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Sample records for arterivirus nsp1 modulates

  1. Biogenesis of non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) and nsp1-mediated type I interferon modulation in arteriviruses

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    Han, Mingyuan; Kim, Chi Yong [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Rowland, Raymond R.R.; Fang, Ying [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kim, Daewoo [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) play a key role for the antiviral state of host, and the porcine arterivirus; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), has been shown to down-regulate the production of IFNs during infection. Non-structural protein (nsp) 1 of PRRSV has been identified as a viral IFN antagonist, and the nsp1α subunit of nsp1 has been shown to degrade the CREB-binding protein (CBP) and to inhibit the formation of enhanceosome thus resulting in the suppression of IFN production. The study was expanded to other member viruses in the family Arteriviridae: equine arteritis virus (EAV), murine lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). While PRRSV–nsp1 and LDV–nsp1 were auto-cleaved to produce the nsp1α and nsp1β subunits, EAV–nsp1 remained uncleaved. SHFV–nsp1 was initially predicted to be cleaved to generate three subunits (nsp1α, nsp1β, and nsp1γ), but only two subunits were generated as SHFV–nsp1αβ and SHFV–nsp1γ. The papain-like cysteine protease (PLP) 1α motif in nsp1α remained inactive for SHFV, and only the PLP1β motif of nsp1β was functional to generate SHFV–nsp1γ subunit. All subunits of arterivirus nsp1 were localized in the both nucleus and cytoplasm, but PRRSV–nsp1β, LDV–nsp1β, EAV–nsp1, and SHFV–nsp1γ were predominantly found in the nucleus. All subunits of arterivirus nsp1 contained the IFN suppressive activity and inhibited both interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-κB mediated IFN promoter activities. Similar to PRRSV–nsp1α, CBP degradation was evident in cells expressing LDV–nsp1α and SHFV–nsp1γ, but no such degradation was observed for EAV–nsp1. Regardless of CBP degradation, all subunits of arterivirus nsp1 suppressed the IFN-sensitive response element (ISRE)-promoter activities. Our data show that the nsp1-mediated IFN modulation is a common strategy for all arteriviruses but their mechanism of action may differ

  2. Arterivirus Nsp1 modulates the accumulation of minus-strand templates to control the relative abundance of viral mRNAs.

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    Danny D Nedialkova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The gene expression of plus-strand RNA viruses with a polycistronic genome depends on translation and replication of the genomic mRNA, as well as synthesis of subgenomic (sg mRNAs. Arteriviruses and coronaviruses, distantly related members of the nidovirus order, employ a unique mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand RNA synthesis to generate subgenome-length templates for the synthesis of a nested set of sg mRNAs. Non-structural protein 1 (nsp1 of the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV, a multifunctional regulator of viral RNA synthesis and virion biogenesis, was previously implicated in controlling the balance between genome replication and sg mRNA synthesis. Here, we employed reverse and forward genetics to gain insight into the multiple regulatory roles of nsp1. Our analysis revealed that the relative abundance of viral mRNAs is tightly controlled by an intricate network of interactions involving all nsp1 subdomains. Distinct nsp1 mutations affected the quantitative balance among viral mRNA species, and our data implicate nsp1 in controlling the accumulation of full-length and subgenome-length minus-strand templates for viral mRNA synthesis. The moderate differential changes in viral mRNA abundance of nsp1 mutants resulted in similarly altered viral protein levels, but progeny virus yields were greatly reduced. Pseudorevertant analysis provided compelling genetic evidence that balanced EAV mRNA accumulation is critical for efficient virus production. This first report on protein-mediated, mRNA-specific control of nidovirus RNA synthesis reveals the existence of an integral control mechanism to fine-tune replication, sg mRNA synthesis, and virus production, and establishes a major role for nsp1 in coordinating the arterivirus replicative cycle.

  3. Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis.

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    Snijder, Eric J; Kikkert, Marjolein; Fang, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Arteriviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect mammals. They can cause persistent or asymptomatic infections, but also acute disease associated with a respiratory syndrome, abortion or lethal haemorrhagic fever. During the past two decades, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and, to a lesser extent, equine arteritis virus (EAV) have attracted attention as veterinary pathogens with significant economic impact. Particularly noteworthy were the 'porcine high fever disease' outbreaks in South-East Asia and the emergence of new virulent PRRSV strains in the USA. Recently, the family was expanded with several previously unknown arteriviruses isolated from different African monkey species. At the molecular level, arteriviruses share an intriguing but distant evolutionary relationship with coronaviruses and other members of the order Nidovirales. Nevertheless, several of their characteristics are unique, including virion composition and structure, and the conservation of only a subset of the replicase domains encountered in nidoviruses with larger genomes. During the past 15 years, the advent of reverse genetics systems for EAV and PRRSV has changed and accelerated the structure-function analysis of arterivirus RNA and protein sequences. These systems now also facilitate studies into host immune responses and arterivirus immune evasion and pathogenesis. In this review, we have summarized recent advances in the areas of arterivirus genome expression, RNA and protein functions, virion architecture, virus-host interactions, immunity, and pathogenesis. We have also briefly reviewed the impact of these advances on disease management, the engineering of novel candidate live vaccines and the diagnosis of arterivirus infection. PMID:23939974

  4. Biogenesis and architecture of arterivirus replication organelles.

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    van der Hoeven, Barbara; Oudshoorn, Diede; Koster, Abraham J; Snijder, Eric J; Kikkert, Marjolein; Bárcena, Montserrat

    2016-07-15

    All eukaryotic positive-stranded RNA (+RNA) viruses appropriate host cell membranes and transform them into replication organelles, specialized micro-environments that are thought to support viral RNA synthesis. Arteriviruses (order Nidovirales) belong to the subset of +RNA viruses that induce double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), similar to the structures induced by e.g. coronaviruses, picornaviruses and hepatitis C virus. In the last years, electron tomography has revealed substantial differences between the structures induced by these different virus groups. Arterivirus-induced DMVs appear to be closed compartments that are continuous with endoplasmic reticulum membranes, thus forming an extensive reticulovesicular network (RVN) of intriguing complexity. This RVN is remarkably similar to that described for the distantly related coronaviruses (also order Nidovirales) and sets them apart from other DMV-inducing viruses analysed to date. We review here the current knowledge and open questions on arterivirus replication organelles and discuss them in the light of the latest studies on other DMV-inducing viruses, particularly coronaviruses. Using the equine arteritis virus (EAV) model system and electron tomography, we present new data regarding the biogenesis of arterivirus-induced DMVs and uncover numerous putative intermediates in DMV formation. We generated cell lines that can be induced to express specific EAV replicase proteins and showed that DMVs induced by the transmembrane proteins nsp2 and nsp3 form an RVN and are comparable in topology and architecture to those formed during viral infection. Co-expression of the third EAV transmembrane protein (nsp5), expressed as part of a self-cleaving polypeptide that mimics viral polyprotein processing in infected cells, led to the formation of DMVs whose size was more homogenous and closer to what is observed upon EAV infection, suggesting a regulatory role for nsp5 in modulating membrane curvature and DMV formation. PMID

  5. SARS coronavirus nsp1 protein induces template-dependent endonucleolytic cleavage of mRNAs: viral mRNAs are resistant to nsp1-induced RNA cleavage.

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    Cheng Huang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SARS coronavirus (SCoV nonstructural protein (nsp 1, a potent inhibitor of host gene expression, possesses a unique mode of action: it binds to 40S ribosomes to inactivate their translation functions and induces host mRNA degradation. Our previous study demonstrated that nsp1 induces RNA modification near the 5'-end of a reporter mRNA having a short 5' untranslated region and RNA cleavage in the encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES region of a dicistronic RNA template, but not in those IRES elements from hepatitis C or cricket paralysis viruses. By using primarily cell-free, in vitro translation systems, the present study revealed that the nsp1 induced endonucleolytic RNA cleavage mainly near the 5' untranslated region of capped mRNA templates. Experiments using dicistronic mRNAs carrying different IRESes showed that nsp1 induced endonucleolytic RNA cleavage within the ribosome loading region of type I and type II picornavirus IRES elements, but not that of classical swine fever virus IRES, which is characterized as a hepatitis C virus-like IRES. The nsp1-induced RNA cleavage of template mRNAs exhibited no apparent preference for a specific nucleotide sequence at the RNA cleavage sites. Remarkably, SCoV mRNAs, which have a 5' cap structure and 3' poly A tail like those of typical host mRNAs, were not susceptible to nsp1-mediated RNA cleavage and importantly, the presence of the 5'-end leader sequence protected the SCoV mRNAs from nsp1-induced endonucleolytic RNA cleavage. The escape of viral mRNAs from nsp1-induced RNA cleavage may be an important strategy by which the virus circumvents the action of nsp1 leading to the efficient accumulation of viral mRNAs and viral proteins during infection.

  6. Crystal structure of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader protease Nsp1alpha.

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    Sun, Yuna; Xue, Fei; Guo, Yu; Ma, Ming; Hao, Ning; Zhang, Xuejun C; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xuemei; Rao, Zihe

    2009-11-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV), a positive-strand RNA virus that belongs to the Arteriviridae family of Nidovirales, has been identified as the causative agent of PRRS. Nsp1alpha is the amino (N)-terminal protein in a polyprotein encoded by the PRRSV genome and is reported to be crucial for subgenomic mRNA synthesis, presumably by serving as a transcription factor. Before functioning in transcription, nsp1alpha proteolytically releases itself from nsp1beta. However, the structural basis for the self-releasing and biological functions of nsp1alpha remains elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of nsp1alpha of PRRSV (strain XH-GD) in its naturally self-processed form. Nsp1alpha contains a ZF domain (which may be required for its biological function), a papain-like cysteine protease (PCP) domain with a zinc ion unexpectedly bound at the active site (which is essential for proteolytic self-release of nsp1alpha), and a carboxyl-terminal extension (which occupies the substrate binding site of the PCP domain). Furthermore, we determined the exact location of the nsp1alpha self-processing site at Cys-Ala-Met180 downward arrowAla-Asp-Val by use of crystallographic data and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The crystal structure also suggested an in cis self-processing mechanism for nsp1alpha. Furthermore, nsp1alpha appears to have a dimeric architecture both in solution and as a crystal, with a hydrophilic groove on the molecular surface that may be related to nsp1alpha's biological function. Compared with existing structure and function data, our results suggest that PRRSV nsp1alpha functions differently from other reported viral leader proteases, such as that of foot-and-mouth disease. PMID:19706710

  7. Rotavirus NSP1 inhibits NFkappaB activation by inducing proteasome-dependent degradation of beta-TrCP: a novel mechanism of IFN antagonism.

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    Joel W Graff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms by which viruses counter innate host defense responses generally involve inhibition of one or more components of the interferon (IFN system. Multiple steps in the induction and amplification of IFN signaling are targeted for inhibition by viral proteins, and many of the IFN antagonists have direct or indirect effects on activation of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors. Rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 blocks transcription of type I IFNalpha/beta by inducing proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors 3 (IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7. In this study, we show that rotavirus NSP1 also inhibits activation of NFkappaB and does so by a novel mechanism. Proteasome-mediated degradation of inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaBalpha is required for NFkappaB activation. Phosphorylated IkappaBalpha is a substrate for polyubiquitination by a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, Skp1/Cul1/F-box, in which the F-box substrate recognition protein is beta-transducin repeat containing protein (beta-TrCP. The data presented show that phosphorylated IkappaBalpha is stable in rotavirus-infected cells because infection induces proteasome-dependent degradation of beta-TrCP. NSP1 expressed in isolation in transiently transfected cells is sufficient to induce this effect. Targeted degradation of an F-box protein of an E3 ligase complex with a prominent role in modulation of innate immune signaling and cell proliferation pathways is a unique mechanism of IFN antagonism and defines a second strategy of immune evasion used by rotaviruses.

  8. Historical Outbreaks of Simian Hemorrhagic Fever in Captive Macaques Were Caused by Distinct Arteriviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lauck, Michael; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.; Bào, Yīmíng; Bailey, Adam L.; Shevtsova, Zinaida V.; Shchetinin, Alexey M.; Vishnevskaya, Tatyana V.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Postnikova, Elena; Mazur, Steven; Wada, Jiro; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Lapin, Boris A.; Deriabin, Petr G.

    2015-01-01

    Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) is lethal for macaques. Based on clinical presentation and serological diagnosis, all reported SHF outbreaks were thought to be caused by different strains of the same virus, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; Arteriviridae). Here we show that the SHF outbreaks in Sukhumi in 1964 and in Alamogordo in 1989 were caused not by SHFV but by two novel divergent arteriviruses. Our results indicate that multiple divergent simian arteriviruses can cause SHF.

  9. Historical Outbreaks of Simian Hemorrhagic Fever in Captive Macaques Were Caused by Distinct Arteriviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauck, Michael; Alkhovsky, Sergey V; Bào, Yīmíng; Bailey, Adam L; Shevtsova, Zinaida V; Shchetinin, Alexey M; Vishnevskaya, Tatyana V; Lackemeyer, Matthew G; Postnikova, Elena; Mazur, Steven; Wada, Jiro; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Friedrich, Thomas C; Lapin, Boris A; Deriabin, Petr G; Jahrling, Peter B; Goldberg, Tony L; O'Connor, David H; Kuhn, Jens H

    2015-08-01

    Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) is lethal for macaques. Based on clinical presentation and serological diagnosis, all reported SHF outbreaks were thought to be caused by different strains of the same virus, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; Arteriviridae). Here we show that the SHF outbreaks in Sukhumi in 1964 and in Alamogordo in 1989 were caused not by SHFV but by two novel divergent arteriviruses. Our results indicate that multiple divergent simian arteriviruses can cause SHF. PMID:25972539

  10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nsp1 facilitates efficient propagation in cells through a specific translational shutoff of host mRNA.

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    Tanaka, Tomohisa; Kamitani, Wataru; DeDiego, Marta L; Enjuanes, Luis; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2012-10-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SCoV) is an enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. Nine mRNAs carrying a set of common 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) are synthesized from the incoming viral genomic RNA in cells infected with SCoV. A nonstructural SCoV nsp1 protein causes a severe translational shutoff by binding to the 40S ribosomal subunits. The nsp1-40S ribosome complex further induces an endonucleolytic cleavage near the 5'UTR of host mRNA. However, the mechanism by which SCoV viral proteins are efficiently produced in infected cells in which host protein synthesis is impaired by nsp1 is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the viral UTRs in evasion of the nsp1-mediated shutoff. Luciferase activities were significantly suppressed in cells expressing nsp1 together with the mRNA carrying a luciferase gene, while nsp1 failed to suppress luciferase activities of the mRNA flanked by the 5'UTR of SCoV. An RNA-protein binding assay and RNA decay assay revealed that nsp1 bound to stem-loop 1 (SL1) in the 5'UTR of SCoV RNA and that the specific interaction with nsp1 stabilized the mRNA carrying SL1. Furthermore, experiments using an SCoV replicon system showed that the specific interaction enhanced the SCoV replication. The specific interaction of nsp1 with SL1 is an important strategy to facilitate efficient viral gene expression in infected cells, in which nsp1 suppresses host gene expression. Our data indicate a novel mechanism of viral gene expression control by nsp1 and give new insight into understanding the pathogenesis of SARS.

  11. Phage display of the Equine arteritis virus nsp1 ZF domain and examination of its metal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Snijder, E.J.; Normann, Preben

    2004-01-01

    of the ZF domain, a binding assay was developed, based on the use of immobilized Ni2+ ions (Ni-NTA). Phages displaying ZF bound significantly better to Ni-NTA than did phages displaying negative-control peptides, which also contained metal-coordinating residues. Also, binding of ZF-displaying phages could...... structure was involved in binding of the ZF to Ni-NTA. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that the putative nsp 1 ZF domain can coordinate divalent metal ions, and that this property is associated with the secondary structure of the domain. The Ni-NTA binding assay developed...... be inhibited by an anti-nsp 1 serum, or by mutation of residues predicted to be important for zinc coordination. Finally, binding was abolished by low concentrations (0.1%) Tween 20, and rescued by including Zn2+, Ni2+ or Cu2+, but not Mg2+, in the binding buffer, suggesting that formation of secondary...

  12. Development of primers for sequencing the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes of the group A porcine rotavirus

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    Fernanda Dornelas Florentino Silva; Paloma Oliveira Tonietti; Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza; Paulo Eduardo Brandão; Leonardo José Richtzenhain; Fabio Gregori

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the causative pathogen of diarrhea in humans and in several animal species. Eight pairs of primers were developed and used for Sanger sequencing of the coding region of the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes based on the conserved regions of the genome of the group A porcine rotavirus. Three samples previously screened as positive for group A rotaviruses were subjected to gene amplification and sequencing to characterize the pathogen. The information generated from this study is crucial f...

  13. The viral capping enzyme nsP1: a novel target for the inhibition of chikungunya virus infection

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    Delang, L.; Li, C.; Tas, A.; Quérat, G.; Albulescu, I. C.; De Burghgraeve, T.; Guerrero, N. A. Segura; Gigante, A.; Piorkowski, G.; Decroly, E.; Jochmans, D.; Canard, B.; Snijder, E. J.; Pérez-Pérez, M. J.; van Hemert, M. J.; Coutard, B.; Leyssen, P.; Neyts, J.

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has become a substantial global health threat due to its massive re-emergence, the considerable disease burden and the lack of vaccines or therapeutics. We discovered a novel class of small molecules ([1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones) with potent in vitro activity against CHIKV isolates from different geographical regions. Drug-resistant variants were selected and these carried a P34S substitution in non-structural protein 1 (nsP1), the main enzyme involved in alphavirus RNA capping. Biochemical assays using nsP1 of the related Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus revealed that the compounds specifically inhibit the guanylylation of nsP1. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that the alphavirus capping machinery is an excellent antiviral drug target. Considering the lack of options to treat CHIKV infections, this series of compounds with their unique (alphavirus-specific) target offers promise for the development of therapy for CHIKV infections. PMID:27545976

  14. Divergent Simian Arteriviruses Cause Simian Hemorrhagic Fever of Differing Severities in Macaques

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    Victoria Wahl-Jensen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF is a highly lethal disease in captive macaques. Three distinct arteriviruses are known etiological agents of past SHF epizootics, but only one, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV, has been isolated in cell culture. The natural reservoir(s of the three viruses have yet to be identified, but African nonhuman primates are suspected. Eleven additional divergent simian arteriviruses have been detected recently in diverse and apparently healthy African cercopithecid monkeys. Here, we report the successful isolation in MARC-145 cell culture of one of these viruses, Kibale red colobus virus 1 (KRCV-1, from serum of a naturally infected red colobus (Procolobus [Piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles sampled in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Intramuscular (i.m. injection of KRCV-1 into four cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis resulted in a self-limiting nonlethal disease characterized by depressive behavioral changes, disturbance in coagulation parameters, and liver enzyme elevations. In contrast, i.m. injection of SHFV resulted in typical lethal SHF characterized by mild fever, lethargy, lymphoid depletion, lymphoid and hepatocellular necrosis, low platelet counts, increased liver enzyme concentrations, coagulation abnormalities, and increasing viral loads. As hypothesized based on the genetic and presumed antigenic distance between KRCV-1 and SHFV, all four macaques that had survived KRCV-1 injection died of SHF after subsequent SHFV injection, indicating a lack of protective heterotypic immunity. Our data indicate that SHF is a disease of macaques that in all likelihood can be caused by a number of distinct simian arteriviruses, although with different severity depending on the specific arterivirus involved. Consequently, we recommend that current screening procedures for SHFV in primate-holding facilities be modified to detect all known simian arteriviruses.

  15. Development of primers for sequencing the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes of the group A porcine rotavirus

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    Fernanda Dornelas Florentino Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the causative pathogen of diarrhea in humans and in several animal species. Eight pairs of primers were developed and used for Sanger sequencing of the coding region of the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes based on the conserved regions of the genome of the group A porcine rotavirus. Three samples previously screened as positive for group A rotaviruses were subjected to gene amplification and sequencing to characterize the pathogen. The information generated from this study is crucial for the understanding of the epidemiology of the disease.

  16. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lbpro) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lbpro L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. 15N-HSQC measurements of Lbpro L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLbpro, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lbpro, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lbpro and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lbpro. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes

  17. Lotus japonicus nodulation requires two GRAS-domain regulators, NSP1 and NSP2

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    Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Lombardo, Fabien; Miwa, Hiroki;

    A nodulation-defective mutant of Lotus japonicus does not initiate nodule cortical cell division in response to Mesorhizobium loti, but induces root hair deformation, Nod factor-induced calcium spiking, and mycorrhization. We have shown that this mutant has a premature stop in the NSP1 (Nodulation...... Signalling Pathway 1) gene (Ljnsp1-1) resulting in loss of the C-terminal 23 amino acids (aa) and we recently identified another mutant in NSP1 (Ljnsp1-2) with a truncated protein of 341 aa. Additionally, we have sequenced and isolated a mutant in LjNSP2 (Ljnsp2-3) that has a premature stop codon showing...

  18. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α.

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    Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb(pro) L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)N-HSQC measurements of Lb(pro) L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb(pro), lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb(pro), stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb(pro) and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb(pro).

  19. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Jutta [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kontaxis, Georg [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Campus Vienna Biocenter 5, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Rancan, Chiara [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Department of Gene Vectors, Haematologikum, Marchioninistrasse 25, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Skern, Tim, E-mail: timothy.skern@meduniwien.ac.at [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  20. NSP1 Target Areas

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    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing and Economic Recovery Act (HERA) of 2008 provided a first round of formula funding to States and units of general local government, and is referred to...

  1. Expression of plasmid-based shRNA against the E1 and nsP1 genes effectively silenced Chikungunya virus replication.

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    Shirley Lam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and persistent arthralgia in humans. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral against CHIKV infection. Therefore, this study evaluates whether RNA interference which targets at viral genomic level may be a novel antiviral strategy to inhibit the medically important CHIKV infection. METHODS: Plasmid-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA was investigated for its efficacy in inhibiting CHIKV replication. Three shRNAs designed against CHIKV Capsid, E1 and nsP1 genes were transfected to establish stable shRNA-expressing cell clones. Following infection of stable shRNA cells clones with CHIKV at M.O.I. 1, viral plaque assay, Western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were performed. The in vivo efficacy of shRNA against CHIKV replication was also evaluated in a suckling murine model of CHIKV infection. RESULTS: Cell clones expressing shRNAs against CHIKV E1 and nsP1 genes displayed significant inhibition of infectious CHIKV production, while shRNA Capsid demonstrated a modest inhibitory effect as compared to scrambled shRNA cell clones and non-transfected cell controls. Western blot analysis of CHIKV E2 protein expression and transmission electron microscopy of shRNA E1 and nsP1 cell clones collectively demonstrated similar inhibitory trends against CHIKV replication. shRNA E1 showed non cell-type specific anti-CHIKV effects and broad-spectrum silencing against different geographical strains of CHIKV. Furthermore, shRNA E1 clones did not exert any inhibition against Dengue virus and Sindbis virus replication, thus indicating the high specificity of shRNA against CHIKV replication. Moreover, no shRNA-resistant CHIKV mutant was generated after 50 passages of CHIKV in the stable cell clones. More importantly, strong and sustained anti-CHIKV protection was conferred in suckling mice pre-treated with shRNA E1. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data suggest the promising efficacy of anti-CHIKV shRNAs, in particular, plasmid-shRNA E1, as a novel antiviral strategy against CHIKV infection.

  2. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection.

  3. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection. PMID:26280524

  4. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP1 (Statewide)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  5. Arterivirus structural proteins and assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the structural characteristics of the Arteriviridae, including the basic molecular details of all of the proteins involved, the interactions of these proteins and where they occur, and further functional characterization. Most recent available literature has been focused on equi...

  6. Abelian modules

    OpenAIRE

    S. Halıcıoğlu; Harmanci, A.; GÜNGÖROĞLU, G.; N. Agayev

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we introduce abelian modules as a generalization of abelian rings. Let R be an arbitrary ring with identity. A module M is called abelian if, for any m Î M and any a Î R, any idempotent e Î R, mae=mea. We prove that every reduced module, every symmetric module, every semicommutative module and every Armendariz module is abelian. For an abelian ring R, we show that the module MR is abelian iff M[x]R[x] is abelian. We produce an example to show that M[x, α] need not be abe...

  7. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  8. *-Modules, co-*-modules and cotilting modules over Noetherian rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明义; 许永华

    1996-01-01

    Let R be a Noetherian ring. The projectivity and injectivity of modules over R are discussed. The concept of modules is introduced and the descriptions for co-*-modules over R are given. At last, cotilting modules over R are characterized by means of co-*-modules.

  9. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  10. [Construction and expression of six deletion mutants of human astrovirus C-terminal nsP1a/4 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Ke; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Yi-ming; Sui, Ting-ting; Wang, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Human astrovirus (HAstV) is one of the leading causes of actue virual diarrhea in infants. HAstV-induced epithdlial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HAstV infection. Our previous study indicated that HAstV non-structural protein nsPla C-terminal protein nsPla/4 was the major apoptosis functional protein and probably contained the main apoptosis domains. In order to screen for astrovirus encoded apoptotic protien, nsPla/4 and six turncated proteins, which possessed nsPla/4 protein different function domain ,were cloned into green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector pEG-FP-N3. After 24-72 h transfection, the fusion protein expression in BHK21 cells, was analysis by fluorescence microscope and Western blot. The results indicated seven fusion proteins were observed successfully in BHK21 cell after transfected for 24 h. Western blot analysis showed that the level of fusion protein expressed in BHK21 cells was increased significantly at 72h compared to 48h in transfected cells. The successful expression of deletion mutants of nsPla/4 protein was an important foundation to gain further insights into the function of apoptosis domains of nsPla/4 protein and it would also provide research platform to further confirm the molecule pathogenic mechanism of human astrovirus. PMID:24386845

  11. [Construction and expression of six deletion mutants of human astrovirus C-terminal nsP1a/4 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Ke; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Yi-ming; Sui, Ting-ting; Wang, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Human astrovirus (HAstV) is one of the leading causes of actue virual diarrhea in infants. HAstV-induced epithdlial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HAstV infection. Our previous study indicated that HAstV non-structural protein nsPla C-terminal protein nsPla/4 was the major apoptosis functional protein and probably contained the main apoptosis domains. In order to screen for astrovirus encoded apoptotic protien, nsPla/4 and six turncated proteins, which possessed nsPla/4 protein different function domain ,were cloned into green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector pEG-FP-N3. After 24-72 h transfection, the fusion protein expression in BHK21 cells, was analysis by fluorescence microscope and Western blot. The results indicated seven fusion proteins were observed successfully in BHK21 cell after transfected for 24 h. Western blot analysis showed that the level of fusion protein expressed in BHK21 cells was increased significantly at 72h compared to 48h in transfected cells. The successful expression of deletion mutants of nsPla/4 protein was an important foundation to gain further insights into the function of apoptosis domains of nsPla/4 protein and it would also provide research platform to further confirm the molecule pathogenic mechanism of human astrovirus.

  12. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  13. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  14. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  15. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kooy, H. M.; Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radio...

  16. Koszul differential graded modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JiWei; WU QuanShui

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Koszulity for differential graded (DG, for short) modules is introduced. It is shown that any bounded below DG module with bounded Ext-group to the trivial module over a Koszul DG algebra has a Koszul DG submodule (up to a shift and truncation), moreover such a DG module can be approximated by Koszul DG modules (Theorem 3.6). Let A be a Koszul DG algebra, and Dc (A) be the full triangulated subcategory of the derived category of DG A-modules generated by the object AA. If the trivial DG module kA lies in Dc(A), then the heart of the standard t-structure on Dc(A) is anti-equivalent to the category of finitely generated modules over some finite dimensional algebra. As a corollary, Dc(A) is equivalent to the bounded derived category of its heart as triangulated categories.

  17. Koszul differential graded modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Koszulity for differential graded (DG, for short) modules is introduced. It is shown that any bounded below DG module with bounded Ext-group to the trivial module over a Koszul DG algebra has a Koszul DG submodule (up to a shift and truncation), moreover such a DG module can be approximated by Koszul DG modules (Theorem 3.6). Let A be a Koszul DG algebra, and Dc(A) be the full triangulated subcategory of the derived category of DG A-modules generated by the object AA. If the trivial DG module kA lies in Dc(A), then the heart of the standard t-structure on Dc(A) is anti-equivalent to the category of finitely generated modules over some finite dimensional algebra. As a corollary, Dc(A) is equivalent to the bounded derived category of its heart as triangulated categories.

  18. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  19. CS-Rickart modules

    OpenAIRE

    Abyzov, A. N.; Nhan, T. H. N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of CS-Rickart modules, that is a module analogue of the concept of ACS rings. A ring $R$ is called a right weakly semihereditary ring if every its finitly generated right ideal is of the form $P\\oplus S,$ where $P_R$ is a projective module and $S_R$ is a singular module. We describe the ring $R$ over which $\\mathrm{Mat}_n (R)$ is a right ACS ring for any $n \\in \\mathbb {N}$. We show that every finitely generated projective right $R$-module wil...

  20. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei

    2011-05-01

    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  1. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko.

    1990-01-24

    This invention concerns a module frame of solar cell and a solar cell module using this frame. In particular, it concerns a frame and a module useful for the CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} based cell. In the existing solar cell module, sealant is packed in between the edges of a glass substrate, a resin layer and a back protective thin film, etc. and a grooved frame of U-shaped section. For the sealant, silicon based resin and butyl rubber based resin are used many times, but either resin has defects such as their overflow from the module structure. In order to solve these defects, this invention proposes to provide stair-shaped protrusions along the four sides of the bottom of the box frame (herein after called the lower frame) of the module and at the same time, provide a groove for pooling the sealant at the portion where such protrusion meets the side wall, furthermore to provide depressions for pooling the sealant at the upper edge inside the side wall of the lower frame or to punch holes at the corners of the bottom of the lower frame. 9 figs.

  2. Directed network modules

    CERN Document Server

    Pálla, G; Farkas, I J; Pollner, P; Vicsek, T; Derenyi, Imre; Farkas, Illes J.; Palla, Gergely; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e., internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the Clique Percolation Method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own webpages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and among Google's webpages the overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and t...

  3. A photovoltaic module

    OpenAIRE

    KREBS Frederik C.; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovolt...

  4. Model theory and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Prest, M

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module

  5. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  6. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  7. Modulation gamma resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility to control dynamic processes in a matter through gamma-resonance modulation by high-frequency external variable fields in excess of inverse lifetimes of the Moessbauer nuclei excited states, that is, within the megahertz frequency range lies in the heart of the modulation gamma-resonance spectroscopy. Through the use of the gamma-resonance process theoretical analysis methods and of the equation solution method for the density matrix with the secondary quantization of gamma-radiation field one attacks the problems dealing with the effect of both variable fields and relaxation on gamma-resonance. One has studied the gamma-radiation ultrasound modulation stages. One points out a peculiar role of the gamma-magnetic resonance effect in modulation gamma resonance spectroscopy formation. One forecasts development of the modulation gamma-resonance spectroscopy into the nonlinear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

  8. Rigidity of tilting modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr Andersen, Henning; Kaneda, Masaharu

    ) modules for $U_q$ are rigid, i.e., have identical radical and socle filtrations. Moreover, we obtain the same for a large class of Weyl modules for $U_q$. On the other hand, we give examples of non-rigid indecomposable tilting modules as well as non-rigid Weyl modules. These examples are for type $B_2......$ and in this case as well as for type $A_2$ we calculate explicitly the Loewy structure for all regular Weyl modules. We also demonstrate that these results carry over to the modular case when the highest weights in question are in the so-called Jantzen region. At the same time we show by examples that as soon...

  9. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  10. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  11. On Modules Whose Singular Subgenerated Modules Are Weakly Injective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Dhompongsa; J. Sanwong; S.Plubtieng; H.Tansee

    2001-01-01

    Rings over which every singular right module is injective (briefly,right SI-rings) were introduced and investigated by Goodearl. Weakly injective modules, as a generalization of injective modules, were introduced by Jain and modules are weakly injective, which we call SwI-rings. This concept is extended to SwI-modules, i.e., modules whose singular subgenerated modules are weakly injective. Several characterizations and properties of SwI-rings and SwI-modules are obtained which generalize some earlier known results on SI-rings and weakly semisimple rings.

  12. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  13. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  14. The ANTARES optical module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km2 and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail

  15. Microlensing modulation by binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, F; Durrer, R; Dubath, Florian; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Durrer, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We compute the effect of the lens quadrupole on microlensing. The time dependence of the quadrupole can lead to specific modulations of the amplification signal. We study especially binary system lenses in our galaxy. The modulation is observable if the rotation period of the system is smaller than the time over which the amplification is significant and if the impact parameter of the passing light ray is sufficiently close to the Einstein radius so that the amplification is very large. Observations of this modulation can reveal important information on the quadrupole and thus on the gravitational radiation emitted by the lens.

  16. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Komatsu, Yasumitsu; Shirai, Sadaharu.

    1989-09-29

    In the solar cell module of this invention, such junctions as CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} are contained as a photoelectromotive force part coexists with air in a closed space which consists of glass, metal parts and a bonding resin layer; the photoelectromotive force part is coated either with a fluorine resin or a silicone resin. The fluorine resin contains a fundamental skeleton of an alternative copolymer of fluoroolefin and a hydrocarbon-based vinyl monomer; the silicone resin has three types, i.e., addition-reacted, condensated or UV-curing type, and the released oxygen is sealed in the closed space. The resin layer which adheres the glass and the metal plate is a thermoplastic resin which is polyethylene modified by copolymerization of acid anhydride. By this, the reliability of the solar cell module was enhanced. 3 figs.

  17. Module bay with directed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  18. A photovoltaic module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor....... The carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  19. Ultrasound Modulated Bioluminescence Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly-scattering medium from ultrasound modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  20. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  1. Top Local Cohomology Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad T. Dibaei; Siamak Yassemi

    2007-01-01

    For a finitely generated module M over a commutative Noetherian local ring (R, m), it is shown that there exist only a finite number of non-isomorphic top localeohomology modules Hdim(M) (M) for all ideals a of RIt is also shown that for a giveninteger r ≥ 0, if Hra(R/p) is zero for all p in Supp(M), then Hia(M)=0 for all I ≥ r.

  2. Electrical modulation of emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Vassant, Simon; Moldovan Doyen, Ioana Cristina; Marquier, François; Pardo, F.; Gennser, Ulf; Cavanna, Antonella; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the thermal emission through an electrical modulation of the emissivity. The basic idea is to design a device where absorption is due to a resonant phenomenon. If the resonance can be electrically controlled, then absorption and, therefore, thermal emission can be controlled. We demonstrate this general concept using THz resonant absorption by surface phonon polaritons coupled through a gold grating. In our device, absorption is mostly due to a s...

  3. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  4. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  5. Directed network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs

  6. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi.

    1989-09-06

    In the conventional solar cell module, the cell cost is elevated because the cross sections of the cell edge is surrounded with frames of various shape and the gap is filled with a sealant. In additionn, the top end of the module frame is placed roughly 1 mm above the glass surface; the photoelectromotive force part is covered with such deposits as soils and sands, thus badly affecting the photovoltaic generation. In this invention, weather-proof opaque paint is coated around the surface glass to interrupt the light irradiation to the adhesive resin layer between the glass and the back sheet, thus preventing the degradation of the resin layer. Cost is low because of using a thin film. The light interruption by the deposits can be prevented. The photoelectromotive force element is a n-type CdS film or CdS/CdTe. The resin layer around the glass is a thermoplastic polyolefin which is modified with acid anhydrides. 5 figs.

  7. Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Akalin, Tahsin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is a developing and promising candidate for biological imaging, security inspection and communications, due to the low photon energy, the high transparency and the broad band properties of the THz radiation. However, a major encountered bottleneck is lack of efficient devices to manipulate the THz wave, especially to modulate the THz wave front. A wave front modulator should allow the optical or electrical control of the spatial transmission (or reflection) of an input THz wave and hence the ability to encode the information in a wave front. Here we propose a spatial THz modulator (STM) to dynamically control the THz wave front with photo-generated carriers. A computer generated THz hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional spatial light modulator (SLM). The corresponding photo-generated carrier spatial distribution will be induced, which forms an amplitude hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special intensity patterns and vortex beams are generated by using this method. This all-optical controllable STM is structure free, high resolution and broadband. It is expected to be widely used in future THz imaging and communication systems.

  8. Hilbert modules and their representation

    OpenAIRE

    Takahaschi, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    A Hilbert module over a  C*-algebra A with identity is an unitary A-module H, endowed with an inner product taking values in A. We consider these modules and derive some of their elementary properties. Later we consider fields of Hilbert modules and obtain a representation of H by means of continuous sections. This result will be used in other papers ([7] and [8]) to get a duality  theorem and to study special Hilbert modules.

  9. NREL module energy rating methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  10. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...

  11. Hollow dimension of modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the following general question: Given a module Mwhich has finite hollow dimension and which has a finite collection of submodules Ki (1≤i≤n) such that M=K1+... +Kn, can we find an expression for the hollow dimension of Min terms of hollow dimensions of modules built up in some way from K1 Kn? We prove the following theorem:Let Mbe an amply supplemented module having finite hollow dimension and let Ki (1≤i≤n) be a finite collection of submodules of Msuch that M=K1+...+Kn. Then the hollow dimension h(M) of Mis the sum of the hollow dimensions of Ki (1≤i≤n) ifand only if Ki is a supplement of K1+...+Ki-1+Ki+1+...+Kn in Mfor each 1≤i≤n.

  12. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  13. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  14. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  15. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  16. Models for Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Troost, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We recall the structure of the indecomposable sl(2) modules in the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand category O. We show that all these modules can arise as quantized phase spaces of physical models. In particular, we demonstrate in a path integral discretization how a redefined action of the sl(2) algebra over the complex numbers can glue finite dimensional and infinite dimensional highest weight representations into indecomposable wholes. Furthermore, we discuss how projective cover representations arise in the tensor product of finite dimensional and Verma modules and give explicit tensor product decomposition rules. The tensor product spaces can be realized in terms of product path integrals. Finally, we discuss relations of our results to brane quantization and cohomological calculations in string theory.

  17. Phase modulated multiphoton microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Karki, Khadga Jung; Pullerits, Tonu

    2015-01-01

    We show that the modulation of the phases of the laser beams of ultra-short pulses leads to modulation of the two photon fluorescence intensity. The phase modulation technique when used in multi-photon microscopy can improve the signal to noise ratio. The technique can also be used in multiplexing the signals in the frequency domain in multi-focal raster scanning microscopy. As the technique avoids the use of array detectors as well as elaborate spatiotemporal multiplexing schemes it provides a convenient means to multi-focal scanning in axial direction. We show examples of such uses. Similar methodology can be used in other non-linear scanning microscopies, such as second or third harmonic generation microscopy.

  18. Photovoltaic concentrator module technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Chamberlin, Jay L.; Boes, Eldon C.

    Significant developments in the development of photovoltaic (PV) concentrator technology are described. Concentrator cell research, advances in PV concentrator cell technology, and PV concentrator module development are described. Reliability issues currently of concern, including the applicability of wet insulation resistance tests to concentrator modules, correlation of accelerated thermal cycling tests with life expectancy in the field, and the importance of quality assurance during manufacture, are discussed. Two PV concentrator power systems installed in 1989 are discussed. A PV concentrator initiative program established by the DOE is given, and the results of the latest cost study are presented.

  19. Flexible programmable logic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchinson, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierson, Lyndon G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  20. Instant node package module

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Juzer

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical exploration of the lifecycle of creating node modules as well as learning all of the top features that npm has to offer.Intended for readers who want to create their first node.js modules. The programming paradigm of JavaScript is not covered so a foundation in these concepts would be beneficial.

  1. Modulating aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic....... This book provides the most up-to-date information and a critical evaluation of a variety of approaches being tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress...

  2. Pain and modulation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain is one of the most important and sometimes difficult problems, that patients and physicians are encountered. It may be clinically acute or chronic, acute pain has usually definite cause and favourable response to treatment. On the other hand there are difficulties in diagnosis and management of chronic pain. Peripheral and cranial nerves convey pain impulses toward central nervous system, and modulations take place at several levels. Diagnosis of different pains, including nociceptive, nerve trunk pain and deafferentation types is essential to acceptable management. In this article we review pain pathway, neurotransmitters and modulation.

  3. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  4. Modelling the Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanevakis, Markos

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers into various ways in simulation the Photovoltaic (PV) module behaviour under any combination of solar irradiation and ambient temperature. There are three different approaches presented here briefly and one of them is chosen because of its good accuracy and relatively low...

  5. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  6. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  7. Cadmium telluride module development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrigth, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. (Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Efficiencies of up to 12.3% have been achieved on small devices. It is expected that 14% efficiency will be exceeded on small devices by improving the fill factors on the present devices in the reasonably near future. Efficiencies in the range 16%-18% are expected to be achieved in the longer term. Modules of 6 W, approximately 929 cm{sup 2} in area with an active area efficiency of over 8% (aperture efficiency of 7.3%) have been achieved. The feasibility of producing 4 ft{sup 2} modules of CdS/CdTe has been shown and requires further efforts in order to realize the overall potentials. The structural integrity of the encapsulation design has been studied by thermal cycling and outdoor life testing. Submodules have been life tested for over 270 days with no observable degradation by the SERI Outdoor Reliability and Life Testing Laboratory. In addition to further optimization of materials and device structure, module output in the future will be increased by an improvement in the uniformity of the deposition process, and by minimizing the loss of active area due to cell division interconnections. Module output is expected to attain 135 W m{sup -2} in the mid 1990s and over 150 W m{sup -2} in the long term. (orig.).

  8. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  9. Special Operation. Module 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  10. Coplanar interconnection module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, R. D.; Windsor, H. F.

    1970-01-01

    Module for interconnecting a semiconductor array to external leads or components incorporates a metal external heat sink for cooling the array. Heat sink, extending down from the molded block that supports the array, is immersed in a liquid nitrogen bath which is designed to maintain the desired array temperature.

  11. Modules: Friend or Foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of modules, design-based instruction, and other approaches to technology education can be assessed by determining whether they communicate clear goals; present a clear definition and historical view of technology; present technology processes, actions, and authentic contexts; foster cooperation and teamwork; include open-ended…

  12. Product Module Rig Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence

  13. Fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, Rodger E

    2007-01-01

    This lecture covers the fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation, which can be defined as any modulation technique that requires a transmission bandwidth much greater than the modulating signal bandwidth, independently of the bandwidth of the modulating signal. After reviewing basic digital modulation techniques, the principal forms of spread spectrum modulation are described. One of the most important components of a spread spectrum system is the spreading code, and several types and their characteristics are described. The most essential operation required at the receiver in a spread spect

  14. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  15. Generic ISIS Transport Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Generic ISIS Transport Module is to provide a means to bring living specimens to and from orbit. In addition to living specimens, the module can...

  16. Prime Submodules and Flat Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.AZIZI

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some characterizations of prime submodules in fiat modules and, particularly,in free modules are given. Furthermore, the height of prime submodules and some saturated chain of prime submodules are also given.

  17. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mithun; K Porsezian

    2014-02-01

    We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic field triggers the modulational instability and demonstrate that irrespective of the magnetic field effect the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases show modulational instability.

  18. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  19. Modulators of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doya, Kenji

    2008-04-01

    Human and animal decisions are modulated by a variety of environmental and intrinsic contexts. Here I consider computational factors that can affect decision making and review anatomical structures and neurochemical systems that are related to contextual modulation of decision making. Expectation of a high reward can motivate a subject to go for an action despite a large cost, a decision that is influenced by dopamine in the anterior cingulate cortex. Uncertainty of action outcomes can promote risk taking and exploratory choices, in which norepinephrine and the orbitofrontal cortex appear to be involved. Predictable environments should facilitate consideration of longer-delayed rewards, which depends on serotonin in the dorsal striatum and dorsal prefrontal cortex. This article aims to sort out factors that affect the process of decision making from the viewpoint of reinforcement learning theory and to bridge between such computational needs and their neurophysiological substrates.

  20. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  1. Stable local oscillator module.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-11-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.

  2. Module Utilization Committee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-03-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the US Department of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules. The final report of that committee accounts for that disposition. The membership and activities of the committee are set forth and the results of its activities are reported.

  3. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient...... by bendng losses co-operates to provide more compact modulators with improved performance (extinction) and speed....

  4. FERMI multi-chip module

    CERN Multimedia

    This FERMI multi-chip module contains five million transistors. 25 000 of these modules will handle the flood of information through parts of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. To select interesting events for recording, crucial decisions are taken before the data leaves the detector. FERMI modules are being developed at CERN in partnership with European industry.

  5. Higher Level Orderings on Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Guang Xing ZENG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate higher level orderings on modules over commutative rings. On the basis of the theory of higher level orderings on fields and commutative rings, some results involving existence of higher level orderings are generalized to the category of modules over commutative rings. Moreover, a strict intersection theorem for higher level orderings on modules is established.

  6. Thermal modulation for gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbrink, Ernest F. (Inventor); Libardoni, Mark (Inventor); Stewart, Kristine (Inventor); Waite, J. Hunter (Inventor); Block, Bruce P. (Inventor); Sacks, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thermal modulator device for gas chromatography and associated methods. The thermal modulator device includes a recirculating fluid cooling member, an electrically conductive capillary in direct thermal contact with the cooling member, and a power supply electrically coupled to the capillary and operable for controlled resistive heating of the capillary. The capillary can include more than one separate thermally modulated sections.

  7. -k-torsionfree modules and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The notion of ω-k-torsionfree modules with respect to a bimoduleω is introduced, which is characterized in terms of left addR ω-approximations. The notion of ω-left approximation dimension is introduced, and the forms of k-syzygy modules being k-torsionfree modules are described.

  8. Physics. Module 1. Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Бовтрук, Алла Георгіївна; Мєняйлов, Сергій Миколайович; Максимов, Сергій Леонідович; Поліщук, Аркадій Петрович

    2009-01-01

    Ukraine’s joining Bologna process requires creating new books in physics (in English in particular). The book is developed for all forms of studying physics on the Credit-based Modular System basis in higher school. «Physics. Module 1. Mechanics» presents Newtonian mechanics and Special theory of relativity. It contains eight Study Units which include theoretical information, test questions, sample problems, laboratory works and individual home tasks. It is designed for students of engi...

  9. Weighted network modules

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Illes J.; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm (CPMw, Clique Percolation Method with weights) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique per...

  10. of Banach modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a Banach algebra, E be a Banach A-bimodule and Δ E → A be a bounded Banach A-bimodule homomorphism. It is shown that under some mild conditions, the weakΔ''-amenability of E'' (as an A''-bimodule necessitates weak Δ-amenability of E (as an A-bimodule. Some examples of weak-amenable Banach modules are provided as well.

  11. Chemical release module facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical release module provides the capability to conduct: (1) thermite based metal vapor releases; (2) pressurized gas releases; (3) dispersed liquid releases; (4) shaped charge releases from ejected submodules; and (5) diagnostic measurements with pi supplied instruments. It also provides a basic R-F and electrical system for: (1) receiving and executing commands; (2) telemetering housekeeping data; (3) tracking; (4) monitoring housekeeping and control units; and (5) ultrasafe disarming and control monitoring.

  12. COMBINING MODULES FOR MOVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzi, E; Cheung, V.C.K.; d’Avella, A.; Saltiel, P.; Tresch, M.

    2007-01-01

    We review experiments supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a small number of units of motor output. Using a variety of approaches such as microstimulation of the spinal cord, NMDA iontophoresis, and an examination of natural behaviors in intact and deafferented animals we have provided evidence for a modular organization of the spinal cord. A module is a functional unit in the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing ...

  13. Modulated reheating by curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Ki-Young

    2012-01-01

    There might be a light scalar field during inflation which is not responsible for the accelerating inflationary expansion. Then, its quantum fluctuation is stretched during inflation. This scalar field could be a curvaton, if it decays at a late time. In addition, if the inflaton decay rate depends on the light scalar field expectation value by interactions between them, density perturbations could be generated by the quantum fluctuation of the light field when the inflaton decays. This is modulated reheating mechanism. We study curvature perturbation in models where a light scalar field does not only play a role of curvaton but also induce modulated reheating at the inflaton decay. We calculate the non-linearity parameters as well as the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We find that there is a parameter region where non-linearity parameters are also significantly enhanced by the cancellation between the modulated effect and the curvaton contribution. For the simple quadratic potential mo...

  14. Allosteric modulation of caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, Hans-Georg; Sisay, Mihiret Tekeste; Gütschow, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Caspases are proteolytic enzymes mainly involved in the induction and execution phases of apoptosis. This type of programmed cell death is an essential regulatory process required to maintain the integrity and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Inappropriate apoptosis is attributed a key role in many human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, ischemic damage, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Allosteric modulation of the function of a protein occurs when the regulatory trigger, such as the binding of a small effector or inhibitor molecule, takes place some distance from the protein's active site. In recent years, several caspases have been identified that possess allosteric sites and binding of small molecule to these sites resulted in the modulation of enzyme activities. Regulation of caspase activity by small molecule allosteric modulators is believed to be of great therapeutic importance. In this review we give brief highlights on recent developments in identifying and characterizing natural and synthetic allosteric inhibitors as well as activators of caspases and discuss their potential in drug discovery and protein engineering. PMID:21807025

  15. Solar Module Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Amrani

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important steps in the photovoltaic industry is the encapsulation of the solar cells. It consists to connect the cells in order to provide useful power for any application and also protect them from environmental damages which cause corrosion, and mechanical shocks. In this paper, we present the encapsulation process we have developed at Silicon Technology Unit (UDTS for monocrystalline silicon solar cells. We will focus particularly on the thermal treatment, the most critical step in the process, which decides on the quality and the reliability of the module. This thermal treatment is conducted in two steps: the lamination and the polymerization. Several tests of EVA reticulation have been necessary for setting technological parameters such as the level of vacuum, the pressure, the temperature, and the time. The quality of our process has been confirmed by the tests conducted on our modules at the European Laboratory of Joint Research Centre (JRC of ISPRA (Italy. The electrical characterization of the modules has showed that after the encapsulation the current has been improved by a factor of 4% to 6% and the power gain by a factor of 4% to 7%. This is mainly due to the fact of using a treated glass, which reduces the reflection of the light at a level as low as 8%.

  16. Packaging the MAMA module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, J. Dennis

    1994-10-01

    The MAMA (Mixed Arithmetic, Multiprocessing Array) module is being developed to evaluate new packaging technologies and processing paradigms for advanced military processing systems. The architecture supports a tight mix of signal, data,and I/O processing at GFLOP throughput rates. It is fabricated using only commercial-on-the-sehlf (COTS) chips and will provide a high level of durability. Its attributes are largely the result of two new interconnection and packaging technologies. Chip-in-board packaging is used to reduce local x-y communication delays and solder joints, while significantly improving board-level packaging density. A unique 3-D interconnection technology called a cross-over cell has been developed to reduce board-to-board communication delays, drive power, glue logic, and card-edge pin-outs. These technologies enable true 3-D structures that are form, fit and connector compatible with conventional line-replacable modules. The module's design rational, packaging technology, and basic architecture will be presented in this paper.

  17. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  18. Hybrid silicon modulators Invited Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Wen Chen; Yinghao Kuo; J. E. Bowers

    2009-01-01

    A number of active elements have been demonstrated using the hybrid silicon evanescent platform, includ- ing lasers, amplifiers, and detectors. In this letter, two types of hybrid silicon modulators, fulfilling the building blocks in optical communication on this platform, are presented. A hybrid silicon electroabsorp-tion modulator, suitable for high speed interconnects, with 10-dB extinction ratio at -5 V and 16-GHz modulation bandwidth is demonstrated. In addition, a hybrid silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator utilizing carrier depletion in multiple quantum wells is proved with 2 V.mm voltage-length product, 150-nm optical bandwidth, and a large signal modulation up to 10 Gb/s.

  19. Extension closure of relative syzygy modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兆泳

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of relative syzygy modules. We then study the extensionclosure of the category of modules consisting of relative syzygy modules (resp. relative k-torsionfree modules).

  20. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  1. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoelae, Kalle [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Ridout, David [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  2. Modulation of whistlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivokon', V. P.; Bogdanov, V. V.; Druzhin, G. I.; Cherneva, N. V.; Kubyshkin, A. V.; Sannikov, D. V.; Agranat, I. V.

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of the experimental data obtained at Paratunka observatory (53.02° N, 158.65° E; L = 2.3) has revealed a nonstandard form of whistlers involving spectral lines that are symmetric with respect to the whistler. We have shown that this form is most likely due to the amplitude modulation of whistlers by electromagnetic pulses with a length of around 1 s and carrier frequency of around 1.1 kHz. We have suggested that these pulses could be emitted by the auroral electrojet modified by heating radiation from the HAARP facility (62.30° N, 145.30° W; L > 4.2).

  3. On indecomposable modules over the Virasoro algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏育才

    2001-01-01

    It is proved that an indecomposable Harish-Chandra module over the Virasoro algebra must be (i) a uniformly bounded module, or (ii) a module in Category , or (iii) a module in Category , or (iv) a module which contains the trivial module as one of its composition factors.

  4. Emissivity modulating electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Sheets, Judd

    2009-05-01

    The IR-ECDTM (Infra-Red ElectroChromic Device) variable emitance device (VED) is an all-solid-state monolithic vacuum deposited thin film system with a unique metamaterial IR transparent-electrode system which functions as an electrically controlled dimmable mirror in the IR region. The maximum reflectance corresponding to the bleached condition of the system is around 90% (low-e condition, e=0.1). The minimum reflectance reaches nearly zero in the colored condition of the system (high emittance, e=1). The average emissivity modulation of the IRECDTM is 0.7 in the 8-12 micron region, and at 9.7 micron (room temperature) it reaches a value of 0.9. Half and full emissivity modulations occur within 2 and10 minutes respectively. Because of its light weight (5g/m2), low voltage requirement (+/- 1 Volts), extremely good emissivity control properties (from 0 to 0.9 at 300K) and highly repeatable deposition process, the IR-ECDTM technology is very attractive for satellite thermal control applications. The IR-ECDTM has been under evaluation in a real space environment since March 8, 2007. This paper presents recent achievements of the IR-ECDTM including space test results.

  5. Steam generator module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The module of the steam generator is arranged such that the first working medium flows through the tubes of the heat exchange bundle and the second working medium flows through the intertube space. At least one side of the module is provided with a lid which is provided with a system of through-flow apertures. The apertures are expanded and provided with a thread in the direction of the outer side of the lid. They are coaxial with the tubes of the heat exchange bundle at the point of their anchorage in the tube plate. The apertures are closed with plugs with a male thread and the sealing surfaces are formed between the thread joint and the space of the first working medium. The plugs extend into the space of the heat exchange bundle and form a throttle which replaces the classical stop and allow for dismantling. This arrangement of the modular steam generator allows the control of the inner surfaces of heat exchange pipes and also the cleaning of these inner surfaces. (E.S.)

  6. Hilbert von Neumann modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bikram, Panchugopal; Srinivasan, R; Sunder, V S

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a way of regarding Hilbert von Neumann modules as spaces of operators between Hilbert space, not unlike [Skei], but in an apparently much simpler manner and involving far less machinery. We verify that our definition is equivalent to that of [Skei], by verifying the `Riesz lemma' or what is called `self-duality' in [Skei]. An advantage with our approach is that we can totally side-step the need to go through $C^*$-modules and avoid the two stages of completion - first in norm, then in the strong operator topology - involved in the former approach. We establish the analogue of the Stinespring dilation theorem for Hilbert von Neumann bimodules, and we develop our version of `internal tensor products' which we refer to as Connes fusion for obvious reasons. In our discussion of examples, we examine the bimodules arising from automorphisms of von Neumann algebras, verify that fusion of bimodules corresponds to composition of automorphisms in this case, and that the isomorphism class of such a bimodule...

  7. Photodynamic immune modulation (PIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, John R.; Hunt, David W. C.; Simkin, Guillermo O.; Ratkay, Leslie G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Lui, Harvey; Levy, Julia G.

    1999-09-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is accepted for treatment of superficial and lumen-occluding tumors in regions accessible to activating light and is now known to be effective in closure of choroidal neovasculature in Age Related Macular Degeneration. PDT utilizes light absorbing drugs (photosensitizers) that generate the localized formation of reactive oxygen species after light exposure. In a number of systems, PDT has immunomodulatory effects; Photodynamic Immune Modulation (PIM). Using low- intensity photodynamic regimens applied over a large body surface area, progression of mouse autoimmune disease could be inhibited. Further, this treatment strongly inhibited the immunologically- medicated contact hypersensitivity response to topically applied chemical haptens. Immune modulation appears to result from selective targeting of activated T lymphocytes and reduction in immunostimulation by antigen presenting cells. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated skin condition, exhibits heightened epidermal cell proliferation, epidermal layer thickening and plaque formation at different body sites. In a recent clinical trial, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis and arthritis symptoms (psoriatic arthritis) displayed a significant clinical improvement in several psoriasis-related parameters after four weekly whole-body PIM treatments with verteporfin. The safety profile was favorable. The capacity of PIM to influence other human immune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis is under extensive evaluation.

  8. Mixed twistor D-modules

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    We introduce mixed twistor D-modules and establish their fundamental functorial properties. We also prove that they can be described as the gluing of admissible variations of mixed twistor structures. In a sense, mixed twistor D-modules can be regarded as a twistor version of M. Saito's mixed Hodge modules. Alternatively, they can be viewed as a mixed version of the pure twistor D-modules studied by C. Sabbah and the author. The theory of mixed twistor D-modules is one of the ultimate goals in the study suggested by Simpson's Meta Theorem, and it would form a foundation for the Hodge theory of holonomic D-modules which are not necessarily regular singular.  .

  9. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Hybrid grapheme plasmonic waveguide modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D.; Thackray, B. D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thomas, P.; Auton, G. H.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene allow one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with sub-wavelength field confinement of plasmonic/metallic structures is not fully realized. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for light modulation at telecom and near-infrared. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  11. Polarisation Encryption/Decryption Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A polarisation encryption/decryption module comprising at least two array based modulating devices, preferably spatial light modulators (SLMs), at least one array based intensity detector, and at least one source of electromagnetic radiation. A local region of information displayed on a first of ...... rapidly. May be used for real time encryption/decryption of motion pictures. Further, a method of polarisation encrypting and decrypting information. The encryption/decryption is performed optically while the communication is performed electronically.......A polarisation encryption/decryption module comprising at least two array based modulating devices, preferably spatial light modulators (SLMs), at least one array based intensity detector, and at least one source of electromagnetic radiation. A local region of information displayed on a first...... of the modulating devices has corresponding local regions on each of the other modulating devices and on each of the detectors. Preferably uses XOR operations. The module is compact in size and capable of performing encryption as well as decryption. Provides fast encryption/decryption because the key may be changed...

  12. Water-module interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  13. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  14. Multichip module technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapustinsky, J.S.; Boissevain, J.G.; Muck, R.C.; Smith, G.D.; Wong-Swanson, B.G.; Ziock, H.J.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Multichip Module (MCM) was designed and submitted for fabrication to the Lockheed Martin foundry using a licensed process called High Density Interconnect (HDI). The HDI process uses thin film techniques to create circuit interconnect patterns on multiple layers of dielectric film which are deposited directly on top of unpackaged electronic die. This results in an optimally small package that approaches the area of the bare die themselves. This project tested the capability of the Lockheed Martin foundry to produce, in an HDI process, a complex mixed-mode (analog and digital) circuit on a single MCM substrate.

  15. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    The course presents the fundamental principles for digital communication, e.g. fixed-wire modems or wireless communication channels, as applied in mobile phones, wireless computer networks or wireless systems in intelligent houses. Based on the functional blocks of a digital communication system......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a communication...... system. Having passed the course, the student will be able to accomplish the following, within the areas shown below: Model for Communication System. Prepare and explain the functional block in a digital communication system, corresponding to the specific course contents. Model for Communication Channel...

  16. New pulse modulator with low switching frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Golub V. S.

    2014-01-01

    The author presents an integrating pulse modulator (analog signal converter) with the pulse frequency and duration modulation similar to sigma-delta modulation (with low switching frequency), without quantization. The modulator is characterized by the absence of the quantization noise inherent in sigma-delta modulator, and a low switching frequency, unlike the pulse-frequency modulator. The modulator is recommended, in particular, to convert signals at the input of the class D power amplifier.

  17. New pulse modulator with low switching frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golub V. S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an integrating pulse modulator (analog signal converter with the pulse frequency and duration modulation similar to sigma-delta modulation (with low switching frequency, without quantization. The modulator is characterized by the absence of the quantization noise inherent in sigma-delta modulator, and a low switching frequency, unlike the pulse-frequency modulator. The modulator is recommended, in particular, to convert signals at the input of the class D power amplifier.

  18. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyungjin

    2016-08-01

    The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  19. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kiwoon

    2015-01-01

    The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  20. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwoon Choi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  1. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwoon Choi; Hyungjin Kim

    2016-01-01

    The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  2. Diagnosis And Prescription: Reinforcement Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George W.

    This learning module has been designed to aid the teacher trainee in identifying ways in which he influences student behavior in the classroom and also explores means of selecting more meaningful reinforcers and their application. Terminal objectives of the module are the ability to (1) define the terms "reinforcement,""positive…

  3. Input/output interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  4. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  5. Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multipurpose Logistics Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. W.; Glasgow, S. d.; Reagan, S. E.; Presson, K. H.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The STS-121/ULF 1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the programmable thermostat module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a data recorder module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This Technical Memorandum discusses the hardware design, development, test, and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

  6. OCGen Module Mooring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, Portland, ME (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Ocean Renewable Power Company's OCGen Module Mooring Project provided an extensive research, design, development, testing and data collection effort and analysis conducted with respect to a positively buoyant, submerged MHK device secured to the seabed using a tensioned mooring system. Different analytic tools were evaluated for their utility in the design of submerged systems and their moorings. Deployment and testing of a prototype OCGen® system provided significant data related to mooring line loads and system attitude and station keeping. Mooring line loads were measured in situ and reported against flow speeds. The Project made a significant step in the development of designs, methodologies and practices related to floating and mooring of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Importantly for Ocean Renewable Power Company, the Project provided a sound basis for advancing a technically and commercially viable OCGen® Power System. The OCGen® Power System is unique in the MHK industry and, in itself, offers distinct advantages of MHK devices that are secured to the seabed using fixed structural frames. Foremost among these advantages are capital and operating cost reductions and increased power extraction by allowing the device to be placed at the most energetic level of the water column.

  7. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  8. Transient Heliosheath Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Quenby, J J

    2014-01-01

    Voyager 1 has explored the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction region between the terminal shock and heliopause following the intensity distribution of galactic cosmic ray protons above 200 MeV energy. Before this component reached the galactic level at 121.7 AU, 4 episodes of rapid intensity change occured similar to the Forbush Decreases found near the sun, rather than the expected result of models related to those describing Long Term Modulation in the inner solar system. Because the mean solar wind flow is both expected and observed to be perpendicular to the radial direction close to the heliopause, explanation is given in terms of transient radial flows related to possible heliopause boundary flapping. It is necessary that radial flows are at the sound speed found for conditions downstream of the teminal shock and that the relevant perpendicular cosmic ray diffusion is controlled by 'slab' field fluctuations accounting for 20 percent or less of the total power in field variance. However, addition...

  9. ABSOLUTELY E-PURE MODULES AND E-PURE SPLIT MODULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hangyu

    2011-01-01

    We first introduce the concepts of absolutely E-pure modules and Epure split modules. Then, we characterize the IF rings in terms of absolutely E-pure modules. The E-pure split modules are also characterized.

  10. Quadratic and 2-Crossed Modules of Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Arvasi; E. Ulualan

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we define the quadratic modules for commutative algebras and give relations among 2-crossed modules, crossed squares, quadratic modules and simplicial commutative algebras with Moore complex of length 2.

  11. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  12. Matching polytopes and Specht modules

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ricky Ini

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the dimension of the Specht module of a forest $G$ is the same as the normalized volume of the matching polytope of $G$. We also associate to $G$ a symmetric function $s_G$ (analogous to the Schur symmetric function $s_\\lambda$ for a partition $\\lambda$) and investigate its combinatorial and representation-theoretic properties in relation to the Specht module and Schur module of $G$. We then use this to define notions of standard and semistandard tableaux for forests.

  13. Ammonia corrodes solar modules; Salmiakgeist greift Module an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Katrin

    2011-07-01

    Ammonia is an aggressive gas produced in animal shelters, which may cause corrosion of solar modules. Various institutions, e.g. DLG and TUeV Rheinland, therefore offer an ammonia test for solar modules. The TUeV Rheinland recently commissioned a walk-in test chamber and now issues an official seal of approval, while the DLG doubts the practical value of the test.

  14. Cosmic ray modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of cosmic rays to and inside the heliosphere, encounter an outward moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic field fluctuation and turbulence, causing convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. Cosmic ray counts from the ground ground-based neutron monitors at different cut of rigidity show intensity changes, which are anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. They also lose energy as they propagate towards the Earth and experience various types of modulations due to different solar activity indices. In this work, we study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-2014 for Beijing, Moscow and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations located at different cut off rigidity. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for low cutoff rigidity as compared to high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station as compared to the high cut off rigidity station on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days does not show any significant dependence on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of different cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics, amplitude, phase.

  15. Modulation of lymphopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, C.

    1991-01-01

    During the current project period we have demonstrated correspondence between animal models and in vitro models of modulated lymphopoiesis. Our finding that G-CSF, a growth factor for neutrophil granulocytes, suppresses lymphopoiesis in long term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) has important implications both for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of hemopoiesis and for clinical use of recombinant growth factors that are beginning to be widely used for the treatment of a variety of diseases. During the present project period we adopted LTBMC systems developed by others for the purposes of our specific aims. Also we developed a novel long term culture system for NK cells. The discovery of a new growth factor, O-CSF, specific for osteoclasts and the establishment of a clonal assay system that provides evidence for a new class of hemopoietic progenitor cells, the osteoclast progenitor, are important contributions. Given the important role T cells play in the immune response and in the regulation of other lymphohemopoietic cell lineages through the lymphokines they secrete, the need for an in vitro system that lends itself to the analysis of T cell maturation and to the testing of factors that may adversely affect T lymphopoiesis cannot be overemphasized. We believe that we can exploit an advantageous set of circumstances that present an excellent opportunity for initiating a focused experimental program for developing such a system. By a systematic and selective analysis of molecular interactions between heterogenous thymic stromal cells and T cell progenitors at different stages of maturation, it will be possible for our program to define the complement of critical cellular interactions on which successive stages of T lymphopoiesis depend. The experiments we propose will lay a rational foundation for the development of a long term culture system for T lymphopoiesis. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Compact energy conversion module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  17. Ultrasound-modulated bioluminescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Guillaume; Schotland, John C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly scattering medium from ultrasound-modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  18. Photovoltaic Module Qualification Plus Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kempe, M.; Bosco, N.; Hacke, P.; Jordan, D.; Miller, D. C.; Silverman, T. J.; Phillips, N.; Earnest, T.; Romero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This report summarizes a set of test methods that are in the midst of being incorporated into IEC 61215 for certification of a module design or other tests that go beyond certification to establish bankability.

  19. Flip-Flop Digital Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eno, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Clock switched on and off in response to data signal. Flip-flop modulator generates square-wave carrier frequency that is half clock frequency and turns carrier on and off. Final demodulator output logical inverse of data input.

  20. Factors Modulating Software Design Quality

    OpenAIRE

    S., Poornima. U.; V, Suma.

    2014-01-01

    Object oriented approach is one of the popular software development approach for managing complex systems with massive set of requirements. Unlike procedural approach, this approach captures the requirements as set of data rather than services. Further, class is considered as a key unit of the solution-domain with data and services wrapped together, representing architectural design of a basic module. Thus, system complexity is directly related to the number of modules and the degree of inter...

  1. Attentional Modulation of Binocular Rivalry

    OpenAIRE

    Chris ePaffen; David eAlais

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Wheatstone initiated the scientific study of binocular rivalry, it has been debated whether the phenomenon is under attentional control. In recent years, the issue of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry has seen a revival. Here we review the classical studies as well as recent advances in the study of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry. We show that (1) voluntary control over binocular rivalry is possible, yet limited, (2) both endogenous and exogenous attention in...

  2. Installing Python Modules with pip

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Gibbs

    2013-01-01

    This lesson shows you how to download and install Python modules. There are many ways to install external modules, but for the purposes of this lesson, we’re going to use a program called pip. As of Python 2.7.9 and newer, pip is installed by default. This tutorial will be helpful for anyone using older versions of Python (which are still quite common).

  3. ABOUT SOLIDWORKS COSTING MODULE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin IANCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paperwork is presented the SolidWorks analysis of costing, using Simulation Costing module. There are presented the settings that have to be done for such analysis and the results shown by this software module. The elements that are taken into account are specific to costing templates in SolidWorks, but can be adjusted for the specific costs of a given factory.

  4. Wideband Sigma-Delta Modulators

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xiaolong

    2010-01-01

    Sigma-delta modulators (SDM) have come up as an attractive candidatefor analog-to-digital conversion in single chip front ends thanks to the continuousimproving performance. The major disadvantage is the limited bandwidthdue to the need of oversampling. Therefore, extending these convertersto broadband applications requires lowering the oversampling ratio (OSR) inorder. The aim of this thesis is the investigation on the topology and structureof sigma-delta modulators suitable for wideband app...

  5. Intelligent spacecraft module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  6. Steganalysis of stochastic modulation steganography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Junhui; HUANG Jiwu

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic modulation steganography embeds secret message within the cover image by adding stego-noise with a specific probabilistic distribution. No method is known to be applicable to the estimation of stochastic modulation steganography. By analyzing the distributions of the horizontal pixel difference of images before and after stochastic modulation embedding, we present a new steganalytic approach to accurately estimate the length of secret message in stochastic modulation steganography. The proposed method first establishes a model describing the statistical relationship among the differences of the cover image, stego-image and stego-noise. In the case of stego- image-only steganalysis, rough estimate of the distributional parameters of the cover image's pixel difference is obtained with the use of the provided stego-image. And grid search and Chi-square goodness of fit test are exploited to estimate the length of the secret message embedded with stochastic modulation steganography. The experimental results demonstrate that our new approach is effective for steganalyzing stochastic modulation steganography and accurately estimating the length of the secret message.

  7. Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene make possible the fabrication of novel optoelectronic devices. One of the most exciting graphene characteristics is the tunability by gating which allows one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with subwavelength field confinement of plasmonic waveguides remains largely unexplored. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic waveguide modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for telecom applications. The modulator working at the telecom range is demonstrated, showing a modulation depth of >0.03 dB μm-1 at low gating voltages for an active device area of just 10 μm2, characteristics which are already comparable to those of silicon-based waveguide modulators while retaining the benefit of further device miniaturization. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  8. Customized PEC modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Martin B. (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the project ''Customized PEC modules'' was to move from the production hand-made individual DSCs (dye-sensitized solar cells) in the laboratory to the production of DSC modules in a semi-automated process. At the same time allowing sufficient variation in the product's specification for real tailoring of the product to the application. The tailoring can be related to the module's electrical output and size, but also to the possibility of designing patterns for decoration or communication purposes by playing around with the shape, size and layout of the individual cells forming the module. This was to be accomplished mainly by screen printing of DSC components on glass substrates at Mekoprint. For reaching this goal the work was divided into a number of steps. The central part of the work done was in the initial conception activity and the following manufacturing activity. An activity regarding optimization included several tasks of optimization and adaptation of the existing laboratory process for manufacturing of the DSCs. Finally, work focused on international activities was done. All the steps needed for the production of customized DSC modules have been demonstrated in this project. In combination with the development of a high performing printable sealant and sealing method all the prerequisites for producing customized DSC modules have been demonstrated. (LN)

  9. Language Parametric Module Management for IDEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klint, P.; Kooiker, A.T.; Vinju, J.J.; Johnstone, A.; Sloane, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    An integrated development environment (IDE) monitors all the changes that a user makes to source code modules and responds accordingly by flagging errors, by reparsing, by rechecking, or by recompiling modules and by adjusting visualizations or other information derived from a module. A module manag

  10. On Sequentially Co-Cohen-Macaulay Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Thi Dung

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we define the notion of dimension filtration of an Artinian module and study a class of Artinian modules,called sequentially co-Cohen-Macaulay modules,which contains strictly all co-Cohen-Macaulay modules.Some characterizations of co-Cohen-Macaulayness in terms of the Matlis duality and of local homology are also given.

  11. On generalized k-syzygy modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce the notion of generalized k-syzygy modules, and then give an equivalent characterization that the class of generalized k-syzygy modules coincides with that ofω-k-torsionfree modules. We further study the extension closure of the category consisting of generalized k-syzygy modules. Some known results are obtained as corollaries.

  12. Feasibility of photovoltaic: thermoelectric hybrid modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules suffers from elevated temperatures. Conversion efficiency losses of up to about 25% can result, depending on the type of integration of the modules in the roof. Cooling of modules would therefore enhance annual PV performance. Instead of module coolin

  13. Optoelectronic Oscillator Based on Polarization Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shilong; Zhou, Pei; Tang, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Yamei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Zhu, Dan

    2015-07-01

    A polarization modulator together with a polarizer can implement phase modulation, intensity modulation with tunable chirp, and frequency-doubling intensity modulation. If an optical filter is incorporated, frequency-quadrupling and frequency-sextupling intensity modulations and a microwave photonic phase shifter can also be realized. By using a polarization modulator to replace the intensity modulator in an optoelectronic oscillator, various new features are enabled. In this article, an analytical model for the polarization modulator-based systems is established. The recent development in employing polarization modulators for constructing optoelectronic oscillators is discussed. The emerging applications enabled by the polarization modulator-based optoelectronic oscillators and the possible future development are also discussed.

  14. On a Class of Semicommutative Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nazim Agayev; Tahire Özen; Abdullah Harmanci

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity, a right -module and $S=\\mathrm{End}_R(M)$. In this note, we introduce -semicommutative, -Baer, $S-q.$-Baer and $S-p.q.$-Baer modules. We study the relations between these classes of modules. Also we prove if is an -semicommutative module, then is an $S-p.q.$-Baer module if and only if $M[x]$ is an $S[x]-p.q.$-Baer module, is an -Baer module if and only if $M[x]$ is an $S[x]$-Baer module, is an $S-q.$-Baer module if and only if $M[x]$ is an $S[x]-q.$-Baer module.

  15. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab® and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model

  16. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  17. Joint Acoustic and Modulation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Atlas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a considerable evidence that our perception of sound uses important features which is related to underlying signal modulations. This topic has been studied extensively via perceptual experiments, yet there are few, if any, well-developed signal processing methods which capitalize on or model these effects. We begin by summarizing evidence of the importance of modulation representations from psychophysical, physiological, and other sources. The concept of a two-dimensional joint acoustic and modulation frequency representation is proposed. A simple single sinusoidal amplitude modulator of a sinusoidal carrier is then used to illustrate properties of an unconstrained and ideal joint representation. Added constraints are required to remove or reduce undesired interference terms and to provide invertibility. It is then noted that the constraints would also apply to more general and complex cases of broader modulation and carriers. Applications in single-channel speaker separation and in audio coding are used to illustrate the applicability of this joint representation. Other applications in signal analysis and filtering are suggested.

  18. Compact nanomechanical plasmonic phase modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B. S.; Haftel, M. I.; Czaplewski, D. A.; Lopez, D.; Blumberg, G.; Aksyuk, V. A.

    2015-03-30

    Highly confined optical energy in plasmonic devices is advancing miniaturization in photonics. However, for mode sizes approaching ≈10 nm, the energy increasingly shifts into the metal, raising losses and hindering active phase modulation. Here, we propose a nanoelectromechanical phase-modulation principle exploiting the extraordinarily strong dependence of the phase velocity of metal–insulator–metal gap plasmons on dynamically variable gap size. We experimentally demonstrate a 23-μm-long non-resonant modulator having a 1.5π rad range, with 1.7 dB excess loss at 780 nm. Analysis shows that by simultaneously decreasing the gap, length and width, an ultracompact-footprint π rad phase modulator can be realized. This is achieved without incurring the extra loss expected for plasmons confined in a decreasing gap, because the increasing phase-modulation strength from a narrowing gap offsets rising propagation losses. Such small, high-density electrically controllable components may find applications in optical switch fabrics and reconfigurable plasmonic optics.

  19. Quantification of modulation degree for VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jin Ho; Ye, Sung Joon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Carkson, Joel [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to quantify the degree of modulation by presenting a modulation index (MI) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the speed and acceleration analysis of modulating-parameters such as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements, gantry rotation and dose-rate, comprehensively, as well as by performing texture analysis on fluence maps. The MIt showed good performance for the evaluation of the modulation-degree of VMAT plans showing highest correlations to the plan deliverability.

  20. Mechanical models of amplitude and frequency modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellomonte, L; Guastella, I; Sperandeo-Mineo, R M [GRIAF - Research Group on Teaching/Learning Physics, DI.F.TE.R. -Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents some mechanical models for amplitude and frequency modulation. The equations governing both modulations are deduced alongside some necessary approximations. Computer simulations of the models are carried out by using available educational software. Amplitude modulation is achieved by using a system of two weakly coupled pendulums, whereas the frequency modulation is obtained by using a pendulum of variable length. Under suitable conditions (small oscillations, appropriate initial conditions, etc) both types of modulation result in significantly accurate and visualized simulations.

  1. Language Parametric Module Management for IDEs

    OpenAIRE

    Klint, Paul; Kooiker, Taeke; Vinju, Jurgen; Johnstone, A; Sloane, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    An integrated development environment (IDE) monitors all the changes that a user makes to source code modules and responds accordingly by flagging errors, by reparsing, by rechecking, or by recompiling modules and by adjusting visualizations or other information derived from a module. A module manager is the central component of the IDE that is responsible for this behavior. Although the overall functionality of a module manager in a given IDE is fixed, its actual behavior strongly depends on...

  2. Linkage of finite Gorenstein dimension modules

    CERN Document Server

    Dibaei, Mohammad T

    2011-01-01

    For a horizontally linked module, over a commutative semiperfect Noetherian ring $R$, the connections of its invariants reduced grade, Gorenstein dimension and depth are studied. It is shown that under certain conditions the depth of a horizontally linked module is equal to the reduced grade of its linked module. The connection of the Serre condition $(S_n)$ on an $R$--module of finite Gorenstein dimension with the vanishing of the local cohomology groups of its linked module is discussed.

  3. Progress of MICE RFCC Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Green, M.; Li, N.; Niinikoski, T.; Pan, H.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Bross, A.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Sylvester, C.; Chen, A. B.; Guo, Bin; Li, Liyi; Xu, Fengyu; Cao, Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, Li; Yin, Lixin; Luo, Tianhuan; Summers, Don; Smith, B.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-05-20

    Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnet has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.

  4. Unity connecting module in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is shown with Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 (left) and 2 (right) attached. Unity is scheduled to undergo testing of the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is the primary payload on mission STS-88, targeted to launch Dec. 3, 1998. Other testing includes the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  5. Autoacceleration of a modulated beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiko, V.A.; Borodulin, A.I.; Voronkov, R.M.; Voskresenskii, G.V.; Galkin, V.S.; Dobrokhotov, V.V.; Kurdyumov, V.N.; Mamaev, G.L.; Simonov, K.G.

    1982-11-01

    The interaction of a density-modulated electron beam with a passive resonator is considered. The modulation frequency is equal to the resonant frequency of the resonator, and the beam parameters at the resonator outlet are studied as functions of the percentage of modulation. Calculations reveal that the maximum attainable energy at the outlet is approximately three times greater than the energy of the particles at the inlet. Experimental measurements of the beam parameters are reported. At the outlet of the passive resonator a beam of accelerated electrons was produced with current approx.100 A and energy >500 keV; the current in the initial beam was 250 A and the electron energy was 250 keV.

  6. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  7. Modulation classification based on spectrogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The aim of modulation classification (MC) is to identify the modulation type of a communication signal. It plays an important role in many cooperative or noncooperative communication applications. Three spectrogram-based modulation classification methods are proposed. Their reccgnition scope and performance are investigated or evaluated by theoretical analysis and extensive simulation studies. The method taking moment-like features is robust to frequency offset while the other two, which make use of principal component analysis (PCA) with different transformation inputs,can achieve satisfactory accuracy even at low SNR (as low as 2 dB). Due to the properties of spectrogram, the statistical pattern recognition techniques, and the image preprocessing steps, all of our methods are insensitive to unknown phase and frequency offsets, timing errors, and the arriving sequence of symbols.

  8. CAMAC 488 module: 68,000 based GPIB interface module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, K.C.

    1985-03-01

    What kind of hardware and software should be used to interface GPIB devices with the existing computer system. One idea was to use a commercially available Multibus card, BLC 8488 from National Semiconductor, whose on-board Z80 would manage the GPIB read/write functions and handshakes. With this card, one could make a hardware system which would consist of (1) CAMAC 080, (2) Multibus crate, (3) M. Shea's M68000, (4) M080, (5) BLC 8488 and (6) memory board. And the software considered for such a hardware package was GAS, which had been an established software package for communication between the ACNET computer system and smart CAMAC modules. However, a second idea was to put everything on a two-wide CAMAC module. The author pursued the second idea and came up with a two-wide CAMAC module called C488. The author describes the hardware - block diagrams, circuit blocks, front panel and hardware tests. He also refers to the software - system, modules and applications.

  9. Heegner modules and elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin L

    2004-01-01

    Heegner points on both modular curves and elliptic curves over global fields of any characteristic form the topic of this research monograph. The Heegner module of an elliptic curve is an original concept introduced in this text. The computation of the cohomology of the Heegner module is the main technical result and is applied to prove the Tate conjecture for a class of elliptic surfaces over finite fields; this conjecture is equivalent to the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for the corresponding elliptic curves over global fields.

  10. Equivalence of Quotient Hilbert Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ronald G Douglas; Gadadhar Misra

    2003-08-01

    Let $\\mathcal{M}$ be a Hilbert module of holomorphic functions over a natural function algebra $\\mathcal{A}()$, where $ \\subseteq \\mathbb{C}^m$ is a bounded domain. Let $\\mathcal{M}_0 \\subseteq \\mathcal{M}$ be the submodule of functions vanishing to order on a hypersurface $\\mathcal{Z} \\subseteq $. We describe a method, which in principle may be used, to construct a set of complete unitary invariants for quotient modules $\\mathcal{Q} = \\mathcal{M} \\ominus \\mathcal{M}_0$. The invariants are given explicitly in the particular case of = 2.

  11. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  12. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  13. Graphene Based Optical Phase Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Midrio, Michele; Romagnoli, Marco; Kimerling, Lionel C; Michel, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report phase modulation obtained by inducing a capacitive charge on graphene layers embedded in the core of a waveguide. There is a biasing regime in which graphene absorption is negligible but large index variations can be achieved with a voltage-length product as small as $V_\\pi\\,L_\\pi \\simeq 0.04 $\\,V\\,cm . Examples of phase induced changes are computed for straight waveguides and for microring resonators showing the possibility to implement several optoelectronic functionalities as modulators, tunable filters, and switches.

  14. Reward Modulates Adaptations to Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Senne; Verguts, Tom; Roggeman, Chantal; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Both cognitive conflict (e.g. Verguts & Notebaert, 2009) and reward signals (e.g. Waszak & Pholulamdeth, 2009) have been proposed to enhance task-relevant associations. Bringing these two notions together, we predicted that reward modulates conflict-based sequential adaptations in cognitive control. This was tested combining either a single…

  15. Coherent states on Hilbert modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalize the concept of coherent states, traditionally defined as special families of vectors on Hilbert spaces, to Hilbert modules. We show that Hilbert modules over C*-algebras are the natural settings for a generalization of coherent states defined on Hilbert spaces. We consider those Hilbert C*-modules which have a natural left action from another C*-algebra, say A. The coherent states are well defined in this case and they behave well with respect to the left action by A. Certain classical objects like the Cuntz algebra are related to specific examples of coherent states. Finally we show that coherent states on modules give rise to a completely positive definite kernel between two C*-algebras, in complete analogy to the Hilbert space situation. Related to this, there is a dilation result for positive operator-valued measures, in the sense of Naimark. A number of examples are worked out to illustrate the theory. Some possible physical applications are also mentioned.

  16. The Chainstitch Machine. Module 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the chainstitch machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the chainstitch machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and…

  17. The Blindstitch Machine. Module 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the purpose and use of the blindstitch machine, one in a series on clothing construction for industrial sewing machine operators designed for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check,…

  18. The ELETTRA Gun Trigger module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ELETTRA injector is a full energy Linac. The Linac and the pulsed magnets need to be synchronized with the beam in the storage ring in order to fill it with the proper bunch pattern. Most of the triggers for the timing system are generated by a module which is named Gun Trigger module. The gun is triggered in synchronism with a reference bucket of the storage ring. It can be programmed with a delay between 2 and 864 ns, a range which covers one revolution period of the storage ring, so any arbitrary bucket of the ring can be filled. The module generates also the gun trigger for working in FEL mode, which needs a repetition from 30 to 50 ns in a 10 μs window. The jitter of all these triggers is less than 50 ps. The Gun Trigger module is developed in VMEbus standard, using TTL and ECL technology. It is remotely programmable through the ELETTRA control system. The general architecture of the ELETTRA timing system is also described in the paper

  19. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  20. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  1. WRAP module 1 treatment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the methodology to treat waste in the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions or the Waste Isolation and Pilot Plant waste acceptance criteria. This includes Low-Level Mixed Waste, Transuranic Waste, and Transuranic Mixed Waste

  2. Modules over discrete valuation domains

    CERN Document Server

    Tuganbaev, Askar A

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the first systematic treatment of modules over discrete valuation domains which plays an important role in various areas of algebra, especially in commutative algebra. Many important results representing the state of the art are presented in the text which is supplemented by exercises and interesting open problems. An important contribution to commutative algebra.

  3. Nanosecond modulator of an electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nanosecond modulator of an electron gun is developed for forming an electron beam with small emittance, necessary for generating the laser on free electrons. The block-diagram of the modulator is presented. The modulator consists of an optical receiver, two formers, two high-frequency power keys, diode with the DNZ charge storage and storage line. The modulator is positioned inside the timer container in the SF6 insulating gas medium under the 300 kV potential. The measured pulsation of the modulator output pulses is below 50 ps. The modulator operates reliably by the high-voltage breakdowns in the system

  4. Weakly Distributive Modules. Applications to Supplement Submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Engin Büyükaşik; Yilmaz M Demirci

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of Ganesan and Vanaja. We prove that -projective duo modules, in particular commutative rings, are weakly distributive. Using this result we obtain that in a commutative ring supplements are unique. This generalizes a result of Camillo and Lima. We also prove that any weakly distributive $\\oplus$-supplemented module is quasi-discrete.

  5. Spring-cleaning at the solar module; Fruehjahrsputz am Modul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orben, Steffen [Orben Wasseraufbereitung, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The solar power yield of a photovoltaic power plant can be reduced significantly by a natural pollution. The average loss in performance and yield at mild and moderate surface contaminations is between eight and sixteen percent. The self-cleaning effect due to wind, rain and snow is not sufficient in order to purify the solar panels. In contrast, the purification with desalinated water receives the performance of solar generators and ensures the yields. Desalinated water can be produced from tap water by reverse osmosis and ion exchange. The water consumption amounts ten liters for a performance of one kilowatt of the solar module. Other important factors are 0.23 Euro for a filter cartridge as well as 11.50 Euro for personnel costs for a performance of one kilowatt of the solar module.

  6. Silicon high speed modulator for advanced modulation: device structures and exemplary modulator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Biljana; Wiese, Stefan; Whiteaway, James; Raabe, Christian; Shastri, Anujit; Webster, Mark; Metz, Peter; Sunder, Sanjay; Chattin, Bill; Anderson, Sean P.; Dama, Bipin; Shastri, Kal

    2014-03-01

    Fiber optics is well established today due to the high capacity and speed, unrivaled flexibility and quality of service. However, state of the art optical elements and components are hardly scalable in terms of cost and size required to achieve competitive port density and cost per bit. Next-generation high-speed coherent optical communication systems targeting a data rate of 100-Gb/s and beyond goes along with innovations in component and subsystem areas. Consequently, by leveraging the advanced silicon micro and nano-fabrication technologies, significant progress in developing CMOS platform-based silicon photonic devices has been made all over the world. These achievements include the demonstration of high-speed IQ modulators, which are important building blocks in coherent optical communication systems. In this paper, we demonstrate silicon photonic QPSK modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor structure, address different modulator configuration structures and report our progress and research associated with highspeed advanced optical modulation in silicon photonics

  7. Green card for solar modules; Die Green Card fuer Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Katrin

    2010-07-01

    Manufacturers intending to export solar modules must have them tested according to international safety standards. However, the world ends at the doors of North America. The USA have national safety standards which necessitate a separate test by the US test institute 'Underwriters Laboratories'. Some claim that this is important, while others view this as a strategy to protect the US industry. Now, another test institute has been commissioned near Frankfurt, Germany. (orig.)

  8. Thalamic Circuit Diversity: Modulation of the Driver/Modulator Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E Bickford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that dorsal thalamic inputs can be divided into drivers, which provide the primary excitatory drive for the relay of information to cortex, and modulators, which alter the gain of signal transmission, has provided a valuable organizing principle for the study of thalamic function. This view further promoted the identification of first order and higher order thalamic nuclei, based on the origin of their driving inputs. Since the introduction of this influential terminology, a number of studies have revealed the existence of a wide variety of thalamic organizational schemes. For example, some thalamic nuclei are not innervated by typical driver inputs, but instead receive input from terminals which exhibit features distinct from those of either classic drivers or modulators. In addition, many thalamic nuclei contain unique combinations of convergent first order, higher order, and/or other driver-like inputs that do not conform with the driver/modulator framework. The assortment of synaptic arrangements identified in the thalamus are reviewed and discussed from the perspective that this organizational diversity can dramatically increase the computational capabilities of the thalamus, reflecting its essential roles in sensory, motor, and sensory-motor circuits.

  9. Reliability Issues for Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-10-01

    Si modules good in field; new designs need reliability testing. CdTe & CIGS modules sensitive to moisture; carefully seal. CPV in product development stage; benefits from expertise in other industries.

  10. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  11. Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Lu-Le; Qian, Lie-Jia; Chen, Min; Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, D A; Mori, W B; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Optical modulators can be made nowadays with high modulation speed, broad bandwidth, while being compact, owing to the recent advance in material science and microfabrication technology. However, these optical modulators usually work for low intensity light beams. Here, we present an ultrafast, plasma-based optical modulator, which can directly modulate high power lasers with intensity up to 10^16 W/cm^2 level to produce an extremely broad spectrum with a fractional bandwidth over 100%, extending to the mid-infrared regime in the low-frequency side. This concept relies on two co-propagating laser beams in a sub-mm-scale underdense plasma, where a drive laser pulse first excites an electron plasma wave in its wake while a following carrier laser beam is modulated by the plasma wave. The laser and plasma parameters suitable for the modulator to work are presented. Such optical modulators may enable new applications in the high field physics.

  12. Circuit reduces distortion of FM modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Correction circuit improves the linearity of a voltage-variable capacitor used to modulate a free-running oscillator. This improvement only applies to audio frequency modulation and will not correct for slowly varying dc input in some telemetry systems.

  13. Fiber Acousto-Electro-Optic Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anen; Jiang

    2003-01-01

    A new kind of fiber acousto-electro-optic modulator is made by using Lithium Niobate crystal. This kind of modulator can be used in fiber communication, and its center frequency can be changed by directed current voltages.

  14. Generalized Green Correspondence of Graded Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah El-Din; S.HUSSEIN

    2009-01-01

    The author studies the Green correspondence and quasi-Green correspondence for indecomposable modules over strongly graded rings.The motivation is to investigate the influence of induction and restriction processes on indecomposability of graded modules.

  15. Direct current modulation of a photomixing signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Florin L.

    2016-04-01

    Direct modulation of the bias voltage of a LTG-GaAs photomixer is exploited to modulate the signal generated at the frequency of the optical beat between two diode lasers at 820 nm. The photomixing signal is calculated from an expansion in power series of the amplitude of the modulation voltage and displays amplitude modulation sidebands equidistantly spaced to the frequency of the optical beat by integer multiples of the modulation frequency. Modulation at harmonics of the modulation frequency is allowed by the electrical nonlinear response of the photomixer, driven at low voltage by the saturation of the electron drift velocity. Coupling of an alternative voltage to the photomixer operated at zero-bias leads to bifrequency operation. Modulation of the photomixing signal and bifrequency operation of the photomixer are observed experimentally with an optical beat in the microwave regime.

  16. Implementing a module system for SICStus Prolog

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Stefan

    1991-01-01

    This report covers the specification and implementation of a predicate based module system for SICStus Prolog. There is also a brief background to the module issue for Prolog. The emphasis is put on the description of the implementation.

  17. Complex light modulation for lensless image projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Makowski; A. Kolodziejczyk; A. Siemion; I. Ducin; K. Kakarenko; M. Sypek; A. M. Siemion; J. Suszek; D. Wojnowski; Z. Jaroszewicz

    2011-01-01

    We present a lensless projection of color images based on computer-generated Fourier holograms. Amplitude and phase modulation of three primary-colored laser beams is performed by a matched pair of spatial light modulators. The main advantage of the complex light modulation is the lack of iterative phase retrieval techniques. The advantage is the lack of speckles in the projected images. Experimental results are given and compared with the outcome of classical phase-only modulation.%We present a lensless projection of color images based on computer-generated Fourier holograms.Amplitude and phase modulation of three primary-colored laser beams is performed by a matched pair of spatial light modulators.The main advantage of the complex light modulation is the lack of iterative phase retrieval techniques.The advantage is the lack of speckles in the projected images.Experimental results are given and compared with the outcome of classical phase-only modulation.

  18. A Dirichlet unit theorem for Drinfeld modules

    OpenAIRE

    Taelman, Lenny

    2009-01-01

    We show that the module of integral points on a Drinfeld module satisfies a an analogue of Dirichlet's unit theorem, despite its failure to be finitely generated. As a consequence, we obtain a construction of a canonical finitely generated sub-module of the module of integral points. We use the results to give a precise formulation of a conjectural analogue of the class number formula.

  19. Some Results for Formal Local Cohomology Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU LI-ZHONG

    2010-01-01

    Let (R, m) be a commutative Noetherian local ring, I an ideal of R and M a finitely generated R-module. Let (M/InM) be the ith formal local co-homology module of M with respect to I. In this paper, we discuss some properties of formal local cohomology modules (M/InM), which are analogous to the finiteness and Artinianness of local cohomology modules of a finitely generated rood-tile.

  20. Automatic modulation classification principles, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhechen

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC) has been a key technology in many military, security, and civilian telecommunication applications for decades. In military and security applications, modulation often serves as another level of encryption; in modern civilian applications, multiple modulation types can be employed by a signal transmitter to control the data rate and link reliability. This book offers comprehensive documentation of AMC models, algorithms and implementations for successful modulation recognition. It provides an invaluable theoretical and numerical comparison of AMC algo

  1. Steps in Modular Specifications for Concurrent Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Rocha Pinto, Pedro; Dinsdale-Young, Thomas; Gardner, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent modules......, in particular highlighting four key concepts: auxiliary state, interference abstraction, resource ownership and atomicity. We show how these concepts combine to provide powerful approaches to specifying concurrent modules....

  2. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  3. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  4. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  5. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, T; Butterworth, A; Molendijk, J; Tuckmantel, J

    2012-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently setup for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading eects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would push the klystrons to saturation. For beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will be not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test an iterative algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the optimal phase modulation for klystron forward power considerations.

  6. Dark Radiation from Modulated Reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    We show that the modulated reheating mechanism can naturally account for dark radiation, which is favored by recent observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the primordial Helium abundance. In this mechanism, the inflaton decay rate depends on a light modulus which acquires almost scale-invariant quantum fluctuations during inflation. We find that the light modulus is generically produced by the inflaton decay and therefore a prime candidate for the dark radiation. Interestingly, an almost scale-invariant power spectrum predicted in the modulated reheating mechanism gives a better fit to the observation in the presence of the extra radiation. We discuss the production mechanism of the light modulus in detail taking account of its associated isocurvature fluctuations. We also consider a case where the modulus becomes the dominant component of dark matter.

  7. Nonlinear approximation in alpha-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The α-modulation spaces are a family of spaces that contain the Besov and modulation spaces as special cases. In this paper we prove that brushlet bases can be constructed to form unconditional and even greedy bases for the α-modulation spaces. We study m -term nonlinear approximation with brushlet...

  8. Selforthogonal modules with finite injective dimension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兆泳

    2000-01-01

    The category consisting of finitely generated modules which are left orthogonal with a cotilting bimodule is shown to be functorially finite. The notion of left orthogonal dimension is introduced , and then a necessary and sufficient condition of selforthogonal modules having finite injective dimension and a characterization of cotilting modules are given.

  9. Selforthogonal modules with finite injective dimension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The category consisting of finitely generated modules which are left orthogonal with a cotilting bimodule is shown to be functorially finite. The notion of left orthogonal dimension is introduced, and then a necessary and sufficient condition of selforthogonal modules having finite injective dimension and a characterization of cotilting modules are given.

  10. The staging system: Display and edit module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E.; Bernier, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Display and Edit (D and E) Module described is one of six major modules being developed for the STAGING (STructural Analysis through Generalized INteractive Graphics) System. Several remarks are included concerning the computer environment and the architecture of the data base. The utility of this module is emphasized.

  11. Applying Economics Using Interactive Learning Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goma, Ophelia D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of web-based, interactive learning modules in the principles of economics course. The learning modules introduce students to important, historical economic events while providing real-world application of the economic theory presented in class. Each module is designed to supplement and complement the economic theory…

  12. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  13. Comparing complexities of pairs of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Dao, Hailong

    2009-01-01

    Let $R$ be a local ring and $M,N$ be finitely generated $R$-modules. The complexity of $(M,N)$, denoted by $\\cxx RMN$, measures the polynomial growth rate of the number of generators of the modules $\\Ext nRMN$. In this paper we study several basic equalities and inequalities involving complexities of different pairs of modules.

  14. Optical Electronics. Electronics Module 9. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Bill

    This module is the ninth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross reference table of instructional materials. Five instructional units cover: fiber optic cable; optical coupler; lasers and masers; optical displays;…

  15. Reflectivity-modulated grating-mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    to the oscillation axis. A modulated voltage (91) is applied in reverse bias between the n- and p-doped layers to modulate the refractive index of the electrooptic material layer (12) and thereby the reflectivity spectrum of the grating mirror (1). The reflectivity of the grating mirror (1) can be modulated between...

  16. Operator feedback system for the module builder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed cotton is compressed into modules after harvest for storage and transport. Inexperienced operators often construct modules with shapes that allow water to collect on the module cover. This water will penetrate the cover, especially if the cover is damaged by weathering or rough handling, and ...

  17. Relative injectivity and CS-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmed Kamal

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that a direct decomposition of modules M⊕N, with N homologically independent to the injective hull of M, is a CS-module if and only if N is injective relative to M and both of M and N are CS-modules. As an application, we prove that a direct sum of a non-singular semisimple module and a quasi-continuous module with zero socle is quasi-continuous. This result is known for quasi-injective modules. But when we confine ourselves to CS-modules we need no conditions on their socles. Then we investigate direct sums of CS-modules which are pairwise relatively inective. We show that every finite direct sum of such modules is a CS-module. This result is known for quasi-continuous modules. For the case of infinite direct sums, one has to add an extra condition. Finally, we briefly discuss modules in which every two direct summands are relatively inective.

  18. Synthetic circuits, devices and modules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2010-01-01

    The aim of synthetic biology is to design artificial biological systems for novel applications. From an engineering perspective, construction of biological systems of defined functionality in a hierarchical way is fundamental to this emerging field. Here, we highlight some current advances on design of several basic building blocks in synthetic biology including the artificial gene control elements, synthetic circuits and their assemblies into devices and modules. Such engineered basic buildi...

  19. Spontaneous Vesicles Modulated by Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Ortega; M. Mercedes Velázquez; Margarita Valero

    2011-01-01

    Vesicles are widely used in technological applications including cosmetic products, in microencapsulation for drug delivery, as anticancer agents and in the technology of adhesives, paints and inks. The vesicle size and the surface charge are very important properties from a technological point of view. Thus, the challenge in formulation is to find inexpensive stable vesicles with well-defined sizes and to modulate the surface charge of these aggregates. In this work we analyze the effect of ...

  20. Last ATLAS TRT module installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker (TRT) consists of 96 modules and will join the pixel detector and silicon tracker at the heart of the experiment to map the trajectories of particles and identify electrons produced when proton beams collide. Images with the team responsible for assembly : Kirill Egorov (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute), Pauline Gagnon (Indiana University), Ben Legeyt (University of Pennsylvania), Chuck Long (Hampton University), John Callahan (Indiana University) and Alex High (University of Pennsylvania).

  1. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  2. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  3. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, G R; R. Weidner

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance ...

  4. Parallel Bit Interleaved Coded Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, Amir

    2010-01-01

    A new variant of bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM) is proposed. In the new scheme, called Parallel BICM, L identical binary codes are used in parallel using a mapper, a newly proposed finite-length interleaver and a binary dither signal. As opposed to previous approaches, the scheme does not rely on any assumptions of an ideal, infinite-length interleaver. Over a memoryless channel, the new scheme is proven to be equivalent to a binary memoryless channel. Therefore the scheme enables one to easily design coded modulation schemes using a simple binary code that was designed for that binary channel. The overall performance of the coded modulation scheme is analytically evaluated based on the performance of the binary code over the binary channel. The new scheme is analyzed from an information theoretic viewpoint, where the capacity, error exponent and channel dispersion are considered. The capacity of the scheme is identical to the BICM capacity. The error exponent of the scheme is numerically compared to...

  5. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  6. Solar Modulation of Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius S. Potgieter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of the solar modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. It is a broad topic with numerous intriguing aspects so that a research framework has to be chosen to concentrate on. The review focuses on the basic paradigms and departure points without presenting advanced theoretical or observational details for which there exists a large number of comprehensive reviews. Instead, emphasis is placed on numerical modeling which has played an increasingly significant role as computational resources have become more abundant. A main theme is the progress that has been made over the years. The emphasis is on the global features of CR modulation and on the causes of the observed 11-year and 22-year cycles and charge-sign dependent modulation. Illustrative examples of some of the theoretical and observational milestones are presented, without attempting to review all details or every contribution made in this field of research. Controversial aspects are discussed where appropriate, with accompanying challenges and future prospects. The year 2012 was the centennial celebration of the discovery of cosmic rays so that several general reviews were dedicated to historical aspects so that such developments are briefly presented only in a few cases.

  7. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1 or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment. The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation. The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2. Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  8. A Low Complexity Decoding Algorithm for STBC under Non-Constant Module Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke; TANG Bin; YANG Jian-yu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a low complexity algorithm for the decoding of space-time block codes (STBC) under non-constant module modulation. Simulation results show that in most cases of non-constant module modulation the new algorithm results in more than 50% reduction in computation complexity comparing to the original maximum likelihood algorithm without any loss of BER performance.

  9. Frequency-modulated continuous-wave lidar using I/Q modulator for simplified heterodyne detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S; Hui, R

    2012-06-01

    A frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) lidar is demonstrated with heterodyne detection. The lidar transmitter utilizes an electro-optic I/Q modulator for the first time to generate carrier-suppressed and frequency-shifted FM modulation. This eliminates the need for an acousto-optic frequency shifter commonly used in heterodyne lidar transmitters. It also allows the use of a much wider modulation bandwidth to improve the range resolution. The capability of complex optical field modulation of the I/Q modulator provides an additional degree of freedom compared with an intensity modulator, which will benefit future lidar applications. PMID:22660108

  10. Development of the module inspection system for new standardized radiation monitoring modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report mentions about the module inspection system which does the maintenance check of the monitoring modules adapted the new monitoring standard, as well as the result of the verification of the modules. The module inspection system is the automatic measurement system with the computer. The system can perform the functional and the characteristic examination of the monitoring modules, the calibration with radiation source and inspection report. In the verification of the monitoring module, three major items were tested, the adaptability for the new monitoring standard, the module functions and each characteristics. All items met the new monitoring standard. (author)

  11. Multilevel phase and amplitude modulation method for holographic memories with programmable phase modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Satoshi; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2014-09-01

    The utilization of spatial quadrature amplitude modulation (SQAM) signals with amplitude and phase modulation is a simple method used to improve storage capacity in a holographic data storage system. We propose a multilevel phase and amplitude modulation method for holographic memories with a programmable phase modulator (PPM). In this method, holographic page data is recorded by a two-step exposure process for different phase-modulated data. There is no need to adjust the positions of spatial light modulators (SLM) with high accuracy because we use only one spatial modulator. We estimate the quality of 16 SQAM signals produced by our technique.

  12. Modulated pulse bathymetric lidar Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Yabo; Wang, Rong; Du, Peng; Min, Xia

    2015-10-01

    A typical modulated pulse bathymetric lidar system is investigated by simulation using a modulated pulse lidar simulation system. In the simulation, the return signal is generated by Monte Carlo method with modulated pulse propagation model and processed by mathematical tools like cross-correlation and digital filter. Computer simulation results incorporating the modulation detection scheme reveal a significant suppression of the water backscattering signal and corresponding target contrast enhancement. More simulation experiments are performed with various modulation and reception variables to investigate the effect of them on the bathymetric system performance.

  13. Generic modules for trivial extension algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜先能

    1995-01-01

    Let A be a finite-dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field. An indecomposable (right) ,4-module M is called generic provided M is infinite k-dimensional but finite length as (left) EndA(M)-module. Let R = A DA be the trivial extension algebra of A- Generic R-modules are constructed from generic A-modules using some functors between Mod A and Mod R. it is also proved that if A is a tame hereditary algebra, then R has only two generic modules.

  14. Detection of Modulated Tones in Modulated Noise by Non-human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlen, Peter; Dylla, Margit; Timms, Courtney; Ramachandran, Ramnarayan

    2014-01-01

    In natural environments, many sounds are amplitude-modulated. Amplitude modulation is thought to be a signal that aids auditory object formation. A previous study of the detection of signals in noise found that when tones or noise were amplitude-modulated, the noise was a less effective masker, and detection thresholds for tones in noise were lowered. These results suggest that the detection of modulated signals in modulated noise would be enhanced. This paper describes the results of experim...

  15. Automatic modulation recognition of communication signals

    CERN Document Server

    Azzouz, Elsayed Elsayed

    1996-01-01

    Automatic modulation recognition is a rapidly evolving area of signal analysis. In recent years, interest from the academic and military research institutes has focused around the research and development of modulation recognition algorithms. Any communication intelligence (COMINT) system comprises three main blocks: receiver front-end, modulation recogniser and output stage. Considerable work has been done in the area of receiver front-ends. The work at the output stage is concerned with information extraction, recording and exploitation and begins with signal demodulation, that requires accurate knowledge about the signal modulation type. There are, however, two main reasons for knowing the current modulation type of a signal; to preserve the signal information content and to decide upon the suitable counter action, such as jamming. Automatic Modulation Recognition of Communications Signals describes in depth this modulation recognition process. Drawing on several years of research, the authors provide a cr...

  16. Laser space communication experiment: Modulator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of a contractual program to develop the modulator technology necessary for a 10.6 micron laser communication system using cadmium telluride as the modulator material. The program consisted of the following tasks: (1) The growth of cadmium telluride crystals of sufficient size and purity and with the necessary optical properties for use as laser modulator rods. (2) Develop a low loss antireflection coating for the cadmium telluride rods. (3) Design and build a modulator capable of 300 MHz modulation. (4) Develop a modulator driver capable of a data rate of 300 MBits/sec, 12 W rms output power, and 40 percent efficiency. (5) Assemble and test the modulator system. All design goals were met and the system was built and tested.

  17. Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu-Le; Zhao, Yao; Qian, Lie-Jia; Chen, Min; Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Mori, W. B.; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Optical modulators can have high modulation speed and broad bandwidth, while being compact. However, these optical modulators usually work for low-intensity light beams. Here we present an ultrafast, plasma-based optical modulator, which can directly modulate high-power lasers with intensity up to 1016 W cm-2 to produce an extremely broad spectrum with a fractional bandwidth over 100%, extending to the mid-infrared regime in the low-frequency side. This concept relies on two co-propagating laser pulses in a sub-millimetre-scale underdense plasma, where a drive laser pulse first excites an electron plasma wave in its wake while a following carrier laser pulse is modulated by the plasma wave. The laser and plasma parameters suitable for the modulator to work are based on numerical simulations.

  18. On λ-Finitely Embedded Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.A.S. Karamzadeh; Sh. Rahimpour

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and study the notion of λ-finitely embedded modules (a O-finitely embedded module is just a finitely embedded module). We extend some of the basic results of f.e. modules to λ-f.e. modules. We use this concept to give a new proof of a known result which essentially says that a module M has Krull dimension α if and only if each factor module of M is λ-f.e. for some λ≤α and α is the least ordinal with this property. It is observed that a semiprime ring R has Krull dimension λ if and only if R is λ-f.e. We improve the theorem of Matlis-Papp and some of its consequences.Finally, some known results in the literature are restated in terms of the above notion.

  19. Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu-Le; Zhao, Yao; Qian, Lie-Jia; Chen, Min; Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Mori, W. B.; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Optical modulators can have high modulation speed and broad bandwidth, while being compact. However, these optical modulators usually work for low-intensity light beams. Here we present an ultrafast, plasma-based optical modulator, which can directly modulate high-power lasers with intensity up to 1016 W cm−2 to produce an extremely broad spectrum with a fractional bandwidth over 100%, extending to the mid-infrared regime in the low-frequency side. This concept relies on two co-propagating laser pulses in a sub-millimetre-scale underdense plasma, where a drive laser pulse first excites an electron plasma wave in its wake while a following carrier laser pulse is modulated by the plasma wave. The laser and plasma parameters suitable for the modulator to work are based on numerical simulations. PMID:27283369

  20. Periodicity in Delta-modulated feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua XIA; Guanrong CHEN; Rudong GAI; Alan S. I. ZINOBER

    2008-01-01

    The Delta-modulated feedback control of a linear system introduces nonlinearity into the system through switchings between two input values. It has been found that Delta-modulation gives rise to periodic orbits. The existence of periodic points of all orders of Sigma-Delta modulation with "leaky" integration is completely characterized by some interesting groups of polynomials with "sign" coefficients. The results are naturally generalized to Sigma-Delta modulations with multiple delays, Delta-modulations in the "downlink", unbalanced Delta-modulations and systems with two-level quantized feedback. Further extensions relate to the existence of periodic points arising from Delta-modulated feedback control of a stable linear system in an arbitrary direction, for which some necessary and sufficient conditions are given.

  1. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, A.; Botti, F. M.; Panichi, R.; Barmack, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5–5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, “open loop.” Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during “closed loop” HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement. PMID:21735244

  2. G2 Flywheel Module Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ralph H.; Dever, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a flywheel module, designated the G2 module, is described. The G2 flywheel is a 60,000 RPM, 525 W-hr, 1 kW system designed for a laboratory environment; it will be used for component testing and system demonstrations, with the goal of applying flywheels to aerospace energy storage and integrated power and attitude control (IPACS) applications. G2 has a modular design, which allows for new motors, magnetic bearings, touchdown bearings, and rotors to be installed without a complete redesign of the system. This design process involves several engineering disciplines, and requirements are developed for the speed, energy storage, power level, and operating environment. The G2 rotor system consists of a multilayer carbon fiber rim with a titanium hub on which the other components mount, and rotordynamics analysis is conducted to ensure rigid and flexible rotor modes are controllable or outside of the operating speed range. Magnetic bearings are sized using 1-D magnetic circuit analysis and refined using 3-D finite element analysis. The G2 magnetic bearing system was designed by Texas A&M and has redundancy which allows derated operation after the loss of some components, and an existing liquid cooled two pole permanent magnet motor/generator is used. The touchdown bearing system is designed with a squeeze film damper system allowing spin down from full operating speed in case of a magnetic bearing failure. The G2 flywheel will enable module level demonstrations of component technology, and will be a key building block in system level attitude control and IPACS demonstrations.

  3. Mini pressurized logistics module (MPLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerani, E.; Brondolo, D.; Basile, L.

    1996-06-01

    The MPLM Program was initiated through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Italy's ASI, the Italian Space Agency, that was signed on 6 December 1991. The MPLM is a pressurized logistics module that will be used to transport supplies and materials (up to 20,000 lb), including user experiments, between Earth and International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) using the Shuttle, to support active and passive storage, and to provide a habitable environment for two people when docked to the Station. The Italian Space Agency has selected Alenia Spazio to develop MPLM modules that have always been considered a key element for the new International Space Station taking benefit from its design flexibility and consequent possible cost saving based on the maximum utilization of the Shuttle launch capability for any mission. In the frame of the very recent agreement between the U.S. and Russia for cooperation in space, that foresees the utilization of MIR 1 hardware, the Italian MPLM will remain an important element of the logistics system, being the only pressurized module designed for re-entry. Within the new scenario of anticipated Shuttle flights to MIR 1 during Space Station phase 1, MPLM remains a candidate for one or more missions to provide MIR 1 resupply capabilities and advanced ISSA hardware/procedures verification. Based on the concept of Flexible Carriers, Alenia Spazio is providing NASA with three MPLM flight units that can be configured according to the requirements of the Human-Tended Capability (HTC) and Permanent Human Capability (PHC) of the Space Station. Configurability will allow transportation of passive cargo only, or a combination of passive and cold cargo accommodated in R/F racks. Having developed and qualified the baseline configuration with respect to the worst enveloping condition, each unit could be easily configured to the passive or active version depending upon the

  4. Modulational interactions in quantum plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed, Fatema; Tyshetskiy, Yuriy; Ishihara, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A formalism for treating modulational interactions of electrostatic fields in collisionless quantum plasmas is developed, based on the kinetic Wigner-Poisson model of quantum plasma. This formalism can be used in a range of problems of nonlinear interaction between electrostatic fields in a quantum plasma, such as development of turbulence, self-organization, as well as transition from the weak turbulent state to strong turbulence. In particular, using this formalism, we obtain the kinetic quantum Zakharov equations, that describe nonlinear coupling of high frequency Langmuir waves to low frequency plasma density variations, for cases of non-degenerate and degenerate plasma electrons.

  5. [Photodynamic modulation of cellular functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jiang, Hong-Ning; Cui, Zong-Jie

    2016-08-25

    Photodynamic action, due to the rather limited lifetime (1 μs) and effective reactive distance of singlet oxygen (lysosomes or endoplasmic reticulum can modulate photodynamically subcellular functions and fine-tune protein activity by targeted photooxidation. With the newly emerged active illumination technique, simultaneous photodynamic action localized at multiple sites is now possible, and the contribution of subcellular regions to the whole cell or individual cells to a cell cluster could be quantitated. Photodynamic action with protein photosensitiser will be a powerful tool for nano-manipulation in cell physiology research. PMID:27546513

  6. △'-Reflexive Modules and Cogen(P)-Linear Compactness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of △'-reflexive modules. We investigate the reflexive modules with respect to a partial cotilting (bi)module and obtain a connection between △'-reflexive modules and Cogen(P)-linearly compact modules. The main results generalize the results on reflexive modules with respect to a cotilting bimodule.

  7. Highly Sensitive Electro-Optic Modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, Peter S [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    There are very important diagnostic and communication applications that receive faint electrical signals to be transmitted over long distances for capture. Optical links reduce bandwidth and distance restrictions of metal transmission lines; however, such signals are only weakly imprinted onto the optical carrier, resulting in low fidelity transmission. Increasing signal fidelity often necessitates insertion of radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers before the electro-optic modulator, but (especially at high frequencies) RF amplification results in large irreversible distortions. We have investigated the feasibility of a Sensitive and Linear Modulation by Optical Nonlinearity (SALMON) modulator to supersede RF-amplified modulators. SALMON uses cross-phase modulation, a manifestation of the Kerr effect, to enhance the modulation depth of an RF-modulated optical wave. This ultrafast process has the potential to result in less irreversible distortions as compared to a RF-amplified modulator due to the broadband nature of the Kerr effect. Here, we prove that a SALMON modulator is a feasible alternative to an RFamplified modulator, by demonstrating a sensitivity enhancement factor greater than 20 and significantly reduced distortion.

  8. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells’ resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.

  9. Natural Compounds Modulating Mitochondrial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gibellini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are organelles responsible for several crucial cell functions, including respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of apoptosis; they are also the main intracellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In the last years, a particular interest has been devoted to studying the effects on mitochondria of natural compounds of vegetal origin, quercetin (Qu, resveratrol (RSV, and curcumin (Cur being the most studied molecules. All these natural compounds modulate mitochondrial functions by inhibiting organelle enzymes or metabolic pathways (such as oxidative phosphorylation, by altering the production of mitochondrial ROS and by modulating the activity of transcription factors which regulate the expression of mitochondrial proteins. While Qu displays both pro- and antioxidant activities, RSV and Cur are strong antioxidant, as they efficiently scavenge mitochondrial ROS and upregulate antioxidant transcriptional programmes in cells. All the three compounds display a proapoptotic activity, mediated by the capability to directly cause the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria or indirectly by upregulating the expression of proapoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 family and downregulating antiapoptotic proteins. Interestingly, these effects are particularly evident on proliferating cancer cells and can have important therapeutic implications.

  10. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Weickert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM. Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts.

  11. EXOMARS Descent Module GNC Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portigliotti, S.; Capuano, M.; Montagna, M.; Martella, P.; Venditto, P.

    2007-08-01

    The ExoMars mission is the first ESA led robotic mission of the Aurora Programme and combines technology development with investigations of major scientific interest. Italy is by far the major contributor to the mission through the strong support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). ExoMars will search for traces of past and present life, characterize the Mars geochemistry and water distribution, improve the knowledge of the Mars environment and geophysics, and identify possible surface hazards to future human exploration missions. ExoMars will also validate the technology for safe Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) of a large size Descent Module (DM) carrying a Rover with medium range surface mobility and the access to subsurface. The ExoMars project is presently undergoing its Phase B1 with Thales Alenia Space-Italia as Industrial Prime Contractor. Additionally, as Descent Module responsible, a dedicated simulation tool is under development in Thales Alenia Space-Italia, Turin site, for the end-to-end design and validation / verification of the DM Entry Descent and Landing.

  12. Constructions of Rank Modulation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Arya; Zémor, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Rank modulation is a way of encoding information to correct errors in flash memory devices as well as impulse noise in transmission lines. Modeling rank modulation involves construction of packings of the space of permutations equipped with the Kendall tau distance. We present several general constructions of codes in permutations that cover a broad range of code parameters. In particular, we show a number of ways in which conventional error-correcting codes can be modified to correct errors in the Kendall space. Codes that we construct afford simple encoding and decoding algorithms of essentially the same complexity as required to correct errors in the Hamming metric. For instance, from binary BCH codes we obtain codes correcting $t$ Kendall errors in $n$ memory cells that support the order of $n!/(\\log_2n!)^t$ messages, for any constant $t= 1,2,...$ We also construct families of codes that correct a number of errors that grows with $n$ at varying rates, from $\\Theta(n)$ to $\\Theta(n^{2})$. One of our constr...

  13. Serial powering of pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, I; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub- micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In par...

  14. Spontaneous Vesicles Modulated by Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ortega

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vesicles are widely used in technological applications including cosmetic products, in microencapsulation for drug delivery, as anticancer agents and in the technology of adhesives, paints and inks. The vesicle size and the surface charge are very important properties from a technological point of view. Thus, the challenge in formulation is to find inexpensive stable vesicles with well-defined sizes and to modulate the surface charge of these aggregates. In this work we analyze the effect of different polymers on the structural properties of vesicles of the biodegradable surfactant sodium bis(2-ethyl-hexyl sulfosuccinate, Aerosol OT. Using fluorescence, conductivity, electrophoretic mobility and dynamic light scattering measurements we study the effect of the polymer nature, molecular weight and polymer concentration on the stability and the vesicle size properties. Results demonstrate that it is possible to modulate both the size and the electric surface charge of spontaneous vesicles of Aerosol OT by the addition of very small percentages of poly(allylamine and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecen.

  15. Rogue Waves and Modulational Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. E.; Dyachenko, A.

    2015-12-01

    The most plausible cause of rogue wave formation in a deep ocean is development of modulational instability of quasimonochromatic wave trains. An adequate model for study of this phenomenon is the Euler equation for potential flow of incompressible fluid with free surface in 2-D geometry. Numerical integration of these equations confirms completely the conjecture of rogue wave formation from modulational instability but the procedure is time consuming for determination of rogue wave appearance probability for a given shape of wave energy spectrum. This program can be realized in framework of simpler model using replacement of the exact interaction Hamiltonian by more compact Hamiltonian. There is a family of such models. The popular one is the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). This model is completely integrable and suitable for numerical simulation but we consider that it is oversimplified. It misses such important phenomenon as wave breaking. Recently, we elaborated much more reliable model that describes wave breaking but is as suitable as NLSE from the point of numerical modeling. This model allows to perform massive numerical experiments and study statistics of rogue wave formation in details.

  16. Induction accelerator test module for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An induction linac test module suitable for investigating the drive requirements and the longitudinal coupling impedance of a high-power ion induction linac has been constructed by the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) group at LBL. The induction linac heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as presently envisioned uses multiple parallel beams which are transported in separate focusing channels but accelerated together in the induction modules. The resulting induction modules consequently have large beam apertures-1--2 meters in diameter- and correspondingly large outside diameters. The module geometry is related to a low-frequency ''gap capacity'' and high-frequency structural resonances, which are affected by the magnetic core loading and the module pulser impedance. A description of the test module and preliminary results are presented. 3 figs

  17. Temperature Effect on Photovoltaic Modules Power Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Mohammed Aish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar module could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic power generation. Changing in powers due to higher temperatures (25oC, 35oC, and 45oC have been done for three types of solar modules: monocrystalline , polycrystalline, and copper indium gallium (di selenide (CIGS. The Prova 200 solar panel analyzer is used for the professional testing of three solar modules at different ambient temperatures; 25oC, 35oC, and 45oC and solar radiation range 100-1000 W/m2. Copper indium gallium (di selenide module has the lowest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.38%/oC while monocrystalline module has the highest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.54%/oC, while polycrystalline module has a percentage power drop of 0.49%/oC.

  18. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  19. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  20. DFB laser with attached external intensity modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, D. (AT and T Bell Labs. Holmdel, NJ (US))

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the frequency pulling effect exerted on a DFB laser by an external amplitude modulator that is directly attached to it. The modulator consists of a piece of waveguide whose loss is modulated by means of an externally applied voltage. The modulator affects the laser due to residual reflections from its far end which appear as a variable effective reflectivity to the output end of the DFB laser. Modulation affects the magnitude as well as the phase of the effective reflection coefficient presented to the laser due to the coupling of the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of the modulator waveguide. The tuning problem is formulated as an eigenvalue equation for the DFB laser in the presence of an externally attached lossy cavity.

  1. Finite Element Analysis of IH Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wands, R.; /Fermilab

    1986-12-04

    The purpose of this work is to find the stresses and deflections in the major structural components of a proposed inner hadronic (IH) module. The module uses a small diameter (nominally 3 inch i.d.) inner tube with 1/8 in wall thickness which supports 38 tons of calorimetric instrumentation both when the module is lifted by one endplate, as required for installation into the EC cryostat, and when the module is in its operational orientation. In addition to this loading, the assembly procedure includes an axial preloading which will produce a force equivalent to a uniform pressure of 20 psi on the module endplates. It is important to understand the module stresses under these loads. This work is primarily to establish the feasibility of the proposed design, and does not consider weld design, tolerances, and other important design details.

  2. A graphene-based broadband optical modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Geng, Baisong; Zentgraf, Thomas; Ju, Long; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-06-01

    Integrated optical modulators with high modulation speed, small footprint and large optical bandwidth are poised to be the enabling devices for on-chip optical interconnects. Semiconductor modulators have therefore been heavily researched over the past few years. However, the device footprint of silicon-based modulators is of the order of millimetres, owing to its weak electro-optical properties. Germanium and compound semiconductors, on the other hand, face the major challenge of integration with existing silicon electronics and photonics platforms. Integrating silicon modulators with high-quality-factor optical resonators increases the modulation strength, but these devices suffer from intrinsic narrow bandwidth and require sophisticated optical design; they also have stringent fabrication requirements and limited temperature tolerances. Finding a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible material with adequate modulation speed and strength has therefore become a task of not only scientific interest, but also industrial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a broadband, high-speed, waveguide-integrated electroabsorption modulator based on monolayer graphene. By electrically tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheet, we demonstrate modulation of the guided light at frequencies over 1GHz, together with a broad operation spectrum that ranges from 1.35 to 1.6µm under ambient conditions. The high modulation efficiency of graphene results in an active device area of merely 25µm2, which is among the smallest to date. This graphene-based optical modulation mechanism, with combined advantages of compact footprint, low operation voltage and ultrafast modulation speed across a broad range of wavelengths, can enable novel architectures for on-chip optical communications.

  3. Production chain of CMS pixel modules

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The pictures show the production chain of pixel modules for the CMS detector. Fig.1: overview of the assembly procedure. Fig.2: bump bonding with ReadOut Chip (ROC) connected to the sensor. Fig.3: glueing a raw module onto the baseplate strips. Fig.4: glueing of the High Density Interconnect (HDI) onto a raw module. Fig.5: pull test after heat reflow. Fig.6: wafer sensor processing, Indium evaporation.

  4. Is My Network Module Preserved and Reproducible?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Langfelder; Rui Luo; Oldham, Michael C.; Steve Horvath

    2011-01-01

    In many applications, one is interested in determining which of the properties of a network module change across conditions. For example, to validate the existence of a module, it is desirable to show that it is reproducible (or preserved) in an independent test network. Here we study several types of network preservation statistics that do not require a module assignment in the test network. We distinguish network preservation statistics by the type of the underlying network. Some preservati...

  5. Liouville Extensions of Artinian Simple Module Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Katsutoshi

    2006-01-01

    In a previous article (Amano and Masuoka, 2005), the author and Masuoka developed a Picard-Vessiot theory for module algebras over a cocommutative pointed smooth Hopf algebra D. By using the notion of Artinian simple (AS)D-module algebras, it generalizes and unifies the standard Picard-Vessiot theories for linear differential and difference equations. The purpose of this article is to define the notion of Liouville extensions of AS D-module algebras and to characterize the corresponding Picar...

  6. Non-free iterative differential modules

    OpenAIRE

    Maurischat, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In the article "Picard-Vessiot theory of differentially simple rings" we established a Picard-Vessiot theory over differentially simple rings which may not be fields. Differential modules over such rings were proven to be locally free but do not have to be free as modules. In this article, we give a family of examples of non-free differential modules, and compute Picard-Vessiot rings as well as Galois groups for them.

  7. Development of new modules for Moodle LMS

    OpenAIRE

    Drlík, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this diploma thesis is to analyze issues that come with the development of Moodle LMS modules. The theoretical part is devoted to the research of Moodle 2.0 programming framework capabilities, followed by the methodology of creating modules based on this platform. The verification of methodology is provided in the practical part by the development of a specific module, along with the effective installation of Moodle 2.0 LMS and documentation, that describes its functionality, insta...

  8. Modeling of Carrier Dynamics in Electroabsorption Modulators

    OpenAIRE

    Højfeldt, Sune; Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with modeling of electroabsorption modulators. Electroabsorption modulators are expected to play an important role both in the coming 40-Gbit/s optical communication systems and in next-generation, all-optical communication systems. Understanding the dynamics in electroabsorption modulators will help to support the development of high-såpeed components tailored for specific functionalities. We present modeling of all-optical functionalities realized with electroabsorp...

  9. Variational approach to the modulational instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Z; Kevrekidis, P G; Smerzi, A; Bishop, A R

    2004-01-01

    We study the modulational stability of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation using a time-dependent variational approach. Within this framework, we derive ordinary differential equations (ODE's) for the time evolution of the amplitude and phase of modulational perturbations. Analyzing the ensuing ODE's, we rederive the classical modulational instability criterion. The case (relevant to applications in optics and Bose-Einstein condensation) where the coefficients of the equation are time dependent, is also examined. PMID:14995759

  10. CWDM Module Fabricated by FBT Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Shanhong(游善红); Li Xinwan; Yin Zongmin; Cui Huaijun; Jiang Yongjun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the process of fabricating coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) passive components using Fused Biconic Taper (FBT) technology is introduced. The performances and specifications of CWDM passive components are measured and reported. And the performances and cost of this kind of CWDM module are compared with the performances and cost of CWDM module based on thin-film-filter technology and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) module.

  11. Spatial light modulation in compound semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor); Gheen, Gregory O. (Inventor); Partovi, Afshin (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Spatial light modulation (22) in a III-V single crystal (12), e.g., gallium arsenide, is achieved using the photorefractive effect. Polarization rotation created by beam coupling is utilized in one embodiment. In particular, information (16)on a control beam (14) incident on the crystal is transferred to an input beam (10), also incident on the crystal. An output beam (18) modulated in intensity is obtained by passing the polarization-modulated input beam through a polarizer (20).

  12. ATLAS SCT - Progress on the Silicon Modules

    CERN Multimedia

    Tyndel, M.

    The ATLAS SCT consists of 4088 silicon modules. Each module is made up of 4 silicon sensors with 1536 readout strips. Individual strips are connected to FE amplifiers, discriminators and pipelines on the module, i.e. there are 12 radiation hard ASICs, each containing 128 channels on the module. The sensors and the ASICs were developed for the ATLAS experiment and production is proceeding smoothly with over half the components delivered. The components of a module - 4 silicon sensors, a Cu/polyimide hybrid and pitch adaptor, and 12 ASICs - need to be carefully and precisely assembled onto a carbon and ceramic framework, which supports the module and removes the heat. Eleven production clusters are preparing to carry this out over the next two years. An important milestone for the barrel modules has been passed with the first cluster (KEK) now in production (~40 modules produced). A second cluster UK-B has qualified by producing five modules within specification (see below) and is about to start production. T...

  13. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  14. Cascaded uncoupled dual-ring modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Tingyi; Wong, Chee Wei; Dong, Po

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that by coherent driving two uncoupled rings in same direction, the effective photon circulating time in the dual ring modulator is reduced, with increased modulation quality. The inter-ring detuning dependent photon dynamics, Q-factor, extinction ratio and optical modulation amplitude of two cascaded silicon ring resonators are studied and compared with that of a single ring modulator. Experimentally measured eye diagrams, together with coupled mode theory simulations, demonstrate the enhancement of dual ring configuration at 20 Gbps with a Q ~ 20,000.

  15. Twisting Functors for Quantum Group Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis Hasselstrøm

    We construct twisting functors for quantum group modules. First over the field Q(v) but later over any Z[v,v^{−1}]-algebra. The main results in this paper are a rigerous definition of these functors, a proof that they satisfy braid relations and applications to Verma modules.......We construct twisting functors for quantum group modules. First over the field Q(v) but later over any Z[v,v^{−1}]-algebra. The main results in this paper are a rigerous definition of these functors, a proof that they satisfy braid relations and applications to Verma modules....

  16. Binary Modulation Formats in Optical Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tejkal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the binary modulation formats and their application in passive optical networks have been discussed. Passive optical networks are characterized by dividing the optical signal between several end users by using passive splitters, which added a significant attenuation to the network. The performance of the selected modulation formats, depending on the transmitter power in order to verify that there is no signal distortion, has been examined in our simulations. A minimal error rate of the system for each modulation format has been also examined. Finding a suitable modulation, which would allow extension of the distance and splitting ration in current passive optical networks, has been the main aim.

  17. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  18. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  19. Global model structures for ∗-modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhme, Benjamin

    We extend Schwede's work on the unstable global homotopy theory of orthogonal spaces and L-spaces to the category of ∗-modules (i.e., unstable S-modules). We prove a theorem which transports model structures and their properties from L-spaces to ∗-modules and show that the resulting global model...... structure for ∗-modules is monoidally Quillen equivalent to that of orthogonal spaces. As a consequence, there are induced Quillen equivalences between the associated model categories of monoids, which identify equivalent models for the global homotopy theory of A∞-spaces....

  20. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  1. PV Cell and Module Calibrations at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2012-10-22

    NREL has equipment to measure any conceivable cell or module technology. The lack of standards for low concentration modules complicates matters. Spectrally adjustable simulators are critical for more than three junctions. NREL's 10-channel fiber optic simulator has shown that the light can be set for each junction within 1% of what it would be under the reference spectrum for up to a five-junction cell. Uncertainty in module simulators dominated by spatial nonuniformity for calibration labs. Manufacturers can mitigate this error by using matched reference modules instead of cells.

  2. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  3. Making, Exporting, and Modulating Wnts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Paul F; Kakugawa, Satoshi; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2016-10-01

    Wnt proteins activate a conserved signalling pathway that controls development and tissue homeostasis in all metazoans. The intensity of Wnt signalling must be tightly controlled to avoid diseases caused by excess or ectopic signalling. Over the years, many proteins dedicated to Wnt function have been identified, including Porcupine, which appends a palmitoleate moiety that is essential for signalling activity. This lipid inevitably affects subcellular trafficking and solubility, as well as providing a target for post-translational modulation. We review here the life history of Wnts, starting with progression through the secretory pathway, continuing with release and spread in the extracellular space, and finishing with the various proteins that dampen or inactivate Wnts in the extracellular space. PMID:27325141

  4. Micro-modulated luminescence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Imaging depth of optical microscopy has been fundamentally limited to millimeter or sub-millimeter due to light scattering. X-ray microscopy can resolve spatial details of few microns deeply inside a sample but the contrast resolution is still inadequate to depict heterogeneous features at cellular or sub-cellular levels. To enhance and enrich biological contrast at large imaging depth, various nanoparticles are introduced and become essential to basic research and molecular medicine. Nanoparticles can be functionalized as imaging probes, similar to fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins. LiGa5O8:Cr3+ nanoparticles were recently synthesized to facilitate luminescence energy storage with x-ray pre-excitation and the subsequently stimulated luminescence emission by visible/near-infrared (NIR) light. In this paper, we suggest a micro-modulated luminescence tomography (MLT) approach to quantify a nanophosphor distribution in a thick biological sample with high resolution. Our numerical simulation studies demonst...

  5. Complex Wavelet Based Modulation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luneau, Jean-Marc; Lebrun, Jérôme; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

     because only the magnitudes are taken into account and the phase data is often neglected. We remedy this problem with the use of a complex wavelet transform as a more appropriate envelope and phase processing tool. Complex wavelets carry both magnitude and phase explicitly with great sparsity and preserve well...... polynomial trends. Moreover an analytic Hilbert-like transform is possible with complex wavelets implemented as an orthogonal filter bank. By working in an alternative transform domain coined as “Modulation Subbands”, this transform shows very promising denoising capabilities and suggests new approaches for joint...

  6. Spin confinement by anisotropy modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, J.A.C. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jacb1@phy.cam.ac.uk; Lew, W.S.; Li, S.P.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Vaz, C.A.F. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Natali, M.; Chen, Y. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Marcoussis (France)

    2002-10-07

    The spin configuration in a magnet is in general a 'natural' consequence of both the intrinsic properties of the material and the sample dimensions. We demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome in a homogeneous ferromagnetic film by engineering an anisotropy contrast. Substrates with laterally modulated single-crystal and polycrystalline surface regions were used to induce selective epitaxial growth of a ferromagnetic Ni film. The resulting spatially varying magnetic anisotropy leads to regular perpendicular and in-plane magnetic domains, separated by a new type of magnetic domain wall-the 'anisotropy constrained' magnetic wall. Micromagnetic simulations indicate that the wall is asymmetric, has a small out-of-plane component and has no mobility under external perturbation. (author)

  7. Spin confinement by anisotropy modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, J. A. C.; Lew, W. S.; Li, S. P.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.

    2002-10-01

    The spin configuration in a magnet is in general a `natural' consequence of both the intrinsic properties of the material and the sample dimensions. We demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome in a homogeneous ferromagnetic film by engineering an anisotropy contrast. Substrates with laterally modulated single-crystal and polycrystalline surface regions were used to induce selective epitaxial growth of a ferromagnetic Ni film. The resulting spatially varying magnetic anisotropy leads to regular perpendicular and in-plane magnetic domains, separated by a new type of magnetic domain wall-the `anisotropy constrained' magnetic wall. Micromagnetic simulations indicate that the wall is asymmetric, has a small out-of-plane component and has no mobility under external perturbation.

  8. DIGITAL SELF-OSCILLATING MODULATOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    A digital self-oscillating modulator (1) having a digital reference signal as input (Vref) comprises a forward loop with a first output and a feedback loop. The feedback loop comprises a feedback block (18) having a transfer function (MFB) and a digital output. The forward loop comprises an...... alternating output stage (14), and a forward block (12) comprising a filter (12') with a transfer function (MFW) and has a digital output. The digital output from the forward block (12) is input to the alternating stage (14). The forward block (12) is provided with means for calculating the difference between...... the digi- tal output from the feedback block (18) and the digital reference signal (Vref). The first output is in digital form fed back to the feedback block (18). Provided that the transfer function (MFW) of the forward block (12) is formed by a plurality of integrators, the transfer function (MFB...

  9. Australian Cosmic Ray Modulation Research

    CERN Document Server

    Duldig, M L

    2000-01-01

    Australian research into variations of the cosmic ray flux arriving at the Earth has played a pivotal role for more than 50 years. The work has been largely led by the groups from the University of Tasmania and the Australian Antarctic Division and has involved the operation of neutron monitors and muon telescopes from many sites. In this paper the achievements of the Australian researchers are reviewed and future experiments are described. Particular highlights include: the determination of cosmic ray modulation parameters; the development of modelling techniques of Ground Level Enhancements; the confirmation of the Tail-In and Loss-Cone Sidereal anisotropies; the Space Ship Earth collaboration; and the Solar Cycle latitude survey.

  10. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  11. Immune Modulation by Volatile Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollings, Lindsay M; Jia, Li-Jie; Tang, Pei; Dou, Huanyu; Lu, Binfeng; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile general anesthetics continue to be an important part of clinical anesthesia worldwide. The impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system has been investigated at both mechanistic and clinical levels, but previous studies have returned conflicting findings due to varied protocols, experimental environments, and subject species. While many of these studies have focused on the immunosuppressive effects of volatile anesthetics, compelling evidence also exists for immunoactivation. Depending on the clinical conditions, immunosuppression and activation due to volatile anesthetics can be either detrimental or beneficial. This review provides a balanced perspective on the anesthetic modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses as well as indirect effectors of immunity. Potential mechanisms of immunomodulation by volatile anesthetics are also discussed. A clearer understanding of these issues will pave the way for clinical guidelines that better account for the impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system, with the ultimate goal of improving perioperative management. PMID:27286478

  12. Comparaison of Atlas Tilecal module

    CERN Document Server

    Batusov1, V; Gayde, J C; Khubua, J I; Lasseur, C; Lyablin, M V; Miralles-Verge, L; Nessi, Marzio; Rusakovitch, N A; Sissakian, A N; Topilin, N D

    2002-01-01

    The high precision assembly of a large experimental set-ups is of a principal necessity for the successful execution of the forthcoming LHC research program in the TeV-beams. The creation of an adequate Survey&Control METROLOGY METHODs are an essential part of the detector construction scenario. This work contains the dimension measurement data for ATLAS hadron calorimeter MODULE#8 (6m long, 22tons) which were obtained by LASER and by PHOTOGRAMMETRY methods. The comparative data analysis demonstrates the measurements agreement within ±70mm. It means these two clearly independent methods can be combined and lead to the rise of a new generation engineering culture: high precision metrology when precision assembly of large scale massive objects.

  13. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  14. Modulation Speed Enhancement of Directly Modulated Lasers Using a Micro-ring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi; Lorences Riesgo, Abel; Seoane, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    A silicon micro-ring resonator is used to enhance the modulation speed of a 10-Gbit/s directly modulated laser to 40 Gbit/s, demonstrating a potentially integratable transmitter design for high-speed optical interconnects....

  15. Study of an electro-optic modulator capable of generating simultaneous amplitude and phase modulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cusack, B J; Shaddock, D A; Gray, M B; Lam, P K; Whitcomb, S E; Cusack, Benedict J; Gray, Malcolm B; Lam, Ping Koy; Shaddock, Daniel A; Sheard, Benjamin S; Whitcomb, Stan E

    2003-01-01

    We report on the analysis and prototype-characterization of a dual-electrode electro-optic modulator that can generate both amplitude and phase modulations with a selectable relative phase, termed a universally tunable modulator (UTM). All modulation states can be reached by tuning only the electrical inputs, facilitating real-time tuning, and the device is shown to have good suppression and stability properties. A mathematical analysis is presented, including the development of a geometric phase representation for modulation. The experimental characterization of the device shows that relative suppressions of 38 dB, 39 dB and 30 dB for phase, single-sideband and carrier-suppressed modulations, respectively, can be obtained, as well as showing the device is well-behaved when scanning continuously through the parameter space of modulations. Uses for the device are discussed, including the tuning of lock points in optical locking schemes, single sideband applications, modulation fast-switching applications, and ...

  16. Modulating macrophage response to biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral

    Macrophages recruited to the site of biomaterial implantation are the primary mediators of the chronic foreign body response to implanted materials. Since foreign body response limits performance and functional life of numerous implanted biomaterials/medical devices, various approaches have been investigated to modulate macrophage interactions with biomaterial surfaces to mitigate this response. In this work we have explored two independent approaches to modulate the macrophage inflammatory response to biomaterials. The first approach targets surface integrins, cell surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion to biomaterials through adhesive proteins spontaneously adsorbed on biomaterial surfaces. The second approach involves surface modification of biomaterials using nanotopographic features since nanotopography has been reported to modulate cell adhesion and viability in a cell type-dependent manner. More specifically, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface was investigated for its role in modulating macrophage adhesion and survival in vitro and foreign body response in vivo. For the first approach, we have investigated the role of integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins in the in-vivo osteolysis response and macrophage inflammatory processes of phagocytosis as well as inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to particulate biomaterials. We have also investigated the in vivo foreign body response (FBR) to subcutaneously implanted biomaterials by evaluating the thickness of fibrous capsule formed around the implants after 2 weeks of implantation. The role of Mac-1 integrin was isolated using a Mac-1 KO mouse and comparing it to a WT control. The role of RGD binding integrins in FBR was investigated by coating the implanted biomaterial with ELVAX(TM) polymer loaded with Echistatin which contains the RGD sequence. For the in-vivo osteolysis study and to study the in-vitro macrophage response to particulate biomaterials, we used the RGD peptide encapsulated in ELVAX

  17. Modulation efficiency of double-phase hologram complex light modulation macro-pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sujin; Roh, Jinyoung; Song, Hoong; Sung, Geeyoung; An, Jungkwuen; Seo, Wontaek; Won, Kanghee; Ungnapatanin, Jesada; Jung, Myounghoon; Yoon, Yongzoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Hahn, Joonku; Kim, Hwi

    2014-09-01

    The modulation efficiency of the double-phase hologram macro-pixel that is designed for complex modulation of light waves is defined and analyzed. The scale-down of the double-phase hologram macro-pixel associated with the construction of complex spatial light modulators is discussed.

  18. The effect of the modulation shape in the ballistic thermal conductance of modulated nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on calculations of the ballistic thermal conductance of nanowires with modulated width along their length. We discuss the effect of the shape of the modulation in the thermal conductance of the nanowires. The ballistic thermal conductance is determined by the phonon transmission coefficient. It is shown that the thermal conductance of the modulated wires is lower than that of the corresponding straight wires. The phonon conductance decreases with increasing number of modulating periods and saturates to the infinite superlattice value. It decreases below this value when the modulation profile is non-periodic. It is shown that the thermal conductance can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. This behavior could lead to structures of nanowires with enhanced thermoelectric efficiency. - Graphical abstract: The thermal conductance versus temperature for straight nanowires and for wires modulated periodically by arrays of identical dots and non-periodically by arrays of non-identical dots. Highlights: ► The thermal conductance of modulated nanowires can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. ► A dramatic decrease of the thermal conductance of modulated nanowires is found when the modulation profile is non-periodic. ► Very low thermal conductance can be achieved in modulated wires that have shown efficient electron thermoelectric behavior.

  19. Tractor Mechanic Check Sheets for Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Forms for student self-checks and the instructor's final checklist (student evaluation) are provided for use with thirty-three learning modules on maintaining and servicing fuel and electrical systems in tractor mechanics. The student self-check asks the students questions about their understanding of the modules' content. The instructor's…

  20. Integrating Oracle Human Resources with Other Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Karl; Shope, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of implementing an enterprise-wide business system is achieving integration of the different modules to the satisfaction of diverse customers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) implementation of the Oracle application suite demonstrates the need to coordinate Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS) decision across the Oracle modules.

  1. British Writers; Modules for Teacher Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliard, Fred

    This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…

  2. Polybinary modulation for bandwidth limited optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Optical links using traditional modulation formats are reaching a plateau in terms of capacity, mainly due to bandwidth limitations in the devices employed at the transmitter and receivers. Advanced modulation formats, which boost the spectral efficiency, provide a smooth migration path towards e...

  3. The CMS silicon strip tracker modules production

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgi, M

    2006-01-01

    To complete the construction of the CMS silicon strip tracker, about 16,000 silicon microstrip detector modules will be required. In order to guarantee the uniform quality of the produced modules and to be able to match the deadlines requested by the CMS collaboration, a semi-industrialized organization has been developed, and the different components are being presented here.

  4. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based on ...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  5. Module of System Galactica with Coulomb's Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Smulsky, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    The system Galactica of free access is supplemented module for the Coulomb interaction. It is based on a high-precision method for solving differential equations of motion of N charged particles. The paper presents all the theoretical and practical issues required to use this module of system Galactica so that even the beginning researcher could study the motion of particles, atoms and molecules.

  6. Modulation Techniques for Li-Fi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Sufyan Islim; Harald Haas

    2016-01-01

    Modulation techniques for light fidelity (Li⁃Fi) are reviewed in this paper. Li⁃Fi is the fully networked solution for multiple users that combines communication and illumination simultaneously. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are used in Li⁃Fi as visible light transmitters, therefore, only intensity modulated direct detected modulation techniques can be achieved. Single carrier modulation techniques are straightforward to be used in Li⁃Fi, however, computationally complex equalization processes are required in fre⁃quency selective Li⁃Fi channels. On the other hand, multicarrier modulation techniques offer a viable solution for Li⁃Fi in terms of power, spectral and computational efficiency. In particular, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based modula⁃tion techniques offer a practical solution for Li⁃Fi, especially when direct current (DC) wander, and adaptive bit and power load⁃ing techniques are considered. Li⁃Fi modulation techniques need to also satisfy illumination requirements. Flickering avoidance and dimming control are considered in the variant modulation techniques presented. This paper surveys the suitable modulation techniques for Li⁃Fi including those which explore time, frequency and colour domains.

  7. Colloquium: Annual modulation of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Lisanti, Mariangela; Savage, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Direct detection experiments, which are designed to detect the scattering of dark matter off nuclei in detectors, are a critical component in the search for the Universe’s missing matter. This Colloquium begins with a review of the physics of direct detection of dark matter, discussing the roles of both the particle physics and astrophysics in the expected signals. The count rate in these experiments should experience an annual modulation due to the relative motion of the Earth around the Sun. This modulation, not present for most known background sources, is critical for solidifying the origin of a potential signal as dark matter. The focus is on the physics of annual modulation, discussing the practical formulas needed to interpret a modulating signal. The dependence of the modulation spectrum on the particle and astrophysics models for the dark matter is illustrated. For standard assumptions, the count rate has a cosine dependence with time, with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. Well-motivated generalizations of these models, however, can affect both the phase and amplitude of the modulation. Shown is how a measurement of an annually modulating signal could teach us about the presence of substructure in the galactic halo or about the interactions between dark and baryonic matter. Although primarily a theoretical review, the current experimental situation for annual modulation and future experimental directions is briefly discussed.

  8. Flux Modulation in the Electrodynamic Loudspeaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Morten; Tinggaard, Carsten; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of flux modulation in the electrodynamic loudspeaker with main focus on the effect on the force factor. A measurement setup to measure the AC flux modulation with static voice coil is explained and the measurements shows good consistency with FEA simulations...

  9. Food Service Worker. Supplemental Individualized Student Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasty, Liswa E.; Bridwell, Terry B.

    Developed to supplement the food service worker modules published in 1977, this handbook provides fourteen additional individualized student modules. The topics included are as follow: (1) personal grooming; (2) safe handling of food and eating utensils; (3) setting up tables; (4) handling customers; (5) menus; (6) taking and placing the order;…

  10. Undergraduate Urban Metagenomics Research Module

    OpenAIRE

    Muth, Theodore R.; McEntee, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The undergraduate urban metagenomics research module is an adaptable and tractable project that can be incorporated into exisiting microbiology, ecology, bioinformatics, introductory biology or other courses.  The module takes advantage of recent advances in metagenomics and next generation sequencing, giving students an opportunity to apply these current technologies to novel questions regarding microbial community diversity and dynamics.

  11. Pre-attentive and attentive vision module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new vision module, called PAAV, developed for the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Unlike ACT-R's default vision module that was originally developed for top-down perception only, PAAV was designed to model a wide range of tasks, such as visual search and scene viewing, where pr

  12. On Equivariant Embedding of Hilbert * Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debashish Goswami

    2009-02-01

    We prove that an arbitrary (not necessarily countably generated) Hilbert $G-\\mathcal{A}$ module on a -* algebra $\\mathcal{A}$ admits an equivariant embedding into a trivial $G-\\mathcal{A}$ module, provided is a compact Lie group and its action on $\\mathcal{A}$ is ergodic.

  13. Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

  14. Minimal Flat Resolutions of Artinian Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sh. Payrovi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish connection between the minimal flat resolutions of Artinian modules and the concept of cosequences in commutative algebra.The main result of this paper leads to a characterization of local Cohen-Macaulay rings in terms of vanishing property of the dual Bass numbers of certain Artinian modules.

  15. On Equivariant Embedding of Hilbert C^* modules

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    We prove that an arbitrary (not necessarily countably generated) Hilbert $G$-$\\cla$ module on a G-C^* algebra $\\cla$ admits an equivariant embedding into a trivial $G-\\cla$ module, provided G is a compact Lie group and its action on $\\cla$ is ergodic.

  16. On Equivariant Embedding of Hilbert $C^*$ modules

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    We prove that an arbitrary (not necessarily countably generated) Hilbert $G$-$\\cla$ module on a $G-C^*$ algebra $\\cla$ admits an equivariant embedding into a trivial $G-\\cla$ module, provided $G$ is a compact Lie group and its action on $\\cla$ is ergodic.

  17. Markov-modulated diffusion risk models

    OpenAIRE

    Bäuerle, Nicole; Kötter, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider Markov-modulated diffusion risk reserve processes. Using diffusion approximation we show the relation to classical Markov-modulated risk reserve processes. In particular we derive a representation for the adjustment coefficient and prove some comparison results. Among others we show that increasing the volatility of the diffusion increases the probability of ruin.

  18. Thermodynamic Efficiency. An Issue Oriented Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D.

    This module applies basic laws of thermodynamics to the study of the efficiency at which heat can be converted to other useful forms of energy, including heat at low temperatures. The module is divided into four major sections. Section I treats energy conversion efficiency and defines the concept of first-law efficiency, the most widely used…

  19. Assembly jig assures reliable solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofarrell, H. O.

    1966-01-01

    Assembly jig holds the components for a solar cell module in place as the assembly is soldered and bonded by the even heat of an oven. The jig is designed to the configuration of the planned module. It eliminates uneven thermal conditions caused by hand soldering methods.

  20. Accelerated degradation testing of a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charki, Abdérafi; Laronde, Rémi; Bigaud, David

    2013-01-01

    There are a great many photovoltaic (PV) modules installed around the world. Despite this, not enough is known about the reliability of these modules. Their electrical power output decreases with time mainly as a result of the effects of corrosion, encapsulation discoloration, and solder bond failure. The failure of a PV module is defined as the point where the electrical power degradation reaches a given threshold value. Accelerated life tests (ALTs) are commonly used to assess the reliability of a PV module. However, ALTs provide limited data on the failure of a module and these tests are expensive to carry out. One possible solution is to conduct accelerated degradation tests. The Wiener process in conjunction with the accelerated failure time model makes it possible to carry out numerous simulations and thus to determine the failure time distribution based on the aforementioned threshold value. By this means, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated.

  1. ULF Generation by Modulated Ionospheric Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Labenski, J.; Wallace, T.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2013-12-01

    Modulated ionospheric heating experiments designed to generate ULF waves using the HAARP heater have been conducted since 2007. Artificial ULF waves in the Pc1 frequency range were observed from space and by ground induction magnetometers located in the vicinity of the heater as well as at long distances. Two distinct generation mechanisms of artificial ULF waves were identified. The first was electroject modulation under geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The second was pressure modulation in the E and F regions of the ionosphere under quiet conditions. Ground detections of ULF waves near the heater included both Shear Alfven waves and Magnetosonic waves generated by electrojet and/or pressure modulations. Distant ULF detections involved Magnetosonic wave propagation in the Alfvenic duct with pressure modulation as the most likely source. Summary of our observations and theoretical interpretations will be presented at the meeting. We would like to acknowledge the support provided by the staff at the HAARP facility during our ULF experiments.

  2. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  3. Evolution Properties of Modules in Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You

    2008-01-01

    In complex networks, network modules play a center role, which carry out a key function. In this paper, we introduce the spatial correlation function to describe the relationships among the network modules. Our focus is to investigate how the network modules evolve, and what the evolution properties of the modules are. In order to test the proposed method, as the examples, we use our method to analyze and discuss the ER random network and scale-free network. Rigorous analysis of the existing data shows that the introduced correlation function is suitable for describing the evolution properties of network modules. Remarkably, the numerical simulations indicate that the ER random network and scale-free network have different evolution properties.

  4. Broad-band multisection electrooptic modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Benjamin; Marino, Richard M.; Eng, Richard S.

    1988-10-01

    A general solution has been derived for expressing the conversion of power from a base frequency to a modulation sideband using a multisection electrooptic modulator. The objective is to obtain broadband frequency modulation of a laser by the use of multiple collinear electrooptic crystals with microwave power levels well below the breakdown threshold. It is found that segmented structures lead to greater bandwidths, which increase with the number of modulator sections. This is achieved by adjusting the phases of microwaves between sections to maximize the single-sideband conversion efficiency. It is shown that a 10.6-micron CO2 laser modulator with six geometrically identical CdTe sections can potentially achieve a 3-dB bandwidth of nearly 6 GHz using a 10-kW traveling-wave tube operating at 16-GHz center frequency.

  5. Comparison of Modulation Techniques Used In WCDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciana Barretto,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA was introduced to provide higher data rates in mobile communication. This technology provides the users with many multimedia rich applications such as video streams and high resolution pictures. Thus in order to enhance the performance of this technology it is necessary to determine a suitable modulation technique. Also suitable error correcting mechanisms need to be implemented to enhance these services. Analysis of these techniques is crucial to improve the performance of a system. We have considered two modulation techniques of Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK used in WCDMA systems. We have studied the performance of these two modulation techniques and compared them using the parameters of eye pattern. This analysis will help us determine a suitable modulation technique for WCDMA. We have used MATLAB for the simulation of WCDMA transmitter section.

  6. Vacuum studies with a VELO module

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, A; Parkes, C; Saavedra, A

    2007-01-01

    LHCb VELO modules will be operated in low vacuum with voltages as high as 500~V on both hybrids of the module. This note provides the first study on the breakdown voltages of a pre-production VELO module with varying pressures and venting with air. The breakdown voltages are measured by studying the leakage currents of the sensors on the module and the measured breakdown curve is compared to the theoretical breakdown for a parallel plate capacitor. The effect of breakdown on the noise of the sensors is also studied. It is concluded that the modules should not be operated at voltages above 500~V over a pressure range of 0.1-760~Torr.

  7. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  8. Coherent population trapping with polarization modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Peter; de Clercq, Emeric

    2016-01-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) is extensively studied for future vapor cell clocks of high frequency stability. In the constructive polarization modulation CPT scheme, a bichromatic laser field with polarization and phase synchronously modulated is applied on an atomic medium. A high contrast CPT signal is observed in this so-called double-modulation configuration, due to the fact that the atomic population does not leak to the extreme Zeeman states, and that the two CPT dark states, which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations, add constructively. Here we experimentally investigate CPT signal dynamics first in the usual configuration, a single circular polarization. The double-modulation scheme is then addressed in both cases: one pulse Rabi interaction and two pulses Ramsey interaction. The impact and the optimization of the experimental parameters involved in the time sequence are reviewed. We show that a simple sevenlevel model explains the experimental observations. The double-modul...

  9. A directly phase-modulated light source

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Z L; Lucamarini, M; Roberts, G L; Dynes, J F; Shields, A J

    2016-01-01

    The art of imparting information onto a light wave by optical signal modulation is fundamental to all forms of optical communication. Among many schemes, direct modulation of laser diodes stands out as a simple, robust, and cost effective method. However, the simultaneous changes in intensity, frequency and phase are a drawback which has prevented its application in the field of secure quantum communication. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a directly phase-modulated light source which overcomes the main disadvantages associated with direct modulation and is suitable for diverse applications such as coherent communications and quantum cryptography. The source separates the tasks of phase preparation and pulse generation between a pair of semiconductor lasers leading to very pure phase states. Moreover, the cavity enhanced electro-optic effect enables the first example of sub-volt halfwave phase modulation at high signal rates. The source is compact, stable and versatile, and we show its potenti...

  10. Rigged modules I: modules over dual operator algebras and the Picard group

    OpenAIRE

    Blecher, David P.; Kashyap, Upasana

    2016-01-01

    In a previous paper we generalized the theory of W*-modules to the setting of modules over nonselfadjoint dual operator algebras, obtaining the class of weak*-rigged modules. At that time we promised a forthcoming paper devoted to other aspects of the theory. We fulfill this promise in the present work and its sequel "Rigged modules II", giving many new results about weak*-rigged modules and their tensor products. We also discuss the Picard group of weak* closed subalgebras of a commutative a...

  11. Generalized Co-Cohen-Macaulay and Co-Buchsbaum Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Tu Cuong; Nguyen Thi Dung; Le Thanh Nhan

    2007-01-01

    We study two classes of Artinian modules called co-Buchsbaum modules and generalized co-Cohen-Macaulay modulesSome basic properties and characterizations of these modules in terms of q-weak co-sequences, co-standard sequences, multiplicity, local homology modules are presented.

  12. Invertebrate Iridovirus Modulation of Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Williams; Nllesh S. Chitnis; Sh(a)n L. Bilimoria

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a key host response to virus infection. Viruses that can modulate host apoptotic responses are likely to gain important opportunities for transmission. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate that particles of Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) (Iridoviridae, genus Iridovirus), or an IIV-6 virion protein extract, are capable of inducing apoptosis in lepidopteran and coleopteran cells, at concentrations 1000-fold lower than that required to shut-off host macromolecular synthesis. Induction of apoptosis depends on endocytosis of one or more heat-sensitive virion component(s). Studies with a JNK inh ibitor(SP600125) indicated that the JNK signaling pathway is significantly involved in apoptosis in IIV-6 infections of Choristoneurafumiferana ceils. The genome of IIV-6 codes for an inhibitor of apoptosis iap gene (193R) that encodes a protein of 208 aa with 15% identity and 28% similarity in its amino acid sequence to IAP-3 from Cydia pomonella ganulovirus (CpGV). Transcription of IIV-6 iap did not require prior DNA or protein synthesis, indicating that it is an immediate-early class gene. Transient expression and gene knockdown studies have confirmed the functional nature of the IIV-6 iap gene. We present a tentative model for IIV-6 induction and inhibition of apoptosis in insect cells and discuss the potential applications of these findings in insect pest control.

  13. Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengtao; Zhu, Yuanwei; Min, Daomin; Chen, George

    2016-09-01

    Electrical breakdown is one of the most important physical phenomena in electrical and electronic engineering. Since the early 20th century, many theories and models of electrical breakdown have been proposed, but the origin of one key issue, that the explanation for dc breakdown strength being twice or higher than ac breakdown strength in insulating materials, remains unclear. Here, by employing a bipolar charge transport model, we investigate the space charge dynamics in both dc and ac breakdown processes. We demonstrate the differences in charge accumulations under both dc and ac stresses and estimate the breakdown strength, which is modulated by the electric field distortion induced by space charge. It is concluded that dc breakdown initializes in the bulk whereas ac breakdown initializes in the vicinity of the sample-electrode interface. Compared with dc breakdown, the lower breakdown strength under ac stress and the decreasing breakdown strength with an increase in applied frequency, are both attributed to the electric field distortion induced by space charges located in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  14. In the mood for modules

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    When the going gets tough, the tough get going. This is especially true when it comes to safety: how can we improve our safety culture in the best possible way? The Safety Training section thinks the solution lies in better safety courses, so CERN's e-learning package is being redesigned. Future e-learning courses will be smaller but more efficient, covering all the specific risks present at the Laboratory.   The new Safety at CERN course available on SIR, featuring the new colour palette. Being able to communicate safety messages efficiently is crucial in order to have a safe work environment, especially here at CERN. This is not always an easy task and therefore a more educational approach is required. With this idea in mind, the Safety Training section is currently redesigning its e-learning courses to include a series of smaller risk-specific modules. “Currently, some risks, such as chemical- or electricity-related risks, are included in various courses,&am...

  15. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  16. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  17. Dynamics of coupled thalamocortical modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drover, Jonathan D; Schiff, Nicholas D; Victor, Jonathan D

    2010-06-01

    We develop a model of thalamocortical dynamics using a shared population of thalamic neurons to couple distant cortical regions. Behavior of the model is determined as a function of the connection strengths with shared and unshared populations in the thalamus, either within a relay nucleus or the reticular nucleus. When the coupling is via the reticular nucleus, we locate solutions of the model where distant cortical regions maintain the same activity level, and regions where one region maintains an elevated activity level, suppressing activity in the other. We locate and investigate a region where both types of solutions exist and are stable, yielding a mechanism for spontaneous changes in global activity patterns. Power spectra and coherence are computed, and marked differences in the coherence are found between the two kinds of modes. When, on the other hand, the coupling is via a shared relay nuclei, the features seen with the reticular coupling are absent. These considerations suggest a role for the reticular nucleus in modulating long distance cortical communication.

  18. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  19. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, M Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content. PMID:27119638

  20. Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengtao; Zhu, Yuanwei; Min, Daomin; Chen, George

    2016-01-01

    Electrical breakdown is one of the most important physical phenomena in electrical and electronic engineering. Since the early 20(th) century, many theories and models of electrical breakdown have been proposed, but the origin of one key issue, that the explanation for dc breakdown strength being twice or higher than ac breakdown strength in insulating materials, remains unclear. Here, by employing a bipolar charge transport model, we investigate the space charge dynamics in both dc and ac breakdown processes. We demonstrate the differences in charge accumulations under both dc and ac stresses and estimate the breakdown strength, which is modulated by the electric field distortion induced by space charge. It is concluded that dc breakdown initializes in the bulk whereas ac breakdown initializes in the vicinity of the sample-electrode interface. Compared with dc breakdown, the lower breakdown strength under ac stress and the decreasing breakdown strength with an increase in applied frequency, are both attributed to the electric field distortion induced by space charges located in the vicinity of the electrodes. PMID:27599577

  1. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R E; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2016-05-01

    Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes.

  2. Nanosecond liquid crystalline optical modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borshch, Volodymyr; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2016-07-26

    An optical modulator includes a liquid crystal cell containing liquid crystal material having liquid crystal molecules oriented along a quiescent director direction in the unbiased state, and a voltage source configured to apply an electric field to the liquid crystal material wherein the direction of the applied electric field does not cause the quiescent director direction to change. An optical source is arranged to transmit light through or reflect light off the liquid crystal cell with the light passing through the liquid crystal material at an angle effective to undergo phase retardation in response to the voltage source applying the electric field. The liquid crystal material may have negative dielectric anisotropy, and the voltage source configured to apply an electric field to the liquid crystal material whose electric field vector is transverse to the quiescent director direction. Alternatively, the liquid crystal material may have positive dielectric anisotropy and the voltage source configured to apply an electric field to the liquid crystal material whose electric field vector is parallel with the quiescent director direction.

  3. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  4. Annual Modulation of Dark Matter: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, Katherine; Savage, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Direct detection experiments, which are designed to detect the scattering of dark matter off nuclei in detectors, are a critical component in the search for the Universe's missing matter. The count rate in these experiments should experience an annual modulation due to the relative motion of the Earth around the Sun. This modulation, not present for most known background sources, is critical for solidifying the origin of a potential signal as dark matter. In this article, we review the physics of annual modulation, discussing the practical formulae needed to interpret a modulating signal. We focus on how the modulation spectrum changes depending on the particle and astrophysics models for the dark matter. For standard assumptions, the count rate has a cosine dependence with time, with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. Well-motivated generalizations of these models, however, can affect both the phase and amplitude of the modulation. We show how a measurement of an annually modulating signal could te...

  5. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C., E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  6. Polyimide based amorphous silicon solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Grimmer, Derrick P.; Martens, Steven A.; Abudagga, Khaled; Thomas, Michael L.; Noak, Max

    1993-01-01

    Requirements for space power are increasingly emphasizing lower costs and higher specific powers. This results from new fiscal constraints, higher power requirements for larger applications, and the evolution toward longer distance missions such as a Lunar or Mars base. The polyimide based a-Si modules described are being developed to meet these needs. The modules consist of tandem a-Si solar cell material deposited directly on a roll of polyimide. A laser scribing/printing process subdivides the deposition into discrete cell strips which are series connected to produce the required voltage without cutting the polymer backing. The result is a large, monolithic, blanket type module approximately 30 cm wide and variable in length depending on demand. Current production modules have a specific power slightly over 500 W/Kg with room for significant improvement. Costs for the full blanket modules range from $30/Watt to $150/Watt depending on quantity and engineering requirements. Work to date focused on the modules themselves and adjusting them for the AMO spectrum. Work is needed yet to insure that the modules are suitable for the space environment.

  7. Calmodulin modulation of ion channels and receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ion channels and receptors are the structural basis for neural signaling and transmission. Recently, the function of ion channels and receptors has been demonstrated to be modulated by many intracellular and extracellular chemicals and signaling molecules. Increasing evidence indicates that the complexity and plasticity of the function of central nervous system is determined by the modulation of ion channels and receptors. Among various mechanisms, Ca 2+ signaling pathways play important roles in neuronal activity and some pathological changes. Ca 2+ influx through ion channels and receptors can modulate its further influx in a feedback way or modulate other ion channels and receptors. The common feature of the modulation is that Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM) is the universal mediator. CaM maintains the coordination among ion channels/receptors and intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis by feedback modulation of ion channels/receptors activity. This review focuses on the modulating processes of ion channels and receptors mediated by CaM, and further elucidates the mechanisms of Ca 2+ signaling.

  8. Optical Response of a Liquid Crystal modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress in liquid crystal device technology has led to the development of different electro-optical displays from simple digital watchs to high information content computer screens. In these electro-optical systems modulation of light by means of a liquid crystal device is very important subject both from the point of fundamental physics and for possible technological applications. In this study we describe a liquid crystal modulator which consists of a thin film of liquid crystal contained between parallel conductive glass plates. The surfaces of the plates are treated so that the liquid crystal molecules are parallel to the surfaces but twists about an axis normal to the surfaces by an angle of 90 degree from one substrate to the other. In a liquid crystal modulator the dielectric and optical anisotropies are used to modulate a laser beam passing through the film. If an electric field is applied across the film the molecules realign parallel to the electric field to form the homeotropic structure which has no optical modulation effect. Thus, the electric field-dependent transmission of the liquid crystal modulator is characterized. We also analyze the response behavior of the liquid crystal modulator

  9. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (PMAX) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 ∼30% and a total degradation of ∼42%. For Si-2 the initial PMAX was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of ∼10% and a total degradation of ∼17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  10. Pressure Modulated Sonic Jet in Supersonic Crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Tobias

    2014-11-01

    Sonic transverse jets in supersonic crossflow are modulated using high-amplitude variations in jet stagnation pressure to enhance jet penetration and mixing. An injection/modulation apparatus combining a powered resonance tube and acoustic resonator is used to create low momentum ratio jets (J = 1 , 2) in a supersonic cross-stream (M = 3 . 5). The injector has the capability to modulate the jet supply pressure at sufficiently high frequency (> 15 kHz) and amplitude (up to 190 dB) to access relevant Strouhal numbers (St = 0 - 0 . 3) and amplitudes (up to 10% of the jet stagnation pressure) related to mixing enhancement. Planar laser Mie scattering in both side and end views allows for instantaneous imaging of the jet fluid to quantify jet trajectory, spread, and mixing behavior. For modulated J = 2 transverse jets, the recirculation zone directly downstream of the injection location is eliminated and significantly faster centerline signal decay rates are seen. For the J = 1 modulated jets, substantial increases in centerline penetration, jet spread, and centerline signal decay rate are shown. Additionally, PDF analysis of the instantaneous jet fluid signal values is performed to compare local mixing efficiencies between the modulated and un-modulated cases.

  11. Brauer-Thrall for totally reflexive modules

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Lars Winther; Rahmati, Hamidreza; Striuli, Janet; Wiegand, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Let R be a commutative noetherian local ring that is not Gorenstein. It was recently discovered that the category of totally reflexive modules over R is representation infinite, provided that it contains a non-free module. The main goal of this paper is to understand how complex the category of totally reflexive modules can be in this situation. Local rings (R,m) with m^3=0 are commonly regarded as the structurally simplest rings to admit diverse categorical and homological characteristics. For such rings we obtain conclusive results about the category of totally reflexive modules, modeled on the Brauer-Thrall conjectures. Starting from a non-free cyclic totally reflexive module, we construct a family of indecomposable totally reflexive R-modules that contains, for every n in N, a module that is minimally generated by n elements. Moreover, if the residue field R/m is algebraically closed, then we construct for every n in N an infinite family of indecomposable and pairwise non-isomorphic totally reflexive R-mo...

  12. An Online Module on Rainfall Runoff Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Bandaragoda, C.; Kaheil, Y. H.; Zachry, M. R.; Reed, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    This paper will show an online module designed to provide a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of infiltration and runoff generation processes. This module was developed to fulfill National Weather Service training needs and is targeted at professionals with a college degree in science or engineering, and seniors or graduate students in a hydrologic science or engineering program. No prior knowledge on Rainfall Runoff Processes is required. The module first reviews the mechanisms involved in runoff generation and the pathways water takes moving to streams in different settings. The physical factors at the land surface that affect runoff are presented. This leads into a presentation of soil properties fundamental to the partitioning of water inputs at the earth surface and methods and procedures for the calculation of infiltration at a point. The module guides students through the detailed calculations involved. The module then ends with review of the simulation of runoff generation in hydrologic models such as TOPMODEL and the National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). The online material takes advantage of streaming video and slide presentations as well as visualizations and computer animations that focus on key concepts. Substantive supporting material is given in the form of a PDF workbook that serves as a text. There is an online quiz at the end of each chapter designed to reinforce knowledge of the material covered in the section. The module compares answers to the solution and provides feedback. There is also an online final exam accessible once each chapter quiz has been attempted. The material in the early parts of the module is qualitative introducing the terminology and conceptual models involved in describing Rainfall Runoff processes. The latter parts of the module require users to perform quantitative calculations using a spreadsheet program such as Excel or an advanced engineering or scientific calculator. The module may be

  13. Direct modulation of 56 Gbps duobinary-4-PAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, Bangning;

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the direct modulation of externally modulated laser and transmission through single mode fiber of a 56 Gbps duobinary-4-pulse amplitude modulation signal through 10 GHz class optics....

  14. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  15. Characterization of V-modules by Relative Quasi-continuity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhong-kui

    2001-01-01

    We characterize V-modules by relative (quasi-)continuity of left R-modules in this paper. It is shown that a left R-module M is a V-module if and only if every finitely cogenerated left R- module in σ[M] is - (quasi-)continuous if and only if every left R-module in σ[M] is -continuous, where is the set of all simple left R- modules. We also show that a left R- module M is a locally noetherian V- module if and only if every semisimple left R-module (in σ[M]) is M- injective ff and only if every essential extension in σ[M] of every semisimple left R-module in σ[M] is 2-(quasi-)continuous, where 2 is the set of all semisimple left R-modules.

  16. EXTENSIONS OF HILBERT MODULES AND HANKEL OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Extensions of the Hardy and the Bergman modules over the disc algebra are studied. The author relates extensions of these canonical modules to the symbol spaces of corresponding Hankel operators. In the context of function theory, an explicit formula of Ext(L2a(D), H2(D)) is obtained. Finally, it is also proved that Ext(L2a(D), L2a(D)) ≠ 0. This may be the essential difference between the Hardy and the Bergman modules over the disk algebra.

  17. Full spectrum millimeter-wave modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Julien; Yao, Peng; Shi, Shouyuan; Zablocki, Alicia; Harrity, Charles; Martin, Richard D; Schuetz, Christopher A; Prather, Dennis W

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the development of new lithium niobate electro-optic modulator designs and material processing techniques have contributed to support the increasing need for faster optical networks by considerably extending the operational bandwidth of modulators. In an effort to provide higher bandwidths for future generations of networks, we have developed a lithium niobate electro-optic phase modulator based on a coplanar waveguide ridged structure that operates up to 300 GHz. By thinning the lithium niobate substrate down to less than 39 µm, we are able to eliminate substrate modes and observe optical sidebands over the full millimeter-wave spectrum.

  18. Denoising in the Domain of Spectrotemporal Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab Shamma

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A noise suppression algorithm is proposed based on filtering the spectrotemporal modulations of noisy signals. The modulations are estimated from a multiscale representation of the signal spectrogram generated by a model of sound processing in the auditory system. A significant advantage of this method is its ability to suppress noise that has distinctive modulation patterns, despite being spectrally overlapping with the signal. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using subjective and objective tests with contaminated speech signals and compared to traditional Wiener filtering method. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the spectrotemporal filtering approach in the conditions examined.

  19. Denoising in the Domain of Spectrotemporal Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesgarani Nima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A noise suppression algorithm is proposed based on filtering the spectrotemporal modulations of noisy signals. The modulations are estimated from a multiscale representation of the signal spectrogram generated by a model of sound processing in the auditory system. A significant advantage of this method is its ability to suppress noise that has distinctive modulation patterns, despite being spectrally overlapping with the signal. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using subjective and objective tests with contaminated speech signals and compared to traditional Wiener filtering method. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the spectrotemporal filtering approach in the conditions examined.

  20. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... to previous studies, talkers raised the level of their voice in steady-state noise. While talkers also increased the level of their voice in amplitude-modulated noise, the increase was not as large as that observed in steady-state noise. Importantly, for the 2 and 4 Hz amplitude-modulated noise conditions...

  1. Microscale autonomous sensor and communications module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-03-25

    Various technologies pertaining to a microscale autonomous sensor and communications module are described herein. Such a module includes a sensor that generates a sensor signal that is indicative of an environmental parameter. An integrated circuit receives the sensor signal and generates an output signal based at least in part upon the sensor signal. An optical emitter receives the output signal and generates an optical signal as a function of the output signal. An energy storage device is configured to provide power to at least the integrated circuit and the optical emitter, and wherein the module has a relatively small diameter and thickness.

  2. Integrating Software Modules For Robot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Richard A.; Khosla, Pradeep; Stewart, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Reconfigurable, sensor-based control system uses state variables in systematic integration of reusable control modules. Designed for open-architecture hardware including many general-purpose microprocessors, each having own local memory plus access to global shared memory. Implemented in software as extension of Chimera II real-time operating system. Provides transparent computing mechanism for intertask communication between control modules and generic process-module architecture for multiprocessor realtime computation. Used to control robot arm. Proves useful in variety of other control and robotic applications.

  3. The structure and stability of persistence modules

    CERN Document Server

    Chazal, Frédéric; Glisse, Marc; Oudot, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of the theory of persistence modules over the real line. It presents a set of mathematical tools to analyse the structure and to establish the stability of such modules, providing a sound mathematical framework for the study of persistence diagrams. Completely self-contained, this brief introduces the notion of persistence measure and makes extensive use of a new calculus of quiver representations to facilitate explicit computations. Appealing to both beginners and experts in the subject, The Structure and Stability of Persistence Modules provides a purely algebraic presentation of persistence, and thus complements the existing literature, which focuses mainly on topological and algorithmic aspects.

  4. Module theoretic zero structures for system matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Bostwick F.; Sain, Michael K.

    1987-01-01

    The coordinate-free module-theoretic treatment of transmission zeros for MIMO transfer functions developed by Wyman and Sain (1981) is generalized to include noncontrollable and nonobservable linear dynamical systems. Rational, finitely-generated-modular, and torsion-divisible interpretations of the Rosenbrock system matrix are presented; Gamma-zero and Omega-zero modules are defined and shown to contain the output-decoupling and input-decoupling zero modules, respectively, as submodules; and the cases of left and right invertible transfer functions are considered.

  5. Computerized CAMAC and NIM module library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory owns a large number of CAMAC and NIM modules which can be connected together to form data acquisition systems used in experiments. Many of these modules are contained in ''pools'' for common usage. This paper describes a system of storage and inventory control that allows easy check-out and check-in of the modules utilizing networked Macintosh computers, FoxBase+/Mac software, and bar-code technology. It also provides search capability for the user and tracking capability for the pool administrator. This inventory system has applications to any pool of items that are routinely loaned. 8 figs

  6. Using module analysis for multiple choice responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewe, Eric; Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    We describe a methodology for carrying out a network analysis of Force Concept Inventory (FCI) responses that aims to identify communities of incorrect responses. This method first treats FCI responses as a bipartite, student X response, network. We then use Locally Adaptive Network Sparsification......\\citep{Foti2011} and InfoMap\\citep{rosvall2009map} community detection algorithms to find modules of incorrect responses. This method is then used to analyze post-FCI data from one cohort of Danish university students. From this analysis, we find nine modules which we then interpret. The first three modules...

  7. Trainer module for security control center operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An operator trainer module has been developed to be used with the security control center equipment to be installed as part of a safeguards physical protection system. The module is designed to provide improved training and testing capabilities for control center operators through the use of simulations for perimeter equipment operations. Operators, through the trainer module, can be challenged with a variety of realistic situations which require responsive action identical to that needed in an actual system. This permits a consistent evaluation and confirmation of operator capabilities prior to assignment as an operator and allows for periodic retesting to verify that adequate performance levels are maintained

  8. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  9. The Research on Telemetry Modulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guo-Hui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To develop the effective aerospace telemetry communication system, for aerospace telemetry communication requirements high-speed, high bandwidth, high efficiency and low interference, puts forward the C-WQPSK(C-W Quadrate Phase- Shift Keying)modulation method. This method based on direct carrier QPSK, didn’t consider baseband pulse signal, and redesigned the modulating waveform, its phase angle jump and jump to change duration time all can be changed. Also it gives the C-WQPSK performance and theory analysis, and with QPSK, FQPSK the performance comparison, Through the MATLAB simulation experiment, verify this modulation method is correctness and effectiveness.

  10. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioural inhibiton, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioural inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioural inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/Nogo and Stop Signal Tasks. Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on the performance of such tasks in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and ADHD. However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory paradigms are rare and consequently, little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and self-control. Here, we probed the effect of reward and reward magnitude on behavioural inhibition using two modified version of the widely used Stop Signal Task. The first task compared no reward with reward, whilst the other compared two different reward magnitudes. The reward magnitude effect was confirmed by the second study, whereas it was less compelling in the first study, possibly due to the effect of having no reward in some conditions. In addition, our results showed a kick start effect over global performance measures. More specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task, when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate that individuals’ behavioural inhibition capacities are dynamic not static because they are modulated by the reward magnitude and initial reward history of the task at hand.

  11. Behavior of countably generated pure-projective modules

    OpenAIRE

    Azumaya, Goro

    1992-01-01

    We first prove that every countably presented module is a pure epimorphic image of a countably generated pure-projective module, and by using this we show that if every countably generated pure-projective module is pure-injective then every module is pure-injective, while if in any countably generated pure-projective module every countably generated pure-projective pure submodule is a direct summand then every module is pure-projective.

  12. Identification of unstable network modules reveals disease modules associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common cause of dementia, is associated with aging, and it leads to neuron death. Deposits of amyloid β and aberrantly phosphorylated tau protein are known as pathological hallmarks of AD, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been revealed. A high-throughput gene expression analysis previously showed that differentially expressed genes accompanying the progression of AD were more down-regulated than up-regulated in the later stages of AD. This suggested that the molecular networks and their constituent modules collapsed along with AD progression. In this study, by using gene expression profiles and protein interaction networks (PINs, we identified the PINs expressed in three brain regions: the entorhinal cortex (EC, hippocampus (HIP and superior frontal gyrus (SFG. Dividing the expressed PINs into modules, we examined the stability of the modules with AD progression and with normal aging. We found that in the AD modules, the constituent proteins, interactions and cellular functions were not maintained between consecutive stages through all brain regions. Interestingly, the modules were collapsed with AD progression, specifically in the EC region. By identifying the modules that were affected by AD pathology, we found the transcriptional regulation-associated modules that interact with the proteasome-associated module via UCHL5 hub protein, which is a deubiquitinating enzyme. Considering PINs as a system made of network modules, we found that the modules relevant to the transcriptional regulation are disrupted in the EC region, which affects the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  13. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2012-08-07

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  14. PV Module Reliability Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its PV module reliability research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed and recent publications are listed.

  15. Modeling of Carrier Dynamics in Electroabsorption Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune

    2002-01-01

    and a phenomenological model for the carrier sweep-out dynamics, we investigate all-optical wavelength conversion, all-optical signal regeneration, and all-optical demultiplexing. A detailed drift-diffusion type model for the sweerp-out of photo-excited carriers in electroabsorption modulators is presented. We use...... the model to calclulate absorption spectra and steady-state carrier distributions in different modulator structures. This allows us to investigate a number of important properties of electroabsorption modulators, such as the electroabsorption effect and th saturation properties. We also investigate...... the influence that carrier recapture has on the device properties, and we discuss the recapture process on a more fundamental level. The model is also used to investigate in detail the carrier sweep-out process in electroabsorption modulators. We investigate how the intrinsic-region width, the separate...

  16. Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Keiser, George R.; Cao, Lingyue;

    2014-01-01

    response of resonant metamaterials continues to be a challengingendeavor. Resonant perfect absorbers have flourished as one of the mostpromising metamaterial devices with applications ranging from power har-vesting to terahertz imaging. Here, an optically modulated resonant perfectabsorber is presented...

  17. Histaminergic Mechanisms for Modulation of Memory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Köhler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Encoding for several memory types requires neural changes and the activity of distinct regions across the brain. These areas receive broad projections originating in nuclei located in the brainstem which are capable of modulating the activity of a particular area. The histaminergic system is one of the major modulatory systems, and it regulates basic homeostatic and higher functions including arousal, circadian, and feeding rhythms, and cognition. There is now evidence that histamine can modulate learning in different types of behavioral tasks, but the exact course of modulation and its mechanisms are controversial. In the present paper we review the involvement of the histaminergic system and the effects histaminergic receptor agonists/antagonists have on the performance of tasks associated with the main memory types as well as evidence provided by studies with knockout models. Thus, we aim to summarize the possible effects histamine has on modulation of circuits involved in memory formation.

  18. Seeding Coherent Radiation Sources with Sawtooth Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Seed radiation sources have the ability to increase longitudinal coherence, decrease saturation lengths, and improve performance of tapering, polarization control and other FEL features. Typically, seeding schemes start with a simple sinusoidal modulation, which is manipulated to provide bunching at a high harmonic of the original wavelength. In this paper, we consider seeding from sawtooth modulations. The sawtooth creates a clean phase space structure, providing a maximal bunching factor without the need for an FEL interaction. While a pure sawtooth modulation is a theoretical construct, it is possible to approach the waveform by combining two or more of the composite wavelengths. We give examples of sawtooth seeding for HGHG, EEHG and other schemes, and note that the sawtooth modulation may aid in suppression of the microbunching instability.

  19. Acquisition system for the CLIC Module

    CERN Document Server

    Vilalte, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    The status of R&D activities for CLIC module acquisition are discussed [1]. LAPP is involved in the design of the local CLIC module acquisition crate, described in the document Study of the CLIC Module Front-End Acquisition and Evaluation Electronics [2]. This acquisition system is a project based on a local crate, assigned to the CLIC module, including several mother boards. These motherboards are foreseen to hold mezzanines dedicated to the different subsystems. This system has to work in radiation environment. LAPP is involved in the development of Drive Beam stripline position monitors read-out, described in the document Drive Beam Stripline BPM Electronics and Acquisition [3]. LAPP also develops a generic acquisition mezzanine that allows to perform all-around acquisition and components tests for drive beam stripline BPM read-out.

  20. Thermal Module Tests with Irradiated 070 Detectors.

    CERN Document Server

    HOWCROFT, C L F

    1998-01-01

    Four n-in-n detectors were irradiated at KEK to a fluence of 3*1014 protons cm-2. These were used to construct a thermal barrel module to 070 drawings with an A3-90 baseboard at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Thermal testes were conducted on the module, examining the runaway point and the temperatures across the silicon. The results obtained were used to calculate the runaway point under ATLAS conditions. It was concluded that this module meets the specifications in the Technical Design Report, of 160 mW mm-2@ 0°C for runaway and less than 5°C across the silicon. The module was also compared to a Finite Element Analysis, and showed a good agreement.

  1. WRAP Module 1 sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the methodology to sample, screen, and analyze waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility. This includes Low-Level Waste, Transuranic Waste, Mixed Waste, and Dangerous Waste

  2. Time Synchronization Module for Automatic Identification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choi Il-heung; Oh Sang-heon; Choi Dae-soo; Park Chan-sik; Hwang Dong-hwan; Lee Sang-jeong

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposed a design and implementation procedure of the Time Synchronization Module (TSM) for the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The proposed TSM module uses a Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) as a local reference clock, and consists of a Digitally Controlled Oscillator (DCO), a divider, a phase discriminator, and register blocks. The TSM measures time difference between the 1 PPS from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver and the generated transmitter clock. The measured time difference is compensated by controlling the DCO and the transmit clock is synchronized to the Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). The designed TSM can also be synchronized to the reference time derived from the received message. The proposed module is tested using the experimental AIS transponder set. The experimental results show that the proposed module satisfies the functional and timing specification of the AIS technical standard, ITU-R M.1371.

  3. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  4. Performance of Skutterudite-Based Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, G.; Suzuki, S.; Tomida, T.; Sumiyoshi, A.; Ochi, T.; Mukaiyama, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Guo, J. Q.; Yamamoto, A.; Obara, H.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their excellent thermoelectric (TE) performance, skutterudite materials have been selected by many laboratories and companies for development of TE modules to recover power from waste heat at high temperatures (300°C to 600°C). After years of effort, we have developed reliable n- and p-type skutterudite materials showing maximum figure of merit (ZT) of 1.0 at 550°C and 0.75 at 450°C, respectively. In this work, we systematically investigated the performance of a module made using these two kinds of skutterudite. We demonstrate ˜7.2% conversion efficiency for temperature of 600°C at the hot side of the module and 50°C at the cold side, and show that the module had excellent stability in the high-temperature environment. Further improving the TE performance of our skutterudites, the conversion efficiency reached ˜8.5% under the same condition.

  5. Self oscillating PWM modulators, a topological comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    High precision control of the output voltage or current of a switch mode converter with fast response is required for a number of applications. Dependent on the type of application, the desired precision and transient response can be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with standard PWM...... control caused by limitations in dynamic capabilities which often limits fast tracking of a reference signal, or fast settling during load steps due to too small achievable control loop bandwidth. Achievable open loop bandwidth for standard voltage and current mode PWM modulators is typical in the fs/10...... to fs which makes this type of modulators an excellent choice for a wide range of applications. Self oscillating PWM modulators can be made in a number of ways, either as voltage or current mode modulators, and the self oscillating behavior can be achieved either by using hysteresis control...

  6. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  7. Solar powered hybrid sensor module program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Geo-orbital systems of the near future will require more sophisticated electronic and electromechanical monitoring and control systems than current satellite systems with an emphasis in the design on the electronic density and autonomy of the subsystem components. Results of a project to develop, design, and implement a proof-of-concept sensor system for space applications, with hybrids forming the active subsystem components are described. The design of the solar power hybrid sensor modules is discussed. Module construction and function are described. These modules combined low power CMOS electronics, GaAs solar cells, a crystal oscillatory standard UART data formatting, and a bidirectional optical data link into a single 1.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch hybrid package which has no need for electrical input or output. Several modules were built and tested. Applications of such a system for future space missions are also discussed.

  8. Radiation Hardened Turbo Coded OFDM Modulator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro Inc. proposes to develop an innovative Turbo-Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (TC-OFDM) ASIC device. The proposed device provides data...

  9. Rings Whose Modules Have Grade Zero

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Xiang WU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that R is a two-sided Artinian ring and J is a right annihilator ideal if and only if (i) for any nonzero right module, there is a nonzero linear map from it to a projective module; (ii) every submodule of RR is not a radical module for some right coherent rings. We call a ring a right X ring if HomR(M, R) = 0 for any right module M implies that M = 0. We can prove some left Goldie and right X rings are right Artinian rings. Moreover we characterize semisimple rings by using X rings. A famous Faith's conjecture is whether a semipimary PF ring is a QF ring. Similarly we study the relationship between X rings and QF and get many interesting results.

  10. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van, E-mail: ernest.vandyk@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Booysen, P. [Setsolar, P. O. Box 15934, Panorama 7506 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  11. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky, John V.

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  12. Peripheral modulation of smell: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Mary T

    2013-01-01

    Despite studies dating back 30 or more years showing modulation of odorant responses at the level of the olfactory epithelium, most descriptions of the olfactory system infer that odorant signals make their way from detection by cilia on olfactory sensory neurons to the olfactory bulb unaltered. Recent identification of multiple subtypes of microvillar cells and identification of neuropeptide and neurotransmitter expression in the olfactory mucosa add to the growing body of literature for peripheral modulation in the sense of smell. Complex mechanisms including perireceptor events, modulation of sniff rates, and changes in the properties of sensory neurons match the sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to the external odorant environment, internal nutritional status, reproductive status, and levels of arousal or stress. By furthering our understanding of the players mediating peripheral olfaction, we may open the door to novel approaches for modulating the sense of smell in both health and disease.

  13. The Moonshine Module for Conway's Group

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, John F R

    2014-01-01

    We exhibit an action of Conway's group---the automorphism group of the Leech lattice---on a distinguished super vertex operator algebra, and we prove that the associated graded trace functions are normalized principal moduli, all having vanishing constant terms in their Fourier expansion. Thus we construct the natural analogue of the Frenkel--Lepowsky--Meurman moonshine module for Conway's group. The super vertex operator algebra we consider admits a natural characterization, in direct analogy with that conjectured to hold for the moonshine module vertex operator algebra. It also admits a unique canonically-twisted module, and the action of the Conway group naturally extends. We prove a special case of generalized moonshine for the Conway group, by showing that the graded trace functions arising from its action on the canonically-twisted module are constant in the case of Leech lattice automorphisms with fixed points, and are principal moduli for genus zero groups otherwise.

  14. Bubble memory module for spacecraft application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. J.; Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Bubble domain technology offers an all-solid-state alternative for data storage in onboard data systems. A versatile modular bubble memory concept was developed. The key module is the bubble memory module which contains all of the storage devices and circuitry for accessing these devices. This report documents the bubble memory module design and preliminary hardware designs aimed at memory module functional demonstration with available commercial bubble devices. The system architecture provides simultaneous operation of bubble devices to attain high data rates. Banks of bubble devices are accessed by a given bubble controller to minimize controller parts. A power strobing technique is discussed which could minimize the average system power dissipation. A fast initialization method using EEPROM (electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory) devices promotes fast access. Noise and crosstalk problems and implementations to minimize these are discussed. Flight memory systems which incorporate the concepts and techniques of this work could now be developed for applications.

  15. Noise and detection in ''optical'' modulation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measuring techniques suitable for ''optical'' modulation spectroscopy are analyzed and source of noise identified. The choice of optical detector is for photoelectrical devices. It is shown that the shot noise of phototubes is the most important noise source

  16. Module of System Galactica with Coulomb's Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Smulsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The system Galactica of free access is supplemented module for the Coulomb interaction. It is based on a high-precision method for solving differential equations of motion of N charged particles. The paper presents all the theoretical and practical issues required to use this module of system Galactica so that even the beginning researcher could study the motion of particles, atoms and molecules.

  17. On Artinian Generalized Local Cohomology Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammet Tamer Koşan

    2009-09-01

    Let be a commutative Noetherian ring with non-zero identity and $\\mathfrak{a}$ be a maximal ideal of . An -module is called minimax if there is a finitely generated submodule of such that / is Artinian. Over a Gorenstein local ring of finite Krull dimension, we proved that the Socle of $H^n_a(R)$ is a minimax -module for each ≥ 0.

  18. The optical module of Baikal-GVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrorin A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baikal-GVD neutrino telescope in Lake Baikal is intended for studying astrophysical neutrino fluxes by recording the Cherenkov radiation of the secondary muons and showers generated in neutrino interactions. The first stage of Baikal-GVD will be equipped with about 2300 optical modules. We describe the design of the optical module, the front-end electronics and the laboratory characterization and calibration before deployment.

  19. One module of the ALICE photon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first module for the ALICE photon spectrometer has been completed. Each of the five modules will contain 3584 lead-tungstate crystals, a material as transparent as ordinary silica glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, allowing the energy of electrons, positrons and photons to be measured through the 17 920 detection channels.

  20. Passive heave compensation of heavy modules

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Sten Magne Eng

    2008-01-01

    New subsea technology has increased size and weight of installed modules significantly. This thesis looks at heavy module installation from barge, through moonpool with use of passive heave compensation. An installation barge is designed with moonpool used as working platform for installation. Motion responses for barge are analyzed with use of marine engineering software MOSES. Responses found shows a significantly impact from moonpool, and it doubtingly if software is capa...

  1. Direct Summands of ⊕-Supplemented Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nil Orhan; Derya Keskin Tütüncü; Rachid Tribak

    2007-01-01

    A module M is called ⊕-supplemented if every submodule of M has a supplement that is a direct summand of M. It is shown that if M is a ⊕-supplemented module and r(M) is a coclosed submodule of M for a left preradical r, then r(M) is a direct summand of M, and both r(M) and M/r(M) are ⊕-supplemented.

  2. Intelligent Communication Module for Wireless Biosensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, R.; Singh, J.; Le, H. P.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presented a new paradigm of biosensors which have processing capability with an intelligent and adaptive wireless communication module. The adaptive communication module efficiently reconfigures its hardware components according to the changes in operating environment in order to reduce system power consumption and optimally utilise resources. The chapter presented several significant applications of wireless biosensor networks which hold enormous potential to benefit the communi...

  3. Abelian crossed modules and strict Picard categories

    OpenAIRE

    Quang, Nguyen Tien; Phung, Che Thi Kim; Tung, Ngo Sy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we state the notion of morphisms in the category of abelian crossed modules and prove that this category is equivalent to the category of strict Picard categories and regular symmetric monoidal functors. The theory of obstructions for symmetric monoidal functors and symmetric cohomology groups are applied to show a treatment of the group extension problem of the type of an abelian crossed module.

  4. The Research on Telemetry Modulation System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Guo-Hui; Dai Ji-Yang; Chu Bao-Jun

    2013-01-01

    To develop the effective aerospace telemetry communication system, for aerospace telemetry communication requirements high-speed, high bandwidth, high efficiency and low interference, puts forward the C-WQPSK(C-W Quadrate Phase- Shift Keying)modulation method. This method based on direct carrier QPSK, didn’t consider baseband pulse signal, and redesigned the modulating waveform, its phase angle jump and jump to change duration time all can be changed. Also it gives the C-WQPSK performance and...

  5. On indecomposable modules over the Virasoro algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    sU; Yucai(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Chari, V. , Pressley, A., Unitary representations of the Virasoro algebra and a conjecture of Kac, Compositio Math, 1988,67: 315-342.[2]Feign, B. L. , Fuchs, D. B., Verma modules over the Virasoro algebra, Lecture Notes in Math, 1984, 1060: 230-245.[3]Kac, V. G., Some problems on infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and their representations, Lie algebras and related topics,Lecture Notes in Math., 1982, 933: 117-126.[4]Kac, V. G., Infinite Dimensional Lie Algebras, 2nd ed., Boston, Cambridge: Birkhauser, 1985.[5]Kaplansky, I., Santharoubane, L. J., Harish-Chandra modules over the Virasoro algebra, Infinite-dimensional groups with application, Math. Sci. Res. Inst. Pub., 1985, 4: 217-231.[6]Langlands, R., On unitary representations of the Virasoro algebra, Infinite-Dimensional Lie Algebras and Their Application,Singapore: World Scientific, 1986, 141-159.[7]Martin. C. , Piard, A., Indecomposable modules over the Virasoro Lie algebra and a conjecture of V Kac, Comm. Math.Phys., 1991, 137: 109-132.[8]Mathieu, O. , Classification of Harish-Chandra modules over the Virasoro Lie algebra, Invent Math., 1992, 107: 225-234.[9]Su, Y., A classification of indecomposable sl2(2)-modules and a conjecture of Kac on irreducible modules over the Virasoro algebra, J. Alg., 1993, 161: 33-46.[10]Su, Y. , Classification of Harish-Chandra modules over the super-Virasoro algebras, Comm. Alg., 1995, 23: 3653-3675.[11]Su, Y. , Simple modules over the high rank Virasoro algebras, Comm. Alg., 2001, in press.

  6. Student Publishing: An Open, Global Learning Module

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Philip; Walz, Anita R.; Hover, Paul; Nardine, Jennifer; Pennington, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The University Libraries is contributing a learning module on student publishing to the international course “Open Knowledge”, organized by the Public Knowledge Project. The course, scheduled to begin in September 2014, will be taken for credit by students in Ghana, Mexico, Canada, and the U.S., and by anyone around the world with an internet connection as a non-credit MOOC. The learning module supports an increased focus on publishing student research at the undergraduate and graduate le...

  7. Temporary Suppression of Tinnitus by Modulated Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Reavis, Kelly M.; Rothholtz, Vanessa S.; Tang, Qing; Carroll, Jeff A.; Djalilian, Hamid; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Despite high prevalence of tinnitus and its impact on quality life, there is no cure for tinnitus at present. Here, we report an effective means to temporarily suppress tinnitus by amplitude- and frequency-modulated tones. We systematically explored the interaction between subjective tinnitus and 17 external sounds in 20 chronic tinnitus sufferers. The external sounds included traditionally used unmodulated stimuli such as pure tones and white noise and dynamically modulated stimuli known to ...

  8. Twisted Logarithmic Modules of Vertex Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by logarithmic conformal field theory and Gromov-Witten theory, we introduce a notion of a twisted module of a vertex algebra under an arbitrary (not necessarily semisimple) automorphism. Its main feature is that the twisted fields involve the logarithm of the formal variable. We develop the theory of such twisted modules and, in particular, derive a Borcherds identity and commutator formula for them. We investigate in detail the examples of affine and Heisenberg vertex algebras.

  9. Redundancy Determination of HVDC MMC Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An availability and a reliability prediction has been made for a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC module of VSC (Voltage Source Converter containing DC/DC converter, gate driver, capacitor and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT. This prediction was made using published failure rates for the electronic equipment. The purpose of this prediction is to determinate the additional module redundancy of VSC and the used method is “binomial failure method”.

  10. Zn(2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aartjan J W te Velthuis

    Full Text Available Increasing the intracellular Zn(2+ concentration with zinc-ionophores like pyrithione (PT can efficiently impair the replication of a variety of RNA viruses, including poliovirus and influenza virus. For some viruses this effect has been attributed to interference with viral polyprotein processing. In this study we demonstrate that the combination of Zn(2+ and PT at low concentrations (2 µM Zn(2+ and 2 µM PT inhibits the replication of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and equine arteritis virus (EAV in cell culture. The RNA synthesis of these two distantly related nidoviruses is catalyzed by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, which is the core enzyme of their multiprotein replication and transcription complex (RTC. Using an activity assay for RTCs isolated from cells infected with SARS-CoV or EAV--thus eliminating the need for PT to transport Zn(2+ across the plasma membrane--we show that Zn(2+ efficiently inhibits the RNA-synthesizing activity of the RTCs of both viruses. Enzymatic studies using recombinant RdRps (SARS-CoV nsp12 and EAV nsp9 purified from E. coli subsequently revealed that Zn(2+ directly inhibited the in vitro activity of both nidovirus polymerases. More specifically, Zn(2+ was found to block the initiation step of EAV RNA synthesis, whereas in the case of the SARS-CoV RdRp elongation was inhibited and template binding reduced. By chelating Zn(2+ with MgEDTA, the inhibitory effect of the divalent cation could be reversed, which provides a novel experimental tool for in vitro studies of the molecular details of nidovirus replication and transcription.

  11. Digital pyramid wavefront sensor with tunable modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akondi, Vyas; Castillo, Sara; Vohnsen, Brian

    2013-07-29

    The pyramid wavefront sensor is known for its high sensitivity and dynamic range that can be tuned by mechanically altering its modulation amplitude. Here, a novel modulating digital scheme employing a reflecting phase only spatial light modulator is demonstrated. The use of the modulator allows an easy reconfigurable pyramid with digital control of the apex angle and modulation geometry without the need of any mechanically moving parts. Aberrations introduced by a 140-actuator deformable mirror were simultaneously sensed with the help of a commercial Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. The wavefronts reconstructed using the digital pyramid wavefront sensor matched very closely with those sensed by the Hartmann-Shack. It is noted that a tunable modulation is necessary to operate the wavefront sensor in the linear regime and to accurately sense aberrations. Through simulations, it is shown that the wavefront sensor can be extended to astronomical applications as well. This novel digital pyramid wavefront sensor has the potential to become an attractive option in both open and closed loop adaptive optics systems. PMID:23938697

  12. Novel Modulation Method for Multidirectional Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Toosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC, based on the direct duty ratio pulse width modulation (DDPWM. In this study, a new structure of MDMC has been proposed to control the power flow direction through the stand-alone battery based system and hybrid vehicle. The modulation method acts based on the average voltage over one switching period concept. Therefore, in order to determine the duty ratio for each switch, the instantaneous input voltages are captured and compared with triangular waveform continuously. By selecting the proper switching pattern and changing the slope of the carriers, the sinusoidal input current can be synthesized with high power factor and desired output voltage. The proposed system increases the discharging time of the battery by injecting the power to the system from the generator and battery at the same time. Thus, it makes the battery life longer and saves more energy. This paper also derived necessary equation for proposed modulation method as well as detail of analysis and modulation algorithm. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in MATLAB simulation.

  13. Coherent population trapping with polarization modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Peter; Guérandel, Stéphane; de Clercq, Emeric

    2016-06-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) is extensively studied for future vapor cell clocks of high frequency stability. In the constructive polarization modulation CPT scheme, a bichromatic laser field with polarization and phase synchronously modulated is applied on an atomic medium. A high contrast CPT signal is observed in this so-called double-modulation configuration, due to the fact that the atomic population does not leak to the extreme Zeeman states, and that the two CPT dark states, which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations, add constructively. Here, we experimentally investigate CPT signal dynamics first in the usual configuration, a single circular polarization. The double-modulation scheme is then addressed in both cases: one pulse Rabi interaction and two pulses Ramsey interaction. The impact and the optimization of the experimental parameters involved in the time sequence are reviewed. We show that a simple seven-level model explains the experimental observations. The double-modulation scheme yields a high contrast similar to the one of other high contrast configurations like push-pull optical pumping or crossed linear polarization scheme, with a setup allowing a higher compactness. The constructive polarization modulation is attractive for atomic clock, atomic magnetometer, and high precision spectroscopy applications.

  14. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  15. First modules of ATLAS's great accordion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The first CERN-built module of the barrel section of ATLAS's electromagnetic calorimeter has just been completed. This is the second in a series of 32 modules that will make up the final detector. These accordion-shaped structures will give precise measurements of the energy of particles produced in the LHC. The first CERN-built module of the barrel section of ATLAS's electromagnetic calorimeter nearing completion. Behind the module, from left to right: Ralf Huber, Andreas Bies and Jorgen Beck Hansen. In front of the module, from left to right: Philippe Lançon and Edward Wood. The builders of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are masters in the art of folding! To find out why, just take a look inside Hall 184, where the first CERN-built module of ATLAS's electromagnetic calorimeter has just been completed. It is the second in a long series, the first having been completed at the Saclay Laboratory of France's Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique just a few weeks ago. Thirty more remain...

  16. Novel modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Saman; Misron, Norhisam; Hanamoto, Tsuyoshi; Bin Aris, Ishak; Radzi, Mohd Amran Mohd; Yamada, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC), based on the direct duty ratio pulse width modulation (DDPWM). In this study, a new structure of MDMC has been proposed to control the power flow direction through the stand-alone battery based system and hybrid vehicle. The modulation method acts based on the average voltage over one switching period concept. Therefore, in order to determine the duty ratio for each switch, the instantaneous input voltages are captured and compared with triangular waveform continuously. By selecting the proper switching pattern and changing the slope of the carriers, the sinusoidal input current can be synthesized with high power factor and desired output voltage. The proposed system increases the discharging time of the battery by injecting the power to the system from the generator and battery at the same time. Thus, it makes the battery life longer and saves more energy. This paper also derived necessary equation for proposed modulation method as well as detail of analysis and modulation algorithm. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in MATLAB simulation. PMID:25298969

  17. Novel system for modulated lidar parameter optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhou; Yong Ma; Kun Liang; Zhiqiang Tu; Hongyuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel system for parameter design and optimization of modulated lidar. The system is realized by combining software simulation with hardware circuit. This method is more reliable and flexible for lidar parameter optimization compared with theoretical computation or fiber-simulated system. Experiments confirm that the system is capable of optimizing parameters for modulated lidar. Key parameters are analyzed as well. The optimal filter bandwidth is 200 MHz and the optimal modulation depth is 0.5 under typical application environment.%@@ We present a novel system for parameter design and optimization of modulated lidar.The system is realized by combining software simulation with hardware circuit.This method is more reliable and flexible for lidar parameter optimization compared with theoretical computation or fiber-simulated system.Experiments confirm that the system is capable of optimizing parameters for modulated lidar.Key parameters are analyzed as well.The optimal filter bandwidth is 200 MHz and the optimal modulation depth is 0.5 under typical application environment.

  18. Cellular response to modulated radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridge Mackonis, E.; Suchowerska, N.; Zhang, M.; Ebert, M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Jackson, M.

    2007-09-01

    Cell survival following exposure to spatially modulated beams, as created by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), is investigated. In vitro experiments were performed using malignant melanoma cells (MM576) exposed to a therapeutic megavoltage photon beam. We compared cell survival in modulated fields with cell survival in uniform control fields. Three different spatial modulations of the field were used: a control 'uniform' field in which all cells in a flask were uniformly exposed; a 'quarter' field in which 25% of cells at one end of the flask were exposed and a 'striped' field in which 25% of cells were exposed in three parallel stripes. The cell survival in both the shielded and unshielded regions of the modulated fields, as determined by a clonogenic assay, were compared to the cell survival in the uniform field. We have distinguished three ways in which cell survival is influenced by the fate of neighbouring cells. The first of these (type I effect) is the previously reported classical Bystander effect, where cell survival is reduced when communicating with irradiated cells. We find two new types of Bystander effect. The type II effect is an observed increase in cell survival when nearby cells receive a lethal dose. The type III effect is an increase in the survival of cells receiving a high dose of radiation, when nearby cells receive a low dose. These observations of the Bystander effects emphasize the need for improved radiobiological models, which include communicated effects and account for the effects of modulated dose distribution.

  19. A Novel Reconfigurable OFDM Based Digital Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunachalam V

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital modulation is the first step in the digital communication system (DCS. The choice of modulation scheme among BPSK, QPSK, 8-QAM and 16-QAM are made based on the performance criterion such as bit-error-rate (BER and bandwidth (BW utilization. Hence the operating range of the DCS is improved by incorporating all the four modulation schemes in architecture. In this paper, a reconfigurable digital modulator is proposed for OFDM based DCS with more hardware efficiency (data rate per number of gates used in the architecture by concurrent operation of different modulation schemes. Complex reconfiguration control logic is developed to maintain less idle period between the modes which is observed as maximum of 4 clock periods. The proposed reconfigurable modulator is implemented on Cyclone-II family of EP2C20F484C7 FPGA chip, which utilizes 34 logic elements (less than 1% , consumes 78.73 mW of power at 200MHz clock frequency.

  20. Processing and Characterization of Device Solder Interconnection and Module Attachment for Power Electronics Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Ashim Shatil

    1999-01-01

    Processing and Characterization of Device Solder Interconnection and Module Attachment for Power Electronics Modules by Shatil Haque Committee Chairman: Dr. Guo-Quan Lu Materials Engineering and Science Department (ABSTRACT) This research is focused on the processing of an innovative three-dimensional packaging architecture for power electronics building blocks with soldered device interconnections and subsequent characterization of the module's critical interfaces. A low-co...

  1. Development of modulated electron beam for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on a photocathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy of cancer is developing to un-uniform irradiation, for concentrating dose to a cancer tumor and reducing dose to normal tissue. As a step toward the Intensity modulated radiation therapy, we examined dynamic optical modulation of electron beam produced by a photocathode electron gun. Images on photo-masks were transferred onto a photocathode by relay imaging. Electron beam could be controlled by a remote mirror. Modulated electron beam maintained its shape on acceleration, had a fine spatial resolution, and could be moved dynamically by optical methods. As a second step, optical modulation of electron beam and dynamic control succeeded by a digital micro mirror device (DMD). (author)

  2. Selective estrogen modulators in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacciani, M

    2013-12-01

    Hypoestrogenism is the primary etiologic factor for osteoporosis and related fractures, as well as for a number of clinical symptoms that can reduce the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Alternative to classical hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are needed for women that cannot or don't want to be treated with hormones. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are compounds that lack the steroid structure of estrogens, but interact with estrogen receptors (ERs) as agonists or antagonists depending on the target tissue. Tamoxifen, the first generation of SERMs, has been used for decades in the primary prevention and treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen exerts positive estrogenic effect on bone protecting bone mineral density (BMD). However, tamoxifen acts as agonist also on the endometrium, leading to an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. In addition, tamoxifen administration is associated with significantly increased risks of stroke, venous thromboembolism, including both deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli. Thus, these actions, in addition to the increased risk of and hot flushes, prevent the use of tamoxifen for the prevention of osteoporosis. Further generations of SERM, Raloxifene and bazedoxifene were developed for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and are now licensed for this indication. In addition. Raloxifene is as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer. On the other hand, the available data indicate that Bazedoxifene exerts a greater anti-fracture activity than Raloxifene. At variance of tamoxifen, both raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. However, they are associated with a significant increase the risks of venous thromboembolic events. Although raloxifene and Bazedoxifene prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis, they have not been associated with reductions in climacteric symptoms, particularly hot flushes. In order

  3. Development of a commercial photovoltaic concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifee, S.T.; Hutchison, G. [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The ojective of this work was to develop the design and prototype of a commercial high-concentration photovoltaic (PV) module. The design is for a 282-sun point-focus concentrating module. Most of the components, subassemblies, and design features incorporate simplifications and ease of manufacturing. The Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) module is designed to incorporate high-efficiency, single-crystal silicon PV cells. The housing is made with aluminum laminated for voltage stand-off and simultaneously providing high thermal conductivity. The Fresnel lens injection molded by American Optical (AO) as singles. The cell assembly consists of a copper heat spreader, a photovoltaic cell soldered, a top and bottom contact, and a reflective secondary optical element (SOE). The cell assemblies passed all of the initial electrical characterization and high-potential tests. Under environmental cycling, the only bond that failed was the PV cell-to-heat spreader interface. The other components (top contact, bottom contact, SOE) passed all the environmental cycling tests. The cell assemblies were designed to be mounted onto the receiver section with a thermally conductive RTV. This geometry was subjected to environmental testing. There was no delamination of this bond nor was there electrical breakdown when the assemblies were subjected to the hi-pot test. A mock module was fabricated for environmental evaluation. This module was subjected to the humidity/freeze cycling to assess the performance of the lens mounting design. This module was also subjected to the rain test after the humidity/freeze cycling and checked for water leaks. The lens showed small displacement from its original position after the environmental cycling. One tablespoon of water did collect inside the module.

  4. Use of Electronic Technologies to Manage Seed Cotton Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most U.S. farmers and ginners still use paper tags to identify cotton modules along with a large number painted on the side of traditional modules. The gin typically assigns tags for the modules. When the gin gets the module, the paper tag is removed and the information is manually entered into a s...

  5. δ-Lifting and δ-Supplemented Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammet Tamer Kosan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, δ-lifting and δ-supplemented modules are defined as generalizations of lifting and supplemented modules. Several properties of these modules are proved.New characterizations of δ-semiperect and b-perfect rings studied in [9] are obtained using δ-lifting and δ-supplemented modules.

  6. Intracavity CdTe modulators for CO2 lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J. E.; Nussmeier, T. A.; Goodwin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    The use of cadmium telluride as an electrooptic material for intracavity modulation of CO2 lasers is described. Included are the predicted and measured effects of CdTe intracavity modulators on laser performance. Coupling and frequency modulation are discussed and experimental results compared with theoretically predicted performance for both techniques. Limitations on the frequency response of the two types of modulation are determined.

  7. The Picard crossed module of a braided tensor category

    OpenAIRE

    Davydov, Alexei; Nikshych, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    For a finite braided tensor category we introduce its Picard crossed module consisting of the group of invertible module categories and the group of braided tensor autoequivalences. We describe the Picard crossed module in terms of braided autoequivalences of the Drinfeld center of the braided tensor category. As an illustration, we compute the Picard crossed module of a braided pointed fusion category.

  8. MULTICARRIER DS-CDMA WITH ADAPTIVE MODULATION AND POWER ALLOCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yahong; Zhang Zhongpei; Wu Weiling

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive modulation and power allocation is introduced into the multicarrier DS-CDMA system to improve the system performance and bandwidth efficiency. First, the systemdesign appropriate for adaptive modulation and power allocation is given, then the algorithmof adaptive modulation and power allocation is applied. Simulation results demonstrate greatperformance improvement compared with the fixed modulated one.

  9. Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérolla, J M; Mazurenko, Y; Goedgebuer, J P; Porte, H; Rhodes, W T

    1999-01-15

    We describe a new method for quantum key distribution that utilizes phase modulation of sidebands of modulation by use of integrated electro-optic modulators at the transmitting and receiving modules. The system is shown to produce constructive or destructive interference with unity visibility, which should allow quantum cryptography to be carried out with high flexibility by use of conventional devices.

  10. The Properties of Rational Modules and Coideal Subalgebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良云

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we first prove that the dual module of a rational module is still, a rational module, and maximum rational modules keep their exact properties. Then, we give the Maschke theorem of the coideal subalgebra of quasi-Frobenius algebra, and give some equivalent conditions for the ideal subcoalgebra.

  11. High-speed coherent silicon modulator module using photonic integrated circuits: from circuit design to packaged module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, S.; Olivier, S.; Myko, A.; Fournier, M.; Blampey, B.; Abraham, A.; Menezo, S.; Hauden, J.; Mottet, A.; Frigui, K.; Ngoho, S.; Frigui, B.; Bila, S.; Marris-Morini, D.; Pérez-Galacho, D.; Brindel, P.; Charlet, G.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon photonics technology is an enabler for the integration of complex circuits on a single chip, for various optical link applications such as routing, optical networks on chip, short range links and long haul transmitters. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) transmitters is one of the typical circuits that can be achieved using silicon photonics integrated circuits. The achievement of 25GBd QPSK transmitter modules requires several building blocks to be optimized: the pn junction used to build a BPSK (Binary Shift Phase Keying) modulator, the RF access and the optical interconnect at the package level. In this paper, we describe the various design steps of a BPSK module and the related tests that are needed at every stage of the fabrication process.

  12. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  13. Harmonic, Intermodulation and Cross-Modulation Distortion in Directly Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J. F.; Yong, K. S. C.; Haldar, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    Using a simplified rate equation model, expressions for harmonic, intermodulation and cross-modulation distortion for a directly modulated quantum cascade laser can be derived. This paper shows how such derivations can be done and discusses some implications for quantum cascade lasers. It is important to understand such distortion, especially for applcations in communication systems.

  14. InGaAsP/InP DH Ridge Waveguide Phase Modulator with High Modulation Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Tae Byun; Hwa Sun Park; Sung Jin Kim; Deok Ha Woo; Jong Chang Yi; Yoshiaki Nakano

    2003-01-01

    The P-p-n-N InGaAsP/InP ridge waveguide phase modulator has been fabricated and investigated at a wavelength of 1550nm. The phase modulation efficiency measured by the Fabry-Perot resonance method is as high as 34°/V.mm for TE mode. The QEO effect becomes dominant from -4V to -8V.

  15. InGaAsP/InP DH Ridge Waveguide Phase Modulator with High Modulation Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young; Tae; Byun; Hwa; Sun; Park; Sung; Jin; Kim; Deok; Ha; Woo; Jong; Chang; Yi; Yoshiaki; Nakano

    2003-01-01

    The P-p-n-N InGaAsP/InP ridge waveguide phase modulator has been fabricated and investigated at a wavelength of 1550nm. The phase modulation efficiency measured by the Fabry-Perot resonance method is as high as 34°/V·mm for TE mode. The QEO effect becomes dominant from - 4V to - 8V.

  16. Implementation of re-configurable Digital front end module of MIMO-OFDM module using NCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena M.B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on FPGA implementation of Reconfigurable Digital Front end MIMO-OFDM module. The modeling of the MIMO-OFDM system was carried out in MATLAB followed by Verilog HDL implementation. Unlike the conventional OFDM based systems, the Numerically Controlled Oscillators (NCO is used for mapping modulated data onto the sub carriers. The use of NCO in the MIMO-OFDM system reduces the resource utilization of the design on FPGA along with reduced power consumption. The major modules that were designed, which constitute the digital front end module, are Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK modulator/demodulator, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM modulator/demodulator and NCOs. Each of the modules was tested for their functionality by developing corresponding test benches. In order to achieve real time reconfigurability of the proposed architecture, the proposed approach is realized on FPGAs optimizing area, power and speed. Reconfigurability of the proposed approach is dependent upon user requirement. Hence the proposed approach can support future generation communication technologies that are based on MIMO-OFDM.

  17. Subpicosecond-pulse generation through cross-phase-modulation-induced modulational instability in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Neto, A S; Faldon, M E; Sombra, A S; Wigley, P G; Taylor, J R

    1988-10-01

    We report subpicosecond-pulse generation at 1.319 microm in a single-mode optical fiber by modulational instability induced through cross-phase modulation by 1.06-microm pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime. Pulse-repetition rates approaching 300 GHz were achieved.

  18. Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Saroj; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-06-27

    The ever increasing demand for bandwidth in wireless communication systems will inevitably lead to the extension of operating frequencies toward the terahertz (THz) band known as the 'THz gap'. Towards closing this gap, we present a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using terahertz spatial light modulators (SLM) instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. The fundamental principle behind this higher efficiency is the conversion of a noisy voltage domain signal to a noise-free binary spatial pattern for effective amplitude modulation of a free-space THz carrier wave. Spatial modulation is achieved using an an active metamaterial array embedded with pseudomorphic high-electron mobility (pHEMT) designed in a consumer-grade galium-arsenide (GaAs) integrated circuit process which enables electronic control of its THz transmissivity. Each array is assembled as individually controllable tiles for transmissive terahertz spatial modulation. Using the experimental data from our metamaterial based modulator, we show that a four-level ASK digital communication system has two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using spatial light modulation compared to voltage controlled modulation. PMID:27410614

  19. Enriched MU-Calculi Module Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrante, Alessandro; Parente, Mimmo

    2008-01-01

    The model checking problem for open systems has been intensively studied in the literature, for both finite-state (module checking) and infinite-state (pushdown module checking) systems, with respect to Ctl and Ctl*. In this paper, we further investigate this problem with respect to the Mu-calculus enriched with nominals and graded modalities (hybrid graded Mu-calculus), in both the finite-state and infinite-state settings. Using an automata-theoretic approach, we show that hybrid graded Mu-calculus module checking is solvable in exponential time, while hybrid graded Mu-calculus pushdown module checking is solvable in double-exponential time. These results are also tight since they match the known lower bounds for Ctl. We also investigate the module checking problem with respect to the hybrid graded Mu-calculus enriched with inverse programs (Fully enriched Mu-calculus): by showing a reduction from the domino problem, we show its undecidability. We conclude with a short overview of the model checking problem ...

  20. Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Holst, Gerhard; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime of entire images. However, the complexity and high costs involved in construction of such a system limit the extensive use of this technique. PCO AG recently released the first luminescence lifetime imaging camera based on a high frequency modulated CMOS image sensor, QMFLIM2. Here we tested and provide operational procedures to calibrate the camera and to improve the accuracy using corrections necessary for image analysis. With its flexible input/output options, we are able to use a modulated laser diode or a 20 MHz pulsed white supercontinuum laser as the light source. The output of the camera consists of a stack of modulated images that can be analyzed by the SimFCS software using the phasor approach. The nonuniform system response across the image sensor must be calibrated at the pixel level. This pixel calibration is crucial and needed for every camera settings, e.g. modulation frequency and exposure time. A significant dependency of the modulation signal on the intensity was also observed and hence an additional calibration is needed for each pixel depending on the pixel intensity level. These corrections are important not only for the fundamental frequency, but also for the higher harmonics when using the pulsed supercontinuum laser. With these post data acquisition corrections, the PCO CMOS-FLIM camera can be used for various biomedical applications requiring a large frame and high speed acquisition. PMID:26500051

  1. Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Holst, Gerhard; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime of entire images. However, the complexity and high costs involved in construction of such a system limit the extensive use of this technique. PCO AG recently released the first luminescence lifetime imaging camera based on a high frequency modulated CMOS image sensor, QMFLIM2. Here we tested and provide operational procedures to calibrate the camera and to improve the accuracy using corrections necessary for image analysis. With its flexible input/output options, we are able to use a modulated laser diode or a 20 MHz pulsed white supercontinuum laser as the light source. The output of the camera consists of a stack of modulated images that can be analyzed by the SimFCS software using the phasor approach. The nonuniform system response across the image sensor must be calibrated at the pixel level. This pixel calibration is crucial and needed for every camera settings, e.g. modulation frequency and exposure time. A significant dependency of the modulation signal on the intensity was also observed and hence an additional calibration is needed for each pixel depending on the pixel intensity level. These corrections are important not only for the fundamental frequency, but also for the higher harmonics when using the pulsed supercontinuum laser. With these post data acquisition corrections, the PCO CMOS-FLIM camera can be used for various biomedical applications requiring a large frame and high speed acquisition.

  2. Optofluidic modulator based on peristaltic nematogen microflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuennet, J. G.; Vasdekis, A. E.; de Sio, L.; Psaltis, D.

    2011-04-01

    Nematogens rotate by the application of external fields, thereby enabling optical modulation. This principle has had a profound impact on our daily lives through the plethora of liquid-crystal displays in use around us. However, the wider use of nematic liquid crystals, particularly in microdisplays and information processing, has been hampered by their slow response times. In nematogens, rotational and translational molecular motions are coupled, so flow is inevitably linked with optical modulation. This linkage motivated us to fuse microfluidics with anisotropic liquids and introduce an optofluidic modulator that exhibits a submillisecond (250 µs) symmetric response and can operate at frequencies up to 1 kHz. The modulator is based on peristaltic nematogen microflows realized in polydimethylsiloxane microfluidics. The latter simultaneously permits peristalsis by means of elastomeric deformation, nematogen alignment and rapid prototyping through cast-moulding. Together with large-scale, vertical integration and piezoelectric nanotechnologies, this optofluidic paradigm can enable high-density and three-dimensional architectures of fast modulators.

  3. Multirate diversity strategy of fractal modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yong; Shi Si-Hong; Luo Mao-Kang

    2011-01-01

    Previous analyses of fractal modulation were carried out mostly from a signle perspective or a subband, but the analyses from the perspective of multiscale synthesis have not been found yet;while multiscale synthesis is just the essence of the mutlirate diversity which is the most important characteristic of fractal modulation. As for the mutlirate diversity of fractal modulation, previous studies only dealt with the general outspread of its concept, lacked the thorough and intensive quantitative comparison and analysis.In light of the above fact, from the perspective of multiscale synthesis, in this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the multirate diversity of fractal modulation and corresponding quantitative analysis. The results show that mutlirate diversity, which is a fusion of frequency diversity and time diversity, pays an acceptable price in spectral efficiency in exchange for a significant improvement in bit error rate. It makes fractal modulation particularly suitable for the channels whose bandwidth and duration parameters are unknown or cannot be predicted to the transmitter. Surely it is clearly of great significance for reliable communications.Moreover, we also attain the ability to flexibly make various rate-bandwidth tradeoffs between the transmitter and the receiver, to freely select the reception time and to expediently control the total bandwidth. Furthermore, the acquisitions or improvements of these fine features could provide support of the technical feasibility for the electromagnetic spectrum control technology in a complex electromagnetic environment.

  4. Three dimensional, multi-chip module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Petersen, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow "dummy chips" are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned o the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.

  5. Directly Phase-Modulated Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z. L.; Fröhlich, B.; Lucamarini, M.; Roberts, G. L.; Dynes, J. F.; Shields, A. J.

    2016-07-01

    The art of imparting information onto a light wave by optical signal modulation is fundamental to all forms of optical communication. Among many schemes, direct modulation of laser diodes stands out as a simple, robust, and cost-effective method. However, the simultaneous changes in intensity, frequency, and phase have prevented its application in the field of secure quantum communication. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a directly phase-modulated light source which overcomes the main disadvantages associated with direct modulation and is suitable for diverse applications such as coherent communications and quantum cryptography. The source separates the tasks of phase preparation and pulse generation between a pair of semiconductor lasers leading to very pure phase states. Moreover, the cavity-enhanced electro-optic effect enables the first example of subvolt half-wave phase modulation at high signal rates. The source is compact, stable, and versatile, and we show its potential to become the standard transmitter for future quantum communication networks based on attenuated laser pulses.

  6. New Flexible Photocell Module for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitnar, Bernd; Durisch, Wilhelm; Meyer, Andreas; Palfinger, Günther

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the practical implementation of TPV systems. As a key part of these systems, we developed a new flexible photocell module for TPV applications. The module consists of commercially available monocrystalline silicon solar cells, which were cut into small stripes that are series connected to achieve a high voltage and a reduced current for operation at an illumination density of 5 - 10 suns. For an easy mounting into a heating boiler, the module is highly flexible and can be bent into a cylindrical shape. The rear side of the module is electrically isolated, but achieves a good heat coupling through a covering aluminium foil to the boiler wall. Thus, it can directly be mounted into a water-cooled boiler housing without the need of an additional water-cooling circuit. A first test module with an active cell area of 481 cm2 achieved an electricity output of 50 W by irradiation with an Yb2O3 mantle emitter heated with a 20 kW methane burner.

  7. Spread Spectrum Communication with Chaotic Frequency Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovskii, Alexander R.; Tsimring, Lev S.; Rulkov, Nikolai F.; Langmore, Ian; Young, Stephen C.

    We describe two different approaches to employ chaotic signals in spread-spectrum (SS) communication systems with phase and frequency modulation. In the first one a chaotic signal is used as a carrier. We demonstrate that using a feedback loop controller, the local chaotic oscillator in the receiver can be synchronized to the transmitter. The information can be transmitted using phase or frequency modulation of the chaotic carrier signal. In the second system the chaotic signal is used for frequency modulation of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) to provide a SS signal similar to frequency hopping systems. We show that in a certain parameter range the receiver VCO can be synchronized to the transmitter VCO using a relatively simple phase lock loop (PLL) circuit. The same PLL is used for synchronization of the chaotic oscillators. The information signal can be transmitted using a binary phase shift key (BPSK) or frequency shift key (BFSK) modulation of the frequency modulated carrier signal. Using an experimental circuit operating at radio frequency band and a computer modeling we study the bit error rate (BER) performance in a noisy channel as well as multiuser capability of the system.

  8. Green Modulation in Proactive Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Abouei, Jamshid; Pasupathy, Subbarayan

    2009-01-01

    Due to unique characteristics of sensor nodes, choosing energy-efficient modulation scheme with low-complexity implementation (refereed to as green modulation) is a critical factor in the physical layer of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This paper presents (to the best of our knowledge) the first in-depth analysis of energy efficiency of various modulation schemes using realistic models in IEEE 802.15.4 standard and present state-of-the art technology, to find the best scheme in a proactive WSN over Rayleigh and Rician flat-fading channel models with path-loss. For this purpose, we describe the system model according to a pre-determined time-based process in practical sensor nodes. The present analysis also includes the effect of bandwidth and active mode duration on energy efficiency of popular modulation designs in the pass-band and Ultra-WideBand (UWB) categories. Experimental results show that among various pass-band and UWB modulation schemes, Non-Coherent M-ary Frequency Shift Keying (NC-MFSK) with sm...

  9. Taming of Modulation Instability by Spatio-Temporal Modulation of the Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S; Botey, M; Staliunas, K

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous pattern formation in a variety of spatially extended nonlinear system always occurs through a modulation instability: homogeneous state of the system becomes unstable with respect to growing modulation modes. Therefore, the manipulation of the modulation instability is of primary importance in controlling and manipulating the character of spatial patterns initiated by that instability. We show that the spatio-temporal periodic modulation of the potential of the spatially extended system results in a modification of its pattern forming instability. Depending on the modulation character the instability can be partially suppressed, can change its spectrum (for instance the long wave instability can transform into short wave instability), can split into two, or can be completely eliminated. The latter result is of especial practical interest, as can be used to stabilize the intrinsically unstable system. The result bears general character, as it is shown here on a universal model of Complex Ginzburg-L...

  10. Ring resonator-based on-chip modulation transformer for high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonic links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel wideband on-chip photonic modulation transformer for phase-modulated microwave photonic links. The proposed device is able to transform phase-modulated optical signals into intensity-modulated versions (or vice versa) with nearly zero

  11. Application module of universal amplifier in education process

    OpenAIRE

    CHALOUPEK, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the teaching and implementation module for teaching in secondary schools and their role in education. Following the theory being discussed in relation to a valid educational program. Learning amplifier module implemented by the assignment to DPS. The activity of the amplifier module to simulate in Multisim simulation program. Next is made circuitry design in discrete amplifier module. There evaluated the feasibility and simulation of realizations amplifier module in sec...

  12. Purity Relative to Classes of Finitely Presented Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi, Akeel Ramadan

    2013-01-01

    Any set of finitely presented left modules defines a relative purity for left modules and also apurity for right modules. Purities defined by various classes are compared and investigated,especially in the contexts of modules over semiperfect rings and over tame hereditary, andmore general, finite-dimensional algebras. Connections between the indecomposable relativelypure-injective modules and closure in the full support topology (a refinement of theZiegler spectrum) are described.Duality bet...

  13. Improved Thermal Modulator for Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbrink, Ernest Frederick, Jr.; Hunt, Patrick J.; Sacks, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    An improved thermal modulator has been invented for use in a variant of gas chromatography (GC). The variant in question denoted as two-dimensional gas chromatography (2DGC) or GC-GC involves the use of three series-connected chromatographic columns, in the form of capillary tubes coated interiorly with suitable stationary phases (compounds for which different analytes exhibit different degrees of affinity). The two end columns are relatively long and are used as standard GC columns. The thermal modulator includes the middle column, which is relatively short and is not used as a standard GC column: instead, its temperature is modulated to affect timed adsorption and desorption of analyte gases between the two end columns in accordance with a 2DGC protocol.

  14. Potential Modulation on Total Internal Reflection Ellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Niu, Yu; Viana, A S; Correia, Jorge P; Jin, Gang

    2016-03-15

    Electrochemical-total internal reflection ellipsometry (EC-TIRE) has been proposed as a technique to observe the redox reactions on the electrode surface due to its high phase sensitivity to the electrolyte/electrode interface. In this paper, we mainly focus on the influence of the potential modulation on the TIRE response. The analysis suggests that both dielectric constant variation of gold and the electric double layer transformation would modulate the reflection polarization of the surface. For a nonfaradaic process, the signal of TIRE would be proportional to the potential modulation. To testify the analysis, linear sweep voltammetry and open circuit measurement have been performed. The results strongly support the system analysis. PMID:26889871

  15. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia

    -compatible materials, both passive and active plasmonic waveguide components are important. Among other proposed plasmonic waveguides and modulators, the structures where the dielectric core is sandwiched between metal plates have been shown as one of the most compact and efficient layout. Because of the tight mode...... modulators based on ultra-compact waveguides with different active cores. Plasmonic modulators with the active core such as indium phosphides or ferroelectrics sandwiched between metal plates have promising characteristics. Apart from the speed and dimensions advantages, the metal plates can serve...... as electrodes for electrical pumping of the active material making it easier to integrate. Including an additional layer in the plasmonic waveguide, in particular an ultrathin transparent conductive oxide film, allows the control of the dispersive properties of the waveguide and thus the higher efficiency...

  16. Development of Fuel Shuffling Module for PHISICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Mabe; Andrea Alfonsi; Cristian Rabiti; Aaron Epiney; Michael Lineberry

    2013-06-01

    PHISICS (Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for the INL Code System) [4] code toolkit has been in development at the Idaho National Laboratory. This package is intended to provide a modern analysis tool for reactor physics investigation. It is designed with the mindset to maximize accuracy for a given availability of computational resources and to give state of the art tools to the modern nuclear engineer. This is obtained by implementing several different algorithms and meshing approaches among which the user will be able to choose, in order to optimize his computational resources and accuracy needs. The software is completely modular in order to simplify the independent development of modules by different teams and future maintenance. The package is coupled with the thermo-hydraulic code RELAP5-3D [3]. In the following the structure of the different PHISICS modules is briefly recalled, focusing on the new shuffling module (SHUFFLE), object of this paper.

  17. Java Physics Generator and Analysis Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ronan, Michael T

    2003-01-01

    A Java software framework allows modules written in different languages to be used in a high level Object-Oriented (OO) environment. Java Native Interfaces (JNI) for Linear Collider (LC) physics event generators are used in defining a common generator interface package. Portable-JNI for TESLA and Asian JLC detector simulation modules have been written for performing comparisons to the American LC detector simulation. Physics and detector Java analysis modules using prototype HEP class libraries provide high level OO study tools. Complete physics generation, parallel detector simulations and event analysis for full 500 fb$^{-1}$ simulated data samples are performed in single-pass batch jobs. Java histogram objects files are saved for final presentation using the Java Analysis Studio (JAS). The software architecture, JNI designs and overall performance is presented. Comparisons of American, Asian and European detector simulations of Higgsstrahlung events generated by Pandora, Pythia and Whizard are made.

  18. Direct-Digital-Drive Microring Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrlichman, Yossef; Ruschin, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    The method of Direct Digital Drive is applied to a microring resonator. The microring resonator is thus controlled by a segmented set of electrodes each of which is driven by binary (digital) signal. Digital linearization is performed with the aid of digital memory lookup table. The method is applied to a single microring modulator to provide an M-bit digital-toanalog converter (DAC), which may also be viewed as an M-level pulse amplitude modulator (M-PAM). It is shown, by means of simulation, that a 4-bit DAC can achieve an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 3.74bits. Applying the same method for two rings, enables the generation of two-dimensional optical M-QAM signals. It is shown, by means of simulation, that a 16-QAM modulator achieves an EVM better than -30dB.

  19. On the Algebraic Classification of Module Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Patchkoria, Irakli

    2011-01-01

    Using methods developed by Franke, we obtain algebraic classification results for modules over certain symmetric ring spectra ($S$-algebras). In particular, for any symmetric ring spectrum $R$ whose graded homotopy ring $\\pi_*R$ has graded global homological dimension 2 and is concentrated in degrees divisible by some natural number $N \\geq 4$, we prove that the homotopy category of $R$-modules is equivalent to the derived category of the homotopy ring $\\pi_*R$. This improves the Bousfield-Wolbert algebraic classification of isomorphism classes of objects of the homotopy category of $R$-modules. The main examples of ring spectra to which our result applies are the $p$-local real connective $K$-theory spectrum $ko_{(p)}$, the Johnson-Wilson spectrum E(2), and the truncated Brown-Peterson spectrum $BP$, for an odd prime $p$.

  20. Infinitesimal 2-braidings and differential crossed modules

    CERN Document Server

    Cirio, Lucio S

    2013-01-01

    We categorify the notion of an infinitesimal braiding in a linear strict symmetric monoidal category, leading to the notion of a (strict) infinitesimal 2-braiding in a linear symmetric strict monoidal 2-category. We describe the associated categorification of the 4-term relation, leading to six categorified relations. We prove that any infinitesimal 2-braiding gives rise to a flat and fake flat 2-connection in the configuration space of $n$ undistinguishable particles in the complex plane, hence to a categorification of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov connection. We discuss infinitesimal 2-braidings in a category naturally assigned to every differential crossed module, leading to the notion of a quasi-invariant tensor in a differential crossed module. Finally we prove that quasi-invariant tensors exist in the differential crossed module associated to the string Lie-2-algebra.

  1. Photorefraction demonstrations using electrooptic PLZT ceramics modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Hanstorp, Dag

    2003-11-01

    PLZT ceramics electrooptic (EO) modulator was designed for demonstrations and student's laboratory works to study photorefraction using Ar+ laser (λ = 514 nm). PLZT element had an aperture of 1.5 x 8 mm2 and thickness of 1.5 mm. Reading of recorded patterns was realized by applying to the element the biasing electric field. The most efficient writing took place for ceramics composition PLZT 8.75/65/35. The total intensity of two writing beams was up to 300 mW, the applied electric field during writing -- up to 20 kV/cm. The diffraction efficiency depended on the applied biasing reading electric field EBR. For the reading He-Ne laser the diffraction efficiency η ~ 0.48 was obtained at the bias field values EBR = 13 kV/cm. The simplicity of the modulator alignment and writing and reading processes promote the use of such modulators in the teaching process.

  2. Analysis and simulation of XPM intensity modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Jianquan Yao

    2005-01-01

    Based on the split-step Fourier method and small signal analysis, an improved analytical solution which describes the cross-phase modulation (XPM) intensity is derived. It can suppress the spurious XPM intensity modulation efficiently in the whole transmission fiber. Thus it is more coincidence with the practical result. Furthermore, it is convenient, because it is independent of channel separation and the dispersion and nonlinear effects interact through the XPM intensity. A criterion of select the step size is described as the derived XPM intensity modulation being taken into account. It is non-uniform distribution method, the simulation accuracy is improved when the step size is determined by the improved XPM intensity.

  3. Electrochromic emissivity modulator for spacecraft thermal management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Moorehead, David [Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc., 2345 Anvil Street North, St. Petersburg, FL 33710 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    A novel electrochromic device (ECD) working in mid- to long-wave infrared (IR) region is presented, comprising of a solid-state monolithic thin film system for adjusting heat rejection/receiving levels on attached surfaces. The system is an electrically controllable active emissivity modulator. EclipseVED trademark, variable-emissivity ECD, is designed for satellite and spacecraft thermal control, using an active ECD system for long-wave infrared (LWIR) modulation and a passive cold mirror for solar rejection. Emissivity modulation of the system is 0.8 for 7-12 {mu}m region while average solar rejection is 80% in the vis-NIR region. Device properties and initial space test results are also presented. (author)

  4. Impurity radiation modulations in an ergodic divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, F. E-mail: laugier@pegase.cad.cea.fr; Becoulet, M.; De Michelis, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Gunn, J.P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J.C

    2001-03-01

    The 3-D geometry of radiation losses is investigated in the Tore Supra ergodic divertor. Measurements from passive bolometers located on the divertor coils show evidence of toroidal and poloidal radiation modulations. They were interpreted using a 3-D code solving heat transport equation that gives the whole geometry of plasma radiation in a divertor configuration close to Tore Supra. The results of the code are in qualitative agreement with the measurements and they show that the total radiated power is underestimated when inferred from standard bolometers located between divertor modules. Maximum of radiation in front of the modules is explained by the multiplication of radiative zones at this place due to the intersection of field lines with the vessel wall. This effect leads to non-monotonic temperature profiles along field lines in the boundary plasma.

  5. Impurity radiation modulations in an ergodic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3-D geometry of radiation losses is investigated in the Tore Supra ergodic divertor. Measurements from passive bolometers located on the divertor coils show evidence of toroidal and poloidal radiation modulations. They were interpreted using a 3-D code solving heat transport equation that gives the whole geometry of plasma radiation in a divertor configuration close to Tore Supra. The results of the code are in qualitative agreement with the measurements and they show that the total radiated power is underestimated when inferred from standard bolometers located between divertor modules. Maximum of radiation in front of the modules is explained by the multiplication of radiative zones at this place due to the intersection of field lines with the vessel wall. This effect leads to non-monotonic temperature profiles along field lines in the boundary plasma

  6. Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath

    2011-05-25

    We develop a general perturbation theory to treat small parameter changes in dispersive plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials. We specifically apply it to dielectric refractive index and metallic plasma frequency modulation in metal-dielectric nanostructures. As a numerical demonstration, we verify the theory\\'s accuracy against direct calculations for a system of plasmonic rods in air where the metal is defined by a three-pole fit of silver\\'s dielectric function. We also discuss new optical behavior related to plasma frequency modulation in such systems. Our approach provides new physical insight for the design of plasmonic devices for biochemical sensing and optical modulation and future active metamaterial applications. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  7. Siemens SOFC Test Article and Module Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-31

    Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.

  8. Rank Modulation for Translocation Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Farnoud, Farzad; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2012-01-01

    We consider rank modulation codes for flash memories that allow for handling arbitrary charge drop errors. Unlike classical rank modulation codes used for correcting errors that manifest themselves as swaps of two adjacently ranked elements, the proposed \\emph{translocation rank codes} account for more general forms of errors that arise in storage systems. Translocations represent a natural extension of the notion of adjacent transpositions and as such may be analyzed using related concepts in combinatorics and rank modulation coding. Our results include tight bounds on the capacity of translocation rank codes, construction techniques for asymptotically good codes, as well as simple decoding methods for one class of structured codes. As part of our exposition, we also highlight the close connections between the new code family and permutations with short common subsequences, deletion and insertion error-correcting codes for permutations and permutation arrays.

  9. Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ziepke, A; Engel, H

    2016-01-01

    We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we can observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation. In addition, using the Fick-Jacobs approach for the highly diffusive limit we show that wave velocities within tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pul...

  10. Universal Reconfigurable Translator Module (URTM) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Edward; Machan, Roman; Jones, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the Universal Reconfigurable Translation Module, or URTM. The URTM was developed by Sigma Space Corporation for NASA in order to translate specific serial protocols, both logically and physically. At present, the prototype configuration has targeted MIL-STD-1553B (RT and BC), IEEE 1394b (Firewire), and ECSS-E-50-12A (SpaceWire). The objectives of this program were to study the feasibility of a configurable URTM to translate serial link data as might be used in a space-flight mission and to design, develop, document, and deliver an engineering prototype model of the URTM with a path to spaceflight. By simply connecting two of the three Physical Interface Modules (PIM) on either end of the RPTM (Reconfigurable Protocol Translator Module), the URTM then self configures via a library of interface translation functions, thereby allowing the two data links to communicate seamlessly.

  11. Gestalt factors modulate basic spatial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, B; Westheimer, G; Herzog, M H

    2010-05-01

    Human perception of a stimulus varies depending on the context in which the stimulus is presented. Such contextual modulation has often been explained by two basic neural mechanisms: lateral inhibition and spatial pooling. In the present study, we presented observers with a vernier stimulus flanked by single lines; observers' ability to discriminate the offset direction of the vernier stimulus deteriorated in accordance with both explanations. However, when the flanking lines were part of a geometric shape (i.e., a good Gestalt), this deterioration strongly diminished. These findings cannot be explained by lateral inhibition or spatial pooling. It seems that Gestalt factors play an important role in contextual modulation. We propose that contextual modulation can be used as a quantitative measure to investigate the rules governing the grouping of elements into meaningful wholes.

  12. Composite Crew Module (CCM) Permeability Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to form an Agency team to design and build a composite crew module in 18 months in order to gain hands-on experience in anticipation that future exploration systems may be made of composite materials. One of the conclusions from this Composite Crew Module Primary Structure assessment was that there was a lack of understanding regarding the ability for composite pressure shells to contain consumable gases, which posed a technical risk relative to the use of a metallic design. After the completion of the Composite Crew Module test program, the test article was used in a new program to assess the overall leakage/permeability and identify specific features associated with high leak rates. This document contains the outcome of the leakage assessment.

  13. Coded Modulation in C and MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon; Andrews, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    This software, written separately in C and MATLAB as stand-alone packages with equivalent functionality, implements encoders and decoders for a set of nine error-correcting codes and modulators and demodulators for five modulation types. The software can be used as a single program to simulate the performance of such coded modulation. The error-correcting codes implemented are the nine accumulate repeat-4 jagged accumulate (AR4JA) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, which have been approved for international standardization by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, and which are scheduled to fly on a series of NASA missions in the Constellation Program. The software implements the encoder and decoder functions, and contains compressed versions of generator and parity-check matrices used in these operations.

  14. Cooling of led module by various radiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumova A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given article presents the results of an experimental comparison of three radiators which are: pressed radiator made of aluminum plate (basic variant, radiator made of copper wire, and copper/water pulsating heat pipe. The radiators are intended to take off heat from the LED module with the power capacity of 10,55 W. It is established that under natural convection all three radiators can keep temperature level of the circuit board module less than 64 C that lies within the operating range. In comparison with basic variant the use of the copper wire radiator allows lowering of the temperature in the LED module center on 3.9 C, and the same value for the pulsating heat pipe is 7.1 C.

  15. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  16. Mechanical Modulation of Hybrid Graphene Microfiber Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the strain engineering of two-dimensional materials such as graphene has attracted considerable attention for its great potential in functional nanodevices. Here, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the strain manipulation of a graphene-integrated microfiber system for the first time. We analyze the influential factors of strain tuning, i.e., the geometrical parameters of the microfiber, the strain magnitude, and the probe-light wavelength. Moreover, we experimentally achieve in-line modulation as high as 30% with a moderate strain of ~5%, which is two orders of magnitude larger than previous results. The dynamic vibration response is also researched. The broadband, polarization-independent, cost-effective, strain-based modulator may find applications in low-speed modulation and strain sensing. Further, we believe that our platform may allow for all-in fiber engineering of graphene-analogue materials and provide new ideas for graphene-integrated flexible device design.

  17. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  18. Calibration of phase detector using IQ modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam energy of the J-PARC Linac is calculated by TOF (Time-of-Flight) method with the flight distance and beam phases at the two of measurement points. Because the accuracy of the beam energy measurement is directly depending on the errors in the phase measurement system, all 111 beam phase monitors are calibrated annually. Here, we adopted a calibration method using the IQ modulator as a method for carrying out more simply and accurately, calibration of the phase detection circuit is provided to the phase detection system. In the calibration, we have used the trombone circuit for the adjustment of the reference frequency, but it is thought that the procedure using an IQ modulator is more simple and accurate, and it reduces the time for the calibration. We describe the procedure of the phase detection system and the method of energy calculation. In addition, the general descriptions of the IQ modulation specification and its performances are introduced. (author)

  19. Analyses of klystron modulator approaches for NLC

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnykh, Anatoly K

    2000-01-01

    Analyze of experimental results shows that the energy discharge efficiency of the modern modulators is 0.92-0.93. The energy transfer efficiency can be reached up to 0.7 for 1.5 usec pulse width and up to 0.8 for 3.0 usec accordingly. The geometry and core material of the transformer is one element of modulator, which limits the efficiency due to limitation if transmission band of the pulse power. Ways of the rise of energy transfer efficiency had been discussed. The use of features of coupled transmission lines lies in the base of an idea how the energy transfer efficiency can be improved up to 0.85 in the frame of the conventional approach. In the second part of the paper the transformerless modulator approaches are presented upon a modified Marx method of voltage multiplication using on/off IGBT instead of on switches.

  20. A general approach for temperature modulated thermogravimetry: Extension to non-periodical and event-controlled modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The temperature modulated TGA technique is expanded to non-periodic modulation functions. • The use of a stochastic modulation function is tested. • The concept of the new technique, the event controlled temperature modulated TGA is introduced. • The event control adapted the intensity of the modulation function and the characteristic modulation time. The result is an optimized modulation. - Abstract: Sinusoidal temperature modulated thermogravimetric analysis (TMTGA) has been proposed to get kinetic data on reactions that were investigated by TGA 45 years ago by Flynn and later by Blaine and Hahn. Because of general uncertainties of this technique, we developed a generalized approach for TMTGA using any modulation function, i.e., periodic as well as non-periodic. As a consequence of an error discussion of a TMDSC experiment, we present a new concept of the event controlled modulation function