WorldWideScience

Sample records for artificial rnas occupy

  1. Engineering artificial small RNAs for conditional gene silencing in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vandana; Yamamura, Asami; Yokobayashi, Yohei

    2012-01-20

    It has become increasingly evident that noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) play a significant and global role in bacterial gene regulation. A majority of the trans-acting sRNAs in bacteria interact with the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and/or the translation initiation region of the targeted mRNAs via imperfect base pairing, resulting in reduced translation efficiency and/or mRNA stability. Additionally, bacterial sRNAs often contain distinct scaffolds that recruit RNA chaperones such as Hfq to facilitate gene regulation. In this study, we describe a strategy to engineer artificial sRNAs that can regulate desired endogenous genes in Escherichia coli. Using a fluorescent reporter gene that was translationally fused to a native 5' mRNA leader sequence, active artificial sRNAs were screened from libraries in which natural sRNA scaffolds were fused to a randomized antisense domain. Artificial sRNAs that posttranscriptionally repress two endogenous genes ompF and fliC were isolated and characterized. We anticipate that the artificial sRNAs will be useful for dynamic control and fine-tuning of endogenous gene expression in bacteria for applications in synthetic biology.

  2. Gene function analysis by artificial microRNAs in Physcomitrella patens.

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~21 nt long small RNAs transcribed from endogenous MIR genes which form precursor RNAs with a characteristic hairpin structure. miRNAs control the expression of cognate target genes by binding to reverse complementary sequences resulting in cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNA. Artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) can be generated by exchanging the miRNA/miRNA sequence of endogenous MIR precursor genes, while maintaining the general pattern of matches and mismatches in the foldback. Thus, for functional gene analysis amiRNAs can be designed to target any gene of interest. During the last decade the moss Physcomitrella patens emerged as a model plant for functional gene analysis based on its unique ability to integrate DNA into the nuclear genome by homologous recombination which allows for the generation of targeted gene knockout mutants. In addition to this, we developed a protocol to express amiRNAs in P. patens that has particular advantages over the generation of knockout mutants and might be used to speed up reverse genetics approaches in this model species.

  3. Undesired small RNAs originate from an artificial microRNA precursor in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Guo

    Full Text Available Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1, based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of amiRNAs

  4. Occupy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Blanchard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As I sit at my desk and begin to unpack my materials for the new school year, I come across the poster from the November 2nd General Strike in Oakland. The image is of protesters with signs and flags on top of container trucks silhouetted against the setting sun at the port of Oakland. It is an image that has come to represent the high point of the Occupy struggle in the Bay Area and served as inspiration for what has become possible in the struggle against the 1%.

  5. Expression of multiple artificial microRNAs from a chicken miRNA126-based lentiviral vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve C-Y Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of RNAi in both basic and translational research often requires expression of multiple siRNAs from the same vector. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a novel chicken miR126-based artificial miRNA expression system that can express one, two or three miRNAs from a single cassette in a lentiviral vector. We show that each of the miRNAs expressed from the same lentiviral vector is capable of potent inhibition of reporter gene expression in transient transfection and stable integration assays in chicken fibroblast DF-1 cells. Transduction of Vero cells with lentivirus expressing two or three different anti-influenza miRNAs leads to inhibition of influenza virus production. In addition, the chicken miR126-based expression system effectively inhibits reporter gene expression in human, monkey, dog and mouse cells. These results demonstrate that the flanking regions of a single primary miRNA can support processing of three different stem-loops in a single vector. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This novel design expands the means to express multiple miRNAs from the same vector for potent and effective silencing of target genes and influenza virus.

  6. Partly occupied Wannier functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Hansen, Lars Bruno; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a scheme for constructing partly occupied, maximally localized Wannier functions (WFs) for both molecular and periodic systems. Compared to the traditional occupied WFs the partly occupied WFs possess improved symmetry and localization properties achieved through a bonding-antibondin......We introduce a scheme for constructing partly occupied, maximally localized Wannier functions (WFs) for both molecular and periodic systems. Compared to the traditional occupied WFs the partly occupied WFs possess improved symmetry and localization properties achieved through a bonding...

  7. Promotion of cortico-cerebral precursors expansion by artificial pri-miRNAs targeted against the Emx2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Assunta; Pinzan, Moira; Granzotto, Marilena; Mallamaci, Antonello

    2013-04-01

    Emx2 encodes for a transcription factor controlling several aspects of cerebral cortex development. Its overexpression promotes self-renewal of young cortico-cerebral precursors, it promotes neuronal rather than gliogenic fates and it protects neuronal progenitors from cell death. These are all key activities for purposes of gene-promoted brain repair. Artificial pri-miRNAs targeting non-coding cis-active modules and/or conserved sequences of the Emx2 locus were delivered to embryonic cortico-cerebral precursors, by lentiviral vectors. A subset of these pri-miRNAs upregulated Emx2, possibly stimulating its transcription. That led to enhanced self-renewal, delayed differentiation and reduced death of neuronally committed precursors, resulting in an appreciable expansion of the neuronogenic precursors pool. This method makes Emx2 overexpression for purposes of brain repair a more feasible goal, avoiding the drawbacks of exogenous gene copies introduction. Interestingly, the two genomic enhancers targeted by these pri-miRNAs were discovered to be naturally transcribed. Their expression profile suggests their possible involvement in regulation of Emx2 transcription.

  8. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...

  9. An adenoviral vector-based expression and delivery system for the inhibition of wild-type adenovirus replication by artificial microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrišimović, Mirza; Kneidinger, Doris; Lion, Thomas; Klein, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Human adenoviruses are rarely associated with life-threatening infections in healthy individuals. However, immunocompromised patients, and particularly allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, are at high risk of developing disseminated and potentially fatal disease. The efficacy of commonly used drugs to treat adenovirus infections (i.e., cidofovir in most cases) is limited, and alternative treatment options are needed. Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) are a class of synthetic RNAs resembling cellular miRNAs, and, similar to their natural relatives, can mediate the knockdown of endogenous gene expression. This process, termed RNA interference, can be harnessed to target and potentially silence both cellular and viral genes. In this study, we designed amiRNAs directed against adenoviral E1A, DNA polymerase, and preterminal protein (pTP) mRNAs in order to inhibit adenoviral replication in vitro. For the expression of amiRNA-encoding sequences, we utilized replication-deficient adenoviral vectors. In cells transduced with the recombinant vectors and infected with the wild-type (wt) adenovirus, one particular amiRNA that was directed against the pTP mRNA was capable of decreasing the output of infectious wt virus progeny by 2.6 orders of magnitude. This inhibition rate could be achieved by concatemerizing amiRNA-encoding sequences to allow for high intracellular amiRNA concentrations. Because superinfecting wt virus induces the replication and amplification of the recombinant adenoviral vector, amiRNA concentrations were increased in cells infected with wt adenovirus. Furthermore, a combination of amiRNA expression and treatment of infected cells with cidofovir resulted in additive effects that manifested as a total reduction of infectious virus progeny by greater than 3 orders of magnitude.

  10. #Occupy IR: Exposing the Orthodoxy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Manokha; Mona Chalabi

    2012-01-01

    The #occupy IR/IPE initiative was created in response to the #occupy movement, whose own roots can be traced backed to the latest crisis of global finance. In this contribution, we link #occupy and the crisis in a different way. We argue that we must occupy IR/IPE because of the discipline’s failure to apprehend and acknowledge the crisis itself, just as the Occupy movement is calling for their overarching authorities to notice and help address the social and economic inequalities produced by...

  11. Poems from the Occupy Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Annas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the Occupy Movement, poetry has occupied a major supporting role.  Both the New York and Boston encampments immediately set up a library tent, and poetry readings were a regular part of the camp’s activities.

  12. #Occupy: Strategic Dilemmas, Lessons Learned?

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    David J. Bailey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What is #Occupy? For William Connolly, it is ‘better described’ as ‘the 99% movement’ (Connolly, 2011. But even this is potentially too narrow as it refers only to those explicitly adopting the 99% slogan. In the UK, the ‘Uncut’ movement has arguably gained more traction. Outside of the Anglo-sphere, we witness the Spanish indignados , and the General Strikes in Greece, along with related demonstrations in Syntagma Square. There is, then, on the one hand a narrowly-defined #Occupy movement, and on the other hand a more broadly defined movement seeking to challenge – through popular mobilisation, direct action, and/or civil disobedience – the austerity measures that are being introduced in the wake of the post-2007 global economic crisis. In each case, we witness the strategy of occupation as a means of highlighting popular dissatisfaction; of presenting an illustration of the disruptive potential of the dissatisfied; and of prefiguring modes of social organisation preferable to those being opposed. If we focus too narrowly on the #Occupy movement as the form of mobilised, extra parliamentary, resistance to the current restructuring of advanced industrial democracies, then there is a risk that we lose sight of the broader movement of which this is a part.

  13. Combined adenovirus-mediated artificial microRNAs targeting mfgl2, mFas, and mTNFR1 protect against fulminant hepatic failure in mice.

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    Dong Xi

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF has a poor prognosis with high in-hospital mortality. Hepatic and circulating inflammatory cytokines, such as fibrinogen like protein 2 (fgl2, FasL/Fas, and TNFα/TNFR1, play a significant role in the pathophysiology of ACLF. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of recombinant adenoviral vectors carrying constructed DNA code for non-native microRNA (miRNA targeting mouse fgl2 (mfgl2 or both mFas and mTNFR1 on murine hepatitis virus (MHV-3-induced fulminant hepatitis in BALB/cJ mice. Artificial miRNA eukaryotic expression plasmids against mfgl2, mFas, and mTNFR1 were constructed, and their inhibitory effects on the target genes were confirmed in vitro. pcDNA6.2-mFas-mTNFR1- miRNA,which expresses miRNA against both mFas and mTNFR1 simultaneously,was constructed. To construct a miRNA adenovirus expression vector against mfgl2, pcDNA6.2-mfgl2-miRNA was cloned using Gateway technology. Ad-mFas-mTNFR1- miRNA was also constructed by the same procedure. Adenovirus vectors were delivered by tail-vein injection into MHV-3-infected BALB/cJ mice to evaluate the therapeutic effect. 8 of 18 (44.4% mice recovered from fulminant viral hepatitis in the combined interference group treated with Ad-mfgl2-miRNA and Ad-mFas-mTNFR1-miRNA. But only 4 of 18 (22.2% mice receiving Ad-mfgl2-miRNA and 3 of 18 (16.7% mice receiving Ad-mFas-mTNFR1- miRNA survived. These adenovirus vectors significantly ameliorated inflammatory infiltration, fibrin deposition, hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis, and prolonged survival time. Our data illustrated that combined interference using adenovirus-mediated artificial miRNAs targeting mfgl2, mFas, and mTNFR1 might have significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of fulminant hepatitis.

  14. Combining Heavy Ion Radiation and Artificial MicroRNAs to Target the Homologous Recombination Repair Gene Efficiently Kills Human Tumor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Zhiming [Department of Neurosurgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wang Ping; Wang Hongyan; Zhang Xiangming [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wang Minli [Division of Life Sciences, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas (United States); Cucinotta, Francis A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang Ya, E-mail: ywang94@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Previously, we demonstrated that heavy ions kill more cells at the same dose than X-rays because DNA-clustered lesions produced by heavy ions affect nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair but not homologous recombination repair (HRR). We have also shown that our designed artificial microRNAs (amiRs) could efficiently target XRCC4 (an essential factor for NHEJ) or XRCC2 (an essential factor for HRR) and sensitize human tumor cells to X-rays. Based on these data, we were interested in testing the hypothesis that combining heavy ions and amiRs to target HRR but not NHEJ should more efficiently kill human tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Human tumor cell lines (U87MG, a brain tumor cell line, and A549, a lung cancer cell line) and their counterparts, overexpressed with amiR to target XRCC2, XRCC4 or both, were used in this study. Survival sensitivities were examined using a clonogenic assay after these cells were exposed to X-rays or heavy ions. In addition, these cell lines were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to form xenografts and the tumor size was compared after the tumor areas were exposed to X-rays or heavy ions. Results: Although targeting either XRCC4 (NHEJ factor) or XRCC2 (HRR factor) sensitized the human tumor cells to X-rays, in vitro and the xenograft animal model, targeting only XRCC2 but not XRCC4 sensitized the human tumor cells to heavy ions in vitro and in the xenograft animal model. Conclusions: Combining heavy ions with targeting the HRR pathway, but not the NHEJ pathway, could significantly improve the efficiency of tumor cell death.

  15. The Digital Evolution of Occupy Wall Street

    CERN Document Server

    Conover, Michael D; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  16. What does it mean to occupy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gilman-Sevcik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available What work does an occupation do? What affordances are provided by refusing to articulate a platform for redressing public grievances? The authors provide here a brief aesthetic contemplation of the Occupy movement.

  17. Singly and Doubly Occupied Higher Quantum States in Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Juyeon; Yoon, Bitna; Kwon, Young-Wan; Choi, Dongsun; Jeong, Kwang Seob

    2017-02-08

    Filling the lowest quantum state of the conduction band of colloidal nanocrystals with a single electron, which is analogous to the filling the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in a molecule with a single electron, has attracted much attention due to the possibility of harnessing the electron spin for potential spin-based applications. The quantized energy levels of the artificial atom, in principle, make it possible for a nanocrystal to be filled with an electron if the Fermi-energy level is optimally tuned during the nanocrystal growth. Here, we report the singly occupied quantum state (SOQS) and doubly occupied quantum state (DOQS) of a colloidal nanocrystal in steady state under ambient conditions. The number of electrons occupying the lowest quantum state can be controlled to be zero, one (unpaired), and two (paired) depending on the nanocrystal growth time via changing the stoichiometry of the nanocrystal. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy proved the nanocrystals with single electron to show superparamagnetic behavior, which is a direct evidence of the SOQS, whereas the DOQS of the two- or zero-electron occupied nanocrystals in the 1Se exhibit diamagnetic behavior. In combination with the superconducting quantum interference device measurement, it turns out that the SOQS of the HgSe colloidal quantum dots has superparamagnetic property. The appearance and change of the steady-state mid-IR intraband absorption spectrum reflect the sequential occupation of the 1Se state with electrons. The magnetic property of the colloidal quantum dot, initially determined by the chemical synthesis, can be tuned from diamagnetic to superparamagnetic and vice versa by varying the number of electrons through postchemical treatment. The switchable magnetic property will be very useful for further applications such as colloidal nanocrystal based spintronics, nonvolatile memory, infrared optoelectronics, catalyst, imaging, and quantum computing.

  18. Movements in Parties: OccupyPD

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    Donatella della Porta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When the United States activists called for people to Occupy#everywhere, it is unlikely they were thinking of the headquarters of the Italian centre-left party. Parties and movements are often considered to be worlds apart. In reality, parties have been relevant players in movement politics, and movements have influenced parties, often through the double militancy of many of their members. OccupyPD testifies to a continuous fluidity at the movement-party border, but also to a blockage in the party’s interactions with society that started long before the economic crisis but drastically accelerated with it. In this paper we present the OccupyPD Movement as a case of interaction between party politics and social movement politics, and in particular between the base membership of a centre-left party and the broader anti-austerity movement that diffused from the US to Europe adopting similar forms of actions and claims. Second, by locating it within the context of the economic and democratic crisis that erupted in 2007, we understand its emergence as a reaction towards politics in times of crisis of responsibility, by which we mean a drastic drop in the capacity of the government to respond to citizens’ requests. To fulfil this double aim, we bridge social movement studies with research on party change, institutional trust and democratic theory, looking at some political effects of the economic crisis in terms of a specific form of legitimacy crisis, as well as citizens’ responses to it, with a particular focus on the political meaning of recent anti-austerity protests. In this analysis, we refer to both quantitative and qualitative data from secondary liter-ature and original in-depth interviews carried out with a sample of OccupyPD activists.

  19. Human telomeric proteins occupy selective interstitial sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang; Yuanyan Xiong; Hyyeung Kim; Quanyuan He; Yumei Li; Rui Chen; Zhou Songyang

    2011-01-01

    Human telomeres are bound and protected by protein complexes assembled around the six core telomeric proteins RAP1, TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, TPP1, and POT1. The function of these proteins on telomeres has been studied extensively. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested possible roles for these proteins outside of telomeres. However, the non-canonical (extra-telomeric) function of human telomeric proteins remains poorly understood. To this end, we systematically investigated the binding sites of telomeric proteins along human chromosomes, by performing wholegenome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for RAP1 and TRF2. ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that RAP1 and TRF2 could be found on a small number of interstitial sites, including regions that are proximal to genes. Some of these binding sites contain short telomere repeats, suggesting that telomeric proteins could directly bind to interstitial sites. Interestingly, only a small fraction of the available interstitial telomere repeat-containing regions were occupied by RAP1 and TRF2. Ectopically expressed TRF2 was able to occupy additional interstitial telomere repeat sites, suggesting that protein concentration may dictate the selective targeting of telomeric proteins to interstitial sites. Reducing RAP1 and TRF2 expression by RNA interference led to altered transcription of RAP1- and TRF2-targeted genes. Our results indicate that human telomeric proteins could occupy a limited number of interstitial sites and regulate gene transcription.

  20. Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Medicine

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    Laura Cerchia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several signalling proteins involved in cell growth and differentiation represent attractive candidate targets for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy since they can act as oncogenes. Because of their high specificity and low immunogeneicity, using artificial small noncoding RNA (ncRNAs as therapeutics has recently become a highly promising and rapidly expanding field of interest. Indeed, ncRNAs may either interfere with RNA transcription, stability, translation or directly hamper the function of the targets by binding to their surface. The recent finding that the expression of several genes is under the control of small single-stranded regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, makes these genes as appropriate targets for ncRNA gene silencing. Furthermore, another class of small ncRNA, aptamers, act as high-affinity ligands and potential antagonists of disease-associated proteins. We will review here the recent and innovative methods that have been developed and the possible applications of ncRNAs as inhibitors or tracers in cancer medicine.

  1. Two RNAs or DNAs May Artificially Fuse Together at a Short Homologous Sequence (SHS during Reverse Transcription or Polymerase Chain Reactions, and Thus Reporting an SHS-Containing Chimeric RNA Requires Extra Caution.

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    Bingkun Xie

    Full Text Available Tens of thousands of chimeric RNAs have been reported. Most of them contain a short homologous sequence (SHS at the joining site of the two partner genes but are not associated with a fusion gene. We hypothesize that many of these chimeras may be technical artifacts derived from SHS-caused mis-priming in reverse transcription (RT or polymerase chain reactions (PCR. We cloned six chimeric complementary DNAs (cDNAs formed by human mitochondrial (mt 16S rRNA sequences at an SHS, which were similar to several expression sequence tags (ESTs.These chimeras, which could not be detected with cDNA protection assay, were likely formed because some regions of the 16S rRNA are reversely complementary to another region to form an SHS, which allows the downstream sequence to loop back and anneal at the SHS to prime the synthesis of its complementary strand, yielding a palindromic sequence that can form a hairpin-like structure.We identified a 16S rRNA that ended at the 4th nucleotide(nt of the mt-tRNA-leu was dominant and thus should be the wild type. We also cloned a mouse Bcl2-Nek9 chimeric cDNA that contained a 5-nt unmatchable sequence between the two partners, contained two copies of the reverse primer in the same direction but did not contain the forward primer, making it unclear how this Bcl2-Nek9 was formed and amplified. Moreover, a cDNA was amplified because one primer has 4 nts matched to the template, suggesting that there may be many more artificial cDNAs than we have realized, because the nuclear and mt genomes have many more 4-nt than 5-nt or longer homologues. Altogether, the chimeric cDNAs we cloned are good examples suggesting that many cDNAs may be artifacts due to SHS-caused mis-priming and thus greater caution should be taken when new sequence is obtained from a technique involving DNA polymerization.

  2. Occupy: A New Pedagogy of Space and Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Mike; Amsler, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper forms the first part of a project of inquiry to understand the theoretical and practical potentials of Occupy through the recent wave of occupations that have emerged in response to the politics of austerity and precarity around the world. We do this as educators who are seeking to "occupy" spaces of higher education inside and outside…

  3. Regulatory Role of Small Nucleolar RNAs in Human Diseases

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    Grigory A. Stepanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs are appreciable players in gene expression regulation in human cells. The canonical function of box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs is posttranscriptional modification of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, namely, 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively. A series of independent studies demonstrated that snoRNAs, as well as other noncoding RNAs, serve as the source of various short regulatory RNAs. Some snoRNAs and their fragments can also participate in the regulation of alternative splicing and posttranscriptional modification of mRNA. Alterations in snoRNA expression in human cells can affect numerous vital cellular processes. SnoRNA level in human cells, blood serum, and plasma presents a promising target for diagnostics and treatment of human pathologies. Here we discuss the relation between snoRNAs and oncological, neurodegenerative, and viral diseases and also describe changes in snoRNA level in response to artificial stress and some drugs.

  4. Ordinary Men? Collaboration and Resistance in Occupied Mogilevskaya Oblast'

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    Luke Rodeheffer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is to examine developments in Mogilevskaya Oblast' in eastern Belarus. How the region fell under occupation, the attitudes of the thousands of Soviet citizens who decided to collaborate with the fascist occupiers, and the divisions that developed in the population as a result of collaboration are discussed. At roughly the same time, a resistance movement, made up of partisans and underground urban fighters, developed in these occupied territories. The development, tactics, and effectiveness of these partisans and resistance fighters will be analyzed, along with the reactions of the occupying powers to this insurgency.

  5. Estimated occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shown are the current estimated occupied range and the historical range of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken. The current range was updated in January 2011 by the Lesser...

  6. Attempts to prevent displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Prevention has become a strategy increasingly adopted by the humanitarian community in addressing forced displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories, as well as responding to immediate emergency needs for families displaced or at risk of displacement.

  7. Micro RNAs in animal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasterk, R.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22 nucleotide single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that bind to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and silence their expression. This Essay explores the importance of miRNAs in animal development and their possible roles in disease and evolution.

  8. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  9. Potential MiRNAs recognition site identification in 3' UTR regions by DSP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Norbert; Arrigo, Patrizio; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate fundamental cellular processes in diverse organisms and that have an important function in gene expression regulation. miRNAs seem capable to concurrently modulate hundreds of target genes. Their abnormal expression is emerging as important element in many pathological conditions. The identification of microRNA binding sites on those proteins that can be disease biomarker is fundamental to design synthetic artificial oligomers. In this paper we suggest a method, based on signal processing, to filter out potential miRNA recognition sites in the 3' UTR region of mRNAs.

  10. The Academic Manifesto: From an Occupied to a Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halffman, Willem; Radder, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Universities are occupied by management, a regime obsessed with "accountability" through measurement, increased competition, efficiency, "excellence", and misconceived economic salvation. Given the occupation's absurd side-effects, we ask ourselves how management has succeeded in taking over our precious universities. An…

  11. Surgical decompression for space-occupying hemispheric infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with a hemispheric infarct and massive space-occupying edema formation have a poor prognosis. Mortality rates of about 80% have been described, despite maximal medical therapy on an intensive care unit. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate the benefit of deco

  12. Political Education--Occupy Wall Street's First Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie DiSalvo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While Occupy Wall Street (OWS is easily identified with direct action in the streets, equal recognition should be given to the vast amount of political education that took place. This article will give an overview of that and briefly assess its emphases and absences.

  13. 24 CFR 882.509 - Overcrowded and under occupied units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Special Procedures for Moderate Rehabilitation-Program Development and Operation § 882.509 Overcrowded and under occupied units... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT...

  14. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  15. MicroRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devaux, Yvan; Stammet, Pascal; Friberg, Hans

    2015-01-01

    cardiac arrest would allow subsequent health care delivery to be tailored to individual patients. However, currently available predictive methods and biomarkers lack sufficient accuracy and therefore cannot be generally recommended in clinical practice. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as potential...... biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases. While the biomarker value of microRNAs for myocardial infarction or heart failure has been extensively studied, less attention has been devoted to their prognostic value after cardiac arrest. This review highlights the recent discoveries suggesting that microRNAs may...

  16. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  17. Occupy's predicament: the moment and the prospects for the movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Todd

    2013-03-01

    Occupy Wall Street has stalled in its attempt to make a transition from a moment to a movement. It had a sizable impact upon the presidential election, driving America's political centre of gravity toward the left, but has been unable or unwilling to evolve beyond its original core into a 'full-service movement' that welcomes contributions from a wide range of activists at varying levels of commitment and skill and plausibly campaigns for substantial reforms. In contrast to earlier American social movements of the twentieth century, the Occupy movement began with a large popular base of support. Propped up by that support, its 'inner movement' of core activists with strong anarchist and 'horizontalist' beliefs transformed the political environment even as they disdained formal reform demands and conducted decisions in a demanding, fully participatory manner. But the core was deeply suspicious of the 'cooptive' and 'hierarchical' tendencies of the unions and membership organizations - the 'outer movement' - whose supporters made up the bulk of the participants who turned out for Occupy's large demonstrations. The 'inner movement's' awkward fit with that 'outer movement' blocked transformation into an enduring structure capable of winning substantial reforms over time. When the encampments were dispersed by governmental authorities, the core lost its ability to convert electronic communications into the energy and community that derive from face-to-face contact. The outlook for the effectiveness of the movement is decidedly limited unless an alliance of disparate groups develops to press for reforms within the political system.

  18. Non-coding RNAs and hypertension-unveiling unexpected mechanisms of hypertension by the dark matter of the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and a most important health problem in developed countries. Investigations on pathophysiology of hypertension have been based on gene products from coding region that occupies only about 1% of total genome region. On the other hand, non-coding region that occupies almost 99% of human genome has been regarded as "junk" for a long time and went unnoticed until these days. But recently, it turned out that noncoding region is extensively transcribed to non-coding RNAs and has various functions. This review highlights recent updates on the significance of non-coding RNAs such as micro RNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on the pathogenesis of hypertension, also providing an introduction to basic biology of noncoding RNAs. For example, microRNAs are associated with hypertension via neuro-fumoral factor, sympathetic nerve activity, ion transporters in kidneys, endothelial function, vascular smooth muscle phenotype transformation, or communication between cells. Although reports of lncRNAs on pathogenesis of hypertension are scarce at the moment, new lncRNAs in relation to hypertension are being discovered at a rapid pace owing to novel techniques such as microarray or next-generation sequencing. In the clinical settings, clinical use of non-coding RNAs in identifying cardiovascular risks or developing novel tools for treating hypertension such as molecular decoy or mimicks is promising, although improvement in chemical modification or drug delivery system is necessary.

  19. Maternal and child health in the occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Hanan F Abdul; Wick, Laura; Halileh, Samia; Hassan-Bitar, Sahar; Chekir, Hafedh; Watt, Graham; Khawaja, Marwan

    2009-03-14

    The Countdown to 2015 intervention coverage indicators in the occupied Palestinian territory are similar to those of other Arab countries, although there are gaps in continuity and quality of services across the continuum of the perinatal period. Since the mid 1990s, however, access to maternity facilities has become increasingly unpredictable. Mortality rates for infants (age sustainable development, and the universal right to health care, women and children should not have to wait. Urgent action from international and local decision makers is needed for sustainable access to high-quality care and basic health entitlements.

  20. Trust the process: community health psychology after Occupy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Flora; Montenegro, Cristian; van Reisen, Kirsten; Zaka, Flavia; Sevitt, James

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that community health psychology's core strategy of 'community mobilisation' is in need of renewal and proposes a new way of conceptualising community health action. Taking the Occupy movement as an example, we critique modernist understandings of community mobilisation, which are based on instrumental action in the service of a predetermined goal. Aiming to re-invigorate the 'process' tradition of community health psychology, we explore possibilities of an open-ended, anti-hierarchical and inclusive mode of community action, which we label 'trusting the process'. The gains to be made are unpredictable, but we suggest that the risk is worth taking.

  1. Micro-RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmäki, H.; Hokland, L. B.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation and bone formation (osteogenesis) are regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recently, a novel class of regulatory factors termed microRNAs has been identified as playing an important role in the regulation of many aspects of osteoblast biology...... including proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. Also, preliminary data from animal disease models suggest that targeting miRNAs in bone can be a novel approach to increase bone mass. This review highlights the current knowledge of microRNA biology and their role in bone formation...

  2. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  3. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  4. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  5. Occupy Wall Street, the Global Crisis, and Antisystemic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reifer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ancient discussion about the purposes of wealth and the conflict between oligarchy- rule of the rich - and democracy- the rule of the demos/the people comes to the fore once again within the current systemic crisis, from the Arab Spring to the Occupy protests, to the Arab Fall. Even as counterrevolution and growing regional and global turbulence - political, economic and military - appear to be triumphing over the new wave of democratic revolutions and rebellions, at least in the Arab world, with the threat of regional and global conflagration all too real, the underlying structural causes reality of a militarized capitalist world-system in deep crisis will ensure continued waves of antisystemic protests for years to come.

  6. Occupy Wall Street: From Representation to Post-Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tormey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trying to assess something as recent and dynamic as Occupy Wall Street (OWS presents problems for political analysts. There is always a danger that by the time one has written in judgement the event-movement will have morphed into something quite different. For this reason alone we need to be careful about offering too definitive a judgment on what it represents, about what we think is new in the phenomenon as well as what we think presents linkages to the past. On the one hand, OWS is still in the process of becoming-something . On the other hand, though, we can see the outline of more or less familiar characteristics that might help orientate us towards something that is being greeted as a new departure.

  7. Occupy Wall Street’ and IPE: Insights and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cobbett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The academic discipline of International Political Economy (IPE is a hard-nosed and empirically-oriented field of study. The usual subjects of IPE often include the organization of international trade, global finance, transnational production, national welfare and competitiveness, productivity levels and of course state actions and expenditures. The actions of a handful of protestors such as the ‘Occupy Wall Street’(OWS movement rarely attract academic attention. In this case, however, we should take note. In our view, the actions of OWS provide further clues that we are entering an era of significant transformation in the organization and structure of world order. The insights generated by reflecting on this movement suggest that the inter-subjective mentality at the heart of global capitalism is no longer coherent, with the implication thatwe are at long last about to leave behind a half century of American hegemony.

  8. Mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as intracranial space occupying lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Tarun; Gunabushanam, Gowthaman; Malik, Monica; Goyal, Shikha; Das, Anup K; Julka, Pramod K; Rath, Goura K

    2006-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) usually present with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal mass, pain, anorexia and bowel obstruction. Methods We report a case of a 42 year old male who presented with a solitary intracranial space occupying lesion which was established as a metastasis from a mesenteric tumour. Results The patient was initially treated as a metastatic sarcoma, but a lack of response to chemotherapy prompted testing for CD117 which returned positive. A diagnosis of mesenteric GIST presenting as solitary brain metastasis was made, and the patient was treated with imatinib. Conclusion We recommend that all sarcomas with either an intraabdominal or unknown origin be routinely tested for CD117 to rule out GIST. PMID:17105654

  9. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  10. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity.

  11. Containment testing for occupied and unoccupied laboratory chemical hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenley, P.L.; DiBerardinis, L.J.; Lorch, F.A.

    1999-07-01

    Containment of hazards in a laboratory chemical hood is based on the principle that air drawn through the face area of the hood is sufficient to overcome the many challenges at or near the opening. Challenges to overcome include, but are not limited to, air velocities near the hood, movement of the researcher, people walking past the hood, location of equipment inside the hood, size of the sash opening, and the shape and configuration of entrance conditions. To overcome these challenges, a sufficient face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity for a given hood should be resolved by the system designer, facility safety officer, and researcher with these and other issues in mind. This research tests for containment at 100 feet per minute (fpm) face velocity on occupied hoods and tests the same hoods for containment at the reduced velocity of 60 fpm when unoccupied. Three laboratory chemical hoods of different sizes with several ash positions are used. The test results show that under ideal conditions in a test laboratory, an unoccupied hood (without a manikin) at 60 fpm contains as good as, if not better than, an occupied hood (with a manikin) at 100 fpm, as measured by the tracer gas tests specified in ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995, Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ASHRAE 1995). Further testing is needed to determine if this relationship is the same under conditions of actual use, i.e., cluttered hoods and presence of cross-drafts.

  12. Micro RNAs and Short-interfering RNAs in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramanjulu Sunkar; Jian-Kang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gene silencing can occur either at the transcriptional level or post-transcriptional level or both. Many instances of sequence-specific silencing requires small RNAs that can be divided into two major classes: microRNAs (miRNAs) and short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). miRNAs function in post-transcriptional gene silencing by guiding mRNA degradation or translational repression. Endogenous siRNAs are more diverse in plants than in animals and can direct post-transcriptional gene silencing through mRNA degradation or transcriptional gene silencing by triggering DNA methylation and histone modifications. This review discusses recent advances in the field of small RNA-guided gene silencing in plants including rice.

  13. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  14. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. They may cause you to need an amputation. Traumatic injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects If you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ...

  15. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  16. Long noncoding RNAs and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Ding, Jia-wang; Wang, Xin-an; Zheng, Xia-xia

    2016-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is universally recognized as a chronic lipid-induced inflammation of the vessel wall in response to dyslipidemia and haemodynamic stress involving dysfunction and activation of resident vascular cells as well as infiltration of leukocytes. As members of nonprotein-coding RNAs, the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in various biological processes. Accumulating evidences suggest that lncRNAs regulate the function of vascular wall, activation of macrophages, lipid metabolism and immune response. Here, we review the effects of lncRNAs on the progress of atherosclerosis.

  17. MicroRNAs and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaja, Noora

    2014-06-01

    In mammals, male gametes are produced inside the testis by spermatogenesis, which has three phases: mitotic proliferation of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes, and haploid differentiation of spermatids. The genome of male germ cells is actively transcribed to produce phase-specific gene expression patterns. Male germ cells have a complex transcriptome. In addition to protein-coding messenger RNAs, many noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are produced. The miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression. They function mainly post-transcriptionally to control the stability or translation of their target messenger RNAs. The miRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific manner during spermatogenesis to participate in the control of each step of male germ cell differentiation. Genetically modified mouse models have demonstrated the importance of miRNA pathways for normal spermatogenesis, and functional studies have been designed to dissect the roles of specific miRNAs in distinct cell types. Clinical studies have exploited the well-defined expression profiles of miRNAs, and human spermatozoal or seminal plasma miRNAs have been explored as potential biomarkers for male factor infertility. This review article discusses the current findings that support the central role of miRNAs in the regulation of spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  18. Plant Mobile Small RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Dunoyer, Patrice; Melnyk, Charles; Molnar, Attila; Slotkin, R Keith

    2013-01-01

    In plants, RNA silencing is a fundamental regulator of gene expression, heterochromatin formation, suppression of transposable elements, and defense against viruses. The sequence specificity of these processes relies on small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules. Although the spreading of RNA silencing across the plant has been recognized for nearly two decades, only recently have sRNAs been formally demonstrated as the mobile silencing signals. Here, we discuss the various types of mobile sRNA mol...

  19. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Ping Zheng; Bing-Yuan Wang; Fei Wang; Ran Ao; Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man,which can lead to various complications because of its mobility.As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris,the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare.An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies.The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus.Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning.The patient fasted,and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate.Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb.The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis.The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus.Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up.Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus,emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  20. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-04-07

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  1. The Topology of a Discussion: The #Occupy Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Gargiulo

    Full Text Available We analyse a large sample of the Twitter activity that developed around the social movement 'Occupy Wall Street', to study the complex interactions between the human communication activity and the semantic content of a debate.We use a network approach based on the analysis of the bipartite graph @Users-#Hashtags and of its projections: the 'semantic network', whose nodes are hashtags, and the 'users interest network', whose nodes are users. In the first instance, we find out that discussion topics (#hashtags present a high structural heterogeneity, with a relevant role played by the semantic hubs that are responsible to guarantee the continuity of the debate. In the users' case, the self-organisation process of users' activity, leads to the emergence of two classes of communicators: the 'professionals' and the 'amateurs'.Both the networks present a strong community structure, based on the differentiation of the semantic topics, and a high level of structural robustness when certain sets of topics are censored and/or accounts are removed.By analysing the characteristics of the dynamical networks we can distinguish three phases of the discussion about the movement. Each phase corresponds to a specific moment of the movement: from declaration of intent, organisation and development and the final phase of political reactions. Each phase is characterised by the presence of prototypical #hashtags in the discussion.

  2. The Role of microRNAs in Animal Cell Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Santos, María Concepción; Aragón-Raygoza, Alejandro; Espinal-Centeno, Annie; Arteaga-Vázquez, Mario; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Bako, Laszlo; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo

    2016-07-15

    Our concept of cell reprogramming and cell plasticity has evolved since John Gurdon transferred the nucleus of a completely differentiated cell into an enucleated Xenopus laevis egg, thereby generating embryos that developed into tadpoles. More recently, induced expression of transcription factors, oct4, sox2, klf4, and c-myc has evidenced the plasticity of the genome to change the expression program and cell phenotype by driving differentiated cells to the pluripotent state. Beyond these milestone achievements, research in artificial cell reprogramming has been focused on other molecules that are different than transcription factors. Among the candidate molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs) stand out due to their potential to control the levels of proteins that are involved in cellular processes such as self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation. Here, we review the role of miRNAs in the maintenance and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, epimorphic regeneration, and somatic cell reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells.

  3. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter T; Wang, Wang-Xia; Rajeev, Bernard W

    2008-01-01

    Aging-related neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are the culmination of many different genetic and environmental influences. Prior studies have shown that RNAs are pathologically altered during the inexorable course of some NDs. Recent evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) may be a contributing factor in neurodegeneration. miRNAs are brain-enriched, small ( approximately 22 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs that participate in mRNA translational regulation. Although discovered in the framework of worm development, miRNAs are now appreciated to play a dynamic role in many mammalian brain-related biochemical pathways, including neuroplasticity and stress responses. Research about miRNAs in the context of neurodegeneration is accumulating rapidly, and the goal of this review is to provide perspective for these new data that may be helpful to specialists in either field. An overview is provided about the normal functions for miRNAs, including some of the newer concepts related to the human brain. Recently published studies pertaining to the roles of miRNAs in NDs--including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and triplet repeat disorders-are described. Finally, a discussion is included with theoretical syntheses and possible future directions in exploring the nexus between miRNA and ND research.

  4. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  5. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie...

  6. Long noncoding RNAs regulate adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Goff, Loyal A; Trapnell, Cole; Alexander, Ryan; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Hacisuleyman, Ezgi; Sauvageau, Martin; Tazon-Vega, Barbara; Kelley, David R; Hendrickson, David G; Yuan, Bingbing; Kellis, Manolis; Lodish, Harvey F; Rinn, John L

    2013-02-26

    The prevalence of obesity has led to a surge of interest in understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying adipocyte development. Many protein-coding genes, mRNAs, and microRNAs have been implicated in adipocyte development, but the global expression patterns and functional contributions of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) during adipogenesis have not been explored. Here we profiled the transcriptome of primary brown and white adipocytes, preadipocytes, and cultured adipocytes and identified 175 lncRNAs that are specifically regulated during adipogenesis. Many lncRNAs are adipose-enriched, strongly induced during adipogenesis, and bound at their promoters by key transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα). RNAi-mediated loss of function screens identified functional lncRNAs with varying impact on adipogenesis. Collectively, we have identified numerous lncRNAs that are functionally required for proper adipogenesis.

  7. Plant Mobile Small RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunoyer, Patrice; Melnyk, Charles; Molnar, Attila; Slotkin, R. Keith

    2013-01-01

    In plants, RNA silencing is a fundamental regulator of gene expression, heterochromatin formation, suppression of transposable elements, and defense against viruses. The sequence specificity of these processes relies on small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules. Although the spreading of RNA silencing across the plant has been recognized for nearly two decades, only recently have sRNAs been formally demonstrated as the mobile silencing signals. Here, we discuss the various types of mobile sRNA molecules, their short- and long-range movement, and their function in recipient cells. PMID:23818501

  8. Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunology is the study of interaction between cancer cells and immune system by the application of immunology principle and theory. With the recent approval of several new drugs targeting immune checkpoints in cancer, cancer immunology has become a very attractive field of research and is thought to be the new hope to conquer cancer. This chapter introduces the aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, in tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and their significance in tumor immunity. It also illustrates how noncoding RNAs are shuttled between tumor cells and immune cells in tumor microenvironments via exosomes or other microvesicles to modulate tumor immunity.

  9. microRNAs-powerful repression comes from small RNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) encode a novel class of small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-trancriptionally. miRNAs comprise one of the major non-coding RNA families, whose diverse bio- logical functions and unusual capacity for gene regulation have attracted enormous interests in the RNA world. Over the past 16 years, genetic, biochemical and computational approaches have greatly shaped the growth of the field, leading to the identification of thousands of miRNA genes in nearly all metazoans. The key molecular machinery for miRNA biogenesis and silencing has been identified, yet the precise biochemical and regulatory mechanisms still remain elusive. However, recent findings have shed new light on how miRNAs are generated and how they function to repress gene expression. miRNAs provide a paradigm for endogenous small RNAs that mediate gene silencing at a genome-wide level. The gene silencing mediated by these small RNAs constitutes a major component of gene regu- lation during various developmental and physiological processes. The accumulating knowledge about their biogenesis and gene silencing mechanism will add a new dimension to our understanding about the complex gene regulatory networks.

  10. microRNAs- powerful repression comes from small RNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Cong; LIU YuFei; HE Lin

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) encode a novel class of small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-trancriptionally, miRNAs comprise one of the major non-coding RNA families, whose diverse bio-logical functions and unusual capacity for gene regulation have attracted enormous interests in the RNA world. Over the past 16 years, genetic, biochemical and computational approaches have greatly shaped the growth of the field, leading to the identification of thousands of miRNA genes in nearly all metazoans. The key molecular machinery for miRNA biogenesis and silencing has been identified, yet the precise biochemical and regulatory mechanisms still remain elusive. However, recent findings have shed new light on how miRNAs are generated and how they function to repress gene expression.miRNAs provide a paradigm for endogenous small RNAs that mediate gene silencing at a genome-wide level. The gene silencing mediated by these small RNAs constitutes a major component of gene regu-lation during various developmental and physiological processes. The accumulating knowledge about their biogenesis and gene silencing mechanism will add a now dimension to our understanding about the complex gene regulatory networks.

  11. Promoter-associated RNAs and promoter-targeted RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing-Xue; Ma, Jin-Xia

    2012-09-01

    The world of RNAs is much more complex than previously thought, and has rapidly emerged as one of the most actively researched topics in the life sciences. Recently, two findings in this field were reported and given special attention: promoter-associated RNAs (paRNAs), a novel class of RNAs with numerous potential functions; and promoter-targeted RNA-induced transcriptional gene regulation, a new regulatory mechanism to control transcription. In this review, we summarize the studies in these two areas, and outline the current understanding with respect to the potential biological functions of paRNAs, and the molecular mechanisms of promoter-targeted RNA-induced transcriptional gene silencing and activation. Additionally, we seek to integrate these two areas, as paRNAs may have potential biological links with promoter-targeted RNA-induced transcriptional gene regulation. Finally, we will discuss the significance of identifying paRNAs and the possible use of promoter-targeted RNAs in gene regulation and therapy.

  12. Artificial ribonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J R

    1994-01-01

    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  13. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  14. Non-Protein Coding RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Nils G; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    This book assembles chapters from experts in the Biophysics of RNA to provide a broadly accessible snapshot of the current status of this rapidly expanding field. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the discoverers of RNA interference, highlighting just one example of a large number of non-protein coding RNAs. Because non-protein coding RNAs outnumber protein coding genes in mammals and other higher eukaryotes, it is now thought that the complexity of organisms is correlated with the fraction of their genome that encodes non-protein coding RNAs. Essential biological processes as diverse as cell differentiation, suppression of infecting viruses and parasitic transposons, higher-level organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, and gene expression itself are found to largely be directed by non-protein coding RNAs. The biophysical study of these RNAs employs X-ray crystallography, NMR, ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, optical tweezers, cryo-electron microscopy, and ot...

  15. MicroRNAs in neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushati, Natascha; Cohen, Stephen M

    2008-06-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in diverse cellular and developmental processes. Many miRNAs are expressed specifically in the central nervous system, where they have roles in differentiation, neuronal survival, and potentially also in plasticity and learning. The absence of miRNAs in a variety of specific postmitotic neurons can lead to progressive loss of these neurons and behavioral defects reminiscent of the phenotypes seen in the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review recent studies which provide a link between miRNA function and neurodegeneration. We also discuss evidence which might suggest involvement of miRNAs in the emergence or progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  17. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  18. The therapeutic potential of microRNAs in nervous system damage, degeneration, and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Emmette R; Okun, Eitan; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAS (miRNAs) have been suggested to play important roles in the central nervous system during development as well as disease. miRNAs appear to be dysregulated in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, developmental disorders, and as a result of stroke. Each miRNA has the ability to regulate hundreds of messenger RNA transcripts, both by causing degradation of the mRNA and by inhibition of protein translation. Recent findings suggest that it may eventually be possible to treat some neurological disorders by restoring or inhibiting miRNAs altered by disease pathology. Both viral delivery and administration of modified oligonucleotides mimicking or inhibiting specific miRNAs have been effective in model systems. Artificial miRNAs have also been generated for the repression of specific transcripts. Alteration of miRNA expression by disease and insult also holds the potential for improved diagnostic tools. Finally, miRNAs have been shown to control cellular proliferation and specification, suggesting that manipulation of miRNAs in cultured cells could result in more convenient generation of pure cell populations for transplantation.

  19. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the western world for both men and women. Lung cancer appears to be a perfect candidate for a screening program, since it is the number one cancer killer, it has a long preclinical phase, curative treatment for the minority of patients who are diagnosed early and a target population at risk (smokers and it is also a major economic burden. The earliest approaches to identifying cancer markers were based on preliminary clinical or pathological observations, although molecular biology is a strong candidate for occupying a place among the set of methods. In search of markers, several alterations, such as mutations, loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite instability, DNA methylation, mitochondrial DNA mutations, viral DNA, modified expression of mRNA, miRNA and proteins, and structurally altered proteins have all been analysed. MicroRNAs (miRNA are small RNA molecules, about 19-25 nucleotides long and encoded in genomes of plants, animals, fungi and viruses. It has been reported that miRNAs may have multiple functions in lung development and that aberrant expression of miRNAs could induce lung tumorigenesis. We review here the role of miRNAs in lung tumorigenesis and also as a novel type of biomarker.-----------------------------------Cite this article as:Silva J, Garcia V, Lopez-Gonzalez A, Provencio M. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013;1(1:010111. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0101.11

  20. Long noncoding RNAs and neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav Kumar; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar

    2015-07-30

    Neuroblastoma is a disease that affects infants and despite intense multimodal therapy, high-risk patients have low survival rates (neuroblastoma have just begun to be elucidated. This review summarises where we are with regards to lncRNAs in neuroblastoma. The known mechanistic roles of lncRNAs during neuroblastoma pathogenesis are discussed, as well as the relationship between lncRNA expression and the differentiation capacity of neuroblastoma cells. We speculate about the use of some of these lncRNAs, such as those mapping to the 6p22 hotspot, as biomarkers for neuroblastoma prognosis and treatment. This novel way of thinking about both neuroblastoma and lncRNAs brings a new perspective to the prognosis and treatment of high-risk patients.

  1. [MicroRNAs in neurobiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukio

    2008-12-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as a new regulatory factor of gene expression. They mediate translational repression or degradation of their target mRNAs by RNA interference (RNAi). The expression of each microRNA is tightly regulated in a development- and cell-specific manner by various mechanisms such as blockade of let-7 family expression by Lin-28 or RNA editing. They also act as regulatory switches for development, organogenesis, and cellular differentiation or for controlling distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of each tissue and cell subtypes. The abundant expression of microRNAs as well as the exclusive expression of certain microRNAs in the central nervous system highlights their biological importance at all stages of neural development and in postmitotic and differentiated neurons. Further, some microRNAs, such as miRNA-134, and miRNA-132 are localized and are synthesized in part at synaptic sites in dendrites to regulate synaptic formation and plasticity. In addition to the imparting of basic knowledge about the biogenesis and mechanism of action of microRNAs, this review focuses on the recent advances in microRNA studies in neurobiology, including the expression pattern of microRNAs in the mammalian brain, the role of microRNAs in neural differentiation and maturation, formation and plasticity of synaptic connections, and maintenance of neural function such as the synthesis of the neurotransmitters in selected neurons. Finally, the possible connection between microRNA dysfunction and neurological diseases, and future implications for diagnosis, and treatment of defects in human brain development and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.

  2. Identifying cancer-causing noncoding RNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Sage, Carlos Karel

    2008-01-01

    To circumvent the dependency on prediction models, we developed a microRNA-screen-based assay to establish links between cellular phenotypes and microRNAs (miRNAs). To this end, a miRNA expression library (miR-Lib) was built consisting of 300 annotated miRNAs and around 100 candidate miRNAs. These m

  3. Panning for Long Noncoding RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent advent of high-throughput approaches has revealed widespread transcription of the human genome, leading to a new appreciation of transcription regulation, especially from noncoding regions. Distinct from most coding and small noncoding RNAs, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are generally expressed at low levels, are less conserved and lack protein-coding capacity. These intrinsic features of lncRNAs have not only hampered their full annotation in the past several years, but have also generated controversy concerning whether many or most of these lncRNAs are simply the result of transcriptional noise. Here, we assess these intrinsic features that have challenged lncRNA discovery and further summarize recent progress in lncRNA discovery with integrated methodologies, from which new lessons and insights can be derived to achieve better characterization of lncRNA expression regulation. Full annotation of lncRNA repertoires and the implications of such annotation will provide a fundamental basis for comprehensive understanding of pervasive functions of lncRNAs in biological regulation.

  4. MicroRNAs in Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara; Geiger, Julian; Madsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have within the past decade emerged as key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Major tissues in intermediary metabolism important during development of the metabolic syndrome, such as β-cells, liver, skeletal and heart muscle as well as adipose tissue have all been shown...... to be affected by miRNAs. In the pancreatic β-cell a number of miRNAs are important in maintaining the balance between differentiation and proliferation (miR-200 and miR-29 families) and insulin exocytosis in the differentiated state is controlled by miR-7, miR-375 and miR-335. MiR-33a and -33b play crucial...... roles in cholesterol and lipid metabolism, whereas miR-103 and -107 regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity. In muscle tissue a defined number of miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133, mir-206) control myofiber type switch and induce myogenic differentiation programs. Similarly, in adipose tissue a defined number of miRNAs...

  5. Competitive abilities of oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) occupying territories of different quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, LW; de Pol, MV; Trierweiler, C

    2006-01-01

    In territorial species, habitat heterogeneity results in some individuals occupying poor quality sites while others occupy high quality sites. Floaters (mature nonbreeders) may accept a low quality territory, because it is the best they can get and defend ('inferior phenotype hypothesis'), or becaus

  6. 26 CFR 1.803-5 - Real estate owned and occupied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate owned and occupied. 1.803-5 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-5 Real estate owned and occupied. The amount allowable as a deduction for taxes, expenses, and depreciation upon or with respect to any real estate...

  7. 26 CFR 1.822-2 - Real estate owned and occupied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate owned and occupied. 1.822-2 Section... Premium Deposits) § 1.822-2 Real estate owned and occupied. The limitation in section 822(d)(1) on the amount allowable as a deduction for taxes, expenses, and depreciation upon or with respect to any...

  8. 26 CFR 1.822-6 - Real estate owned and occupied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate owned and occupied. 1.822-6 Section... Premium Deposits) § 1.822-6 Real estate owned and occupied. Section 822(d)(1) provides that the amount allowable as a deduction for taxes, expenses, and depreciation on or with respect to any real estate...

  9. 26 CFR 1.822-9 - Real estate owned and occupied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate owned and occupied. 1.822-9 Section... Premium Deposits) § 1.822-9 Real estate owned and occupied. Section 822(d)(1) provides that the amount allowable as a deduction for taxes, expenses, and depreciation on or with respect to any real estate...

  10. Occupy Education: Living and Learning Sustainability. Global Studies in Education. Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tina Lynn

    2012-01-01

    "Occupy Education" is motivated by the sustainability crisis and energized by the drive for social justice that inspired the Occupy movement. Situated within the struggle for sustainability taking place amid looming resource shortages, climate change, economic instability, and ecological breakdown, the book is a timely contribution to community…

  11. MicroRNAs in Human Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of recently identified noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Due to the large number of genes regulated by miRNAs, miRNAs play important roles in many cellular processes. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are dysregulated in pituitary adenomas, a class of intracranial neoplasms which account for 10–15% of diagnosed brain tumors. Deregulated miRNAs and their targets contribute to pituitary adenomas progression and are associated with cell cycle control, apoptosis, invasion, and pharmacological treatment of pituitary adenomas. To provide an overview of miRNAs dysregulation and functions of these miRNAs in pituitary adenoma progression, we summarize the deregulated miRNAs and their targets to shed more light on their potential as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers.

  12. Artificially evolved functional shell morphology of burrowing bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germann, D. P.; Schatz, W.; Hotz, Peter Eggenberger

    2014-01-01

    dimensional (3D) objects, the first ever artificial evolution of a physical bivalve shell was performed. The result was a vertically flattened shell occupying only the top sediment layers. Insufficient control of the sediment was the major limitation of the setup and restricted the significance of the results...

  13. Transfection of small RNAs globally perturbs gene regulation by endogenous microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Aly A; Betel, Doron; Miller, Martin L;

    2009-01-01

    Transfection of small RNAs (such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs)) into cells typically lowers expression of many genes. Unexpectedly, increased expression of genes also occurs. We investigated whether this upregulation results from a saturation effect--that is, competiti...

  14. Competitive Endogenous RNAs in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    system in prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to determine whether lncRNAs Body The importance of lncRNAs in human diseases may have to do...exert their functions. For example, lncRNAs may exert their functions through interaction with regulatory proteins such as those chromatin remodeling ...ABSTRACT The human genome actively transcribes a large amount of non-coding genes, including microRNA and long non- coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Compared to

  15. Comparison of non-coding RNAs in human and canine cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried eWagner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the post-transcriptional gene silencing by small non-protein-coding RNAs is considered as a major breakthrough in biology. In the last decade we just started to realize the biologic function and complexity of gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS is a conserved phenomenon which was observed in various species such as fungi, worms, plants and mammals. Micro RNAs (miRNA and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are two gene silencing mediators constituting an evolutionary conserved class of non-coding RNAs regulating many biological processes in eukaryotes. As this small RNAs appear to regulate gene expression at translational and transcriptional level it is not surprising that during the last decade many human diseases among them Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases and various cancer types were associated with deregulated miRNA expression. Consequently small RNAs are considered to hold big promises as therapeutic agents. However despite of the enormous therapeutic potential many questions remain unanswered. A major critical point, when evaluating novel therapeutic approaches, is the transfer of in vitro settings to an in vivo model. Classical animal models rely on the laboratory kept animals under artificial conditions and often missing an intact immune system. Model organisms with spontaneously occurring tumors as e.g. dogs provide the possibility to evaluate therapeutic agents under the surveillance of an in intact immune system and thereby providing an authentic tumor reacting scenario. Considering the genomic similarity between canines and humans and the advantages of the dog as cancer model system for human neoplasias the analyses of the complex role of small RNAs in canine tumor development could be of major value for both species. Herein we discuss comparatively the role of miRNAs in human and canine cancer development and highlight the potential and advantages of the model

  16. Role of microRNAs in spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Rudneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male germ cells have a complex transcriptome. In addition to proteincoding messenger RNAs, many noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs, are produced. The miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression. They function mainly post-transcriptionally to control the stability or translation of their target messenger RNAs. The miRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific manner during spermatogenesis to participate in the control of each stage of male germ cell differentiation. Clinical studies have exploited the well-defined expression profiles of miRNAs, and human spermatozoal or seminal plasma miRNAs have been explored as potential biomarkers for male factor infertility.

  17. Exploring the Secrets of Long Noncoding RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Quan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing has revealed that the majority of RNAs have no capacity to encode protein. Among these non-coding transcripts, recent work has focused on the roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs of >200 nucleotides. Although many of their attributes, such as patterns of expression, remain largely unknown, lncRNAs have key functions in transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic gene regulation; Also, new work indicates their functions in scaffolding ribonuclear protein complexes. In plants, genome-wide identification of lncRNAs has been conducted in several species, including Zea mays, and recent research showed that lncRNAs regulate flowering time in the photoperiod pathway, and function in nodulation. In this review, we discuss the basic mechanisms by which lncRNAs regulate key cellular processes, using the large body of knowledge on animal and yeast lncRNAs to illustrate the significance of emerging work on lncRNAs in plants.

  18. miRNAs Related to Skeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Claudine; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    miRNAs as non-coding, short, double-stranded RNA segments are important for cellular biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. miRNAs mainly contribute to the inhibition of important protein translations through their cleavage or direct repression of target messenger RNAs expressions. In the last decade, miRNAs got in the focus of interest with new publications on miRNAs in the context of different diseases. For many types of cancer or myocardial damage, typical signatures of local or systemically circulating miRNAs have already been described. However, little is known about miRNA expressions and their molecular effect in skeletal diseases. An overview of published studies reporting miRNAs detection linked with skeletal diseases was conducted. All regulated miRNAs were summarized and their molecular interactions were illustrated. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction of miRNAs in different skeletal diseases. Thereby, 59 miRNAs were described to be deregulated in tissue, cells, or in the circulation of osteoarthritis (OA), 23 miRNAs deregulated in osteoporosis, and 107 miRNAs deregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The molecular influences of miRNAs regarding OA, osteoporosis, and OS were illustrated. Specific miRNA signatures for skeletal diseases are described in the literature. Some overlapped, but also unique ones for each disease exist. These miRNAs may present useful targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches and are candidates for diagnostic evaluations.

  19. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  20. A Comprehensive NGS Data Analysis of Differentially Regulated miRNAs, piRNAs, lncRNAs and sn/snoRNAs in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduru, Srinivas V; Tiwari, Amit K; Leberfinger, Ashley; Hazard, Sprague W; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Mahajan, Milind; Ravnic, Dino J

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States and is a major public health concern worldwide. Basic, clinical and epidemiological research is leading to improved cancer detection, prevention, and outcomes. Recent technological advances have allowed unbiased and comprehensive screening of genome-wide gene expression. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been shown to play an important role in biological processes and could serve as a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarker for specific diseases. Recent findings have begun to reveal and enhance our understanding of the complex architecture of sncRNA expression including miRNAs, piRNAs, lncRNAs, sn/snoRNAs and their relationships with biological systems. We used publicly available small RNA sequencing data that was derived from 24 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) and 14 adjacent normal tissue samples to remap various types of sncRNAs. We found a total of 55 miRNAs were aberrantly expressed (p<0.005) in TNBC samples (8 miRNAs upregulated; 47 downregulated) compared to adjacent normal tissues whereas the original study reported only 25 novel miRs. In this study, we used pathway analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs which revealed TGF-beta signaling pathways to be profoundly affected in the TNBC samples. Furthermore, our comprehensive re-mapping strategy allowed us to discover a number of other differentially expressed sncRNAs including piRNAs, lncRNAs, sn/snoRNAs, rRNAs, miscRNAs and nonsense-mediated decay RNAs. We believe that our sncRNA analysis workflow is extremely comprehensive and suitable for discovery of novel sncRNAs changes, which may lead to the development of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic tools for TNBC.

  1. Distributions of owner-occupiers' housing wealth, debt and interest expenditure ratios as financial soundness indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens

    /GDP, highest total liabilities/net wealth and highest mortgage debt/net non-financial wealth ratios among 15 OECD countries. Obviously, an analysis of the financial soundness of owner-occupiers is topical in order to analyse financial stability in society. The financial soundness of Danish owner......-occupier families is analysed using relevant financial indicators for the owner-occupiers' capital structure and interest payments. Tax statistics for the owner-occupier families are used here. In a financial soundness perspective macro data are of limited importance as they express total and average changes....... Distributional data at the micro level, formed at the family (household) level, are important for recognizing changes in the financial soundness of the nation. The data are used to estimate important financial indicators as debt/income, housing wealth/income, debt/housing wealth and net interest expenditure...

  2. Occupied and unoccupied electronic structure of Na doped MoS{sub 2}(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komesu, Takashi; Zhang, Xin; Dowben, P. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theodore Jorgensen Hall, 855 N 16th St., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States); Le, Duy; Rahman, Talat S. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Ma, Quan; Bartels, Ludwig [Department of Chemistry and the Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Schwier, Eike F.; Iwasawa, Hideaki; Shimada, Kenya [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Kojima, Yohei; Zheng, Mingtian [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Taniguchi, Masaki [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The influence of sodium on the band structure of MoS{sub 2}(0001) and the comparison of the experimental band dispersion with density functional theory show excellent agreement for the occupied states (angle-resolved photoemission) and qualitative agreement for the unoccupied states (inverse photoemission spectroscopy). Na-adsorption leads to charge transfer to the MoS{sub 2} surface causing an effect similar to n-type doping of a semiconductor. The MoS{sub 2} occupied valence band structure shifts rigidly to greater binding with little change in the occupied state dispersion. Likewise, the unoccupied states shift downward, approaching the Fermi level, yet the amount of the shift for the unoccupied states is greater than that of the occupied states, effectively causing a narrowing of the MoS{sub 2} bandgap.

  3. DASHR: database of small human noncoding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yuk Yee; Kuksa, Pavel P; Amlie-Wolf, Alexandre; Valladares, Otto; Ungar, Lyle H; Kannan, Sampath; Gregory, Brian D; Wang, Li-San

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are highly abundant RNAs, typically database provides searchable, unified annotation, and expression information for full sncRNA transcripts and mature RNA products derived from these larger RNAs. Here, we present the Database of small human noncoding RNAs (DASHR). DASHR contains the most comprehensive information to date on human sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products. DASHR provides a simple user interface for researchers to view sequence and secondary structure, compare expression levels, and evidence of specific processing across all sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products in various human tissues. DASHR annotation and expression data covers all major classes of sncRNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs), Piwi-interacting (piRNAs), small nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic (sn-, sno-, scRNAs, respectively), transfer (tRNAs), and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Currently, DASHR (v1.0) integrates 187 smRNA high-throughput sequencing (smRNA-seq) datasets with over 2.5 billion reads and annotation data from multiple public sources. DASHR contains annotations for ∼ 48,000 human sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products, 82% of which are expressed in one or more of the curated tissues. DASHR is available at http://lisanwanglab.org/DASHR.

  4. MicroRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff P Bruce; Fei-Fei Liu

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) provide insight into both the biology and clinical behavior of many human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The dysregulation of miRNAs in NPC results in a variety of tumor-promoting effects. Furthermore, several miRNAs are prognostic markers for NPC. In addition to celular miRNAs, NPC samples also often contain miRNAs encoded by Epstein-Barr virus, and these miRNAs may impact NPC biology by targeting both celular and viral genes. Given their numerous putative roles in NPC development and progression, a thorough understanding of the impact of miRNA dysregulation in NPC is expected to shed light on useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the clinical management of this disease. In this review, we describe the efforts to date to identify and characterize such miRNAs in the context of NPC.

  5. The defective RNAs of Closteroviridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir eMawassi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The family Closteroviridae consists of two genera, Closterovirus and Ampelovirus with monopartite genomes transmitted respectively by aphids and mealybugs and the Crinivirus with bipartite genomes transmitted by whiteflies. The Closteroviridae consists of more than thirty virus species, which differ considerably in their phytopathological significance. Some, like Beet yellows virus (BYV and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV were associated for many decades with their respective hosts, sugar beets and citrus. Others, like the grapevine leafroll-associated ampeloviruses 1, and 3 were also associated with their grapevine hosts for long periods; however difficulties in virus isolation hampered their molecular characterization. The majority of the recently identified Closteroviridae were probably associated with their vegetative propagated host plants for long periods and only detected through the considerable advances in dsRNA isolation and sequencing of PCR amplified replicons. Molecular characterization of CTV and several other Closteroviridae revealed that, in addition to genomic and subgenomic RNAs, infected plants contain several different subviral defective RNAs (dRNAs. The roles and biological functions of dRNAs associated with Closteroviridae remain terra incognita.

  6. Sponging of Cellular Proteins by Viral RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Charley, Phillida A.; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNAs accumulate to high levels during infection and interact with a variety of cellular factors including miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins. Although many of these interactions exist to directly modulate replication, translation and decay of viral transcripts, evidence is emerging that abundant viral RNAs may in certain cases serve as a sponge to sequester host non coding RNAs and proteins. By effectively reducing the ability of cellular RNA binding proteins to regulate host cell gene exp...

  7. Studying microRNAs in lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; van den Berg, Anke

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in development, differentiation, homeostasis, and also in diseases such as lymphoma. This chapter describes methods to study the role of miRNAs in lymphoma. First, we describe a multiplex RT reaction followed by qPCR that can be used to determine differential

  8. Genomic Organization of Zebrafish microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paydar Ima

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are small (~22 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate cell movement, specification, and development. Expression of miRNAs is highly regulated, both spatially and temporally. Based on direct cloning, sequence conservation, and predicted secondary structures, a large number of miRNAs have been identified in higher eukaryotic genomes but whether these RNAs are simply a subset of a much larger number of noncoding RNA families is unknown. This is especially true in zebrafish where genome sequencing and annotation is not yet complete. Results We analyzed the zebrafish genome to identify the number and location of proven and predicted miRNAs resulting in the identification of 35 new miRNAs. We then grouped all 415 zebrafish miRNAs into families based on seed sequence identity as a means to identify possible functional redundancy. Based on genomic location and expression analysis, we also identified those miRNAs that are likely to be encoded as part of polycistronic transcripts. Lastly, as a resource, we compiled existing zebrafish miRNA expression data and, where possible, listed all experimentally proven mRNA targets. Conclusion Current analysis indicates the zebrafish genome encodes 415 miRNAs which can be grouped into 44 families. The largest of these families (the miR-430 family contains 72 members largely clustered in two main locations along chromosome 4. Thus far, most zebrafish miRNAs exhibit tissue specific patterns of expression.

  9. Non-Coding RNAs in Retinal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hindges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal development is dependent on an accurately functioning network of transcriptional and translational regulators. Among the diverse classes of molecules involved, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs play a significant role. Members of this family are present in the cell as transcripts, but are not translated into proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small ncRNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators. During the last decade, they have been implicated in a variety of biological processes, including the development of the nervous system. On the other hand, long-ncRNAs (lncRNAs represent a different class of ncRNAs that act mainly through processes involving chromatin remodeling and epigenetic mechanisms. The visual system is a prominent model to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying neurogenesis or circuit formation and function, including the differentiation of retinal progenitor cells to generate the seven principal cell classes in the retina, pathfinding decisions of retinal ganglion cell axons in order to establish the correct connectivity from the eye to the brain proper, and activity-dependent mechanisms for the functionality of visual circuits. Recent findings have associated ncRNAs in several of these processes and uncovered a new level of complexity for the existing regulatory mechanisms. This review summarizes and highlights the impact of ncRNAs during the development of the vertebrate visual system, with a specific focus on the role of miRNAs and a synopsis regarding recent findings on lncRNAs in the retina.

  10. An Open-Air Self-Managed Social Center Called Occupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Toupin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available I propose the concept of squatting as a way of exploring and understanding the recent Occupy movement and other manifestations that have taken hold of a physical and virtual space. To do this, I focus on squatting as a protest tactic employed by social movements, to gather, create and transform private and public spaces in common spaces. I follow Miguel Martinez (2006 premise that squatting has been aimed at constructing liberating spaces for living, communicating, and criticizing the global city and confronting capitalism. Using such framework to analyse the Occupy movement helps bring to the forefront what appears to be a somewhat similar experience, this time however, not solely via the occupation of buildings, but also via the occupation of parks or squares. The act of reclaiming and decommodifying open ‘public’ spaces in an attempt to create autonomous experiments visible to and ‘experimentable’ by all seem to have brought much visibility, appeal and relative openness to and of the occupy movement. From there, I discuss the particularities with moments of squatting, particularly with the occupied social centers movement, and instances of occupy sites in North America to underline a number of hidden and visible characteristics and features these phenomena share. In North America, the concept of squatting, including the practice of occupied social centers, seems to have had much less prevalence and impact on social movements than in Europe, but the occupy movement seems to have opened up new repertoire of actions for both activist and non-activists a like.

  11. Transfer and Expression of Small Interfering RNAs in Mammalian Cells Using Lentiviral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, T D; Spirin, P V; Prassolov, V S

    2013-04-01

    RNA interference is a convenient tool for modulating gene expression. The widespread application of RNA interference is made difficult because of the imperfections of the methods used for efficient target cell delivery of whatever genes are under study. One of the most convenient and efficient gene transfer and expression systems is based on the use of lentiviral vectors, which direct the synthesis of small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), the precursors of siRNAs. The application of these systems enables one to achieve sustainable and long-term shRNA expression in cells. This review considers the adaptation of the processing of artificial shRNA to the mechanisms used by cellular microRNAs and simultaneous expression of several shRNAs as potential approaches for producing lentiviral vectors that direct shRNA synthesis. Approaches to using RNA interference for the treatment of cancer, as well as hereditary and viral diseases, are under active development today. The improvement made to the methods for constructing lentiviral vectors and the investigation into the mechanisms of processing of small interfering RNA allow one to now consider lentiviral vectors that direct shRNA synthesis as one of the most promising tools for delivering small interfering RNAs.

  12. Validation of artificial microRNA expression by poly(A) tailing-based RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Rui Shi, Chenmin Yang, Ronald Sederoff & Vincent Chiang ### Abstract Here we describe a protocol for validating expression of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) by poly(A) tailing-based RT-PCR. Total RNAs, including amiRNA, are poly(A) tailed using E.coli. poly(A) polymerase. Poly(A) tailed amiRNA can be converted into cDNA along with mRNAs in a reverse transcription reaction primed by a standard poly(T) anchor adaptor. AmiRNA can then be amplified and quantitated by real-tim...

  13. The Tumor Cytosol miRNAs, Fluid miRNAs and Exosome miRNAs in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eQin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review is to provide an update on the progress of microRNAs (miRNAs as potential biomarkers for lung cancer. miRNAs are single-stranded, small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and show tissue-specific signatures. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA expression patterns represent the in vivo status in physiology and disease. Moreover, miRNAs are stable in serum and other clinically convenient and available tissue sources, so they are being developed as biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. Cancer is currently the primary driver of the field, but miRNA biomarkers are being developed for many other diseases such as cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. Here we examine the framework and scope of the miRNA landscape as it specifically relates to the translation of miRNA expression patterns/signatures into biomarkers for developing diagnostics for lung cancer. We focus on examining tumor cytosol miRNAs, fluid miRNAs, and exosome miRNAs in lung cancer, the connections among these miRNAs, and the potential of miRNA biomarkers for the development of diagnostics. In lung cancer, miRNAs have been studied in both cell populations and in the circulation. However, a major challenge is to develop biomarkers to monitor cancer development and to identify circulating miRNAs that are linked to cancer stage. Importantly, the fact that miRNAs can be successfully harvested from biological fluids allows for the development of biofluid biopsies, in which miRNAs as circulating biomarkers can be captured and analyzed ex vivo. Our hope is that these minimally invasive entities provide a window to the in vivo milieu of the patients without the need for costly, complex invasive procedures, rapidly moving miRNAs from research to the clinic.

  14. Social Movements and Media: The Representation of “Occupy Wall Street” Movement in the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Şen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the representation of the “Occupy Wall Street” in main stream and alternative media has been examined in Turkey. The construction of dominant meanings concerning the “Occupy Wall Street”movement in alternative and main stream news media have been discussed in order to show the approach of the media in the face of social movements which have become an important tool of the citizen participation. In this context, the priorities and preferences of media on “Occupy Wall Street” movement, the forms of actions narrative and the construction of dominant meanings have been researched and the production of these meanings have been tried to analysed through Van Dijk’s critical discourse analysis methodology.

  15. Lessons from #Occupy in Canada: Contesting Space, Settler Consciousness and Erasures within the 99%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kilibarda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Under a slogan of ‘We are the 99%’, the #occupy movement has won praise for its bold reclamations of public space and for re-centring class analysis in North America. Despite this, however, important critiques of the movement’s elisions and erasures have also beenraised. This article examines how three #occupy encampments in Canada have engaged with these calls to #decolonise the movement and to address divisions within the 99%. These critiques question #occupy’s ability to fix a ‘broken social contract’, ‘reclaim Canada’, or ‘take back our democracy’ without addressing the underlying racial contracts foundational to North American settler-states. Practical experiences with raising postcolonial critiques are examined through in-depth interviews with organisers at #occupy encampments in Montréal, Toronto and Vancouver.

  16. Antibiotic drugs targeting bacterial RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Hong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available RNAs have diverse structures that include bulges and internal loops able to form tertiary contacts or serve as ligand binding sites. The recent increase in structural and functional information related to RNAs has put them in the limelight as a drug target for small molecule therapy. In addition, the recognition of the marked difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic rRNA has led to the development of antibiotics that specifically target bacterial rRNA, reduce protein translation and thereby inhibit bacterial growth. To facilitate the development of new antibiotics targeting RNA, we here review the literature concerning such antibiotics, mRNA, riboswitch and tRNA and the key methodologies used for their screening.

  17. Identification and Functional Prediction of Large Intergenic Noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recognized in recent years as key regulators of diverse cellular processes. Genome-wide large-scale projects have uncovered thousands of lncRNAs in many model organisms. Large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are lncRNAs that are transcribed from intergeni...

  18. A Study on Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI in Intracranial Space Occupying Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Ramjibhai Goyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high morbidity and mortality associated with Intracranial Space Occupying Lesions necessitates their early diagnosis so as to plan the intervention that is required. In the present study cases of either clinically suspected brain space occupying lesions or already diagnosed cases of brain space occupying lesions were studied by cross sectional imaging of MRI. Methodology: The present cross-sectional study was conducted presented with symptoms of raised ICT of sub acute onset and had lateralizing sign. A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared and demographic and clinical data like age, sex, symptoms and various morphological characters of Supratentorial SOLs were studied. A clinico-radiological correlation and confirmation of Radiological diagnosis was done by biopsy/surgery/MRI whenever possible to minimize patient follow up. Results: Majority of the patients were in the fourth decade (28.5%. Metastases were the most common single group of intracranial space occupying lesion (27%, Gliomas were the most common brain tumors (31.4%. Of the Gliomas, astrocytomas accounted for (81.8%. Most common hemisphere to be involved was the parietal lobe (31.4%. Intra-axial involvement (78.58 % was most common localization in present study. Edema was the most common associated MRI finding (74.3%. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of MRI in evaluation of intracranial space occupying lesion was 98.57 %. MRI remains the first line investigation for diagnosing and evaluation Intracranial space occupying lesion with a reasonable degree of diagnostic accuracy and with the advent of newer modifications of MRI such as MR Spectroscopy, 3-Tesla MRI, and newer techniques like MR Perfusion. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 18-21

  19. miRNAs in brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, Rebecca; Malmevik, Josephine; Fasching, Liana; Åkerblom, Malin; Jakobsson, Johan, E-mail: johan.jakobsson@med.lu.se

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In the brain, a large number of miRNAs are expressed and there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that miRNAs are essential for brain development and neuronal function. Conditional knockout studies of the core components in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, such as Dicer and DGCR8, have demonstrated a crucial role for miRNAs during the development of the central nervous system. Furthermore, mice deleted for specific miRNAs and miRNA-clusters demonstrate diverse functional roles for different miRNAs during the development of different brain structures. miRNAs have been proposed to regulate cellular functions such as differentiation, proliferation and fate-determination of neural progenitors. In this review we summarise the findings from recent studies that highlight the importance of miRNAs in brain development with a focus on the mouse model. We also discuss the technical limitations of current miRNA studies that still limit our understanding of this family of non-coding RNAs and propose the use of novel and refined technologies that are needed in order to fully determine the impact of specific miRNAs in brain development. - Highlights: • miRNAs are essential for brain development and neuronal function. • KO of Dicer is embryonically lethal. • Conditional Dicer KO results in defective proliferation or increased apoptosis. • KO of individual miRNAs or miRNA families is necessary to determine function.

  20. [MicroRNAs and kidneys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stříteská, Jana; Nekvindová, Jana; Cerný, Vladimír; Palička, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding ribonucleic acid molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level thus affecting important physiological as well as pathophysiological processes in the organism, for example cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. They are involved in pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Many microRNAs are tissue or organ-specific which implies their possible potential as biomarkers or maybe even therapeutical agents as documented by microRNA research interest rising exponentially during last years. Among all, microRNAs are important also for physiological function of the kidney and they are involved in various renal disorders. Today research is focused mainly on renal and urinary tract carcinogenesis, acute kidney injury, chronic renal diseases (polycystic kidney disease) or renal complications of systemic diseases such as diabetic or hypertension nephropathy and autoimmune kidney injury including acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The review summarizes current information about microRNA effect on kidney development and function and also on the most common kidney diseases.

  1. Viral RNAs are unusually compact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaykumar Gopal

    Full Text Available A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly.

  2. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  3. Artificiality in Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Rennard, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This text provides with an introduction to the modern approach of artificiality and simulation in social sciences. It presents the relationship between complexity and artificiality, before introducing the field of artificial societies which greatly benefited from the computer power fast increase, gifting social sciences with formalization and experimentation tools previously owned by "hard" sciences alone. It shows that as "a new way of doing social sciences", artificial societies should undo...

  4. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  5. Competition between small RNAs: a quantitative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loinger, Adiel; Shemla, Yael; Simon, Itamar; Margalit, Hanah; Biham, Ofer

    2012-04-18

    Two major classes of small regulatory RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNA (miRNAs)--are involved in a common RNA interference processing pathway. Small RNAs within each of these families were found to compete for limiting amounts of shared components, required for their biogenesis and processing. Association with Argonaute (Ago), the catalytic component of the RNA silencing complex, was suggested as the central mechanistic point in RNA interference machinery competition. Aiming to better understand the competition between small RNAs in the cell, we present a mathematical model and characterize a range of specific cell and experimental parameters affecting the competition. We apply the model to competition between miRNAs and study the change in the expression level of their target genes under a variety of conditions. We show quantitatively that the amount of Ago and miRNAs in the cell are dominant factors contributing greatly to the competition. Interestingly, we observe what to our knowledge is a novel type of competition that takes place when Ago is abundant, by which miRNAs with shared targets compete over them. Furthermore, we use the model to examine different interaction mechanisms that might operate in establishing the miRNA-Ago complexes, mainly those related to their stability and recycling. Our model provides a mathematical framework for future studies of competition effects in regulation mechanisms involving small RNAs.

  6. MicroRNAs in renal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Chi-Kong Chung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous short noncoding RNAs that regulate most of important cellular processes by inhibiting gene expression through the post-transcriptional repression of their target mRNAs. . In kidneys, miRNAs have been associated in renal development, homeostasis, and physiological functions. Results from clinical and experimental animal studies demonstrate that miRNAs play essential roles in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases. Chronic kidney diseases (CKD is characterized by renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β is recognized as a major mediator of renal fibrosis because it is able to stimulate the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins to impair normal kidney function. Recently, emerging evidence demonstrate the relationship between TGF-β signaling and miRNAs expression during renal diseases. TGF-β regulates expression of several microRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-192, miR-200, miR-433, and miR-29. MiR-21, miR-192, and miR-433 which are positively induced by TGF-β signaling play a pathological role in kidney diseases. In contrast, members in both miR-29 and miR-200 families which are inhibited by TGF-β signaling protect kidneys from renal fibrosis by suppressing the deposition of extracellular matrix and preventing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, respectively. Clinically, the presence of miRNAs in blood and urine has been examined to be early biomarkers for detecting renal diseases. From experimental animal studies of CKD, targeting microRNAs also provides evidence about therapeutic potential of miRNAs during renal diseases. Now, it comes to the stage to examine the exact mechanisms of miRNAs during the initiation and progression of renal diseases. Therefore, determining the function of miRNAs in renal fibrosis may facilitate the development of both early diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases.

  7. Measurement of air velocity in animal occupied zones using an ultrasonic anemometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.; Leeuw, de M.T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The air velocity in the animal occupied zone (AOZ) of a pig facility influences the thermal comfort of pigs and is affected by the ventilation system in the building. Little is known about the relationship between the air velocity in the AOZ and the ventilation system design. This article describes

  8. The interaction between design and occupier behaviour in the safety of new homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hilary; Haslam, Roger; Gibb, Alistair

    2007-03-01

    The design of new homes includes many safety features intended to protect occupiers from injury or ill health within the home, however the effectiveness of these primary intervention measures is likely to be affected by user behaviour. This study examined the interaction between user activity and dwelling design and how this might affect health and safety. It aimed to identify how people use features within new homes and how this may limit the protection afforded by building design, codes and regulations. Forty, home-based, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and home inspections were conducted with individuals recently inhabiting a new home. A range of behaviours were reported in relation to building features including fire doors, pipes and cables, and loft access, which may lead to increased risk of injury or ill-health. For example, occupiers described interfering with the self-closing mechanisms on fire doors and drilling into walls without considering the location of services. They also reported knowingly engaging in unsafe behaviour when accessing the loft, increasing their risk of falls. The accounts suggest that designers and builders need to give greater consideration to how occupier behaviour interacts with building features so that improvements in both design and occupier education can lead to improved health and safety.

  9. Anticommunism and Academic Freedom: Walter C. Eells and the "Red Purge" in Occupied Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2010-01-01

    In August 1945, Imperial Japan surrendered to the Allied Powers. From September 1945 to April 1952, the United States occupied the defeated country. Douglas MacArthur, an American army general and the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), attempted to transform Japanese society from an authoritarian regime into a budding democracy.…

  10. Purity and Epidemic Danger in German Occupied Poland during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Explores the efforts of the German public-health authorities to cleanse occupied areas of formerly Russian Poland of pathogenic hazards during the First World War. The program used sanitary measures and educational programs to encourage a more hygienic lifestyle. Originally sympathetic to the Jewish population, it grew increasingly anti-semitic.…

  11. Quality of life after surgical decompression for space-occupying middle cerebral artery infarction: systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, T. van; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Worp, H.B. van der; Stam, J.; Richard, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In patients with space-occupying middle cerebral artery infarction, surgical decompression strongly reduces risk of death and increases the chance of a favorable outcome. This comes at the expense of an increase in the risk of survival with (moderately) severe disability. We

  12. Imaging Findings Associated with Space-Occupying Edema in Patients with Large Middle Cerebral Artery Infarcts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, A D; Dankbaar, J W; Stemerdink, T A; Bennink, E; van Seeters, T; Kappelle, L J; Hofmeijer, J; de Jong, H W; van der Graaf, Y; Velthuis, B K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prominent space-occupying cerebral edema is a devastating complication occurring in some but not all patients with large MCA infarcts. It is unclear why differences in the extent of edema exist. Better knowledge of factors related to prominent edema formation could aid treatm

  13. Disparate relatives: Life histories vary more in genera occupying intermediate environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermant, M.; Hennion, F.; Bartish, I.V.; Yguel, B.; Prinzing, A.

    2012-01-01

    Species within clades are commonly assumed to share similar life history traits, but within a given region some clades show much greater variability in traits than others. Are variable clades older, allowing more time for trait diversification? Or do they occupy particular environments, providing a

  14. Media Spectacle, Insurrection and the Crisis of Neoliberalism from the Arab Uprisings to Occupy Everywhere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    I argue that 2011 witnessed a series of challenges to neoliberalism on a global scale perhaps not seen since the political upheavals of 1968, and that media spectacle provided the form of a series of global insurgences from the North African Arab Uprisings to the Occupy movements. Crises of neoliberalism also generated movements in Italy, Spain,…

  15. Dance Education in the Occupied Palestinian Territories: Hegemony, Counter-Hegemony and Anti-Hegemony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a historical, ethnographic and practice-based study of dance education in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The concepts of dance learning, hegemony and counter-hegemony are analysed in the context of cross-cultural interventions in politically marginalized communities, and the theoretical concept of anti-hegemony is…

  16. Targeting of microRNAs for therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenvang, Jan; Lindow, Morten; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    miRNAs (microRNAs) comprise a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress gene expression by base-pairing with their target mRNAs. Recent evidence has shown that miRNAs play important roles in a wide variety of human diseases, such as viral infections, cancer...... and cardiovascular diseases, and thus miRNAs have rapidly emerged as potential targets for therapeutics. LNAs (locked nucleic acids) comprise a class of bicyclic conformational analogues of RNA, which exhibit high binding affinity to complementary RNA molecules and high stability in blood and tissues in vivo. Recent...... reports on LNA-mediated miRNA silencing in rodents and primates support the potential of LNA-modified oligonucleotides in studying miRNA functions in vivo and in the future development of miRNA-based therapeutics....

  17. MicroRNAs in the Hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meister, Björn; Herzer, Silke; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (∼22 nucleotides) non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes. Posttranscriptional silencing of target genes by miRNA is initiated by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of target mRNAs, resulting...... in specific cleavage and subsequent degradation of the mRNA or by translational repression resulting in specific inhibition of protein synthesis. An increasing amount of evidence shows that miRNAs control a large number of biological processes and there exists a direct link between miRNAs and disease. miRNA...... molecules are abundantly expressed in tissue-specific and regional patterns and have been suggested as potential biomarkers, disease modulators and drug targets. The central nervous system is a prominent site of miRNA expression. Within the brain, several miRNAs are expressed and/or enriched in the region...

  18. MicroRNAs in mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Simon; Geisler, Christian; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    for novel therapeutic strategies. Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in MCL. Comparisons of tumor samples from patients with MCL with their normal counterparts (naive B-cells) have identified differentially expressed miRNAs with roles in cellular growth...... and survival pathways, as demonstrated in various biological model systems. In addition, MCL clinico-pathological and prognostic subtypes can be identified using individual miRNAs or miRNA classifiers. miRNA based therapies have now shown efficacy in animal models, and many efforts are currently being made...... to further develop these drugs for use in patients. Thus, there is hope that specific targeting of pathogenic miRNAs may be used in cases of MCL when conventional therapies fail. Here, we review the current knowledge about the role of miRNAs in MCL, and highlight the perspectives for clinical use....

  19. MicroRNAs in pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, O; Van Obberghen, E

    2012-10-01

    The development of the pancreas is a tightly regulated process involving extensive morphogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of the epithelium. The finely orchestrated control of gene expression plays a key role in this equilibrium by coordinating the expression of selected gene products at specific moments and in precise locations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function in general as negative regulators of gene transcripts by interacting with the three prime untranslated regions (3'UTR) of target mRNAs. MiRNAs modulate the expression of numerous target genes that are involved in a variety of cellular systems. Hence the homeostatic control of miRNA biosynthesis and activity is important for the fine-tuning of many physiological processes such as cell differentiation, cell proliferation and organ development. In the present review, we will focus on the implication of these miRNAs on the development of the pancreas and more specifically on β-cells.

  20. The Biogenesis of Nascent Circular RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state circular RNAs (circRNAs have been mapped to thousands of genomic loci in mammals. We studied circRNA processing using metabolic tagging of nascent RNAs with 4-thiouridine (4sU. Strikingly, the efficiency of circRNA processing from pre-mRNA is extremely low endogenously. Additional studies revealed that back-splicing outcomes correlate with fast RNA Polymerase II elongation rate and are tightly controlled by cis-elements in vivo. Additionally, prolonged 4sU labeling in cells shows that circRNAs are largely processed post-transcriptionally and that circRNAs are stable. Circular RNAs that are abundant at a steady-state level tend to accumulate. This is particularly true in cells, such as neurons, that have slow division rates. This study uncovers features of circRNA biogenesis by investigating the link between nascent circRNA processing and transcription.

  1. miRSponge: a manually curated database for experimentally supported miRNA sponges and ceRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Jizhou; Gao, Yue; Guo, Maoni; Ning, Shangwei; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe miRSponge, a manually curated database, which aims at providing an experimentally supported resource for microRNA (miRNA) sponges. Recent evidence suggests that miRNAs are themselves regulated by competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) or 'miRNA sponges' that contain miRNA binding sites. These competitive molecules can sequester miRNAs to prevent them interacting with their natural targets to play critical roles in various biological and pathological processes. It has become increasingly important to develop a high quality database to record and store ceRNA data to support future studies. To this end, we have established the experimentally supported miRSponge database that contains data on 599 miRNA-sponge interactions and 463 ceRNA relationships from 11 species following manual curating from nearly 1200 published articles. Database classes include endogenously generated molecules including coding genes, pseudogenes, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs, along with exogenously introduced molecules including viral RNAs and artificial engineered sponges. Approximately 70% of the interactions were identified experimentally in disease states. miRSponge provides a user-friendly interface for convenient browsing, retrieval and downloading of dataset. A submission page is also included to allow researchers to submit newly validated miRNA sponge data. Database URL: http://www.bio-bigdata.net/miRSponge.

  2. Gene expression regulators--MicroRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fang; YIN Q. James

    2005-01-01

    A large class of non-coding RNAs found in small molecule RNAs are closely associated with the regulation of gene expression, which are called microRNA (miRNA). MiRNAs are coded in intergenic or intronic regions and can be formed into foldback hairpin RNAs. These transcripts are cleaved by Dicer, generating mature miRNAs that can silence their target genes in different modes of action. Now, research on small molecule RNAs has gotten breakthrough advance in biology. To discover miRNA genes and their target genes has become hot topics in RNA research. This review attempts to look back the history of miRNA discovery, to introduce the methods of screening miRNAs, to localize miRNA loci in genome, to seek miRNA target genes and the biological function, and to discuss the working mechanisms of miRNAs. Finally, we will discuss the potential important roles of miRNAs in modulating the genesis, development, growth, and differentiation of organisms. Thus, it can be predicted that a complete understanding of miRNA functions will bring us some new concepts, approaches and strategies for the study of living beings.

  3. MicroRNAs regulate osteogenesis and chondrogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shiwu, E-mail: shiwudong@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Bo; Guo, Hongfeng; Kang, Fei [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To focus on the role of miRNAs in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Involved in the regulation of miRNAs in osteoarthritis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To speculate some therapeutic targets for bone diseases. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecules and non-coding single strand RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to specific sequences within target genes. miRNAs have been recognized as important regulatory factors in organism development and disease expression. Some miRNAs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes, eventually influencing metabolism and bone formation. miRNAs are expected to provide potential gene therapy targets for the clinical treatment of metabolic bone diseases and bone injuries. Here, we review the recent research progress on the regulation of miRNAs in bone biology, with a particular focus on the miRNA-mediated control mechanisms of bone and cartilage formation.

  4. Atypical RNAs in the coelacanth transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Anne; Doose, Gero; Tafer, Hakim; Robinson, Mark; Saha, Nil Ratan; Gerdol, Marco; Canapa, Adriana; Hoffmann, Steve; Amemiya, Chris T; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-09-01

    Circular and apparently trans-spliced RNAs have recently been reported as abundant types of transcripts in mammalian transcriptome data. Both types of non-colinear RNAs are also abundant in RNA-seq of different tissue from both the African and the Indonesian coelacanth. We observe more than 8,000 lincRNAs with normal gene structure and several thousands of circularized and trans-spliced products, showing that such atypical RNAs form a substantial contribution to the transcriptome. Surprisingly, the majority of the circularizing and trans-connecting splice junctions are unique to atypical forms, that is, are not used in normal isoforms.

  5. Bioinformatics analysis suggests base modifications of tRNAs and miRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hailing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modifications of RNA bases have been found in some mRNAs and non-coding RNAs including rRNAs, tRNAs, and snRNAs, where modified bases are important for RNA function. Little is known about RNA base modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results In the current work, we carried out a bioinformatics analysis of RNA base modifications in tRNAs and miRNAs using large numbers of cDNA sequences of small RNAs (sRNAs generated with the 454 technology and the massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS method. We looked for sRNAs that map to the genome sequence with one-base mismatch (OMM, which indicate candidate modified nucleotides. We obtained 1,187 sites with possible RNA base modifications supported by both 454 and MPSS sequences. Seven hundred and three of these sites were within tRNA loci. Nucleotide substitutions were frequently located in the T arm (substitutions from A to U or G, upstream of the D arm (from G to C, U, or A, and downstream of the D arm (from G to U. The positions of major substitution sites corresponded with the following known RNA base modifications in tRNAs: N1-methyladenosine (m1A, N2-methylguanosine (m2G, and N2-N2-methylguanosine (m22G. Conclusion These results indicate that our bioinformatics method successfully detected modified nucleotides in tRNAs. Using this method, we also found 147 substitution sites in miRNA loci. As with tRNAs, substitutions from A to U or G and from G to C, U, or A were common, suggesting that base modifications might be similar in tRNAs and miRNAs. We suggest that miRNAs contain modified bases and such modifications might be important for miRNA maturation and/or function.

  6. MicroRNAs, macrocontrol : Regulation of miRNA processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Durmus, Selvi; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a set of small, non-protein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Maturation of miRNAs comprises several regulated steps resulting in similar to 22-nucleotide single-stranded mature miRNAs. Regulation of miRNA expression can occur both at

  7. Novel meiotic miRNAs and indications for a role of phasiRNAs in meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small RNAs (sRNA) add additional layers to the regulation of gene expression, with siRNAs directing gene silencing at the DNA level by RdDM (RNA-directed DNA methylation), and miRNAs directing post-transcriptional regulation of specific target genes, mostly by mRNA cleavage. We used manually isolate...

  8. Density-dependent changes in effective area occupied for sea-bottom-associated marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Rindorf, Anna; Gao, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of marine fishes can change for many reasons, including density-dependent distributional shifts. Previous studies show mixed support for either the proportional-density model (PDM; no relationship between abundance and area occupied, supported by ideal-free distribution...... theory) or the basin model (BM; positive abundance–area relationship, supported by density-dependent habitat selection theory). The BM implies that fishes move towards preferred habitat as the population declines. We estimate the average relationship using bottom trawl data for 92 fish species from six...... marine regions, to determine whether the BM or PDM provides a better description for sea-bottom-associated fishes. We fit a spatio-temporal model and estimate changes in effective area occupied and abundance, and combine results to estimate the average abundance–area relationship as well as variability...

  9. Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-01-25

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny.

  10. Density-dependent changes in effective area occupied for sea-bottom-associated marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, James T; Rindorf, Anna; Gao, Jin; Hanselman, Dana H; Winker, Henning

    2016-10-12

    The spatial distribution of marine fishes can change for many reasons, including density-dependent distributional shifts. Previous studies show mixed support for either the proportional-density model (PDM; no relationship between abundance and area occupied, supported by ideal-free distribution theory) or the basin model (BM; positive abundance-area relationship, supported by density-dependent habitat selection theory). The BM implies that fishes move towards preferred habitat as the population declines. We estimate the average relationship using bottom trawl data for 92 fish species from six marine regions, to determine whether the BM or PDM provides a better description for sea-bottom-associated fishes. We fit a spatio-temporal model and estimate changes in effective area occupied and abundance, and combine results to estimate the average abundance-area relationship as well as variability among taxa and regions. The average relationship is weak but significant (0.6% increase in area for a 10% increase in abundance), whereas only a small proportion of species-region combinations show a negative relationship (i.e. shrinking area when abundance increases). Approximately one-third of combinations (34.6%) are predicted to increase in area more than 1% for every 10% increase in abundance. We therefore infer that population density generally changes faster than effective area occupied during abundance changes. Gadiformes have the strongest estimated relationship (average 1.0% area increase for every 10% abundance increase) followed by Pleuronectiformes and Scorpaeniformes, and the Eastern Bering Sea shows a strong relationship between abundance and area occupied relative to other regions. We conclude that the BM explains a small but important portion of spatial dynamics for sea-bottom-associated fishes, and that many individual populations merit cautious management during population declines, because a compressed range may increase the efficiency of harvest.

  11. NEURODYNAMIC AND PREDICTABILITY OF ALPHA-STIMULATING BIOFEEDBACK COURSE IN SPORTSMEN AND PERSONS OCCUPYING PHYSICAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Cherapkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 15-days neurofeedback course was conducted with the purpose of neurodynamic and predictability assessment of mastering of arbitrary regulation skill of electroencephalographic (EEG spectral power in alpha-band in sportsmen (n=260 and persons (n=69 occupying physical culture. The electroencephalographic parameters being predictors of neurofeedback course were defined in result of research. It was showed that different neurodynamical changes in examined groups supported training successfulness.

  12. Discerning urban spiritualities: Tahrir Square, Occupy Wall Street and the idols of global market capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvyn C. du Toit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Discernment might be said to be a process of searching for meaning in the light of an (un articulated Absolute. This search takes place in the tension between the private and public spheres of life, mostly mitigated by a community. Intermediate communities, such as churches or social movements, construct symbolic spirituality systems for its adherers to search for meaning in the light of an (unarticulated Absolute. The urban events of Occupy Wall Street and Tahrir Square also step into the tension between the public and private spheres of life, creating a (temporary symbolic spirituality system for its adherers. These events were attempts to construct alternatives to the meta-narrative of global market capitalism. As events attempting to symbolise an urban spirituality, Tahrir Square and Occupy Wall Street dissipated rapidly, effecting rather little change at the heart of global market capitalism. This article theorises a possible reason for these urban spiritualities� dissipation, namely an overlap with global market capitalism�s idols of instant gratification and technology.Interdisciplinary Implications: Viewing Occupy Walls Street and Tahrir Square as symbolic systems of spirituality further strengthens theological urban discourse whilst adding weight to viewing mass movements as spiritualities attempting discernment.

  13. Segmentation of brain structures in presence of a space-occupying lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Claudio; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2005-02-15

    Brain deformations induced by space-occupying lesions may result in unpredictable position and shape of functionally important brain structures. The aim of this study is to propose a method for segmentation of brain structures by deformation of a segmented brain atlas in presence of a space-occupying lesion. Our approach is based on an a priori model of lesion growth (MLG) that assumes radial expansion from a seeding point and involves three steps: first, an affine registration bringing the atlas and the patient into global correspondence; then, the seeding of a synthetic tumor into the brain atlas providing a template for the lesion; finally, the deformation of the seeded atlas, combining a method derived from optical flow principles and a model of lesion growth. The method was applied on two meningiomas inducing a pure displacement of the underlying brain structures, and segmentation accuracy of ventricles and basal ganglia was assessed. Results show that the segmented structures were consistent with the patient's anatomy and that the deformation accuracy of surrounding brain structures was highly dependent on the accurate placement of the tumor seeding point. Further improvements of the method will optimize the segmentation accuracy. Visualization of brain structures provides useful information for therapeutic consideration of space-occupying lesions, including surgical, radiosurgical, and radiotherapeutic planning, in order to increase treatment efficiency and prevent neurological damage.

  14. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  15. MicroRNAs in cardiac arrhythmia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Carlsen, Anting L; Christiansen, Kasper M

    2014-01-01

    LQTS-causing mutations have been identified in 13 genes worldwide. Despite this, the genetic cause of 30-50% of LQTS is presently unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼ 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding complementary sequences within...... messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The human genome encodes over 1800 miRNAs, which target about 60% of human genes. Consequently, miRNAs are likely to regulate many complex processes in the body, indeed aberrant expression of various miRNA species has been implicated in numerous disease states, including...... cardiovascular diseases. MiR-1 and MiR-133A are the most abundant miRNAs in the heart and have both been reported to regulate cardiac ion channels. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of their role in regulating cardiac ion channels, genetic variation in the genes which encode MiR-1 and MiR-133A might explain...

  16. Exploiting tRNAs to Boost Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suki Albers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are powerful small RNA entities that are used to translate nucleotide language of genes into the amino acid language of proteins. Their near-uniform length and tertiary structure as well as their high nucleotide similarity and post-transcriptional modifications have made it difficult to characterize individual species quantitatively. However, due to the central role of the tRNA pool in protein biosynthesis as well as newly emerging roles played by tRNAs, their quantitative assessment yields important information, particularly relevant for virus research. Viruses which depend on the host protein expression machinery have evolved various strategies to optimize tRNA usage—either by adapting to the host codon usage or encoding their own tRNAs. Additionally, several viruses bear tRNA-like elements (TLE in the 5′- and 3′-UTR of their mRNAs. There are different hypotheses concerning the manner in which such structures boost viral protein expression. Furthermore, retroviruses use special tRNAs for packaging and initiating reverse transcription of their genetic material. Since there is a strong specificity of different viruses towards certain tRNAs, different strategies for recruitment are employed. Interestingly, modifications on tRNAs strongly impact their functionality in viruses. Here, we review those intersection points between virus and tRNA research and describe methods for assessing the tRNA pool in terms of concentration, aminoacylation and modification.

  17. Exploiting tRNAs to Boost Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Suki; Czech, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are powerful small RNA entities that are used to translate nucleotide language of genes into the amino acid language of proteins. Their near-uniform length and tertiary structure as well as their high nucleotide similarity and post-transcriptional modifications have made it difficult to characterize individual species quantitatively. However, due to the central role of the tRNA pool in protein biosynthesis as well as newly emerging roles played by tRNAs, their quantitative assessment yields important information, particularly relevant for virus research. Viruses which depend on the host protein expression machinery have evolved various strategies to optimize tRNA usage—either by adapting to the host codon usage or encoding their own tRNAs. Additionally, several viruses bear tRNA-like elements (TLE) in the 5′- and 3′-UTR of their mRNAs. There are different hypotheses concerning the manner in which such structures boost viral protein expression. Furthermore, retroviruses use special tRNAs for packaging and initiating reverse transcription of their genetic material. Since there is a strong specificity of different viruses towards certain tRNAs, different strategies for recruitment are employed. Interestingly, modifications on tRNAs strongly impact their functionality in viruses. Here, we review those intersection points between virus and tRNA research and describe methods for assessing the tRNA pool in terms of concentration, aminoacylation and modification. PMID:26797637

  18. Hidden layers of human small RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Nakamura, Mari; Takahashi, Yukari;

    2008-01-01

    shows that well-characterized non-coding RNA, such as tRNA, snoRNA, and snRNA are cleaved at sites specific to the class of ncRNA. In particular, tRNA cleavage is regulated depending on tRNA type and tissue expression. We also found small RNAs mapped to genomic regions that are transcribed in both...... small RNA have focused on miRNA and/or siRNA rather than on the exploration of additional classes of RNAs. RESULTS: Here, we explored human small RNAs by unbiased sequencing of RNAs with sizes of 19-40 nt. We provide substantial evidences for the existence of independent classes of small RNAs. Our data...

  19. Targeting microRNAs in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huangming; Sun, Lei; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem worldwide associated with an increased risk of life-threatening diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and certain types of cancer. Fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its associated metabolic syndromes is an understanding of the regulation of fat cell development. Recent computational and experimental studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in metabolic tissue development, lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. In addition, many miRNAs are dysregulated in metabolic tissues from obese animals and humans, which potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated complications. In this review we summarize the current state of understanding of the roles of miRNAs in metabolic tissues under normal development and obese conditions, and discuss the potential use of miRNAs as therapeutic targets.

  20. Dysregulated microRNAs in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pierre; de Strooper, Bart

    2010-09-01

    The complexity of the nervous system arises in part, from the large diversity of neural cell types that support the architecture of neuronal circuits. Recent studies have highlighted microRNAs as important players in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and therefore the phenotype of neural cells. A link between microRNAs and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease is becoming increasingly evident. Here, we discuss microRNAs in neurodegeneration, from the fruit fly and mouse utilized as experimental models to dysregulated microRNAs in human neurodegenerative disorders. We propose that studying microRNAs and their mRNA targets in the context of neurodegeneration will significantly contribute to the identification of proteins important for neuronal function and might reveal underlying molecular networks that drive these diseases.

  1. Genome-wide identification of non-coding RNAs interacted with microRNAs in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyu eYe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of RNA species interacting with microRNAs (miRNAs form a complex gene regulation network and play vital roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification of endogenous target mimics (eTMs for miRNAs and phased-siRNA-producing loci (PHAS in soybean with a focus on those involved in lipid metabolism. The results showed that a large number of eTMs and PHAS genes could be found in soybean. Additionally, we found that lipid metabolism related genes were potentially regulated by 28 miRNAs, and nine of them were potentially further regulated by a number of eTMs with expression evidence. Thirty-three miRNAs were found to trigger production of phasiRNAs from 49 PHAS genes, which were able to target lipid metabolism related genes. Degradome data supported miRNA- and/or phasiRNA-mediated cleavage of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Most eTMs for miRNAs involved in lipid metabolism and phasiRNAs targeting lipid metabolism related genes showed a tissue-specific expression pattern. Our bioinformatical evidences suggested that lipid metabolism in soybean is potentially regulated by a complex non-coding network, including miRNAs, eTMs and phasiRNAs, and the results extended our knowledge on functions of non-coding RNAs.

  2. The long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs : a new (player in the dark matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eDerrien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptome of a cell is represented by a myriad of different RNA molecules with and without protein-coding capacities. In recent years, advances in sequencing technologies have allowed researchers to more fully appreciate the complexity of whole transcriptomes, showing that the vast majority of the genome is transcribed, producing a diverse population of non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Thus, the biological significance of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs have been largely underestimated. Amongst these multiple classes of ncRNAs, the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are apparently the most numerous and functionally diverse. A small but growing number of lncRNAs have been experimentally studied, and a view is emerging that these are key regulators of epigenetic gene regulation in mammalian cells. LncRNAs have already been implicated in human diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration, highlighting the importance of this emergent field. In this article, we review the catalogues of annotated lncRNAs and the latest advances in our understanding of long non-coding RNAs.

  3. Conversations between kingdoms: small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiberg, Arne; Bellinger, Marschal; Jin, Hailing

    2015-04-01

    Humans, animals, and plants are constantly under attack from pathogens and pests, resulting in severe consequences on global human health and crop production. Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved regulatory mechanism that is involved in almost all eukaryotic cellular processes, including host immunity and pathogen virulence. Recent evidence supports the significant contribution of sRNAs and RNAi to the communication between hosts and some eukaryotic pathogens, pests, parasites, or symbiotic microorganisms. Mobile silencing signals—most likely sRNAs—are capable of translocating from the host to its interacting organism, and vice versa. In this review, we will provide an overview of sRNA communications between different kingdoms, with a primary focus on the advances in plant-pathogen interaction systems.

  4. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  5. Artificial micro RNA (amiRNA) induced gene silencing in alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene silencing is a powerful technique that allows the study of the function of specific genes by selectively reducing their transcription. Several different approaches can be used; however, they all have in common the artificial generation of single-stranded small RNAs that are utilized by the endo...

  6. Therapeutic implications of microRNAs in human cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Rossbach

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly evolutionarily conserved non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that modulate gene expression. Several studies have shown that the expression of miRNAs is deregulated in human malignancies. For ncRNAs and miRNAs, such gene-profiling studies in tumorigenic tissues have identified significant signatures that are of both diagnostic and prognostic value. Addressing the functions of ncRNAs not only give insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie complex genetic...

  7. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  8. Opinion Paper: International law and government responsibilities in relation to the activities of Veolia Corporation in the occupied Palestinian Territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff); P. van den Biesen (Phon)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Our first position in this opinion paper is that Veolia’s activities in occupied Palestinian territories, and in particular a light rail line on occupied and annexed Palestinian land in East Jerusalem is illegal. The light rail follows mainly the Green Line. Land was c

  9. Small RNAs as potential platelet therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Leonard C; Bray, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide RNAs that regulate more than 60% of mammalian protein coding genes. miRNAs play critical roles in hematopoiesis and megakaryocyte function and development. Platelets, in addition to possessing functional miRNA processing machinery, have miRNA levels that have been correlated with platelet reactivity, and these miRNAs have been shown to target mRNAs that encode proteins that alter platelet function. There are potential uses of platelet miRNA as biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Due to the ability of platelets to release miRNA-containing microparticles at sites of activation, including angiogenic regions, tumors, and atherosclerotic plaques, there is the possibility of engineering platelets to deliver miRNA-based therapies to these sites. Cellpreferential expression of miRNAs could be exploited to restrict transgene expression in hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy to the desired lineage, including megakaryocytes and platelets. Finally, manipulation of gene expression in stored platelets may allow more effective platelet storage. Although much work remains to be done, there is great potential in miRNA-based platelet therapies.

  10. MicroRNAs in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Eunsung; Mouradian, M Maral

    2010-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small, noncoding RNAs regulating eukaryotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. During the last decade, considerable advances have been made in our understanding the biogenesis of miRNAs, the molecular mechanisms by which they regulate gene expression and their functional role in various physiological situations. miRNAs are abundant in the brain where they have crucial roles in development and synaptic plasticity. Accumulating evidence from postmortem brain analyses and animal model studies has begun to suggest that miRNA dysfunction contributes to neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we discuss several examples of investigations demonstrating the role of miRNAs in neurodegenerative disorders. As the expression of disease-causing genes is regulated by certain miRNA(s), changes in these miRNAs could lead to the accumulation of disease-causing proteins, and subsequently to neuronal dysfunction and death. Detailed understanding of these mechanisms can provide potential new therapeutic approaches to slow down or halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Long noncoding RNAs and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Q

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Qiong Luo,1,2 Yinghui Chen1,2 1Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are typically defined as transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. lncRNAs can regulate gene expression at epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional levels. Recent studies have shown that lncRNAs are involved in many neurological diseases such as epilepsy, neurodegenerative conditions, and genetic disorders. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease, which accounts for >80% of dementia in elderly subjects. In this review, we will highlight recent studies investigating the role of lncRNAs in Alzheimer’s disease and focus on some specific lncRNAs that may underlie Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology and therefore could be potential therapeutic targets. Keywords: lncRNA, Alzheimer’s disease, ncRNAs, amyloid β peptide, BACE1, BC200, BACE1-AS

  12. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  13. Surface shift of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels of the rare-earth metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Johansson, Börje; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1995-01-01

    The surface energy shifts of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels for the lanthanide metals have been calculated from first principles by means of a Green’s-function technique within the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method. We use the concept of complete screening to identify...... as well as those found in previous initial-state model calculations. The present theory agrees well with very recent high-resolution, single-crystal film measurements for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu. We furthermore utilize the unique possibility offered by the lanthanide metals to clarify the roles...

  14. An indoor air aerosol model for outdoor contaminant transmission into occupied rooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hui; ZHAO Shen; CAO Guo-qing

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a simple model for outdoor air contaminant transmission into occupied rooms. In the model, several factors such as filtration, ventilation, deposition, re-emission, outdoor concentration and indoor sources are included. The model results show that the air exchange rate plays an important role in the transmission of outdoor contaminants into the indoor environment. The model shows that increasing the value of the filtration efficiency decreases the mass concentration of indoor particles. In addition, if outdoor aerosol particles have a periodic behaviour, indoor aerosol particles also behave periodically but smoother. Indoor sources are found to be able to increase indoor concentrations greatly and continuously.

  15. An exploratory study of the ways in which mothers keep their infants occupied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Botha

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The mother child relationship can help or hinder the social, emotional and intellectual development of the infant. Research has shown that the interaction between mother and child can affect the child’s cognitive development. Research has shown that mothers from the lower socio-economic groups do not stimulate their babies optimally and that this may affect the children negatively. In this study 86 underprivileged mothers from two different cultural backgrounds were asked to describe the ways in which they kept their infants occupied during the first year of their infants’ lives. The differences between the two groups are discussed and recommendations are made.

  16. microRNAs and ceRNAs: RNA networks in pathogenesis of cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangqian Su; Jiadi Xing; Zaozao Wang; Lei Chen; Ming Cui; Beihai Jiang

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous,single-stranded non-coding RNAs of 20-23 nucleotides in length,functioning as negative regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level.The dysregulation of miRNAs has been demonstrated to play critical roles in tumorigenesis,either through inhibiting tumor suppressor genes or activating oncogenes inappropriately.Besides their promising clinical applications in cancer diagnosis and treatment,recent studies have uncovered that miRNAs could act as a regulatory language,through which messenger RNAs,transcribed pseudogenes,and long noncoding RNAs crosstalk with each other and form a novel regulatory network.RNA transcripts involved in this network have been termed as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs),since they influence each other's level by competing for the same pool of miRNAs through miRNA response elements (MREs) on their target transcripts.The discovery of miRNA-ceRNA network not only provides the possibility of an additional level of post-transcriptional regulation,but also dictates a reassessment of the existing regulatory pathways involved in cancer initiation and progression.

  17. Role of miRNAs and siRNAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2012-02-01

    Small, non-coding RNAs are a distinct class of regulatory RNAs in plants and animals that control a variety of biological processes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved through a series of pathways. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs control the expression of cognate target genes by binding to reverse complementary sequences, resulting in cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNAs. siRNAs have a similar structure, function, and biogenesis as miRNAs but are derived from long double-stranded RNAs and can often direct DNA methylation at target sequences. Besides their roles in growth and development and maintenance of genome integrity, small RNAs are also important components in plant stress responses. One way in which plants respond to environmental stress is by modifying their gene expression through the activity of small RNAs. Thus, understanding how small RNAs regulate gene expression will enable researchers to explore the role of small RNAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses. This review focuses on the regulatory roles of plant small RNAs in the adaptive response to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant gene regulation in response to abiotic stress. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. PROMoter uPstream Transcripts share characteristics with mRNAs and are produced upstream of all three major types of mammalian promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preker, Pascal; Almvig, Kristina; Christensen, Marianne Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    RNAs, PROMPTs are largely nuclear and rapidly turned over by the RNA exosome. PROMPT-transcribing DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) complexes with serine 2 phosphorylated C-terminal domains (CTDs), mimicking that of the associated genic region. Thus, the inefficient elongation capacity of PROMPT...... or RNAPIII also produce PROMPTs that are targeted by the exosome. RNAPIII PROMPTs bear hallmarks of RNAPII promoter-associated RNAs, explaining the physical presence of RNAPII upstream of many RNAPIII-transcribed genes. We propose that RNAPII activity upstream gene promoters are wide-spread and integral...

  19. The Host RNAs in Retroviral Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Telesnitsky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As they assemble, retroviruses encapsidate both their genomic RNAs and several types of host RNA. Whereas limited amounts of messenger RNA (mRNA are detectable within virion populations, the predominant classes of encapsidated host RNAs do not encode proteins, but instead include endogenous retroelements and several classes of non-coding RNA (ncRNA, some of which are packaged in significant molar excess to the viral genome. Surprisingly, although the most abundant host RNAs in retroviruses are also abundant in cells, unusual forms of these RNAs are packaged preferentially, suggesting that these RNAs are recruited early in their biogenesis: before associating with their cognate protein partners, and/or from transient or rare RNA populations. These RNAs’ packaging determinants differ from the viral genome’s, and several of the abundantly packaged host ncRNAs serve cells as the scaffolds of ribonucleoprotein particles. Because virion assembly is equally efficient whether or not genomic RNA is available, yet RNA appears critical to the structural integrity of retroviral particles, it seems possible that the selectively encapsidated host ncRNAs might play roles in assembly. Indeed, some host ncRNAs appear to act during replication, as some transfer RNA (tRNA species may contribute to nuclear import of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 reverse transcription complexes, and other tRNA interactions with the viral Gag protein aid correct trafficking to plasma membrane assembly sites. However, despite high conservation of packaging for certain host RNAs, replication roles for most of these selectively encapsidated RNAs—if any—have remained elusive.

  20. MicroRNAs: Potential biomarkers in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    George, G. P.; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2010-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved small noncoding RNAs, also known as micromanagers of gene expression. Polymorphisms in the miRNA pathway (miR-polymorphisms) are emerging as powerful tools to study the biology of a disease and have the potential to be used in disease prognosis and diagnosis. Advancements in the miRNA field also indicate a clear involvement of deregulated miRNA gene signatures in cancers, and several polymorphisms in pre-miRNA, miRNA binding sites or targets hav...

  1. Noncoding RNAs: Emerging Players in Muscular Dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Falcone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fascinating world of noncoding RNAs has recently come to light, thanks to the development of powerful sequencing technologies, revealing a variety of RNA molecules playing important regulatory functions in most, if not all, cellular processes. Many noncoding RNAs have been implicated in regulatory networks that are determinant for skeletal muscle differentiation and disease. In this review, we outline the noncoding RNAs involved in physiological mechanisms of myogenesis and those that appear dysregulated in muscle dystrophies, also discussing their potential use as disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  2. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  3. Erasing the Material Base of Occupy Wall Street: When Soft Means Fail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Leary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When Occupy Wall Street proved able to reach mass circulation in 2011, it registered as a threat to the status quo in the United States, where corporate entities with close relation to government normally control the flow of discourse. The Occupy encampments, therefore, were intolerable, not merely an annoyance that could be ignored or ridiculed. Once Occupy’s anti-corporate rhetoric had spread widely, the mainstream media took steps to derail the mass appeal of Occupy’s oppositional discourse through accusations of incoherence and indecency. However, such “soft” means of organizing consent from the public were very weak in 2011 because of the 2008 economic collapse which had been provoked by Wall Street. With instruments of soft persuasion weak, the dominant group turned to instruments of hard persuasion — arrests, harassments, beatings, random grabs, and finally the orchestrated assault carried out on November 15th, an operation that saw the media censored and sequestered, at night, in the dark, with no filmed images, and all subway stations and street access blocked.

  4. Attitudes toward the health of men that regularly occupy in a trainer hall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamchhuk Ja.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted to consider that by motivation for people that practice in a trainer hall is an improvement of health and original appearance. The aim of this research was to determine whether there is training by part of forming of positive attitude toward the health of men-sportsmen-amateurs that occupy in a trainer hall. In research took part 100 men that engage in the power training in one of three trainer halls of Warsaw. Investigational divided by two groups: 50 persons that occupy in a trainer hall more than one year, but no more than 3 years (group A and 50 persons that practice more than 3 (group B. It is well-proven that training positively influences on the emotional state of men. It was discovered at the same time, that than greater experience of sportsman-amateur, the considerably more often he used additions (including by a stimulant. There was no medical control in both groups. Positive influence of the power training shows that they can be the important element of prophylaxis and physiotherapy.

  5. Role of dynamic CT perfusion study in evaluating various intracranial space-occupying lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra B Kamble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Differentiating intracranial mass lesions on CT scan is challenging. The purpose of our study was to determine the perfusion parameters in various intracranial space-occupying lesions (ICSOL, differentiate benign and malignant lesions, and differentiate between grades of gliomas. Materials and Methods: We performed CT perfusion (CTP in 64 patients, with age ranging from 17 to 68 years, having space-occupying lesions in brain and calculated relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV. Results: We found significantly lower perfusion in low-grade gliomas as compared to high-grade tumors, lymphoma, and metastases. Similarly in infective lesions, TWT and abscesses showed significantly lower perfusion compared to TOT. In ring enhancing lesions, capsule of TWT showed significantly lower perfusion as compared to abscesses, TOT, and metastases. Conclusion: Thus, in conclusion, infective lesions can be differentiated from tumors like lymphomas, high-grade gliomas, or metastases based on perfusion parameters. The cut off value of rCBV 1.64 can be used to differentiate between low grade and high grade gliomas. However, depending only on perfusion parameters, differentiation between the tumors like lymphomas, high-grade gliomas, and metastases may not be possible.

  6. Future of artificial intelligence -- Art, not Science

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Now in the world the technologies relating to design of systems of artificial intellect (AI) actively develop. In this paper it would be desirable to consider not tactical, but strategic problems of this process. Now not many interesting papers on this topic are available, but they exist [1]. It is relating to a fact that most of serious experts is occupied by a solution of tactical problems and often does not think about farther prospects. However the situation at the beginning of cybernetics origin was not that. Then these problems were actively considered. Therefore we will construct our paper as a review of problems of cybernetics as they saw to participants of the symposium in 1961 [2]. We will try to give the review of these prospects from the point of view of the up-to-date physical and cybernetic science and its last reachings.

  7. deepBase v2.0: identification, expression, evolution and function of small RNAs, LncRNAs and circular RNAs from deep-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Jun-Hao; Wu, Jie; Sun, Wen-Ju; Liu, Shun; Wang, Ze-Lin; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2016-01-04

    Small non-coding RNAs (e.g. miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (e.g. lincRNAs and circRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of various cellular processes. However, only a very small fraction of these enigmatic RNAs have been well functionally characterized. In this study, we describe deepBase v2.0 (http://biocenter.sysu.edu.cn/deepBase/), an updated platform, to decode evolution, expression patterns and functions of diverse ncRNAs across 19 species. deepBase v2.0 has been updated to provide the most comprehensive collection of ncRNA-derived small RNAs generated from 588 sRNA-Seq datasets. Moreover, we developed a pipeline named lncSeeker to identify 176 680 high-confidence lncRNAs from 14 species. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of various ncRNAs were profiled. We identified approximately 24 280 primate-specific, 5193 rodent-specific lncRNAs, and 55 highly conserved lncRNA orthologs between human and zebrafish. We annotated 14 867 human circRNAs, 1260 of which are orthologous to mouse circRNAs. By combining expression profiles and functional genomic annotations, we developed lncFunction web-server to predict the function of lncRNAs based on protein-lncRNA co-expression networks. This study is expected to provide considerable resources to facilitate future experimental studies and to uncover ncRNA functions.

  8. Non-Coding RNAs in Muscle Dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferlini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ncRNAs are the most recently identified class of regulatory RNAs with vital functions in gene expression regulation and cell development. Among the variety of roles they play, their involvement in human diseases has opened new avenues of research towards the discovery and development of novel therapeutic approaches. Important data come from the field of hereditary muscle dystrophies, like Duchenne muscle dystrophy and Myotonic dystrophies, rare diseases affecting 1 in 7000–15,000 newborns and is characterized by severe to mild muscle weakness associated with cardiac involvement. Novel therapeutic approaches are now ongoing for these diseases, also based on splicing modulation. In this review we provide an overview about ncRNAs and their behavior in muscular dystrophy and explore their links with diagnosis, prognosis and treatments, highlighting the role of regulatory RNAs in these pathologies.

  9. New miRNAs cloned from neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatting Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a novel class of gene expression regulators implicated in cancer biology. Neuroblastoma (NB is an embryonal tumour consisting of neural crest-derived undifferentiated cells and is characterised by variable clinical courses ranging from spontaneous regression to therapy-resistant progression. Recent advances identified a subset of miRNAs with putative function in NB biology. However, the full repertoire of miRNAs expressed in NBs is not available. Results We describe miRNA profiles of 13 NB specimens and 2 NB cell lines as determined by miRNA cloning. A total of 3153 sequences were sequenced and analysed by a miRNA prediction tool (miRpredict. Our library covered 27% miRNAs known to date. 39 reads corresponding to 25 individual sequences were classified as novel miRNAs, including miRNA* species of 10 known miRNAs. Expression of 5 new miRNA* forms and 8 individual sequences was supported by Northern blotting. Most of the novel miRNA genes are not related to each other and do not share homology with the annotated sequences in the public miRNA database, but they are conserved within mammals or have close homologues in primates genomes. Conclusion We provide evidence for 29 new miRNA and miRNA-like sequences (24 novel sequences and 5 miRNAs discovered initially in other species. Some of these newly identified sequences reside within frequently altered chromosomal regions in NB tumours and may play a role in NB biology.

  10. Long noncoding RNAs(lncRNAs) and the molecular hallmarks of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Panda, Amaresh C; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam

    2014-12-01

    During aging, progressive deleterious changes increase the risk of disease and death. Prominent molecular hallmarks of aging are genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes, including age-related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular pathologies, and neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence is emerging that lncRNAs influence the molecular processes that underlie age-associated phenotypes. Here, we review our current understanding of lncRNAs that control the development of aging traits.

  11. RNA sequencing uncovers antisense RNAs and novel small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation.

  12. High throughput sequencing of small RNAs in Potato Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in gene regulation, function and development is a rapidly evolving field. sRNAs result from transcript degradation and to regulatory micro RNA (miRNA) and small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) classes involved in gene regulation. The sRNAs from potato leaves were...

  13. Horizontal Transfer of Small RNAs To and From Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eHan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic information is traditionally thought to be transferred from parents to offspring. However, there is evidence indicating that gene transfer can also occur from microbes to higher species, such as plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. This horizontal transfer can be carried out by small RNAs (sRNAs. sRNAs have been recently reported to move across kingdoms as mobile signals, spreading silencing information toward targeted genes. sRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, are non-coding molecules that control gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Some sRNAs act in a cross-kingdom manner between animals and their parasites, but little is known about such sRNAs associated with plants. In this report, we provide a brief introduction to miRNAs that are transferred from plants to mammals/viruses and siRNAs that are transferred from microbes to plants. Both miRNAs and siRNAs can exert corresponding functions in the target organisms. Additionally, we provide information concerning a host-induced gene silencing (HIGS system as a potential application that utilizes the transgenic trafficking of RNA molecules to silence the genes of interacting organisms. Moreover, we lay out the controversial views regarding cross-kingdom miRNAs and call for better methodology and experimental design to confirm this unique function of miRNAs.

  14. Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Ming Kuan

    2006-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) constitute a class of flexible nonlinear models designed to mimic biological neural systems. In this entry, we introduce ANN using familiar econometric terminology and provide an overview of ANN modeling approach and its implementation methods.

  15. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  16. Cancer Cachexia and MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Rodolfo Gonzalez; Quintas Teixeira Ribeiro, Henrique; Geraldo, Murilo Vieira; Matos-Neto, Emídio; Neves, Rodrigo Xavier; Carnevali, Luiz Carlos; Donatto, Felipe Fedrizzi; Alcântara, Paulo S M; Ottoch, José P; Seelaender, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome compromising quality of life and survival, mainly characterized by involuntary weight loss, fatigue, and systemic inflammation. The syndrome is described as a result of tumor-host interactions characterized by an inflammatory response by the host to the presence of the tumor. Indeed, systemic inflammation is considered a pivotal feature in cachexia progression and maintenance. Cytokines are intimately related to chronic systemic inflammation and the mechanisms underlying the release of these factors are not totally elucidated, the etiology of cachexia being still not fully understood. Therefore, the understanding of cachexia-related mechanisms, as well as the establishment of markers for the syndrome, is very relevant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs interfering with gene regulation. Different miRNA expression profiles are associated with different diseases and inflammatory processes. miRNAs modulate adipose and skeletal muscle tissue metabolism in cancer cachexia and also tumor and tissue derived inflammation. Therefore, we propose a possible role for miRNAs in the modulation of the host inflammatory response during cachexia. Moreover, the establishment of a robust body of evidence in regard to miRNAs and the mechanisms underlying cachexia is mandatory, and shall contribute to the improvement of its diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Insights in microRNAs biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargalionis, Antonios N; Basdra, Efthimia K

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs, that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Recent studies now predict that numerous miRNA molecules regulate a large proportion of the human transcriptome, thus creating a whole new research field that utilizes their potential impact on gene expression in favor of diagnosis, prognosis and drug development. MiRNAs are generated from transcription of respective genes into primary structures that usually follow a two-step maturation process in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm. Active miRNA folds downregulate protein expression either via direct repression of targeted messenger RNA (mRNA) or mRNA cleavage. They are critical factors that control human development and organogenesis and reemerge as key-molecules that profoundly influence adult cells and tissues under stress-responsive conditions. Therefore, several miRNAs exhibit dysregulated functions in almost all aspects of human pathology such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, genetic and neurodegenerative diseases, forming tissue-specific molecular profiles that further define salient pathologic features. The present article offers an overview on miRNAs biogenesis and functional processes, major aspects of their participation in human development and milestones regarding their contribution in human diseases. Furthermore, their utility as extracellular biomarkers and the rationale behind miRNA inhibition or miRNA delivery are being discussed.

  18. microRNAs and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lifeng; Tan, Eng King; Zeng, Li

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that through imperfect base-pairing with complementary sequences of target mRNA molecules, typically cleave target mRNA, causing subsequent degradation or translation inhibition. Although an increasing number of studies have identified misregulated miRNAs in the neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which suggests that alterations in the miRNA regulatory pathway could contribute to disease pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological implications of misregulated miRNA expression and the regulation of the key genes involved in NDDs remain largely unknown. In this chapter, we provide evidence of the function and regulation of miRNAs and their association with the neurological events in NDDs. This will help improve our understanding of how miRNAs govern the biological functions of key pathogenic genes in these diseases, which potentially regulate several pathways involved in the progression of neurodegeneration. Additionally, given the growing interest in the therapeutic potential of miRNAs, we discuss current clinical challenges to developing miRNA-based therapeutics for NDDs.

  19. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  20. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  1. Update on non-canonical microRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Non-canonical microRNAs are a recently-discovered subset of microRNAs. They structurally and functionally resemble canonical miRNAs, but were found to follow distinct maturation pathways, typically bypassing one or more steps of the classic canonical biogenesis pathway. Non-canonical miRNAs were found to have diverse origins, including introns, snoRNAs, endogenous shRNAs and tRNAs. Our knowledge about their functions remains relatively primitive; however, many interesting discoveries have tak...

  2. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  3. Conservative approach to recurrent calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor occupying the maxillary sinus: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is an uncommon benign cystic neoplasm of the jaw that develops from the odontogenic epithelium. Invasion into the maxillary sinus by a CCOT is not a typical, and the recurrence of the cystic variant of CCOT in the posterior maxilla is rare. This report describes a recurrent CCOT occupying most of the maxillary sinus of a 24-year-old male patient. As a treatment, marsupialization was carried out as a means of decompression, and the involved teeth were all endodontically treated. Afterward, surgical enucleation was performed. The size of the lesion continued to shrink after marsupialization, and the maxillary sinus restored its volume. This patient has been followed-up for 3 years after the surgery, and there have not been any signs of recurrence. PMID:27847742

  4. Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital of Cyclopentanone by Binary (e, 2e) Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-Feng; NING Chuan-Gang; DENG Jing-Kang; REN Xue-Guang; SU Guo-Lin; YANG Tie-Cheng; HUANG Yan-Ru

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report the first measurements of the momentum profiles of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the complete valence shell binding energy spectra of cyclopentanone with impact energies of 600 and 1200 eV by a binary (e, 2e) spectrometer. The experimental momentum profiles of the HOMO orbital are compared with the theoretical momentum distribution calculated using the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods with various basis sets. However, none of these calculations gives a completely satisfactory description of the momentum distributions of the HOMO 7b2. The inadequacy of the calculations could result in the intensity difference of the second maximum at p ~l.2a.u. between the experiment and the theory. The discrepancy between experimental and theoretical data in the low-momentum region is explained with the distorted wave effect.

  5. Occupy Wall Street? Position-Blindness in the New Leftist Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Gagyi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The following I write as an Eastern European sociologist and activist, departing from the basic question of how local movements in my region might connect with Occupy Wall Street (OWS. By this time, it is evident that OWS has made an indelible mark on present-day discussions on globalisation and world order. Immanuel Wallerstein (2011, for example, has spoken directly of an ongoing transformation in world economy, asking whether the present crisis in the dominant model of capitalism-cum-democracy will be resolved through a shift towards a less democratic and more unequal system, or whether global social movements might help bring about a more equal and democratic social order. Keeping in sight the controversial lessons of the alter-globalism movement in Eastern Europe, I will argue that certain characteristics of the OWS movementthemselves pose an obstacle to the development of a truly global social movement

  6. Effect of ensemble generalization on the highest-occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue

    CERN Document Server

    Kraisler, Eli; Kümmel, Stephan; Kronik, Leeor

    2015-01-01

    There are several approximations to the exchange-correlation functional in density-functional theory that accurately predict total energy-related properties of many-electron systems, such as binding energies, bond lengths, and crystal structures. Other approximations are designed to describe potential-related processes, such as charge transfer and photoemission. However, the development of a functional which can serve the two purposes simultaneously is a long-standing challenge. Trying to address it, we employ in the current work the ensemble generalization procedure proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 126403 (2013). Focusing on the prediction of the ionization potential via the highest occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue, we examine a variety of exchange-correlation approximations: the local spin-density approximation, semi-local generalized gradient approximations, and global and local hybrid functionals. Results for a test set of 26 diatomic molecules and single atoms are presented. We find that the aforementioned...

  7. The High-Redshift Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Paterno-Mahler, R; Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Wing, J D; Anand, G; Decker, B; Golden-Marx, E

    2016-01-01

    We present 238 high-redshift galaxy cluster candidates based on galaxy overdensities in the Spitzer/IRAC imaging of the fields surrounding 646 bent, double-lobed radio sources drawn from the Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey. The COBRA sources were chosen as objects in the VLA FIRST survey that lack optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to a limit of $m_r=22$, making them likely to lie at high redshift. This is confirmed by our observations: the redshift distribution of COBRA sources with estimated redshifts peaks near $z=1$, and extends out to $z\\approx3$. Cluster candidates were identified by comparing our sources to a background field and searching for overdensities. Forty-one of these sources are quasars with known spectroscopic redshifts, which may be tracers of some of the most distant clusters known.

  8. Estimate of the area occupied by reforestation programs in Rio de Janeiro state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Barbosa Amorim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on a preliminary survey and inventory of existing reforestation programs in Rio de Janeiro state, through geoprocessing techniques and collection of field data. The reforested area was found to occupy 18,426.96 ha, which amounts to 0.42% of the territory of the state. Much of reforestation programs consists of eucalyptus (98%, followed by pine plantations (0.8%, and the remainder is distributed among 10 other species. The Médio Paraíba region was found to contribute the most to the reforested area of the state (46.6%. The estimated volume of eucalyptus timber was nearly two million cubic meters. This study helped crystallize the ongoing perception among those militating in the forestry sector of Rio de Janeiro state that the planted area and stock of reforestation timber is still incipient in the state.

  9. Influence of caster diameter on the static and dynamic forward stability of occupied wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, R L; McLean, A D; Eastwood, B J

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that the static and dynamic forward stability of an occupied wheelchair would increase as a function of the caster diameter was tested in 20 able-bodied subjects. A device was attached to the wheelchair frame so that casters with different diameters could be used. With platform testing of static stability, the occupied wheelchair equipped with casters with diameters of 10.2, 20.3, 25.4, and 33.0cm, tipped at mean (+/- 1SD) angles of 23.8 degrees (+/- 1.3 degrees), 25.2 degrees (+/- 1.4 degrees), 26.1 degrees (+/- 1.4 degrees), and 28.2 degrees (+/- 1.9 degrees), respectively. The relationship between static stability (y, in degrees) and caster diameter (x, in cm) can be expressed by the equation y = 23.5-.0196 chi + .00484 x2 (p = .0001). Dynamic stability was tested by having subjects descend a 5 degree ramp, by gravity alone, from progressively farther up the ramp until a full forward tip occurred (footrests contacted the floor) when the wheelchair struck a 5-cm-high obstruction with sufficient speed. The mean tipping speeds for the dynamic tests were .85 (+/- .08), .85 (+/- .08), .89 (+/-.07), and 1.04 (+/- .14) m/sec for the wheelchair fitted with the caster diameters ranging from smallest to largest, respectively. The relationship between dynamic stability (y, tipping speed in m/sec) and caster diameter (chi, in cm) can be expressed by the equation y = .788 + .0139 chi-.00110 chi 2 + .0000276 chi 3 (p = .0001). The relationship between caster diameter and forward wheelchair stability should be considered in wheelchair design and prescription.

  10. Progress and Prospects of Long Noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most frequently occurring cancers with poor prognosis, and novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for HCC are urgently required. With the advance of high-resolution microarrays and massively parallel sequencing technology, lncRNAs are suggested to play critical roles in the tumorigenesis and development of human HCC. To date, dysregulation of many HCC-related lncRNAs such as HULC, HOTAIR, MALAT1, and H19 have been identified. From transcriptional “noise” to indispensable elements, lncRNAs may re-write the central dogma. Also, lncRNAs found in body fluids have demonstrated their utility as fluid-based noninvasive markers for clinical use and as therapeutic targets for HCC. Even though several lncRNAs have been characterized, the underlying mechanisms of their contribution to HCC remain unknown, and many important questions about lncRNAs need resolving. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism in HCC-related lncRNAs will provide a rationale for novel effective lncRNA-based targeted therapies. In this review, we highlight the emerging roles of lncRNAs in HCC, and discuss their potential clinical applications as biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring and treatment of HCC.

  11. Versatile RNA interference nanoplatform for systemic delivery of RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Silvestre, Oscar F; Huang, Xinglu; Min, Kyung Hyun; Howard, Gregory P; Hida, Naoki; Jin, Albert J; Carvajal, Nicole; Lee, Sang Wook; Hong, Jong-In; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-05-27

    Development of nontoxic, tumor-targetable, and potent in vivo RNA delivery systems remains an arduous challenge for clinical application of RNAi therapeutics. Herein, we report a versatile RNAi nanoplatform based on tumor-targeted and pH-responsive nanoformulas (NFs). The NF was engineered by combination of an artificial RNA receptor, Zn(II)-DPA, with a tumor-targetable and drug-loadable hyaluronic acid nanoparticle, which was further modified with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating by in situ mineralization. The NF can encapsulate small-molecule drugs within its hydrophobic inner core and strongly secure various RNA molecules (siRNAs, miRNAs, and oligonucleotides) by utilizing Zn(II)-DPA and a robust CaP coating. We substantiated the versatility of the RNAi nanoplatform by demonstrating effective delivery of siRNA and miRNA for gene silencing or miRNA replacement into different human types of cancer cells in vitro and into tumor-bearing mice in vivo by intravenous administration. The therapeutic potential of NFs coloaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and multidrug resistance 1 gene target siRNA (siMDR) was also demonstrated in this study. NFs loaded with Dox and siMDR could successfully sensitize drug-resistant OVCAR8/ADR cells to Dox and suppress OVCAR8/ADR tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This gene/drug delivery system appears to be a highly effective nonviral method to deliver chemo- and RNAi therapeutics into host cells.

  12. Artificial ozone holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolya, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total ma...

  13. The Artificial, the Accidental, the Aesthetic…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Koltick

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we define, discuss or assess aesthetics within a contemporary philosophical framework? The indefiniteness that accompanies attempts to formalize a definition of the aesthetic is a primary focus of this paper. This lack of a definition has occupied philosophers for hundreds of years in attempts to delineate the boundaries of an elusively formless concept. This formlessness speaks to the incredibly evasive character of such a pervasive feature recognized in both natural and artificial systems, agents and artefacts. With the rapid growth of artificially intelligent systems and an astounding diversity in computational creativity, in what ways may we approach aesthetics? How is the aesthetic recognized, determined and produced? This paper seeks to critically engage issues of non-human agency, inter-object relations, and aesthetic theory in relation to computational entities and autonomous systems. The ability of these systems to operate outside of human cognitive limitations including thought patterns and constructions which may preclude alternative aesthetic outcomes, afford them in some ways limitless potential in relation to aesthetics. The designation of the accidental or provisional is utilized as an alternative approach to the production and assessment of aesthetic occurrences of the non-human.

  14. Artificial concurrent catalytic processes involving enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Valentin; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-11

    The concurrent operation of multiple catalysts can lead to enhanced reaction features including (i) simultaneous linear multi-step transformations in a single reaction flask (ii) the control of intermediate equilibria (iii) stereoconvergent transformations (iv) rapid processing of labile reaction products. Enzymes occupy a prominent position for the development of such processes, due to their high potential compatibility with other biocatalysts. Genes for different enzymes can be co-expressed to reconstruct natural or construct artificial pathways and applied in the form of engineered whole cell biocatalysts to carry out complex transformations or, alternatively, the enzymes can be combined in vitro after isolation. Moreover, enzyme variants provide a wider substrate scope for a given reaction and often display altered selectivities and specificities. Man-made transition metal catalysts and engineered or artificial metalloenzymes also widen the range of reactivities and catalysed reactions that are potentially employable. Cascades for simultaneous cofactor or co-substrate regeneration or co-product removal are now firmly established. Many applications of more ambitious concurrent cascade catalysis are only just beginning to appear in the literature. The current review presents some of the most recent examples, with an emphasis on the combination of transition metal with enzymatic catalysis and aims to encourage researchers to contribute to this emerging field.

  15. The regulatory epicenter of miRNAs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashwani Jha; Mrigaya Mehra; Ravi Shankar

    2011-09-01

    miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with average length of ∼21 bp. miRNA formation seems to be dependent upon multiple factors besides Drosha and Dicer, in a tissue/stage-specific manner, with interplay of several specific binding factors. In the present study, we have investigated transcription factor binding sites in and around the genomic sequences of precursor miRNAs and RNA-binding protein (RBP) sites in miRNA precursor sequences, analysed and tested in comprehensive manner. Here, we report that miRNA precursor regions are positionally enriched for binding of transcription factors as well as RBPs around the 3′ end of mature miRNA region in 5′ arm. The pattern and distribution of such regulatory sites appears to be a characteristic of precursor miRNA sequences when compared with non-miRNA sequences as negative dataset and tested statistically. When compared with 1 kb upstreamregions, a sudden sharp peak for binding sites arises in the enriched zone near the mature miRNA region. An expression-data-based correlation analysis was performed between such miRNAs and their corresponding transcription factors and RBPs for this region. Some specific groups of binding factors and associated miRNAs were identified. We also identified some of the overrepresented transcription factors and associated miRNAs with high expression correlation values which could be useful in cancer-related studies. The highly correlated groups were found to host experimentally validated composite regulatory modules, in which Lmo2-GATA1 appeared as the predominant one. For many of RBP–miRNAs associations, co-expression similarity was also evident among the associated miRNA common to given RBPs, supporting the Regulon model, suggesting a common role and common control of these miRNAs by the associated RBPs. Based on our findings, we propose that the observed characteristic distribution of regulatory sites in precursor miRNA sequence regions could be critical inmiRNA transcription, processing

  16. MicroRNAs in Cardiometabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs with critical functions in multiple physiological and pathological processes. An explosion of reports on the discovery and characterization of different miRNA species and their involvement in almost every aspect of cardiac biology and diseases has established an exciting new dimension in gene regulation networks for cardiac development and pathogenesis. CONTENT: Alterations in the metabolic control of lipid and glucose homeostasis predispose an individual to develop cardiometabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Work over the last years has suggested that miRNAs play an important role in regulating these physiological processes. Besides a cell-specific transcription factor profile, cell-specific miRNA-regulated gene expression is integral to cell fate and activation decisions. Thus, the cell types involved in atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and its myocardial sequelae may be differentially regulated by distinct miRNAs, thereby controlling highly complex processes, for example, smooth muscle cell phenotype and inflammatory responses of endothelial cells or macrophages. The recent advancements in using miRNAs as circulating biomarkers or therapeutic modalities, will hopefully be able to provide a strong basis for future research to further expand our insights into miRNA function in cardiovascular biology. SUMMARY: MiRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. They are potent modulators of diverse biological processes and pathologies. Recent findings demonstrated the importance of miRNAs in the vasculature and the orchestration of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. MiRNA networks represent an additional layer of regulation for gene expression that absorbs perturbations and ensures the robustness of biological systems. A detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mi

  17. Silencing human cancer: identification and uses of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Francisco E; Lopez-Gomollon, Sara; Lopez-Martinez, Alfonso F; Dalmay, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of negative regulators that repress gene expression by pairing with their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). There are hundreds of miRNAs coded in the human genome and thousands of target mRNAs participating in a wide variety of physiological processes such as development and cell identity. It is therefore not surprising that several recent reports involved deregulated miRNAs in the complex mechanism of human carcinogenesis, and proposed them as new key regulators to correct the unbalanced expression of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes exhibited in cancer cells. This review summarises most of the recent patents related to the use of miRNA signatures in cancer diagnosis and prognosis, the detection and profiling of miRNAs from tumour samples and the identification of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes targeted by miRNAs, as well as new cancer therapies based on miRNA modulators.

  18. Role of Exosomal Noncoding RNAs in Lung Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death worldwide. Novel, recently discovered classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs have diverse functional and regulatory activities and increasing evidence suggests crucial roles for deregulated ncRNAs in the onset and progression of cancer, including lung cancer. Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by many cells and are found in most body fluids. Tumor-derived exosomes mediate tumorigenesis by facilitating tumor growth and metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a subclass of ncRNAs that are present in exosomes. miRNAs are taken up by neighboring or distant cells and modulate various functions of recipient cells. Here, we review exosome-derived ncRNAs with a focus on miRNAs and their role in lung cancer biology.

  19. piRNAs and Their Functions in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Zhiren; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Xiangning; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are the non-coding RNAs with 24–32 nucleotides (nt). They exhibit stark differences in length, expression pattern, abundance, and genomic organization when compared to micro-RNAs (miRNAs). There are hundreds of thousands unique piRNA sequences in each species. Numerous piRNAs have been identified and deposited in public databases. Since the piRNAs were originally discovered and well-studied in the germline, a few other studies have reported the presence of piRNAs in somatic cells including neurons. This paper reviewed the common features, biogenesis, functions, and distributions of piRNAs and summarized their specific functions in the brain. This review may provide new insights and research direction for brain disorders. PMID:27512315

  20. Deep sequencing of Brachypodium small RNAs at the global genome level identifies microRNAs involved in cold stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Kang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with close evolutionary relationship to cool-season cereals, has recently emerged as a novel model plant. There are few reports of Brachypodium miRNAs. Results High-throughput sequencing and whole-genome-wide data mining led to the identification of 27 conserved miRNAs, as well as 129 predicted miRNAs in Brachypodium. For multiple-member conserved miRNA families, their sizes in Brachypodium were much smaller than those in rice and Populus. The genome organization of miR395 family in Brachypodium was quite different from that in rice. The expression of 3 conserved miRNAs and 25 predicted miRNAs showed significant changes in response to cold stress. Among these miRNAs, some were cold-induced and some were cold-suppressed, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated under cold stress condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that Brachypodium miRNAs are composed of a set of conserved miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved miRNAs with low expression levels. Both kinds of miRNAs were involved in cold stress response, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated, implying an important role for cold-induced miRNAs. The different size and genome organization of miRNA families in Brachypodium and rice suggest that the frequency of duplication events or the selection pressure on duplicated miRNAs are different between these two closely related plant species.

  1. Experimental validation of the buildings energy performance (PEC assessment methods with reference to occupied spaces heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PETCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the series of pre-standardization research aimed to analyze the existing methods of calculating the Buildings Energy Performance (PEC in view of their correction of completing. The entire research activity aims to experimentally validate the PEC Calculation Algorithm as well as the comparative application, on the support of several case studies focused on representative buildings of the stock of buildings in Romania, of the PEC calculation methodology for buildings equipped with occupied spaces heating systems. The targets of the report are the experimental testing of the calculation models so far known (NP 048-2000, Mc 001-2006, SR EN 13790:2009, on the support provided by the CE INCERC Bucharest experimental building, together with the complex calculation algorithms specific to the dynamic modeling, for the evaluation of the occupied spaces heat demand in the cold season, specific to the traditional buildings and to modern buildings equipped with solar radiation passive systems, of the ventilated solar space type. The schedule of the measurements performed in the 2008-2009 cold season is presented as well as the primary processing of the measured data and the experimental validation of the heat demand monthly calculation methods, on the support of CE INCERC Bucharest. The calculation error per heating season (153 days of measurements between the measured heat demand and the calculated one was of 0.61%, an exceptional value confirming the phenomenological nature of the INCERC method, NP 048-2006. The mathematical model specific to the hourly thermal balance is recurrent – decisional with alternating paces. The experimental validation of the theoretical model is based on the measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building, within a time lag of 57 days (06.01-04.03.2009. The measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building confirm the accuracy of the hourly calculation model by comparison to the values

  2. Artificial vision workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  3. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  4. Artificial muscles on heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  5. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  6. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  7. Small RNAs in plants: Recent development and application for crop improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayushi eKamthan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi which involves sequence specific gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs i.e small interfering RNA (siRNA and micro RNA (miRNA has emerged as one of most powerful approaches for crop improvement. RNAi based on siRNA is one of the widely used tools of reverse genetics which aid in revealing gene functions in many species. This technology has been extensively applied to alter the gene expression in plants with an aim to achieve desirable traits. RNAi has been used for enhancing the crop yield and productivity by manipulating the gene involved in biomass, grain yield and enhanced shelf life of fruits & vegetables. It has also been applied for developing resistance against various biotic (bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects and abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, cold etc.. Nutritional improvements of crops have also been achieved by enriching the crops with essential amino acids, fatty acids, antioxidants and other nutrients beneficial for human health or by reducing allergens or anti-nutrients. Micro RNAs are key regulators of important plant processes like growth, development and response to various stresses. In spite of similarity in size (20-24nt, miRNA differ from siRNA in precursor structures, pathway of biogenesis, and modes of action. This review also highlights the miRNA based genetic modification technology where various miRNAs/artificial miRNAs and their targets can be utilized for improving several desirable plant traits. Micro RNA based strategies are much efficient than siRNA-based RNAi strategies due to its specificity and less undesirable off target effects. As per the FDA guidelines, small RNA based transgenics are much safer for consumption than those over expressing proteins. This review thereby summarizes the emerging advances and achievement in the field of small RNAs and its application for crop improvement.

  8. A novel vector-based method for exclusive overexpression of star-form microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qu

    Full Text Available The roles of microRNAs (miRNAs as important regulators of gene expression have been studied intensively. Although most of these investigations have involved the highly expressed form of the two mature miRNA species, increasing evidence points to essential roles for star-form microRNAs (miRNA*, which are usually expressed at much lower levels. Owing to the nature of miRNA biogenesis, it is challenging to use plasmids containing miRNA coding sequences for gain-of-function experiments concerning the roles of microRNA* species. Synthetic microRNA mimics could introduce specific miRNA* species into cells, but this transient overexpression system has many shortcomings. Here, we report that specific miRNA* species can be overexpressed by introducing artificially designed stem-loop sequences into short hairpin RNA (shRNA overexpression vectors. By our prototypic plasmid, designed to overexpress hsa-miR-146b-3p, we successfully expressed high levels of hsa-miR-146b-3p without detectable change of hsa-miR-146b-5p. Functional analysis involving luciferase reporter assays showed that, like natural miRNAs, the overexpressed hsa-miR-146b-3p inhibited target gene expression by 3'UTR seed pairing. Our demonstration that this method could overexpress two other miRNAs suggests that the approach should be broadly applicable. Our novel strategy opens the way for exclusively stable overexpression of miRNA* species and analyzing their unique functions both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  10. Artificial human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  11. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  12. General artificial neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.

  13. Extracting viral RNAs from plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Marc R; Andrew White, K

    2007-08-01

    The analysis of viral RNA is a fundamental aspect of plant RNA virus research. Studies that focus on viral RNAs often involve virus infections of plant protoplasts (see UNITS 16D.1-16D.4). Protoplast offer the advantage of simultaneous initiation of infections, which allows for superior temporal and quantitative analyses of viral RNAs. The efficient isolation of intact viral RNA is key to any such investigations. This unit describes two basic protocols for extracting viral RNAs from plant protoplasts. An approach for preparing double-stranded viral RNA from total RNA pools is also provided. The viral RNA prepared by using these techniques can be used for further analyses such as primer extension, reverse transcription-PCR, and northern blotting.

  14. MicroRNAs, epigenetics and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silahtaroglu, Asli; Stenvang, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the heritable chances that affect gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression can be through different mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosome positioning. MicroRNAs are short RNA molecules...... which do not code for a protein but have a role in post-transcriptional silencing of multiple target genes by binding to their 3' UTRs (untranslated regions). Both epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and the microRNAs are crucial for normal differentiation...... diseases. In the present chapter we will mainly focus on microRNAs and methylation and their implications in human disease, mainly in cancer....

  15. MicroRNAs in biliary diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia Munoz-Garrido; Maite García-Fernández de Barrena; Elizabeth Hijona; Miguel Carracedo; José J G Marín; Luis Bujanda; Jesús M Banales

    2012-01-01

    Cholangiopathies are a group of diseases primarily or secondarily affecting bile duct cells,and result in cholangiocyte proliferation,regression,and/or transformation.Their etiopathogenesis may be associated with a broad variety of causes of different nature,which includes genetic,neoplastic,immune-associated,infectious,vascular,and drug-induced alterations,or being idiopathic.miRNAs,small non-coding endogenous RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression,have been associated with pathophysiological processes in different organs and cell types,and are postulated as potential targets for diagnosis and therapy.In the current manuscript,knowledge regarding the role of miRNAs in the development and/or progression of cholangiopathies has been reviewed and the most relevant findings in this promising field of hepatology have been highlighted.

  16. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola ePiscopo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD includes a spectrum of disorders characterized by changes of personality and social behaviour and, often, a gradual and progressive language dysfunction. In the last years, several efforts have been fulfilled in identifying both genetic mutations and pathological proteins associated with FTLD. The molecular bases undergoing the onset and progression of the disease remain still unknown. Recent literature prompts an involvement of RNA metabolism in FTLD, particularly miRNAs. Dysregulation of miRNAs in several disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, and increasing importance of circulating miRNAs in different pathologies has suggested to implement the study of their possible application as biological markers and new therapeutic targets; moreover, miRNA-based therapy is becoming a powerful tool to deepen the function of a gene, the mechanism of a disease, and validate therapeutic targets. Regarding FTLD, different studies showed that miRNAs are playing an important role. For example, several reports have evaluated miRNA regulation of the progranulin gene suggesting that it is under their control, as described for miR-29b, miR-107 and miR-659. More recently, it has been demonstrated that TMEM106B gene, which protein is elevated in FTLD-TDP brains, is repressed by miR-132/212 cluster; this post-transcriptional mechanism increases intracellular levels of progranulin, affecting its pathways. These findings if confirmed could suggest that these microRNAs have a role as potential targets for some related-FTLD genes. In this review, we focus on the emerging roles of the miRNAs in the pathogenesis of FTLD.

  17. From drawing board to occupied space : assessing the design process of a transformational learning space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, M.; Naz, F. [Gifford, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Schools in the United Kingdom are facing a challenge to make better teaching spaces. This paper reported on a study that evaluated the design of a special needs school. Several areas of design were considered, including form and orientation; natural ventilation and daylighting; visibility and openness; solar control; materials and embodied thermal mass; and noise attenuation. The study involved building monitoring and post occupancy evaluation in 2009. This paper outlined the research methodology that will be followed to evaluate the design against the predicted assumptions and the actual occupied building. The questionnaires from the post-occupancy evaluation will serve to identify the design gaps in the construction process and the results will be used to help designers predict comfort and user patterns in a special needs school. The evaluation was carried out in two ways. First, the performance of the building was monitored based on 3 parameters, notably energy consumption, environmental impact and occupant satisfaction. The pre-construction environmental and energy modeling results were then compared against the monitored results obtained from the actual built structure and energy data. This paper acted as a briefing paper, identifying the objective, scope and the methodology of the study. Results will be presented in a second paper. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Giant lizards occupied herbivorous mammalian ecospace during the Paleogene greenhouse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jason J; Gunnell, Gregg F; Holroyd, Patricia A; Hutchison, J Howard; Ciochon, Russell L

    2013-07-22

    Mammals dominate modern terrestrial herbivore ecosystems, whereas extant herbivorous reptiles are limited in diversity and body size. The evolution of reptile herbivory and its relationship to mammalian diversification is poorly understood with respect to climate and the roles of predation pressure and competition for food resources. Here, we describe a giant fossil acrodontan lizard recovered with a diverse mammal assemblage from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, which provides a historical test of factors controlling body size in herbivorous squamates. We infer a predominately herbivorous feeding ecology for the new acrodontan based on dental anatomy, phylogenetic relationships and body size. Ranking body masses for Pondaung Formation vertebrates indicates that the lizard occupied a size niche among the larger herbivores and was larger than most carnivorous mammals. Paleotemperature estimates of Pondaung Formation environments based on the body size of the new lizard are approximately 2-5°C higher than modern. These results indicate that competitive exclusion and predation by mammals did not restrict body size evolution in these herbivorous squamates, and elevated temperatures relative to modern climates during the Paleogene greenhouse may have resulted in the evolution of gigantism through elevated poikilothermic metabolic rates and in response to increases in floral productivity.

  19. Effect of ensemble generalization on the highest-occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraisler, Eli; Kronik, Leeor [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth 76100 (Israel); Schmidt, Tobias; Kümmel, Stephan [Theoretical Physics IV, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    There are several approximations to the exchange-correlation functional in density-functional theory, which accurately predict total energy-related properties of many-electron systems, such as binding energies, bond lengths, and crystal structures. Other approximations are designed to describe potential-related processes, such as charge transfer and photoemission. However, the development of a functional which can serve the two purposes simultaneously is a long-standing challenge. Trying to address it, we employ in the current work the ensemble generalization procedure proposed by Kraisler and Kronik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 126403 (2013)]. Focusing on the prediction of the ionization potential via the highest occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue, we examine a variety of exchange-correlation approximations: the local spin-density approximation, semi-local generalized gradient approximations, and global and local hybrid functionals. Results for a test set of 26 diatomic molecules and single atoms are presented. We find that the aforementioned ensemble generalization systematically improves the prediction of the ionization potential, for various systems and exchange-correlation functionals, without compromising the accuracy of total energy-related properties. We specifically examine hybrid functionals. These depend on a parameter controlling the ratio of semi-local to non-local functional components. The ionization potential obtained with ensemble-generalized functionals is found to depend only weakly on the parameter value, contrary to common experience with non-generalized hybrids, thus eliminating one aspect of the so-called “parameter dilemma” of hybrid functionals.

  20. Phospholipids occupy the internal lumen of the c ring of the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberfeld, Benjamin; Brunner, Josef; Dimroth, Peter

    2006-02-14

    The occupancy of the central cavity of the membrane-embedded c ring of the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli was investigated with a photo-cross-linking approach. Single cysteine mutants were created at c subunit positions 4, 8, and 11, which are oriented to the inside of the ring. These cysteines were alkylated with reagents carrying a photoactivatable substituent and illuminated. Subunit c and derivatives were then isolated and subjected to mass spectrometric analyses. The most noticeable product, which was found exclusively in irradiated samples, had a mass increase of 719 Da, consistent with a cross-link product between the substituted c subunit and phosphatidylethanolamine. Digestion with phospholipase C converted this product into one with a mass diminished by 126 Da, indicating that the phosphoethanolamine moiety was cleaved off. Hence, the cross-link forms to the diacylglycerol moiety of phosphatidylethanolamine. Control experiments showed that the subunit c-phospholipid adducts were formed in the ATP synthase complex in its natural membrane environment and were not artifacts arising from monomeric c subunits. We conclude therefore that the inner lumen of the c ring is occupied with phospholipids. No evidence was found for an extension of subunit a into this space.

  1. Fish assemblages in stream stretches occupied by cattail (Typhaceae, Angiospermae stands in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Carla da Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a major component of lentic and lotic aquatic ecosystems. As consequences of environmental degradation, species of cattail (genus Typha may become dominant along streams. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure and feeding of fish assemblages in stream stretches under influence of Typha sp., also addressing the influences of temporal variation on composition, abundance, biomass, diversity, species richness, and feeding of fish. Six streams (labelled S1-S6 in the upper rio Turvo basin, southeast Brazil, with dense stands of Typha sp. in the instream and riparian habitat, were studied in six campaigns during three central months in both of the dry and wet periods, by using a standardized collection effort. Thirty-seven fish species were registered, totaling 4,228 individuals and 3.9 kg of biomass. Abundance, biomass, diversity, and species richness was higher in the wet period, but only the temporal variation in the species richness revealed to be statistically significant. Cluster analyses with composition and abundance showed little temporal similarity, but indicated two groups of streams (S1-S2-S5 and S3-S4-S6, that were corroborated along the axis 1 of the ordination analysis. Resident species was represented by six species, most of them considered tolerant and generalists. Chironomidae aquatic larvae and detritus were the most important items in the fish diet. These results suggest that the fish populations are opportunistic in exploring stream stretches occupied by cattail.

  2. Exact exchange potential evaluated solely from occupied Kohn-Sham and Hartree-Fock solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cinal, M

    2011-01-01

    The reported new algorithm determines the exact exchange potential v_x in a iterative way using energy and orbital shifts (ES, OS) obtained - with finite-difference formulas - from the solutions (occupied orbitals and their energies) of the Hartree-Fock-like equation and the Kohn-Sham-like equation, the former used for the initial approximation to v_x and the latter - for increments of ES and OS due to subsequent changes of v_x. Thus, solution of the differential equations for OS, used by Kummel and Perdew (KP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043004 (2003)], is avoided. The iterated exchange potential, expressed in terms of ES and OS, is improved by modifying ES at odd iteration steps and OS at even steps. The modification formulas are related to the OEP equation (satisfied at convergence) written as the condition of vanishing density shift (DS) - they are obtained, respectively, by enforcing its satisfaction through corrections to approximate OS and by determining optimal ES that minimize the DS norm. The proposed met...

  3. Deaths among young, single women in 2000-2001 in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adili, Nadim; Shaheen, Mohammad; Bergström, Staffan; Johansson, Annika

    2008-05-01

    A study in 2000-2001 of causes of death of women of reproductive age (15-49) in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories, found that 154 of the 411 deceased women aged 15-49 with known marital status were single. Death notification forms for reported deaths were analysed and verbal autopsies carried out, where possible, with relatives of the deceased women. We found important differences in the age at death and causes of death among the single and married women, which can be attributed to the disadvantaged social status of single women in Palestinian society, exacerbated by the current unstable political situation. 41% of the deceased single women were under 25 years of age at death compared to 8% of the married women. The proportion of violent deaths and suicides among the single women was almost twice as high as among the married women, mainly in those below age 25. The single women were also more likely to die from medical conditions which indicated that they faced barriers to accessing health care. The fieldwork was conducted at the height of the Intifada and the Israeli military response, with heavy restrictions on mobility, limiting the possibility of probing deeper into the circumstances surrounding sensitive deaths. More research into the socio-cultural context of single women in Palestine society is needed as a basis for intervention.

  4. Surgicopathological classification of hepatic space-occupying lesions: A single-center experience with literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ming Cong; Hui Dong; Lu Tan; Xu-Xu Sun; Meng-Chao Wu

    2011-01-01

    Accompanying rapid developments in hepatic surgery, the number of surgeries and identifications of histological types of primary hepatic space-occupying lesions (PHSOLs) have increased dramatically. This has led to many changes in the surgicopathological spectrum of PHSOLs, and has contributed to a theoretical basis for modern hepatic surgery and oncological pathology. Between 1982 and 2009 at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital (EHBH) in Shanghai, 31 901 patients underwent surgery and were diagnosed as having a PHSOL. In this paper, we present an analysis of the PHSOL cases at the EHBH for this time period, along with results from a systematic literature review. We describe a surgicopathological spectrum comprising more than 100 types of PHSOLs that can be stratified into three types: tumor-like, benign, and malignant. We also stratified the PHSOLs into six subtypes derived from hepatocytes; cholangiocytes; vascular, lymphoid and hemopoietic tissues; muscular, fibrous and adipose tissues; neural and neuroendocrine tissues; and miscellaneous tissues. The present study provides a new classification system that can be used as a current reference for clinicians and pathologists to make correct diagnoses and differential diagnoses among various PHSOLs.

  5. Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick

    2015-09-14

    A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) wave functions and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting wave functions is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction wave functions, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact wave function. Due to the dependence of DOCI wave functions on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based wave functions are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation.

  6. Systematic identification of long noncoding RNAs expressed during zebrafish embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Andrea; Valen, Eivind; Lin, Michael F.;

    2012-01-01

    vertebrate embryogenesis has been elusive. To identify lncRNAs with potential functions in vertebrate embryogenesis, we performed a time series of RNA-Seq experiments at eight stages during early zebrafish development. We reconstructed 56,535 high-confidence transcripts in 28,912 loci, recovering the vast...... overlapping lncRNAs, and precursors for small RNAs (sRNAs). Zebrafish lncRNAs share many of the characteristics of their mammalian counterparts: relatively short length, low exon number, low expression, and conservation levels comparable to introns. Subsets of lncRNAs carry chromatin signatures characteristic...

  7. Micromanagement of the immune system by microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Harvey F; Zhou, Beiyan; Liu, Gwen; Chen, Chang-Zheng

    2008-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNAs that are thought to control gene expression by targeting mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNA-mediated gene regulation represents a fundamental layer of genetic programmes at the post-transcriptional level and has diverse functional roles in animals. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate gene expression, with specific focus on the role of miRNAs in regulating the development of immune cells and in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses.

  8. Research of the relationship between radiotherapy and microRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Yang; Ximing Xu; Yanrong Hao

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNAs, and play a pivotal role in regulating a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation and apoptosis, both of which are cellular responses to radiation treatment. In response to radiation, multiple miRNAs show altered expression, which act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Recent evidence has also shown that some miRNAs have radiotherapy sensitization or radiation resistance role in malignant tumors. This review focuses on analysis of these characteristics and mechanisms of miRNAs, and will provide some insight into the therapeutic application of radiation.

  9. Next Generation Sequencing of Classical Swine Fever Virus and Border Disease virus cloned in Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Höper, Dirk; Beer, martin;

    2012-01-01

    artificial chromosomes (BACs). From these BACs, RNA copies of the viral genomes can be transcribed in vitro and upon transfection of these RNAs into mammalian cells, autonomous replication of the viral genome occurs and infectious progeny can be rescued. However, we have observed that virus progeny can...

  10. Identification and characterization of microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs in Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Heng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small endogenous non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs such as small interfering RNA (siRNA, microRNA and other small RNA transcripts are derived from distinct loci in the genome and play critical roles in RNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms in plants and metazoa. They are approximately 22 nucleotides long; regulate mRNA stability through perfect or imperfect match to the targets. The biological activities of sncRNAs have been related to many biological events, from resistance to microbe infections to cellular differentiation. The development of the zoonotic parasite Schistosoma japonicum parasite includes multiple steps of morphological alterations and biological differentiations, which provide a unique model for studies on the functions of small RNAs. Characterization of the genome-wide transcription of the sncRNAs will be a major step in understanding of the parasite biology. The objective of this study is to investigate the transcriptional profile and potential function of the small non-coding RNAs in the development of S. japanicum. Results The endogenous siRNAs were found mainly derived from transposable elements (TE or transposons and the natural antisense transcripts (NAT. In contrast to other organisms, the TE-derived siRNAs in S. japonicum were more predominant than other sncRNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs. Further, there were distinct length and 3'end variations in the sncRNAs, which were associated with the developmental differentiation of the parasite. Among the identified miRNA transcripts, there were 38 unique to S. japonicum and 16 that belonged to 13 miRNA families are common to other metazoan lineages. These miRNAs were either ubiquitously expressed, or they exhibited specific expression patterns related to the developmental stages or sex. Genes that encoded miRNAs are mainly located in clusters within the genome of S. japonicum. However, genes within one cluster could be differentially transcribed, which suggested

  11. Small RNAs controlling outer membrane porins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Johansen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Anders A

    2007-01-01

    Gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs has been recognized as an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for several years. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, these RNAs control stress response and translation of outer membrane proteins and therefore...... are key regulators of environmental stress. Recent work has revealed an intimate interplay between small RNA regulation of outer membrane proteins and the stress-induced sigmaE-signalling system, which has an essential role in the maintenance of the integrity of the outer membrane....

  12. Transcription start site associated RNAs (TSSaRNAs are ubiquitous in all domains of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia S Zaramela

    Full Text Available A plethora of non-coding RNAs has been discovered using high-resolution transcriptomics tools, indicating that transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is much more complex than previously appreciated. Small RNAs associated with transcription start sites of annotated coding regions (TSSaRNAs are pervasive in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Here, we provide evidence for existence of TSSaRNAs in several archaeal transcriptomes including: Halobacterium salinarum, Pyrococcus furiosus, Methanococcus maripaludis, and Sulfolobus solfataricus. We validated TSSaRNAs from the model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 by deep sequencing two independent small-RNA enriched (RNA-seq and a primary-transcript enriched (dRNA-seq strand-specific libraries. We identified 652 transcripts, of which 179 were shown to be primary transcripts (∼7% of the annotated genome. Distinct growth-associated expression patterns between TSSaRNAs and their cognate genes were observed, indicating a possible role in environmental responses that may result from RNA polymerase with varying pausing rhythms. This work shows that TSSaRNAs are ubiquitous across all domains of life.

  13. MicroRNAs and other small RNAs enriched in the Arabidopsis RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-2 mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Kulkarni, Karthik; Souret, Frédéric F.; MuthuValliappan, Ramesh; Tej, Shivakundan Singh; Poethig, R. Scott; Henderson, Ian R.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Wang, Wenzhong; Green, Pamela J.; Meyers, Blake C.

    2006-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome contains a highly complex and abundant population of small RNAs, and many of the endogenous siRNAs are dependent on RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase 2 (RDR2) for their biogenesis. By analyzing an rdr2 loss-of-function mutant using two different parallel sequencing technologies, MPSS and 454, we characterized the complement of miRNAs expressed in Arabidopsis inflorescence to considerable depth. Nearly all known miRNAs were enriched in this mutant and we identified 13 new miRNAs, all of which were relatively low abundance and constitute new families. Trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs) were even more highly enriched. Computational and gel blot analyses suggested that the minimal number of miRNAs in Arabidopsis is ∼155. The size profile of small RNAs in rdr2 reflected enrichment of 21-nt miRNAs and other classes of siRNAs like ta-siRNAs, and a significant reduction in 24-nt heterochromatic siRNAs. Other classes of small RNAs were found to be RDR2-independent, particularly those derived from long inverted repeats and a subset of tandem repeats. The small RNA populations in other Arabidopsis small RNA biogenesis mutants were also examined; a dcl2/3/4 triple mutant showed a similar pattern to rdr2, whereas dcl1–7 and rdr6 showed reductions in miRNAs and ta-siRNAs consistent with their activities in the biogenesis of these types of small RNAs. Deep sequencing of mutants provides a genetic approach for the dissection and characterization of diverse small RNA populations and the identification of low abundance miRNAs. PMID:16954541

  14. Long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs are dysregulated in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M Wright

    Full Text Available Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM is an aggressive cancer that is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and is characterized by a long latency period (20-40 years between initial exposure and diagnosis and prior exposure to asbestos. Currently accurate diagnosis of MPM is difficult due to the lack of sensitive biomarkers and despite minor improvements in treatment, median survival rates do not exceed 12 months. Accumulating evidence suggests that aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs play an important functional role in cancer biology. LncRNAs are a class of recently discovered non-protein coding RNAs >200 nucleotides in length with a role in regulating transcription. Here we used NCode long noncoding microarrays to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs potentially involved in MPM pathogenesis. High priority candidate lncRNAs were selected on the basis of statistical (P3-fold difference. Expression levels of 9 candidate lncRNAs were technically validated using RT-qPCR, and biologically validated in three independent test sets: (1 57 archived MPM tissues obtained from extrapleural pneumonectomy patients, (2 15 cryopreserved MPM and 3 benign pleura, and (3 an extended panel of 10 MPM cell lines. RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated consistent up-regulation of these lncRNAs in independent datasets. ROC curve analysis showed that two candidates were able to separate benign pleura and MPM with high sensitivity and specificity, and were associated with nodal metastases and survival following induction chemotherapy. These results suggest that lncRNAs have potential to serve as biomarkers in MPM.

  15. Identification of CRISPR and riboswitch related RNAs among novel noncoding RNAs of the euryarchaeon Pyrococcus abyssi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpousis Agamemnon J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noncoding RNA (ncRNA has been recognized as an important regulator of gene expression networks in Bacteria and Eucaryota. Little is known about ncRNA in thermococcal archaea except for the eukaryotic-like C/D and H/ACA modification guide RNAs. Results Using a combination of in silico and experimental approaches, we identified and characterized novel P. abyssi ncRNAs transcribed from 12 intergenic regions, ten of which are conserved throughout the Thermococcales. Several of them accumulate in the late-exponential phase of growth. Analysis of the genomic context and sequence conservation amongst related thermococcal species revealed two novel P. abyssi ncRNA families. The CRISPR family is comprised of crRNAs expressed from two of the four P. abyssi CRISPR cassettes. The 5'UTR derived family includes four conserved ncRNAs, two of which have features similar to known bacterial riboswitches. Several of the novel ncRNAs have sequence similarities to orphan OrfB transposase elements. Based on RNA secondary structure predictions and experimental results, we show that three of the twelve ncRNAs include Kink-turn RNA motifs, arguing for a biological role of these ncRNAs in the cell. Furthermore, our results show that several of the ncRNAs are subjected to processing events by enzymes that remain to be identified and characterized. Conclusions This work proposes a revised annotation of CRISPR loci in P. abyssi and expands our knowledge of ncRNAs in the Thermococcales, thus providing a starting point for studies needed to elucidate their biological function.

  16. Functional profiling of precursor MicroRNAs identifies MicroRNAs essential for glioma proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija Haapa-Paananen

    Full Text Available Cancer initiation and progression involve microRNAs that can function like tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The functional significance of most miRNAs is currently unknown. To determine systematically which microRNAs are essential for glioma growth, we screened a precursor microRNA library in three human glioblastoma and one astroglial cell line model systems. The most prominent and consistent cell proliferation-reducing hits were validated in secondary screening with an additional apoptosis endpoint. The functional screening data were integrated in the miRNA expression data to find underexpressed true functional tumor suppressor miRNAs. In addition, we used miRNA-target gene predictions and combined siRNA functional screening data to find the most probable miRNA-target gene pairs with a similar functional effect on proliferation. Nine novel functional miRNAs (hsa-miR-129, -136, -145, -155, -181b, -342-5p, -342-3p, -376a/b in GBM cell lines were validated for their importance in glioma cell growth, and similar effects for six target genes (ROCK1, RHOA, MET, CSF1R, EIF2AK1, FGF7 of these miRNAs were shown functionally. The clinical significance of the functional hits was validated in miRNA expression data from the TCGA glioblastoma multiforme (GBM tumor cohort. Five tumor suppressor miRNAs (hsa-miR-136, -145, -342, -129, -376a showed significant underexpression in clinical GBM tumor samples from the TCGA GBM cohort further supporting the role of these miRNAs in vivo. Most importantly, higher hsa-miR-145 expression in GBM tumors yielded significantly better survival (p<0.005 in a subset of patients thus validating it as a genuine tumor suppressor miRNA. This systematic functional profiling provides important new knowledge about functionally relevant miRNAs in GBM biology and may offer new targets for treating glioma.

  17. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  18. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  19. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  20. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  1. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  2. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  3. Detection of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingrong; Ge, Yinghua; Cheng, Dandan; Nie, Zuoming; Lv, Zhengbing

    2016-09-15

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26 to 31-nt small non-coding RNAs that have been reported mostly in germ-line cells and cancer cells. However, the presence of piRNAs in the whitespotted bamboo shark liver has not yet been reported. In a previous study of microRNAs in shark liver, some piRNAs were detected from small RNAs sequenced by Solexa technology. A total of 4857 piRNAs were predicted and found in shark liver. We further selected 17 piRNAs with high and significantly differential expression between normal and regenerative liver tissues for subsequent verification by Northern blotting. Ten piRNAs were further identified, and six of these were matched to known piRNAs in piRNABank. The actual expression of six known and four novel piRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 401 target genes of the 10 piRNAs were predicted by miRanda. Through GO and pathway function analyses, only five piRNAs could be annotated with eighteen GO annotations. The results indicated that the identified piRNAs are involved in many important biological responses, including immune inflammation, cell-specific differentiation and development, and angiogenesis. This manuscript provides the first identification of piRNAs in the liver of whitespotted bamboo shark using Solexa technology as well as further elucidation of the regulatory role of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver. These findings may provide a useful resource and may facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against liver damage.

  4. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  5. Artificial ozone holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  6. Heat loss may explain bill size differences between birds occupying different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Greenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on variation in bill morphology has focused on the role of diet. Bills have other functions, however, including a role in heat and water balance. The role of the bill in heat loss may be particularly important in birds where water is limiting. Song sparrows localized in coastal dunes and salt marsh edge (Melospiza melodia atlantica are similar in size to, but have bills with a 17% greater surface area than, those that live in mesic habitats (M. m. melodia, a pattern shared with other coastal sparrows. We tested the hypotheses that sparrows can use their bills to dissipate "dry" heat, and that heat loss from the bill is higher in M. m. atlantica than M. m. melodia, which would indicate a role of heat loss and water conservation in selection for bill size. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bill, tarsus, and body surface temperatures were measured using thermal imaging of sparrows exposed to temperatures from 15-37°C and combined with surface area and physical modeling to estimate the contribution of each body part to total heat loss. Song sparrow bills averaged 5-10°C hotter than ambient. The bill of M. m atlantica dissipated up to 33% more heat and 38% greater proportion of total heat than that of M. m. melodia. This could potentially reduce water loss requirements by approximately 7.7%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This >30% higher heat loss in the bill of M. m. atlantica is independent of evaporative water loss and thus could play an important role in the water balance of sparrows occupying the hot and exposed dune/salt marsh environments during the summer. Heat loss capacity and water conservation could play an important role in the selection for bill size differences between bird populations and should be considered along with trophic adaptations when studying variation in bill size.

  7. A study on the attitudes and behavioural influence of construction waste management in occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sari, Majed I; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Avraamides, Marios; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2012-02-01

    As a step towards comprehending what drives the management of construction waste in the occupied Palestinian territory, this paper quantifies construction waste generation and examines how the local contractors' waste management attitudes and behaviour are influenced. Collection of data was based on a survey, carried out in the southern part of the West Bank between April and May 2010. The survey targeted contractors who specialized in the construction of buildings. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between various attributes and the attitudes and behaviour that the local contractors demonstrate towards waste management. The results showed that during the construction of buildings, 17 to 81 kg of construction waste are generated per square metre of building floor. Although the area of a building is the key factor determining 74.8% of the variation of construction waste generation, the employment of labour-intensive techniques in the study area means that human factors such as the contractor's attitude and behaviour towards waste management, exert a key influence on waste generation. Attitudes towards the 3Rs of waste minimization and behaviour towards waste disposal are generally positive with smaller contractors exhibiting more positive attitudes and more satisfactory behaviour towards waste management. Overall, while contractors' behaviour towards waste sorting and disposal tends to be more satisfactory among contractors who are more conscious about the potential environmental impacts of construction waste, it was generally observed that in the absence of a regulatory framework, the voluntary attitudes and behaviour among the local contractors are mostly driven by direct economic considerations.

  8. Ecospaces occupied by Homo erectus and Homo sapiens in insular Southeast Asia in the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Volmer, Rebekka; Bruch, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Hominins migrated to the islands of the Sunda Shelf multiple times. At least two immigration events are evident, an early immigration of Homo erectus in the late Early Pleistocene and a second immigration of Homo sapiens during the Late Pleistocene. Regional environments changed considerably in the Pleistocene. Expansion patterns among hominins are at least co-determined by their ecologies and environmental change. We examine these expansion patterns on the basis of habitat reconstructions. Mammalian communities provide a geographically extensive record and permit to assess hominin ecospaces. Although chronological resolution is low, they represent the most complete record of habitat changes associated with hominin expansion patterns. In order to reconstruct and compare hominin ecospaces on a quantitative scale, we set up a reference sample consisting of mammalian communities of 117 national parks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The diversity of such communities is assessed by ecological profiling of specialized herbivore taxa. Moreover, datasets on climate and vegetation correlate with the diversity structure of such specialized herbivore communities. Reconstructing the diversity structure of communities at key sites in Pleistocene Southeast Asia permits to infer features of the climatic and vegetation framework associated with different hominin taxa. Our results show that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens did not occupy similar ecospaces. The ecospace of Homo erectus is characterized by comparatively low diversity among frugivorous and folivorous taxa, while obligate grazers are part of the assemblages. Specialized herbivore communities with such a diversity structure occur at present in East Africa, while they are absent in Southeast Asia. In the reference sample, this type of ecospace corresponds to seasonal wetlands. Although Homo sapiens still inhabits this type of environment in Southeast Asia, his ecospace is wider. Homo sapiens is associated with

  9. Synthetic RNAs for gene regulation: design principles and computational tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eLaganà

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic non-coding RNAs for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has not only become a standard laboratory tool for gene functional studies, but it has also opened up new perspectives in the design of new and potentially promising therapeutic strategies. Bioinformatics has provided researchers with a variety of tools for the design, the analysis and the evaluation of RNAi agents such as small-interfering RNA (siRNA, short-hairpin RNA (shRNA, artificial microRNA (a-miR and microRNA sponges. More recently, a new system for genome engineering based on the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, was shown to have the potential to also regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in a more specific way. In this mini review, we present RNAi and CRISPRi design principles and discuss the advantages and limitations of the current design approaches.

  10. The mitochondrial genome encodes abundant small noncoding RNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seungil Ro; Hsiu-Yen Ma; Chanjae Park; Nicole Ortogero; Rui Song; Grant W Hennig; Huili Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs identified thus far are all encoded by the nuclear genome.Here,we report that the murine and human mitochondriai genomes encode thousands of small noncoding RNAs,which are predominantly derived from the sense transcripts of the mitochondrial genes (host genes),and we termed these small RNAs mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNAs (mitosRNAs).DICER inactivation affected,but did not completely abolish mitosRNA production.MitosRNAs appear to be products of currently unidentified mitochondrial ribonucleases.Overexpression of mitosRNAs enhanced expression levels of their host genes in vitro,and dysregulated mitosRNA expression was generally associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression in vivo.Our data demonstrate that in addition to 37 known mitochondrial genes,the mammalian mitochondrial genome also encodes abundant mitosRNAs,which may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial gene expression in the cell.

  11. Could MicroRNAs be Regulators of Gout Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangang Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNAs that mainly negatively regulate gene expression. miRNAs have important roles in many diseases, including inflammatory diseases. Gout is a common arthritis caused by deposition of monosodium urate crystals within joints. Recent studies suggested that miRNAs may be involved in the development of inflammatory arthritis, including acute gouty arthritis. In the present review, we systemically discuss relevant publications in order to provide a better understanding on the possible role of miRNAs in gout. miRNAs may act as regulators of gout pathogenesis via several pathways. Targeting miRNAs may be a promisingstrategy in the treatment of gout.

  12. Long Non-coding RNAs in the Cytoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farooq Rashid; Abdullah Shah; Ge Shan

    2016-01-01

    An enormous amount of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) transcribed from eukaryotic genome are important regulators in different aspects of cellular events. Cytoplasm is the residence and the site of action for many lncRNAs. The cytoplasmic lncRNAs play indispensable roles with multiple molecular mechanisms in animal and human cells. In this review, we mainly talk about functions and the underlying mechanisms of lncRNAs in the cytoplasm. We highlight relatively well-studied examples of cytoplasmic lncRNAs for their roles in modulating mRNA stability, regulating mRNA translation, serving as competing endogenous RNAs, functioning as precursors of microRNAs, and mediating protein modifications. We also elaborate the perspectives of cytoplasmic lncRNA studies.

  13. Long Non-coding RNAs In Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko eTano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale transcriptome analyses have revealed that transcription is spread throughout the mammalian genomes, yielding large numbers of transcripts, including long non-coding (lnc RNAs with little or no protein-coding capacity. Dozens of lncRNAs have been identified as biologically significant. In many cases, lncRNAs act as key molecules in the regulation of processes such as chromatin remodeling, transcription and post-transcriptional processing. Several lncRNAs (e.g., MALAT1, HOTAIR and ANRIL are associated with human diseases, including cancer. Those lncRNAs associated with cancer are often aberrantly expressed. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs regulate cancer development are unclear, recent studies have revealed that such aberrant expression of lncRNAs affects the progression of cancers. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding the roles of lncRNAs in cancer biology.

  14. MicroRNAs horizon in retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mirakholi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the retinoblastoma research, it is of great interest to identify molecular markers associated with the genetics of tumorigenesis. microRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a regulatory role in many crucial cellular pathways such as differentiation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. A body of evidences showed dysregulation of miRNAs in tumor biology and many diseases. They potentially play a significant role in tumorigenesis processes and have been the subject of research in many types of cancers including retinal tumorigenesis. miRNA expression profiling was found to be associated with tumor development, progression and treatment. These associations demonstrate the putative applications of miRNAs in monitoring of different aspect of tumors consisting diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic. Herein, we review the current literature concerning to the study of miRNA target recognition, function to tumorigenesis and treatment in retinoblastoma. Identification the specific miRNA biomarkers associated with retinoblastoma cancer may help to establish new therapeutic approaches for salvage affected eyes in patients.

  15. Circulating microRNAs in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicka-Płocka, Marta; Gurda, Dorota; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Smolarek, Iwona; Wyszko, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) are currently one of the most common causes of death. Because heart related deaths occur on such an enormous scale this phenomenon is referred to as an epidemic. Chronic and acute injury of the heart could be an effect of cardiac remodeling, which is a result of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes, influenced by hemodynamic load or neurohormonal activation (Cohn et al., 2000). These small deviations in cardiac activity and morphology may lead to an enormous negative effect. Despite a significant progress, knowledge of standard risk factors for cardiovascular diseases has become less and less effective, which is why predicting and seeking an appropriate treatment is very challenging. As a result, there is a growing interest in finding new markers of the CD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), are short, non-coding RNAs responsible for regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Among them that have the greatest potential are microRNA molecules that circulate in the blood plasma or serum, that are related to direct activation of signaling pathways, implicated in the aging process and thus for the development of cardiovascular disease. This paper is a summary of the current state of knowledge on miRNAs, their biogenesis and potential role as biomarkers to diagnose heart disease.

  16. MicroRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong Y Park; James Helm; Domenico Coppola; Donghwa Kim; Mokenge Malafa; Seung Joon Kim

    2011-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is a lethal cancer for which the only chance of long-term survival belongs to the patient with localized disease in whom a potentially curative resection can be done.Therefore,biomarkers for early detection and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed.miRNAs are a recently discovered class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides that have gained attention for their role in downregulation of mRNA expression at the posttranscriptional level.miRNAs regulate proteins involved in critical cellular processes such as differentiation,proliferation,and apoptosis.Evidence suggests that deregulated miRNA expression is involved in carcinogenesis at many sites,including the pancreas.Aberrant expression of miRNAs may upregulate the expression of oncogenes or downregulate the expression of tumor suppressor genes,as well as play a role in other mechanisms of carcinogenesis.The purpose of this review is to summarize our knowledge of deregulated miRNA expression in pancreatic cancer and discuss the implication for potential translation of this knowledge into clinical practice.

  17. Deregulated microRNAs in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetatos, Leonidas; Vartholomatos, George

    2012-02-15

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAS involved in gene expression regulation under physiological and pathological situations. They bind to mRNA of target genes and are potential regulators of gene expression at a post-transcription level through the RNA interference pathway. They are estimated to represent 1% to 2% of the known eukaryotic genome, and it has been demonstrated that they are involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, metabolism disorders, and heart disease. MicroRNAs are known to act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in cancer biology. The authors describe the current knowledge on microRNA involvement in regulatory pathways that characterize multiple myeloma pathogenesis gained from in vitro and in vivo studies. These small molecules interact with important factors such as p53, SOCS1, IGF-1, IGF-1R, vascular endothelial growth factor, NF-κB, and others. As such, microRNAs represent an attractive therapeutic target in the context of multiple myeloma interfering with the myeloma regulatory networks. Further studies are needed to better understand their role in myelomagenesis and their therapeutic potential.

  18. Small RNAs tell big stories in Whistler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seila, Amy C; Sharp, Phillip A

    2008-06-01

    The Keystone Symposium on RNAi, microRNA and non-coding RNA convened on March 25-30 at Whistler Resort in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. Researchers with backgrounds in different biochemical disciplines came together to exchange ideas on short RNAs and their roles in a host of biological processes.

  19. Dos nuevos microRNAs (miRNAs) identificados en ovario bovino

    OpenAIRE

    LA Muñoz-Bañales; Sánchez-Ramírez, B.; E. González-Rodríguez; Moreno-Brito, V; C González-Horta; ME Burrola-Barraza

    2014-01-01

    Para entender los mecanismos de maduración, fertilización y desarrollo embrionario en el ganado bovino, es necesario la identificación y caracterización de microRNAs (miRNAs) involucrados en la regulación del crecimiento del ovocito y la transición ovocito-embrión. Con el objetivo de identificar nuevos miRNAs, con una posible función dentro del proceso de maduración del ovocito y de embriogénesis temprana, se realizó una librería genómica con miRNAs provenientes de ovarios de vacas de rastro....

  20. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this thesis is to add knowledge to the role and impact of policy instruments in meeting energy performance ambition in the existing owner occupied housing stock. The focus was instruments available in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012. These instruments represented the ‘on the ground’ efforts to meet climate change targets and many continue to do so today in the same or slightly altered forms. At international level there is a recognized need to keep global temperatures within the range of 1.5 - 2°C above pre-industrial levels (Carrington, 2016. At European level, the 2020 package contains a series of binding legislation to help the EU meet its more immediate climate and energy targets. 2020 targets include 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emission, 20% of EU energy obtained from renewable sources and 20% improvement in energy efficiency. 2020 targets for the Netherlands are a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 14% increase in energy generation from renewable sources (Vringer et al., 2014. A raft of policies has been produced over the last number of decades from international to local level to orientate action towards targets. At European level the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD drives efforts at reducing energy among one of the biggest players, the building sector. By requiring a mandatory certificate at the point of sale and rent of buildings and making regulatory demands on existing buildings the EPBD upped the ante of what could be expected from the building sector, but especially the existing dwelling stock. National governments have already been tackling existing dwellings for decades propelled by the energy crisis and later by climate change policy. Information campaigns, subsidies, energy taxes, energy loans and tailored advice are among the instruments that have been available to homeowners to carry out works on their dwellings to reduce energy consumption. In recent

  1. Occupy als Jugendbewegung für Generationengerechtigkeit?: Mediatisierte Aushandlungen des ‚Politischen‘ durch junge Menschen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehling, Miriam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ausgehend von der Debatte um eine ‚Politikverdrossenheit‘ der Jugend diskutiert der Artikel, welche Bedeutung Generationengerechtigkeit bei den Occupy-Protesten zukommt. Vor dem Hintergrund eines erweiterten Begriffs des ‚Politischen‘ wird zum einen argumentiert, dass junge Menschen gegenwärtig in einen Bereich neuartiger Politikformen und Praktiken eingebunden sind, der eng mit der Omnipräsenz digitaler Medien verknüpft ist. Zum anderen wird herausgearbeitet, wie Medien bei den Occupy-Protesten genutzt werden, um Forderungen nach sozialer Gerechtigkeit zu artikulieren.

  2. MicroRNAs and drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Kenny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a disorder of neuroplasticity in brain reward and cognition systems resulting from aberrant activation of gene expression programs in response to prolonged drug consumption. Noncoding RNAs are key regulators of almost all aspects of cellular physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small (~21–23 nucleotides noncoding RNA transcripts that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, microRNAs were shown to play key roles in the drug-induced remodeling of brain reward systems that likely drives the emergence of addiction. Here, we review evidence suggesting that one particular miRNA, miR-212, plays a particularly prominent role in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We review evidence showing that miR-212 expression is increased in the dorsal striatum of rats that show compulsive-like cocaine-taking behaviors. Increases in miR-212 expression appear to protect against cocaine addiction, as virus-mediated striatal miR-212 over-expression decreases cocaine consumption in rats. Conversely, disruption of striatal miR-212 signaling using an antisense oligonucleotide increases cocaine intake. We also review data that identify two mechanisms by which miR-212 may regulate cocaine intake. First, miR-212 has been shown to amplify striatal CREB signaling through a mechanism involving activation of Raf1 kinase. Second, miR-212 was also shown to regulate cocaine intake by repressing striatal expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2, consequently decreasing protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The concerted actions of miR-212 on striatal CREB and MeCP2/BDNF activity greatly attenuate the motivational effects of cocaine. These findings highlight the unique role for miRNAs in simultaneously controlling multiple signaling cascades implicated in addiction.

  3. Noncoding RNAs in cancer and cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianzhi Huang; Angel Alvarez; Bo Hu; Shi-Yuan Cheng

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) are of crucial importance for human cancer. The functional relevance of ncRNAs is particularly evident for microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). miRNAs are endogenously expressed small RNA sequences that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and have been extensively studied for their roles in cancers, whereas lncRNAs are emerging as important players in the cancer paradigm in recent years. These noncoding genes are often aberrantly expressed in a variety of human cancers. However, the biological functions of most ncRNAs remain largely unknown. Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate describing how ncRNAs are dysregulated in cancer and cancer stem cells, a subset of cancer cells harboring self-renewal and differentiation capacities. These studies provide insight into the functional roles that ncRNAs play in tumor initiation, progression, and resistance to therapies, and they suggest ncRNAs as attractive therapeutic targets and potential y useful diagnostic tools.

  4. Regulatory RNAs in prokaryotes: here, there and everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narberhaus, Franz; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    A recent meeting on 'Regulatory RNAs in prokaryotes' reflected the growing interest in this research topic. Almost 200 scientists met to discuss the identification, structure, function and mechanistic details of regulatory RNAs in bacteria and archaea. The topics included small regulatory RNAs, riboswitches, RNA thermosensors and CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) elements.

  5. Identification of Bacterial Small RNAs by RNA Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molin, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria are known to modulate gene expression and control a variety of processes including metabolic reactions, stress responses, and pathogenesis in response to environmental signals. A method to identify bacterial sRNAs on a genome-wide scale based on RNA seque...

  6. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Line; Lindow, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    Protein encoding genes have long been the major targets for research in schizophrenia genetics. However, with the identification of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as important in brain development and function, miRNAs genes have emerged as candidates for schizophrenia-associated genetic factors...

  7. The expression profile of microRNAs in mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineno, Junichi; Okamoto, Sachiko; Ando, Tatsuya; Sato, Masahiro; Chono, Hideto; Izu, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Masanori; Asada, Kiyozo; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg; Inouye, Masayori; Kato, Ikunoshin

    2006-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are non-coding RNAs 18-25 nt in length, regulate a variety of biological processes, including vertebrate development. To identify new species of miRNA and to simultaneously obtain a comprehensive quantitative profile of small RNA expression in mouse embryos, we used the massively parallel signature sequencing technology that potentially identifies virtually all of the small RNAs in a sample. This approach allowed us to detect a total of 390 miRNAs, including 195 known miRNAs covering approximately 80% of previously registered mouse miRNAs as well as 195 new miRNAs, which are so far unknown in mouse. Some of these miRNAs showed temporal expression profiles during prenatal development (E9.5, E10.5 and E11.5). Several miRNAs were positioned in polycistron clusters, including one particular large transcription unit consisting of 16 known and 23 new miRNAs. Our results indicate existence of a significant number of new miRNAs expressed at specific stages of mammalian embryonic development and which were not detected by earlier methods.

  8. The biogenesis and function of small RNAs in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, B.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    RNAi is the process by which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces sequence-specific mRNA degradation. DsRNA is diced into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of ~21-23 nt by a complex containing the RNaseIII enzyme DICER. The mature siRNAs are subsequently bound by Argonaute proteins and incorporated int

  9. eRNAs lure NELF from paused polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plosky, Brian S

    2014-10-02

    RNAs transcribed from enhancers (eRNAs) have been linked to enhancer function. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Schaukowitch et al. (2014) show that upon activation, eRNAs can bind NELF and are necessary for its transient removal from promoters to release paused RNA polymerase II and drive expression of immediate-early genes in neurons.

  10. Utility of MicroRNAs and siRNAs in Cervical Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacnite del Mar Díaz-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs and siRNAs belong to a family of small noncoding RNAs which bind through partial sequence complementarity to 3′-UTR regions of mRNA from target genes, resulting in the regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs have become an attractive target for genetic and pharmacological modulation due to the critical function of their target proteins in several signaling pathways, and their expression profiles have been found to be altered in various cancers. A promising technology platform for selective silencing of cell and/or viral gene expression using siRNAs is currently in development. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in the developing world and sexually transmitted infection with HPV is the cause of this malignancy. Therefore, a cascade of abnormal events is induced during cervical carcinogenesis, including the induction of genomic instability, reprogramming of cellular metabolic pathways, deregulation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms, disruption of cell cycle control mechanisms, and alteration of gene expression. Thus, in the present review article, we highlight new research on microRNA expression profiles which may be utilized as biomarkers for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we discuss selective silencing of HPV E6 and E7 with siRNAs which represents a potential gene therapy strategy against cervical cancer.

  11. Utility of MicroRNAs and siRNAs in Cervical Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-González, Sacnite del Mar; Benítez-Boijseauneau, Odelia; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs and siRNAs belong to a family of small noncoding RNAs which bind through partial sequence complementarity to 3′-UTR regions of mRNA from target genes, resulting in the regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs have become an attractive target for genetic and pharmacological modulation due to the critical function of their target proteins in several signaling pathways, and their expression profiles have been found to be altered in various cancers. A promising technology platform for selective silencing of cell and/or viral gene expression using siRNAs is currently in development. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in the developing world and sexually transmitted infection with HPV is the cause of this malignancy. Therefore, a cascade of abnormal events is induced during cervical carcinogenesis, including the induction of genomic instability, reprogramming of cellular metabolic pathways, deregulation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms, disruption of cell cycle control mechanisms, and alteration of gene expression. Thus, in the present review article, we highlight new research on microRNA expression profiles which may be utilized as biomarkers for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we discuss selective silencing of HPV E6 and E7 with siRNAs which represents a potential gene therapy strategy against cervical cancer. PMID:25874209

  12. Current Insights into Long Non-Coding RNAs (LncRNAs) in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolle, Maria A.; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Pummer, Karl; Calin, George A.; Pichler, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of various malignancies has been uncovered over the last few years. Their dysregulation often contributes to or is a result of tumour progression. In prostate cancer, the most common malignancy in men, lncRNAs can promote castration resistance, cell proliferation, invasion, and metastatic spread. Expression patterns of lncRNAs often change during tumour progression; their expression levels may constantly rise (e.g., HOX transcript antisense RNA, HOTAIR), or steadily decrease (e.g., downregulated RNA in cancer, DRAIC). In prostate cancer, lncRNAs likewise have diagnostic (e.g., prostate cancer antigen 3, PCA3), prognostic (e.g., second chromosome locus associated with prostate-1, SChLAP1), and predictive (e.g., metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1, MALAT-1) functions. Considering their dynamic role in prostate cancer, lncRNAs may also serve as therapeutic targets, helping to prevent development of castration resistance, maintain stable disease, and prohibit metastatic spread. PMID:28241429

  13. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  14. A hybridized membrane-botanical biofilter for improving air quality in occupied spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, David; Darlington, Alan; van Ras, Niels; Kraakman, Bart; Dixon, Mike

    Botanical biofilters have been shown to be effective in improving indoor air quality through the removal of complex mixtures of gaseous contaminants typically found in human-occupied environments. Traditional, botanical biofilters have been comprised of plants rooted into a thin and highly porous synthetic medium that is hung on vertical surfaces. Water flows from the top of the biofilter and air is drawn horizontally through the rooting medium. These botanical biofilters have been successfully marketed in office and institutional settings. They operate efficiently, with adequate contaminant removal and little maintenance for many years. Depending on climate and outdoor air quality, botanical biofiltration can substantially reduce costs associated with ventilation of stale indoor air. However, there are several limitations that continue to inhibit widespread acceptance: 1. Current designs are architecturally limiting and inefficient at capturing ambient light 2. These biofilters can add significant amounts of humidity to an indoor space. This water loss also leads to a rapid accumulation of dissolved salts; reducing biofilter health and performance 3. There is the perception of potentially actively introducing harmful bioaerosols into the air stream 4. Design and practical limitations inhibit the entrance of this technology into the lucrative residential marketplace This paper describes the hybridization of membrane and botanical biofiltration technologies by incorporating a membrane array into the rootzone of a conventional interior planting. This technology has the potential for addressing all of the above limitations, expanding the range of indoor settings where botanical biofiltration can be applied. This technology was developed as the CSA-funded Canadian component an ESA-MAP project entitled: "Biological airfilter for air quality control of life support systems in manned space craft and other closed environments", A0-99-LSS-019. While the project addressed a

  15. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  16. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems.Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  17. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  18. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  19. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  20. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN BOVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M Marinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to show the main scientific advances achieved in the area of Artificial Insemination (AI within animal reproduction and how these can improve reproductive efficiency and productive of the Brazilian cattle herd. With knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the control of reproductive physiology, in levels endocrine, cellular and molecular, it was possible the development of reproductive biotechnologies, standing out the IA, It has been used on a large scale, by allow the multiplication of animals superior genetically , increase the birthrate and be particularly effective in adjusting the breeding season in cattle. Artificial insemination has an important role in animal genetic improvement; it is the main and more viable middle of spread of genes worldwide when compared to other methods how technologies of embryos and the natural breeding. There are several advantages in using artificial insemination in herd both of cutting as milkman, as herd genetic improvement in lesser time and at a low cost through the use of semen of demonstrably superior sires for production, well as in the control and decrease of diseases which entail reproductive losses and consequently productive, by allowing the creator The crossing of zebuine females with bulls of European breeds and vice-versa, through the use of semen, increasing the number of progeny of a reproducer superior

  1. Novel and conserved microRNAs in soybean floral whorls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcheski, F R; Molina, L G; da Fonseca, G C; de Morais, G L; de Oliveira, L F V; Margis, R

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) correspond to a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs (19-24 nt) that regulates the gene expression, through mRNA target cleavage or translation inhibition. In plants, miRNAs have been shown to play pivotal roles in a wide variety of metabolic and biological processes like plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stress. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide, due to the production of oil and its high protein content. The reproductive phase is considered the most important for soybean yield, which is mainly intended to produce the grains. The identification of miRNAs is not yet saturated in soybean, and there are no studies linking them to the different floral organs. In this study, three different mature soybean floral whorls were used in the construction of sRNA libraries. The sequencing of petal, carpel and stamen libraries generated a total of 10,165,661 sequences. Subsequent analyses identified 200 miRNAs sequences, among which, 41 were novel miRNAs, 80 were conserved soybean miRNAs, 31 were new antisense conserved soybean miRNAs and 46 were soybean miRNAs isoforms. We also found a new miRNA conserved in other plant species, and finally one miRNA-sibling of a soybean conserved miRNA. Conserved and novel miRNAs were evaluated by RT-qPCR. We observed a differential expression across the three whorls for six miRNAs. Computational predicted targets for miRNAs analyzed by RT-qPCR were identified and present functions related to reproductive process in plants. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific and novel miRNAs in different whorls indicates that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network in soybean flower.

  2. Climate control based on temperature measurement in the animal-occupied zone of a pig room with ground channel ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.; Aerts, J.M.; Brecht, van A.; Vranken, E.; Leroy, T.; Berckmans, D.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that there can be a significant temperature difference between the position of the climate controller sensor (room temperature) and the animal-occupied zone (AOZ) in a pig room. This study explores the advantages of using AOZ temperature in climate control. The objectives were: (1) to ev

  3. MicroRNAs of parasites: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Tuo, Wenbin; Gao, Hongwei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes at the post-transcriptional level. The complex life cycles of parasites may require the ability to respond to environmental and developmental signals through miRNA-mediated gene expression. Over the past 17 years, thousands of miRNAs have been identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and other parasites. Here, we review the current status and potential functions of miRNAs in protozoan, helminths, and arthropods, and propose some perspectives for future studies.

  4. Identification of Conserved Cotton MicroRNAs and Their Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-hong; WANG Qing-lian

    2008-01-01

    @@ No study has been performed on identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets in cotton although cotton is one of the most important fiber and economic crops around the world.In this study,we found 30 potential cotton miRNAs using a comparative genomic approach based on genomic survey sequence analysis and miRNA secondary structure.These cotton miRNAs belong to 22 miRNA families.Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis indicated that the predicted miRNAs were expressed in cotton plants.

  5. Genome organization and characteristics of soybean microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Marie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are key regulators of gene expression and play important roles in many aspects of plant biology. The role(s of miRNAs in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants such as soybean is not well understood. We examined a library of small RNAs from Bradyrhizobium japonicum-inoculated soybean roots and identified novel miRNAs. In order to enhance our understanding of miRNA evolution, diversification and function, we classified all known soybean miRNAs based on their phylogenetic conservation (conserved, legume- and soybean-specific miRNAs and examined their genome organization, family characteristics and target diversity. We predicted targets of these miRNAs and experimentally validated several of them. We also examined organ-specific expression of selected miRNAs and their targets. Results We identified 120 previously unknown miRNA genes from soybean including 5 novel miRNA families. In the soybean genome, genes encoding miRNAs are primarily intergenic and a small percentage were intragenic or less than 1000 bp from a protein-coding gene, suggesting potential co-regulation between the miRNA and its parent gene. Difference in number and orientation of tandemly duplicated miRNA genes between orthologous genomic loci indicated continuous evolution and diversification. Conserved miRNA families are often larger in size and produce less diverse mature miRNAs than legume- and soybean-specific families. In addition, the majority of conserved and legume-specific miRNA families produce 21 nt long mature miRNAs with distinct nucleotide distribution and regulate a more conserved set of target mRNAs compared to soybean-specific families. A set of nodule-specific target mRNAs and their cognate regulatory miRNAs had inverse expression between root and nodule tissues suggesting that spatial restriction of target gene transcripts by miRNAs might govern nodule-specific gene expression in soybean. Conclusions Genome

  6. miRNAs as biomarkers of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Ananília Medeiros; Silbiger, Vivian Nogueira

    2014-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent arrhythmia with pronounced morbidity and mortality. Genetics analysis has established electrophysiological substrates, which determine individual vulnerability to AF occurrence and maintenance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) found in virtually all organisms function as negative regulators of protein-coding genes. Several studies have suggested a role for miRNAs in the regulation of cardiac excitability and arrhythmogenesis. This review is based on 18 studies conducted between 2009 and 2013 to investigate the association of miRNAs with AF. miRNAs are discussed here as candidate biomarkers for AF in blood and cardiac tissues and as potential targets for AF therapy.

  7. Ribonucleases, antisense RNAs and the control of bacterial plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Margarida; Bárria, Cátia; Arraiano, Cecília M; Domingues, Susana

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade regulatory RNAs have emerged as powerful tools to regulate the expression of genes both in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. RNases, by degrading these RNA molecules, control the right amount of regulatory RNAs, which is fundamental for an accurate regulation of gene expression in the cell. Remarkably the first antisense RNAs identified were plasmid-encoded and their detailed study was crucial for the understanding of prokaryotic antisense RNAs. In this review we highlight the role of RNases in the precise modulation of antisense RNAs that control plasmid replication, maintenance and transfer.

  8. Non-coding RNAs in primary liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eGhidini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a primary malignancy of the liver with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Over the past few years, many studies have evaluated the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumour progression. ncRNAs were shown to have diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential in HCC. In this manuscript, we review the latest major discoveries concerning microRNAs and long ncRNAs in HCC pathogenesis, and discuss the potentials and the limitations for their use in clinical practice.

  9. Salivary MicroRNAs and Oral Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa, Janice M.; Wong, David T.W.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in human saliva have recently become an emerging field in saliva research for diagnostics applications and its potential role in biological implications. miRNAs are short noncoding RNA molecules that play important roles in regulating a variety of cellular processes. Dysregulation of miRNAs are known to be associated with many diseases. miRNAs were found present in the saliva of OSCC patients and could serve as potential biomarkers for oral cancer detection. Understanding t...

  10. Identification and Function of MicroRNAs Encoded by Herpesviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qing Bai; Xiu-fen Lei; Lin-ding Wang; Shou-jiang Gao

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in eukaryotes,plants and some viruses.It is increasingly clear that miRNAs-encoded by viruses can affect the viral life cycle and host physiology.Viral miRNAs could repress the innate and adaptive host immunity,modulate cellular signaling pathways,and regulate the expression of cellular and viral genes.These functions facilitate viral acute and persistent infections,and have profound effects on the host cell survival and disease progression.Here,we discuss the miRNAs encoded by herpesviruses,and their regulatory roles involved in virus-host interactions.

  11. Effective gene silencing in Drosophila ovarian germline by artificial microRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailong Wang; YanJun Mu; Dahua Chen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Drosophila oogenesis is of great interest because it represents an excellent model system to study a number of fascinating biological processes, such as stem cell regulation, germ cell meiosis and oocyte determination, as well as signal interactions between germline and soma.A typical Drosophila ovary is composed of 16-20 ovarioles, each consisting of an anterior functional unit called a germarium and a linear string of differentiated egg chambers posterior to the germarium [1] (Figure 1A and 1B).Drosophila oogenesis initiates at the tip of the germarium, when a germline stem cell (GSC) divides asymmetrically to generate a daughter GSC and a cystoblast that eventually develops into a mature egg [2] (Figure 1C and 1E).

  12. Transposon defense by endo-siRNAs, piRNAs and somatic pilRNAs in Drosophila: contributions of Loqs-PD and R2D2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijana Mirkovic-Hösle

    Full Text Available Transposable elements are a serious threat for genome integrity and their control via small RNA mediated silencing pathways is an ancient strategy. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has two silencing activities that target transposons: endogenous siRNAs (esiRNAs or endo-siRNAs and Piwi-interacting small RNAs (piRNAs. The biogenesis of endo-siRNAs involves the Dicer-2 co-factors Loqs-PD, which acts predominantly during processing of dsRNA by Dcr-2, and R2D2, which primarily helps to direct siRNAs into the RNA interference effector Ago2. Nonetheless, loss of either protein is not sufficient to produce a phenotype comparable with a dcr-2 mutation. We provide further deep sequencing evidence supporting the notion that R2D2 and Loqs-PD have partially overlapping function. Certain transposons display a preference for either dsRBD-protein during production or loading; this appeared to correlate neither with overall abundance, classification of the transposon or a specific site of genomic origin. The endo-siRNA biogenesis pathway in germline operates according to the same principles as the existing model for the soma, and its impairment does not significantly affect piRNAs. Expanding the analysis, we confirmed the occurrence of somatic piRNA-like RNAs (pilRNAs that show a ping-pong signature. We detected expression of the Piwi-family protein mRNAs only barely above background, indicating that the somatic pilRNAs may arise from a small sub-population of somatic cells that express a functional piRNA pathway.

  13. Disease onset and aging in the world of circular RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth

    Circular ribonucleic acids (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 100 nucleotides in length with thousands of members in mammalian cells. The presence of circRNAs is believed to be even greater than that of messenger RNAs. Identification of circRNAs occurred approximately 37 years ago with the subsequent demonstration that covalent bonds are necessary for the unique circular structure of these ribonucleic acids. However, present understanding of the complex biological role of circRNAs remains limited and requires further elucidation. CircRNAs may impact aging, multiple disorders, function as biomarkers, and are able to regulate gene expression by acting as effective microRNA (miRNA) sponges. New work suggests that circRNAs are vital for the modulation of cellular senescence and programmed cell death pathways such as apoptosis. These non-coding RNAs can control cell cycle progression, cellular proliferation, and cellular survival impacting disorders linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, and atherosclerosis through pathways that involve cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21), and mammalian forkhead transcription factors. In addition, circRNAs can oversee cellular metabolism and disorders such as diabetes mellitus through the regulation of insulin signaling as well as limit tumor progression through Wnt signaling and β-catenin pathways. Further understanding of the biology of circRNAs offers great promise for the targeting of novel strategies against a wide spectrum of disease entities.

  14. Expression Signatures of Long Noncoding RNAs in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs involving the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR. Results. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768 were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS.

  15. Identifying microRNAs and transcript targets in Jatropha seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Galli

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, are endogenously encoded small RNAs that play a key role in diverse plant biological processes. Jatropha curcas L. has received significant attention as a potential oilseed crop for the production of renewable oil. Here, a sRNA library of mature seeds and three mRNA libraries from three different seed development stages were generated by deep sequencing to identify and characterize the miRNAs and pre-miRNAs of J. curcas. Computational analysis was used for the identification of 180 conserved miRNAs and 41 precursors (pre-miRNAs as well as 16 novel pre-miRNAs. The predicted miRNA target genes are involved in a broad range of physiological functions, including cellular structure, nuclear function, translation, transport, hormone synthesis, defense, and lipid metabolism. Some pre-miRNA and miRNA targets vary in abundance between the three stages of seed development. A search for sequences that produce siRNA was performed, and the results indicated that J. curcas siRNAs play a role in nuclear functions, transport, catalytic processes and disease resistance. This study presents the first large scale identification of J. curcas miRNAs and their targets in mature seeds based on deep sequencing, and it contributes to a functional understanding of these miRNAs.

  16. Disease onset and aging in the world of circular RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Circular ribonucleic acids (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 100 nucleotides in length with thousands of members in mammalian cells. The presence of circRNAs is believed to be even greater than that of messenger RNAs. Identification of circRNAs occurred approximately 37 years ago with the subsequent demonstration that covalent bonds are necessary for the unique circular structure of these ribonucleic acids. However, present understanding of the complex biological role of circRNAs remains limited and requires further elucidation. CircRNAs may impact aging, multiple disorders, function as biomarkers, and are able to regulate gene expression by acting as effective microRNA (miRNA) sponges. New work suggests that circRNAs are vital for the modulation of cellular senescence and programmed cell death pathways such as apoptosis. These non-coding RNAs can control cell cycle progression, cellular proliferation, and cellular survival impacting disorders linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, and atherosclerosis through pathways that involve cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21), and mammalian forkhead transcription factors. In addition, circRNAs can oversee cellular metabolism and disorders such as diabetes mellitus through the regulation of insulin signaling as well as limit tumor progression through Wnt signaling and β-catenin pathways. Further understanding of the biology of circRNAs offers great promise for the targeting of novel strategies against a wide spectrum of disease entities. PMID:27642518

  17. Non-coding RNAs in neural networks, REST-assured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eROSSBACH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the nervous system, several key steps in cellular complexity and development are regulated by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs and the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor (REST/NRSF. REST recruits gene regulatory complexes to regulatory sequences, among them the repressor element-1/neuron restrictive silencer element (RE1/NRSE, and mediates developmental stage-specific gene expression or repression, chromatin (re-orga-nization or silencing for protein-coding genes as well as for several ncRNAs like microRNAs (miRNAs, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs or long ncRNAs. NcRNAs are far from being just transcriptional noise and are involved in chromatin accessibility, transcription and post-transcriptional processing, trafficking or RNA editing. REST and its cofactor CoREST are both highly regulated through various ncRNAs. The importance of the correct regulation within the ncRNA network, the ncRNAome, is demonstrated when it comes to a deregulation of REST and/or ncRNAs associated with molecular pathophysiology underlying diverse disorders including neurodegenerative diseases or brain tumors.

  18. Expression Signatures of Long Noncoding RNAs in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Liang; Yu, Bin; Zhuang, Qian-yu; Wang, Yi-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involving the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR. Results. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768) were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS. PMID:26421281

  19. Discoveries and functions of virus-encoded MicroRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, ChinaVirus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new kind of miRNAs that regulate the expression of target gene in host cells or viruses through inducing cleavage of mRNA, repressing translation, etc., and change the processes of host cells or replicate viruses to escape or resist immune surveillance of host and protect viruses themselves. It has become a hot topic to discover viral genes encoding miRNAs and their target genes, and to identify their functions. This review provides background information on the history of virally encoded miRNAs including their genomic distribution, functions and mechanisms.In addition, we discuss the similarities and differences between virus- and host-encoded miRNAs, the future directions of researches in viral miRNAs and their applications in diseases control and therapy.

  20. Long noncoding RNAs during normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Hu, Wenqian; Gromatzky, Austin A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized to contribute to cellular development via diverse mechanisms during both health and disease. Here, we highlight recent progress on the study of lncRNAs that function in the development of blood cells. We emphasize lncRNAs that regulate blood cell fates through epigenetic control of gene expression, an emerging theme among functional lncRNAs. Many of these noncoding genes and their targets become dysregulated during malignant hematopoiesis, directly implicating lncRNAs in blood cancers such as leukemia. In a few cases, dysregulation of an lncRNA alone leads to malignant hematopoiesis in a mouse model. Thus, lncRNAs may be not only useful as markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers of the blood, but also as potential targets for novel therapies.

  1. MicroRNAs as regulatory elements in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune, and complex genetic disorder that affects 23% of the European population. The symptoms of Psoriatic skin are inflammation, raised and scaly lesions. microRNA, which is short, nonprotein-coding, regulatory RNAs, plays critical roles in psoriasis. microRNA participates in nearly all biological processes, such as cell differentiation, development and metabolism. Recent researches reveal that multitudinous novel microRNAs have been identified in skin. Some of these substantial novel microRNAs play as a class of posttranscriptional gene regulator in skin disease, such as psoriasis. In order to insight into microRNAs biological functions and verify microRNAs biomarker, we review diverse references about characterization, profiling and subtype of microRNAs. Here we will share our opinions about how and which microRNAs are as regulatory in psoriasis.

  2. The therapeutic potential of MicroRNAs in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Susanne; Obad, S.; Jensen, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been uncovered as important posttranscriptional regulators of nearly every biological process in the cell. Furthermore, mounting evidence implies that miRNAs play key roles in the pathogenesis of cancer and that many miRNAs can function either as oncogenes or tumor...... suppressors. Thus, miRNAs have rapidly emerged as promising targets for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. The development of miRNA-based cancer therapeutics relies on restoring the activity of tumor suppressor miRNAs using double-stranded miRNA mimics or inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs using...... single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides, termed antimiRs. In the present review, we focus on recent advancements in the discovery and development of miRNA-based cancer therapeutics using these 2 approaches. In addition, we summarize selected studies, in which modulation of miRNA activity...

  3. Progress, challenges and new concepts in microRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YouYi

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a group of small noncoding RNAs.They have rapidly gained attention in the field as novel regulators of cellular morphology and function.Currently hundreds of microRNAs have been described in human genome.MicroRNAs play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by inhibiting protein translation and/or promoting mRNA degradation.MicroRNAs were initially thought to be subtle regulators of gene expression,but increasing evidence demonstrates that the regulatory functions of microRNAs are crucial for the cell.MicroRNAs have been found to be involved in the development,tissue homeostasis as well as diseases.

  4. The role of RNases in the regulation of small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Margarida; Bárria, Cátia; Dos Santos, Ricardo F; Silva, Inês J; Pobre, Vânia; Domingues, Susana; Andrade, José M; Viegas, Sandra C; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2014-04-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are key factors in the control of biological processes, since they modulate the processing, degradation and quality control of RNAs. This review gives many illustrative examples of the role of RNases in the regulation of small RNAs (sRNAs). RNase E and PNPase have been shown to degrade the free pool of sRNAs. RNase E can also be recruited to cleave mRNAs when they are interacting with sRNAs. RNase III cleaves double-stranded structures, and can cut both the sRNA and its RNA target when they are hybridized. Overall, ribonucleases act as conductors in the control of sRNAs. Therefore, it is very important to further understand their role in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression.

  5. Virus-Encoded microRNAs: Future Therapeutic Targets?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Qi; Jinxiang Han; Yanqin Lu; Chuanxi Wang; Fanfeng Bu

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) is a remarkable breakthrough in the field of molecular genetics, as miRNAs are key actors which regulate gene expression in diverse cellular processes from unicellular yeast to human. The recent discovery of virus-encoded miRNAs indicates that viruses also use this fundamental mode of gene regulation. Research into viral miRNAs function demonstrates that some miRNAs play an important role in regulating both the viral life cycle and the interaction between viruses and their hosts. The first in vivo "antagomir" study provides an exciting first step towards miRNA therapy, and the potential for ultimately designing molecular medicines based on the modulation of miRNAs seems good.

  6. microRNAs in CNS disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocerha, Jannet; Kauppinen, Sakari; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a shift in the conventional paradigms for transcriptional and translational regulation as extensive sequencing efforts have yielded new insights into the landscape of the human genome and transcriptome. Hundreds of non-coding regulatory RNA molecules called microRNAs...... (miRNAs) have been identified in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are reported to mediate pivotal roles in many aspects of neuronal functions. Disruption of miRNA-based post-transcriptional regulation has been implicated in a range of CNS disorders as one miRNA is predicted to impact...... the expression of numerous downstream mRNA targets. The intricate molecular networks mediated by an miRNA form a robust mechanism for rapid and potent responses to cellular events throughout the development of the human brain. Recent studies have identified a molecular and ultimately pathogenic role for a subset...

  7. MicroRNAs, epigenetics and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silahtaroglu, Asli; Stenvang, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the heritable chances that affect gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression can be through different mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosome positioning. MicroRNAs are short RNA molecules...... which do not code for a protein but have a role in post-transcriptional silencing of multiple target genes by binding to their 3' UTRs (untranslated regions). Both epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and the microRNAs are crucial for normal differentiation......, development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression. These mechanisms also explain how cells with the same DNA content can differentiate into cells with different functions. Changes in epigenetic processes can lead to changes in gene function, cancer formation and progression, as well as other...

  8. Small Regulatory RNAs of Rickettsia conorii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Hema P.; Schroeder, Casey L. C.; Sahni, Abha; Rojas, Mark; Khanipov, Kamil; Fofanov, Yuriy; Sahni, Sanjeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs comprise critically important modulators of gene expression in bacteria, yet very little is known about their prevalence and functions in Rickettsia species. R. conorii, the causative agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, is a tick-borne pathogen that primarily infects microvascular endothelium in humans. We have determined the transcriptional landscape of R. conorii during infection of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMECs) by strand-specific RNA sequencing to identify 4 riboswitches, 13 trans-acting (intergenic), and 22 cis-acting (antisense) small RNAs (termed ‘Rc_sR’s). Independent expression of four novel trans-acting sRNAs (Rc_sR31, Rc_sR33, Rc_sR35, and Rc_sR42) and known bacterial sRNAs (6S, RNaseP_bact_a, ffs, and α-tmRNA) was next confirmed by Northern hybridization. Comparative analysis during infection of HMECs vis-à-vis tick AAE2 cells revealed significantly higher expression of Rc_sR35 and Rc_sR42 in HMECs, whereas Rc_sR31 and Rc_sR33 were expressed at similar levels in both cell types. We further predicted a total of 502 genes involved in all important biological processes as potential targets of Rc_sRs and validated the interaction of Rc_sR42 with cydA (cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase subunit I). Our findings constitute the first evidence of the existence of post-transcriptional riboregulatory mechanisms in R. conorii and interactions between a novel Rc_sR and its target mRNA. PMID:27834404

  9. Long Noncoding RNAs, Chromatin, and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Caley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The way in which the genome of a multicellular organism can orchestrate the differentiation of trillions of cells and many organs, all from a single fertilized egg, is the subject of intense study. Different cell types can be defined by the networks of genes they express. This differential expression is regulated at the epigenetic level by chromatin modifications, such as DNA and histone methylation, which interact with structural and enzymatic proteins, resulting in the activation or silencing of any given gene. While detailed mechanisms are emerging on the role of different chromatin modifications and how these functions are effected at the molecular level, it is still unclear how their deposition across the epigenomic landscape is regulated in different cells. A raft of recent evidence is accumulating that implicates long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs in these processes. Most genomes studied to date undergo widespread transcription, the majority of which is not translated into proteins. In this review, we will describe recent work suggesting that lncRNAs are more than transcriptional "noise", but instead play a functional role by acting as tethers and guides to bind proteins responsible for modifying chromatin and mediating their deposition at specific genomic locations. We suggest that lncRNAs are at the heart of developmental regulation, determining the epigenetic status and transcriptional network in any given cell type, and that they provide a means to integrate external differentiation cues with dynamic nuclear responses through the regulation of a metastable epigenome. Better characterization of the lncRNA-protein "interactome" may eventually lead to a new molecular toolkit, allowing researchers and clinicians to modulate the genome at the epigenetic level to treat conditions such as cancer.

  10. Platelet MicroRNAs: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Neetu; Sarachana, Tewarit; Vu, Long; Becker, Kevin G; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Atreya, Chintamani D

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNA that have been found to influence the expression of many genes and cellular processes by either repressing translation or degrading messenger RNA transcripts. Platelet miRNA expression has been shown to be perturbed during ex vivo storage of platelets and in platelet-associated disorders. Although bioinformatics-based miRNA target predictions have been established, direct experimental validation of the role of miRNAs in platelet biology has been rather slow. Target prediction studies are, nonetheless, valuable in directing the design of appropriate experiments to test specific miRNA:messenger RNA interactions relevant to the underlying mechanisms of platelet function in general and in disease as well as in ex vivo storage-associated "storage lesions," a collective term used to include physiologic, biochemical, and morphologic changes that occur in stored platelets. This brief review will focus on emerging human platelet miRNA studies to emphasize their potential role relevant to transfusion medicine field in terms of regulating platelet signaling pathways, markers of platelet associated disorders, and remote impactors of gene expression (intercellular biomodulators) as well as potential platelet quality markers of storage and pathogen reduction treatments.

  11. Modulation of microRNA activity by semi-microRNAs (smiRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePlante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ribonuclease Dicer plays a central role in the microRNA pathway by catalyzing the formation of 19 to 24-nucleotide (nt long microRNAs. Subsequently incorporated into Ago2 effector complexes, microRNAs are known to regulate messenger RNA (mRNA translation. Whether shorter RNA species derived from microRNAs exist and play a role in mRNA regulation remains unknown. Here, we report the serendipitous discovery of a 12-nt long RNA species corresponding to the 5’ region of the microRNA let-7, and tentatively termed semi-microRNA, or smiRNA. Using a smiRNA derived from the precursor of miR-223 as a model, we show that 12-nt long smiRNA species are devoid of any direct mRNA regulatory activity, as assessed in a reporter gene activity assay in transfected cultured human cells. However, smiR-223 was found to modulate the ability of the microRNA from which it derives to mediate translational repression or cleavage of reporter mRNAs. Our findings suggest that smiRNAs may be generated along the microRNA pathway and participate to the control of gene expression by regulating the activity of the related full-length mature microRNA in vivo.

  12. Oral delivery of double-stranded RNAs induces mortality in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdeano, Diogo Manzano; Breton, Michèle Claire; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti; Falk, Bryce W.

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions. Recently, studies have reported that target mRNA knockdown in many insects can be induced through feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the current study, we targeted the cathepsin D, chitin synthase and inhibitor of apoptosis genes of adult and nymph ACP by feeding artificial diets mixed with dsRNAs and Murraya paniculata leaves placed in dsRNAs solutions, respectively. Adult ACP mortality was positively correlated with the amount of dsRNA used. Both nymphs and adult ACP fed dsRNAs exhibited significantly increased mortality over time compared with that of the controls. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated RNAi effects on target mRNAs. These results showed that RNAi can be a powerful tool for gene function studies in ACP and perhaps for HLB control. PMID:28282380

  13. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  14. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  15. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  16. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  17. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  18. Comprehensive protein-based artificial microRNA screens for effective gene silencing in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

    2013-05-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ∼100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5' coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology.

  19. Transcriptional, post-transcriptional and chromatin-associated regulation of pri-miRNAs, pre-miRNAs and moRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Chirag; Coolen, Marion; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Cussigh, Delphine; Mydel, Piotr; Steen, Vidar M; Carninci, Piero; Andersen, Jesper B; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Müller, Ferenc; Lenhard, Boris

    2016-04-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a major role in the post-transcriptional regulation of target genes, especially in development and differentiation. Our understanding about the transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes is limited by inadequate annotation of primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts. Here, we used CAGE-seq and RNA-seq to provide genome-wide identification of the pri-miRNA core promoter repertoire and its dynamic usage during zebrafish embryogenesis. We assigned pri-miRNA promoters to 152 precursor-miRNAs (pre-miRNAs), the majority of which were supported by promoter associated post-translational histone modifications (H3K4me3, H2A.Z) and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) occupancy. We validated seven miR-9 pri-miRNAs by in situ hybridization and showed similar expression patterns as mature miR-9. In addition, processing of an alternative intronic promoter of miR-9-5 was validated by 5' RACE PCR. Developmental profiling revealed a subset of pri-miRNAs that are maternally inherited. Moreover, we show that promoter-associated H3K4me3, H2A.Z and RNAPII marks are not only present at pri-miRNA promoters but are also specifically enriched at pre-miRNAs, suggesting chromatin level regulation of pre-miRNAs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CAGE-seq also detects 3'-end processing of pre-miRNAs on Drosha cleavage site that correlates with miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs) production and provides a new tool for detecting Drosha processing events and predicting pre-miRNA processing by a genome-wide assay.

  20. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  1. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  2. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  3. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  4. Circulating MicroRNAs and Life Expectancy Among Identical Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Scherler, Kelsey; Baxter, David; Wang, Kai; Krasnow, Ruth E; Reed, Terry; Dai, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Human life expectancy is influenced not only by longevity assurance mechanisms and disease susceptibility loci but also by the environment, gene-environment interactions, and chance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs closely related to genes. Circulating miRNAs have been shown as promising noninvasive biomarkers in the development of many pathophysiological conditions. However, the concentration of miRNA in the circulation may also be affected by environmental factors. We used a next-generation sequencing platform to assess the association of circulating miRNA with life expectancy, for which deaths are due to all causes independent of genes. In addition, we showed that miRNAs are present in 41-year archived plasma samples, which may be useful for both life expectancy and all-cause mortality risk assessment. Plasma miRNAs from nine identical male twins were profiled using next-generation sequencing. The average absolute difference in the minimum life expectancy was 9.68 years. Intraclass correlation coefficients were above 0.4 for 50% of miRNAs. Comparing deceased twins with their alive co-twin brothers, the concentrations were increased for 34 but decreased for 30 miRNAs. Identical twins discordant in life expectancy were dissimilar in the majority of miRNAs, suggesting that environmental factors are pivotal in miRNAs related to life expectancy.

  5. Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small noncoding RNAs that are 19-23 nucleotides long, known as microRNAs (miRNAs, are involved in almost all biological mechanisms during carcinogenesis. Recent studies show that miRNAs released from live cells are detectable in body fluids and may be taken up by other cells to confer cell-cell communication. These released miRNAs (here referred to as extracellular miRNAs are often protected by RNA-binding proteins or embedded inside circulating microvesicles. Due to their relative stability, extracellular miRNAs are believed to be promising candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of disease, or even as therapeutic agents for targeted treatment. In this review, we first describe biogenesis and characteristics of these miRNAs. We then summarize recent publications involving extracellular miRNA profiling studies in three representative urologic cancers, including: prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. We focus on the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of these miRNAs in biological fluids, such as serum, plasma, and urine. Finally, we discuss advantages and challenges of these miRNAs in clinical applications.

  6. LncRNAs in vertebrates: advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Allison C; Shkumatava, Alena

    2015-10-01

    Beyond the handful of classic and well-characterized long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), more recently, hundreds of thousands of lncRNAs have been identified in multiple species including bacteria, plants and vertebrates, and the number of newly annotated lncRNAs continues to increase as more transcriptomes are analyzed. In vertebrates, the expression of many lncRNAs is highly regulated, displaying discrete temporal and spatial expression patterns, suggesting roles in a wide range of developmental processes and setting them apart from classic housekeeping ncRNAs. In addition, the deregulation of a subset of these lncRNAs has been linked to the development of several diseases, including cancers, as well as developmental anomalies. However, the majority of vertebrate lncRNA functions remain enigmatic. As such, a major task at hand is to decipher the biological roles of lncRNAs and uncover the regulatory networks upon which they impinge. This review focuses on our emerging understanding of lncRNAs in vertebrate animals, highlighting some recent advances in their functional analyses across several species and emphasizing the current challenges researchers face to characterize lncRNAs and identify their in vivo functions.

  7. MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer -Our Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovska-Jankovic, K; Noveski, P; Chakalova, L; Petrusevska, G; Kubelka, K; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small [∼21 nucleotide (nt)] non coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. About 3.0% of human genes encode for miRNAs, and up to 30.0% of human protein coding genes may be regulated by miRNAs. Currently, more than 2000 unique human mature microRNAs are known. MicroRNAs play a key role in diverse biological processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These processes are commonly dysregulated in cancer, implicating miRNAs in carcinogenesis, where they act as tumor supressors or oncogenes. Several miRNAs are associated with breast cancer. Here we present our initial results of miRNA analyses of breast cancer tissues using quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (ReTi-PCR) (qPCR) involving stem-loop reverse transcriptase (RT) primers combined with TaqMan® PCR and miRNA microarray analysis.

  8. Surveillance and Cleavage of Eukaryotic tRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Megel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond their central role in protein synthesis, transfer RNAs (tRNAs have many other crucial functions. This includes various roles in the regulation of gene expression, stress responses, metabolic processes and priming reverse transcription. In the RNA world, tRNAs are, with ribosomal RNAs, among the most stable molecules. Nevertheless, they are not eternal. As key elements of cell function, tRNAs need to be continuously quality-controlled. Two tRNA surveillance pathways have been identified. They act on hypo-modified or mis-processed pre-tRNAs and on mature tRNAs lacking modifications. A short overview of these two pathways will be presented here. Furthermore, while the exoribonucleases acting in these pathways ultimately lead to complete tRNA degradation, numerous tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs are present within a cell. These cleavage products of tRNAs now potentially emerge as a new class of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs and are suspected to have important regulatory functions. The tRFs are evolutionarily widespread and created by cleavage at different positions by various endonucleases. Here, we review our present knowledge on the biogenesis and function of tRFs in various organisms.

  9. Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Payal D; Widen, Steven G; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G; Thangamani, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host.

  10. The Roles of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryou-u [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hiroaki [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Showa University School of Dentistry, 1-5-8 Hatanodai Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Ochiya, Takahiro, E-mail: tochiya@ncc.go.jp [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2015-04-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various cancers, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies reported that miRNAs could also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes, which are derived from multiple cell types, including dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and tumor cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the major findings related to the functions of miRNAs in breast cancer, which is the most frequent cancer in women, and discuss the potential clinical uses of miRNAs, including their roles as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers.

  11. The Roles of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryou-u Takahashi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various cancers, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies reported that miRNAs could also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes, which are derived from multiple cell types, including dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and tumor cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the major findings related to the functions of miRNAs in breast cancer, which is the most frequent cancer in women, and discuss the potential clinical uses of miRNAs, including their roles as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers.

  12. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María

    2011-11-01

    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  13. Development of artificial empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  14. Creating an Artificial Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Katherine; Krause, Sonja

    1997-03-01

    Striated skeletal muscle responds to a nerve impulse in less than 100 ms. In the past, polymeric gels and conducting polymers have been investigated for use as artificial muscle. However, the main problem with these materials is their relatively slow response (>3 seconds). On the other hand, electrorheological (ER) fluids are materials that change from a liquid to a solid upon application of an electric field. These fluids have a response on the order of a millisecond. A novel approach to artificial muscle utilizing the fast time response of ER fluids and the elasticity of polymeric gels has been investigated. A commercial sample of a two-part poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) dielectric gel was used. The PDMS was cured around two flexible electrodes 5 mm apart while a mixture of PDMS with solvent was cured between the electrodes. The solvents were either silicone oil or an ER fluid composed of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) particles in silicone oil. The mixtures investigated were 90/10, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 10/90 PDMS/solvent. Upon application of a 6.2 kV/cm DC electric field the gel was reversibly compressed. The time response of the gel was actuator has been created using the 60/40 PDMS/ER fluid mixture.

  15. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  16. MicroRNAs in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that play important roles in development of diseases. Several studies have provided evidences showing that miRNAs affect pathways that are fundamental for metabolic control in adipocyte and skeletal muscle differentiations. Some miRNAs have been implicated in lipid, amino acid, and glucose homeostasis. This leads to the possibility that miRNAs may contribute to common metabolic diseases and point to novel therapeutic opportunities based on targeting of miRNAs. CONTENT: miRNAs have been recognized as a class of epigenetic regulators of metabolism and energy homeostasis, primarily because the simultaneous regulation of a large number of target genes can be accomplished by a single miRNA. Emerging evidences suggest that miRNAs play a key role in the pathological development of obesity by affecting adipocyte differentiation. miRNAs have been implicated as novel protagonists in the pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus (DM, regulation of insulin production, secretion and action. They also appear to play a role in the development of diabetic complications such as nephropathy and cardiac hypertrophy. SUMMARY: Involvement of miRNAs in glucose and lipid metabolism has provided strong evidences to confirm their roles as key players in regulation of complex metabolic pathways. Additionally, it indicates potential outlook for novel therapeutic strategies in the management of obesity, metabolic syndrome and DM. Further research in this field is needed to ascertain the full potential of miRNAs as novel metabolic biomarkers and potent therapeutic agents against obesity and its metabolic disorders. KEYWORDS: obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, miRNAs, adipogenesis, insulin, pancreatic cells.

  17. Accelerated detection of intracranial space-occupying lesions with CUDA based on statistical texture atlas in brain HRCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Feng, Huanqing; Li, Chuanfu; Huang, Yufeng; Wu, Dehuang; Tong, Tong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method that detects intracranial space-occupying lesions in two-dimensional (2D) brain high-resolution CT images. Use of statistical texture atlas technique localizes anatomy variation in the gray level distribution of brain images, and in turn, identifies the regions with lesions. The statistical texture atlas involves 147 HRCT slices of normal individuals and its construction is extremely time-consuming. To improve the performance of atlas construction, we have implemented the pixel-wise texture extraction procedure on Nvidia 8800GTX GPU with Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform. Experimental results indicate that the extracted texture feature is distinctive and robust enough, and is suitable for detecting uniform and mixed density space-occupying lesions. In addition, a significant speedup against straight forward CPU version was achieved with CUDA.

  18. Challenging Social Class In American Political Discourse: Bernie Sanders, Occupy Wall Street, and the New Discourse of Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how the dominant ideas about social class in American political discourse have been challenged by the rhetoric of the Bernie Sanders campaign in the 2016 presidential primary election. Through critical discourse analysis, I find that Bernie Sanders is the main bearer of a new discourse of inequality in American political and public discourse, which has its roots in the Occupy Wall Street movement in 2011 and previous developing strands from the 1990s and early 2000s.

  19. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus as an Unusual Presentation of Supratentorial Extraventricular Space-Occupying Processes: Report on Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naydenov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH is a clinical and radiographic syndrome characterized by ventriculomegaly, abnormal gait, urinary incontinence, and dementia. The condition may occur due to a variety of secondary causes but may be idiopathic in approximately 50% of patients. Secondary causes may include head injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, and central nervous system tumor. Here, we describe two extremely rare cases of supratentorial extraventricular space-occupying processes: meningioma and glioblastoma multiforme, which initially presented with NPH.

  20. Complex evaluation of health status and life quality of employees occupied in mining and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    G.G. Gimranova; A.B. Bakirov; L.K. Karimova; Z.F. Gimaeva; N.A. Beigul

    2016-01-01

    A complex social-hygienic investigation for the assessment of health-related life quality and living standards among 1200 male workers occupied in mining and primary processing of hydrocarbon raw materials has been performed. The study included the method of the anonymous survey for the employee with using a questionnaire developed by WHO experts for the realization of Health, environment and social capital management in enterprises (HESME). The health risk factors’ prevalence associated with...

  1. Small RNAs break out: the molecular cell biology of mobile small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkies, Peter; Miska, Eric A

    2014-08-01

    Small RNAs that function in a non-cell autonomous manner are becoming increasingly recognized as regulatory molecules with the potential to transmit information between cells, organisms and species. In plants and nematodes, small RNA mobility can be genetically dissected to provide information about the nature of the mobile RNA species, their distribution in the organism and inside cells, as well as the cellular machinery required for mobility, including channel proteins and cellular trafficking factors. Mobile RNAs function in antiviral defence, cell signalling and gene expression regulation, and might also mediate transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

  2. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  3. In plants, decapping prevents RDR6-dependent production of small interfering RNAs from endogenous mRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Alba, Angel Emilio; Moreno, Ana Beatriz; Gabriel, Marc; Mallory, Allison C.; Christ, Aurélie; Bounon, Rémi; Balzergue, Sandrine; Aubourg, Sebastien; Gautheret, Daniel; Crespi, Martin D.; Vaucheret, Hervé; Maizel, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic degradation of endogenous RNAs is an integral part of RNA quality control (RQC) and often relies on the removal of the 5′ cap structure and their subsequent 5′ to 3′ degradation in cytoplasmic processing (P-)bodies. In parallel, many eukaryotes degrade exogenous and selected endogenous RNAs through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). In plants, PTGS depends on small interfering (si)RNAs produced after the conversion of single-stranded RNAs to double-stranded RNAs by the cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) in cytoplasmic siRNA-bodies. PTGS and RQC compete for transgene-derived RNAs, but it is unknown whether this competition also occurs for endogenous transcripts. We show that the lethality of decapping mutants is suppressed by impairing RDR6 activity. We establish that upon decapping impairment hundreds of endogenous mRNAs give rise to a new class of rqc-siRNAs, that over-accumulate when RQC processes are impaired, a subset of which depending on RDR6 for their production. We observe that P- and siRNA-bodies often are dynamically juxtaposed, potentially allowing for cross-talk of the two machineries. Our results suggest that the decapping of endogenous RNA limits their entry into the PTGS pathway. We anticipate that the rqc-siRNAs identified in decapping mutants represent a subset of a larger ensemble of endogenous siRNAs. PMID:25694514

  4. Selective recruitment of mRNAs and miRNAs to polyribosomes in response to rhizobia infection in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, Mauricio Alberto; Blanco, Flavio Antonio; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Crespi, Martín; Zanetti, María Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Translation of mRNAs is a key regulatory step that contributes to the coordination and modulation of eukaryotic gene expression during development or adaptation to the environment. mRNA stability or translatability can be regulated by the action of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), which control diverse biological processes. Under low nitrogen conditions, leguminous plants associate with soil bacteria and develop a new organ specialized in nitrogen fixation: the nodule. To gain insight into the translational regulation of mRNAs during nodule formation, the association of mRNAs and sRNAs to polysomes was characterized in roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula during the symbiotic interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Quantitative comparison of steady-state and polysomal mRNAs for 15 genes involved in nodulation identified a group of transcripts with slight or no change in total cellular abundance that were significantly upregulated at the level of association with polysomes in response to rhizobia. This group included mRNAs encoding receptors like kinases required either for nodule organogenesis, bacterial infection or both, and transcripts encoding GRAS and NF-Y transcription factors (TFs). Quantitative analysis of sRNAs in total and polysomal RNA samples revealed that mature microRNAs (miRNAs) were associated with the translational machinery, notably, miR169 and miR172, which target the NF-YA/HAP2 and AP2 TFs, respectively. Upon inoculation, levels of miR169 pronouncedly decreased in polysomal complexes, concomitant with the increased accumulation of the NF-YA/HAP2 protein. These results indicate that both mRNAs and miRNAs are subject to differential recruitment to polysomes, and expose the importance of selective mRNA translation during root nodule symbiosis.

  5. Novel role of microRNAs in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jun-jie; XIA Shu-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the novel biomarkers of microRNAs in prostate cancer.Data sources The literatures about microRNAs and prostate cancer cited in this review were obtained mainly from Pubmed published in English from 2004 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the novel role of microRNAs in prostate cancer were selected.Results MicroRNAs play an important role in prostate cancer such as cell differentiation,proliferation,apoptosis,and invasion.Especially microRNAs correlate with prostate cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),cancer stem cells (CSCs),drug sensitivity,cancer microenvironment,energy metabolism,androgen independence transformation,and diagnosis prediction.Conclusions MicroRNAs are involved in various aspects of prostate cancer biology.The role of microRNA in the initiation and development of prostate cancer deserves further study.

  6. MicroRNAs: regulators of oncogenesis and stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannakopoulos Thales

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs are essential post-transcriptional regulators that determine cell identity and fate. Aberrant expression of miRNAs can lead to diseases, including cancer. Expression of many miRNAs in the de-differentiated brain tumor cancer stem cells resembles that of neural stem cells. In this issue of BMC Medicine, Silber et al provide evidence of the expression of such miRNAs and their potential to mediate differentiation in both stem cell populations. In this commentary, we discuss the known functions of miRNAs in cancer and stem cells, their therapeutic potential and how the findings of Silber et al provide insight into the role of miR-124/miR-137 dysregulation in glioblastomas.

  7. New insights into microRNAs in skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Fatima; Bi, Xinling; Yu, Fu-Shin; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Chronic wounds are a major burden to overall healthcare cost and patient morbidity. Chronic wounds affect a large portion of the US, and billions of healthcare dollars are spent in their treatment and management. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding double-stranded RNAs that post-transcriptionally downregulate the expression of protein-coding genes. Studies have identified miRNAs involved in all three phases of wound healing including inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Some miRNAs have been demonstrated in vitro with primary keratinocyte wound healing model and in vivo with mouse wound healing model through regulation of miRNA expression to affect the wound healing process. This review updates the current miRNAs involved in wound healing and discusses the future therapeutic implications and research directions.

  8. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff; Salö, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin...... resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs...... with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome...

  9. The application of microRNAs in cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Kristensen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important biological roles in cancer development and progression. During the past decade, widespread use of novel high-throughput technologies for miRNA profiling (e.g., microarrays and next-generation sequencing) has revealed deregulation of miRNA expression as a common...... hallmark of human cancer. Furthermore, miRNAs have been found to be a new class of promising cancer biomarkers with potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis in several hematologic and solid malignancies, as well as to predict response to specific treatments. Recent studies have...... identified exosome-associated tumor-derived miRNAs in, e.g., blood samples from cancer patients, suggesting that miRNAs may be useful as circulation biomarkers for noninvasive diagnostic testing. In this chapter, we review the current state of development of miRNAs as cancer biomarkers with examples from...

  10. Plant microRNAs: master regulator of gene expression mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Riddhi; Paul, Soumitra

    2015-11-01

    Several signaling molecules critically regulate the physiological responses in plants. Among them, miRNAs, generally 21-24 nucleotides long, are widely distributed in different plant species and play as key signaling intermediates in diverse physiological responses. The mature miRNAs are synthesized from MIR genes by RNA polymerase II and processed by Dicer-like (DCL) protein family members associated with some accessory protein molecules. The processed miRNAs are transported to the cytoplasm from the nucleus by specific group of transporters and incorporated into RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) for specific mRNA cleavage. MicroRNAs can suppress the diverse gene expression, depending on the sequence complementarity of the target transcript except of its own gene. Besides, miRNAs can modulate the gene expression by DNA methylation and translational inhibition of the target transcript. Different classes of DCLs and Argonaute proteins (AGOs) help the miRNAs-mediated gene silencing mechanism in plants.

  11. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD, myocardial infarction (MI, and heart failure (HF.

  12. Long Non-Coding RNAs and Complex Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changning Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are a heterogeneous class of RNAs that are generally defined as non-protein-coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that lncRNAs can be involved in various critical biological processes, such as chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, and protein transport and trafficking. Moreover, lncRNAs are dysregulated in a number of complex human diseases, including coronary artery diseases, autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, and various cancers, which indicates their important roles in these diseases. Here, we reviewed the current understanding of lncRNAs, including their definition and subclassification, regulatory functions, and potential roles in different types of complex human diseases.

  13. The role of microRNAs in bone remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Jing; Jin Hao; Yu Shen; Ge Tang; Mei-Le Li; Shi-Hu Huang; Zhi-He Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Bone remodeling is balanced by bone formation and bone resorption as well as by alterations in the quantities and functions of seed cells, leading to either the maintenance or deterioration of bone status. The existing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), known as a family of short non-coding RNAs, are the key post-transcriptional repressors of gene expression, and growing numbers of novel miRNAs have been verified to play vital roles in the regulation of osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and adipogenesis, revealing how they interact with signaling molecules to control these processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the roles of miRNAs in regulating bone remodeling as well as novel applications for miRNAs in biomaterials for therapeutic purposes.

  14. The genetic signatures of noncoding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Mattick

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the genome in animals and plants is transcribed in a developmentally regulated manner to produce large numbers of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, whose incidence increases with developmental complexity. There is growing evidence that these transcripts are functional, particularly in the regulation of epigenetic processes, leading to the suggestion that they compose a hitherto hidden layer of genomic programming in humans and other complex organisms. However, to date, very few have been identified in genetic screens. Here I show that this is explicable by an historic emphasis, both phenotypically and technically, on mutations in protein-coding sequences, and by presumptions about the nature of regulatory mutations. Most variations in regulatory sequences produce relatively subtle phenotypic changes, in contrast to mutations in protein-coding sequences that frequently cause catastrophic component failure. Until recently, most mapping projects have focused on protein-coding sequences, and the limited number of identified regulatory mutations have been interpreted as affecting conventional cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements, although these regions are often themselves transcribed. Moreover, ncRNA-directed regulatory circuits underpin most, if not all, complex genetic phenomena in eukaryotes, including RNA interference-related processes such as transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing, position effect variegation, hybrid dysgenesis, chromosome dosage compensation, parental imprinting and allelic exclusion, paramutation, and possibly transvection and transinduction. The next frontier is the identification and functional characterization of the myriad sequence variations that influence quantitative traits, disease susceptibility, and other complex characteristics, which are being shown by genome-wide association studies to lie mostly in noncoding, presumably regulatory, regions. There is every possibility that

  15. Pervasive transcription: detecting functional RNAs in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybecker, Meghan; Bilusic, Ivana; Raghavan, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Pervasive, or genome-wide, transcription has been reported in all domains of life. In bacteria, most pervasive transcription occurs antisense to protein-coding transcripts, although recently a new class of pervasive RNAs was identified that originates from within annotated genes. Initially considered to be non-functional transcriptional noise, pervasive transcription is increasingly being recognized as important in regulating gene expression. The function of pervasive transcription is an extensively debated question in the field of transcriptomics and regulatory RNA biology. Here, we highlight the most recent contributions addressing the purpose of pervasive transcription in bacteria and discuss their implications.

  16. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  17. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  18. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  19. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  20. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  1. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  2. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  3. Effects of pathogen reduction systems on platelet microRNAs, mRNAs, activation, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Abdimajid; Hitzler, Walter E; Meyer, Claudius U; Landry, Patricia; Corduan, Aurélie; Laffont, Benoit; Boilard, Eric; Hellstern, Peter; Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Provost, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen reduction (PR) systems for platelets, based on chemically induced cross-linking and inactivation of nucleic acids, potentially prevent transfusion transmission of infectious agents, but can increase clinically significant bleeding in some clinical studies. Here, we documented the effects of PR systems on microRNA and mRNA levels of platelets stored in the blood bank, and assessed their impact on platelet activation and function. Unlike platelets subjected to gamma irradiation or stored in additive solution, platelets treated with Intercept (amotosalen+ ultraviolet-A [UVA] light) exhibited significantly reduced levels of 6 of the 11 microRNAs, and 2 of the 3 anti-apoptotic mRNAs (Bcl-xl and Clusterin) that we monitored, compared with platelets stored in plasma. Mirasol (riboflavin+ UVB light) treatment of platelets did not produce these effects. PR neither affected platelet microRNA synthesis or function nor induced cross-linking of microRNA-sized endogenous platelet RNA species. However, the reduction in the platelet microRNA levels induced by Intercept correlated with the platelet activation (p platelet aggregation response to ADP (p platelet activation, resulting in the release of microRNAs and mRNAs from platelets. The clinical implications of this reduction in platelet nucleic acids secondary to Intercept remain to be established.

  4. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  5. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  6. Update on non-canonical microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed Maher; Park, Chanhyun

    2015-01-01

    Non-canonical microRNAs are a recently-discovered subset of microRNAs. They structurally and functionally resemble canonical miRNAs, but were found to follow distinct maturation pathways, typically bypassing one or more steps of the classic canonical biogenesis pathway. Non-canonical miRNAs were found to have diverse origins, including introns, snoRNAs, endogenous shRNAs and tRNAs. Our knowledge about their functions remains relatively primitive; however, many interesting discoveries have taken place in the past few years. They have been found to take part in several cellular processes, such as immune response and stem cell proliferation. Adversely, their deregulation has pathologic effects on several different tissues, which strongly suggests an integral role for non-canonical miRNAs in disease pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the recently-discovered functional characteristics of non-canonical miRNAs and illustrate their principal maturation pathways as well as debating their potential role in multiple cellular processes. PMID:25372759

  7. Role of MicroRNAs in Lung Disease✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Martín; Lecuona, Emilia; Sznajder, Jacob Iasha

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression. They actively participate in the modulation of important cell physiological processes and are involved in the pathogenesis of lung diseases such as lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A better understanding of the role that miRNAs play in these diseases could lead to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In this review, we discuss the role of some miRNAs in different lung diseases as well as the possible future of these discoveries in clinical applications. PMID:22607962

  8. MicroRNAs Involved in Skeletal Muscle Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Luo; Qinghua Nie; Xiquan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression by promoting degradation of target mRNAs or inhibiting their translation.Previous studies have expanded our understanding that miRNAs play an important role in myogenesis and have a big impact on muscle mass,muscle fiber type and muscle-related diseases.The muscle-specific miRNAs,miR-206,miR-1 and miR-133,are among the most studied and best characterized miRNAs in skeletal muscle differentiation.They have a profound influence on multiple muscle differentiation processes,such as alternative splicing,DNA synthesis,and cell apoptosis.Many non-muscle-specific miRNAs are also required for the differentiation of muscle through interaction with myogenic factors.Studying the regulatory mechanisms of these miRNAs in muscle differentiation will extend our knowledge of miRNAs in muscle biology and will improve our understanding of the myogenesis regulation.

  9. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Line; Lindow, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Protein encoding genes have long been the major targets for research in schizophrenia genetics. However, with the identification of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as important in brain development and function, miRNAs genes have emerged as candidates for schizophrenia-associated genetic factors....... Indeed, the growing understanding of the regulatory properties and pleiotropic effects that miRNA have on molecular and cellular mechanisms, suggests that alterations in the interactions between miRNAs and their mRNA targets may contribute to phenotypic variation....

  10. MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, M; Gniadecki, R

    2013-01-01

    characteristics, histopathological features and mutation patterns within NRAS and BRAF genes. Recent data indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. MiRNAs are small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules expressed in a tissue and cell specific manner and are known...... to play a crucial role in cell homeostasis and carcinogenesis. MiRNAs might prove to be powerful cancer biomarkers and future therapeutic targets. In this review, we focused on the miRNA involvement in four molecular pathways known to be deregulated in malignant melanoma, including the RAS...

  11. Structured RNAs and synteny regions in the pig genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Christian; Tafer, Hakim; Havgaard, Jakob Hull;

    2014-01-01

    for Laurasiatheria (pig, cow, dolphin, horse, cat, dog, hedgehog). CONCLUSIONS: We have obtained one of the most comprehensive annotations for structured ncRNAs of a mammalian genome, which is likely to play central roles in both health modelling and production. The core annotation is available in Ensembl 70......BACKGROUND: Annotating mammalian genomes for noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) is nontrivial since far from all ncRNAs are known and the computational models are resource demanding. Currently, the human genome holds the best mammalian ncRNA annotation, a result of numerous efforts by several groups. However...

  12. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ballén-Taborda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of microRNAs (miRNAs in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants.

  13. The repertoire and features of human platelet microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Plé

    Full Text Available Playing a central role in the maintenance of hemostasis as well as in thrombotic disorders, platelets contain a relatively diverse messenger RNA (mRNA transcriptome as well as functional mRNA-regulatory microRNAs, suggesting that platelet mRNAs may be regulated by microRNAs. Here, we elucidated the complete repertoire and features of human platelet microRNAs by high-throughput sequencing. More than 492 different mature microRNAs were detected in human platelets, whereas the list of known human microRNAs was expanded further by the discovery of 40 novel microRNA sequences. As in nucleated cells, platelet microRNAs bear signs of post-transcriptional modifications, mainly terminal adenylation and uridylation. In vitro enzymatic assays demonstrated the ability of human platelets to uridylate microRNAs, which correlated with the presence of the uridyltransferase enzyme TUT4. We also detected numerous microRNA isoforms (isomiRs resulting from imprecise Drosha and/or Dicer processing, in some cases more frequently than the reference microRNA sequence, including 5' shifted isomiRs with redirected mRNA targeting abilities. This study unveils the existence of a relatively diverse and complex microRNA repertoire in human platelets, and represents a mandatory step towards elucidating the intraplatelet and extraplatelet role, function and importance of platelet microRNAs.

  14. Complicated evolutionary patterns of microRNAs in vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoWo; ZHANG XueGong; LI YanDa

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of~22 nt long endogenous non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in diverse organisms. Up to now, little is known about the evolutionary properties of these crucial regulators. Most miRNAs were thought to be phylogenetically conserved, but recently, a number of poorly-conserved miRNAs have been reported and miRNA innovation is shown to be an ongoing process. In this work, through the characterization of an miRNA super family, we studied the evolutionary patterns of miRNAs in vertebrates. Recently generated miRNAs seem to evolve rapidly during a certain period following their emergence. Multiple lineage-specific expansions were observed. Homolgous premiRNAs may produce mature products from the opposite stem arms following tandem duplications, which may have important contribution to miRNA innovation. Our observations of miRNAs' complicated evolutionary patterns support the notion that these key regulatory molecules may play very active roles in evolution.

  15. MicroRNAs Involved in Anti-Tumour Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. S. Cho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a category of small RNAs that constitute a new layer of complexity to gene regulation within the cell, which has provided new perspectives in understanding cancer biology. The deregulation of miRNAs contributes critically to the development and pathophysiology of a number of cancers. miRNAs have been found to participate in cell transformation and multiplication by acting as tumour oncogenes or suppressors; therefore, harnessing miRNAs may provide promising cancer therapeutics. Another major function of miRNAs is their activity as critical regulatory vehicles eliciting important regulatory processes in anti-tumour immunity through their influence on the development, differentiation and activation of various immune cells of both innate and adaptive immunity. This review aims to summarise recent findings focusing on the regulatory mechanisms of the development, differentiation, and proliferative aspects of the major immune populations by a diverse profile of miRNAs and may enrich our current understanding of the involvement of miRNAs in anti-tumour immunity.

  16. MicroRNAs and Osteolytic Bone Metastasis: The Roles of MicroRNAs in Tumor-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Kagiya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteolytic bone metastasis frequently occurs in the later stages of breast, lung, and several other cancers. Osteoclasts, the only cells that resorb bone, are hijacked by tumor cells, which break down bone remodeling systems. As a result, osteolysis occurs and may cause patients to suffer bone fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. It is important to understand the mechanism of bone metastasis to establish new cancer therapies. MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that are involved in various biological processes, including cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs have significant clinical potential, including their use as new therapeutic targets and disease-specific biomarkers. Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation and osteolytic bone metastasis. In this review focusing on microRNAs, the author discusses the roles of microRNAs in osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone metastasis.

  17. What Is a Total Artificial Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and location ...

  18. Characterization of piRNAs across postnatal development in mouse brain

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosheh, Yanal

    2016-04-26

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are responsible for maintaining the genome stability by silencing retrotransposons in germline tissues– where piRNAs were first discovered and thought to be restricted. Recently, novel functions were reported for piRNAs in germline and somatic cells. Using deep sequencing of small RNAs and CAGE of postnatal development of mouse brain, we identified piRNAs only in adult mouse brain. These piRNAs have similar sequence length as those of MILI-bound piRNAs. In addition, we predicted novel candidate regulators and putative targets of adult brain piRNAs.

  19. Circulating microRNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Margherita; Piscopo, Paola; Crestini, Alessio; Confaloni, Annamaria; Denti, Michela A

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are caused by a combination of events that impair normal neuronal function. Although they are considered different disorders, there are overlapping features among them from the clinical, pathological, and genetic points of view. Synaptic dysfunction and loss, neurite retraction, and the appearance of other abnormalities such as axonal transport defects normally precede the neuronal loss that is a relatively late event. The diagnosis of many neurodegenerative diseases is mainly based on patient's cognitive function analysis, and the development of diagnostic methods is complicated by the brain's capacity to compensate for neuronal loss over a long period of time. This results in the late clinical manifestation of symptoms, a time when successful treatment is no longer feasible. Thus, a noninvasive diagnostic method based on early events detection is particularly important. In the last years, some biomarkers expressed in human body fluids have been proposed. microRNAs (miRNAs), with their high stability, tissue- or cell type-specific expression, lower cost, and shorter time in the assay development, could constitute a good tool to obtain an early disease diagnosis for a wide number of human pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases. The possibilities and challenges of using these small RNA molecules as a signature for neurodegenerative disorders is a highly promising approach for developing minimally invasive screening tests and to identify new therapeutic targets.

  20. Cardiac Regeneration and microRNAs : Regulators of Pluripotency, Reprogramming, and Cardiovascular Lineage Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeleman, Martijn J. H.; Feyen, DAM; de Veij Mestdagh, Christina F.; Sluijter, JPG

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a small class of ~22 nucleotide long RNAs, which control gene expression through repression of mRNA translation and induction of mRNA decay. One miRNA can potentially target up to several hundred mRNAs, which makes miRNAs powerful regulators of gene expression patterns rather

  1. tRNAs as regulators in gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Transfer RNAs(tRNAs) hold a central place in protein synthesis by interpreting the genetic information stored in DNA into the amino acid sequence of protein,thus functioning as "adaptor" molecules.In recent years,however,various studies have shown that tRNAs have additional functions beyond participating in protein synthesis.When suffering from certain nutritional stresses,tRNAs change the level of aminoacylation to became uncharged,and these uncharged tRNAs act as effector molecules to regulate global gene expression,so that the stressed organism copes with the adverse environmental stresses.In budding yeast and certain mammalian cells,the retrograde movement of mature tRNAs from cytoplasm to nucleus serves as a mechanism for the surveillance system within the nucleus to continue monitoring the integrity of tRNAs.On the other hand,this retrograde action effectively reduces the global protein synthesis level under conditions of nutritional starvation.Quite recently,various publications have shown that tRNAs are not stable molecules in an absolute sense.Under certain physiological or environmental stresses,they are specifically cleaved into fragments of different lengths in the anticodon loop or anticodon left arm.These cleavages are not a meaningless random degradation phenomenon.Instead,a novel class of signal molecules such as tRNA halves or sitRNAs may be produced,which are closely correlated with the modulation of global gene expression.Investigation of the regulatory functions of tRNAs is a frontier,which seeks to reveal the structural and functional diversity of tRNAs as well as their vital functions during the expression of genetic information.

  2. tRNAs as regulators in gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; ZHOU Hui

    2009-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) hold a central place In protein synthesis by interpreting the genetic information stored in DNA into the amino acid sequence of protein, thus functioning as "adaptor" molecules. In recent years, however, various studies have shown that tRNAs have additional functions beyond par-ticipating in protein synthesis. When suffering from certain nutritional stresses, tRNAs change the level of aminoacylation to became uncharged, and these uncharged tRNAs act as effector molecules to regulate global gene expression, so that the stressed organism copes with the adverse environmental stresses. In budding yeast and certain mammalian cells, the retrograde movement of mature tRNAs from cytoplasm to nucleus serves as a mechanism for the surveillance system within the nucleus to continue monitoring the integrity of tRNAs. On the other hand, this retrograde action effectively re-duces the global protein synthesis level under conditions of nutritional starvation. Quite recently, various publications have shown that tRNAs are not stable molecules in an absolute sense. Under certain physiological or environmental stresses, they are specifically cleaved into fragments of differ-ent lengths in the anticodon loop or anticodon left arm. These cleavages are not a meaningless random degradation phenomenon. Instead, a novel class of signal molecules such as tRNA halves or sitRNAs may be produced, which are closely correlated with the modulation of global gene expression. Inves-tigation of the regulatory functions of tRNAs is a frontier, which seeks to reveal the structural and functional diversity of tRNAs as well as their vital functions during the expression of genetic informa-tion.

  3. Mammalian small nucleolar RNAs are mobile genetic elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J Weber

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs of the H/ACA box and C/D box categories guide the pseudouridylation and the 2'-O-ribose methylation of ribosomal RNAs by forming short duplexes with their target. Similarly, small Cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNAs guide modifications of spliceosomal RNAs. The vast majority of vertebrate sno/scaRNAs are located in introns of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II and processed by exonucleolytic trimming after splicing. A bioinformatic search for orthologues of human sno/scaRNAs in sequenced mammalian genomes reveals the presence of species- or lineage-specific sno/scaRNA retroposons (sno/scaRTs characterized by an A-rich tail and an approximately 14-bp target site duplication that corresponds to their insertion site, as determined by interspecific genomic alignments. Three classes of snoRTs are defined based on the extent of intron and exon sequences from the snoRNA parental host gene they contain. SnoRTs frequently insert in gene introns in the sense orientation at genomic hot spots shared with other genetic mobile elements. Previously characterized human snoRNAs are encoded in retroposons whose parental copies can be identified by phylogenic analysis, showing that snoRTs can be faithfully processed. These results identify snoRNAs as a new family of mobile genetic elements. The insertion of new snoRNA copies might constitute a safeguard mechanism by which the biological activity of snoRNAs is maintained in spite of the risk of mutations in the parental copy. I furthermore propose that retroposition followed by genetic drift is a mechanism that increased snoRNA diversity during vertebrate evolution to eventually acquire new RNA-modification functions.

  4. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  5. [Research and development of artificial retina material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin

    2008-04-01

    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  6. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pests).

  7. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David E.; Biggins, Dean E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis).

  8. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  9. Dos nuevos microRNAs (miRNAs identificados en ovario bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Muñoz-Bañales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Para entender los mecanismos de maduración, fertilización y desarrollo embrionario en el ganado bovino, es necesario la identificación y caracterización de microRNAs (miRNAs involucrados en la regulación del crecimiento del ovocito y la transición ovocito-embrión. Con el objetivo de identificar nuevos miRNAs, con una posible función dentro del proceso de maduración del ovocito y de embriogénesis temprana, se realizó una librería genómica con miRNAs provenientes de ovarios de vacas de rastro. Al analizar los concatámeros de 40 clonas se identificaron dos nuevos miRNAs, bta-mir-8548 y bta-mir-8549, cuyos pre-miRNA mostraron una estructura tallo-burbuja estable, según los parámetros establecidos por el miRBase. El bta-mir-8548 se ubicó en el cromosoma 8 en una región intrónica entre los exones 1 y 2 del gen MRSA (metionina sulfóxido reductasa, sugiriendo que puede tener una función en la regulación del estrés oxidativo durante la maduración del ovocito. El bta-mir-8549 se ubicó en el cromosoma 7 en la región intergénica entre los genes tRNA-Cys y GBPg5. La forma madura de este miRNA mostró la secuencia conservada propia de la familia de miRNAs bta-let-7, los cuales están relacionados con los procesos de maduración del ovocito. Para ubicar el lugar de bta-mir-8549 dentro de la familia de miRNAs bta-let-7 se realizó un estudio filogenético. El cladograma generado a partir de las distancias genéticas entre los miRNAs bta-let-7 indicó que bta-mir-8549 se situó de forma monofilética con bta-let-7c, mientras que el resto de los bta-let-7 quedaron ubicados en clados diferentes. En conclusión, bta-mir-8548 y bta-mir-8549 son nuevos miRNAs aislados de ovario bovino los cuales podrían actuar en los mecanismos de regulación de la maduración del ovocito y durante el desarrollo embrionario.

  10. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  11. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  12. Two Virus-Induced MicroRNAs Known Only from Teleost Fishes Are Orthologues of MicroRNAs Involved in Cell Cycle Control in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bela-Ong, Dennis; Jalali, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are similar to 22 base pair-long non-coding RNAs which regulate gene expression in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells by binding to specific target regions in mRNAs to mediate transcriptional blocking or mRNA cleavage. Through their fundamental roles in cellular pathways, gene r...

  13. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.

  14. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  15. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  16. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao

    2016-12-01

    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  17. Observing atomic collapse resonances in artificial nuclei on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wong, Dillon; Shytov, Andrey V; Brar, Victor W; Choi, Sangkook; Wu, Qiong; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Regan, William; Zettl, Alex; Kawakami, Roland K; Louie, Steven G; Levitov, Leonid S; Crommie, Michael F

    2013-05-10

    Relativistic quantum mechanics predicts that when the charge of a superheavy atomic nucleus surpasses a certain threshold, the resulting strong Coulomb field causes an unusual atomic collapse state; this state exhibits an electron wave function component that falls toward the nucleus, as well as a positron component that escapes to infinity. In graphene, where charge carriers behave as massless relativistic particles, it has been predicted that highly charged impurities should exhibit resonances corresponding to these atomic collapse states. We have observed the formation of such resonances around artificial nuclei (clusters of charged calcium dimers) fabricated on gated graphene devices via atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope. The energy and spatial dependence of the atomic collapse state measured with scanning tunneling microscopy revealed unexpected behavior when occupied by electrons.

  18. The function of small RNAs in plant biotic stress response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Huang; Meiling Yang; Xiaoming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) play essential roles in plants upon biotic stress. Plants utilize RNA silencing machinery to facilitate pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity to defend against pathogen attack or to facilitate defense against insect herbivores. Pathogens, on the other hand, are also able to generate effectors and sRNAs to counter the host immune response. The arms race between plants and pathogens/insect herbivores has triggered the evolution of sRNAs, RNA silencing machinery and pathogen effectors. A great number of studies have been performed to investigate the roles of sRNAs in plant defense, bringing in the opportunity to utilize sRNAs in plant protection. Transgenic plants with pathogen-derived resistance ability or trans-generational defense have been generated, which show promising potential as solutions for pathogen/insect herbi-vore problems in the field. Here we summarize the recent progress on the function of sRNAs in response to biotic stress, mainly in plant-pathogen/insect herbivore interaction, and the application of sRNAs in disease and insect herbivore control.

  19. MicroRNAs in rhabdomyosarcoma: pathogenetic implications and translational potentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing evidence that interconnections among molecular pathways governing tissue differentiation are nodal points for malignant transformation. In this scenario, microRNAs appear as crucial players. This class of non-coding small regulatory RNA molecules controls developmental programs by modulating gene expression through post-transcriptional silencing of target mRNAs. During myogenesis, muscle-specific and ubiquitously-expressed microRNAs tightly control muscle tissue differentiation. In recent years, microRNAs have emerged as prominent players in cancer as well. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a pediatric skeletal muscle-derived soft-tissue sarcoma that originates from myogenic precursors arrested at different stages of differentiation and that continue to proliferate indefinitely. MicroRNAs involved in muscle cell fate determination appear down-regulated in rhabdomyosarcoma primary tumors and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. More importantly, they behave as tumor suppressors in this malignancy, as their re-expression is sufficient to restore the differentiation capability of tumor cells and to prevent tumor growth in vivo. In addition, up-regulation of pro-oncogenic microRNAs has also been recently detected in rhabdomyosarcoma. In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge on microRNAs de-regulation in rhabdomyosarcoma. Additionally, we examine the potential of microRNAs as prognostic and diagnostic markers in this soft-tissue sarcoma, and discuss possible therapeutic applications and challenges of a "microRNA therapy".

  20. The Role of MicroRNAs in Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydwell Mukhadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that regulate pathophysiological processes that suppress gene expression by binding to messenger RNAs. These biomolecules can be used to study gene regulation and protein expression, which will allow better understanding of many biological processes such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis that control the fate of cells. Several pathways have also been implicated to be involved in kidney diseases such as Transforming Growth Factor-β, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase signaling, and Wnt signaling pathways. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new insights into kidney pathologies and may provide new innovative and effective therapeutic strategies. Research has demonstrated the role of miRNAs in a variety of kidney diseases including renal cell carcinoma, diabetic nephropathy, nephritic syndrome, renal fibrosis, lupus nephritis and acute pyelonephritis. MiRNAs are implicated as playing a role in these diseases due to their role in apoptosis, cell proliferation, differentiation and development. As miRNAs have been detected in a stable condition in different biological fluids, they have the potential to be tools to study the pathogenesis of human diseases with a great potential to be used in disease prognosis and diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of miRNA in kidney disease.

  1. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Clokie, Samuel J H; Fu, Cong; Olanich, Mary E; Rangel, Zoila; Werner, Thomas; Mullikin, James C; Klein, David C

    2012-08-14

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (doubling time = 0.5-1.3 h). Light exposure at night rapidly reverses (halving time = 9-32 min) levels of some of these lncRNAs. Organ culture studies indicate that expression of these lncRNAs is regulated by norepinephrine acting through cAMP. These findings point to a dynamic role of lncRNAs in the circadian system.

  2. Diversity of small RNAs expressed in Pseudomonas species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Lozano, Mara; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molina-Santiago, Carlos;

    2015-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revealed several hundreds of previously undetected small RNAs (sRNAs) in all bacterial species investigated, including strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas syringae. Nonetheless, only little is known about the extent of conservation of...

  3. Base Composition Characteristics of Mammalian miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short RNA sequences that repress protein synthesis by either inhibiting the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA or increasing mRNA degradation. Endogenous miRNAs have been found in various organisms, including animals, plants, and viruses. Mammalian miRNAs are evolutionarily conserved, are scattered throughout chromosomes, and play an important role in the immune response and the onset of cancer. For this study, the author explored the base composition characteristics of miRNA genes from the six mammalian species that contain the largest number of known miRNAs. It was found that mammalian miRNAs are evolutionarily conserved and GU-rich. Interestingly, in the miRNA sequences investigated, A residues are clearly the most frequent occupants of positions 2 and 3 of the 5′ end of miRNAs. Unlike G and U residues that may pair with C/U and A/G, respectively, A residues can only pair with U residues of target mRNAs, which may augment the recognition specificity of the 5′ seed region.

  4. Identification of MicroRNAs in Zebrafish Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun-Tong; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Peng; Zeng, Lin; Jin, Yilin; Yuan, Yongming; Chen, Jieying; Hong, Yunhan; Yi, Meisheng

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in almost all biological processes. Plenty of evidences show that some testis- or spermatozoa-specific miRNAs play crucial roles in the process of gonad and germ cell development. In this study, the spermatozoa miRNA profiles were investigated through a combination of illumina deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis in zebrafish. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11,820,680 clean reads. By mapping to the zebrafish genome, we identified 400 novel and 204 known miRNAs that could be grouped into 104 families. Furthermore, we selected the six highest expressions of known miRNAs to detect their expression patterns in different tissues by stem-loop quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that among the six miRNAs, dre-miR-202-5p displayed specific and high expression in zebrafish spermatozoa and testis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that dre-miR-202-5p was predominantly expressed in all kind of germ cells at different spermatogenetic stages, including spermatogonia and spermatozoa, but barely expressed in the germ cells in the ovary. This sex-biased expression pattern suggests that dre-miR-202-5p might be related to spermatogenesis and the functioning of spermatozoa. The identification of miRNAs in zebrafish spermatozoa and germ cells offers new insights into the spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the teleost and other vertebrates.

  5. Evidence for a cytoplasmic microprocessor of pri-miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jillian S; Langlois, Ryan A; Pham, Alissa M; Tenoever, Benjamin R

    2012-07-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of noncoding RNAs that fine-tune gene expression through post-transcriptional silencing. While miRNA biogenesis occurs in a stepwise fashion, initiated by the nuclear microprocessor, rare noncanonical miRNAs have also been identified. Here we characterize the molecular components and unique attributes associated with the processing of virus-derived cytoplasmic primary miRNAs (c-pri-miRNAs). RNA in situ hybridization and inhibition of cellular division demonstrated a complete lack of nuclear involvement in c-pri-miRNA cleavage while genetic studies revealed that maturation still relied on the canonical nuclear RNase III enzyme, Drosha. The involvement of Drosha was mediated by a dramatic relocalization to the cytoplasm following virus infection. Deep sequencing analyses revealed that the cytoplasmic localization of Drosha does not impact the endogenous miRNA landscape during infection, despite allowing for robust synthesis of virus-derived miRNAs in the cytoplasm. Taken together, this research describes a unique function for Drosha in the processing of highly structured cytoplasmic RNAs in the context of virus infection.

  6. Identification of Androgen Receptor-Specific Enhancer RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AND SUBTITLE Identification of Androgen Receptor-Specific Enhancer RNAs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0120 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT ...interesting eRNAs and their sequences are shown below. AR-eRNA-#1 ( 117 bp

  7. Recurrently deregulated lncRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Lei; Gu, Jin; Zhang, Hanshuo; Yuan, Jiapei; Lian, Qiuyu; Lv, Guishuai; Wang, Siqi; Wu, Yang; Yang, Yu-Cheng T.; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Yang; Tang, Jing; Luo, Guijuan; Li, Yang; Hu, Long; Sun, Xinbao; Wang, Dong; Guo, Mingzhou; Xi, Qiaoran; Xi, Jianzhong; Wang, Hongyang; Zhang, Michael Q.; Lu, Zhi John

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells often invade the portal venous system and subsequently develop into portal vein tumour thrombosis (PVTT). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with HCC, but a comprehensive analysis of their specific association with HCC metastasis has not been conducted. Here, by analysing 60 clinical samples' RNA-seq data from 20 HCC patients, we have identified and characterized 8,603 candidate lncRNAs. The expression patterns of 917 recurrently deregulated lncRNAs are correlated with clinical data in a TCGA cohort and published liver cancer data. Matched array data from the 60 samples show that copy number variations (CNVs) and alterations in DNA methylation contribute to the observed recurrent deregulation of 235 lncRNAs. Many recurrently deregulated lncRNAs are enriched in co-expressed clusters of genes related to cell adhesion, immune response and metabolic processes. Candidate lncRNAs related to metastasis, such as HAND2-AS1, were further validated using RNAi-based loss-of-function assays. Thus, we provide a valuable resource of functional lncRNAs and biomarkers associated with HCC tumorigenesis and metastasis. PMID:28194035

  8. Differential and coherent processing patterns from small RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Gorodkin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional processing events related to short RNAs are often reflected in their read profile patterns emerging from high-throughput sequencing data. MicroRNA arm switching across different tissues is a well-known example of what we define as differential processing. Here, short RNAs fro...

  9. LncRNAs expression in preeclampsia placenta reveals the potential role of LncRNAs contributing to preeclampsia pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoju He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are an important class of pervasive genes involved in a variety of biological functions. They are aberrantly expressed in many types of diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia has been observed in patients with molar pregnancy where a fetus is absent, which demonstrate that the placenta is sufficient to cause this condition. Thus, we analyzed the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia placentas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we described the lncRNA profiles in six preeclampsia placentas (T and five normal pregnancy placentas (N using microarray. With abundant and varied probes accounting for 33,045 LncRNAs in our microarray, 28,443 lncRNAs that were expressed at a specific level were detected. From the data, we found 738 lncRNAs that were differentially expressed (≥ 1.5-fold-change among preeclampsia placentas compared with controls. Coding-non-coding gene co-expression networks (CNC network were constructed based on the correlation analysis between the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs. According to the CNC network and GO analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs/mRNAs, we selected three lncRNAs to analyze the relationship between lncRNAs and preeclampsia. LOC391533, LOC284100, and CEACAMP8 were evaluated using qPCR in 40 preeclampsia placentas and 40 controls. These results revealed that three lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in preeclampsia placentas compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first study to determine the genome-wide lncRNAs expression patterns in preeclampsia placenta using microarray. These results revealed that clusters of lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in preeclampsia placenta compared with controls, which indicated that lncRNAs differentially expressed in preeclampsia placenta might play a partial or key role in preeclampsia development. Misregulation of LOC391533, LOC

  10. MicroRNAs – important molecules in lung cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eLeidinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA are important regulators of gene expression. They are involved in many physiological processes ensuring the cellular homeostasis of human cells. Alterations of the miRNA expression have increasingly been associated with pathophysiological changes of cancer cells making miRNAs currently to one of the most analyzed molecules in cancer research. Here we provide an overview of miRNAs in lung cancer. Specifically, we address biological functions of miRNAs in lung cancer cells, miRNA signatures generated from tumor tissue and from patients’ body fluids, the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for lung cancer, and its role as therapeutical target.

  11. Searching for MIND: MicroRNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Barbato

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In few years our understanding of microRNA (miRNA biogenesis, molecular mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate gene expression, and the functional roles of miRNAs has been expanded. Interestingly, numerous miRNAs are expressed in a spatially and temporally controlled manner in the nervous system, suggesting that their posttrascriptional regulation may be particularly relevant in neural development and function. MiRNA studies in neurobiology showed their involvement in synaptic plasticity and brain diseases. In this review ,correlations between miRNA-mediated gene silencing and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and other neurodegenerative diseases will be discussed. Molecular and cellular neurobiological studies of the miRNAs in neurodegeneration represent the exploration of a new Frontier of miRNAs biology and the potential development of new diagnostic tests and genetic therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Interplay of mitochondrial metabolism and microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, Julian; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2016-01-01

    are encoded in the nucleus and synthesized in the cytosol. Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are short non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules with the ability to prevent messenger RNA (mRNA)-translation or to induce the degradation of mRNA-transcripts. Although miRNAs are mainly located in the cytosol...... or the nucleus, a subset of ~150 different miRNAs, called mitomiRs, has also been found localized to mitochondrial fractions of cells and tissues together with the subunits of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC); the protein complex through which miRNAs normally act to prevent translation of their mRNA......-targets. The focus of this review is on miRNAs and mitomiRs with influence on mitochondrial metabolism and their possible pathophysiological impact....

  13. MicroRNAs as Novel Regulators of Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Justyna Ksiazek-Winiarek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are relatively recently discovered class of small noncoding RNAs, which function as important regulators of gene expression. They fine-tune protein expression either by translational inhibition or mRNA degradation. MicroRNAs act as regulators of diverse cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Their defective biogenesis or function has been identified in various pathological conditions, like inflammation, neurodegeneration, or autoimmunity. Multiple sclerosis is one of the predominated debilitating neurological diseases affecting mainly young adults. It is a multifactorial disorder of as yet unknown aetiology. As far, it is suggested that interplay between genetic and environmental factors is responsible for MS pathogenesis. The role of microRNAs in this pathology is now extensively studied. Here, we want to review the current knowledge of microRNAs role in multiple sclerosis.

  14. Mechanism of T cell regulation by microRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Liu; Chang-Ping Wu; Bin-Feng Lu; Jing-Ting Jiang

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding single-stranded RNAs that can modulate target gene expression at post-transcriptional level and participate in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. T cells have important functions in acquired immune response;miRNAs regulate this immune response by targeting the mRNAs of genes involved in T cell development, proliferation, differentiation, and function. For instance, miR-181 family members function in progression by targeting Bcl2 and CD69, among others. MiR-17 to miR-92 clusters function by binding to CREB1, PTEN, and Bim. Considering that the suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells is involved in cancer progression, we should investigate the mechanism by which miRNA regulates T cells to develop new approaches for cancer treatment.

  15. Role of microRNAs in arbovirus/vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Sassan

    2014-09-23

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs in regulation of gene expression has been recognized. They appear to be involved in regulation of a wide range of cellular pathways that affect several biological processes such as development, the immune system, survival, metabolism and host-pathogen interactions. Arthropod-borne viruses impose great economic and health risks around the world. Recent advances in miRNA biology have shed some light on the role of these small RNAs in vector-virus interactions. In this review, I will reflect on our current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in arbovirus-vector interactions and the potential avenues for their utilization in limiting virus replication and/or transmission.

  16. MicroRNAs as regulators of cutaneous wound healing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wing-Fu Lai; Parco M Siu

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, and have displayed important roles in areas spanning from embryonic development to skin physiology. Despite this, till now little is known about the significance of miRNAs in cutaneous wound healing. In this mini-review, we discuss the existing evidence on the roles of miRNAs in physiological processes relevant to cutaneous wound healing, followed by a highlight of the prospects and challenges of future development of miRNA-based wound therapies. With existing technologies of nucleic acid transfer and miRNA modulation, it is anticipated that once the roles of miRNAs in wound healing have been clarified, there will be a vast new vista of opportunities brought up for development of miRNA-targeted therapies for wound care.

  17. Non-coding RNAs in chromatin disease involving neurological defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana eDella Ragione

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel classes of small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are increasingly becoming apparent, being engaged in diverse structural, functional and regulatory activities. They take part in target gene silencing, play roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic processes, such as chromatin remodeling, nuclear reorganization with the formation of silent compartments and fine-tuning of gene recruitment into them. Among their functions, non-coding RNAs are thought to act either as guide or scaffold for epigenetic modifiers that write, erase and read the epigenetic signature over the genome. Studies on human disorders caused by defects in epigenetic modifiers and involving neurological phenotypes highlight the disruption of diverse classes of non-coding RNAs. Noteworthy, these molecules mediate a wide spectrum of neuronal functions, including brain development, and synaptic plasticity. These findings imply a significant contribution of ncRNAs in pathophysiology of the aforesaid diseases and provide new concepts for potential therapeutic applications.

  18. Searching for MIND: microRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Christian; Ruberti, Francesca; Cogoni, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    In few years our understanding of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, molecular mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate gene expression, and the functional roles of miRNAs has been expanded. Interestingly, numerous miRNAs are expressed in a spatially and temporally controlled manner in the nervous system, suggesting that their posttrascriptional regulation may be particularly relevant in neural development and function. MiRNA studies in neurobiology showed their involvement in synaptic plasticity and brain diseases. In this review ,correlations between miRNA-mediated gene silencing and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and other neurodegenerative diseases will be discussed. Molecular and cellular neurobiological studies of the miRNAs in neurodegeneration represent the exploration of a new Frontier of miRNAs biology and the potential development of new diagnostic tests and genetic therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. MicroRNAs: novel therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Reema; Ghosh, Tanay; Scaria, Vinod; Pillai, Beena

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders is rising steadily as human life expectancy increases. However, limited knowledge of the molecular basis of disease pathogenesis is a major hurdle in the identification of drug targets and development of therapeutic strategies for these largely incurable disorders. Recently, differential expression of endogenous regulatory small RNAs, known as 'microRNAs' (miRNAs), in patients of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and models of ataxia suggest that they might have key regulatory roles in neurodegeneration. miRNAs that can target known mediators of neurodegeneration offer potential therapeutic targets. Our bioinformatic analysis suggests novel miRNA-target interactions that could potentially influence neurodegeneration. The recent development of molecules that alter miRNA expression promises valuable tools that will enhance the therapeutic potential of miRNAs.

  20. MicroRNAs and cancer resistance: A new molecular plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanini, F; Fabbri, M

    2016-05-01

    The most common cause of cancer relapse is drug resistance, acquired or intrinsic, which strongly limits the efficacy of both conventional and new targeted chemotherapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a growing, large family of short noncoding RNAs frequently dysregulated in malignancies. Although the mechanism of miRNA-mediated drug resistance is not fully understood, an increasing amount of evidence suggests their involvement in the acquisition of tumor cell drug resistance, pointing towards the need for novel and more innovative therapeutic approaches. Use of antagomiRs or mimics can modulate specific miRNAs in order to restore gene networks and signaling pathways, perhaps optimizing chemotherapies by increasing cancer cell sensitivity to drugs. The aim of this review is to provide a state-of-the-art scenario with regard to the most recent discoveries in the field of miRNAs involved in the process of resistance to cancer therapy.

  1. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ≥94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ≥58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  2. microRNAs and Cardiovascular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Koh

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality attributable largely to structural changes in the heart and with associated cardiac dysfunction. Remodeling is defined as alteration of the mass, dimensions, or shape of the heart (termed cardiac or ventricular remodeling) and vessels (vascular remodeling) in response to hemodynamic load and/or cardiovascular injury in association with neurohormonal activation. Remodeling may be described as physiologic or pathologic; alternatively, remodeling may be classified as adaptive or maladaptive. The importance of remodeling as a pathogenic mechanism has been controversial because factors leading to remodeling as well as the remodeling itself may be major determinants of patients' prognosis. The basic mechanisms of cardiovascular remodeling, and especially the roles of microRNAs in HF progression and vascular diseases, will be reviewed here.

  3. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  4. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  5. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  6. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  7. Design, Construction, and Validation of Artificial MicroRNA Vectors Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Expression System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Chi, Ming; Han, Dianwei; Tang, Haifeng; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology utilizes microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway to produce artificially selected small RNAs using miRNA gene backbone. It provides a feasible strategy for inducing loss of gene function, and has been applied in functional genomics study, improvement of crop quality and plant virus disease resistance. A big challenge in amiRNA applications is the unpredictability of silencing efficacy of the designed amiRNAs and not all constructed amiRNA candidates would be expressed effectively in plant cells. We and others found that high efficiency and specificity in RNA silencing can be achieved by designing amiRNAs with perfect or almost perfect sequence complementarity to their targets. In addition, we recently demonstrated that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system can be used to validate amiRNA constructs, which provides a simple, rapid and effective method to select highly expressible amiRNA candidates for stable genetic transformation. Here, we describe the methods for design of amiRNA candidates with perfect or almost perfect base-pairing to the target gene or gene groups, incorporation of amiRNA candidates in miR168a gene backbone by one step inverse PCR amplification, construction of plant amiRNA expression vectors, and assay of transient expression of amiRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana through agro-infiltration, small RNA extraction, and amiRNA Northern blot.

  8. Uncovering RNA editing sites in long non-coding RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto ePicardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA editing is an important co/post-transcriptional molecular process able to modify RNAs by nucleotide insertions/deletions or substitutions. In human, the most common RNA editing event involves the deamination of adenosine (A into inosine (I through the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR proteins. Although A-to-I editing can occur in both coding and non coding RNAs, recent findings, based on RNA-seq experiments, have clearly demonstrated that a large fraction of RNA editing events alter non-coding RNAs sequences including untranslated regions of mRNAs (UTRs, introns, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA and low molecular weight RNAs (tRNA, miRNAs and others. An accurate detection of A-to-I events occurring in non-coding RNAs is of utmost importance to clarify yet unknown functional roles of RNA editing in the context of gene expression regulation and maintenance of cell homeostasis. In the last few years, massive transcriptome sequencing has been employed to identify putative RNA editing changes at genome scale. Despite several efforts, the computational prediction of A-to-I sites in complete eukaryotic genomes is yet a challenging task. We have recently developed a software package, called REDItools, in order to simplify the detection of RNA editing events from deep sequencing data. In the present work, we show the potential of our tools in recovering A-to-I candidates from RNA-Seq experiments as well as guidelines to improve the RNA editing detection in non-coding RNAs, with specific attention to the lncRNAs.

  9. Identification of microRNAs in the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2014-03-21

    Coral reefs are major contributors to marine biodiversity. However, they are in rapid decline due to global environmental changes such as rising sea surface temperatures, ocean acidification, and pollution. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses have broadened our understanding of coral biology, but a study of the microRNA (miRNA) repertoire of corals is missing. miRNAs constitute a class of small non-coding RNAs of ∼22 nt in size that play crucial roles in development, metabolism, and stress response in plants and animals alike. In this study, we examined the coral Stylophora pistillata for the presence of miRNAs and the corresponding core protein machinery required for their processing and function. Based on small RNA sequencing, we present evidence for 31 bona fide microRNAs, 5 of which (miR-100, miR-2022, miR-2023, miR-2030, and miR-2036) are conserved in other metazoans. Homologues of Argonaute, Piwi, Dicer, Drosha, Pasha, and HEN1 were identified in the transcriptome of S. pistillata based on strong sequence conservation with known RNAi proteins, with additional support derived from phylogenetic trees. Examination of putative miRNA gene targets indicates potential roles in development, metabolism, immunity, and biomineralisation for several of the microRNAs. Here, we present first evidence of a functional RNAi machinery and five conserved miRNAs in S. pistillata, implying that miRNAs play a role in organismal biology of scleractinian corals. Analysis of predicted miRNA target genes in S. pistillata suggests potential roles of miRNAs in symbiosis and coral calcification. Given the importance of miRNAs in regulating gene expression in other metazoans, further expression analyses of small non-coding RNAs in transcriptional studies of corals should be informative about miRNA-affected processes and pathways.

  10. MicroRNAs and potential targets in osteosarcoma: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie B. Sampson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and young adults. Surgery and multi-agent chemotherapy are the standard treatment regimens for this disease. New therapies are being investigated to improve overall survival in patients. Molecular targets that actively modulate cell processes such as cell-cycle control, cell proliferation, metabolism and apoptosis, have been studied, but it remains a challenge to develop novel, effective targeted therapies to treat this heterogeneous and complex disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in regulating cell processes including growth, development and disease. miRNAs function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors to regulate gene and protein expression. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma with the potential for development in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs and their target genes and evaluate their potential use as therapeutic agents in osteosarcoma. We also summarize the efficacy of inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs or expression of tumor suppressor miRNAs in preclinical models of osteosarcoma. Recent progress on systemic delivery as well as current applications for miRNAs as therapeutic agents has seen the advancement of miR-34a in clinical trials for adult patients with non-resectable primary liver cancer or metastatic cancer with liver involvement. We suggest a global approach to the understanding of the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma may identify candidate miRNAs as promising biomarkers for this rare disease.

  11. Mechanical properties of artificial snow

    OpenAIRE

    Lintzén, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties of snow have been a subject of research since the mid-20th century. Theresearch done is based on natural snow. During the last decades the winter business industryhas been growing and also the interest for constructing buildings and artwork of snow. Suchconstructions are generally built using artificial snow, i.e. snow produced by snow guns. Up tothe present constructions of snow are designed based on knowledge by experience. Only minorscientific studies on artificial sn...

  12. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  13. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  14. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  15. Time-dependent expression profiles of microRNAs and mRNAs in rat milk whey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Izumi

    Full Text Available Functional RNAs, such as microRNA (miRNA and mRNA, are present in milk, but their roles are unknown. To clarify the roles of milk RNAs, further studies using experimental animals such as rats are needed. However, it is unclear whether rat milk also contains functional RNAs and what their time dependent expression profiles are. Thus, we prepared total RNA from whey isolated from rat milk collected on days 2, 9, and 16 postpartum and analyzed using microarrays and quantitative PCR. The concentration of RNA in colostrum whey (day 2 was markedly higher than that in mature milk whey (days 9 and 16. Microarray analysis detected 161 miRNAs and 10,948 mRNA transcripts. Most of the miRNAs and mRNA transcripts were common to all tested milks. Finally, we selected some immune- and development-related miRNAs and mRNAs, and analysed them by quantitative PCR (in equal sample volumes to determine their time-dependent changes in expression in detail. Some were significantly more highly expressed in colostrum whey than in mature milk whey, but some were expressed equally. And mRNA expression levels of some cytokines and hormones did not reflect the protein levels. It is still unknown whether RNAs in milk play biological roles in neonates. However, our data will help guide future in vivo studies using experimental animals such as rats.

  16. Transcriptional, post-transcriptional and chromatin-associated regulation of pri-miRNAs, pre-miRNAs and moRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepal, Chirag; Coolen, Marion; Hadzhiev, Yavor;

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a major role in the post-transcriptional regulation of target genes, especially in development and differentiation. Our understanding about the transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes is limited by inadequate annotation of primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts. Here, we...... used CAGE-seq and RNA-seq to provide genome-wide identification of the pri-miRNA core promoter repertoire and its dynamic usage during zebrafish embryogenesis. We assigned pri-miRNA promoters to 152 precursor-miRNAs (pre-miRNAs), the majority of which were supported by promoter associated post....... Developmental profiling revealed a subset of pri-miRNAs that are maternally inherited. Moreover, we show that promoter-associated H3K4me3, H2A.Z and RNAPII marks are not only present at pri-miRNA promoters but are also specifically enriched at pre-miRNAs, suggesting chromatin level regulation of pre...

  17. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  18. Development of a totally implantable artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Veenstra, Aalze; de Vries, MP; Schutte, HK; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, IF; Van der Mei, HC; Rakhorst, G; Clements, MP

    1996-01-01

    Background. The consequences of a life-saving laryngectomy are still very distressing. The Eureka project "Artificial Larynx" aims at realization of an implantable artificial larynx to eliminate all drawbacks. Methods. The artificial larynx will consist of artificial vocal folds of adjustable pitch

  19. Occupy Education: Living and Learning Sustainability. By Tina Lynn Evans, Peter Lang Publishing, 2012; 356 Pages. Price: $39.95, ISBN 978-1-4331-1966-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Occupy Education is motivated by the sustainability crisis and energized by the drive for social justice that inspired the Occupy movement. Situated within the struggle for sustainability taking place amid looming resource shortages, climate change, economic instability, and ecological breakdown, the book is a timely contribution to community education and action. It opens a whole realm of integrated theory to educators and sustainability activists-and demonstrates how that theory can be moved into practice. Occupy Education is an excellent text for courses in sustainability studies, social philosophy, globalization, social justice, food system praxis, sustainability education, political economy, and environmental studies.

  20. Comparing the invasibility of experimental "reefs" with field observations of natural reefs and artificial structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Dafforn

    Full Text Available Natural systems are increasingly being modified by the addition of artificial habitats which may facilitate invasion. Where invaders are able to disperse from artificial habitats, their impact may spread to surrounding natural communities and therefore it is important to investigate potential factors that reduce or enhance invasibility. We surveyed the distribution of non-indigenous and native invertebrates and algae between artificial habitats and natural reefs in a marine subtidal system. We also deployed sandstone plates as experimental 'reefs' and manipulated the orientation, starting assemblage and degree of shading. Invertebrates (non-indigenous and native appeared to be responding to similar environmental factors (e.g. orientation and occupied most space on artificial structures and to a lesser extent reef walls. Non-indigenous invertebrates are less successful than native invertebrates on horizontal reefs despite functional similarities. Manipulative experiments revealed that even when non-indigenous invertebrates invade vertical "reefs", they are unlikely to gain a foothold and never exceed covers of native invertebrates (regardless of space availability. Community ecology suggests that invertebrates will dominate reef walls and algae horizontal reefs due to functional differences, however our surveys revealed that native algae dominate both vertical and horizontal reefs in shallow estuarine systems. Few non-indigenous algae were sampled in the study, however where invasive algal species are present in a system, they may present a threat to reef communities. Our findings suggest that non-indigenous species are less successful at occupying space on reef compared to artificial structures, and manipulations of biotic and abiotic conditions (primarily orientation and to a lesser extent biotic resistance on experimental "reefs" explained a large portion of this variation, however they could not fully explain the magnitude of differences.

  1. Identification of maize long non-coding RNAs responsive to drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs represent a class of riboregulators that either directly act in long form or are processed to shorter miRNAs and siRNAs. Emerging evidence shows that lncRNAs participate in stress responsive regulation. In this study, to identify the putative maize lncRNAs responsive to drought stress, 8449 drought responsive transcripts were first uploaded to the Coding Potential Calculator website for classification as protein coding or non-coding RNAs, and 1724 RNAs were identified as potential non-coding RNAs. A Perl script was written to screen these 1724 ncRNAs and 664 transcripts were ultimately identified as drought-responsive lncRNAs. Of these 664 transcripts, 126 drought-responsive lncRNAs were highly similar to known maize lncRNAs; the remaining 538 transcripts were considered as novel lncRNAs. Among the 664 lncRNAs identified as drought responsive, 567 were upregulated and 97 were downregulated in drought-stressed leaves of maize. 8 lncRNAs were identified as miRNA precursor lncRNAs, 62 were classified as both shRNA and siRNA precursors, and 279 were classified as siRNA precursors. The remaining 315 lncRNAs were classified as other lncRNAs that are likely to function as longer molecules. Among these 315 lncRNAs, 10 are identified as antisense lncRNAs and 7 could pair with 17 CDS sequences with near-perfect matches. Finally, RT-qPCR results confirmed that all selected lncRNAs could respond to drought stress. These findings extend the current view on lncRNAs as ubiquitous regulators under stress conditions.

  2. Both endo-siRNAs and tRNA-derived small RNAs are involved in the differentiation of primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-You; Guo, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Yan; Xu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Yu-Chan; Zhou, Hui; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2014-09-30

    Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), regulate most important biologic processes in eukaryotes, such as cell division and differentiation. Although sRNAs have been extensively studied in various eukaryotes, the role of sRNAs in the early emergence of eukaryotes is unclear. To address these questions, we deep sequenced the sRNA transcriptome of four different stages in the differentiation of Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive eukaryotes. We identified a large number of endo-siRNAs in this fascinating parasitic protozoan and found that they were produced from live telomeric retrotransposons and three genomic regions (i.e., endo-siRNA generating regions [eSGRs]). eSGR-derived endo-siRNAs were proven to target mRNAs in trans. Gradual up-regulation of endo-siRNAs in the differentiation of Giardia suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of this process. This hypothesis was supported by the impairment of the differentiation ability of Giardia when GLDICER, essential for the biogenesis of endo-siRNAs, was knocked down. Endo-siRNAs are not the only sRNA regulators in Giardia differentiation, because a great number of tRNAs-derived sRNAs showed more dramatic expression changes than endo-siRNAs in this process. We totally identified five novel kinds of tRNAs-derived sRNAs and found that the biogenesis in four of them might be correlated with that of stress-induced tRNA-derived RNA (sitRNA), which was discovered in our previous studies. Our studies reveal an unexpected complex panorama of sRNA in G. lamblia and shed light on the origin and functional evolution of eukaryotic sRNAs.

  3. Circulating microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carolina N.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Browne, John A.; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Shaughnessy, Ronan G.

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities. This has been emphasized by the recent discovery of remarkably stable miRNAs in mammalian biofluids, which may originate from intracellular processes elsewhere in the body. The potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of disease has mainly been demonstrated for various types of cancer. More recently, however, attention has focused on the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of infectious disease; for example, human tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sepsis caused by multiple infectious agents, and viral hepatitis. Here, we review these developments and discuss prospects and challenges for translating circulating miRNA into novel diagnostics for infectious disease. PMID:28261201

  4. In silico Prediction of MicroRNAs in Plant Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiashre Sridhar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous, short (ca. 21 base, non-coding, post transcriptional, regulatory RNA molecules. These microRNAs (miRNAs are complementary to their target messenger RNAs, and bind principally to its 3' UTR. The conserved nature of miRNAs, and their high sequence complementarities of miRNA and its targets in plants, provides the basis for the easy identification of miRNA and its targets. Presence of miRNA in plant mitochondria is scantily studied. Identification of miRNA targets in plant mitochondria might indicate the involvement of miRNA in mitochondrial gene regulation and nuclear mitochondrial interactions. In this study, we used a computational approach to predict miRNA targets in plant mitochondria. The mitochondrial gene targets identified for miRNAs are located both in mitochondrial and nuclear compartments. This observation points to a fairly early origin of miRNAs. Besides, most of the targets identified can have copies in two compartments and suggest the possibility of miRNA mediated regulation. This study unfurls the possibility of regulating the plant mitochondrial genes by amending the miRNA genes in the nuclear compartment.

  5. MicroRNAs in Diabetic Nephropathy: From Biomarkers to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kate; Wonnacott, Alexa; Fraser, Donald J; Bowen, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    Recent estimates suggest that 1 in 12 of the global population suffers from diabetes mellitus. Approximately 40 % of those affected will go on to develop diabetes-related chronic kidney disease or diabetic nephropathy (DN). DN is a major cause of disability and premature death. Existing tests for prognostic purposes are limited and can be invasive, and interventions to delay progression are challenging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently described class of molecular regulators found ubiquitously in human tissues and bodily fluids, where they are highly stable. Alterations in miRNA expression profiles have been observed in numerous diseases. Blood and tissue miRNAs are already established cancer biomarkers, and cardiovascular, metabolic and immune disease miRNA biomarkers are under development. Urinary miRNAs represent a potential novel source of non-invasive biomarkers for kidney diseases, including DN. In addition, recent data suggest that miRNAs may have therapeutic applications. Here, we review the utility of miRNAs as biomarkers for the early detection and progression of DN, assess emerging data on miRNAs implicated in DN pathology and discuss how the data from both fields may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic agents.

  6. MicroRNAs in mouse models of lymphoid malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A. O. Zanesi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs has revealed a new layer of gene expression regulation that affects many normal and pathologic biological systems. Among the malignancies affected by the dysregulation of miRNAs there are cancers of lymphoid origin, in which miRNAs are thought to have tumor suppressive or tumor promoting activities, depending on the nature of their specific targets. In the last 4-5 years, the experimental field that provided the deepest insights into the in vivo biology of miRNAs is that of mouse modeling in which transgenic and knockout animals mimic, respectively, over-expression or down-regulation of specific miRNAs involved in human leukemia/lymphoma. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of lymphoid malignancies based on the natural and engineered mouse models of three different miRNAs, miR-15a/16-1 cluster, miR-155, and miR-17-92 cluster.

  7. Hypoxia-regulated microRNAs in human cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guomin SHEN; Xiaobo LI; Yong-feng JIA; Gary A PIAZZA; Yaguang XI

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia plays an important role in the tumor microenvironment by allowing the development and maintenance of cancer cells,but the regulatory mechanisms by which tumor cells adapt to hypoxic conditions are not yet well understood.MicroRNAs are recognized as a new class of master regulators that control gene expression and are responsible for many normal and pathological cellular processes.Studies have shown that hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) regulates a panel of microRNAs,whereas some of microRNAs target HIF1.The interaction between microRNAs and HIF1 can account for many vital events relevant to tumorigenesis,such as angiogenesis,metabolism,apoptosis,cell cycle regulation,proliferation,metastasis,and resistance to anticancer therapy.This review will summarize recent findings on the roles of hypoxia and microRNAs in human cancer and illustrate the machinery by which microRNAs interact with hypoxia in tumor cells,It is expected to update our knowledge about the regulatory roles of microRNAs in regulating tumor microenvironments and thus benefit the development of new anticancer drugs.

  8. Nanomaterials-Based Fluorimetric Methods for MicroRNAs Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming La

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small endogenous non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that play important functions in the regulation of many biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Since their expression has been in close association with the development of many diseases, recently, miRNAs have been regarded as clinically important biomarkers and drug discovery targets. However, because of the short length, high sequence similarity and low abundance of miRNAs in vivo, it is difficult to realize the sensitive and selective detection of miRNAs with conventional methods. In line with the rapid development of nanotechnology, nanomaterials have attracted great attention and have been intensively studied in biological analysis due to their unique chemical, physical and size properties. In particular, fluorimetric methodologies in combination with nanotechnology are especially rapid, sensitive and efficient. The aim of this review is to provide insight into nanomaterials-based fluorimetric methods for the detection of miRNAs, including metal nanomaterials, quantum dots (QDs, graphene oxide (GO and silicon nanoparticles.

  9. On the classification of long non-coding RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lina

    2013-06-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to perform various functions in a wide variety of important biological processes. To make easier interpretation of lncRNA functionality and conduct deep mining on these transcribed sequences, it is convenient to classify lncRNAs into different groups. Here, we summarize classification methods of lncRNAs according to their four major features, namely, genomic location and context, effect exerted on DNA sequences, mechanism of functioning and their targeting mechanism. In combination with the presently available function annotations, we explore potential relationships between different classification categories, and generalize and compare biological features of different lncRNAs within each category. Finally, we present our view on potential further studies. We believe that the classifications of lncRNAs as indicated above are of fundamental importance for lncRNA studies, helpful for further investigation of specific lncRNAs, for formulation of new hypothesis based on different features of lncRNA and for exploration of the underlying lncRNA functional mechanisms. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

  10. Circulating MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Exercise Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mája Polakovičová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Systematic physical activity increases physical fitness and exercise capacity that lead to the improvement of health status and athletic performance. Considerable effort is devoted to identifying new biomarkers capable of evaluating exercise performance capacity and progress in training, early detection of overtraining, and monitoring health-related adaptation changes. Recent advances in OMICS technologies have opened new opportunities in the detection of genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic biomarkers. Very promising are mainly small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs. miRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to mRNA and causing its degradation or inhibiting translation. A growing body of evidence suggests that miRNAs affect many processes and play a crucial role not only in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, but also affect extracellular matrix composition and maintaining processes of homeostasis. A number of studies have shown changes in distribution profiles of circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs associated with various diseases and disorders as well as in samples taken under physiological conditions such as pregnancy or physical exercise. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the response of blood c-miRNAs profiles to different modes of exercise and to highlight their potential application as a novel class of biomarkers of physical performance capacity and training adaptation.

  11. Non-coding RNAs in schistosomes: an unexplored world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Katia C; Carvalho, Mariana L P; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Kitajima, João P; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2011-06-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) were recently given much higher attention due to technical advances in sequencing which expanded the characterization of transcriptomes in different organisms. ncRNAs have different lengths (22 nt to >1,000 nt) and mechanisms of action that essentially comprise a sophisticated gene expression regulation network. Recent publication of schistosome genomes and transcriptomes has increased the description and characterization of a large number of parasite genes. Here we review the number of predicted genes and the coverage of genomic bases in face of the public ESTs dataset available, including a critical appraisal of the evidence and characterization of ncRNAs in schistosomes. We show expression data for ncRNAs in Schistosoma mansoni. We analyze three different microarray experiment datasets: (1) adult worms' large-scale expression measurements; (2) differentially expressed S. mansoni genes regulated by a human cytokine (TNF-α) in a parasite culture; and (3) a stage-specific expression of ncRNAs. All these data point to ncRNAs involved in different biological processes and physiological responses that suggest functionality of these new players in the parasite's biology. Exploring this world is a challenge for the scientists under a new molecular perspective of host-parasite interactions and parasite development.

  12. Strategies to identify long noncoding RNAs involved in gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Catherine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been detected in nearly every cell type and found to be fundamentally involved in many biological processes. The characterization of lncRNAs has immense potential to advance our comprehensive understanding of cellular processes and gene regulation, along with implications for the treatment of human disease. The recent ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements study reported 9,640 lncRNA loci in the human genome, which corresponds to around half the number of protein-coding genes. Because of this sheer number and their functional diversity, it is crucial to identify a pool of potentially relevant lncRNAs early on in a given study. In this review, we evaluate the methods for isolating lncRNAs by immunoprecipitation and review the advantages, disadvantages, and applications of three widely used approaches – microarray, tiling array, and RNA-seq – for identifying lncRNAs involved in gene regulation. We also look at ways in which data from publicly available databases such as ENCODE can support the study of lncRNAs.

  13. Perspectives of long noncoding RNAs in cancer diagnostics and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M Reis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs transcribed from intergenic and intronic regions of the human genome constitute a broad class of cellular transcripts that are under intensive investigation. While only a handful of lncRNAs have been characterized, their involvement in fundamental cellular processes that control gene expression highlight a central role in cell homeostasis. Not surprisingly, aberrant expression of regulatory lncRNAs has been increasingly documented in different types of cancer, where they can mediate both oncogenic or tumor suppressor effects. Interaction with chromatin remodeling complexes that promote silencing of specific genes seems to be a general mode of lncRNA regulation, but it is conceivable that additional mechanisms of action are yet to be unveiled. LncRNAs show greater tissue specificity compared to protein-coding mRNAs making them attractive in the search of novel diagnostics/prognostics cancer biomarkers in body fluid samples. In fact, lncRNA PCA3 can be detected in urine samples and has been shown to improve diagnosis of prostate cancer. Identification of regulatory regions controlling the expression of lncRNAs highly expressed in tumors (e.g. lncRNA H19 holds potential to the development of targeted cancer therapies based on vectors carrying toxin genes under control of tumor-specific promoters. Annotation and functional characterization of the lncRNA complement of the cancer transcriptome will conceivably provide new venues for early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  14. MicroRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases and their therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Eunsung; Mouradian, M Maral

    2012-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant, endogenous, short, noncoding RNAs that act as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing with their target mRNA. During the last decade, substantial knowledge has accumulated regarding the biogenesis of miRNAs, their molecular mechanisms and functional roles in a variety of cellular contexts. Altered expression of certain miRNA molecules in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson suggests that miRNAs could have a crucial regulatory role in these disorders. Polymorphisms in miRNA target sites may also constitute an important determinant of disease risk. Additionally, emerging evidence points to specific miRNAs targeting and regulating the expression of particular proteins that are key to disease pathogenesis. Considering that the amount of these proteins in susceptible neuronal populations appears to be critical to neurodegeneration, miRNA-mediated regulation represents a new target of significant therapeutic prospects. In this review, the implications of miRNAs in several neurodegenerative disorders and their potential as therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  15. MicroRNAs in NF-κB signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Ma; Lindsey E. Becker Buscaglia; Juanita R. Barker; Yong Li

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a transcriptional factor that regulates a battery of genes that are critical to innate and adaptive immunity, cell proliferation, inflammation, and tumor development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules of 20-25nucleotides in length that negatively regulate gene expression in animals and plants primarily by targeting 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs. In this work, we review the convergence of miRNAs and NF-κB signaling and dysregulation of miRNAs and NF-κB activation in human diseases, particularly in cancer. The function of miR-146, miR-155, miR-181b, miR-21, and miR-301a in NF-κB activation and their impact on tumorigenesis are discussed. Given that over 1000 human miRNAs have been identified, rendering miRNAs one of the most abundant classes of regulatory molecules, deciphering their biological function and pathological contribution in NF-κB dysregulation is essential to appreciate the complexity of immune systems and to develop therapeutics against cancer.

  16. Fluctuating expression of microRNAs in adenovirus infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxing; Chen, Maoshan; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Pettersson, Ulf

    2015-04-01

    The changes in cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression during the course of an adenovirus type 2 infection in human lung fibroblast were studied by deep RNA sequencing. Expressions of 175 miRNAs with over 100 transcripts per million nucleotides were changed more than 1.5-fold. The expression patterns of these miRNAs changed dramatically during the course of the infection, from upregulation of the miRNAs known as tumor suppressors (such as miR-22, miR-320, let-7, miR-181b, and miR-155) and down-regulation of oncogenic miRNAs (such as miR-21 and miR-31) early to downregulation of tumor suppressor miRNAs (such as let-7 family, mir-30 family, 23/27 cluster) and upregulation of oncogenic miRNAs (include miR-125, miR-27, miR-191) late after infection. The switch in miRNA expression pattern occurred when adenovirus DNA replication started. Furthermore, deregulation of cellular miRNA expression was a step-wise and special sets of miRNAs were deregulated in different phases of infection.

  17. Novel approach for evaluation of air change rate in naturally ventilated occupied spaces based on metabolic CO2 time variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Markov, Detelin G.

    2014-01-01

    , air-tight space, constant indoor pressure and temperature. The proposed approach for ACR evaluation can be applied to time intervals with any length, even with varying parameters of both indoor and outdoor air, in which metabolic CO2 generation rate is known and constant. This approach makes possible......IAQ in many residential buildings relies on non-organized natural ventilation. Accurate evaluation of air change rate (ACR) in this situation is difficult due to the nature of the phenomenon - intermittent infiltration-exfiltration periods of mass exchange between the room air and the outdoor air...... at low rate. This paper describes a new approach for ACR evaluation in naturally ventilated occupied spaces. Actual metabolic CO2 time variation record in an interval of time is compared with the computed variation of metabolic CO2 for the same time interval under reference conditions: sleeping occupants...

  18. Advanced Methods for Air Distribution in Occupied Spaces for Reduced Risk from Air-Borne Diseases and Improved Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    The current Ph.D. thesis deals with new advanced methods of air distribution in occupied places aimed to improve the inhaled air quality and to reduce the risk from airborne cross infection among the occupants. The existing ventilation strategies nowadays are not able to provide enough clean air...... pathogens. The threat from possible bio-terrorist attacks in the last decade makes the topic quite important. So far the existing methods of indoor air cleaning rely on several basic strategies: dilution, filtration and Ultra Violet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI). Dilution utilizes ventilation at high flow...... rates to reduce the concentration of pollutants/pathogens to levels that would not deteriorate the air quality or be harmful for the occupants. It is also connected to certain energy limitation issues. Filtration and UVGI are efficient in protecting occupants provided the sources are located outdoors...

  19. Tailoring the highest occupied molecular orbital level of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) hole transport layers in organic multilayer heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ran [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeong Jin; Hong, Young Joon, E-mail: shink@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: yjhong@sejong.ac.kr [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Hybrid Materials Research Center, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Sungjin; Shin, Koo, E-mail: shink@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: yjhong@sejong.ac.kr [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sunae [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Kook [Materials and Life Science Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-11

    We report the tailoring of the electronic structure of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) using a mixture layer of polyaniline:poly(p-styrenesulfonic acid) (PANI:PSS) in organic multilayer PVK/PANI:PSS/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):PSS heterojunctions. The overall electronic structure of the PVK overlayer was systematically down-shifted while the work function of PANI:PSS increased as a function of the PSS-to-PANI weight ratio for the ratio range from 1 to 11 in the PANI:PSS film. The down-shift in the highest occupied molecular orbital of PVK markedly reduced the hole injection barrier from PVK to quantum-dot (QD) layers in QD-light emitting diode (QD-LED) structures, resulting in superior electrical and electroluminescent characteristics for QD-LEDs. The influences of PANI:PSS thickness on the electronic structure of PVK and the performance of QD-LEDs are also discussed.

  20. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of A Human Occupied Vehicle Based on Bi-Level Integrated System Collaborative Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 崔维成; 李翔

    2015-01-01

    The design of Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) is a typical multidisciplinary problem, but heavily dependent on the experience of naval architects at present engineering design. In order to relieve the experience dependence and improve the design, a new Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) method “Bi-Level Integrated System Collaborative Optimization (BLISCO)” is applied to the conceptual design of an HOV, which consists of hull module, resistance module, energy module, structure module, weight module, and the stability module. This design problem is defined by 21 design variables and 23 constraints, and its objective is to maximize the ratio of payload to weight. The results show that the general performance of the HOV can be greatly improved by BLISCO.

  1. Tendency to occupy a statistically dominant spatial state of the flow as a driving force for turbulent transition

    CERN Document Server

    Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2012-01-01

    A simple analytical model for a turbulent flow is proposed, which considers the flow as a collection of localized spatial structures that are composed of elementary "cells" in which the state of the particles (atoms or molecules) is uncertain. The Reynolds number is associated with the ratio between the total phase volume for the system and that for the elementary cell. Calculating the statistical weights of the collections of the localized structures, it is shown that as the Reynolds number increases, the elementary cells group into the localized structures, which successfully explains the onset of turbulence and some other characteristic properties of turbulent flows. It is also shown that the basic assumptions underlying the model are involved in the derivation of the Navier-Stokes equation, which suggests that the driving force for the turbulent transition described with the hydrodynamic equations is essentially the same as in the present model, i.e. the tendency of the system to occupy a statistically do...

  2. MicroRNAs associated with metastatic prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Watahiki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Metastasis is the most common cause of death of prostate cancer patients. Identification of specific metastasis biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets is considered essential for improved prognosis and management of the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs form a class of non-coding small RNA molecules considered to be key regulators of gene expression. Their dysregulation has been shown to play a role in cancer onset, progression and metastasis, and miRNAs represent a promising new class of cancer biomarkers. The objective of this study was to identify down- and up-regulated miRNAs in prostate cancer that could provide potential biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for prostate cancer metastasis. METHODS: Next generation sequencing technology was applied to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in a transplantable metastatic versus a non-metastatic prostate cancer xenograft line, both derived from one patient's primary cancer. The xenografts were developed via subrenal capsule grafting of cancer tissue into NOD/SCID mice, a methodology that tends to preserve properties of the original cancers (e.g., tumor heterogeneity, genetic profiles. RESULTS: Differentially expressed known miRNAs, isomiRs and 36 novel miRNAs were identified. A number of these miRNAs (21/104 have previously been reported to show similar down- or up-regulation in prostate cancers relative to normal prostate tissue, and some of them (e.g., miR-16, miR-34a, miR-126*, miR-145, miR-205 have been linked to prostate cancer metastasis, supporting the validity of the analytical approach. CONCLUSIONS: The use of metastatic and non-metastatic prostate cancer subrenal capsule xenografts derived from one patient's cancer makes it likely that the differentially expressed miRNAs identified in this study include potential biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for human prostate cancer metastasis.

  3. MicroRNAs in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNA are mediators of post-transcriptional gene expression that likely regulate most biological pathways and networks. The study of miRNAs is a rapidly emerging field; recent findings have revealed a significant role for miRNAs in atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism. CONTENT: Results from recent studies demonstrated a role for miRNAs in endothelial integrity, macrophage inflammatory response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and cholesterol synthesis. These mechanisms are all vital to the initiation and proliferation of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The importance of miRNAs has recently been recognized in cardiovascular sciences and miRNAs will likely become an integral part of our fundamental comprehension of atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism. The extensive impact of miRNA mediated gene regulation and the relative ease of in vivo applicable modifications highlight the enormous potential of miRNA-based therapeutics in cardiovascular diseases. SUMMARY: miRNA studies in the field of lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis are in their infancy, and thus there is tremendous opportunity for discovery in this understudied area. The ability to target miRNAs in vivo through delivery of miRNA-mimics to enhance miRNA function, or antimiRNAs which inhibit miRNAs, has opened new avenues for the development of therapeutics for dyslipidemias and atherosclerosis, offers a unique approach to treating disease by modulating entire biological pathways. These exciting findings support the development of miRNA antagonists as potential therapeutics for the treatment of dyslipidaemia,atherosclerosis and related metabolic diseases. KEYWORDS: atherosclerosis, lipoprotein, HDL, miRNA.

  4. Complex evaluation of health status and life quality of employees occupied in mining and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Gimranova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A complex social-hygienic investigation for the assessment of health-related life quality and living standards among 1200 male workers occupied in mining and primary processing of hydrocarbon raw materials has been performed. The study included the method of the anonymous survey for the employee with using a questionnaire developed by WHO experts for the realization of Health, environment and social capital management in enterprises (HESME. The health risk factors’ prevalence associated with alcohol, smoking, low physical activity, poor nutrition, stress in the workplace has been established. The feeling of stress and nervousness is generated by the fear of dismissal (18 % of employees, conflicts with administration (4% and by financial problems. About 47% of persons are anxious about social and economic instability. Not more than 4% of employees consider that the health deterioration is directly related to harmful working conditions. The survey has revealed an inflated self-esteem regarding the health. Thus 59.00 % of employee considers their health status to be excellent or normal, while an objective assessment revealed only 29.7 % of healthy employee. Due to the employee’s opinion, the saving of health is conditioned by healthy lifestyle, but the practice of self-preservation behavior is poorly spread. Not more than 37 % of respondents follow the doctors’ recommendations. Among the positive process there are changes in dietary habits in everyday life, namely 60 % of the respondents have chosen the balanced diet. The obtained data regarding the quality and way of life of the employee, occupied in mining and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, should be taken into consideration when developing complex social development programs on an enterprise.

  5. Depth of artificial Burrowing Owl burrows affects thermal suitability and occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.; Rathbun, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have installed artificial burrows to help bolster local Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) populations. However, occupancy probability and reproductive success in artificial burrows varies within and among burrow installations. We evaluated the possibility that depth below ground might explain differences in occupancy probability and reproductive success by affecting the temperature of artificial burrows. We measured burrow temperatures from March to July 2010 in 27 artificial burrows in southern California that were buried 15–76 cm below the surface (measured between the surface and the top of the burrow chamber). Burrow depth was one of several characteristics that affected burrow temperature. Burrow temperature decreased by 0.03°C per cm of soil on top of the burrow. The percentage of time that artificial burrows provided a thermal refuge from above-ground temperature decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 50% and 58% among burrows. The percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for incubating females also decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 27% and 100% among burrows. However, the percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for unattended eggs increased with burrow depth and ranged between 11% and 95% among burrows. We found no effect of burrow depth on reproductive success across 21 nesting attempts. However, occupancy probability had a non-linear relationship with burrow depth. The shallowest burrows (15 cm) had a moderate probability of being occupied (0.46), burrows between 28 and 40 cm had the highest probability of being occupied (>0.80), and burrows >53 cm had the lowest probability of being occupied (Owls may prefer burrows at moderate depths because these burrows provide a thermal refuge from above-ground temperatures, and are often cool enough to allow females to leave eggs unattended before the onset of full-time incubation, but not too cool for incubating females that spend most of

  6. Pathogenetic and therapeutic applications of microRNAs in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2016-01-04

    As a class of noncoding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of messenger RNAs. These miRNAs have been shown to play a critical role in higher brain functioning and actively participate in synaptic plasticity. Pre-clinical evidence demonstrates that expression of miRNAs is differentially altered during stress. On the other hand, depressed individuals show marked changes in miRNA expression in brain. MiRNAs are also target of antidepressants and electroconvulsive therapy. Moreover, these miRNAs are present in circulating blood and can be easily detected. Profiling of miRNAs in blood plasma/serum provides evidence that determination of miRNAs in blood can be used as possible diagnostic and therapeutic tool. In this review article, these aspects are critically reviewed and the role of miRNAs in possible etiopathogenesis and therapeutic implications in the context of major depressive disorder is discussed.

  7. Identification of miRNAs contributing to neuroblastoma chemoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Based on the initial miRNA findings, this study elucidates the dys-regulation of four miRNAs in three separate NB chemoresistant cell line models, spanning two cell lines (SH-SY5Y and UKF-NB-3 and two chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin and etoposide. These miRNAs may thus be possibly linked to chemoresistance induction in NB. Such miRNAs are good candidates to be novel drug targets for future miRNA based therapies against aggressive tumours that are not responding to conventional chemotherapy.

  8. Argonaute and Argonaute-Bound Small RNAs in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Zhai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small RNAs are essential for a variety of cellular functions. Argonaute (AGO proteins are associated with all of the different classes of small RNAs, and are indispensable in small RNA-mediated regulatory pathways. AGO proteins have been identified in various types of stem cells in diverse species from plants and animals. This review article highlights recent progress on how AGO proteins and AGO-bound small RNAs regulate the self-renewal and differentiation of distinct stem cell types, including pluripotent, germline, somatic, and cancer stem cells.

  9. The emerging world of small silencing RNAs in protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atayde, Vanessa D; Tschudi, Christian; Ullu, Elisabetta

    2011-07-01

    A new RNA world has emerged in the past 10 years with the discovery of a plethora of 20- to 30-nucleotide long small RNAs that are involved in various gene silencing mechanisms. These small RNAs have considerably changed our view of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms, with a major shift towards epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms. In this article, we focus on the striking diversity of small silencing RNAs that have been identified in several protozoan parasites and their potential biological role.

  10. Delivery of Small Interfering RNAs to Cells via Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Jessica; Statello, Luisa; Skogberg, Gabriel; Telemo, Esbjörn; Valadi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane bound vesicles between 30 and 100 nm in diameter of endocytic origin that are secreted into the extracellular environment by many different cell types. Exosomes play a role in intercellular communication by transferring proteins, lipids, and RNAs to recipient cells.Exosomes from human cells could be used as vectors to provide cells with therapeutic RNAs. Here we describe how exogenous small interfering RNAs may successfully be introduced into various kinds of human exosomes using electroporation and subsequently delivered to recipient cells. Methods used to confirm the presence of siRNA inside exosomes and cells are presented, such as flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and Northern blot.

  11. Circulating microRNAs: Novel biomarkers for esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process, involving a variety of changes in gene expression and physiological structure change. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules. Recent innovation in miRNAs profiling technology have shed new light on the pathology of esophageal carcinoma (EC), and also heralded great potential for exploring novel biomarkers for both EC diagnosis and treatment. Frequent dysregulation of miRNA in malignancy highlights the study of molecular...

  12. Structural and functional analysis of viral siRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Szittya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of short interfering RNA (vsiRNA is generated from plant viruses during infection, but the function, structure and biogenesis of these is not understood. We profiled vsiRNAs using two different high-throughput sequencing platforms and also developed a hybridisation based array approach. The profiles obtained through the Solexa platform and by hybridisation were very similar to each other but different from the 454 profile. Both deep sequencing techniques revealed a strong bias in vsiRNAs for the positive strand of the virus and identified regions on the viral genome that produced vsiRNA in much higher abundance than other regions. The hybridisation approach also showed that the position of highly abundant vsiRNAs was the same in different plant species and in the absence of RDR6. We used the Terminator 5'-Phosphate-Dependent Exonuclease to study the 5' end of vsiRNAs and showed that a perfect control duplex was not digested by the enzyme without denaturation and that the efficiency of the Terminator was strongly affected by the concentration of the substrate. We found that most vsiRNAs have 5' monophosphates, which was also confirmed by profiling short RNA libraries following either direct ligation of adapters to the 5' end of short RNAs or after replacing any potential 5' ends with monophosphates. The Terminator experiments also showed that vsiRNAs were not perfect duplexes. Using a sensor construct we also found that regions from the viral genome that were complementary to non-abundant vsiRNAs were targeted in planta just as efficiently as regions recognised by abundant vsiRNAs. Different high-throughput sequencing techniques have different reproducible sequence bias and generate different profiles of short RNAs. The Terminator exonuclease does not process double stranded RNA, and because short RNAs can quickly re-anneal at high concentration, this assay can be misleading if the substrate is not denatured and not analysed in a

  13. Differential and coherent processing patterns from small RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Gorodkin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    the nine cell lines of the ENCODE project, irrespective of their annotation status, were analyzed for genomic loci representing differential or coherent processing. We observed differential processing predominantly in RNAs annotated as miRNA, snoRNA or tRNA. Four out of five known cases of differentially...... processed miRNAs that were in the input dataset were recovered and several novel cases were discovered. In contrast to differential processing, coherent processing is observed widespread in both annotated and unannotated regions. While the annotated loci predominantly consist of ~24nt short RNAs...

  14. MicroRNAs in common diseases and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Louis M; Yu, Di

    2010-01-01

    1. Evidence gathered in recent years has revealed microRNAs (miRNAs) fine-tune gene expression and play an important role in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. 2. The present review summarizes current knowledge of miRNA pathways in the pathogenesis of cancer, cardiac diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and infection. 3. There is considerable potential to target miRNAs as a novel approach in the treatment of human diseases. Currently, miRNA-based therapies are being examined in both animal models and human clinical trials.

  15. A View of Pre-mRNA Splicing from RNase R Resistant RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Suzuki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During pre-mRNA splicing, exons in the primary transcript are precisely connected to generate an mRNA. Intron lariat RNAs are formed as by-products of this process. In addition, some exonic circular RNAs (circRNAs may also result from exon skipping as by-products. Lariat RNAs and circRNAs are both RNase R resistant RNAs. RNase R is a strong 3' to 5' exoribonuclease, which efficiently degrades linear RNAs, such as mRNAs and rRNAs; therefore, the circular parts of lariat RNAs and the circRNAs can be segregated from eukaryotic total RNAs by their RNase R resistance. Thus, RNase R resistant RNAs could provide unexplored splicing information not available from mRNAs. Analyses of these RNAs identified repeating splicing phenomena, such as re-splicing of mature mRNAs and nested splicing. Moreover, circRNA might function as microRNA sponges. There is an enormous variety of endogenous circRNAs, which are generally synthesized in cells and tissues.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Small Noncoding RNAs in Genome Sequences of the Edible Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389 of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn. This implies that if snRNA U1 of basidiomycetes exists, it has a sequence that varies significantly from other organisms. By analyzing the distribution of sncRNA loci, we found that snRNAs and most tRNAs (88.6% were located in pseudo-UTR regions, while miRNAs are commonly found in introns. To analyze the evolutionary conservation of the sncRNAs in P. ostreatus, we aligned all 254 sncRNAs to the genome assemblies of some other Agaricomycotina fungi. The results suggest that most sncRNAs (77.56% were highly conserved in P. ostreatus, and 20% were conserved in Agaricomycotina fungi. These findings indicate that most sncRNAs of P. ostreatus were not conserved across Agaricomycotina fungi.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Small Noncoding RNAs in Genome Sequences of the Edible Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengran; Hsiang, Tom; Feng, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389) of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn. This implies that if snRNA U1 of basidiomycetes exists, it has a sequence that varies significantly from other organisms. By analyzing the distribution of sncRNA loci, we found that snRNAs and most tRNAs (88.6%) were located in pseudo-UTR regions, while miRNAs are commonly found in introns. To analyze the evolutionary conservation of the sncRNAs in P. ostreatus, we aligned all 254 sncRNAs to the genome assemblies of some other Agaricomycotina fungi. The results suggest that most sncRNAs (77.56%) were highly conserved in P. ostreatus, and 20% were conserved in Agaricomycotina fungi. These findings indicate that most sncRNAs of P. ostreatus were not conserved across Agaricomycotina fungi. PMID:27703969

  18. Differential impact of the HEN1 homolog HENN-1 on 21U and 26G RNAs in the germline of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie M Kamminga

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi-related pathways affect gene activity by sequence-specific recruitment of Ago proteins to mRNA target molecules. The sequence specificity of this process stems from small RNA (sRNA co-factors bound by the Ago protein. Stability of sRNA molecules in some pathways is in part regulated by Hen1-mediated methylation of their 3' ends. Here we describe the effects of the Caenorhabditis elegans HEN1 RNA-methyl-transferase homolog, HENN-1, on the different RNAi pathways in this nematode. We reveal differential effects of HENN-1 on the two pathways that are known to employ methylated sRNA molecules: the 26G and 21U pathways. Surprisingly, in the germline, stability of 21U RNAs, the C. elegans piRNAs, is only mildly affected by loss of methylation; and introduction of artificial 21U target RNA does not further destabilize non-methylated 21U RNAs. In contrast, most 26G RNAs display reduced stability and respond to loss of HENN-1 by displaying increased 3'-uridylation frequencies. Within the 26G RNA class, we find that specifically ERGO-1-bound 26G RNAs are modified by HENN-1, while ALG-3/ALG-4-bound 26G RNAs are not. Global gene expression analysis of henn-1 mutants reveals mild effects, including down-regulation of many germline-expressed genes. Our data suggest that, apart from direct effects of reduced 26G RNA levels of henn-1 on gene expression, most effects on global gene expression are indirect. These studies further refine our understanding of endogenous RNAi in C. elegans and the roles for Hen1 like enzymes in these pathways.

  19. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H W Liu

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16' were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d, and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01 validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways and genetic information processes (40 pathways and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways. These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  20. Molecular analysis of snRNAs and scRNAs using autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, G; Martinez, F; Reyes, P A; Cortes, J J

    1997-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation analysis of total HeLa cells RNA extract by protein A-Sheparose purified autoantibodies and pCp 32P-3' end labeling RNAs revealed that U1, U2, U4 and U5 snRNAs are related with anti-Sm or U1nRNP autoantibodies, while the hY1, hY3, hY4 and hY5 scRNAs were related to anti-SSA/Ro autoantibodies present in sera of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The authors detected molecular snRNAs and scRNAs specificities by autoantibodies in 71 sera, the molecular RNA specificity for anti-Sm (U1, U2, U4 and U5 snRNAs) was present in 39%; anti-SSA/Ro sera reacted against scRNAs (hY1, hY3, hY4 and hY5) in 36%, then anti-U1nRNP sera recognized U1 snRNA in 13% of sera and anti-rRNP related with rRNA were recognized in 8%. Twenty-nine SLE sera were RNA negative. A molecular characterization of the autoantibodies in sera from SLE patients may be a useful tool for clinical and laboratory diagnosis of SLE, and the use of autoantibodies as molecular probes allows to continue exploring some basic mechanism of gene expression.