lesions. Those observations suggest that macrophages and their secretory products (cytokines) may be involved in hair cell regeneration. Consistent with that suggestion, we have found that treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone reduces regenerative cell proliferation in the avian ear, and that certain macrophage-secreted cytokines can influence the proliferation of vestibular supporting cells and the survival of statoacoustic neurons. Those results suggest a role for the immune system in the process of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

  1. Early postnatal development of electrophysiological and histological properties of sensory sural nerves in male rats that were maternally deprived and artificially reared: Role of tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempoalteca, Rene; Porras, Mercedes G; Moreno-Pérez, Suelem; Ramirez-Funez, Gabriela; Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; González Del Pliego, Margarita; Mariscal-Tovar, Silvia; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria E; Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Melo, Angel I

    2018-04-01

    Early adverse experiences disrupt brain development and behavior, but little is known about how such experiences impact on the development of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we found alterations in the electrophysiological and histological characteristics of the sensory sural (SU) nerve in maternally deprived, artificially reared (AR) adult male rats, as compared with maternally reared (MR) control rats. In the present study, our aim was to characterize the ontogeny of these alterations. Thus, male pups of four postnatal days (PND) were (1) AR group, (2) AR and received daily tactile stimulation to the body and anogenital region (AR-Tactile group); or (3) reared by their mother (MR group). At PND 7, 14, or 21, electrophysiological properties and histological characteristics of the SU nerves were assessed. At PND 7, the electrophysiological properties and most histological parameters of the SU nerve did not differ among MR, AR, and AR-Tactile groups. By contrast, at PND 14 and/or 21, the SU nerve of AR rats showed a lower CAP amplitude and area, and a significant reduction in myelin area and myelin thickness, which were accompanied by a reduction in axon area (day 21 only) compared to the nerves of MR rats. Tactile stimulation (AR-Tactile group) partially prevented most of these alterations. These results suggest that sensory cues from the mother and/or littermates during the first 7-14 PND are relevant for the proper development and function of the adult SU nerve. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 351-362, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An evaluation of an organically bound tritium measurement method in artificial and natural urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.

    1993-03-01

    The accurate measurement of tritium in urine in the form of tritiated water (HTO) as well as in organic forms (organically bound tritium (OBT)) is an essential step in assessing tritium exposures correctly. Exchange between HTO and OBT, arising intrinsically in the separation of HTO from urine samples, is a source of error in determining the concentration of OBT using the low-temperature distillation (LTD) bioassay method. The accuracy and precision of OBT measurements using the LTD method was investigated using spiked natural and artificial urine samples. The relative bias for most of the measurements was less than 25%. The choice of testing matrix, artificial urine versus human urine, made little difference: the precisions for each urine type were similar. The appropriateness of the use of artificial urine for testing purposes was judged using a ratio of performance indices. Based on this evaluation, the artificial urine is a suitable test matrix for intercomparisons of OBT in urine measurements. It is further concluded that the LTD method is reliable for measuring OBT in urine samples. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  3. An evaluation of an organically bound tritium measurement method in artificial and natural urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A; Duong, T

    1993-03-01

    The accurate measurement of tritium in urine in the form of tritiated water (HTO) as well as in organic forms (organically bound tritium (OBT)) is an essential step in assessing tritium exposures correctly. Exchange between HTO and OBT, arising intrinsically in the separation of HTO from urine samples, is a source of error in determining the concentration of OBT using the low-temperature distillation (LTD) bioassay method. The accuracy and precision of OBT measurements using the LTD method was investigated using spiked natural and artificial urine samples. The relative bias for most of the measurements was less than 25%. The choice of testing matrix, artificial urine versus human urine, made little difference: the precisions for each urine type were similar. The appropriateness of the use of artificial urine for testing purposes was judged using a ratio of performance indices. Based on this evaluation, the artificial urine is a suitable test matrix for intercomparisons of OBT in urine measurements. It is further concluded that the LTD method is reliable for measuring OBT in urine samples. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  5. An Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Quality of Service in Banking Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Castelli, Mauro; Manzoni, Luca; Popovi?, Ale?

    2016-01-01

    Quality of service, that is, the waiting time that customers must endure in order to receive a service, is a critical performance aspect in private and public service organizations. Providing good service quality is particularly important in highly competitive sectors where similar services exist. In this paper, focusing on banking sector, we propose an artificial intelligence system for building a model for the prediction of service quality. While the traditional approach used for building a...

  6. Artificial neural networks applied to quantitative elemental analysis of organic material using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, R.; Chesta, M.A.; Morales, J.R.; Dinator, M.I.; Requena, I.; Vila, I.

    2006-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained with real-sample PIXE (particle X-ray induced emission) spectra of organic substances. Following the training stage ANN was applied to a subset of similar samples thus obtaining the elemental concentrations in muscle, liver and gills of Cyprinus carpio. Concentrations obtained with the ANN method are in full agreement with results from one standard analytical procedure, showing the high potentiality of ANN in PIXE quantitative analyses

  7. Artificial neural networks applied to quantitative elemental analysis of organic material using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R. [Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 1242, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rcorrea@utem.cl; Chesta, M.A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Medina Allende s/n Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: chesta@famaf.unc.edu.ar; Morales, J.R. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rmorales@uchile.cl; Dinator, M.I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: mdinator@uchile.cl; Requena, I. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es; Vila, I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Ecologia, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: limnolog@uchile.cl

    2006-08-15

    An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained with real-sample PIXE (particle X-ray induced emission) spectra of organic substances. Following the training stage ANN was applied to a subset of similar samples thus obtaining the elemental concentrations in muscle, liver and gills of Cyprinus carpio. Concentrations obtained with the ANN method are in full agreement with results from one standard analytical procedure, showing the high potentiality of ANN in PIXE quantitative analyses.

  8. Update on Renal Replacement Therapy: Implantable Artificial Devices and Bioengineered Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Chiara; Latancia, Marcela T; Otterbein, Leo E; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are now joining forces in the areas of organ transplantation and bioengineering to solve continued challenges for patients with end-stage renal disease. The waiting lists for those needing a transplant continue to exceed demand. Dialysis, while effective, brings different challenges, including quality of life and susceptibility to infection. Unfortunately, the majority of research outputs are far from delivering satisfactory solutions. Current efforts are focused on providing a self-standing device able to recapitulate kidney function. In this review, we focus on two remarkable innovations that may offer significant clinical impact in the field of renal replacement therapy: the implantable artificial renal assist device (RAD) and the transplantable bioengineered kidney. The artificial RAD strategy utilizes micromachining techniques to fabricate a biohybrid system able to mimic renal morphology and function. The current trend in kidney bioengineering exploits the structure of the native organ to produce a kidney that is ready to be transplanted. Although these two systems stem from different technological approaches, they are both designed to be implantable, long lasting, and free standing to allow patients with kidney failure to be autonomous. However, for both of them, there are relevant issues that must be addressed before translation into clinical use and these are discussed in this review.

  9. Influence of cultivar and of conventional and organic agricultural practices on phenolic and sensory profile of blackberries (Rubus fruticosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Teresa; Vilela, Alice; Pinto, Andreia; Nunes, Fernando M; Cosme, Fernanda; Anjos, Rosário

    2018-03-06

    Consumer demand for organic products is increasing because of their claimed health benefits. Blackberries are a rich source of polyphenols, with high antioxidant activity; nevertheless, the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on its phytochemical composition is unknown. 'Loch Ness' and 'Chester Thornless' were selected as blackberry cultivars for this study because of their desired sensory and technological properties, which make them more suitable for export. 'Loch Ness' variety presented a higher amounts of polyphenols and higher antioxidant activity when compared to the 'Chester Thornless' variety. The impact of agricultural practices on the phytochemical composition of the two varieties was contradictory. Under organic agricultural practices, levels of polyphenols increased for 'Loch Ness' and decreased for 'Chester Thornless', whereas the soluble solids content increased in both varieties. These changes in composition were correlated with changes observed in the blackberries' sensory profile. The effect of agricultural practices on the blackberries' chemical and sensory profile was dependent on the variety and cannot be generalized. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Natural variation in sensory-motor white matter organization influences manifestations of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Michael; Gregory, Sarah; Scahill, Rachael I; Mayer, Isabella Sm; Minkova, Lora; Klöppel, Stefan; Seunarine, Kiran K; Boyd, Lara; Borowsky, Beth; Reilmann, Ralf; Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, G; Leavitt, Blair R; Roos, Raymund Ac; Durr, Alexandra; Rees, Geraint; Rothwell, John C; Langbehn, Douglas; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2016-12-01

    While the HTT CAG-repeat expansion mutation causing Huntington's disease (HD) is highly correlated with the rate of pathogenesis leading to disease onset, considerable variance in age-at-onset remains unexplained. Therefore, other factors must influence the pathogenic process. We asked whether these factors were related to natural biological variation in the sensory-motor system. In 243 participants (96 premanifest and 35 manifest HD; 112 controls), sensory-motor structural MRI, tractography, resting-state fMRI, electrophysiology (including SEP amplitudes), motor score ratings, and grip force as sensory-motor performance were measured. Following individual modality analyses, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to identify patterns associated with sensory-motor performance, and manifest versus premanifest HD discrimination. We did not detect longitudinal differences over 12 months. PCA showed a pattern of loss of caudate, grey and white matter volume, cortical thickness in premotor and sensory cortex, and disturbed diffusivity in sensory-motor white matter tracts that was connected to CAG repeat length. Two further major principal components appeared in controls and HD individuals indicating that they represent natural biological variation unconnected to the HD mutation. One of these components did not influence HD while the other non-CAG-driven component of axial versus radial diffusivity contrast in white matter tracts were associated with sensory-motor performance and manifest HD. The first component reflects the expected CAG expansion effects on HD pathogenesis. One non-CAG-driven component reveals an independent influence on pathogenesis of biological variation in white matter tracts and merits further investigation to delineate the underlying mechanism and the potential it offers for disease modification. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4615-4628, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Artificial promoter libraries for selected organisms and promoters derived from such libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    or organisms may be selected from prokaryotes and from eukaryotes; and in prokaryotes the consensus sequences to be retained most often will comprise the -35 signal (-35 to -30): TTGACA and the -10 signal (-12 to -7): TATAAT or parts of both comprising at least 3 conserved nucleotides of each, while...... in eukaryotes said consensus sequences should comprise a TATA box and at least one upstream activation sequence (UAS). Such artificial promoter libraries can be used i.a. for optimizing the expression of specific genes in various selected organisms....

  12. Laser fluorimetry of mixtures of polyatomic organic compounds using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolenko, S A; Gerdova, I V; Dolenko, T A; Fadeev, V V

    2001-01-01

    New possibilities of laser fluorimetry offered by the use of algorithms for solving inverse problems based on artificial neural networks are demonstrated. A two-component mixture of polyatomic organic compounds is analysed by three methods of laser fluorimetry: a direct analysis of the fluorescence band, the kinetic fluorimetry (when durations of the laser pulse and the detector gate pulse are comparable with the fluorescence lifetimes or exceed them), and the saturation fluorimetry. The numerical experiments showed that the use of artificial neural networks in these methods provides a high practical stability of the solution of inverse problems and ensures a high sensitivity and a high accuracy of determining the contribution of components to fluorescence and of measuring molecular photophysical parameters, which can be used for the identification of components. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Pox neuro control of cell lineages that give rise to larval poly-innervated external sensory organs in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanrui; Boll, Werner; Noll, Markus

    2015-01-15

    The Pox neuro (Poxn) gene of Drosophila plays a crucial role in the development of poly-innervated external sensory (p-es) organs. However, how Poxn exerts this role has remained elusive. In this study, we have analyzed the cell lineages of all larval p-es organs, namely of the kölbchen, papilla 6, and hair 3. Surprisingly, these lineages are distinct from any previously reported cell lineages of sensory organs. Unlike the well-established lineage of mono-innervated external sensory (m-es) organs and a previously proposed model of the p-es lineage, we demonstrate that all wild-type p-es lineages exhibit the following features: the secondary precursor, pIIa, gives rise to all three support cells-socket, shaft, and sheath, whereas the other secondary precursor, pIIb, is neuronal and gives rise to all neurons. We further show that in one of the p-es lineages, that of papilla 6, one cell undergoes apoptosis. By contrast in Poxn null mutants, all p-es lineages have a reduced number of cells and their pattern of cell divisions is changed to that of an m-es organ, with the exception of a lineage in a minority of mutant kölbchen that retains a second bipolar neuron. Indeed, the role of Poxn in p-es lineages is consistent with the specification of the developmental potential of secondary precursors and the regulation of cell division but not apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of ozone tropospheric degradation rate constant of organic compounds by using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone tropospheric degradation of organic compound is very important in environmental chemistry. The lifetime of organic chemicals in the atmosphere can be calculated from the knowledge of the rate constant of their reaction with free radicals such as OH and NO 3 or O 3 . In the present work, the rate constant for the tropospheric degradation of 137 organic compounds by reaction with ozone, the least widely and successfully modeled degradation process, are predicted by quantitative structure activity relationships modeling based on a variety of theoretical descriptors, which screened and selected by genetic algorithm variable subset selection procedure. These descriptors which can be used as inputs for generated artificial neural networks are; HOMO-LUMO gap, number of double bonds, number of single bonds, maximum net charge on C atom, minimum (>0.1) bond order of C atom and Minimum e-e repulsion of H atom. After generation, optimization and training of artificial neural network, network was used for the prediction of log KO 3 for the validation set. The root mean square error for the neural network calculated log KO 3 for training, prediction and validation set are 0.357, 0.460 and 0.481, respectively, which are smaller than those obtained by multiple linear regressions model (1.217, 0.870 and 0.968, respectively). Results obtained reveal the reliability and good predictivity of neural network model for the prediction of ozone tropospheric degradations rate constant of organic compounds

  15. Drosophila C-terminal binding protein, dCtBP is required for sensory organ prepattern and sharpens proneural transcriptional activity of the GATA factor Pnr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukova, Inna; Heitzler, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    The peripheral nervous system is required for animals to detect and to relay environmental stimuli to central nervous system for the information processing. In Drosophila, the precise spatial and temporal expression of two proneural genes achaete (ac) and scute (sc), is necessary for development of the sensory organs. Here we present an evidence that the transcription co-repressor, dCtBP acts as a negative regulator of sensory organ prepattern. Loss of dCtBP function mutant exhibits ectopic sensory organs, while overexpression of dCtBP results in a dramatic loss of sensory organs. These phenotypes are correlated with mis-emerging of sensory organ precursors and perturbated expression of proneural transcription activator Ac. Mammalian CtBP-1 was identified via interaction with the consensus motif PXDLSX(K/R) of adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. We demonstrated that dCtBP binds directly to PLDLS motif of Drosophila Friend of GATA-1 protein, U-shaped and sharpens the adult sensory organ development. Moreover, we found that dCtBP mediates multivalent interaction with the GATA transcriptional activator Pannier and acts as a direct co-repressor of the Pannier-mediated activation of proneural genes. We demonstrated that Pannier genetically interacts with dCtBP-interacting protein HDAC1, suggesting that the dCtBP-dependent regulation of Pannier activity could utilize a repressive mechanism involving alteration of local chromatine structure.

  16. What Pacemakers Can Teach Us about the Ethics of Maintaining Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Katrina; Sparrow, Robert

    2016-11-01

    One day soon it may be possible to replace a failing heart, liver, or kidney with a long-lasting mechanical replacement or perhaps even with a 3-D printed version based on the patient's own tissue. Such artificial organs could make transplant waiting lists and immunosuppression a thing of the past. Supposing that this happens, what will the ongoing care of people with these implants involve? In particular, how will the need to maintain the functioning of artificial organs over an extended period affect patients and their doctors and the responsibilities of those who manufacture such devices? Drawing on lessons from the history of the cardiac pacemaker, this article offers an initial survey of the ethical issues posed by the need to maintain and service artificial organs. We briefly outline the nature and history of cardiac pacemakers, with a particular focus on the need for technical support, maintenance, and replacement of these devices. Drawing on the existing medical literature and on our conversations and correspondence with cardiologists, regulators, and manufacturers, we describe five sources of ethical issues associated with pacemaker maintenance: the location of the devices inside the human body, such that maintenance generates surgical risks; the complexity of the devices, which increases the risk of harms to patients as well as introducing potential injustices in access to treatment; the role of software-particularly software that can be remotely accessed-in the functioning of the devices, which generates privacy and security issues; the impact of continual development and improvement of the device; and the influence of commercial interests in the context of a medical device market in which there are several competing products. Finally, we offer some initial suggestions as to how these questions should be answered. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  17. [Ornithine decarboxylase in mammalian organs and tissues at hibernation and artificial hypobiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinovich, O S; Aksenova, G E

    2013-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17.) is a short-lived and dynamically regulated enzyme of polyamines biosynthesis. Regulation of functional, metabolic and proliferative state of organs and tissues involves the modifications of the ODC enzymatic activity. The organ-specific changes in ODC activity were revealed in organs and tissues (liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and intestinal mucosa) of hibernating mammals - squirrels Spermophilus undulates - during the hibernating season. At that, a positive correlation was detected between the decline and recovery of the specialized functions of organs and tissues and the respective modifications of ODC activity during hibernation bouts. Investigation of changes in ODC activity in organs and tissues of non-hibernating mammals under artificial hypobiosis showed that in Wistar rats immediately after exposure to hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia (hypobiosis) the level of ODC activity was low in thymus, spleen, small intestine mucosa, neocortex, and liver. The most marked reduction in enzyme activity was observed in actively proliferating tissues: thymus, spleen, small intestine mucosa. In bone marrow of squirrels, while in a state of torpor, as well as in thymus of rats after exposure to hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia, changes in the ODC activity correlated with changes in the rate of cell proliferation (by the criterion of cells distribution over cell cycle). The results obtained, along with the critical analysis of published data, indicate that the ODC enzyme is involved in biochemical adaptation of mammals to natural and artificial hypobiosis. A decline in the ODC enzymatic activity indicates a decline in proliferative, functional, and metabolic activity of organs and tissues of mammals (bone marrow, mucosa of small intestine, thymus, spleen, neocortex, liver, kidneys) when entering the state of hypobiosis.

  18. ADAM10 and gamma-secretase regulate sensory regeneration in the avian vestibular organs

    OpenAIRE

    Warchol, M. E.; Stone, J.; Barton, M.; Ku, J.; Veile, R.; Daudet, N.; Lovett, M.

    2017-01-01

    The loss of sensory hair cells from the inner ear is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders. The mammalian ear has a very limited ability to replace lost hair cells, but the inner ears of non-mammalian vertebrates can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after injury. Prior studies have shown that replacement hair cells are derived from epithelial supporting cells and that the differentiation of new hair cells is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. The present study examined mo...

  19. Effects of different organic weed management strategies on the physicochemical, sensory, and antioxidant properties of machine-harvested blackberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, George; Liu, Mingyang; Hobbs, Deborah; Frei, Balz; Strik, Bernadine; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-10-01

    The effect of 3 different weed management strategies, nonweeding, hand weeding, and weed mat, were examined on physicochemical, sugar profile, and antioxidant properties of 2 cultivars of blackberry (Rubus spp), "Marion" and "Black Diamond" harvested at 3 time intervals during the 2012 season. Sensory analysis on flavor intensity of 6 different descriptors by an experienced panel was also performed on "Black Diamond" berries harvested at the same interval during the 2013 season. While weed management had no effect on pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids of either cultivar (P > 0.05), it showed a marked effect on total phenolics (5.65 to 7.80 mg GAE/g FW), total monomeric anthocyanins (1.07 to 2.85 mg/g FW), ORAC (271.51 to 644.97 μMol TE/g FW), FRAP (408.56 to 719.10 μMol Fe(2+) /g FW), sugar profile, and flavor intensity. Hand-weeding resulted in fruit antioxidant content and capacity as much as 30% greater, though the effect was not seen in the late harvest, where the nonweeded samples tended to have higher values. Overall, weed mat samples had the lowest antioxidant content and capacity in all harvests. Sugar profiling exhibited a greater variability based on cultivar and harvest, but overall, weed mat samples had lower sugar levels than fruit from the other 2 methods. Interestingly, the intensity of sensory attributes for "Black Diamond" appear to possibly be inversely related to phenolic and anthocyanin content, with the weed mat management strategy resulting in the highest values for virtually all sensory attributes. This study provided valuable information about the impact of organic production method on the quality of blackberries. Weed management is one of the largest costs associated with organic agriculture because of limited availability of approved herbicides. While much work has been done to evaluate the effect of different methods on plant growth and yield, few have determined the impact of weed management methods on fruit quality. This

  20. A comparative analysis of the encapsulated end-organs of mammalian skeletal muscles and of their sensory nerve endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R W; Hulliger, M; Saed, H H; Stacey, M J

    2009-06-01

    The encapsulated sensory endings of mammalian skeletal muscles are all mechanoreceptors. At the most basic functional level they serve as length sensors (muscle spindle primary and secondary endings), tension sensors (tendon organs), and pressure or vibration sensors (lamellated corpuscles). At a higher functional level, the differing roles of individual muscles in, for example, postural adjustment and locomotion might be expected to be reflected in characteristic complements of the various end-organs, their sensory endings and afferent nerve fibres. This has previously been demonstrated with regard to the number of muscle-spindle capsules; however, information on the other types of end-organ, as well as the complements of primary and secondary endings of the spindles themselves, is sporadic and inconclusive regarding their comparative provision in different muscles. Our general conclusion that muscle-specific variability in the provision of encapsulated sensory endings does exist demonstrates the necessity for the acquisition of more data of this type if we are to understand the underlying adaptive relationships between motor control and the structure and function of skeletal muscle. The present quantitative and comparative analysis of encapsulated muscle afferents is based on teased, silver-impregnated preparations. We begin with a statistical analysis of the number and distribution of muscle-spindle afferents in hind-limb muscles of the cat, particularly tenuissimus. We show that: (i) taking account of the necessity for at least one primary ending to be present, muscles differ significantly in the mean number of additional afferents per spindle capsule; (ii) the frequency of occurrence of spindles with different sensory complements is consistent with a stochastic, rather than deterministic, developmental process; and (iii) notwithstanding the previous finding, there is a differential distribution of spindles intramuscularly such that the more complex ones tend

  1. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) losses from nested artificially drained lowland catchments with contrasting soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Kahle, Petra; Lennartz, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Artificial drainage is a common practice to improve moisture and aeration conditions of agricultural land. It shortens the residence time of water in the soil and may therefore contribute to the degradation of peatlands as well as to the still elevated level of diffuse pollution of surface water bodies, particularly if flow anomalies like preferential flow cause a further acceleration of water and solute fluxes. Especially in the case of nitrate, artificially drained sub-catchments are found to control the catchment-scale nitrate losses. However, it is frequently found that nitrate losses and nitrogen field balances do not match. At the same time, organic fertilizers are commonly applied and, especially in lowland catchments, organic soils have been drained for agricultural use. Thus, the question arises whether dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) forms an important component of the nitrogen losses from artificially drained catchments. However, in contrast to nitrate and even to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), this component is frequently overlooked, especially in nested catchment studies with different soil types and variable land use. Here, we will present data from a hierarchical water quantity and quality measurement programme in the federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (North-Eastern Germany). The monitoring programme in the pleistocene lowland catchment comprises automatic sampling stations at a collector drain outlet (4.2 ha catchment), at a ditch draining arable land on mineral soils (179 ha), at a ditch mainly draining grassland on organic soils (85 ha) and at a brook with a small rural catchment (15.5 km²) of mixed land use and soil types. At all sampling stations, daily to weekly composite samples were taken, while the discharge and the meteorological data were recorded continuously. Water samples were analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen and total nitrogen. We will compare two years: 2006/07 was a very wet year (P = 934 mm) with a high summer

  2. Application of self-organizing competition artificial neural network to logging data explanation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianguo; Xu Xianli; Wang Weiguo

    2008-01-01

    The article describes the model construction of self-organizing competition artificial neural network, its principle and automatic recognition process of borehole lithology in detail, and then proves the efficiency of the neural network model for automatically recognizing the borehole lithology with some cases. The self-organizing competition artificial neural network has the ability of self- organization, self-adjustment and high permitting errors. Compared with the BP algorithm, it takes less calculation quantity and more rapidly converges. Furthermore, it can automatically confirm the category without the known sample information. Trial results based on contrasting the identification results of the borehole lithology with geological documentations, indicate that self-organizing artificial neural network can be well applied to automatically performing the category of borehole lithology, during the logging data explanation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits. (authors)

  3. Optimization of an organic yogurt based on sensorial, nutritional, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnopp, Ariadne Roberto; Oliveira, Katherine Guimarães; de Andrade, Eriel Forville; Postingher, Bruna Mara; Granato, Daniel

    2017-10-15

    The effects of purple grape juice (PGJ), grape skin flour (GSF), and oligofructose (OLI) on proximate composition, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA), sensory, physicochemical, and textural properties of yogurts were analyzed using response surface methodology. Multiple regression models were proposed and results showed that PGJ increased the viscosity, AA, and TPC, while GSF increased the ash and total fiber contents of yogurts. GSF and OLI increased the hardness and consistency. A simultaneous optimization was performed to maximize TPC, ash and fibers contents, and sensory acceptance: a yogurt containing 1.7% GSF and 8.0% PGJ had a high fiber (5.60±0.13%) and ash (0.76±0.02%) contents, TPC (28.32±2.10mg GAE/100g), AA toward DPPH (57.85±1.36mg AAE/100g), and total reducing capacity (28.86±5.19mg QE/100g). The optimized yogurt had 79% acceptability index, indicating the use of PGJ and GSF is a feasible alternative to increase the functional properties of yogurts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects. PMID:24348447

  5. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer's attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  6. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella ePagliarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e. a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g. odor, taste, flavor and mouthfeel sensations and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter and mouthfeel (astringent sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  7. Consumer preference for chicken breast may be more affected by information on organic production than by product sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, F; Castellini, C; Naspetti, S; Piasentier, E; Girolami, A; Braghieri, A

    2013-03-01

    Conventional chicken from a fast-growing strain (CC), organic chicken from a slow-growing strain (OSG), and organic chicken from a fast-growing strain (OFG) were used to assess descriptive sensory differences between organic and conventional breasts, to verify whether differences were perceived by consumers and to evaluate the effect of information about organic production on liking. A conventional quantitative-descriptive analysis was performed by a trained panel of 10 members on breast slices (1 cm thick) grilled at 300°C. A 150-member consumer panel (from southern, central, and northern Italy) rated CC, OSG, and OFG breasts according to 3 types of evaluation: tasting without information (perceived liking), information without tasting (expected liking), and tasting with information (actual liking). Breasts from different sources were clearly discriminated by the trained panel as meat from CC was perceived more tender than OFG (P consumers for perceived liking. However, consumer expected liking scores were higher for organic than for conventional products (P consumers were not. However, consumer liking was markedly affected by the information given on the organic production system, thus providing a tool to differentiate the product in an increasingly competitive market.

  8. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  9. ADAM10 and γ-secretase regulate sensory regeneration in the avian vestibular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchol, Mark E; Stone, Jennifer; Barton, Matthew; Ku, Jeffrey; Veile, Rose; Daudet, Nicolas; Lovett, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The loss of sensory hair cells from the inner ear is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders. The mammalian ear has a very limited ability to replace lost hair cells, but the inner ears of non-mammalian vertebrates can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after injury. Prior studies have shown that replacement hair cells are derived from epithelial supporting cells and that the differentiation of new hair cells is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. The present study examined molecular influences on regeneration in the avian utricle, which has a particularly robust regenerative ability. Chicken utricles were placed in organotypic culture and hair cells were lesioned by application of the ototoxic antibiotic streptomycin. Cultures were then allowed to regenerate in vitro for seven days. Some specimens were treated with small molecule inhibitors of γ-secretase or ADAM10, proteases which are essential for transmission of Notch signaling. As expected, treatment with both inhibitors led to increased numbers of replacement hair cells. However, we also found that inhibition of both proteases resulted in increased regenerative proliferation. Subsequent experiments showed that inhibition of γ-secretase or ADAM10 could also trigger proliferation in undamaged utricles. To better understand these phenomena, we used RNA-Seq profiling to characterize changes in gene expression following γ-secretase inhibition. We observed expression patterns that were consistent with Notch pathway inhibition, but we also found that the utricular sensory epithelium contains numerous γ-secretase substrates that might regulate cell cycle entry and possibly supporting cell-to-hair cell conversion. Together, our data suggest multiple roles for γ-secretase and ADAM10 in vestibular hair cell regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Artificial neural network with self-organizing mapping for reactor stability monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Motofumi; Tsuji, Masashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    In BWR stability monitoring damping ratio has been used as a stability index. A method for estimating the damping ratio by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to neutron detector signals measured with local power range monitors (LPRMs) had been developed; In this method, measured fluctuating signal is decomposed into some independent components and the signal component directly related to stability is extracted among them to determine the damping ratio. For online monitoring, it is necessary to select stability related signal component efficiently. The self-organizing map (SOM) is one of the artificial neural networks and has the characteristics such that online learning is possible without supervised learning within a relatively short time. In the present study, the SOM was applied to extract the relevant signal component more quickly and more accurately, and the availability was confirmed through the feasibility study. (author)

  11. Lifetime prediction for organic coating under alternating hydrostatic pressure by artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenliang; Meng, Fandi; Liu, Li; Li, Ying; Wang, Fuhui

    2017-01-01

    A concept for prediction of organic coatings, based on the alternating hydrostatic pressure (AHP) accelerated tests, has been presented. An AHP accelerated test with different pressure values has been employed to evaluate coating degradation. And a back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) has been established to predict the service property and the service lifetime of coatings. The pressure value (P), immersion time (t) and service property (impedance modulus |Z|) are utilized as the parameters of the network. The average accuracies of the predicted service property and immersion time by the established network are 98.6% and 84.8%, respectively. The combination of accelerated test and prediction method by BP-ANN is promising to evaluate and predict coating property used in deep sea. PMID:28094340

  12. Metabolomic profiling and sensorial quality of 'Golden Delicious', 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' apples grown using organic and integrated production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Andreja; Jenko, Mojca; Vrhovsek, Urska; Stopar, Matej

    2013-07-03

    Apple quality was investigated in the scab-resistant 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' cultivars and the scab-susceptible 'Golden Delicious' cultivar. Trees subjected to the same crop load were cultivated using either an organic (ORG) or an integrated production (IP) system. Physicochemical properties, phenolic content, and sensorial quality of fruit from both systems were compared. There were no significant differences in fruit mass, starch, and total soluble solid content (the latter was higher in ORG 'Liberty') between ORG and IP fruit, whereas significantly higher flesh firmness was found in ORG fruit (except no difference in 'Golden Delicious'). Significantly higher total phenolic content in ORG fruit was found in 'Golden Delicious', whereas differences in other cultivars were not significant. Targeted metabolomic profiling of multiple classes of phenolics confirmed the impact of the production system on the 'Golden Delicious' phenolic profile as higher levels of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, neo- and chlorogenic acids, phloridzin, procyanidin B2+B4, -3-O-glucoside and -3-O-galactoside of quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and rutin being found in ORG fruit. The results obtained suggested that scab resistance influenced the phenolic biosynthesis in relation to the agricultural system. Sensorial evaluation indicated significantly better flavor (except for 'Topaz') and better appearance of IP fruit.

  13. Differential receptive field organizations give rise to nearly identical neural correlations across three parallel sensory maps in weakly electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Volker; Chacron, Maurice J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding how neural populations encode sensory information thereby leading to perception and behavior (i.e., the neural code) remains an important problem in neuroscience. When investigating the neural code, one must take into account the fact that neural activities are not independent but are actually correlated with one another. Such correlations are seen ubiquitously and have a strong impact on neural coding. Here we investigated how differences in the antagonistic center-surround receptive field (RF) organization across three parallel sensory maps influence correlations between the activities of electrosensory pyramidal neurons. Using a model based on known anatomical differences in receptive field center size and overlap, we initially predicted large differences in correlated activity across the maps. However, in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that, contrary to modeling predictions, electrosensory pyramidal neurons across all three segments displayed nearly identical correlations. To explain this surprising result, we incorporated the effects of RF surround in our model. By systematically varying both the RF surround gain and size relative to that of the RF center, we found that multiple RF structures gave rise to similar levels of correlation. In particular, incorporating known physiological differences in RF structure between the three maps in our model gave rise to similar levels of correlation. Our results show that RF center overlap alone does not determine correlations which has important implications for understanding how RF structure influences correlated neural activity.

  14. Conversion of neurons and glia to external-cell fates in the external sensory organs of Drosophila hamlet mutants by a cousin-cousin cell-type respecification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adrian W; Roegiers, Fabrice; Jan, Lily Y; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2004-03-15

    The Drosophila external sensory organ forms in a lineage elaborating from a single precursor cell via a stereotypical series of asymmetric divisions. HAMLET transcription factor expression demarcates the lineage branch that generates two internal cell types, the external sensory neuron and thecogen. In HAMLET mutant organs, these internal cells are converted to external cells via an unprecedented cousin-cousin cell-fate respecification event. Conversely, ectopic HAMLET expression in the external cell branch leads to internal cell production. The fate-determining signals NOTCH and PAX2 act at multiple stages of lineage elaboration and HAMLET acts to modulate their activity in a branch-specific manner.

  15. The candidate splicing factor Sfswap regulates growth and patterning of inner ear sensory organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Moayedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is thought to regulate multiple stages of inner ear development. Mutations in the Notch signaling pathway cause disruptions in the number and arrangement of hair cells and supporting cells in sensory regions of the ear. In this study we identify an insertional mutation in the mouse Sfswap gene, a putative splicing factor, that results in mice with vestibular and cochlear defects that are consistent with disrupted Notch signaling. Homozygous Sfswap mutants display hyperactivity and circling behavior consistent with vestibular defects, and significantly impaired hearing. The cochlea of newborn Sfswap mutant mice shows a significant reduction in outer hair cells and supporting cells and ectopic inner hair cells. This phenotype most closely resembles that seen in hypomorphic alleles of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (Jag1. We show that Jag1; Sfswap compound mutants have inner ear defects that are more severe than expected from simple additive effects of the single mutants, indicating a genetic interaction between Sfswap and Jag1. In addition, expression of genes involved in Notch signaling in the inner ear are reduced in Sfswap mutants. There is increased interest in how splicing affects inner ear development and function. Our work is one of the first studies to suggest that a putative splicing factor has specific effects on Notch signaling pathway members and inner ear development.

  16. The Effect of Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy Program on Sensory Organization of Deaf Children With Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Ebrahimi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of vestibular rehabilitation therapy program on the sensory organization of deaf children with bilateral vestibular dysfunction. This cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted on 24 students between the age of 7 and 12 years (6 girls and 18 boys with the profound sensorineural hearing loss (PTA>90 dB. They were assessed through the balance subtest in Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOTMP. For children which the total score of the balance subtest was 3 standard deviation lower than their peers with typical development, vestibular function testing was completed pre-intervention. Posturography Sensory organization testing (SOT was completed pre- and post-intervention with SPS (Synapsys, Marseille, France. Children with bilateral vestibular impairment were randomly assigned to either the exercise or control group. Exercise intervention consisted of compensatory training, emphasizing enhancement of visual and somatosensory function, and balance training. The exercise group entered in vestibular rehabilitation therapy program for 8 weeks. The children initially participating in the control group were provided the exercise intervention following the post-test. Based on the results there was significant difference in condition 5 and 6, areas of limits of stability (LOS, vestibular ratio and global score in posturography at the end of the intervention, but there was no significant difference in the control group in posturography (P<0.05. The results indicated that testing of vestibular, and postural control function, as well as intervention for deficiencies identified, should be included in deaf children rehabilitation program.

  17. Neural organization of linguistic short-term memory is sensory modality-dependent: evidence from signed and spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa, Judy; Wilson, Stephen M; Pickell, Herbert; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-12-01

    Despite decades of research, there is still disagreement regarding the nature of the information that is maintained in linguistic short-term memory (STM). Some authors argue for abstract phonological codes, whereas others argue for more general sensory traces. We assess these possibilities by investigating linguistic STM in two distinct sensory-motor modalities, spoken and signed language. Hearing bilingual participants (native in English and American Sign Language) performed equivalent STM tasks in both languages during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Distinct, sensory-specific activations were seen during the maintenance phase of the task for spoken versus signed language. These regions have been previously shown to respond to nonlinguistic sensory stimulation, suggesting that linguistic STM tasks recruit sensory-specific networks. However, maintenance-phase activations common to the two languages were also observed, implying some form of common process. We conclude that linguistic STM involves sensory-dependent neural networks, but suggest that sensory-independent neural networks may also exist.

  18. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  19. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Letícia Adélia MIOTTO; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pas...

  20. Highly Sensitive and Patchable Pressure Sensors Mimicking Ion-Channel-Engaged Sensory Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Son, Young Jun; Han, Chang-Soo

    2016-04-26

    Biological ion channels have led to much inspiration because of their unique and exquisite operational functions in living cells. Specifically, their extreme and dynamic sensing abilities can be realized by the combination of receptors and nanopores coupled together to construct an ion channel system. In the current study, we demonstrated that artificial ion channel pressure sensors inspired by nature for detecting pressure are highly sensitive and patchable. Our ion channel pressure sensors basically consisted of receptors and nanopore membranes, enabling dynamic current responses to external forces for multiple applications. The ion channel pressure sensors had a sensitivity of ∼5.6 kPa(-1) and a response time of ∼12 ms at a frequency of 1 Hz. The power consumption was recorded as less than a few μW. Moreover, a reliability test showed stability over 10 000 loading-unloading cycles. Additionally, linear regression was performed in terms of temperature, which showed no significant variations, and there were no significant current variations with humidity. The patchable ion channel pressure sensors were then used to detect blood pressure/pulse in humans, and different signals were clearly observed for each person. Additionally, modified ion channel pressure sensors detected complex motions including pressing and folding in a high-pressure range (10-20 kPa).

  1. The influence of peeling and type of drying on chemical and sensorial analysis of organic coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Caixeta Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic coffee is characterized by being produced without the use of chemical products and by having a similar or superior quality in comparison to that of coffee produced by traditional methods. The production of organic coffee does not include the use of highly soluble nutrients, which makes consumers concerned with environmental issues and healthy eating habits realize its true value. This paper aims to analyze the influence of harvesting, peeling and drying on the quality of organic coffee, in order to present the best way of producing high quality coffee. Samples of organic coffee were harvested by both conventional and selective ways, and some were peeled. They were then dried on concrete patio and on suspended terraces. The beans were analyzed for potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, titratable acidity, and submitted to coffee cupping-test. The results obtained indicated that the selective harvesting of the peeled or unpeeled cherry coffee dried on concrete terrace is feasible for production of fine coffees. This type of processing effectively influenced the final quality of the organic coffee, thus being an alternative to improve the quality and market value of the product, especially for small producers, cooperatives, and associations of coffee producers.

  2. Use of Artificial Neural Network Models to Predict Indicator Organism Concentrations in an Urban Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, D. M.; Ahlfeld, D. P.

    2004-05-01

    Forecasting stream water quality is important for numerous aspects of resource protection and management. Fecal coliform and enteroccocus are primary indicator organisms used to assess potential pathogen contamination. Consequently, modeling the occurrence and concentration of fecal coliform and enterococcus is an important tool in watershed management. In addition, analyzing the relationship between model input and predicted indicator organisms is useful for elucidating possible sources of contamination and mechanisms of transport. While many process-based, statistical, and empirical models exist for water quality prediction, artificial neural network (ANN) models are increasingly being used for forecasting of water resources variables because ANNs are often capable of modeling complex systems for which behavioral rules are either unknown or difficult to simulate. The performance of ANNs compared to more established modeling approaches such as multiple linear regression (MLR) remains an importance research question. Data collected the U.S. Geological Survey in the lower Charles River in Massachusetts, USA in 1999-2000 was examined to determine correlation between various water quality constituents and indicator organisms and to explore the relationship between rainfall characteristics and indicator organism concentrations. Using the results of the statistical analysis to guide the selection of explanatory variables, MLR was performed to develop predictive equations for wet weather and dry weather conditions. The results show that the best-performing predictor variables are generally consistent for both indicator organisms considered. In addition, the regression equations show increasing indicator organism concentrations as a function of suspended sediment concentrations and length of time since last precipitation event, suggesting accumulation and wash off as a key mechanism of pathogen transport under wet weather conditions. This research also presents the

  3. Integrated annotation and analysis of in situ hybridization images using the ImAnno system: application to the ear and sensory organs of the fetal mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth.

  4. Artificial neural network with self-organizing mapping for reactor stability monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Motofumi; Tsuji, Masashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    In boiling water reactor (BWR) stability monitoring, damping ratio has been used as a stability index. A method for estimating the damping ratio by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to neutron detector signals measured with local power range monitors (LPRMs) had been developed; in this method, measured fluctuating signal is decomposed into some independent components and the signal components directly related to stability are extracted among them to determine the damping ratio. For online monitoring, it is necessary to select stability related signal components efficiently. The self-organizing map (SOM) is one of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and has the characteristics such that online learning is possible without supervised learning within a relatively short time. In the present study, the SOM was applied to extract the relevant signal components more quickly and more accurately, and the availability was confirmed through the feasibility study. For realizing online stability monitoring only with ANNs, another type of ANN that performs online processing of PCA was combined with SOM. And stability monitoring performance was investigated. (author)

  5. [Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in patients of Federal Scientific Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisian, L R; Voronina, O L; Chernukha, M Iu; Kunda, M S; Gabrielian, N I; Lunin, V G; Shaginian, I A

    2012-01-01

    Study genetic diversity of P. aeruginosa strains persisting in patients of Federal Scientific Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs, and main factors facilitating persistence of strains in the hospital. 136 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from patients of the center for 3 years 6 months were genotyped by RAPD-PCR and MLST methods and studied for antibiotics resistance and presence of integrons. Genetic diversity of strains persisting in hospital was established. Strains of main genotypes ST235, ST446, ST598 were isolated from patients of various surgical departments. Patients were shown to be colonized by these strains during stay in reanimation and intensive therapy department (RITD) of the hospital. Strains of dominant genotype 235 were isolated from 47% of examined patients during more than 3 years. Only genotype 235 strains contained integron with cassettes of antibiotics resistance genes blaGES5 and aadA6 in the genome. The data obtained show that over the period of observation in the center 1 clone of P. aeruginosa that belonged to genotype 235 dominated. This clone was endemic for this hospital and in the process of prolonged persistence became more resistant to antibiotics. Colonization of patients with these strains occurs in RITD. This confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of hospital microflora for advance detection of potentially dangerous epidemic hospital strains able to cause hospital infections.

  6. An Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Quality of Service in Banking Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovič, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Quality of service, that is, the waiting time that customers must endure in order to receive a service, is a critical performance aspect in private and public service organizations. Providing good service quality is particularly important in highly competitive sectors where similar services exist. In this paper, focusing on banking sector, we propose an artificial intelligence system for building a model for the prediction of service quality. While the traditional approach used for building analytical models relies on theories and assumptions about the problem at hand, we propose a novel approach for learning models from actual data. Thus, the proposed approach is not biased by the knowledge that experts may have about the problem, but it is completely based on the available data. The system is based on a recently defined variant of genetic programming that allows practitioners to include the concept of semantics in the search process. This will have beneficial effects on the search process and will produce analytical models that are based only on the data and not on domain-dependent knowledge. PMID:27313604

  7. An Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Quality of Service in Banking Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Mauro; Manzoni, Luca; Popovič, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Quality of service, that is, the waiting time that customers must endure in order to receive a service, is a critical performance aspect in private and public service organizations. Providing good service quality is particularly important in highly competitive sectors where similar services exist. In this paper, focusing on banking sector, we propose an artificial intelligence system for building a model for the prediction of service quality. While the traditional approach used for building analytical models relies on theories and assumptions about the problem at hand, we propose a novel approach for learning models from actual data. Thus, the proposed approach is not biased by the knowledge that experts may have about the problem, but it is completely based on the available data. The system is based on a recently defined variant of genetic programming that allows practitioners to include the concept of semantics in the search process. This will have beneficial effects on the search process and will produce analytical models that are based only on the data and not on domain-dependent knowledge.

  8. An Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Quality of Service in Banking Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of service, that is, the waiting time that customers must endure in order to receive a service, is a critical performance aspect in private and public service organizations. Providing good service quality is particularly important in highly competitive sectors where similar services exist. In this paper, focusing on banking sector, we propose an artificial intelligence system for building a model for the prediction of service quality. While the traditional approach used for building analytical models relies on theories and assumptions about the problem at hand, we propose a novel approach for learning models from actual data. Thus, the proposed approach is not biased by the knowledge that experts may have about the problem, but it is completely based on the available data. The system is based on a recently defined variant of genetic programming that allows practitioners to include the concept of semantics in the search process. This will have beneficial effects on the search process and will produce analytical models that are based only on the data and not on domain-dependent knowledge.

  9. Ornithine decarboxylase activity in rat organs and tissues under artificial hypobiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksyonova, G E; Logvinovich, O S; Fialkovskaya, L A; Afanasyev, V N; Ignat'ev, D A; Kolomiytseva, I K

    2010-09-01

    The influence of hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17) activities in rat organs and tissues and also on the thymocyte distribution throughout the cell cycle stages was studied. The state of artificial hypobiosis in rats on decrease in the body temperature to 14.4-18.0°C during 3.0-3.5 h was accompanied by drops in the ODC activities in the neocortex and liver by 50-60% and in rapidly proliferating tissues (thymus, spleen, and small intestine mucosa) by 80% of the control value. In kidneys the ODC activity raised to 200% of the control level. Twenty-four hours after termination of the cooling and replacing the rats under the standard conditions, the ODC activities in the neocortex, liver, kidneys, spleen, and intestinal mucosa returned to the control values, but remained decreased in the thymus. Forty-eight hours later the ODC activities in the thymus and spleen exceeded the normal level. The distribution of thymocytes throughout the cell cycle stages did not change in rats in the state of hypothermia (hypobiosis); 24 and 48 h after termination of the cooling the fraction of thymocytes in the S stage was decreased and the fraction of the cells in the G(0)+G(1) stage was increased. The normal distribution of thymocytes throughout the cell cycle stages recovered in 72 h. Thus, in the thymus the diminution of the ODC activity preceded the suppression of the cell proliferation rate. The tissue-specific changes in the ODC activity are suggested to reflect adaptive changes in the functional and proliferative activities of organs and tissues during the development of hypobiosis under conditions of hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia.

  10. From bioseparation to artificial micro-organs: microfluidic chip based particle manipulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Microfluidic device technology provides unique physical phenomena which are not available in the macroscopic world. These may be exploited towards a diverse array of applications in biotechnology and biomedicine ranging from bioseparation of particulate samples to the assembly of cells into structures that resemble the smallest functional unit of an organ. In this paper a general overview of chip-based particle manipulation and separation is given. In the state of the art electric, magnetic, optical and gravitational field effects are utilized. Also, mechanical obstacles often in combination with force fields and laminar flow are employed to achieve separation of particles or molecules. In addition, three applications based on dielectrophoretic forces for particle manipulation in microfluidic systems are discussed in more detail. Firstly, a virus assay is demonstrated. There, antibody-loaded microbeads are used to bind virus particles from a sample and subsequently are accumulated to form a pico-liter sized aggregate located at a predefined position in the chip thus enabling highly sensitive fluorescence detection. Secondly, subcellular fractionation of mitochondria from cell homogenate yields pure samples as was demonstrated by Western Blot and 2D PAGE analysis. Robust long-term operation with complex cell homogenate samples while avoiding electrode fouling is achieved by a set of dedicated technical means. Finally, a chip intended for the dielectrophoretic assembly of hepatocytes and endothelial cells into a structure resembling a liver sinusoid is presented. Such "artificial micro organs" are envisioned as substance screening test systems providing significantly higher predictability with respect to the in vivo response towards a substance under test.

  11. Thermodynamic Optimization of a Geothermal- Based Organic Rankine Cycle System Using an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Özkaraca

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a renewable form of energy, however due to misuse, processing and management issues, it is necessary to use the resource more efficiently. To increase energy efficiency, energy systems engineers carry out careful energy control studies and offer alternative solutions. With this aim, this study was conducted to improve the performance of a real operating air-cooled organic Rankine cycle binary geothermal power plant (GPP and its components in the aspects of thermodynamic modeling, exergy analysis and optimization processes. In-depth information is obtained about the exergy (maximum work a system can make, exergy losses and destruction at the power plant and its components. Thus the performance of the power plant may be predicted with reasonable accuracy and better understanding is gained for the physical process to be used in improving the performance of the power plant. The results of the exergy analysis show that total exergy production rate and exergy efficiency of the GPP are 21 MW and 14.52%, respectively, after removing parasitic loads. The highest amount of exergy destruction occurs, respectively, in condenser 2, vaporizer HH2, condenser 1, pumps 1 and 2 as components requiring priority performance improvement. To maximize the system exergy efficiency, the artificial bee colony (ABC is applied to the model that simulates the actual GPP. Under all the optimization conditions, the maximum exergy efficiency for the GPP and its components is obtained. Two of these conditions such as Case 4 related to the turbine and Case 12 related to the condenser have the best performance. As a result, the ABC optimization method provides better quality information than exergy analysis. Based on the guidance of this study, the performance of power plants based on geothermal energy and other energy resources may be improved.

  12. A reactive barrier to enhance the removal of emerging organic compounds during artificial recharge of aquifers through infiltration basins

    OpenAIRE

    Valhondo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers through infiltration basins (AR) improves water quality and in- creases groundwater resources, which make of it an appropriate technique for the renaturalization of waters affected directly or indirectly by wastewater effluents. Emerging organic compounds (EOCs), typically present in such waters, are mainly reduced during AR by sorption and biotrans- formation. We installed a reactive barrier in an infiltration basin (5000 m2) to enhance the removal of EOCs ...

  13. ANIMALES TRANSGÉNICOS COMO ORGANISMOS ARTIFICIALES ANIMAIS TRANSGÊNICOS COMO ORGANISMOS ARTIFICIAIS TRANSGENIC ANIMALS AS ARTIFICIAL ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bota Arqué

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La modificación genética de organismos vivos ha generado interrogantes éticos de difícil solución. La búsqueda de marcos conceptuales lleva a plantear si ha habido una modificación del estatuto ontológico de los organismos alterados por la biotecnología. Este artículo realiza una aproximación al organismo biotecnológico a partir del pensamiento de los filósofos José Ortega y Gasset y Xavier Zubiri acerca del hombre y de la técnica, conceptualizando el objeto artificial biotecnológico como "organismo artificial", con la particularidad de ser el primer objeto producido por el hombre que se reproduce independientementeA modificação genética de organismos vivos gerou interrogativos éticos de difícil solução. A busca de marcos conceituais leva a questionar se ocorreu uma modificação do estatuto ontológico dos organismos modificados pela biotecnologia. Este artigo realiza uma aproximação ao organismo biotecnológico a partir do pensamento dos filósofos José Ortega y Gasset e Xavier Zubiri a respeito do homem e da técnica. Conceptualiza o objeto artificial biotecnológico como um "organismo artificial", com a particularidade de ser o primeiro objeto produzido pelo homem que se reproduz independentementeThe possibility of genetic modification of living organisms has generated ethical questions of difficult solution. The searching for conceptual frames has put into question whether the ontological status of organisms altered by biotechnology has been changed. This paper approaches the biotechnological organism following the thinking of philosophers Ortega y Gasset and Xavier Zubiri, based on their view on anthropology and technology conceptualizing the biotechnological artificial object as an "artificial organism" with the particularity that it is the first object produced by human beings which reproduces independently

  14. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (p0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of language

  16. Planar Cell Polarity Breaks the Symmetry of PAR Protein Distribution prior to Mitosis in Drosophila Sensory Organ Precursor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Charlotte; Bernard, Fred; Corson, Francis; Rouault, Hervé; Reynaud, Elodie; Keder, Alyona; Mazouni, Khalil; Schweisguth, François

    2015-04-20

    During development, cell-fate diversity can result from the unequal segregation of fate determinants at mitosis. Polarization of the mother cell is essential for asymmetric cell division (ACD). It often involves the formation of a cortical domain containing the PAR complex proteins Par3, Par6, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). In the fly notum, sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs) divide asymmetrically within the plane of the epithelium and along the body axis to generate two distinct cells. Fate asymmetry depends on the asymmetric localization of the PAR complex. In the absence of planar cell polarity (PCP), SOPs divide with a random planar orientation but still asymmetrically, showing that PCP is dispensable for PAR asymmetry at mitosis. To study when and how the PAR complex localizes asymmetrically, we have used a quantitative imaging approach to measure the planar polarization of the proteins Bazooka (Baz, fly Par3), Par6, and aPKC in living pupae. By using imaging of functional GFP-tagged proteins with image processing and computational modeling, we find that Baz, Par6, and aPKC become planar polarized prior to mitosis in a manner independent of the AuroraA kinase and that PCP is required for the planar polarization of Baz, Par6, and aPKC during interphase. This indicates that a "mitosis rescue" mechanism establishes asymmetry at mitosis in PCP mutants. This study therefore identifies PCP as the initial symmetry-breaking signal for the planar polarization of PAR proteins in asymmetrically dividing SOPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Willem J Kolff (1911-2009): physician, inventor and pioneer: father of artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Megan

    2012-08-01

    Medical pioneer Willem Johan Kolff was an inspirational father, son, physician and inventor. He founded the development of the first kidney dialysis machine, pioneered advances in the heart and lung machine, laid down the foundations for the first mainland blood bank in Europe and successfully implanted the first artificial heart into humans.

  18. Modification of the radioprotective effect of hypoxic hypoxia by the artificial hibernation of the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovakimov, V.G.; Yarmonenko, S.P.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehksperimental'noj i Klinicheskoj Onkologii)

    1975-01-01

    A significant weakening of the radioprotective effect of hypoxic hypoxia has been noted in the hibernated mice the resistance of which to acute oxygen deficiency is artificially hibernated (hypothermia under conditions of neuroplegia). The dose decrease factor is about 1.27 and 2.5 for hibernated and nonhibernated animals, respectively

  19. Spatial imagery relies on a sensory independent, though sensory sensitive, functional organization within the parietal cortex: a fMRI study of angle discrimination in sighted and congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bernardi, Giulio; Sani, Lorenzo; Gentili, Claudio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Although vision offers distinctive information to space representation, individuals who lack vision since birth often show perceptual and representational skills comparable to those found in sighted individuals. However, congenitally blind individuals may result in impaired spatial analysis, when engaging in 'visual' spatial features (e.g., perspective or angle representation) or complex spatial mental abilities. In the present study, we measured behavioral and brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals during spatial imagery based on a modified version of the mental clock task (e.g., angle discrimination) and a simple recognition control condition, as conveyed across distinct sensory modalities: visual (sighted individuals only), tactile and auditory. Blind individuals were significantly less accurate during the auditory task, but comparable-to-sighted during the tactile task. As expected, both groups showed common neural activations in intraparietal and superior parietal regions across visual and non-visual spatial perception and imagery conditions, indicating the more abstract, sensory independent functional organization of these cortical areas, a property that we named supramodality. At the same time, however, comparisons in brain responses and functional connectivity patterns across experimental conditions demonstrated also a functional lateralization, in a way that correlated with the distinct behavioral performance in blind and sighted individuals. Specifically, blind individuals relied more on right parietal regions, mainly in the tactile and less in the auditory spatial processing. In sighted, spatial representation across modalities relied more on left parietal regions. In conclusions, intraparietal and superior parietal regions subserve supramodal spatial representations in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Differences in their recruitment across non-visual spatial processing in

  20. Artificial Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Optogenetic and Thermogenetic Activation of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Octopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    The larval brain of Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent system for the study of the neurocircuitry mechanism of memory. Recent development of neurogenetic techniques in fruit flies enables manipulations of neuronal activities in freely behaving animals. This protocol describes detailed steps for artificial induction of olfactory associative memory in Drosophila larvae. In this protocol, the natural reward signal is substituted by thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons in the brain. In parallel, the odor signal is substituted by optogenetic activation of a specific class of olfactory receptor neurons. Association of reward and odor stimuli is achieved with the concomitant application of blue light and heat that leads to activation of both sets of neurons in living transgenic larvae. Given its operational simplicity and robustness, this method could be utilized to further our knowledge on the neurocircuitry mechanism of memory in the fly brain.

  1. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  2. Fate of selected pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds during artificial aquifer recharge using surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Rosell, Mònica; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2010-05-01

    The artificial recharge of aquifers has become a valuable tool to increase water resources for drinking water production in many countries. In this work a total of 41 organic pollutants belonging to the classes of pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been monitored in the water from two artificial recharge plants located in Sweden and Denmark. The results from two sampling campaigns performed in each plant indicate good chemical status of the source water, as the contaminants detected were present at very low levels, far from those established in the legislation as maximum admissible concentrations (when existing) and far from those considered as a risk. Thus, of the 17 pesticides investigated, BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide), desethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, terbuthylazine, diuron, metolachlor, and diazinon were the only compounds detected, and total pesticides levels were below 25ng L(-1), respectively. Estrone-3-sulfate was the only estrogen detected, at concentrations lower than 0.5ng L(-1). Progestogens were not found in any sample. Detected VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were below 0.04microg L(-1). The efficiency of elimination of these organic contaminants was poor as no significant decrease in their concentrations was observed through the recharge process.

  3. Artificial maturation of an immature sulfur- and organic matter-rich limestone from the Ghareb Formation, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Damste, J.S.S.

    1998-01-01

    An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (S(org)/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt. % TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220 ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.An immature (Ro = 0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The

  4. The neural response properties and cortical organization of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with the frequencies that elicit the kinesthetic illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Paul D; Bourbeau, Dennis J; Shell, Courtney E; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Ina, Jason G

    2017-01-01

    Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion). This group was characteristically distinct from type Ia muscle spindle fibers, the receptor historically attributed to limb movement sensation, suggesting that type Ia muscle spindle fibers may not be the sole carrier of kinesthetic information. The sensory-neural structure of muscles is complex and there are a number of possible sources for this response group; with Golgi tendon organs being the most likely candidate. The rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response projected to proprioceptive brain regions, the rodent homolog of cortical area 3a and the second somatosensory area (S2), with similar adaption and frequency response profiles between the brain and peripheral nerves. Their representational organization was muscle-specific (myocentric) and magnified for proximal and multi-articulate limb joints. Projection to proprioceptive brain areas, myocentric representational magnification of muscles prone to movement error, overlap with illusionary vibrational input, and resonant frequencies of volitional motor unit contraction suggest that this group response may be involved with limb movement processing.

  5. The neural response properties and cortical organization of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with the frequencies that elicit the kinesthetic illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Marasco

    Full Text Available Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion. This group was characteristically distinct from type Ia muscle spindle fibers, the receptor historically attributed to limb movement sensation, suggesting that type Ia muscle spindle fibers may not be the sole carrier of kinesthetic information. The sensory-neural structure of muscles is complex and there are a number of possible sources for this response group; with Golgi tendon organs being the most likely candidate. The rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response projected to proprioceptive brain regions, the rodent homolog of cortical area 3a and the second somatosensory area (S2, with similar adaption and frequency response profiles between the brain and peripheral nerves. Their representational organization was muscle-specific (myocentric and magnified for proximal and multi-articulate limb joints. Projection to proprioceptive brain areas, myocentric representational magnification of muscles prone to movement error, overlap with illusionary vibrational input, and resonant frequencies of volitional motor unit contraction suggest that this group response may be involved with limb movement processing.

  6. Estimation of biotransformation and sorption of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) during artificial recharge through a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, C.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Hidalgo, J. J.; Ayora, C.

    2016-12-01

    The reuse of lesser quality water such as effluents from wastewater treatment plants or effluent-receiving water bodies has been promoted due to the water shortages affecting many regions of the world. Artificial recharge through infiltration basins is known to improve several water quality parameters including the attenuation of emerging organic compounds (EOCs). Many of these contaminants exhibit redox dependent biotransformation because the redox state is one of the factors controlling microbial community development. Together with biotransformation, sorption also affects the behavior of EOCs in their passage through the soil. We studied EOCs attenuation in an infiltration system is located in Sant Vicenç dells Horts on the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain), where the local water agency has an artificial recharge pilot project . The Llobregat river water used for the artificial recharge is affected by treatment plant effluents which contain EOCs. A reactive barrier consisting of vegetable compost, clay, and iron oxide was installed in the bottom of the infiltration basin to enhance biotransformation and sorption of EOCs. The barrier releases dissolved organic carbon, which favors the development of a broad range of redox environments, and supplies neutral, cationic, and anionic surfaces to favor sorption of different types of contaminants. Results were excellent, but quantitative evaluation of the EOCs attenuation requires knowledge of the residence time distribution of infiltrated water. A tracer test was performed by adding tracers to the infiltration water and interpreting the breakthrough curves at diverse monitoring points with a 2D multilayer numerical model. The calibrated model quantify degradation, as a first order law, and sorption through a linear distribution coefficient for ten selected EOCs. Results indicate higher degradation rates and sorption coefficients in the reactive barrier than in the rest of the aquifer for nine and eight of the ten

  7. The complementarity of the technical tools of tissue engineering and the concepts of artificial organs for the design of functional bioartificial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenas, Petros; Moreno, Angel; Ikonomou, Laertis; Mayer, Joerg; Honda, Hiroyuki; Novellino, Antonio; Pizarro, Camilo; Nicodemou-Lena, Eleni; Rodergas, Silvia; Pintor, Jesus

    2008-09-01

    Although tissue engineering uses powerful biological tools, it still has a weak conceptual foundation, which is restricted at the cell level. The design criteria at the cell level are not directly related with the tissue functions, and consequently, such functions cannot be implemented in bioartificial tissues with the currently used methods. On the contrary, the field of artificial organs focuses on the function of the artificial organs that are treated in the design as integral entities, instead of the optimization of the artificial organ components. The field of artificial organs has already developed and tested methodologies that are based on system concepts and mathematical-computational methods that connect the component properties with the desired global organ function. Such methodologies are needed in tissue engineering for the design of bioartificial tissues with tissue functions. Under the framework of biomedical engineering, artificial organs and tissue engineering do not present competitive approaches, but are rather complementary and should therefore design a common future for the benefit of patients.

  8. Product perception from sensory stimuli: the case of vacuum cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúciar R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of consideration of different sensory stimuli in the perception of the product. So we conducted an experiment that examined whether there is a difference between the perception of sensory stimuli from artificially isolated. The result is an analysis of the different sensory modalities, relating them to product an between them.

  9. Effects of artificial disturbance on quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter in sediments of a coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenzi M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The eutrophication of the coastal lagoon of Burano (Tuscany, Italy produces periodic toxic-anoxic events. The possibility of mitigating eutrophication of a lagoon by resuspension of sediment was tested in a three-year field experiment conducted in 2008–2009. An unreplicated before-after control-impact (BACI study design was used to ascertain variations in the quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter in sediment artificially disturbed by a specially equipped boat. In October 2008, before beginning disturbance, January 2009, half way through the disturbance period, and May 2009, at the end of disturbance, sediment was sampled in a disturbed area and an undisturbed control area to determine chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, phaeopigments (PHAE, proteins (PRT, carbohydrates (CHO, lipids (LIP, labile organic matter (LOM, refractory organic matter (ROM, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN. The disturbed area, measuring 44 ha, was divided into nine subareas, eight of which were subjected to four different frequencies of disturbance (from 2 to 5 in the period October 2008 – April 2009. Sediment was sampled in each sub-area in the three months mentioned above to determine labile and total organic matter. The results were processed by univariate and multivariate analysis using Primer 6.0, Permanova  +  and Prism 5.0 software. The findings were as follows: (1 a large proportion of the biopolymeric carbon consisted of labile matter throughout the lagoon; (2 higher abatement of labile organic matter was recorded in the disturbed area; (3 a lower protein:carbohydrate ratio was found in the disturbed than in the undisturbed area; (4 the C:N ratio of sediment was much lower in the undisturbed area than in the disturbed area at the end of the study period; (5 sediment and macroalgal C:N ratios did not significantly change in response to disturbance; (6 initial accumulation of organic matter from phytoplankton was greater in the disturbed

  10. Simulation Techniques and Prosthetic Approach Towards Biologically Efficient Artificial Sense Organs- An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Neogi, Biswarup; Ghosal, Soumya; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Das, Achintya; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the applications of control theory to prosthetic sense organs including the senses of vision, taste and odor is being presented in this paper. Simulation aspect nowadays has been the centre of research in the field of prosthesis. There have been various successful applications of prosthetic organs, in case of natural biological organs dis-functioning patients. Simulation aspects and control modeling are indispensible for knowing system performance, and to generate an original a...

  11. Collagen-chitosan-glycerol bio-composite as artificial tympanic membrane for ruptured inner ear organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Setya Angtika, Rara; Githanadi, Brillyana; Hanif Kharisma, Ditya; Asyraf, Tarikh Omar; Wardani, Adita

    2017-05-01

    WHO data in 2012 shows that 5.3% of world population highly suffers from hearing loss and deafness. One of the deafness causes is rupture of tympanic membrane. Tympanic membrane damage which occurs often is perforated tympanic membrane, and it is also commonly known in medical term as tympanic membrane perforation. The causes, for instance, are high frequency of using earphones, traumatic accidents, noise, bacteria, viruses, and infectious microorganism. Tympanoplasty becomes the only treatment that can be widely accepted despite of deficiencies in postoperative complications. Therefore, this research aims to create artificial tympanic membrane made of natural materials such as type I collagen composited with chitosan and made of addition of glycerol to improve its mechanical strength and biodegradability. The method included the process of dissolving acetic acid in distilled water and mixation with chitosan. The solution is next added with glycerol and stirred to be homogeneous. After that, it was minted in petri dish and aerated before characterized. The sample characterization included tensile strength of which tensile test results showed that the value of the elasticity modulus tended to decrease with an increase in collagen concentration. The elasticity modulus values in a row for the variations of 7: 3, 8: 2, and 9: 1 were 35.10 MPa, 54,52MPa, and 47,45MPa respectively. The morphological test with 1000x, 2500x, and 5000x magnification showed their interaction in the formation of pores. Cytotoxicity results, moreover, showed that those samples were non-toxic and safe for the body due to the percentage of living cells. The sound absorption coefficient was between 1000 Hz - 2000 Hz which means that it could use as sound absorbing material. The antibacterial test results showed that all the sample variations were anti-bacterial due to the diameter of the clear zone. In conclusion, collagen and chitosan composite with addition of glycerol could be used for

  12. Studying Sensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  13. Social organization of a colony of bats Carollia brevicauda in artificial shelter, Bochalema, Norte de Santander, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, Arley O; Lizcano, Diego J

    2014-01-01

    We studied the social organization of a colony of the fruit bat Carollia brevicauda in an artificial shelter in Bochalema, Norte de Santander Colombia. Using a new type of marking and by focal sampling, one colony was observed from September 2007 to September 2008. It was determined that the social structure in the colony was integrated by four groups, which did not vary in structure over time. It was established that females were more faithful to the shelter than males. We assessed time budget dayly and there was that individual's hadx a 73.9 % time without any activity, followed by grooming with a 26.6 %, and females had higher activity than males, especially in dry season. We found that C. brevicauda has differences with records of C. perspicillata such as the fidelity of females and non-influence of lunar light over the hour of emergence from the refuge.

  14. Prediction of air-to-blood partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds using genetic algorithm and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoz, Elahe; Golmohammadi, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed and trained for the prediction of air-to-blood partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds. The inputs of this neural network are theoretically derived descriptors that were chosen by genetic algorithm (GA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) features selection techniques. These descriptors are: R maximal autocorrelation of lag 1 weighted by atomic Sanderson electronegativities (R1E+), electron density on the most negative atom in molecule (EDNA), maximum partial charge for C atom (MXPCC), surface weighted charge partial surface area (WNSA1), fractional charge partial surface area (FNSA2) and atomic charge weighted partial positive surface area (PPSA3). The standard errors of training, test and validation sets for the ANN model are 0.095, 0.148 and 0.120, respectively. Result obtained showed that nonlinear model can simulate the relationship between structural descriptors and the partition coefficients of the molecules in data set accurately

  15. Air oxidation and biodegradation of the organic matter from the Boom Claycomparison between artificial and natural altered series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchart, Pascale; Faure, Pierre; Michels, Raymond; Bruggeman, Christophe; De Craen, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Boom Clay formation (Belgium) is studied as the reference host rock for methodological studies on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The drilling of galleries in the Boom Clay at Mol lead to the perturbation of the initial physical and chemical conditions. Since organic matter is present in this argillaceous formation, it is important to know its response to these new conditions. The Boom Clay is of Tertiary age (Rupelian) and has a TOC content up to 5%. Its pore water (20% in mass of rock) contains significant quantities of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) with a mean concentration of 115+/-15 mg/L, determined on the basis of piezometer water as well as squeezing and leaching experiments. Yet, in piezometers, the DOC may show considerable and irregular variations through time, with values ranging between 80 and 425 mg/L. The origin and bio-physico-chemical controls of such variations are yet unknown. Perturbation of the in-situ conditions of the clay is a possible reason for such observation. More likely the introduction of air as well as micro-organisms may have an impact that needs to be estimated. Well-preserved, freshly-drilled Boom Clay samples, as well as samples of different degrees of alteration (air exposed clay from the older galleries) were collected with the aim of determining and quantifying different molecular markers representative for the alteration degree. Additionally, increasing artificial air oxidation experiments were carried out on fresh Praclay samples (sampled during the PRACLAY gallery excavation) in order to obtain an altered reference series. Moreover PRACLAY samples previously extracted with an organic solvent (dichloromethane) were also prepared in order to identify the influence of the kerogen during oxidation. In these experiments, powdered clay was heated at 80 deg. C under air flow during 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 months. Organic matter composition

  16. Estimation of organ motion for gated PET imaging in small animal using artificial tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang Keun; Yu, Jung Woo; Lee, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The image quality is lowered by reducing of contrast and signal due to breathing and heart motion when acquire Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image of small animal tumor. Therefore motion correction is required for betterment of quantitative estimation of tumor. The gated PET using external monitoring device is commonly used for motion correction. But that method has limitation by reason of detection from the outside. Therefore, we had devised the in-vivo motion assessment. In-vivo motion has been demonstrated in lung, liver and abdomen region of rats by coated molecular sieve. In PET image analysis, count and SNR were drawn in the target region. The motion compensation PET image for optimal gate number was confirmed by FWHM. Artificial motion evaluation of tumor using molecular sieve suggests possibility of motion correction modeling without external monitoring devices because it estimates real internal motion of lung, liver, and abdomen. The purpose of this study was to assess the optimal gates number for each region and to improve quantitative estimation of tumor

  17. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N.

  18. Gel-trapped lymphorganogenic chemokines trigger artificial tertiary lymphoid organs and mount adaptive immune responses in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Watanabe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer- (LTo stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies including immune-senescence during aging.

  19. Behavior of nine selected emerging trace organic contaminants in an artificial recharge system supplemented with a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Barbieri, Manuela; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Huerta, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Artificial recharge improves several water quality parameters, but has only minor effects on recalcitrant pollutants. To improve the removal of these pollutants, we added a reactive barrier at the bottom of an infiltration basin. This barrier contained aquifer sand, vegetable compost, and clay and was covered with iron oxide dust. The goal of the compost was to sorb neutral compounds and release dissolved organic carbon. The release of dissolved organic carbon should generate a broad range of redox conditions to promote the transformation of emerging trace organic contaminants (EOCs). Iron oxides and clay increase the range of sorption site types. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of this barrier by analyzing the fate of nine EOCs. Water quality was monitored before and after constructing the reactive barrier. Installation of the reactive barrier led to nitrate-, iron-, and manganese-reducing conditions in the unsaturated zone below the basin and within the first few meters of the saturated zone. Thus, the behavior of most EOCs changed after installing the reactive barrier. The reactive barrier enhanced the removal of some EOCs, either markedly (sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, benzoylecgonine) or slightly (trimethoprim) and decreased the removal rates of compounds that are easily degradable under aerobic conditions (ibuprofen, paracetamol). The barrier had no remarkable effect on 1H-benzotriazole and tolyltriazole.

  20. Gel-Trapped Lymphorganogenic Chemokines Trigger Artificial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs and Mount Adaptive Immune Responses In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs) in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases, including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies, including immune-senescence during aging.

  1. Prediction of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids by artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nami, Faezeh [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin-Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Deyhimi, Farzad, E-mail: f-deyhimi@sbu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin-Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    To our knowledge, this work illustrates for the first time the ability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids (ILs). Activity coefficient at infinite dilution ({gamma}{sup {infinity}}) is a useful parameter which can be used for the selection of effective solvent in the separation processes. Using a multi-layer feed-forward network with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm, the resulting ANN model generated activity coefficient at infinite dilution data over a temperature range of 298 to 363 K. The unavailable input data concerning softness (S) of organic compounds (solutes) and dipole moment ({mu}) of ionic liquids were calculated using GAMESS suites of quantum chemistry programs. The resulting ANN model and its validation are based on the investigation of up to 24 structurally different organic compounds (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and alcohols) in 16 common imidazolium-based ionic liquids, at different temperatures within the range of 298 to 363 K (i.e. a total number of 914 {gamma}{sub Solute}{sup {infinity}}for each IL data point). The results show a satisfactory agreement between the predicted ANN and experimental data, where, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the determination coefficient (R{sup 2}) of the designed neural network were found to be 0.103, 0.996 for training data and 0.128, 0.994 for testing data, respectively.

  2. Prediction of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids by artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, Faezeh; Deyhimi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    To our knowledge, this work illustrates for the first time the ability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids (ILs). Activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ ∞ ) is a useful parameter which can be used for the selection of effective solvent in the separation processes. Using a multi-layer feed-forward network with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm, the resulting ANN model generated activity coefficient at infinite dilution data over a temperature range of 298 to 363 K. The unavailable input data concerning softness (S) of organic compounds (solutes) and dipole moment (μ) of ionic liquids were calculated using GAMESS suites of quantum chemistry programs. The resulting ANN model and its validation are based on the investigation of up to 24 structurally different organic compounds (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and alcohols) in 16 common imidazolium-based ionic liquids, at different temperatures within the range of 298 to 363 K (i.e. a total number of 914 γ Solute ∞ for each IL data point). The results show a satisfactory agreement between the predicted ANN and experimental data, where, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the determination coefficient (R 2 ) of the designed neural network were found to be 0.103, 0.996 for training data and 0.128, 0.994 for testing data, respectively.

  3. Fumed silica nanoparticle mediated biomimicry for optimal cell-material interactions for artificial organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mel, Achala; Ramesh, Bala; Scurr, David J; Alexander, Morgan R; Hamilton, George; Birchall, Martin; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-03-01

    Replacement of irreversibly damaged organs due to chronic disease, with suitable tissue engineered implants is now a familiar area of interest to clinicians and multidisciplinary scientists. Ideal tissue engineering approaches require scaffolds to be tailor made to mimic physiological environments of interest with specific surface topographical and biological properties for optimal cell-material interactions. This study demonstrates a single-step procedure for inducing biomimicry in a novel nanocomposite base material scaffold, to re-create the extracellular matrix, which is required for stem cell integration and differentiation to mature cells. Fumed silica nanoparticle mediated procedure of scaffold functionalization, can be potentially adapted with multiple bioactive molecules to induce cellular biomimicry, in the development human organs. The proposed nanocomposite materials already in patients for number of implants, including world first synthetic trachea, tear ducts and vascular bypass graft. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Organic micropollutant removal from wastewater effluent-impacted drinking water sources during bank filtration and artificial recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2010-07-01

    Natural treatment systems such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (via an infiltration basin) are a robust barrier for many organic micropollutants (OMPs) and may represent a low-cost alternative compared to advanced drinking water treatment systems. This study analyzes a comprehensive database of OMPs at BF and artificial recharge (AR) sites located near Lake Tegel in Berlin (Germany). The focus of the study was on the derivation of correlations between the removal efficiencies of OMPs and key factors influencing the performance of BF and AR. At the BF site, shallow monitoring wells located close to the Lake Tegel source exhibited oxic conditions followed by prolonged anoxic conditions in deep monitoring wells and a production well. At the AR site, oxic conditions prevailed from the recharge pond along monitoring wells to the production well. Long residence times of up to 4.5 months at the BF site reduced the temperature variation during soil passage between summer and winter. The temperature variations were greater at the AR site as a consequence of shorter residence times. Deep monitoring wells and the production well located at the BF site were under the influence of ambient groundwater and old bank filtrate (up to several years of age). Thus, it is important to account for mixing with native groundwater and other sources (e.g., old bank filtrate) when estimating the performance of BF with respect to removal of OMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate correlations between OMP removals and hydrogeochemical conditions with spatial and temporal parameters (e.g., well distance, residence time and depth) from both sites. Principal component-1 (PC1) embodied redox conditions (oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen), and principal component-2 (PC2) embodied degradation potential (e.g., total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon) with the calcium carbonate dissolution potential (Ca2+ and HCO3 -) for the BF site

  5. Adsorptive Removal of Artificial Sweeteners from Water Using Metal-Organic Frameworks Functionalized with Urea or Melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Pill Won; Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Hasan, Zubair; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-11-02

    A highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101, was modified to introduce urea or melamine via grafting on open metal sites of the MOF. Adsorptive removal of three artificial sweeteners (ASWs) was studied using the MOFs, with or without modifications (including nitration), and activated carbon (AC). The adsorbed quantities (based on the weight of the adsorbent) of saccharin (SAC) under various conditions decreased in the order urea-MIL-101 > melamine-MIL-101 > MIL-101 > AC > O 2 N-MIL-101; however, the quantities based on unit surface area are in the order melamine-MIL-101 > urea-MIL-101 > MIL-101 > O 2 N-MIL-101. Similar ASWs [acesulfame (ACE) and cyclamate (CYC)] showed the same tendency. The mechanism for very favorable adsorption of SAC, ACE, and CYC over urea- and melamine-MIL-101 could be explained by H-bonding on the basis of the contents of -NH 2 groups on the MOFs and the adsorption results under a wide range of pH values. Moreover, the direction of H-bonding could be clearly defined (H acceptor: ASWs; H donor: MOFs). Urea-MIL-101 and melamine-MIL-101 could be suggested as competitive adsorbents for organic contaminants (such as ASWs) with electronegative atoms, considering their high adsorption capacity (for example, urea-MIL-101 had 2.3 times the SAC adsorption of AC) and ready regeneration.

  6. Organization model for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks inspired in Artificial Bee Colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julio de Mesquita Filho, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Sao Paulo State Univerity Julio de Mesquita Filho, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil))" >Roberto, Guilherme Freire; Julio de Mesquita Filho, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Sao Paulo State Univerity Julio de Mesquita Filho, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil))" >Neves, Leandro Alves; Maschi, Luis Fernando Castilho; Pigatto, Daniel Fernando; Branco, Kalinka Regina Lucas Jaquie Castelo; Montez, Carlos; Pinto, Alex Sandro Roschildt

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find a self-organizing model for MWSN based on bee colonies in order to reduce the number of messages transmitted among nodes, and thus reduce the overall consumption energy while maintaining the efficiency of message delivery. The results obtained in this article are originated from simulations carried out with SINALGO software, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The BeeAODV (Bee Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector) proposed in this paper allows to considerably reduce message exchanges whether compared to AODV (Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector)

  7. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer?s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively require...

  8. "Artificial micro organs"--a microfluidic device for dielectrophoretic assembly of liver sinusoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Julia; Hagmeyer, Britta; Holzner, Felix; Kubon, Massimo; Werner, Simon; Freudigmann, Christian; Benz, Karin; Böttger, Jan; Gebhardt, Rolf; Becker, Holger; Stelzle, Martin

    2011-06-01

    In order to study possible toxic side effects of potential drug compounds in vitro a reliable test system is needed. Predicting liver toxicity presents a major challenge of particular importance as liver cells grown in a cell culture suffer from a rapid loss of their liver specific functions. Therefore we are developing a new microfluidic test system for liver toxicity. This test system is based on an organ-like liver 3D co-culture of hepatocytes and endothelial cells. We devised a microfluidic chip featuring cell culture chambers with integrated electrodes for the assembly of liver sinusoids by dielectrophoresis. Fluid channels enable an organ-like perfusion with culture media and test compounds. Different chamber designs were studied and optimized with regard to dielectrophoretic force distribution, hydrodynamic flow profile, and cell trapping rate using numeric simulations. Based on simulation results a microchip was injection-moulded from COP. This chip allowed the assembly of viable hepatocytes and endothelial cells in a sinusoid-like fashion.

  9. Distribution of Artificial Radioisotopes in Granulometric and Organic Fractions of Alluvial Soils Downstream the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobova, Elena M.; Linnik, Vitaly G. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, 117991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brown, Justin E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    A study of some artificial radionuclides discharged by the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) in different granulometric and organic fractions of alluvial soils was performed in the near and remote impact zones of the enterprise. Radionuclides were shown to concentrate in fine fractions enriched in hydro-mica and smectites. However in natural conditions the dominating size fraction associated with radionuclide accumulation at the study sites appeared to be made up of silt (0.010 mm) to clay (0.001 mm) sizes. Therefore due to radionuclide sorption and natural aggregation the peaks of a relatively high radionuclide mass accumulation were associated with three granulometric fractions: <0.001 mm, 0.063-0.010 mm and 0.25-0.125 mm. Soil granulometry was shown to reflect specificity of sedimentation at different landscape positions downstream from the KMCC. At the Balchug site a coarser fraction was accumulated close to the channel while finer fractions are deposited at a higher level. The portion of the clay fraction corresponded to the elevation level increasing from the river bank to the terrace. At the Mikhin Island the tendency was different. A coarser fraction was deposited on higher levels while the portion of clay fraction was at a minimum compared to the lower levels. To study the relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations and organic matter content, selected soil samples were subjected to extraction of the humic and fulvic acid fractions with a subsequent determination of radionuclides in the separated phases and the residue component. The air-dry sample was saturated with 0.1 M NaOH, humic acid was precipitated by 1 M HCl at pH=1. The separation resulted in three fractions of the fulvic acids, humic acids, and the residue containing the denuded mineral phase and the refractory organic residue. Radionuclides measured in the first fraction were believed to be the most mobile, those in the second fraction - subjected to the complexation

  10. The bicentennial of the Voltaic battery (1800-2000): the artificial electric organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolino, M

    2000-04-01

    Alessandro Volta invented the electric battery at the end of 1799 and communicated his invention to the Royal Society of London in 1800. The studies that led him to develop this revolutionary device began in 1792, after Volta read the work of Luigi Galvani on the existence of an intrinsic electricity in living organisms. During these studies, Volta obtained a series of results of great physiological relevance, which led him to anticipate some important ideas that marked the inception of modern neuroscience. These results have been obscured by a cultural tradition that has seen Volta exclusively as a physicist, lacking interest for biological problems and opposed in an irreversible way to the physiologist, Luigi Galvani.

  11. Defining the cellular environment in the organ of Corti following extensive hair cell loss: a basis for future sensory cell replacement in the Cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth R Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the loss of hair cells from the mammalian cochlea, the sensory epithelium repairs to close the lesions but no new hair cells arise and hearing impairment ensues. For any cell replacement strategy to be successful, the cellular environment of the injured tissue has to be able to nurture new hair cells. This study defines characteristics of the auditory sensory epithelium after hair cell loss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies were conducted in C57BL/6 and CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with an aminoglycoside-diuretic combination produced loss of all outer hair cells within 48 hours in both strains. The subsequent progressive tissue re-organisation was examined using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. There was no evidence of significant de-differentiation of the specialised columnar supporting cells. Kir4.1 was down regulated but KCC4, GLAST, microtubule bundles, connexin expression patterns and pathways of intercellular communication were retained. The columnar supporting cells became covered with non-specialised cells migrating from the outermost region of the organ of Corti. Eventually non-specialised, flat cells replaced the columnar epithelium. Flat epithelium developed in distributed patches interrupting regions of columnar epithelium formed of differentiated supporting cells. Formation of the flat epithelium was initiated within a few weeks post-treatment in C57BL/6 mice but not for several months in CBA/Ca's, suggesting genetic background influences the rate of re-organisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of dedifferentiation amongst supporting cells and their replacement by cells from the outer side of the organ of Corti are factors that may need to be considered in any attempt to promote endogenous hair cell regeneration. The variability of the cellular environment along an individual cochlea arising from patch-like generation of flat epithelium, and the possible variability between individuals

  12. Aggregation of montmorillonite and organic matter in aqueous media containing artificial seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jinwook

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dispersion-aggregation behaviors of suspended colloids in rivers and estuaries are affected by the compositions of suspended materials (i.e., clay minerals vs. organic macromolecules and salinity. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the dispersion and aggregation mechanisms of suspended particles under simulated river and estuarine conditions. The average hydrodynamic diameters of suspended particles (representing degree of aggregation and zeta potential (representing the electrokinetic properties of suspended colloids and aggregates were determined for systems containing suspended montmorillonite, humic acid, and/or chitin at the circumneutral pH over a range of salinity (0 – 7.2 psu. Results The montmorillonite-only system increased the degree of aggregation with salinity increase, as would be expected for suspended colloids whose dispersion-aggregation behavior is largely controlled by the surface electrostatic properties and van der Waals forces. When montmorillonite is combined with humic acid or chitin, the aggregation of montmorillonite was effectively inhibited. The surface interaction energy model calculations reveal that the steric repulsion, rather than the increase in electronegativity, is the primary cause for the inhibition of aggregation by the addition of humic acid or chitin. Conclusion These results help explain the range of dispersion-aggregation behaviors observed in natural river and estuarine systems. It is postulated that the composition of suspended particles, specifically the availability of steric polymers such as those contained in humic acid, determine whether the river suspension is rapidly aggregated and settled or remains dispersed in suspension when it encounters increasingly saline environments of estuaries and oceans.

  13. Classification and source determination of medium petroleum distillates by chemometric and artificial neural networks: a self organizing feature approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat-Desa, Wan N S; Ismail, Dzulkiflee; NicDaeid, Niamh

    2011-10-15

    Three different medium petroleum distillate (MPD) products (white spirit, paint brush cleaner, and lamp oil) were purchased from commercial stores in Glasgow, Scotland. Samples of 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 95% evaporated product were prepared, resulting in 56 samples in total which were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data sets from the chromatographic patterns were examined and preprocessed for unsupervised multivariate analyses using principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and a self organizing feature map (SOFM) artificial neural network. It was revealed that data sets comprised of higher boiling point hydrocarbon compounds provided a good means for the classification of the samples and successfully linked highly weathered samples back to their unevaporated counterpart in every case. The classification abilities of SOFM were further tested and validated for their predictive abilities where one set of weather data in each case was withdrawn from the sample set and used as a test set of the retrained network. This revealed SOFM to be an outstanding mechanism for sample discrimination and linkage over the more conventional PCA and HCA methods often suggested for such data analysis. SOFM also has the advantage of providing additional information through the evaluation of component planes facilitating the investigation of underlying variables that account for the classification. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Hybrid shell engineering of animal cells for immune protections and regulation of drug delivery: towards the design of "artificial organs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoy, Philippe; Meunier, Christophe F; Michiels, Carine; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-01-01

    With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8) to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes). The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the "de novo" biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin), substituting the declining organ functions of the patient.

  15. Hybrid shell engineering of animal cells for immune protections and regulation of drug delivery: towards the design of "artificial organs".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dandoy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8 to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes. The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the "de novo" biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin, substituting the declining organ functions of the patient.

  16. Impact of production location, production system, and variety on the volatile organic compounds fingerprints and sensory characteristics of tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muilwijk, Mirthe; Heenan, Samuel; Koot, Alex; Ruth, Van Saskia M.

    2015-01-01

    Consumers have more and more interest in where and how their foods are produced. However, it is often challenging to discriminate products from different production locations and systems. The objective of this study was to examine fingerprinting of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as an approach

  17. 20 years since the establishment of the BANTAO association (Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Nenov, Dimitar; Basci, Ali; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Tsakiris, Dimitris; Nesic, Vida; Schiller, Adalbert; Spasovski, Goce; Klinkmann, Horst; Vienken, Joerg; Falkenhagen, Dieter; Ivanovich, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (BANTAO) was born in Ohrid on October 9, 1993. The war in former Yugoslavia negatively affected the development of nephrology and also the connections among the nephrologists from the Balkans. However, there was willingness for further mutual collaboration between the nephrologists from the Balkans. The war in Yugoslavia created hate among people, between the newly established countries, and there were problems with the recognition of the names of the new countries, and so, the nephrologists decided to apply the ancient principle of using the names of the cities, instead of the countries, as the founders of the Association. The main goal of BANTAO is to promote scientific and technical cooperation in the fields of renal disease and artificial organs between the regions on the Balkan Peninsula and the world, to give an opportunity for exchange of experience and knowledge among the experts in the area and to engage in collaborative projects in order to demonstrate that cooperation is possible even on the turbulent Balkan Peninsula. The I BANTAO congress was held in Varna from September 22 to 24th, 1995 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The II congress of BANTAO was held from September 6th to 10th, 1997 in Struga, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The III BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade from September 18th to 20th, 1998 (President--Lj. Djukanović, Belgrade). The IV congress of BANTAO was held in Izmir from 14th to 16th November 1999 (President--A. Akcicek, Izmir). The V Congress of BANTAO was held in Thessaloniki from September 30th to October 3rd, 2001 (President--P. Stathakis, Athens). The VI Congress of BANTAO was held for the second time in Varna from 6th to 9th October 2003 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The VII congress of BANTAO was held from September 8th to 11th, 2005 in Ohrid, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The VIII BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade, 16

  18. Artificial graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial graphites are obtained by agglomeration of carbon powders with an organic binder, then by carbonisation at 1000 0 C and graphitization at 2800 0 C. After description of the processes and products, we show how the properties of the various materials lead to the various uses. Using graphite enables us to solve some problems, but it is not sufficient to satisfy all the need of the application. New carbonaceous material open application range. Finally, if some products are becoming obsolete, other ones are being developed in new applications [fr

  19. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  20. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  1. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  2. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  3. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  4. Organization of sensory input to the nociceptive-specific cutaneous trunk muscle reflex in rat, an effective experimental system for examining nociception and plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Barker, Darrell F.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Trainer, Robert; Fransen, James W.; Seidman, Peggy A.; Soto, Roy G.; Mendell, Lorne M.; Johnson, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Detailed characterization of neural circuitries furthers our understanding of how nervous systems perform specific functions and enables the use of those systems to test hypotheses. We have characterized the sensory input to the cutaneous trunk muscle (CTM; also cutaneus trunci (rat) or cutaneus maximus (mouse)) reflex (CTMR), which manifests as a puckering of the dorsal thoracolumbar skin and is selectively driven by noxious stimuli. CTM electromyography (EMG) and neurogram recordings in naïve rats revealed that CTMR responses were elicited by natural stimuli and electrical stimulation of all segments from C4 to L6, a much greater extent of segmental drive to the CTMR than previously described. Stimulation of some subcutaneous paraspinal tissue can also elicit this reflex. Using a selective neurotoxin, we also demonstrate differential drive of the CTMR by trkA-expressing and non-expressing small diameter afferents. These observations highlight aspects of the organization of the CTMR system which make it attractive for studies of nociception and anesthesiology and plasticity of primary afferents, motoneurons, and the propriospinal system. We use the CTMR system to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate that experimental pharmacological treatments can be compared to controls applied either to the contralateral side or to another segment, with the remaining segments providing controls for systemic or other treatment effects. These data indicate the potential for using the CTMR system as both an invasive and non-invasive quantitative assessment tool providing improved statistical power and reduced animal use. PMID:23983104

  5. The Brain as a Sensory-Motor Task Machine: What Did Visual Deprivation and Visual Substitution Studies Teach us About Brain (re-Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Amedi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available About one-quarter of our brain “real estate” is devoted to the processing of vision. So what happens to this vast “vision” part of the brain when no visual input is received? We are working with novel high-tech multisensory ‘glasses’ that convert visual information from a tiny video camera into sensory signals that the blind can interpret. In this talk I will mainly highlight work done using The vOICe algorithm (Meijer et al 1992. We have devised a training program which teaches blind individuals to use such a device. Following approximately 30 hours of training, congenitally blind individuals can use this device to recognize what and where various objects are, for instance, within a room (like a chair, glass, and even people and their body posture; eg, see http://brain.huji.ac.il/press.asp. Additional training is given specifically for encouraging free “visual” orientation enabling blind individuals to walk in corridors while avoiding obstacles and applying hand-“eye” coordination (eg, playing bowling. A main focus of the project is using this unique “set-up” to study brain organization and brain flexibility. For example, we are elucidating how the subjects' brains use preserved functions on one hand and on the other hand, reorganize to enable to process this new sensory language (eg, See Amedi et al Nature Neurosience 2007; Stiem-Amit et al 2011; Reich et al 2011. I will also focus on novel spectral analysis approaches to study large-scale brain dynamics and to look into the binding problem: how we integrate information into a coherent percept, an old question in neuroscience which has relatively poor answers, especially in humans. On the rehabilitation front, we have demonstrated that visual training can create massive adult plasticity in the ‘visual’ cortex to process functions like recognizing objects and localizing where they are located, much like the original division of labor in the visual system in which the

  6. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  7. [Storages and distributed patterns of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen during the succession of artificial sand-binding vegetation in arid desert ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Hong; Li, Xin-Rong; Zhou, Yu-Yan; Li, Yuan-Shou

    2012-03-01

    Soil carbon pool acts as the largest one of carbon pools in the terrestrial ecosystem. The storages and distributed patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) evaluated accurately are helpful to predict the feedback between the terrestrial ecosystem and climate changes. Based on the data about bulk density, content of SOC and TN at 0-100 cm soil profile, the density of SOC and TN at the temporal (chronosequence of artificial vegetation) and spatial (vertical) distributed patterns have been estimated. The results indicated that storages of SOC and TN at 0-100 cm depth increased with the chronosequence of artificial vegetation. The storages of SOC and TN showed the same tendency with the succession time of artificial vegetation. Storages of SOC and TN significantly increased at the early stage of banding sand by artificially vegetation ( 25 a). The variation of storages mainly occurred in the 0-20 cm depth. The storages decreased with the soil vertical depth. At the early stage of banding sand, increase in storage included every depth (0-100 cm). Whereas, at the later stage, increase in storage at 0-20 cm depth was main, and increase in the 20-100 cm was inconspicuous. The accumulation of storage at the shallow soil depth was more notability with the succession of artificial vegetation. The distributed pattern of storage in SOC and TN has been confirmed in arid desert regions below 200 mm annual precipitation. This was beneficial to understand the carbon cycle and to predict the feedback relationship between desert ecosystem and climate changes.

  8. CHEMICAL, SENSORY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Adesola Osibona

    Presently, there are numerous problems facing the field of fisheries, some of which are related to the keeping ... The two main methods of assessing fish quality are sensory and non-sensory ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sample ..... The initial lag phase of micro-organisms in the stored fish was followed by an increase in ...

  9. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  10. Somatic sensory cortex (SmI) of the prosimian primate Galago crassicaudatus: organization of mechanoreceptive input from the hand in relation to cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M; Welt, C

    1980-01-15

    Mechanoreceptive input from the hand to the somatic sensory cortex (SmI) of the prosimian primate Galago crassicaudatus was examined with microelectrode mapping methods. In anesthetized animals, low threshold cutaneous input from the hand projects to SmI cortex in a single, complete, somatotopically organized pattern. Within this single pattern, cells with receptive fields on the glabrous skin of the palm, digits and digit tips are located in the rostral half, and cells with RFs on the hairy skin of the dorsal hand and digits are located in the caudal half of the hand areas. The cutaneous hand area is coextensive with the densely granular architectonic region of SmI. Studies of single cells in this region of awake galagos reveal the same pattern of cutaneous input and, in addition, demonstrate the presence of cells responding to joint movement not detected in anesthetized animals. Cells responsive to joint movement are arranged in vertically oriented columns located adjacent to cutaneous columns with receptive fields on the same part of the hand. In anesthetized animals, cells rostral to the granular region, in an area typified by increasing numbers of pyramidal cells in layer V and decreasing numbers of granular cells in upper layers, respond to high threshold stimulation of large areas of the hand. The few cells isolated in this area in awake animals respond to either active or passive hand movements. In such animals, cells caudal to the granular region, in an area characterized as agranular and alaminar cortex, respond to either passive stimulation of single or multiple joints or to active hand movements. These results, together with similar findings in a related prosimian, Nycticebus coucang, emphasize the generality of a single cutaneous hand area in SmI of prosimian species. The demonstration of multiple hand areas corresponding to multiple cytoarchitectonic subdivisions in SmI of Old and New World simians illustrates the increased degree of Sm

  11. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  12. The beauty of sensory ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Aldana, Elis

    2017-08-10

    Sensory ecology is a discipline that focuses on how living creatures use information to survive, but not to live. By trans-defining the orthodox concept of sensory ecology, a serious heterodox question arises: how do organisms use their senses to live, i.e. to enjoy or suffer life? To respond to such a query the objective (time-independent) and emotional (non-rational) meaning of symbols must be revealed. Our program is distinct from both the neo-Darwinian and the classical ecological perspective because it does not focus on survival values of phenotypes and their functions, but asks for the aesthetic effect of biological structures and their symbolism. Our message recognizes that sensing apart from having a survival value also has a beauty value. Thus, we offer a provoking and inspiring new view on the sensory relations of 'living things' and their surroundings, where the innovating power of feelings have more weight than the privative power of reason.

  13. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  14. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  15. Structure and strength at the bonding interface of a titanium-segmented polyurethane composite through 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate for artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Harumi; Doi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Equo; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Hanawa, Takao

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structure and strength at the bonding interface of a titanium (Ti)-segmented polyurethane (SPU) composite through (3-trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (gamma-MPS) for artificial organs. The effects of the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer on the shear bonding strength between Ti and SPU were investigated. Ti disks were immersed in various concentrations of gamma-MPS solutions for several immersion times. The depth profiles of elements and the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer were determined by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and ellipsometry, respectively. The bonding stress at the Ti/gamma-MPS/SPU interface was evaluated with a shear bonding test. Furthermore, the fractured surface of a Ti-SPU composite was observed by optical microscopy and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Consequently, the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer was controlled by the concentration of the gamma-MPS solution and immersion time. The shear bonding stress at the interface increased with the increase of the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer. Therefore, the control of the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer is significant to increase the shear bonding stress at the Ti/gamma-MPS/SPU interface. These results are significant to create composites for artificial organs consisting of other metals and polymers. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients of organic compounds by multiple linear regression, partial least squares, and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Hassan

    2009-11-30

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was performed to develop models those relate the structure of 141 organic compounds to their octanol-water partition coefficients (log P(o/w)). A genetic algorithm was applied as a variable selection tool. Modeling of log P(o/w) of these compounds as a function of theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS), and artificial neural network (ANN). The best selected descriptors that appear in the models are: atomic charge weighted partial positively charged surface area (PPSA-3), fractional atomic charge weighted partial positive surface area (FPSA-3), minimum atomic partial charge (Qmin), molecular volume (MV), total dipole moment of molecule (mu), maximum antibonding contribution of a molecule orbital in the molecule (MAC), and maximum free valency of a C atom in the molecule (MFV). The result obtained showed the ability of developed artificial neural network to prediction of partition coefficients of organic compounds. Also, the results revealed the superiority of ANN over the MLR and PLS models. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interactive effects of MnO2, organic matter and pH on abiotic formation of N2O from hydroxylamine in artificial soil mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shurong; Berns, Anne E.; Vereecken, Harry; Wu, Di; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Abiotic conversion of the reactive nitrification intermediate hydroxylamine (NH2OH) to nitrous oxide (N2O) is a possible mechanism of N2O formation during nitrification. Previous research has demonstrated that manganese dioxide (MnO2) and organic matter (OM) content of soil as well as soil pH are important control variables of N2O formation in the soil. But until now, their combined effect on abiotic N2O formation from NH2OH has not been quantified. Here, we present results from a full-factorial experiment with artificial soil mixtures at five different levels of pH, MnO2 and OM, respectively, and quantified the interactive effects of the three variables on the NH2OH-to-N2O conversion ratio (RNH2OH-to-N2O). Furthermore, the effect of OM quality on RNH2OH-to-N2O was determined by the addition of four different organic materials with different C/N ratios to the artificial soil mixtures. The experiments revealed a strong interactive effect of soil pH, MnO2 and OM on RNH2OH-to-N2O. In general, increasing MnO2 and decreasing pH increased RNH2OH-to-N2O, while increasing OM content was associated with a decrease in RNH2OH-to-N2O. Organic matter quality also affected RNH2OH-to-N2O. However, this effect was not a function of C/N ratio, but was rather related to differences in the dominating functional groups between the different organic materials.

  18. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  19. Effect of redox conditions on the fate of emergin organic micropollutants during artificial recharge of groundwater: batch experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    La recarrega artificial de les aigües subterrànies consisteix en infiltrar aigua als aqüífers per mitjà de les instal·lacions dissenyades per a tal fi i representa una eina important en la gestió dels recursos. A més de l’augment dels recursos d'aigües subterrànies, la recàrrega pot suposar una millora natural de la seva qualitat durant el seu pas pel subsòl. Els processos que tenen lloc en el sistema sòl-aqüífer (filtració, adsorció, reaccions de mescla , redox, biodegradació, et...

  20. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Spanache Florin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus a...

  1. Sensory description of marine oils through development of a sensory wheel and vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larssen, W E; Monteleone, E; Hersleth, M

    2018-04-01

    The Omega-3 industry lacks a defined methodology and a vocabulary for evaluating the sensory quality of marine oils. This study was conducted to identify the sensory descriptors of marine oils and organize them in a sensory wheel for use as a tool in quality assessment. Samples of marine oils were collected from six of the largest producers of omega-3 products in Norway. The oils were selected to cover as much variation in sensory characteristics as possible, i.e. oils with different fatty acid content originating from different species. Oils were evaluated by six industry expert panels and one trained sensory panel to build up a vocabulary through a series of language sessions. A total of 184 aroma (odor by nose), flavor, taste and mouthfeel descriptors were generated. A sensory wheel based on 60 selected descriptors grouped together in 21 defined categories was created to form a graphical presentation of the sensory vocabulary. A selection of the oil samples was also evaluated by a trained sensory panel using descriptive analysis. Chemical analysis showed a positive correlation between primary and secondary oxidation products and sensory properties such as rancidity, chemical flavor and process flavor and a negative correlation between primary oxidation products and acidic. This research is a first step towards the broader objective of standardizing the sensory terminology related to marine oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Removal of dissolved organic matter in municipal effluent with ozonation, slow sand filtration and nanofiltration as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    In the paper the combination process of ozonation, slow sand filtration (SSF) and nanofiltration (NF) was investigated with respect to dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge. With the help of ozonation leading to breakdown of the large organic molecules, SSF preferentially removes soluble microbial by-product-like substances and DOM with molecular weight (MW) less than 1.0 kDa. NF, however, removes aromatic, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances efficiently and specially removes DOM with MW above 1.0 kDa. The residual DOM of the membrane permeate is dominated by small organics with MW 500 Da, which can be further reduced by the aquifer treatment, despite of the very low concentration. Consequently, the O(3)/SSF/NF system offers a complementary process in DOM removal. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) can be reduced from 6.5±1.1 to 0.7±0.3 mg L(-1) and from 267±24 to 52±6 μg L(-1), respectively. The very low DOC concentration of 0.6±0.2 mg L(-1) and THMFP of 44±4 μg L(-1) can be reached after the aquifer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Artificial neural network based gynaecological image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatment planning correction of intra-fractional organs at risk dose variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Jaberi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Intra-fractional organs at risk (OARs deformations can lead to dose variation during image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT. The aim of this study was to modify the final accepted brachytherapy treatment plan to dosimetrically compensate for these intra-fractional organs-applicators position variations and, at the same time, fulfilling the dosimetric criteria. Material and methods : Thirty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT of 45-50 Gy over five to six weeks with concomitant weekly chemotherapy, and qualified for intracavitary high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy with tandem-ovoid applicators were selected for this study. Second computed tomography scan was done for each patient after finishing brachytherapy treatment with applicators in situ. Artificial neural networks (ANNs based models were used to predict intra-fractional OARs dose-volume histogram parameters variations and propose a new final plan. Results : A model was developed to estimate the intra-fractional organs dose variations during gynaecological intracavitary brachytherapy. Also, ANNs were used to modify the final brachytherapy treatment plan to compensate dosimetrically for changes in ‘organs-applicators’, while maintaining target dose at the original level. Conclusions : There are semi-automatic and fast responding models that can be used in the routine clinical workflow to reduce individually IGABT uncertainties. These models can be more validated by more patients’ plans to be able to serve as a clinical tool.

  4. Artificial neural network based gynaecological image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatment planning correction of intra-fractional organs at risk dose variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberi, Ramin; Siavashpour, Zahra; Aghamiri, Mahmoud Reza; Kirisits, Christian; Ghaderi, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Intra-fractional organs at risk (OARs) deformations can lead to dose variation during image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). The aim of this study was to modify the final accepted brachytherapy treatment plan to dosimetrically compensate for these intra-fractional organs-applicators position variations and, at the same time, fulfilling the dosimetric criteria. Thirty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 45-50 Gy over five to six weeks with concomitant weekly chemotherapy, and qualified for intracavitary high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with tandem-ovoid applicators were selected for this study. Second computed tomography scan was done for each patient after finishing brachytherapy treatment with applicators in situ. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) based models were used to predict intra-fractional OARs dose-volume histogram parameters variations and propose a new final plan. A model was developed to estimate the intra-fractional organs dose variations during gynaecological intracavitary brachytherapy. Also, ANNs were used to modify the final brachytherapy treatment plan to compensate dosimetrically for changes in 'organs-applicators', while maintaining target dose at the original level. There are semi-automatic and fast responding models that can be used in the routine clinical workflow to reduce individually IGABT uncertainties. These models can be more validated by more patients' plans to be able to serve as a clinical tool.

  5. Learning from sensory and reward prediction errors during motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-03-01

    Voluntary motor commands produce two kinds of consequences. Initially, a sensory consequence is observed in terms of activity in our primary sensory organs (e.g., vision, proprioception). Subsequently, the brain evaluates the sensory feedback and produces a subjective measure of utility or usefulness of the motor commands (e.g., reward). As a result, comparisons between predicted and observed consequences of motor commands produce two forms of prediction error. How do these errors contribute to changes in motor commands? Here, we considered a reach adaptation protocol and found that when high quality sensory feedback was available, adaptation of motor commands was driven almost exclusively by sensory prediction errors. This form of learning had a distinct signature: as motor commands adapted, the subjects altered their predictions regarding sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized this learning broadly to neighboring motor commands. In contrast, as the quality of the sensory feedback degraded, adaptation of motor commands became more dependent on reward prediction errors. Reward prediction errors produced comparable changes in the motor commands, but produced no change in the predicted sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized only locally. Because we found that there was a within subject correlation between generalization patterns and sensory remapping, it is plausible that during adaptation an individual's relative reliance on sensory vs. reward prediction errors could be inferred. We suggest that while motor commands change because of sensory and reward prediction errors, only sensory prediction errors produce a change in the neural system that predicts sensory consequences of motor commands.

  6. Profile of the biodiesel B100 commercialized in the region of Londrina: application of artificial neural networks of the type self organizing maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Machado de Campos Filho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 97 samples were grouped according to the year of analysis. For each year, letters from A to D were attributed, between 2010 and 2013; A (33 B (25 C (24 and D (15. The parameters of compliance previously analyzed are those established by the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP, through resolution ANP 07/2008. The parameters analyzed were density, flash point, peroxide and acid value. The observed values were presented to Artificial Neural Network (ANN Self Organizing MAP (SOM in order to classify, by physical-chemical properties, each sample from year of production. The ANN was trained on different days and randomly divided samples into two groups, training and test set. It was found that SOM network differentiated samples by the year and the compliance parameters, allowing to identify that the density and the flash point were the most significant compliance parameters, so good for the distinction and classification of these samples.

  7. Self-plied and twist-stable carbon nanotube yarn artificial muscles driven by organic solvent adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kaiyun; Zhang, Silan; Zhou, Susheng; Qiao, Jian; Song, Yanhui; Di, Jiangtao; Zhang, Dengsong; Li, Qingwen

    2018-05-03

    Artificial yarn/fiber muscles have recently attracted considerable interest for various applications. These muscles can provide large-stroke tensile and torsional actuations, resulting from inserted twists. However, tensional tethering of twisted muscles is generally needed to avoid muscle snarling and untwisting. In this paper a carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn muscle that is tethering-free and twist-stable is reported. The yarn muscle is prepared by allowing the self-plying of a coiled CNT yarn. When driven by acetone adsorption, this muscle shows decoupled actuations, which provide fast and reversible ∼13.3% contraction strain against a constant stress corresponding to ∼38 000 times the muscle weight but almost zero torsional strokes. The cycling test shows that the self-plied muscle has very good structural stability and actuation reversibility. Applied joule heating can help increase the desorption of acetone and increase the operation frequency of the self-plied muscle. Furthermore, by controlling the coupling between the joule heating and acetone adsorption/desorption, tensile actuations from negative to positive have been achieved. This twist-stable feature could considerably facilitate the practical applications of such muscle.

  8. Morphometric analysis of the infraorbital foramen, canal and groove using cone beam CT: considerations for creating artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Kaan; Misirli, Melis; Aksoy, Secil; Seki, Umut; Hincal, Evren; Ormeci, Tugrul; Arslan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anatomy and variations of the infraorbital foramen and its surroundings via morphometric measurements using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans derived from a 3D volumetric rendering program. 354 sides of CBCT scans from 177 patients were examined in this study. DICOM data from these images were exported to Maxilim® software in order to generate 3D surface models. The morphometric measurements were done for infraorbital foramen (IOF), infraorbital groove (IOG) and infraorbital canal (IOC). All images were evaluated by 1 radiologist. To assess intra-observer reliability, the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was used. Differences between sex, side, age and measurements were evaluated using chi-square and paired t-test and measurements were evaluated using 1-way ANOVA tests. Differences were considered significant when p0.05). No significant difference was found according to age groups (p>0.05). These results provide detailed knowledge of the anatomical characteristics in this particular area. CBCT imaging with lower radiation dose and thin slices can be a powerful tool for anesthesia procedures like infra orbital nerve blocks, for surgical approaches like osteotomies and neurectomies and also for generating artificial prostheses.

  9. Social Organization of a Colony of Bats Carollia brevicauda in Artificial Shelter, Bochalema, Norte de Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Omar Gallardo

    2014-05-01

    Se estudió la organización social de una colonia del murciélago frugívoro Carollia brevicauda en un refugio artificial en Bochalema, Norte de Santander, Colombia. Empleando un nuevo tipo de marcaje que consiste en decoloración capilar y mediante muestreos focales se observó la colonia desde septiembre de 2007 a septiembre de 2008. Se determinó que esta es definida por cuatro grupos los cuales no variaron en su conformación a lo largo del tiempo. Se estableció que las hembras fueron más fieles al refugio que los machos. Se evaluó el presupuesto de tiempo diurno y se registró que los individuos tienen un 73,9 % de tiempo en reposo, seguido del acicalamiento con un 26,6 % y las hembras presentaron mayor actividad que los machos sobre todo en época seca. Se determinaron diferencias en registros entre C. brevicauda y C. perspicillata , como por ejemplo la fidelidad de las hembras al refugio.

  10. Patient with a total artificial heart maintained on outpatient dialysis while listed for combined organ transplant, a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Ramy M; Hasnain, Huma; Kamgar, Mohammad; Hanna, Mina; Minasian, Raffi; Wilson, James

    2017-10-01

    Advanced mechanical circulatory support is increasingly being used with more sophisticated devices that can deliver pulsatile rather than continuous flow. These devices are more portable as well, allowing patients to await cardiac transplantation in an outpatient setting. It is known that patients with renal failure are at increased risk for developing worsening acute kidney injury during implantation of a ventricular assist device (VAD) or more advanced modalities like a total artificial heart (TAH). Dealing with patients who have an implanted TAH who develop renal failure has been a challenge with the majority of such patients having to await a combined cardiac and renal transplant prior to transition to outpatient care. Protocols do exist for VAD implanted patients to be transitioned to outpatient dialysis care, but there are no reported cases of TAH patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) being successfully transitioned to outpatient dialysis care. In this report, we identify a patient with a TAH and ESRD transitioned successfully to outpatient hemodialysis and maintained for more than 2 years, though he did not survive to transplant. It is hoped that this report will raise awareness of this possibility, and assist in the development of protocols for similar patients to be successfully transitioned to outpatient dialysis care. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  11. Impact of Air Oxidation on Dissolved Organic Matter from Boom Clay: Comparison Between Natural and Artificial Oxidation Series and In Situ Piezometers Water From Hades Galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchart, Pascale; Faure, Pierre; Michels, Raymond; Bruggeman, Christophe; De Craen, Mieke; Parant, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Boom Clay is considered by the Belgian radioactive waste management agency Ondraf/Niras as a possible host rock for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The drilling of galleries and corings in the Boom Clay (Mol, Belgium) leads to perturbations of the initial physical and chemical conditions. In piezometers, the DOC may show considerable and irregular variations through time, with values ranging from 80 to 425 mg/L. The origin and bio-physico-chemical controls of such variations are yet unknown but oxidation and biodegradation were considered as most likely. Three categories of samples were collected with the aim of determining and quantifying different molecular markers representative for the oxidation process: - Fresh as well as air-oxidized Boom Clay samples were collected in the Underground Research Facility HADES of EURIDICE (Mol, Belgium): they represent a natural series of oxidation; - A fresh Boom Clay sample was submitted to laboratory air oxidation (artificial series). In these experiments, powdered clay was heated at 80 deg. C under air flow during 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 months; - Four water samples were collected during January 2010 from different horizons in the Boom Clay by means of piezometers located in the Underground Research Facility. The DOM (dissolved organic matter) of Boom Clay samples (artificial and natural series) was isolated by Soxhlet using pure water as well as by leaching experiments. The quantitative analysis shows an increasing in DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) content with oxidation. Qualitative characterizations including spectroscopic (3D-fluorescence) as well as molecular analyses (flash pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (PyGC-MS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC)) show an evolution of the DOM chemistry with oxidation: - An enrichment in oxygen bearing molecules (acidic poly functional groups); - A decrease in

  12. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  13. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Falk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies.

  14. Artificial Light at Night Affects Organism Flux across Ecosystem Boundaries and Drives Community Structure in the Recipient Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Manfrin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light at night (ALAN is a widespread alteration of the natural environment that can affect the functioning of ecosystems. ALAN can change the movement patterns of freshwater animals that move into the adjacent riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, but the implications for local riparian consumers that rely on these subsidies are still unexplored. We conducted a 2-year field experiment to quantify changes of freshwater-terrestrial linkages by installing streetlights in a previously light-naïve riparian area adjacent to an agricultural drainage ditch. We compared the abundance and community composition of emerging aquatic insects, flying insects, and ground-dwelling arthropods with an unlit control site. Comparisons were made within and between years using two-way generalized least squares (GLS model and a BACI design (Before-After Control-Impact. Aquatic insect emergence, the proportion of flying insects that were aquatic in origin, and the total abundance of flying insects all increased in the ALAN-illuminated area. The abundance of several night-active ground-dwelling predators (Pachygnatha clercki, Trochosa sp., Opiliones increased under ALAN and their activity was extended into the day. Conversely, the abundance of nocturnal ground beetles (Carabidae decreased under ALAN. The changes in composition of riparian predator and scavenger communities suggest that the increase in aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidy flux may cascade through the riparian food web. The work is among the first studies to experimentally manipulate ALAN using a large-scale field experiment, and provides evidence that ALAN can affect processes that link adjacent ecosystems. Given the large number of streetlights that are installed along shorelines of freshwater bodies throughout the globe, the effects could be widespread and represent an underestimated source of impairment for both aquatic and riparian systems.

  15. Artificial neural network modelling for organic and total nitrogen removal of aerobic granulation under steady-state condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, H; Pishgar, R; Tay, J H

    2018-04-27

    Aerobic granulation is a recent technology with high level of complexity and sensitivity to environmental and operational conditions. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), computational tools capable of describing complex non-linear systems, are the best fit to simulate aerobic granular bioreactors. In this study, two feedforward backpropagation ANN models were developed to predict chemical oxygen demand (Model I) and total nitrogen removal efficiencies (Model II) of aerobic granulation technology under steady-state condition. Fundamentals of ANN models and the steps to create them were briefly reviewed. The models were respectively fed with 205 and 136 data points collected from laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale studies on aerobic granulation technology reported in the literature. Initially, 60%, 20%, and 20%, and 80%, 10%, and 10% of the points in the corresponding datasets were randomly chosen and used for training, testing, and validation of Model I, and Model II, respectively. Overall coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value and mean squared error (MSE) of the two models were initially 0.49 and 15.5, and 0.37 and 408, respectively. To improve the model performance, two data division methods were used. While one method is generic and potentially applicable to other fields, the other can only be applied to modelling the performance of aerobic granular reactors. R 2 value and MSE were improved to 0.90 and 2.54, and 0.81 and 121.56, respectively, after applying the new data division methods. The results demonstrated that ANN-based models were capable simulation approach to predict a complicated process like aerobic granulation.

  16. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  17. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  18. Sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of iron species using a combination of artificial neural networks and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, Masoud Rohani; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combination of DLLME-SFO/fiber optic-linear array detection/chemometric methods. ► Simultaneous determination of complexes with overlapping spectra. ► A novel DLLME-SFO method is proposed for extraction of iron species. ► The extracted iron species are simultaneous determined using PC-ANNs. ► The enhancement factor of 162 and 125 are achieved for Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ , respectively. - Abstract: A dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) and artificial neural networks method was developed for the simultaneous separation/preconcentration and speciation of iron in water samples. In this method, an appropriate mixture of ethanol (as the disperser solvent) and 1-undecanol (as the extracting solvent) containing appropriate amount of 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) (as the complexing agent) was injected rapidly into the water sample containing iron (II) and iron (III) species. At this step, the iron species interacted with the TTA and extracted into the 1-undecanol. After the phase separation, the absorbance of the extracted irons was measured in the wavelength region of 450–600 nm. The artificial neural networks were then applied for simultaneous determination of individual iron species. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graphs were linear in the range of 95–1070 μg L −1 and 31–350 μg L −1 with detection limits of 25 and 8 μg L −1 for iron (II) and iron (III), respectively. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D., n = 6) were lower than 4.2%. The enhancement factor of 162 and 125 were obtained for Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ ions, respectively. The procedure was applied to power plant drum water and several potable water samples; and accuracy was assessed through the recovery experiments and independent analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  20. Biodegradation and kinetics of organic compounds and heavy metals in an artificial wetland system (AWS) by using water hyacinths as a biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Mendoza-Pérez, J A; Tabla-Hernandez, J; Martínez-Tavera, E; Monroy-Mendieta, M M

    2018-01-02

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to absorb organic compounds (potassium hydrogen phthalate, sodium tartrate, malathion, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), and piroxicam). For the aforementioned purpose, an artificial wetland system (AWS) was constructed and filled with water hyacinth collected from the Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Mexico. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium tartrate were measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). The present study indicated that the water hyacinths absorbed nearly 1.8-16.6 g of COD kg -1 dm (dry mass of water hyacinth), while the absorbance efficiency of BOD was observed to be 45.8%. The results also indicated that the maximum absorbance efficiency of malathion, 2,4-D, and piroxicam was observed to be 67.6%, 58.3%, and 99.1%, respectively. The kinetics of organic compounds fitted different orders as malathion followed a zeroth-order reaction, while 2,4-D and piroxicam followed the first-order reactions. Preliminary assessment of absorption of heavy metals by the water hyacinth in the AWS was observed to be (all values in mg g -1 ) 7 (Ni), 13.4 (Cd), 16.3 (Pb), and 17.5 (Zn) of dry biomass, thus proving its feasibility to depurate wastewater.

  1. Artificial neural networks environmental forecasting in comparison with multiple linear regression technique: From heavy metals to organic micropollutants screening in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Maria Grazia; Ferrini, Mauro; Manni, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    The assessment of metals and organic micropollutants contamination in agricultural soils is a difficult challenge due to the extensive area used to collect and analyze a very large number of samples. With Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs measurement methods and subsequent the treatment of data, the European Community advises the develop low-cost and fast methods allowing routing analysis of a great number of samples, providing rapid measurement of these compounds in the environment, feeds and food. The aim of the present work has been to find a method suitable to describe the relations occurring between organic and inorganic contaminants and use the value of the latter in order to forecast the former. In practice, the use of a metal portable soil analyzer coupled with an efficient statistical procedure enables the required objective to be achieved. Compared to Multiple Linear Regression, the Artificial Neural Networks technique has shown to be an excellent forecasting method, though there is no linear correlation between the variables to be analyzed.

  2. Complex laterally ordered InGaAs and InAs quantum dots by guided self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on artificially patterned GaAs (3 1 1)B substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selçuk, E.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Nötzel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-organized anisotropic strain engineering is combined with growth on artificially patterned GaAs (3 1 1)B substrates to realize complex lateral ordering of InGaAs and InAs quantum dots (QDs) guided by steps and facets generated along the pattern sidewalls. Depending on the pattern design, size,

  3. Multiple Decoupled CPGs with Local Sensory Feedback for Adaptive Locomotion Behaviors of Bio-inspired Walking Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker Barikhan, Subhi; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    , and their interactions during body and leg movements through the environment. Based on this concept, we present here an artificial bio-inspired walking system. Its intralimb coordination is formed by multiple decoupled CPGs while its interlimb coordination is attained by the interactions between body dynamics...... and the environment through local sensory feedback of each leg. Simulation results show that this bio-inspired approach generates self-organizing emergent locomotion allowing the robot to adaptively form regular patterns, to stably walk while pushing an object with its front legs or performing multiple stepping...

  4. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  5. Probabilistic sensory recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2008-08-01

    A hallmark of higher brain functions is the ability to contemplate the world rather than to respond reflexively to it. To do so, the nervous system makes use of a modular architecture in which sensory representations are dissociated from areas that control actions. This flexibility however necessitates a recoding scheme that would put sensory information to use in the control of behavior. Sensory recoding faces two important challenges. First, recoding must take into account the inherent variability of sensory responses. Second, it must be flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of different perceptual goals. Recent progress in theory, psychophysics, and neurophysiology indicate that cortical circuitry might meet these challenges by evaluating sensory signals probabilistically.

  6. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie......-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans....

  7. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  8. Composição físico-química e aceitação sensorial da inflorescência de gengibre orgânico (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Physicochemical composition and sensory acceptance of organic ginger inflorescences (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Balsini Lucio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Morretes - PR, Brasil, existe uma demanda da utilização integral da planta do gengibre (rizoma e parte aérea, portanto, o conhecimento da composição química e a avaliação sensorial de inflorescência de gengibre tornam-se importantes. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar a composição físico-química e aceitação sensorial de inflorescência de gengibre orgânico. Com a inflorescência de gengibre orgânico, foram elaborados chá, suco e salada e foi verificada sua aceitação com utilização de escala hedônica. As inflorescências de gengibre orgânico, verde e rosada, respectivamente, apresentaram 93,23 e 94,54% de umidade, 0,83 e 0,81% de cinzas, 17,98 e 12,36% de proteínas, 3,90 e 3,81% de lipídios, 19,22 e 23,99% de fibra bruta e 58,07 e 59,03% de carboidratos. Com o amadurecimento, as inflorescências de gengibre têm o seu teor de proteínas diminuído e o teor de fibras aumentado. Para o consumo das inflorescências, indica-se sua utilização para o preparo de chá, produto que apresentou mais de 80% de aceitação pelos julgadores.In the city of Morretes - PR, Brazil, there is a demand of the use of the full plant of ginger (rhizome and air part; thus, the knowledge of the chemical composition and sensory evaluation of ginger inflorescences have become important. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical composition and sensory acceptance of the organic ginger inflorescence. Tea, juice, and salad were prepared with the inflorescences of organic ginger and their acceptance was verified with the use of the hedonic scale. The inflorescences of organic ginger (green and mature, respectively, presented 93.23 and 94.54% of moisture, 0.83 and 0.81% of ash, 17.98 and 12.36% of protein, 3.90 and 3.81% of fat, 19.22 and 23.99% of crude fiber, and 58.07 and 59.03% of carbohydrates. The content of protein decreased with maturity and the fiber content increased. For the consumption of inflorescences

  9. Qualidade sensorial do café de lavouras em conversão para o sistema de produção orgânico Cup quality of traditional crop coffee converted to organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Malta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a qualidade sensorial do café de lavouras em conversão para o sistema de produção orgânico, foi instalado este experimento, no município de Lavras (MG. O experimento foi instalado em 2004, em uma lavoura de café Catuaí Amarelo IAC 86, espaçamento de 4,0 x 0,6 m, com seis anos de idade, anteriormente cultivada no sistema convencional. Nos tratamentos orgânicos, empregou-se o delineamento látice balanceado 4 x 4, com cinco repetições em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2, mais quatro tratamentos adicionais. O fatorial constou da utilização de três fontes de matéria orgânica (farelo de mamona, cama de frango e esterco bovino, com ou sem aplicação de casca de café e de adubação verde com feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.. Os quatro tratamentos adicionais consistiram de: 1- esterco bovino + casca de café + moinha de carvão + sulfato duplo de potássio e magnésio; 2 - farelo de mamona + casca de café + farinha de rocha; 3 - casca de café e 4 - adubação verde. Para efeito de comparação, manteve-se no mesmo talhão uma lavoura com manejo convencional. Não foram observadas diferenças de qualidade de bebida entre os cafés submetidos aos diferentes tratamentos orgânicos, nem entre esses e a testemunha no primeiro ano de conversão. No segundo ano, observou-se superioridade das bebidas de cafés de alguns tratamentos orgânicos em relação ao da lavoura desenvolvida no sistema convencional. Verificou-se efeito positivo da utilização do esterco bovino isoladamente ou associado com a casca de café e adubação verde na qualidade sensorial do café.The main purpose of this study was to evaluate sensorial attributes of coffee grown under a transition cultivation system, from conventional to organic, in Lavras (MG. The experiment was established in 2004, in a conventional field with 6 year-old Catuaí Amarelo IAC86 coffee plants, planted using 4,0 X 0,6 m spacing system. The experimental

  10. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  11. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  12. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  13. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  14. Experience of organizing and management of experimental researches on animals in V.I. Shumakov National Medical Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Shagidulin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review briefl y discusses the experience of organizing and carrying out experimental studies in our center in order to increase the validity of the researches. The rules of organizational and methodological approaches aimed at increasing the suitability of the results of experimental studies are also given. Each research work in which experiments on laboratory animals are supposed to be carried out should be organized, planned and carried out in accordance with national and international ethical standards. Discussion and publication of both planned and conducted experimental work makes it possible to make the research process more open and objective. The experimental investigation is carried out in the following algorithm: the formulation of the problem and the hypothesis on the basis of the literature data; development of the purpose and objectives of the study with adequate methods and selection of equipment; distribution of material to control and trial groups; creation of a plan for monitoring the indicators during the experiment; processing and interpretation of results; preparation of a scientifi c report. 

  15. Comparison of hand and semiautomatic tracing methods for creating maxillofacial artificial organs using sequences of computed tomography (CT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Bence T; Aksoy, Seçil; Repassy, Gabor; Csomo, Krisztian; Dobo-Nagy, Csaba; Orhan, Kaan

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to compare the paranasal sinus volumes obtained by manual and semiautomatic imaging software programs using both CT and CBCT imaging. 121 computed tomography (CT) and 119 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examinations were selected from the databases of the authors' institutes. The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images were imported into 3-dimensonal imaging software, in which hand mode and semiautomatic tracing methods were used to measure the volumes of both maxillary sinuses and the sphenoid sinus. The determined volumetric means were compared to previously published averages. Isometric CBCT-based volume determination results were closer to the real volume conditions, whereas the non-isometric CT-based volume measurements defined coherently lower volumes. By comparing the 2 volume measurement modes, the values gained from hand mode were closer to the literature data. Furthermore, CBCT-based image measurement results corresponded to the known averages. Our results suggest that CBCT images provide reliable volumetric information that can be depended on for artificial organ construction, and which may aid the guidance of the operator prior to or during the intervention.

  16. Morphological characteristic of surgically removed cardiac myxomas: 25-YEAR EXPERIENCE IN V.I. SHUMAKOV FEDERAL RESEARCH CENTER OF TRANSPLANTOLOGY AND ARTIFICIAL ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Iljinsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of intracardiac space-occupying lesions, surgically removed at V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs over 25 years (in the period from 1992 until 2016 was carried out. During that period 134 patients underwent surgery. Preoperative clinical diagnosis before surgery was heart myxoma. From 134 patients, only in 115 (85.8% patients the removed intracardiac lesions were myxomas: left atrium – 103 (89.7% patients, right atrium – 10 (8.7%, right ventricle – 2 (1.8% and mitral valve – 1 (0.8% patient. 9 patients had thrombi in the heart, 10 patients had not myxomas, but other benign and malignant heart tumors. This article presents macroscopic, histolological and ultrastructural characteristic of cardiac myxomas. Recurrence of the left atrium myxoma occurred in 2 patients. They were re-operated in four and six years after the first removal of myxoma. 2 patients died during hospital period. One patient with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries as a concurrent disease died of embolization of the stent coronary artery with myxoma particles with the development of acute heart failure. Death of the 2nd patient was not directly related to the surgery, and was due to the acute heart failure as well in connection with the presence of concurrent disease, coronary heart disease.

  17. Effects of postexercise ice-water and room-temperature water immersion on the sensory organization of balance control and lower limb proprioception in amateur rugby players: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Yam, Timothy T T; Chung, Joanne W Y; Fong, Shirley S M

    2017-02-01

    This single-blinded, three-armed randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the effects of postexercise ice-water immersion (IWI), room-temperature water immersion (RWI), and no water immersion on the balance performance and knee joint proprioception of amateur rugby players. Fifty-three eligible amateur rugby players (mean age ± standard deviation: 21.6 ± 2.9 years) were randomly assigned to the IWI group (5.3 °C), RWI group (25.0 °C), or the no immersion control group. The participants in each group underwent the same fatigue protocol followed by their allocated recovery intervention, which lasted for 1 minute. Measurements were taken before and after the fatigue-recovery intervention. The primary outcomes were the sensory organization test (SOT) composite equilibrium score (ES) and the condition-specific ES, which were measured using a computerized dynamic posturography machine. The secondary outcome was the knee joint repositioning error. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the effect of water immersion on each outcome variable. There were no significant within- and between-group differences in the SOT composite ESs or the condition-specific ESs. However, there was a group-by-time interaction effect on the knee joint repositioning error. It seems that participants in the RWI group had lower errors over time, but those in the IWI and control groups had increased errors over time. The RWI group had significantly lower error score than the IWI group at postintervention. One minute of postexercise IWI or RWI did not impair rugby players' sensory organization of balance control. RWI had a less detrimental effect on knee joint proprioception to IWI at postintervention.

  18. Neuromorphic sensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

    2010-06-01

    Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensory evaluation techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meilgaard, Morten; Civille, Gail Vance; Carr, B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    ..., #2 as a textbook for courses at the academic level, it aims to provide just enough theoretical background to enable the student to understand which sensory methods are best suited to particular...

  20. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  1. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  2. [Treatment of sensory information in neurodevelopmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoenen, D; Delvenne, V

    2018-01-01

    The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders. Over the years, these conditions have been the subject of numerous controversies. Nowadays, they are all grouped together under the term of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in DSM-5. The semiology of these disorders is rich and complex due to the frequent presence of comorbidities and their impact on cognitive, behavioural, and sensorimotor organization but also on a child's personality, as well as his family, his school, or his social relationships. We carried out a review of the literature on the alterations in the treatment of sensory information in ASD but also on the different neurodevelopmental clinical panels in order to show their impact on child development. Atypical sensory profiles have been demonstrated in several neurodevelopmental clinical populations such as Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, Dysphasia and Intellectual Disability. Abnomalies in the processing of sensory information should be systematically evaluated in child developmental disorders.

  3. Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    collect light energy and separate charge for developing new types of nanobiodevices to construct ”artificial leaf” from solar to fuel. or Concept of...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0054 Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production Mamoru Nango NAGOYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      30-06-2017 2

  4. Intelligible Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan

    2018-01-01

    Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...

  5. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  6. The formation of endoderm-derived taste sensory organs requires a Pax9-dependent expansion of embryonic taste bud progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Kist

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, taste buds develop in different regions of the oral cavity. Small epithelial protrusions form fungiform papillae on the ectoderm-derived dorsum of the tongue and contain one or few taste buds, while taste buds in the soft palate develop without distinct papilla structures. In contrast, the endoderm-derived circumvallate and foliate papillae located at the back of the tongue contain a large number of taste buds. These taste buds cluster in deep epithelial trenches, which are generated by intercalating a period of epithelial growth between initial placode formation and conversion of epithelial cells into sensory cells. How epithelial trench formation is genetically regulated during development is largely unknown. Here we show that Pax9 acts upstream of Pax1 and Sox9 in the expanding taste progenitor field of the mouse circumvallate papilla. While a reduced number of taste buds develop in a growth-retarded circumvallate papilla of Pax1 mutant mice, its development arrests completely in Pax9-deficient mice. In addition, the Pax9 mutant circumvallate papilla trenches lack expression of K8 and Prox1 in the taste bud progenitor cells, and gradually differentiate into an epidermal-like epithelium. We also demonstrate that taste placodes of the soft palate develop through a Pax9-dependent induction. Unexpectedly, Pax9 is dispensable for patterning, morphogenesis and maintenance of taste buds that develop in ectoderm-derived fungiform papillae. Collectively, our data reveal an endoderm-specific developmental program for the formation of taste buds and their associated papilla structures. In this pathway, Pax9 is essential to generate a pool of taste bud progenitors and to maintain their competence towards prosensory cell fate induction.

  7. The formation of endoderm-derived taste sensory organs requires a Pax9-dependent expansion of embryonic taste bud progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, Ralf; Watson, Michelle; Crosier, Moira; Robinson, Max; Fuchs, Jennifer; Reichelt, Julia; Peters, Heiko

    2014-10-01

    In mammals, taste buds develop in different regions of the oral cavity. Small epithelial protrusions form fungiform papillae on the ectoderm-derived dorsum of the tongue and contain one or few taste buds, while taste buds in the soft palate develop without distinct papilla structures. In contrast, the endoderm-derived circumvallate and foliate papillae located at the back of the tongue contain a large number of taste buds. These taste buds cluster in deep epithelial trenches, which are generated by intercalating a period of epithelial growth between initial placode formation and conversion of epithelial cells into sensory cells. How epithelial trench formation is genetically regulated during development is largely unknown. Here we show that Pax9 acts upstream of Pax1 and Sox9 in the expanding taste progenitor field of the mouse circumvallate papilla. While a reduced number of taste buds develop in a growth-retarded circumvallate papilla of Pax1 mutant mice, its development arrests completely in Pax9-deficient mice. In addition, the Pax9 mutant circumvallate papilla trenches lack expression of K8 and Prox1 in the taste bud progenitor cells, and gradually differentiate into an epidermal-like epithelium. We also demonstrate that taste placodes of the soft palate develop through a Pax9-dependent induction. Unexpectedly, Pax9 is dispensable for patterning, morphogenesis and maintenance of taste buds that develop in ectoderm-derived fungiform papillae. Collectively, our data reveal an endoderm-specific developmental program for the formation of taste buds and their associated papilla structures. In this pathway, Pax9 is essential to generate a pool of taste bud progenitors and to maintain their competence towards prosensory cell fate induction.

  8. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  9. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  10. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships. With these metrics, we define the trust humans experience using the mathematical language of computational models, that is, as a primitive statistical algorithm processing finely grained sensorimotor data from neuromechanical interaction. This definition of neuromechanical trust implies that artificial sensorimotor inputs and interactions that attract low-level attention through frequent discontinuities and enhanced coherence will decalibrate a brain's representation of its world over the long term by violating the implicit statistical contract for which self-calibration evolved. Our hypersimplified mathematical understanding of human sensorimotor processing as multiscale, continuous-time vibratory interaction allows equally broad-brush descriptions of failure modes and solutions. For example, we model addiction in general as the result of homeostatic regulation gone awry in novel environments (sign reversal) and digital dependency as a sub-case in which the decalibration caused by digital sensorimotor data spurs yet more consumption of them. We predict that institutions can use these sensorimotor metrics to quantify media richness to improve employee well-being; that dyads and family-size groups will bond and heal best through low-latency, high-resolution multisensory interaction such as shared meals and reciprocated touch; and

  11. Development of organic membrane and biosensor. ; Artificial membrane chemical sensor on the model of olfactory cells. Seitaimaku to bio sensor no hatten. ; Kyusaibo wo model to shita jinkomaku kagaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, S; Kashiwayanagi, M; Kurihara, K [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science

    1991-05-05

    The olfactory cell is the most prominent chemical sensor to detect various kinds of external chemical substances with high sensibility. Consequently, on the model of such an organic chemical sensor mechanism, an artificial membrane with functions to detect and distinguish various chemical substances has been developed. In this study, a test using a lipid bimolecular membrane was carried out. As a result, it was found that the lipid bimolecular membrane showed membrane potential changes responding to various odorants. The mambrane with proper lipid composition presented almost the same sensibility to odorants as an olfactory organ. Response characteristic against various odors changed greatly due to the lipid composition and the addition of protein. It was also found that various odors can be discriminated by analyzing response information obtained from a lot of mambranes with different compositions Such ideas can be applied to the odor discrimination of the artificial membrane sensor. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Yield, fruit quality, contents and sensory quality of old apple varieties trained as slender spindle under organic and integrated cultivation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Lothar; Gössinger, Manfred; Wendelin, Silvia; Martina, Kieler; Thomas, Rühmer; Walter, Brandes; Kathrin, Sigl

    2015-04-01

    Between 2006 and 2013 the old apple varieties 'Ananas Reinette', 'llzer Rosenapfel', 'Kronprinz Rudolf', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Ribston Pepping', 'Steirische Schafnase', 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Florianer Rosmarin' (from 2009 on also 'Roter Berlepsch', 'Cox Orange' and 'Kanada Reinette') were tested for their fresh market suitability at the experimental orchard Haschhof of the HBLA and BA für Wein- und Obstbau Klosterneuburg under organic and integrated cultivation (IP) conditions trained as slender spindle. In 2010 the effect of an organic and a combined "integrated-organic summer" plant protection strategie on fruit quality and pesticide residues was tested in addition. No pesticide residues were detected in fruits of both plant protection strategies, expect on fruits of "integrated-organic summer" Schafnase in 2010. At harvest 2010 the bio-variant showed a significantly higher percentage of fruits with skin defects. The losses due to parasitic diseases during storage were strongly depending on the cultivar, but hardly affected by the plant protection strategy in this year. Looking at the entire experimental period, most of the varieties in the organic plot showed a comparable fruiting performance as those in the IP plot. The best fruiting performances were found with 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Kronprinz Rudolf', while the cumulative yield of 'Florianer Rosmarin', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel' remained below average. With respect to external fruit quality and storability 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Kronprinz Rudolf' and 'Ilzer Rosenapfel' showed comparatively good results. With 'Ananas Reinette' the significantly lowest total phenolics contents were determined. 'Kanada Reinette', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Ananas Reinette' showed a high acidity. High contents of soluble solids were found with 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter

  13. Transcendence and Sensoriness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protestant theology and culture are known for a reserved, at times skeptical, attitude to the use of art and aesthetic forms of expression in a religious context. In Transcendence and Sensoriness, this attitude is analysed and discussed both theoretically and through case studies considered...

  14. Sensory matched filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2016-10-24

    As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm. Take ourselves for example: we are completely insensitive to the Earth's magnetic field, a sensory cue of vital importance as a compass for steering the long distance migration of animals as varied as birds, lobsters and sea turtles. We are also totally oblivious to the rich palette of ultraviolet colours that exist all around us, colours seen by insects, crustaceans, birds, fish and lizards (in fact perhaps by most animals). Nor can we hear the ultrasonic sonar pulses emitted by bats in hot pursuit of flying insect prey. The simple reason for these apparent deficiencies is that we either lack the sensory capacity entirely (as in the case of magnetoreception) or that our existing senses are incapable of detecting specific ranges of the stimulus (such as the ultraviolet wavelength range of light). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Applications of artificial intelligence in safe human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Nima; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2011-04-01

    The integration of industrial robots into the human workspace presents a set of unique challenges. This paper introduces a new sensory system for modeling, tracking, and predicting human motions within a robot workspace. A reactive control scheme to modify a robot's operations for accommodating the presence of the human within the robot workspace is also presented. To this end, a special class of artificial neural networks, namely, self-organizing maps (SOMs), is employed for obtaining a superquadric-based model of the human. The SOM network receives information of the human's footprints from the sensory system and infers necessary data for rendering the human model. The model is then used in order to assess the danger of the robot operations based on the measured as well as predicted human motions. This is followed by the introduction of a new reactive control scheme that results in the least interferences between the human and robot operations. The approach enables the robot to foresee an upcoming danger and take preventive actions before the danger becomes imminent. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  17. Readings in artificial intelligence and software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Readings in Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering covers the main techniques and application of artificial intelligence and software engineering. The ultimate goal of artificial intelligence applied to software engineering is automatic programming. Automatic programming would allow a user to simply say what is wanted and have a program produced completely automatically. This book is organized into 11 parts encompassing 34 chapters that specifically tackle the topics of deductive synthesis, program transformations, program verification, and programming tutors. The opening parts p

  18. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and sensory features of eugenol, carvacrol and trans-anethole in active packaging for organic ready-to-eat iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczyńska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana

    2018-09-01

    In this study, bio-based emitting sachets containing eugenol (EUG), carvacrol (CAR) and trans-anethole (ANT) were inserted into cellulose (CE) and polypropylene (PP) pillow packages of organic ready-to-eat (RTE) iceberg lettuce to investigate their functional features. EUG, CAR and ANT sachets in CE; and CAR in PP packages showed antimicrobial activities against coliforms (Δlog CFU g -1 of -1.38, -0.91, -0.93 and -0.93, respectively). EUG and ANT sachets in both packages reduced discoloration (ΔE of 9.5, 1.8, 9.4 and 5.6, respectively). ANT in both, and EUG only in PP packages induced biosynthesis of caffeoyl derivatives (C a T A , D i C a T A , D i C a Q A ), total phenolics and antioxidant activity (FRAP). Also, ANT and EUG in both packages improved overall freshness and odor. Principal component analysis separated ANT and EUG from CAR in both packages. The Pearson correlation confirmed that overall quality improvements were more pronounced by ANT inside the packages in comparison to EUG and CAR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Drosophila T-box transcription factor Midline functions within the Notch–Delta signaling pathway to specify sensory organ precursor cell fates and regulates cell survival within the eye imaginal disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; Chen, Q. Brent; Saucier, Joseph D.; Drescher, Brandon; Zong, Yan; Morgan, Sarah; Forstall, John; Meriwether, Andrew; Toranzo, Randy; Leal, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    We report that the T-box transcription factor Midline (Mid), an evolutionary conserved homolog of the vertebrate Tbx20 protein, functions within the Notch–Delta signaling pathway essential for specifying the fates of sensory organ precursor cells. This complements an established history of research showing that Mid regulates the cell-fate specification of diverse cell types within the developing heart, epidermis and central nervous system. Tbx20 has been detected in diverse neuronal and epithelial cells of embryonic eye tissues in both mice and humans. However, the mechanisms by which either Mid or Tbx20 function to regulate cell-fate specification or other critical aspects of eye development including cell survival have not yet been elucidated. We have also gathered preliminary evidence suggesting that Mid may play an indirect, but vital role in selecting SOP cells within the third-instar larval eye disc by regulating the expression of the proneural gene atonal. During subsequent pupal stages, Mid specifies SOP cell fates as a member of the Notch–Delta signaling hierarchy and is essential for maintaining cell viability within by inhibiting apoptotic pathways. We present several new hypotheses that seek to understand the role of Mid in regulating developmental processes downstream of the Notch receptor that are critical for specifying unique cell fates, patterning the adult eye and maintaining cellular homeostasis during eye disc morphogenesis. PMID:23962751

  20. The Drosophila T-box transcription factor Midline functions within the Notch-Delta signaling pathway to specify sensory organ precursor cell fates and regulates cell survival within the eye imaginal disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; Chen, Q Brent; Saucier, Joseph D; Drescher, Brandon; Zong, Yan; Morgan, Sarah; Forstall, John; Meriwether, Andrew; Toranzo, Randy; Leal, Sandra M

    2013-01-01

    We report that the T-box transcription factor Midline (Mid), an evolutionary conserved homolog of the vertebrate Tbx20 protein, functions within the Notch-Delta signaling pathway essential for specifying the fates of sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells. These findings complement an established history of research showing that Mid regulates the cell-fate specification of diverse cell types within the developing heart, epidermis and central nervous system. Tbx20 has been detected in unique neuronal and epithelial cells of embryonic eye tissues in both mice and humans. However, the mechanisms by which either Mid or Tbx20 function to regulate cell-fate specification or other critical aspects of eye development including cell survival have not yet been elucidated. We have also gathered preliminary evidence suggesting that Mid may play an indirect, but vital role in selecting SOP cells within the third-instar larval eye disc by regulating the expression of the proneural gene atonal. During subsequent pupal stages, Mid specifies SOP cell fates as a member of the Notch-Delta signaling hierarchy and is essential for maintaining cell viability by inhibiting apoptotic pathways. We present several new hypotheses that seek to understand the role of Mid in regulating developmental processes downstream of the Notch receptor that are critical for specifying unique cell fates, patterning the adult eye and maintaining cellular homeostasis during eye disc morphogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomarker case-detection and prediction with potential for functional psychosis screening: development and validation of a model related to biochemistry, sensory neural timing and end organ performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eFryar-Williams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mental Health Biomarker Project aimed to discover case-predictive biomarkers for functional psychosis. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, candidate marker results from 67, highly-characterized symptomatic participants were compared with results from 67 gender and age matched controls. Urine samples were analysed for catecholamines, their metabolites and hydroxylpyrolline-2-one, an oxidative stress marker. Blood samples were analyzed for vitamin and trace element cofactors of enzymes in the catecholamine synthesis and metabolism pathways. Cognitive, auditory and visual processing measures were assessed using a simple 45 minute, office-based procedure. Receiver Operating Curve (ROC and Odds Ratio analysis discovered biomarkers for deficits in folate, vitamin D and B6 and elevations in free copper to zinc ratio, catecholamines and the oxidative stress marker. Deficits were discovered in peripheral visual and auditory end-organ function, intra-cerebral auditory and visual processing speed and dichotic-listening performance. 15 ROC biomarker variables were divided into 5 functional domains. Through a repeated ROC process, individual ROC variables, followed by domains and finally the overall 15 set model, were dichotomously scored and tallied for abnormal results upon which it was found that ≥ 3 out of 5 abnormal domains achieved an AUC of 0.952 with a sensitivity of 84 per cent and a specificity of 90 percent. Six additional middle ear biomarkers in a 21 biomarker set increased sensitivity to 94% percent. Fivefold cross-validation yielded a mean sensitivity of 85% for the 15 biomarker set. Non-parametric regression analysis confirmed that ≥ 3 out of 5 abnormally scored domains predicted > 50% risk of case-ness whilst 4 abnormally-scored domains predicted 88% risk of case-ness and 100% diagnostic certainty was reached when all 5 domains were abnormally scored. These findings require validation in prospective cohorts and other mental

  2. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... aim of this thesis is to compare and evaluate selected rapid evaluation techniques for sensory profiling. Method variations have been suggested for evaluations in product development and quality control, and method insight is provided. The thesis includes three original studies, designed...... as a consequence of the current practices and needs faced in the industry. Study I compared applicability and validity of rapid methods across several panels of trained assessors. Two rapid approaches were introduced for the evaluation of foods. The first method, ‘Free Multiple Sorting’, allows subjects to perform...

  3. Abnormal sensory integration affects balance control in hemiparetic patients within the first year after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa B. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Impairments in balance can be a consequence of changes in the motor, sensory, and integrative aspects of motor control. Abnormal sensory reweighting, i.e., the ability to select the most appropriate sensory information to achieve postural stability, may contribute to balance impairment. The Sensory Organization Test is a component of Computerized Dynamic Posturography that evaluates the impact of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory inputs, as well as sensory reweighting, under conditions of sensory conflict. The aim of this study is to compare balance control in hemiparetic patients during the first year post-stroke and in age-matched neurologically normal subjects using the Berg Balance Scale and Computerized Dynamic Posturography. METHODS: We compared the Berg Balance Scale and Sensory Organization Test scores in 21 patients with hemiparesis after first-ever ischemic stroke and in 21 age-matched, neurologically normal subjects. An equilibrium score was defined for each Sensory Organization Test condition. RESULTS: Berg Balance Scale scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects. Equilibrium scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects for those Sensory Organization Test conditions that did not provide appropriate somatosensory information and under conditions of sensory conflict. A history of falls was more frequent in patients with lower equilibrium scores. CONCLUSION: During the first year after a stroke, defective sensory reweighting significantly impacts balance control in hemiparetic patients. These results are important for the planning of effective rehabilitation interventions.

  4. Artificial Promoters for Metabolic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms...

  5. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that successf......Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  6. Principles of calcite dissolution in human and artificial otoconia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Erik Walther

    Full Text Available Human otoconia provide mechanical stimuli to deflect hair cells of the vestibular sensory epithelium for purposes of detecting linear acceleration and head tilts. During lifetime, the volume and number of otoconia are gradually reduced. In a process of degeneration morphological changes occur. Structural changes in human otoconia are assumed to cause vertigo and balance disorders such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The aim of this study was to investigate the main principles of morphological changes in human otoconia in dissolution experiments by exposure to hydrochloric acid, EDTA, demineralized water and completely purified water respectively. For comparison reasons artificial (biomimetic otoconia (calcite gelatin nanocomposits and natural calcite were used. Morphological changes were detected in time steps by the use of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Under in vitro conditions three main dissolution mechanisms were identified as causing characteristic morphological changes of the specimen under consideration: pH drops in the acidic range, complex formation with calcium ions and changes of ion concentrations in the vicinity of otoconia. Shifts in pH cause a more uniform reduction of otoconia size (isotropic dissolution whereas complexation reactions and changes of the ionic concentrations within the surrounding medium bring about preferred attacks at specific areas (anisotropic dissolution of human and artificial otoconia. Owing to successive reduction of material, all the dissolution mechanisms finally produce fragments and remnants of otoconia. It can be assumed that the organic component of otoconia is not significantly attacked under the given conditions. Artificial otoconia serve as a suitable model system mimicking chemical attacks on biogenic specimens. The underlying principles of calcite dissolution under in vitro conditions may play a role in otoconia degeneration processes such as BPPV.

  7. The Sensory Neocortex and Associative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschauer, Dominik; Rumpel, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Most behaviors in mammals are directly or indirectly guided by prior experience and therefore depend on the ability of our brains to form memories. The ability to form an association between an initially possibly neutral sensory stimulus and its behavioral relevance is essential for our ability to navigate in a changing environment. The formation of a memory is a complex process involving many areas of the brain. In this chapter we review classic and recent work that has shed light on the specific contribution of sensory cortical areas to the formation of associative memories. We discuss synaptic and circuit mechanisms that mediate plastic adaptations of functional properties in individual neurons as well as larger neuronal populations forming topographically organized representations. Furthermore, we describe commonly used behavioral paradigms that are used to study the mechanisms of memory formation. We focus on the auditory modality that is receiving increasing attention for the study of associative memory in rodent model systems. We argue that sensory cortical areas may play an important role for the memory-dependent categorical recognition of previously encountered sensory stimuli.

  8. NEURAL ORGANIZATION OF SENSORY INFORMATIONS FOR TASTE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    TASTE , ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY), (*NERVES, *TONGUE), NERVE CELLS, NERVE IMPULSES, PHYSIOLOGY, NERVOUS SYSTEM, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), NERVE FIBERS, RATS...HAMSTERS, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), PERCEPTION, COOLING, BEHAVIOR, PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, TEMPERATURE, THRESHOLDS(PHYSIOLOGY), CHEMORECEPTORS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, JAPAN

  9. Artificial proprioceptive feedback for myoelectric control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistohl, Tobias; Joshi, Deepak; Ganesh, Gowrishankar; Jackson, Andrew; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2015-05-01

    The typical control of myoelectric interfaces, whether in laboratory settings or real-life prosthetic applications, largely relies on visual feedback because proprioceptive signals from the controlling muscles are either not available or very noisy. We conducted a set of experiments to test whether artificial proprioceptive feedback, delivered noninvasively to another limb, can improve control of a two-dimensional myoelectrically-controlled computer interface. In these experiments, participants were required to reach a target with a visual cursor that was controlled by electromyogram signals recorded from muscles of the left hand, while they were provided with an additional proprioceptive feedback on their right arm by moving it with a robotic manipulandum. Provision of additional artificial proprioceptive feedback improved the angular accuracy of their movements when compared to using visual feedback alone but did not increase the overall accuracy quantified with the average distance between the cursor and the target. The advantages conferred by proprioception were present only when the proprioceptive feedback had similar orientation to the visual feedback in the task space and not when it was mirrored, demonstrating the importance of congruency in feedback modalities for multi-sensory integration. Our results reveal the ability of the human motor system to learn new inter-limb sensory-motor associations; the motor system can utilize task-related sensory feedback, even when it is available on a limb distinct from the one being actuated. In addition, the proposed task structure provides a flexible test paradigm by which the effectiveness of various sensory feedback and multi-sensory integration for myoelectric prosthesis control can be evaluated.

  10. Sensory Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    little note of the body-mind interactions we have with the material world. Utilizing examples from primary schools, it is argued that a sensory pedagogy in science requires a deliberate sensitization and validation of the senses’ presence and that a sensor pedagogy approach may reveal the unique ways...... in how we all experience the world. Troubling science education pedagogy is therefore also a reconceptualization of who we are and how we make sense of the world and the acceptance that the body-mind is present, imbalanced and complex....

  11. The changing sensory room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    In 2017 the kindergarten The Milky Way in the city Vejle in Denmark made a sensory room that has the special ability change whenever wanted by the children and social educators. Kjetil Sandvik (to the right) from Copenhagen University and Klaus Thestrup from Aarhus University reflects upon what...... they saw, took part in and talked with the social educators about. Jacob Knudsen from VIFIN filmed the two gentlemen and organised the project. it is a room composed around common experiments, many self-made objects, open narrative structures. and a combination of digital and analogue elements....

  12. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  13. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  14. Variable sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-03-01

    Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses. If multiple sensory signals that are highly variable are added together to process more complex sensory stimuli, then this might destabilise later perception and impair cognition. Methods to improve sensory processing have shown improvements in more general cognition. Studies that specifically investigate differences in sensory trial-to-trial variability in autism, and the potential changes in variability before and after treatment, could ascertain if trial-to-trial variability is a good mechanism to target for treatment in autism. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Amruth; S, Praveen-Kumar; B, Nataraju; Bs, Nagaraja

    2014-07-01

    In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ≥ 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts ( 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy.

  16. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  17. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using latissimus dorsi muscle was previously used to compensate for congestive heart failure. Now, however, this method is not acceptable because the long-term result was not as expected owing to fatigue of the skeletal muscle. BioMetal fiber developed by Toki Corporation is one of the artificial muscles activated by electric current. The behavior of this fiber is similar to that of organic muscle. We made an artificial muscle like the latissimus dorsi using BioMetal fiber and tested whether we could use this new muscle as a cardiac supporting device. Testing one Biometal fiber showed the following performance: practical use maximal generative force was 30 g, exercise variation was 50%, and the standard driving current was 220 mA. We created a 4 x 12-cm tabular artificial muscle using 8 BioMetal fibers as a cardiac support device. We also made a simulation circuit composed of a 6 x 8-cm soft bag with unidirectional valves, reservoir, and connecting tube. The simulation circuit was filled with water and the soft bag was wrapped with the artificial muscle device. After powering the device electrically at 9 V with a current of 220 mA for each fiber, we measured the inside pressure and observed the movement of the artificial device. The artificial muscle contracted in 0.5 s for peak time and squeezed the soft bag. The peak pressure inside the soft bag was measured as 10 mmHg. Although further work will be needed to enhance the speed of deformability and movement simulating contraction, we conclude that artificial muscle may be potentially useful as a cardiac assistance device that can be developed for dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

  18. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA)); Belin, A.d' A. (Shute, Mihaly, and Weinberger, Santa Fe, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Sensory Perception and Aging in Model Systems: From the Outside In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Nancy J.; Kuo, Tsung-Han; Chan, Tammy P.; Pletcher, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory systems provide organisms from bacteria to human with the ability to interact with the world. Numerous senses have evolved that allow animals to detect and decode cues from sources in both their external and internal environments. Recent advances in understanding the central mechanisms by which the brains of simple organisms evaluate different cues and initiate behavioral decisions, coupled with observations that sensory manipulations are capable of altering organism lifespan, have opened the door for powerful new research into aging. While direct links between sensory perception and aging have been established only recently, here we discuss these initial discoveries and evaluate the potential for different forms of sensory processing to modulate lifespan across taxa. Harnessing the neurobiology of simple model systems to study the biological impact of sensory experiences will yield insights into the broad influence of sensory perception in mammals and may help uncover new mechanisms of healthy aging. PMID:21756108

  20. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2015-01-01

    Life in the ocean is shaped by the trade-off between a need to encounter other organisms for feeding or mating, and to avoid encounters with predators. Avoiding or achieving encounters necessitates an efficient means of collecting the maximum possible information from the surroundings through...... predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align very well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic...

  1. ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL INTELLIGENCE IN ANTHROPOGENIC EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Sergeev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we show the link between both artificial and natural intelligence and the system’s complexity during the life-cycle. Autopoetic’s type of living systems determines the differences between natural and artificial intelligence; artificial environments have an influence to the intelligence abilities development. We present the «diffusion intellect» concept where the diffusion intellect is considered as a synergistic unity of natural and artificial intellect in organized environments. 

  2. Biological Correlates of Cognitive, Sensory and Motor Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    receptor organs are of great interest in a compre- hensive understanding of sensory systems (Harris, 1974). Taste buds disappear following...cold. The interoceptors include a variety of mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors such as the skeletal muscle spindles, tendon end organs, end

  3. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception.

  4. Sensory characteristics of camphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B G

    1990-05-01

    The perceptual effects of camphor on hairy skin were measured in a psychophysical experiment. Subjects rated the intensity and quality of sensations produced when a solution of 20% camphor (in a vehicle of ethanol and deionized H2O) was applied topically to the volar forearm. Under conditions in which skin temperature was varied either from 33-43 degrees C or from 33-18 degrees C, it was found that camphor increased the perceived intensity of the cutaneous sensations produced during heating and cooling. Although camphor's effect appeared to be greater during warming, neither effect was large. Camphor also produced a significant increase in the frequency of reports of "burning." It is concluded that camphor is a relatively weak sensory irritant that may have a modest excitatory effect on thermosensitive (and perhaps nociceptive) cutaneous fibers.

  5. Tic Modulation Using Sensory Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca W. Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sensory trick, or geste antagoniste, is defined as a physical gesture (such as a touch on a particular body part that mitigates the production of an involuntary movement. This phenomenon is most commonly described as a feature of dystonia. Here we present a case of successful modulation of tics using sensory tricks.Case Report:: A case report and video are presented. The case and video demonstrate a 19-year-old male who successfully controlled his tics with various sensory tricks.Discussion: It is underappreciated by movement disorder physicians that sensory tricks can play a role in tics. Introducing this concept to patients could potentially help in tic control. In addition, understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of sensory tricks could help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of tics.

  6. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  8. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  9. A Combinatorial Approach to Induce Sensory Axon Regeneration into the Dorsal Root Avulsed Spinal Cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeber, Jan; Konig, Niclas; Trolle, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Spinal root injuries result in newly formed glial scar formation, which prevents regeneration of sensory axons causing permanent sensory loss. Previous studies showed that delivery of trophic factors or implantation of human neural progenitor cells supports sensory axon regeneration and partly......MIM), supported sensory axon regeneration. However, when hscNSPC and MesoMIM were combined, sensory axon regeneration failed. Morphological and tracing analysis showed that sensory axons grow through the newly established glial scar along “bridges” formed by migrating stem cells. Coimplantation of Meso...... their level of differentiation. Our data show that (1) the ability of stem cells to migrate into the spinal cord and organize cellular “bridges” in the newly formed interface is crucial for successful sensory axon regeneration, (2) trophic factor mimetics delivered by mesoporous silica may be a convenient...

  10. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  11. Physics-based deformable organisms for medical image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarneh, Ghassan; McIntosh, Chris

    2005-04-01

    Previously, "Deformable organisms" were introduced as a novel paradigm for medical image analysis that uses artificial life modelling concepts. Deformable organisms were designed to complement the classical bottom-up deformable models methodologies (geometrical and physical layers), with top-down intelligent deformation control mechanisms (behavioral and cognitive layers). However, a true physical layer was absent and in order to complete medical image segmentation tasks, deformable organisms relied on pure geometry-based shape deformations guided by sensory data, prior structural knowledge, and expert-generated schedules of behaviors. In this paper we introduce the use of physics-based shape deformations within the deformable organisms framework yielding additional robustness by allowing intuitive real-time user guidance and interaction when necessary. We present the results of applying our physics-based deformable organisms, with an underlying dynamic spring-mass mesh model, to segmenting and labelling the corpus callosum in 2D midsagittal magnetic resonance images.

  12. Sensory maps in the claustrum of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C R; Graybiel, A M

    1980-12-04

    The claustrum is a telencephalic cell group (Fig. 1A, B) possessing widespread reciprocal connections with the neocortex. In this regard, it bears a unique and striking resemblance to the thalamus. We have now examined the anatomical ordering of pathways linking the claustrum with sensory areas of the cat neocortex and, in parallel electrophysiological experiments, have studied the functional organization of claustral sensory zones so identified. Our findings indicate that there are discrete visual and somatosensory subdivisions in the claustrum interconnected with the corresponding primary sensory areas of the neocortex and that the respective zones contain orderly retinotopic and somatotopic maps. A third claustral region receiving fibre projections from the auditory cortex in or near area Ep was found to contain neurones responsive to auditory stimulation. We conclude that loops connecting sensory areas of the neocortex with satellite zones in the claustrum contribute to the early processing of exteroceptive information by the forebrain.

  13. Remodeling sensory cortical maps implants specific behavioral memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszczad, K M; Miasnikov, A A; Weinberger, N M

    2013-08-29

    Neural mechanisms underlying the capacity of memory to be rich in sensory detail are largely unknown. A candidate mechanism is learning-induced plasticity that remodels the adult sensory cortex. Here, expansion in the primary auditory cortical (A1) tonotopic map of rats was induced by pairing a 3.66-kHz tone with activation of the nucleus basalis, mimicking the effects of natural associative learning. Remodeling of A1 produced de novo specific behavioral memory, but neither memory nor plasticity was consistently at the frequency of the paired tone, which typically decreased in A1 representation. Rather, there was a specific match between individual subjects' area of expansion and the tone that was strongest in each animal's memory, as determined by post-training frequency generalization gradients. These findings provide the first demonstration of a match between the artificial induction of specific neural representational plasticity and artificial induction of behavioral memory. As such, together with prior and present findings for detection, correlation and mimicry of plasticity with the acquisition of memory, they satisfy a key criterion for neural substrates of memory. This demonstrates that directly remodeling sensory cortical maps is sufficient for the specificity of memory formation. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory adaptation to electrical stimulation of the somatosensory nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Emily Lauren; Delhaye, Benoit; Schiefer, Matthew A; Bensmaia, Sliman J; Tyler, Dustin J

    2018-03-19

    Sensory systems adapt their sensitivity to ambient stimulation levels to improve their responsiveness to changes in stimulation. The sense of touch is also subject to adaptation, as evidenced by the desensitization produced by prolonged vibratory stimulation of the skin. Electrical stimulation of nerves elicits tactile sensations that can convey feedback for bionic limbs. In this study, we investigate whether artificial touch is also subject to adaptation, despite the fact that the peripheral mechanotransducers are bypassed. Approach: Using well-established psychophysical paradigms, we characterize the time course and magnitude of sensory adaptation caused by extended electrical stimulation of the residual somatosensory nerves in three human amputees implanted with cuff electrodes. Main results: We find that electrical stimulation of the nerve also induces perceptual adaptation that recovers after cessation of the stimulus. The time course and magnitude of electrically-induced adaptation are equivalent to their mechanically-induced counterparts. Significance: We conclude that, in natural touch, the process of mechanotransduction is not required for adaptation, and artificial touch naturally experiences adaptation-induced adjustments of the dynamic range of sensations. Further, as it does for native hands, adaptation confers to bionic hands enhanced sensitivity to changes in stimulation and thus a more natural sensory experience. . Creative Commons Attribution license.

  15. REMODELING SENSORY CORTICAL MAPS IMPLANTS SPECIFIC BEHAVIORAL MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszczad, Kasia M.; Miasnikov, Alexandre A.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying the capacity of memory to be rich with sensory detail are largely unknown. A candidate mechanism is learning-induced plasticity that remodels adult sensory cortex. Here, expansion in the primary auditory cortical (A1) tonotopic map of rats was induced by pairing a 3.66 kHz tone with activation of the nucleus basalis, mimicking the effects of natural associative learning. Remodeling of A1 produced de novo specific behavioral memory, but neither memory nor plasticity were consistently at the frequency of the paired tone, which typically decreased in A1 representation. Rather, there was a specific match between individual subjects’ area of expansion and the tone that was strongest in each animal’s memory, as determined by post-training frequency generalization gradients. These findings provide the first demonstration of a match between the artificial induction of specific neural representational plasticity and artificial induction of behavioral memory. As such, together with prior and present findings for detection, correlation and mimicry of plasticity with the acquisition of memory, they satisfy a key criterion for neural substrates of memory. This demonstrates that directly remodeling sensory cortical maps is sufficient for the specificity of memory formation. PMID:23639876

  16. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli.

  17. Perfil sensorial de iogurte light, sabor pêssego Sensory profile of peach flavored light yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. R. Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinado o perfil sensorial descritivo de três amostras de iogurte light, sabor pêssego, pela metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. A equipe sensorial definiu os termos descritores, os materiais de referência para o treinamento das qualidades e quantificações de cada um dos termos e a ficha de avaliação das amostras, de forma consensual. Dez provadores foram selecionados e rigorosamente treinados para compor a equipe definitiva, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade e consenso dos provadores entre si. Foram gerados doze termos descritores pelo método de rede. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra por escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos, sendo o mínimo à esquerda e o máximo à direita. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Os resultados indicaram que as amostras comerciais apresentaram grande variação em seus perfis sensoriais. Na ACP, ficou evidenciado que a amostra A foi caracterizada principalmente pelos atributos gosto doce, sabor pêssego e firmeza dos pedaços de fruta. A amostra B foi caracterizada pelos atributos brilho, cor pêssego e cremosidade, e a amostra C foi caracterizada pela maior intensidade dos atributos gosto ácido, adstringência, textura farinácea e aroma artificial de pêssego. De acordo com o teste de aceitação, todas as amostras apresentaram boa aceitação em todos os atributos avaliados. Desta maneira, a análise do perfil sensorial da amostra C, que contém proteína de soja na sua formulação, revelou que este ingrediente não foi percebido pelos provadores, e não interferiu na sua aceitação.The descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three samples of peach flavored light yogurt were determined using methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. A sensory panel

  18. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  19. Audio-motor but not visuo-motor temporal recalibration speeds up sensory processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugano, Y.; Keetels, M.N.; Vroomen, J.; Mouraux, André

    2017-01-01

    Perception of synchrony between one's own action (a finger tap) and the sensory feedback thereof (a visual flash or an auditory pip) can be recalibrated after exposure to an artificially inserted delay between them (temporal recalibration effect: TRE). TRE might be mediated by a compensatory shift

  20. Identification and Characterization of Mouse Otic Sensory Lineage Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron H. Hartman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5 as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting

  1. Sensory perception and aging in model systems: from the outside in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Nancy J; Kuo, Tsung-Han; Chan, Tammy P; Pletcher, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    Sensory systems provide organisms from bacteria to humans with the ability to interact with the world. Numerous senses have evolved that allow animals to detect and decode cues from sources in both their external and internal environments. Recent advances in understanding the central mechanisms by which the brains of simple organisms evaluate different cues and initiate behavioral decisions, coupled with observations that sensory manipulations are capable of altering organismal lifespan, have opened the door for powerful new research into aging. Although direct links between sensory perception and aging have been established only recently, here we discuss these initial discoveries and evaluate the potential for different forms of sensory processing to modulate lifespan across taxa. Harnessing the neurobiology of simple model systems to study the biological impact of sensory experiences will yield insights into the broad influence of sensory perception in mammals and may help uncover new mechanisms of healthy aging.

  2. A Novel Sensory Mapping Design for Bipedal Walking on a Sloped Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Min Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an environment recognition method for bipedal robots using a time-delay neural network. For a robot to walk in a varying terrain, it is desirable that the robot can adapt to any environment encountered in real-time. This paper aims to develop a sensory mapping unit to recognize environment types from the input sensory data based on an artificial neural network approach. With the proposed sensory mapping design, a bipedal walking robot can obtain real-time environment information and select an appropriate walking pattern accordingly. Due to the time-dependent property of sensory data, the sensory mapping is realized by using a time-delay neural network. The sensory data of earlier time sequences combined with current sensory data are sent to the neural network. The proposed method has been implemented on the humanoid robot NAO for verification. Several interesting experiments were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the sensory mapping design. The mapping design is validated for the uphill, downhill and flat surface cases, where three types of environment can be recognized by the NAO robot online.

  3. The role of automation and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappell, R. T.

    1983-07-01

    Consideration is given to emerging technologies that are not currently in common use, yet will be mature enough for implementation in a space station. Artificial intelligence (AI) will permit more autonomous operation and improve the man-machine interfaces. Technology goals include the development of expert systems, a natural language query system, automated planning systems, and AI image understanding systems. Intelligent robots and teleoperators will be needed, together with improved sensory systems for the robotics, housekeeping, vehicle control, and spacecraft housekeeping systems. Finally, NASA is developing the ROBSIM computer program to evaluate level of automation, perform parametric studies and error analyses, optimize trajectories and control systems, and assess AI technology.

  4. Age effects on sensory-processing abilities and their impact on handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hus, Sari; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-12-01

    Sensory-processing abilities are known to deteriorate in the elderly. As a result, daily activities such as handwriting may be impaired. Yet, knowledge about sensory-processing involvement in handwriting characteristics among older persons is limited. To examine how age influences sensory-processing abilities and the impact on handwriting as a daily performance. The study participants were 118 healthy, independently functioning adults divided into four age groups: 31-45, 46-60, 61-75 and 76+ years. All participants completed the Adolescent/ Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Handwriting process was documented using the Computerized Handwriting Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Age significantly affects sensory processing and handwriting pressure as well as temporal and spatial measures. Both handwriting time and spatial organization of the written product were predicted by sensory seeking. When examining age contribution to the prediction of handwriting by sensory processing, sensory seeking showed a tendency for predicting handwriting pressure (p = .06), while sensory sensitivity significantly predicted handwriting velocity. Age appears to influence sensory-processing abilities and affect daily performance tasks, such as handwriting, for which sensitivity and seeking for sensations are essential. Awareness of clinicians to sensory-processing deficits among older adults and examining their impact on broader daily activities are essential to improve daily performance and quality of life.

  5. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  6. Motor and sensory alalia: diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Bobylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alalia is a speech disorder that develops due to organic brain damage in children with normal hearing and intelligence during the first three year of life. Systemic speech underdevelopment in alalia is characterized by violations in the phonetic, phonemic, lexical, and grammatical structure. Patients with alalia can also have non-speech related impairments, including motor (impaired movement and coordination, sensory (impaired sensitivity and perception, and psychopathological disorders. There are three types of alalia: motor, sensory, and mixed. Children with motor alalia have expressive language disorders, speech praxis, poor speech fluency, impaired articulation, and other focal neurological symptoms; however, they understand speech directed to them. Patients with motor alalia are often left-handed. Regional slowing and epileptiform activity are often detected on their electroencephalogram.  Children with sensory alalia are characterized by poor speech understanding (despite normal hearing resulting in secondary underdevelopment of their own speech. These patients have problems with the analysis of sounds, including speech sounds (impaired speech gnosis, which prevents the development of association between the sound image and the object. Therefore, the child hears, but does not understand the speech directed at him/her (auditory agnosia. Differential diagnosis of alalia is challenging and may require several months of observation. It also implies the exclusion of hearing loss and mental disorders.

  7. Analysis of sensory processing in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Thais Invenção; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Martinez, Cláudia Maria Simões; Tudella, Eloisa

    2016-12-01

    Premature birth suggests condition of biological vulnerability, predisposing to neurological injuries, requiring hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, which, while contributing to increase the survival rates, expose infants to sensory stimuli harmful to the immature organism. To evaluate the sensory processing at 4 and 6months' corrected age. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 30 infants divided into an experimental group composed of preterm infants (n=15), and a control group composed of full-term infants (n=15). The infants were assessed using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants. The preterm infants showed poor performance in the total score of the test in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and reactivity to vestibular stimulation. When groups were compared, significant differences in the total score (p=0.0113) and in the reactivity to tactile deep pressure (psensory processing. These changes were most evident in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and vestibular stimulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Activation of Six1 Expression in Vertebrate Sensory Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Sato

    Full Text Available SIX1 homeodomain protein is one of the essential key regulators of sensory organ development. Six1-deficient mice lack the olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organs, cochlea, vestibule and vestibuloacoustic ganglion, and also show poor neural differentiation in the distal part of the cranial ganglia. Simultaneous loss of both Six1 and Six4 leads to additional abnormalities such as small trigeminal ganglion and abnormal dorsal root ganglia (DRG. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular mechanism that controls Six1 expression in sensory organs, particularly in the trigeminal ganglion and DRG. To this end, we focused on the sensory ganglia-specific Six1 enhancer (Six1-8 conserved between chick and mouse. In vivo reporter assays using both animals identified an important core region comprising binding consensus sequences for several transcription factors including nuclear hormone receptors, TCF/LEF, SMAD, POU homeodomain and basic-helix-loop-helix proteins. The results provided information on upstream factors and signals potentially relevant to Six1 regulation in sensory neurons. We also report the establishment of a new transgenic mouse line (mSix1-8-NLSCre that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of mouse Six1-8. Cre-mediated recombination was detected specifically in ISL1/2-positive sensory neurons of Six1-positive cranial sensory ganglia and DRG. The unique features of the mSix1-8-NLSCre line are the absence of Cre-mediated recombination in SOX10-positive glial cells and central nervous system and ability to induce recombination in a subset of neurons derived from the olfactory placode/epithelium. This mouse model can be potentially used to advance research on sensory development.

  9. Analyzing sensory data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Descriptive Approaches When panelists rate products according to one single list of attributes Data, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Measuring the impact of the experimental design on the perception of the products? When products are rated according to one single list of attributesData, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Adding supplementary information to the product space When products are rated according to several lists

  10. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use of ...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....

  11. Sensory Hair Cells: An Introduction to Structure and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Duane R

    2018-06-18

    Sensory hair cells are specialized secondary sensory cells that mediate our senses of hearing, balance, linear acceleration, and angular acceleration (head rotation). In addition, hair cells in fish and amphibians mediate sensitivity to water movement through the lateral line system, and closely related electroreceptive cells mediate sensitivity to low-voltage electric fields in the aquatic environment of many fish species and several species of amphibian.Sensory hair cells share many structural and functional features across all vertebrate groups, while at the same time they are specialized for employment in a wide variety of sensory tasks. The complexity of hair cell structure is large, and the diversity of hair cell applications in sensory systems exceeds that seen for most, if not all, sensory cell types. The intent of this review is to summarize the more significant structural features and some of the more interesting and important physiological mechanisms that have been elucidated thus far. Outside vertebrates, hair cells are only known to exist in the coronal organ of tunicates. Electrical resonance, electromotility, and their exquisite mechanical sensitivity all contribute to the attractiveness of hair cells as a research subject.

  12. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuhako, Vanessa Provenzano

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  13. The Significance of Memory in Sensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S

    2017-05-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The significance of memory in sensory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S.

    2017-01-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing.

  15. Methyl-accepting protein associated with bacterial sensory phodopsin I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudich, E.N.; Hasselbacher, C.A.; Spudich, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo radiolabeling of Halaobacterium halobium phototaxis mutants and revertants with L-[methyl- 3 H] methionine implicated seven methyl-accepting protein bands with apparent molecular masses from 65 to 150 kilodaltons (kDa) in adaptation of the organism to chemo and photo stimuli, and one of these (94 kDa) was specifically implicated in photoaxis. The lability of the radiolabeled bands to mild base treatment indicated the the methyl linkages are carboxylmethylesters, as is the case in the eubacterial chemotaxis receptor-transducers. The 94-kDa protein was present in increased amounts in an overproducer of the apoprotein of sensory rhodopsin I, one of two retinal-containing photoaxis receptors in H. halobium. It was absent in a strain the contained sensory rhodopsin II and that lacked sensory rhodopsin I and was also absent in a mutant that lacked both photoreceptors. Based in the role of methyl-accepting proteins in chemotaxis in other bacteria, we suggest that the 94-kDa protein is the signal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. By [ 3 H]retinal labeling studies, we previously identified a 25-kDa retinal-binding polypeptide that was derived from photochemically reactive sensory rhodopsin I. When H. halobium membranes containing sensory rhodopsin I were treated by a procedure that stably reduced [ 3 H] retinal onto the 25-kDa apoprotein, a 94-kDa protein was also found to be radiolabeled. Protease digestion confirmed that the 94-kDa retinal-labeled protein was the same as the methyl-accepting protein that was suggested above to be the siginal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. Possible models are that the 25- and 94-kDa proteins are tightly interacting components of the photosensory signaling machinery or that both are forms of sensory rhodopsin I

  16. Uranium-induced sensory alterations in the zebrafish Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucher, K., E-mail: kfaucher@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO), Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, Centre de Cadarache, Batiment 186, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Floriani, M.; Gilbin, R.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO), Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, Centre de Cadarache, Batiment 186, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2012-11-15

    The effect of chronic exposure to uranium ions (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) on sensory tissues including the olfactory and lateral line systems was investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) using scanning electron microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to uranium damaged sensory tissues in fish. The fish were exposed to uranium at the concentration of 250 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 10 days followed by a depuration period of 23 days. Measurements of uranium uptake in different fish organs: olfactory rosettes and bulbs, brain, skin, and muscles, were also determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS during the entire experimental period. The results showed that uranium displayed a strong affinity for sensory structures in direct contact with the surrounding medium, such as the olfactory and lateral line systems distributed on the skin. A decreasing gradient of uranium concentration was found: olfactory rosettes > olfactory bulbs > skin > muscles > brain. At the end of the experiment, uranium was present in non-negligible quantities in sensory tissues. In parallel, fish exposed to uranium showed severe sensory tissue alterations at the level of the olfactory and lateral line systems. In both sensory systems, the gross morphology was altered and the sensory hair cells were significantly damaged very early after the initiation of exposure (from the 3rd day). At the end of the experiment, after 23 days of depuration, the lateral line system still displayed slight tissue alterations, but approximately 80% of the neuromasts in this system had regenerated. In contrast, the olfactory system took more time to recover, as more than half of the olfactory rosettes observed remained destroyed at the end of the experiment. This study showed, for the first time, that uranium is able to damage fish sensory tissues to such an extent that tissue regeneration is delayed.

  17. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  19. Mapping Sensory Spots for Moderate Temperatures on the Back of Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Guixu; Zhou, Sikai; Han, Danhong; Xu, Jingjing; Xu, Shengyong

    2017-12-04

    Thermosensation with thermoreceptors plays an important role in maintaining body temperature at an optimal state and avoiding potential damage caused by harmful hot or cold environmental temperatures. In this work, the locations of sensory spots for sensing moderate temperatures of 40-50 °C on the back of the hands of young Chinese people were mapped in a blind-test manner with a thermal probe of 1.0 mm spatial resolution. The number of sensory spots increased along with the testing temperature; however, the surface density of sensory spots was remarkably lower than those reported previously. The locations of the spots were irregularly distributed and subject-dependent. Even for the same subject, the number and location of sensory spots were unbalanced and asymmetric between the left and right hands. The results may offer valuable information for designing artificial electronic skin and wearable devices, as well as for clinical applications.

  20. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  1. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...ftf1 829 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (RIS)(U) MAY CONCEPTS 1/3 A~NLYSIS AGENCY BETHESA RD R B NOJESKI FED 6? CM-RP-97-1 NCASIFIED /01/6 M |K 1.0...p/ - - ., e -- CAA- RP- 87-1 SAOFŔ)11 I ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (AIS) tNo DTICFEBRUARY 1987 LECT 00 I PREPARED BY RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  2. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  3. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrar, Daniel; Sato, Naoyuki; Schuster, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  4. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  5. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  6. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  7. Generation of tactile maps for artificial skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon McGregor

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that representations of retinal surfaces can be learned from the intrinsic structure of visual sensory data in neural simulations, in robots, as well as by animals. Furthermore, representations of cochlear (frequency surfaces can be learned from auditory data in neural simulations. Advances in hardware technology have allowed the development of artificial skin for robots, realising a new sensory modality which differs in important respects from vision and audition in its sensorimotor characteristics. This provides an opportunity to further investigate ordered sensory map formation using computational tools. We show that it is possible to learn representations of non-trivial tactile surfaces, which require topologically and geometrically involved three-dimensional embeddings. Our method automatically constructs a somatotopic map corresponding to the configuration of tactile sensors on a rigid body, using only intrinsic properties of the tactile data. The additional complexities involved in processing the tactile modality require the development of a novel multi-dimensional scaling algorithm. This algorithm, ANISOMAP, extends previous methods and outperforms them, producing high-quality reconstructions of tactile surfaces in both simulation and hardware tests. In addition, the reconstruction turns out to be robust to unanticipated hardware failure.

  8. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  10. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  11. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  13. Multi-sensory Sculpting (MSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Maria

    2013-01-01

    -conscious and modality-specific level and use multi-sensory metaphors to express embodied knowledge. Retrieving embodied brand knowledge requires methods that (a) stimulate various senses that have been involved in brand knowledge formation and (b) give consumers the opportunity to express themselves metaphorically...

  14. Wastewater treatment by a pilot system of artificial wetlands: removal evaluation of the organic load; Tratamiento de aguas residuales por un sistema piloto de humedales artificiales: evaluacion de la remocion de la carga organica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Aguilar, Mariana [Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: ortizhl@uaem.mx; Colin Cruz, Arturo [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez Salinas, Enrique; Ortiz Hernandez, Ma. Laura [Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-08-15

    Wastewater treatment is a priority at the global level, because it is important to have enough water of good quality, which will allow an improvement of environment, health and life quality. In Mexico, because of insufficient infrastructure, high costs, lack of maintenance and qualified staff, only 36 % of the generated wastewaters are treated, which generates the need for developing alternative technologies for their depuration. Artificial wetlands are an alternative due their high efficiency for removal of polluting agents and their low installation and maintenance costs. This paper evaluates the removal percentage of the organic charge of wastewaters in a treatment system of artificial wetlands of horizontal flux, with two vegetal species. The system was designed with three modules installed in a sequential way. At the first one, organisms of the species Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel were integrated; at the second, organisms of the species Typha dominguensis (Pers.) Steudel, and at the third, both species. The experimental modules were installed at the effluent of a primary treatment, which contains municipal wastewater coming from a research building. The following parameters were analyzed in the water: chemical oxygen demand (COD), ions of nitrogen (N-NO{sub 3}-, N-NO{sub 2}- y N-NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and total phosphorus. Additionally, the total count of bacteria associated to the system was evaluated. Results showed that the system is an option for the removal of organic matter and nutrients, of low operation and maintenance costs. [Spanish] El tratamiento de las aguas residuales es una cuestion prioritaria a nivel mundial, ya que es importante disponer de agua de calidad y en cantidad suficiente, lo que permitira una mejora del ambiente, la salud y la calidad de vida. En Mexico, debido a la insuficiente infraestructura, los altos costos, la falta de mantenimiento y de personal capacitado, solo 36 % de las aguas residuales generadas reciben

  15. Effect of the spontaneous fermentation and the ageing on the chemo-sensory quality of Brazilian organic cachaça Efeito da fermentação natural e do envelhecimento sobre a qualidade química e sensorial de cachaça orgânica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afra Vital Matos Dias Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the effect of the spontaneous fermentation/natural ferment (NF on the chemo-sensory quality of cachaça, comparing to the commercial ferment (CF. The effect of ageing (maturation was also analysed in the beverage. Microbiological analysis (plating on selective media for total/wild yeast and bacteria counting and physico-chemical analysis (pH, acidity and soluble solids were performed in the samples of the must and the ferment collected during three cycles of fermentation in a semi-industrial scale. Samples of cachaça were stored in 5-L oak containers for 45 days, subsequently analyzing the physico-chemical characteristics (pH, acidity, alcohol content, copper and secondary compounds and sensory acceptability (aroma, flavour, colour, body and global impression. The fermentation with NF showed higher number of wild yeasts; however there was no difference in the number of bacteria comparing to CF. An intense acidification occurred during the preparation of NF, which was also observed in the initial cycles of fermentation, but decreased afterwards. Greater alterations in cachaça composition were found to be more exclusively related to the maturation than to the type of ferment, except for the acidity. However, there was a significant loss of aroma, flavour and global impression after maturation but only in cachaça produced with the CF. The results revealed a strong interaction between ferment and maturation of the beverage, suggesting that substances produced by the microorganisms from different inocula during fermentation reacted differently with the wood components of the barrels influencing the sensory attributes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da fermentação espontânea/fermento natural (NF sobre a qualidade fisico-química e aceitabilidade da cachaça, comparando-se com o fermento comercial (CF. O efeito do envelhecimento (maturação da bebida foi também avaliado. Análises microbiol

  16. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  17. Focal Dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePerruchoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, and the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized by sensory and motor deficits in the absence of basic motor impairments. Despite the fundamental impact of sensory-motor integration mechanisms on daily life, the general principles of healthy and pathological anatomic-functional organization of sensory-motor integration remain to be clarified. Based on the available data from experimental psychology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, we propose a bio-computational model of sensory-motor integration: the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE. Aiming at direct therapeutic implementations and with the final target of implementing novel intervention protocols for motor rehabilitation, our main goal is to provide the information necessary for further validating the SMILE model. By translating neuroscientific hypotheses into empirical investigations and clinically relevant questions, the prediction based on the SMILE model can be further extended to other pathological conditions characterized by impaired sensory-motor integration.

  18. Focal dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchoud, David; Murray, Micah M; Lefebvre, Jeremie; Ionta, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized by sensory and motor deficits in the absence of basic motor impairments. Despite the fundamental impact of sensory-motor integration mechanisms on daily life, the general principles of healthy and pathological anatomic-functional organization of sensory-motor integration remain to be clarified. Based on the available data from experimental psychology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, we propose a bio-computational model of sensory-motor integration: the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE). Aiming at direct therapeutic implementations and with the final target of implementing novel intervention protocols for motor rehabilitation, our main goal is to provide the information necessary for further validating the SMILE model. By translating neuroscientific hypotheses into empirical investigations and clinically relevant questions, the prediction based on the SMILE model can be further extended to other pathological conditions characterized by impaired sensory-motor integration.

  19. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  20. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  1. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  2. Synthetic and Bio-Artificial Tactile Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Carrozza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art of artificial tactile sensing, with a particular focus on bio-hybrid and fully-biological approaches. To this aim, the study of physiology of the human sense of touch and of the coding mechanisms of tactile information is a significant starting point, which is briefly explored in this review. Then, the progress towards the development of an artificial sense of touch are investigated. Artificial tactile sensing is analysed with respect to the possible approaches to fabricate the outer interface layer: synthetic skin versus bio-artificial skin. With particular respect to the synthetic skin approach, a brief overview is provided on various technologies and transduction principles that can be integrated beneath the skin layer. Then, the main focus moves to approaches characterized by the use of bio-artificial skin as an outer layer of the artificial sensory system. Within this design solution for the skin, bio-hybrid and fully-biological tactile sensing systems are thoroughly presented: while significant results have been reported for the development of tissue engineered skins, the development of mechanotransduction units and their integration is a recent trend that is still lagging behind, therefore requiring research efforts and investments. In the last part of the paper, application domains and perspectives of the reviewed tactile sensing technologies are discussed.

  3. The Nexus between Artificial Intelligence and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gevel, A.J.W.; Noussair, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    This book is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the notion of the Singularity, a stage in development in which technological progress and economic growth increase at a near-infinite rate. Section 3 describes what artificial intelligence is and how it has been applied. Section 4 considers

  4. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of ...

  5. Minimally Naturalistic Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Steven Stenberg

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advancement of machine learning techniques has re-energized research into general artificial intelligence. While the idea of domain-agnostic meta-learning is appealing, this emerging field must come to terms with its relationship to human cognition and the statistics and structure of the tasks humans perform. The position of this article is that only by aligning our agents' abilities and environments with those of humans do we stand a chance at developing general artificial intellig...

  6. Artificial Intelligence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence and Software Engineering Working Notes, March 1989. Blumenthal, Brad, "An Architecture for Automating...Artificial Intelligence Project Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-OGO Artificial Intelligence LaboratO"ry The University of Texas at...Austin N>.. ~ ~ JA 1/I 1991 n~~~ Austin, Texas 78712 ________k A,.tificial Intelligence Project i Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-0060

  7. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiol...

  8. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  9. Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2013-10-01

    Many anthropogenic noise sources are nowadays contributing to the general noise budget of the oceans. The extent to which sound in the sea impacts and affects marine life is a topic of considerable current interest both to the scientific community and to the general public. Cepaholopods potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise that would have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts. These are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Controlled Exposure Experiments, including the use of a 50-400Hz sweep (RL=157±5dB re 1μPa with peak levels up to SPL=175dB re 1μPa) revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea, when exposed to low frequency sounds: (n=76) of Sepia officinalis, (n=4) Octopus vulgaris, (n=5) Loligo vulgaris and (n=2) Illex condietii. The analysis was performed through scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopical techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopods' statocyst, especially on the macula and crista. All exposed individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species that have been exposed to much higher intensities of sound: Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. The cytoplasmic content of the damaged hair cells showed obvious changes, including the presence of numerous vacuoles

  10. Functional properties and sensory testing of whey protein concentrate sweetened with rebaudioside A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gimenez MILANI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To develop a natural dietary product with functional benefits for diabetic patients. Whey protein concentrate was obtained through the separation membrane processes and sweetened with rebaudioside A. This product was submitted to sensory testing in humans and used to evaluate possible functional properties in male Wistar rats models with diabetesMellitus induced by streptozotocin. Methods: Two concentrates were produced. Only the second showed protein content of 74.3 and 17.3% of lactose was used as supplementation in induced diabetic rats. This concentrate was obtained from the concentration by reverse osmosis system (180 k Daltons, followed by nanofiltration in a 500 k Daltons membrane and spray drying at 5.0% solution of the first concentrate developed. The concentrate was sweetened with rebaudioside A (rebaudioside A 26 mg/100 g concentrate. All procedures were performed at the Center for Studies in Natural Products, at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Three experimental groups were established (n=6: two groups of diabetic animals, one control group and one supplemented group; and a control group of normal mice (non-diabetic. The supplemented group received concentrates sweetened with rebaudioside A in a dose of 100 mg/kg bw/day by an esophageal tube for 35 days. Fasting, the fed state and body weight were assessed weekly for all groups. At the end of the supplementation period, the following were analyzed: plasma parameters of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and fructosamine; the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, water and food intake. Organs and tissues were removed and weighed to assess mass and anatomical changes. Results: The product presented 74% of proteins and 17% of lactose and showed satisfactory sensory testing by the addition of 26 mg of rebaudioside A/100 g concentrate. Supplementation of the product reduced hyperglycemia, plasma fructosamine levels

  11. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Brendel, G.F.; Bruzek, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC 50 ). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  12. Multistability in perception: binding sensory modalities, an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Grimault, Nicolas; Hupé, Jean-Michel; Moore, Brian C J; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2012-04-05

    This special issue presents research concerning multistable perception in different sensory modalities. Multistability occurs when a single physical stimulus produces alternations between different subjective percepts. Multistability was first described for vision, where it occurs, for example, when different stimuli are presented to the two eyes or for certain ambiguous figures. It has since been described for other sensory modalities, including audition, touch and olfaction. The key features of multistability are: (i) stimuli have more than one plausible perceptual organization; (ii) these organizations are not compatible with each other. We argue here that most if not all cases of multistability are based on competition in selecting and binding stimulus information. Binding refers to the process whereby the different attributes of objects in the environment, as represented in the sensory array, are bound together within our perceptual systems, to provide a coherent interpretation of the world around us. We argue that multistability can be used as a method for studying binding processes within and across sensory modalities. We emphasize this theme while presenting an outline of the papers in this issue. We end with some thoughts about open directions and avenues for further research.

  13. Multistability in perception: binding sensory modalities, an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Grimault, Nicolas; Hupé, Jean-Michel; Moore, Brian C. J.; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This special issue presents research concerning multistable perception in different sensory modalities. Multistability occurs when a single physical stimulus produces alternations between different subjective percepts. Multistability was first described for vision, where it occurs, for example, when different stimuli are presented to the two eyes or for certain ambiguous figures. It has since been described for other sensory modalities, including audition, touch and olfaction. The key features of multistability are: (i) stimuli have more than one plausible perceptual organization; (ii) these organizations are not compatible with each other. We argue here that most if not all cases of multistability are based on competition in selecting and binding stimulus information. Binding refers to the process whereby the different attributes of objects in the environment, as represented in the sensory array, are bound together within our perceptual systems, to provide a coherent interpretation of the world around us. We argue that multistability can be used as a method for studying binding processes within and across sensory modalities. We emphasize this theme while presenting an outline of the papers in this issue. We end with some thoughts about open directions and avenues for further research. PMID:22371612

  14. Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.

  15. Processing semblances induced through inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs, presumed biological parallels of K-lines proposed for building artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjumon I Vadakkan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The internal sensation of memory, which is available only to the owner of an individual nervous system, is difficult to analyze for its basic elements of operation. We hypothesize that associative learning induces the formation of functional LINK between the postsynapses. During memory retrieval, the activation of either postsynapse re-activates the functional LINK evoking a semblance of sensory activity arriving at its opposite postsynapse, nature of which defines the basic unit of virtual internal sensation - namely, semblion. Neuronal networks that undergo continuous oscillatory activity at certain levels of their organization induce semblions enabling the system to continuously learn, self-organize, and demonstrate instantiation, features that can be utilized for developing artificial intelligence (AI. Suitability of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs to meet the expectations of Minsky’s K-lines, basic elements of a memory theory generated to develop AI and methods to replicate semblances outside the nervous system are explained.

  16. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  17. The Past, Present, and Future of Artificial Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy eAguilar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For millennia people have wondered what makes the living different from the non-living. Beginning in the mid-1980s, artificial life has studied living systems using a synthetic approach: build life in order to understand it better, be it by means of software, hardware, or wetware. This review provides a summary of the advances that led to the development of artificial life, its current research topics, and open problems and opportunities. We classify artificial life research into fourteen themes: origins of life, autonomy, self-organization, adaptation (including evolution, development, and learning, ecology, artificial societies, behavior, computational biology, artificial chemistries, information, living technology, art, and philosophy. Being interdisciplinary, artificial life seems to be losing its boundaries and merging with other fields.

  18. Development of sensorial experiments and their implementation into undergraduate laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield Lee, Deborah Christina

    for accuracy and all chemicals examined for safety prior to implementation. The pedagogical objectives were established of to provide the ability to develop and stimulate students' conceptual understanding. The educational assessments of these experiments are are fashioned using the framework chosen (Marzano and Kendall). All the experiments are designed as collaborative, inquiry-based experiments in aims of enhancing the students understanding of the subject and promote critical thinking skills. These experiments use an investigative approach rather than verification methods. Terminology and misconceptions of the experiment were evaluated to prevent misunderstanding or confusion during the experiment. Interventions to address these misconceptions and learning problems associated with the experiment were developed. We have developed the Learning Lab Report, LLR, as an alternative model for the traditional laboratory reports, with the goal of transforming the traditional reports into something more useful for both students and instructors. The educational strategies are employed to develop this format in order to promote students to think critically about the concepts and take an active involvement in learning. From the results of the LLR, all experiments were reviewed and re-written to address any learning problems. The sensorial experiments study several topics usually covered in the first 2 years of the chemistry curriculum (general and organic chemistry courses). The experiments implemented, organic qualitative analysis, esterification kinetics, Le Chatelier equilibrium, thermometric titrations and ASA kinetics, worked effectively as students were able to draw correct conclusions about the concepts from the data obtained. An olfactory titration using the smell of the rutabaga vegetable has been developed and thoroughly tested. The LLR was utilized with the equilibrium, titration and acetyl salicylic acid experiments. The details of the development, implementation

  19. BMP4 signaling is involved in the generation of inner ear sensory epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yucheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robust expression of BMP4 in the incipient sensory organs of the inner ear suggests possible roles for this signaling protein during induction and development of auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia. Homozygous BMP4-/- animals die before the inner ear's sensory organs develop, which precludes determining the role of BMP4 in these organs with simple gene knockout experiments. Results Here we use a chicken otocyst culture system to perform quantitative studies on the development of inner ear cell types and show that hair cell and supporting cell generation is remarkably reduced when BMP signaling is blocked, either with its antagonist noggin or by using soluble BMP receptors. Conversely, we observed an increase in the number of hair cells when cultured otocysts were treated with exogenous BMP4. BMP4 treatment additionally prompted down-regulation of Pax-2 protein in proliferating sensory epithelial progenitors, leading to reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Conclusion Our results implicate BMP4 in two events during chicken inner ear sensory epithelium formation: first, in inducing the switch from proliferative sensory epithelium progenitors to differentiating epithelial cells and secondly, in promoting the differentiation of hair cells within the developing sensory epithelia.

  20. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  1. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  2. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  3. Studying cerebral organization through embodied artificial evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.H.; Goosen, A.E.A.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Goosen, A.E.A.; Janssen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study embodied embedded agents are evolved in order to gain a better understanding of the distribution of cognitive functions in the brain. We found that the evolution of the two hemispheres is influenced by the structure of the body plan. Furthermore, it is seen that individuals with an

  4. Machine learning an artificial intelligence approach

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, R; Bradshaw, Gary; Carbonell, Jaime Guillermo; Mitchell, Tom Michael; Michalski, Ryszard Spencer

    1983-01-01

    Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach contains tutorial overviews and research papers representative of trends in the area of machine learning as viewed from an artificial intelligence perspective. The book is organized into six parts. Part I provides an overview of machine learning and explains why machines should learn. Part II covers important issues affecting the design of learning programs-particularly programs that learn from examples. It also describes inductive learning systems. Part III deals with learning by analogy, by experimentation, and from experience. Parts IV a

  5. Integrated Artificial Intelligence Approaches for Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashistha, Rajat; Chhabra, Deepak; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2018-06-01

    Mechanocomputational techniques in conjunction with artificial intelligence (AI) are revolutionizing the interpretations of the crucial information from the medical data and converting it into optimized and organized information for diagnostics. It is possible due to valuable perfection in artificial intelligence, computer aided diagnostics, virtual assistant, robotic surgery, augmented reality and genome editing (based on AI) technologies. Such techniques are serving as the products for diagnosing emerging microbial or non microbial diseases. This article represents a combinatory approach of using such approaches and providing therapeutic solutions towards utilizing these techniques in disease diagnostics.

  6. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  7. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  8. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    compounds and consequently change the sensory quality in wine which provide the useful information of wine quality management to winemakers to as well as knowledge on the behaviour of wine oxidation. Additional, studies focused on understanding the development of volatiles during accelerated cheese ripening......In the food industry, high sensory quality and stability of products are crucial factors for consumer satisfaction and market shares. Sensory quality is normally being evaluated by two major approaches: instrumental (volatile and nonvolatile compounds) approach and sensory approach by trained...... and sensory methods in understanding the pre-fermentation treatment on sensory quality of wine (Study 3). In Study 4, the RATA method was used to provide the intensity of significant sensory descriptors that discriminate the significant differences between chocolate samples. Part three step by step moves...

  9. Optimized connectome architecture for sensory-motor integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob C. Worrell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The intricate connectivity patterns of neural circuits support a wide repertoire of communication processes and functional interactions. Here we systematically investigate how neural signaling is constrained by anatomical connectivity in the mesoscale Drosophila (fruit fly brain network. We use a spreading model that describes how local perturbations, such as external stimuli, trigger global signaling cascades that spread through the network. Through a series of simple biological scenarios we demonstrate that anatomical embedding potentiates sensory-motor integration. We find that signal spreading is faster from nodes associated with sensory transduction (sensors to nodes associated with motor output (effectors. Signal propagation was accelerated if sensor nodes were activated simultaneously, suggesting a topologically mediated synergy among sensors. In addition, the organization of the network increases the likelihood of convergence of multiple cascades towards effector nodes, thereby facilitating integration prior to motor output. Moreover, effector nodes tend to coactivate more frequently than other pairs of nodes, suggesting an anatomically enhanced coordination of motor output. Altogether, our results show that the organization of the mesoscale Drosophila connectome imparts privileged, behaviorally relevant communication patterns among sensors and effectors, shaping their capacity to collectively integrate information. The complex network spanned by neurons and their axonal projections promotes a diverse set of functions. In the present report, we study how the topological organization of the fruit fly brain supports sensory-motor integration. Using a simple communication model, we demonstrate that the topology of this network allows efficient coordination among sensory and motor neurons. Our results suggest that brain network organization may profoundly shape the functional repertoire of this simple organism.

  10. MOTION MODELLINGUSINGCONCEPTS OF FUZZY ARTIFICIAL POTENTIAL FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Motlagh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial potential fields (APF are well established for reactive navigation of mobile robots. This paper describes a fast and robust fuzzy-APF on an ActivMedia AmigoBot. Obstacle-related information is fuzzified by using sensory fusion, which results in a shorter runtime. In addition, the membership functions of obstacle direction and range have been merged into one function, obtaining a smaller block of rules. The system is tested in virtual environments with non-concave obstacles. Then, the paper describes a new approach to motion modelling where the motion of intelligent travellers is modelled by consecutive path segments. In previous work, the authors described a reliable motion modelling technique using causal inference of fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM which has been efficiently modified for the purpose of this contribution. Results and analysis are given to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed motion modelling algorithm.

  11. State-dependent changes in auditory sensory gating in different cortical areas in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renli Qi

    Full Text Available Sensory gating is a process in which the brain's response to a repetitive stimulus is attenuated; it is thought to contribute to information processing by enabling organisms to filter extraneous sensory inputs from the environment. To date, sensory gating has typically been used to determine whether brain function is impaired, such as in individuals with schizophrenia or addiction. In healthy subjects, sensory gating is sensitive to a subject's behavioral state, such as acute stress and attention. The cortical response to sensory stimulation significantly decreases during sleep; however, information processing continues throughout sleep, and an auditory evoked potential (AEP can be elicited by sound. It is not known whether sensory gating changes during sleep. Sleep is a non-uniform process in the whole brain with regional differences in neural activities. Thus, another question arises concerning whether sensory gating changes are uniform in different brain areas from waking to sleep. To address these questions, we used the sound stimuli of a Conditioning-testing paradigm to examine sensory gating during waking, rapid eye movement (REM sleep and Non-REM (NREM sleep in different cortical areas in rats. We demonstrated the following: 1. Auditory sensory gating was affected by vigilant states in the frontal and parietal areas but not in the occipital areas. 2. Auditory sensory gating decreased in NREM sleep but not REM sleep from waking in the frontal and parietal areas. 3. The decreased sensory gating in the frontal and parietal areas during NREM sleep was the result of a significant increase in the test sound amplitude.

  12. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of artificial flavoring or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring...

  13. Sensory feedback for upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Steven S; Fettiplace, Michael; Darbandi, Bejan

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the neurophysiological basis of how to provide sensory feedback to users with an upper limb prosthesis and discuss some of the theoretical issues that need to be considered when directly stimulating neurons in the somatosensory system. We focus on technologies that are currently available and discuss approaches that are most likely to succeed in providing natural perception from the artificial hand to the user. First, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing feedback by stimulating directly the remaining afferents that originally innervated the arm and hand. In particular, we pay close attention to the normal functional roles that the peripheral afferents play in perception. What are the consequences and implications of stimulating these afferents? We then discuss whether it is reasonable to stimulate neurons in the ascending pathways that carry the information from the afferents to the cortex or directly in neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex. We show that for some modalities there are advantages for stimulating in the spinal cord, while for others it is advantageous to stimulate directly in the somatosensory cortex. Finally, we discuss results from a current experiment in which we used electrical stimuli in primary somatosensory cortex to restore the percept of the intensity of a mechanical probe indented into the hand. The results suggest that the simple percept of stimulus intensity can be provided to the animal from a single finger using four electrodes. We propose that significantly more electrodes will be needed to reproduce more complex aspects of tactile perception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  15. Sensory flow shaped by active sensing: sensorimotor strategies in electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Volker; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I; Künzel, Silke; Geurten, Bart; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    Goal-directed behavior in most cases is composed of a sequential order of elementary motor patterns shaped by sensorimotor contingencies. The sensory information acquired thus is structured in both space and time. Here we review the role of motion during the generation of sensory flow focusing on how animals actively shape information by behavioral strategies. We use the well-studied examples of vision in insects and echolocation in bats to describe commonalities of sensory-related behavioral strategies across sensory systems, and evaluate what is currently known about comparable active sensing strategies in electroreception of electric fish. In this sensory system the sensors are dispersed across the animal's body and the carrier source emitting energy used for sensing, the electric organ, is moved while the animal moves. Thus ego-motions strongly influence sensory dynamics. We present, for the first time, data of electric flow during natural probing behavior in Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae), which provide evidence for this influence. These data reveal a complex interdependency between the physical input to the receptors and the animal's movements, posture and objects in its environment. Although research on spatiotemporal dynamics in electrolocation is still in its infancy, the emerging field of dynamical sensory systems analysis in electric fish is a promising approach to the study of the link between movement and acquisition of sensory information.

  16. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  17. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  18. Charlas sobre inteligencia artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sánchez, José Ramón; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel; Paz López, Félix de la

    2014-01-01

    Serie: Informática en Radio 3 La Inteligencia Artificial es una de las ciencias que causa mayor impacto en la sociedad, mucho más si tenemos en cuenta que cambiará el futuro de la humanidad. En España existen actualmente un nutrido grupo de equipos de investigación relacionados con las tecnologías de computación natural-artificial que aúnan sus esfuerzos a través de la RTNAC la Red Temática en Tecnologías de Computación Natural-Artificial . La UNED participa en todas sus actividades desde ...

  19. Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kipp W; Torres Soto, Jessica; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Shameer, Khader; Miotto, Riccardo; Ali, Mohsin; Ashley, Euan; Dudley, Joel T

    2018-06-12

    Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to influence nearly every aspect of the human condition, and cardiology is not an exception to this trend. This paper provides a guide for clinicians on relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and machine learning, reviews selected applications of these methods in cardiology to date, and identifies how cardiovascular medicine could incorporate artificial intelligence in the future. In particular, the paper first reviews predictive modeling concepts relevant to cardiology such as feature selection and frequent pitfalls such as improper dichotomization. Second, it discusses common algorithms used in supervised learning and reviews selected applications in cardiology and related disciplines. Third, it describes the advent of deep learning and related methods collectively called unsupervised learning, provides contextual examples both in general medicine and in cardiovascular medicine, and then explains how these methods could be applied to enable precision cardiology and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  1. Artificial intelligence model for sustain ability measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navickiene, R.; Navickas, K.

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the main dimensions of organizational sustain ability, their possible integrations into artificial neural network. In this article authors performing analyses of organizational internal and external environments, their possible correlations with 4 components of sustain ability, and the principal determination models for sustain ability of organizations. Based on the general principles of sustainable development organizations, a artificial intelligence model for the determination of organizational sustain ability has been developed. The use of self-organizing neural networks allows the identification of the organizational sustain ability and the endeavour to explore vital, social, antropogenical and economical efficiency. The determination of the forest enterprise sustain ability is expected to help better manage the sustain ability. (Authors)

  2. Multi-Modal Inference in Animacy Perception for Artificial Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes we feel animacy for artificial objects and their motion. Animals usually interact with environments through multiple sensory modalities. Here we investigated how the sensory responsiveness of artificial objects to the environment would contribute to animacy judgment for them. In a 90-s trial, observers freely viewed four objects moving in a virtual 3D space. The objects, whose position and motion were determined following Perlin-noise series, kept drifting independently in the space. Visual flashes, auditory bursts, or synchronous flashes and bursts appeared with 1–2 s intervals. The first object abruptly accelerated their motion just after visual flashes, giving an impression of responding to the flash. The second object responded to bursts. The third object responded to synchronous flashes and bursts. The forth object accelerated at a random timing independent of flashes and bursts. The observers rated how strongly they felt animacy for each object. The results showed that the object responding to the auditory bursts was rated as having weaker animacy compared to the other objects. This implies that sensory modality through which an object interacts with the environment may be a factor for animacy perception in the object and may serve as the basis of multi-modal and cross-modal inference of animacy.

  3. Cisplatin Ototoxicity Blocks Sensory Regeneration in the Avian Inner Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Eric L.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely-used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy, and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was al...

  4. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamsley, S.J.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  5. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  6. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  7. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  8. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction......Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...

  9. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report. Volume 2. 1988 Discussing, Using, and Recognizing Plans (NLP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Encontro Portugues de Inteligencia Artificial (EPIA), Oporto, Portugal, September 1985. [15] N. J. Nilsson. Principles Of Artificial Intelligence. Tioga...FI1 F COPY () RADC-TR-89-259, Vol II (of twelve) Interim Report October 1969 AD-A218 154 NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONSORTIUM ANNUAL...7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial Of p0ilcabe) Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) Rome_____ Air___ Development____Center

  10. The 'sensory tolerance limit': A hypothetical construct determining exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureau, Thomas J; Romer, Lee M; Amann, Markus

    2018-02-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue compromises exercise performance and is determined by central and peripheral mechanisms. Interactions between the two components of fatigue can occur via neural pathways, including feedback and feedforward processes. This brief review discusses the influence of feedback and feedforward mechanisms on exercise limitation. In terms of feedback mechanisms, particular attention is given to group III/IV sensory neurons which link limb muscle with the central nervous system. Central corollary discharge, a copy of the neural drive from the brain to the working muscles, provides a signal from the motor system to sensory systems and is considered a feedforward mechanism that might influence fatigue and consequently exercise performance. We highlight findings from studies supporting the existence of a 'critical threshold of peripheral fatigue', a previously proposed hypothesis based on the idea that a negative feedback loop operates to protect the exercising limb muscle from severe threats to homeostasis during whole-body exercise. While the threshold theory remains to be disproven within a given task, it is not generalisable across different exercise modalities. The 'sensory tolerance limit', a more theoretical concept, may address this issue and explain exercise tolerance in more global terms and across exercise modalities. The 'sensory tolerance limit' can be viewed as a negative feedback loop which accounts for the sum of all feedback (locomotor muscles, respiratory muscles, organs, and muscles not directly involved in exercise) and feedforward signals processed within the central nervous system with the purpose of regulating the intensity of exercise to ensure that voluntary activity remains tolerable.

  11. Sensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lush, Mark E; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-10-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling, and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Olfaction and Pheromones: Uncanonical Sensory Influences and Bulbar Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vargas-Barroso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rodent main and accessory olfactory systems (AOS are considered functionally and anatomically segregated information-processing pathways. Each system is devoted to the detection of volatile odorants and pheromones, respectively. However, a growing number of evidences supports a cooperative interaction between them. For instance, at least four non-canonical receptor families (i.e., different from olfactory and vomeronasal receptor families have been recently discovered. These atypical receptor families are expressed in the sensory organs of the nasal cavity and furnish parallel processing-pathways that detect specific stimuli and mediate specific behaviors as well. Aside from the receptor and functional diversity of these sensory modalities, they converge into a poorly understood bulbar area at the intersection of the main- main olfactory bulb (MOB and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB that has been termed olfactory limbus (OL. Given the intimate association the OL with specialized glomeruli (i.e., necklace and modified glomeruli receiving uncanonical sensory afferences and its interactions with the MOB and AOB, the possibility that OL is a site of non-olfactory and atypical vomeronasal sensory decoding is discussed.

  13. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  14. Learning New Sensorimotor Contingencies: Effects of Long-Term Use of Sensory Augmentation on the Brain and Conscious Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, Sabine U.; Schumann, Frank; Keyser, Johannes; Goeke, Caspar; Krause, Carina; Wache, Susan; Lytochkin, Aleksey; Ebert, Manuel; Brunsch, Vincent; Wahn, Basil; Kaspar, Kai; Nagel, Saskia K.; Nagel, Saskia Kathi; Meilinger, Tobias; Bülthoff, Heinrich; Wolbers, Thomas; Büchel, Christian; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is

  15. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus. Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  16. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  17. Características físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais da água de frutos de coqueiro anão verde oriundo de produção convencional e orgânica Physical, physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics of coconut water from green-dwarfed coconut palm from conventional and organic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Verde da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se comparar a qualidade da água de coco obtida de frutos de coqueiro anã verde, produzidos em dois sistemas distintos de produção: convencional e orgânico, mediante as análises físicas (cor da casca, peso, volume, comprimento e diâmetro, físico-químicas (sólidos totais, acidez titulável, pH, turbidez, açúcares solúveis totais e redutores e os minerais: (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, P, sulfato, cloreto e C.E.; e análise sensorial. Foram realizados os seguintes parâmetros sensoriais: avaliação global, turbidez, doçura e sabor. Os frutos utilizados nesse experimento encontravam-se com 210 dias após a polinização das inflorescências e foram provenientes de dois plantios comerciais do município de Trairí- Ceará. O experimento foi desenvolvido no laboratório de Fisiologia e Tecnologia de Pós-Colheita da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, Fortaleza-CE. Foi observado, a partir dos resultados das análises físicas, que o coco produzido em sistema convencional é melhor do que os produzidos organicamente. Para todas as variáveis estudadas, porém apenas as medições de comprimento e peso mostraram diferenças importantes por meio do teste Tukey em um nível de 5% de probabilidade. Nas análises físico-químicas e análise sensorial não houve diferença significativa para os tratamentos.This work aimed to assess and compare the quality of coconut water produced in two different systems: standard and organic. The physical characteristics of the fruit were described (skin color, weight, water volume, length, and diameter, the physical-chemical characteristics of the water were assessed (total solid content, total titrable acidity, pH, turbidity, reducing and total soluble sugars, the mineral content was checked (Fe, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, sulphate, chloride, and C.E., and the sensory analysis was conducted assessing the following parameters: overall evaluation, turbidity, sweetness, and flavor. The fruits

  18. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  19. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  20. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  1. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...... storage methods had minor influence on sensory characteristics of cod fillets after short storage time, but after extended storage, the groups were different with regard to most attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper presents different ways of analyzing sensory data. The process of analysis...

  2. Multivariate analysis of data in sensory science

    CERN Document Server

    Naes, T; Risvik, E

    1996-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multivariate analysis in sensory science is described in this volume. Both methods for aggregated and individual sensory profiles are discussed. Processes and results are presented in such a way that they can be understood not only by statisticians but also by experienced sensory panel leaders and users of sensory analysis. The techniques presented are focused on examples and interpretation rather than on the technical aspects, with an emphasis on new and important methods which are possibly not so well known to scientists in the field. Important features of the book are discussions on the relationship among the methods with a strong accent on the connection between problems and methods. All procedures presented are described in relation to sensory data and not as completely general statistical techniques. Sensory scientists, applied statisticians, chemometricians, those working in consumer science, food scientists and agronomers will find this book of value.

  3. Generality in Artificial Intelligence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Generality in Artificial Intelligence. John McCarthy. Classics Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 283-296. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/03/0283-0296. Author Affiliations.

  4. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  5. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  6. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  7. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  8. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  9. Do Birds Experience Sensory Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabanac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.

  10. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey

    2007-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  11. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  12. Biomimetic artificial sphincter muscles: status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vanessa; Fattorini, Elisa; Karapetkova, Maria; Osmani, Bekim; Töpper, Tino; Weiss, Florian; Müller, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Fecal incontinence is the involuntary loss of bowel content and affects more than 12% of the adult population, including 45% of retirement home residents. Severe fecal incontinence is often treated by implanting an artificial sphincter. Currently available implants, however, have long-term reoperation rates of 95% and definitive explantation rates of 40%. These statistics show that the implants fail to reproduce the capabilities of the natural sphincter and that the development of an adaptive, biologically inspired implant is required. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are being developed as artificial muscles for a biomimetic sphincter, due to their suitable response time, reaction forces, and energy consumption. However, at present the operation voltage of DEAs is too high for artificial muscles implanted in the human body. To reduce the operating voltage to tens of volts, we are using microfabrication to reduce the thickness of the elastomer layer to the nanometer level. Two microfabrication methods are being investigated: molecular beam deposition and electrospray deposition. This communication covers the current status and a perspective on the way forward, including the long-term prospects of constructing a smart sphincter from low-voltage sensors and actuators based on nanometer-thin dielectric elastomer films. As DEA can also provide sensory feedback, a biomimetic sphincter can be designed in accordance with the geometrical and mechanical parameters of its natural counterpart. The availability of such technology will enable fast pressure adaption comparable to the natural feedback mechanism, so that tissue atrophy and erosion can be avoided while maintaining continence du ring daily activities.

  13. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  14. Sensory reactivity, empathizing and systemizing in autism spectrum conditions and sensory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tavassoli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD. To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children. The Sensory Processing Scale Inventory was used to measure sensory symptoms, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ to measure autistic traits, and the Empathy Quotient (EQ and Systemizing Quotient (SQ to measure cognitive styles. Across groups, a greater sensory symptomatology was associated with lower empathy. Further, both the ASC and SPD groups showed more sensory symptoms than TD children. Children with ASC and SPD only differed on sensory under-reactivity. The ASD group did, however, show lower empathy and higher systemizing scores than the SPD group. Together, this suggest that sensory symptoms alone may not be adequate to differentiate children with ASC and SPD but that cognitive style measures could be used for differential diagnosis. Keywords: Autism spectrum conditions, Sensory processing disorder, Sensory symptoms, Empathy, Systemizing

  15. Why do unusual novel foods like insects lack sensory appeal? Investigating the underlying sensory perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Tibboel, Claudia Joyce; Stieger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Unusual novel foods like insects generally hold little sensory appeal for consumers, but little is known about the underlying sensory perceptions and how the properties of the food contribute to acceptance. This study examined the sensory perceptions of 3 unusual novel foods (lamb brain, frog

  16. The neuroecology of cartilaginous fishes: sensory strategies for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Shaun P

    2012-01-01

    As apex predators, chondrichthyans, or cartilaginous fishes, hold an important position within a range of aquatic ecosystems and influence the balance between species' abundance and biodiversity. Having been in existence for over 400 million years and representing the earliest stages of the evolution of jawed vertebrates, this group also covers a diverse range of eco-morphotypes, occupying both marine and freshwater habitats. The class Chondrichthyes is divided into two subclasses: the Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates, and rays) and the Holocephali (elephant sharks and chimaeras). However, many of their life history traits, such as low fecundity, the production of small numbers of highly precocious young, slow growth rates, and late maturity, make them highly susceptible to human exploitation. To mitigate the negative effects of human impacts, it is important that we understand the sensory strategies that elasmobranchs use for navigating within their environment, forming reproductive aggregations, feeding, and even communicating. One approach to investigate the sensory bases of their behavior is to examine the peripheral sense organs mediating vision, olfaction, gustation, lateral line, electroreception, and audition in a large range of species in order to identify specific adaptations, the range of sensitivity thresholds, and the compromise between sensory spatial resolution and sensitivity. In addition, we can quantitatively assess the convergence of sensory input to the central nervous system and the relative importance of different sensory modalities. Using a comparative approach and often a combination of anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular techniques, significant variation has been identified in the spatial and chromatic sampling of the photoreceptors in the eye, the surface area and the number of olfactory lamellae within the nasal cavity, the level of gustatory sampling within the oral cavity, the type and innervation of neuromasts of the lateral

  17. The Notch ligand JAG1 is required for sensory progenitor development in the mammalian inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Kiernan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, six separate sensory regions in the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance function. Each sensory region is made up of hair cells, which are the sensory cells, and their associated supporting cells, both arising from a common progenitor. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the development of these sensory organs. Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of hair cells and supporting cells by mediating lateral inhibition via the ligands Delta-like 1 and Jagged (JAG 2. However, another Notch ligand, JAG1, is expressed early in the sensory patches prior to cell differentiation, indicating that there may be an earlier role for Notch signaling in sensory development in the ear. Here, using conditional gene targeting, we show that the Jag1 gene is required for the normal development of all six sensory organs within the inner ear. Cristae are completely lacking in Jag1-conditional knockout (cko mutant inner ears, whereas the cochlea and utricle show partial sensory development. The saccular macula is present but malformed. Using SOX2 and p27kip1 as molecular markers of the prosensory domain, we show that JAG1 is initially expressed in all the prosensory regions of the ear, but becomes down-regulated in the nascent organ of Corti by embryonic day 14.5, when the cells exit the cell cycle and differentiate. We also show that both SOX2 and p27kip1 are down-regulated in Jag1-cko inner ears. Taken together, these data demonstrate that JAG1 is expressed early in the prosensory domains of both the cochlear and vestibular regions, and is required to maintain the normal expression levels of both SOX2 and p27kip1. These data demonstrate that JAG1-mediated Notch signaling is essential during early development for establishing the prosensory regions of the inner ear.

  18. Artificial structures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Flandern, T.

    2002-05-01

    Approximately 70,000 images of the surface of Mars at a resolution of up to 1.4 meters per pixel, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, are now in public archives. Approximately 1% of those images show features that can be broadly described as `special shapes', `tracks, trails, and possible vegetation', `spots, stripes, and tubes', `artistic imagery', and `patterns and symbols'. Rather than optical illusions and tricks of light and shadow, most of these have the character that, if photographed on Earth, no one would doubt that they were the products of large biology and intelligence. In a few cases, relationships, context, and fulfillment of a priori predictions provide objective evidence of artificiality that is exempt from the influence of experimenter biases. Only controlled test results can be trusted because biases are strong and operate both for and against artificiality.

  19. Artificial neural network does better spatiotemporal compressive sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young; Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2012-06-01

    Spatiotemporal sparseness is generated naturally by human visual system based on artificial neural network modeling of associative memory. Sparseness means nothing more and nothing less than the compressive sensing achieves merely the information concentration. To concentrate the information, one uses the spatial correlation or spatial FFT or DWT or the best of all adaptive wavelet transform (cf. NUS, Shen Shawei). However, higher dimensional spatiotemporal information concentration, the mathematics can not do as flexible as a living human sensory system. The reason is obviously for survival reasons. The rest of the story is given in the paper.

  20. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report 1987. Volume 2, Part B. Discussing, Using, and Recognizing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    1978. Williams. B.C. Qualitative Analysis of MOS Circuits. Artificial Inteligence . 1984. 24.. Wilson. K. From Association to Structure. Amsterdam:North...D-A208 378 RADC-TR-88-324, Vol II (of nine), Part B Interim Report March 1969 4. NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONSORTIUM ANNUAL REPORT 1987...II (of nine), Part B 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial (ff ’aolicbl

  1. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 2. Discussing, Using, and Recognizing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    knowledge and meta-reasoning. In Proceedings of EP14-85 ("Encontro Portugues de Inteligencia Artificial "), pages 138-154, Oporto, Portugal, 1985. [19] N, J...See reverse) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial Intelligence...ABSTRACTM-2.,-- The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and

  2. Health promoting and sensory properties of phenolic compounds in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds have been extensively studied in recent years. The presence of these compounds in various foods has been associated with sensory and health promoting properties. These products from the secondary metabolism of plants act as defense mechanisms against environmental stress and attack by other organisms. They are divided into different classes according to their chemical structures. The objective of this study was to describe the different classes of phenolic compounds, the main food sources and factors of variation, besides methods for the identification and quantification commonly used to analyze these compounds. Moreover, the role of phenolic compounds in scavenging oxidative stress and the techniques of in vitro antioxidant evaluation are discussed. In vivo studies to evaluate the biological effects of these compounds and their impact on chronic disease prevention are presented as well. Finally, it was discussed the role of these compounds on the sensory quality of foods.

  3. Emotional facilitation of sensory processing in the visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Junghöfer, Markus; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O

    2003-01-01

    A key function of emotion is the preparation for action. However, organization of successful behavioral strategies depends on efficient stimulus encoding. The present study tested the hypothesis that perceptual encoding in the visual cortex is modulated by the emotional significance of visual stimuli. Event-related brain potentials were measured while subjects viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures. Early selective encoding of pleasant and unpleasant images was associated with a posterior negativity, indicating primary sources of activation in the visual cortex. The study also replicated previous findings in that affective cues also elicited enlarged late positive potentials, indexing increased stimulus relevance at higher-order stages of stimulus processing. These results support the hypothesis that sensory encoding of affective stimuli is facilitated implicitly by natural selective attention. Thus, the affect system not only modulates motor output (i.e., favoring approach or avoidance dispositions), but already operates at an early level of sensory encoding.

  4. Artificial intelligence in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Scerri, Mariella; Grech, Victor E.

    2016-01-01

    Various types of artificial intelligence programs are already available as consultants to physicians, and these help in medical diagnostics and treatment. At the time of writing, extant programs constitute “weak” AI—lacking in consciousness and intentionality. With AI currently making rapid progress in all domains, including those of healthcare, physicians face possible competitors—or worse, claims that doctors may become obsolete. We will explore the development of AI and robotics in medicin...

  5. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  6. Intelligence in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin

    2016-01-01

    The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...

  7. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  8. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  9. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  10. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  11. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  12. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.

  13. [Sensory integration: hierarchy and synchronization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriukov, V I

    2005-01-01

    This is the first in the series of mini-reviews devoted to the basic problems and most important effects of attention in terms of neuronal modeling. We believe that the absence of the unified view on wealth of new date on attention is the main obstacle for further understanding of higher nervous activity. The present work deals with the main ground problem of reconciling two competing architectures designed to integrate the sensory information in the brain. The other mini-reviews will be concerned with the remaining five or six problems of attention, all of them to be ultimately resolved uniformly in the framework of small modification of dominant model of attention and memory.

  14. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  15. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  16. Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.

  17. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation i...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species......Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...

  18. Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M.; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen

    2015-01-01

    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the d......We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life....

  19. Creating and Maintaining Chemical Artificial Life by Robotic Symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen

    2015-01-01

    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the d......We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life....

  20. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2012-05-10

    Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

  1. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  2. Sensory and chemical interactions of food pairings (basmati rice, bacon and extra virgin olive oil) with banana

    OpenAIRE

    Traynor, Mark; Burke, Roisin; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hannon, John; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study aimed to investigate food pairings as an important sensory phenomenon in order to determine how different components in the selected food pairings affect and interact with other components. Three novel food pairings (banana and bacon, banana and olive oil, and banana and rice) were selected. A conjoint approach utilising qualitative (organic volatile analysis and descriptive sensory analysis) and quantitative (comparable semi quantitative organic volatile analysis and af...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensory neuropathy type IA Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized by nerve abnormalities in ...

  4. Does hippotherapy effect use of sensory information for balance in people with multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Jodi L; Sullivan, Jessica L; Silkwood-Sherer, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    This case-series study aimed to determine if there were observable changes in sensory processing for postural control in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) following physical therapy using hippotherapy (HPOT), or changes in balance and functional gait. This pre-test non-randomized design study, with follow-up assessment at 6 weeks, included two females and one male (age range 37-60 years) with diagnoses of relapse-remitting or progressive MS. The intervention consisted of twelve 40-min physical therapy sessions which included HPOT twice a week for 6 weeks. Sensory organization and balance were assessed by the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Gait was assessed using the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA). Following the intervention period, all three participants showed improvements in SOT (range 1-8 points), BBS (range 2-6 points), and FGA (average 4 points) scores. These improvements were maintained or continued to improve at follow-up assessment. Two of the three participants no longer over-relied on vision and/or somatosensory information as the primary sensory input for postural control, suggesting improved use of sensory information for balance. The results indicate that HPOT may be a beneficial physical therapy treatment strategy to improve balance, functional gait, and enhance how some individuals with MS process sensory cues for postural control. Randomized clinical trials will be necessary to validate results of this study.

  5. [Characterization of stem cells derived from the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diensthuber, M; Heller, S

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to regenerating hair cell-bearing organs of nonmammalian vertebrates the adult mammalian organ of Corti appears to have lost its ability to maintain stem cells. The result is a lack of regenerative ability and irreversible hearing loss following auditory hair cell death. Unexpectedly, the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium has recently been shown to harbor cells with stem cell features. The origin of these cells within the cochlea's sensory epithelium is unknown. We applied a modified neurosphere assay to identify stem cells within distinct subregions of the neonatal mouse auditory sensory epithelium. Sphere cells were characterized by multiple markers and morphologic techniques. Our data reveal that both the greater and the lesser epithelial ridge contribute to the sphere-forming stem cell population derived from the auditory sensory epithelium. These self-renewing sphere cells express a variety of markers for neural and otic progenitor cells and mature inner ear cell types. Stem cells can be isolated from specific regions of the auditory sensory epithelium. The distinct features of these cells imply a potential application in the development of a cell replacement therapy to regenerate the damaged sensory epithelium.

  6. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi eRobledo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 hours in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these.

  7. Artificial cilia : a physical model for ciliary propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Babataheri , Avin

    2009-01-01

    Most microorganisms use cilia or flagella as a means of propulsion. These low Reynolds number swimming mechanisms have been studied theoretically and experimentally on living organisms. However, so far very few physical experimental models have been realised. We describe here the fabrication of microscopic artificial cilia, actuated by a magnetic field. These artificial cilia share with real cilia a large aspect ratio, great flexibility, and the actuation by a magnetic torque distributed alon...

  8. SORN: a self-organizing recurrent neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Lazar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of recurrent neural networks is crucial for explaining how the brain processes information. In the neocortex, a range of different plasticity mechanisms are shaping recurrent networks into effective information processing circuits that learn appropriate representations for time-varying sensory stimuli. However, it has been difficult to mimic these abilities in artificial neural network models. Here we introduce SORN, a self-organizing recurrent network. It combines three distinct forms of local plasticity to learn spatio-temporal patterns in its input while maintaining its dynamics in a healthy regime suitable for learning. The SORN learns to encode information in the form of trajectories through its high-dimensional state space reminiscent of recent biological findings on cortical coding. All three forms of plasticity are shown to be essential for the network's success.

  9. Some Motivational Properties of Sensory Stimulation in Psychotic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, Arnold; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This experiment assessed the reinforcing properties of sensory stimulation for autistic children using three different types of sensory stimulation: music, visual flickering, and visual movement. (SB)

  10. Artificial Walking Technologies to Improve Gait in Cerebral Palsy: Multichannel Neuromuscular Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Butler, Erin E

    2017-11-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood motor disability and often results in debilitating walking abnormalities, such as flexed-knee and stiff-knee gait. Current medical and surgical treatments are only partially effective in improving gait abnormalities and may cause significant muscle weakness. However, emerging artificial walking technologies, such as step-initiated, multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), can substantially improve gait patterns and promote muscle strength in children with spastic CP. NMES may also be applied to specific lumbar-sacral sensory roots to reduce spasticity. Development of tablet computer-based multichannel NMES can leverage lightweight, wearable wireless stimulators, advanced control design, and surface electrodes to activate lower-limb muscles. Musculoskeletal models have been used to characterize muscle contributions to unimpaired gait and identify high muscle demands, which can help guide multichannel NMES-assisted gait protocols. In addition, patient-specific NMES-assisted gait protocols based on 3D gait analysis can facilitate the appropriate activation of lower-limb muscles to achieve a more functional gait: stance-phase hip and knee extension and swing-phase sequence of hip and knee flexion followed by rapid knee extension. NMES-assisted gait treatment can be conducted as either clinic-based or home-based programs. Rigorous testing of multichannel NMES-assisted gait training protocols will determine optimal treatment dosage for future clinical trials. Evidence-based outcome evaluation using 3D kinematics or temporal-spatial gait parameters will help determine immediate neuroprosthetic effects and longer term neurotherapeutic effects of step-initiated, multichannel NMES-assisted gait in children with spastic CP. Multichannel NMES is a promising assistive technology to help children with spastic CP achieve a more upright, functional gait. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and

  11. Conscious and unconscious sensory inflows allow effective control of the functions of the human brain and heart at the initial ageing stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Anatolij T; Malyarenko, Tatyana N; Malyarenko, Yurij E; Terentjev, Vladimir P; Dyuzhikov, Alexandr A

    2006-11-01

    The authors of the present article based their assumption on the concept that the sensory systems are the "windows to the brain" through which various functions of the human organism can be controlled. Comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms of the optimization of the sensory systems, brain, and cardiac functions has increased based on the prolonged sensory flows using conscious and unconscious aromatherapy and multimodal sensory activation. Sensory flow evoked stable systemic responses, including adaptive alteration of psycho-emotional state, attention, memory, sensorimotor reactions, intersensory interaction, visual information processing, statokinetic stability, and autonomic heart rhythm control. The efficacy and expediency of the use of sensory flow for non-medicinal correction of vital functions of the human organism at the initial stages of ageing was revealed.

  12. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  13. Sensory Prioritization in Rats: Behavioral Performance and Neuronal Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Conrad C Y; Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2016-03-16

    Operating with some finite quantity of processing resources, an animal would benefit from prioritizing the sensory modality expected to provide key information in a particular context. The present study investigated whether rats dedicate attentional resources to the sensory modality in which a near-threshold event is more likely to occur. We manipulated attention by controlling the likelihood with which a stimulus was presented from one of two modalities. In a whisker session, 80% of trials contained a brief vibration stimulus applied to whiskers and the remaining 20% of trials contained a brief change of luminance. These likelihoods were reversed in a visual session. When a stimulus was presented in the high-likelihood context, detection performance increased and was faster compared with the same stimulus presented in the low-likelihood context. Sensory prioritization was also reflected in neuronal activity in the vibrissal area of primary somatosensory cortex: single units responded differentially to the whisker vibration stimulus when presented with higher probability compared with lower probability. Neuronal activity in the vibrissal cortex displayed signatures of multiplicative gain control and enhanced response to vibration stimuli during the whisker session. In conclusion, rats allocate priority to the more likely stimulus modality and the primary sensory cortex may participate in the redistribution of resources. Detection of low-amplitude events is critical to survival; for example, to warn prey of predators. To formulate a response, decision-making systems must extract minute neuronal signals from the sensory modality that provides key information. Here, we identify the behavioral and neuronal correlates of sensory prioritization in rats. Rats were trained to detect whisker vibrations or visual flickers. Stimuli were embedded in two contexts in which either visual or whisker modality was more likely to occur. When a stimulus was presented in the high

  14. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishti Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI provides machines with the ability to learn and respond the way humans do and is also referred to as machine learning. The step to building an AI system is to provide the data to learn from so that it can map relations between inputs and outputs and set up parameters such as “weights”/decision boundaries to predict responses for inputs in the future. Then, the model is tested on a second data set. This article outlines the promise this analytic approach has in medicine and cardiology.

  15. Is Intelligence Artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of intelligence is directed primarily at the level of human beings. This paper attempts to give a more unifying definition that can be applied to the natural world in general. The definition would be used more to verify a degree of intelligence, not to quantify it and might help when making judgements on the matter. A version of an accepted test for AI is then put forward as the 'acid test' for Artificial Intelligence itself. It might be what a free-thinking program or robot...

  16. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  17. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  18. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  19. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference

  20. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  1. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  2. Understanding the sensory irregularities of esophageal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Brock, Christina; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Gregersen, Hans; Khan, Sheeba; Lelic, Dina; Lottrup, Christian; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2016-08-01

    Symptoms relating to esophageal sensory abnormalities can be encountered in the clinical environment. Such sensory abnormalities may be present in demonstrable disease, such as erosive esophagitis, and in the ostensibly normal esophagus, such as non-erosive reflux disease or functional chest pain. In this review, the authors discuss esophageal sensation and the esophageal pain system. In addition, the authors provide a primer concerning the techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of esophageal sensory function. Such technological advances, whilst not readily available in the clinic may facilitate the stratification and individualization of therapy in disorders of esophageal sensation in the future.

  3. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Monroe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation versus direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies.

  4. An experimental biomimetic platform for artificial olfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Di Natale

    Full Text Available Artificial olfactory systems have been studied for the last two decades mainly from the point of view of the features of olfactory neuron receptor fields. Other fundamental olfaction properties have only been episodically considered in artificial systems. As a result, current artificial olfactory systems are mostly intended as instruments and are of poor benefit for biologists who may need tools to model and test olfactory models. Herewith, we show how a simple experimental approach can be used to account for several phenomena observed in olfaction. An artificial epithelium is formed as a disordered distributed layer of broadly selective color indicators dispersed in a transparent polymer layer. The whole epithelium is probed with colored light, imaged with a digital camera and the olfactory response upon exposure to an odor is the change of the multispectral image. The pixels are treated as olfactory receptor neurons, whose optical properties are used to build a convergence classifier into a number of mathematically defined artificial glomeruli. A non-homogenous exposure of the test structure to the odours gives rise to a time and spatial dependence of the response of the different glomeruli strikingly similar to patterns observed in the olfactory bulb. The model seems to mimic both the formation of glomeruli, the zonal nature of olfactory epithelium, and the spatio-temporal signal patterns at the glomeruli level. This platform is able to provide a readily available test vehicle for chemists developing optical indicators for chemical sensing purposes and for biologists to test models of olfactory system organization.

  5. Neurophysiological evidence for context-dependent encoding of sensory input in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2006-02-23

    Attention biases the way in which sound information is stored in auditory memory. Little is known, however, about the contribution of stimulus-driven processes in forming and storing coherent sound events. An electrophysiological index of cortical auditory change detection (mismatch negativity [MMN]) was used to assess whether sensory memory representations could be biased toward one organization over another (one or two auditory streams) without attentional control. Results revealed that sound representations held in sensory memory biased the organization of subsequent auditory input. The results demonstrate that context-dependent sound representations modulate stimulus-dependent neural encoding at early stages of auditory cortical processing.

  6. Sensory optimization by stochastic tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-10-01

    Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system's preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: The higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  8. Artificial Photosynthesis: Beyond Mimicking Nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, Holger; Fujita, Etsuko; Sun, Licheng

    2017-01-01

    In this Editorial, Guest Editors Holger Dau, Etsuko Fujita, and Licheng Sun introduce the Special Issue of ChemSusChem on “Artificial Photosynthesis for Sustainable Fuels”. Here, they discuss the need for non-fossil based fuels, introduce both biological and artificial photosynthesis, and outline various important concepts in artificial photosynthesis, including molecular and solid-state catalysts for water oxidation and hydrogen evolution, catalytic CO 2 reduction, and photoelectrochemical systems.

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  10. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Pana

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...

  11. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Marwala, Tshilidzi; Hurwitz, Evan

    2017-01-01

    The advent of artificial intelligence has changed many disciplines such as engineering, social science and economics. Artificial intelligence is a computational technique which is inspired by natural intelligence such as the swarming of birds, the working of the brain and the pathfinding of the ants. These techniques have impact on economic theories. This book studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theories, a subject that has not been extensively studied. The theories that...

  13. AN INTRODUCTION TO KNOWLEDGE-GROWING SYSTEM: A NOVEL FIELD IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datumaya Wahyudi Sumari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential matter of Artificial Intelligence (AI is how to build an entity that mimics human intelligence in the way of learning of a phenomenon in a real life to gain knowledge of it and uses the knowledge to solve problems related to it. Based on the findings of intelligenct characteristic displayed by the human brain in growing and generating new knowledge by fusing information perceived by sensory organs, we develop brain-inspired Knowledge-Growing System (KGS that is, a system that is capable of growing its knowledge along with the accretion of information as the time passes. The essential matter of KGS is knowledge-growing method which is based on a new algorithm called Observation Multi-time A3S (OMA3S information-inferencing fusion method. In this paper we deliver the development of KGS along with some examples of KGS application to a real-life problem. Based on the state-of-the-art of AI and approaches to construct OMA3S method as KG method as well as validations to assess the system performance, we state that brain-inspired KGS is a novel field in AI.

  14. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  15. THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS

  16. [History of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We established a new disease autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSNP) in 1997, in Okinawa, Japan. This disease is characterized by proximal dominant neurogenic atrophy with fasciculations, painful muscle cramp, obvious sensory nerve involvement, areflexia, high incidence of elevated creatine kinase levels, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. (MIM %604484). HMSNP is so called or HMSNO (HMSN OKINAWA type),. These clinical features resembled those of Kennedy-Alter-Sung syndrome. Most HMSNP patients have severe muscle atrophy and finally the tracheostomy and artificial ventilation are required. Therefore, we initially thought to classify HMSNP into a subtype of motor neuron disease (MND) like familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) or spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). However, the general consensus for MND was no sensory involvement. Therefore, as the disease showed severe sensory involvement, we categorized HMSNP in subtype of HMSN at that time. We also reported the pathology of HMSNP, showing severely decreased anterior horn cells, decreased posterior horn cells, and loss of posterior funiculus in the spinal cord.

  17. Intelligent sensing sensory quality of Chinese rice wine using near infrared spectroscopy and nonlinear tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Chen, Quansheng; Zhao, Jiewen

    2016-02-01

    The approach presented herein reports the application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in contrast with human sensory panel, as a tool for estimating Chinese rice wine quality; concretely, to achieve the prediction of the overall sensory scores assigned by the trained sensory panel. Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) combined with adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm, namely BP-AdaBoost, as a novel nonlinear algorithm, was proposed in modeling. First, the optimal spectra intervals were selected by synergy interval partial least square (Si-PLS). Then, BP-AdaBoost model based on the optimal spectra intervals was established, called Si-BP-AdaBoost model. These models were optimized by cross validation, and the performance of each final model was evaluated according to correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in prediction set. Si-BP-AdaBoost showed excellent performance in comparison with other models. The best Si-BP-AdaBoost model was achieved with Rp = 0.9180 and RMSEP = 2.23 in the prediction set. It was concluded that NIR spectroscopy combined with Si-BP-AdaBoost was an appropriate method for the prediction of the sensory quality in Chinese rice wine.

  18. Deficient GABAergic gliotransmission may cause broader sensory tuning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Osamu

    2013-12-01

    We examined how the depression of intracortical inhibition due to a reduction in ambient GABA concentration impairs perceptual information processing in schizophrenia. A neural network model with a gliotransmission-mediated ambient GABA regulatory mechanism was simulated. In the network, interneuron-to-glial-cell and principal-cell-to-glial-cell synaptic contacts were made. The former hyperpolarized glial cells and let their transporters import (remove) GABA from the extracellular space, thereby lowering ambient GABA concentration, reducing extrasynaptic GABAa receptor-mediated tonic inhibitory current, and thus exciting principal cells. In contrast, the latter depolarized the glial cells and let the transporters export GABA into the extracellular space, thereby elevating the ambient GABA concentration and thus inhibiting the principal cells. A reduction in ambient GABA concentration was assumed for a schizophrenia network. Multiple dynamic cell assemblies were organized as sensory feature columns. Each cell assembly responded to one specific feature stimulus. The tuning performance of the network to an applied feature stimulus was evaluated in relation to the level of ambient GABA. Transporter-deficient glial cells caused a deficit in GABAergic gliotransmission and reduced ambient GABA concentration, which markedly deteriorated the tuning performance of the network, broadening the sensory tuning. Interestingly, the GABAergic gliotransmission mechanism could regulate local ambient GABA levels: it augmented ambient GABA around stimulus-irrelevant principal cells, while reducing ambient GABA around stimulus-relevant principal cells, thereby ensuring their selective responsiveness to the applied stimulus. We suggest that a deficit in GABAergic gliotransmission may cause a reduction in ambient GABA concentration, leading to a broadening of sensory tuning in schizophrenia. The GABAergic gliotransmission mechanism proposed here may have an important role in the

  19. Artificial intelligence in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Artificial Intelligence in Nuclear Power Plants was arranged in Helsink/Vantaa, Finland, on October 10-12, 1989, under auspices of the International Working Group of Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA/IWG NPPCI). Technical Research Centre of Finland together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy answered for the practical arrangements of the meeting. 105 participants from 17 countries and 2 international organizations took part in the meeting and 58 papers were submitted for presentation. These papers gave a comprehensive picture of the recent status and further trends in applying the rapidly developing techniques of artificial intelligence and expert systems to improve the quality and safety in designing and using of nuclear power worldwide

  20. Artificial intelligence - NASA. [robotics for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents a vital common space support element needed to enable the civil space program and commercial space program to perform their missions successfully. It is pointed out that advances in AI stimulated by the Space Station Program could benefit the U.S. in many ways. A fundamental challenge for the civil space program is to meet the needs of the customers and users of space with facilities enabling maximum productivity and having low start-up costs, and low annual operating costs. An effective way to meet this challenge may involve a man-machine system in which artificial intelligence, robotics, and advanced automation are integrated into high reliability organizations. Attention is given to the benefits, NASA strategy for AI, candidate space station systems, the Space Station as a stepping stone, and the commercialization of space.