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Sample records for arteriovenous malformations avms

  1. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM Causing Tension Hemothorax in a Pregnant Woman Requiring Emergent Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs, although most commonly congenital, are usually detected later in life. We present a case of a 25-year-old woman with no previous history of AVM or telangiectasia, who presented with life-threatening hypoxia, hypotension, and pleuritic chest pain in 36th week of gestation. Chest tube placement revealed 4 liters of blood. Patient was subsequently found to have bleeding pulmonary AVM as the source of hemothorax. Successful embolisation of the bleeding vessel followed by thoracoscopic evacuation of the organized clot relieved the hypoxia. Further screening for AVM revealed large splenic AVM for which patient underwent splenectomy in the coming months.

  2. Arteriovenous Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are defects in your vascular system. The vascular system includes arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to other organs; veins carry blood back to the heart. Capillaries connect the arteries and veins. An ...

  3. RASA1 analysis guides management in a family with capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, Leigh Anne; Leon, Eyby; Maher, Tom A; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2012-06-01

    Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM; MIM 60354) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multifocal cutaneous capillary malformations, often in association with fast-flow vascular lesions, which may be cutaneous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraosseus, or cerebral arteriovenous malformations or arteriovenous fistulas. CM-AVM results from heterozygous mutations in the RASA1 gene. Capillary malformations of the skin are common, and clinical examination alone may not be able to definitively diagnose-or exclude- CM-AVM. We report a family in which the proband was initially referred for a genetic evaluation in the neonatal period because of the presence of a cardiac murmur and minor dysmorphic features. Both he and his mother were noted to have multiple capillary malformations on the face, head, and extremities. Echocardiography revealed dilated head and neck vessels and magnetic resonance imaging and angiography of the brain revealed a large infratentorial arteriovenous fistula, for which he has had two embolization procedures. RASA1 sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous mutation, confirming his diagnosis of CM-AVM. We established targeted mutation analysis for the proband's mother and sister, the latter of whom is a healthy 3-year-old whose only cutaneous finding is a facial capillary malformation. This revealed that the proband's mother is also heterozygous for the RASA1 mutation, but his sister is negative. Consequently, his mother will undergo magnetic resonance imaging and angiography screening for intracranial and spinal fast-flow lesions, while his sister will require no imaging or serial evaluations. Targeted mutation analysis has been offered to additional maternal family members. This case illustrates the benefit of molecular testing in diagnosis and making screening recommendations for families with CM-AVM.

  4. Positive correlation between occlusion rate and nidus size of proton beam treated brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomquist, Erik; Ronne Engström, Elisabeth; Borota, Ljubisa

    2016-01-01

    symptoms, clinical course, the size of AVM nidus and rate of occlusion was collected. Outcome parameters were the occlusion of the AVM, clinical outcome and side effects.Results. The rate of total occlusion was overall 68%. For target volume 0-2cm3 it was 77%, for 3-10 cm3 80%, for 11-15 cm3 50% and for 16...... of these had no effect and the other only partial occlusion from proton beams. Two thirds of those presenting with seizures reported an improved seizure situation after treatment.Conclusion. Our observations agree with earlier results and show that proton beam irradiation is a treatment alternative for brain......Background. Proton beam radiotherapy of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the brain has been performed in Uppsala since 1991. An earlier study based on the first 26 patients concluded that proton beam can be used for treating large and medium sized AVMs that were considered difficult to treat...

  5. Embolization of spinal arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Young; Kim, Sun Yong; Park, Bok Hwan

    1990-01-01

    Recently, therapeutic embolization has been advocated as the treatment of choice for spinal AVM(arteriovenous malformations). The authors review our experience with two cases of spinal AVM treated by embolization using coaxial Tracker-18 microcatheter with Latvian. The patients included a 10 year old male with glomus type and a 14 year old female with juvenile type spinal AVM revealed recanalization 5 month later. Embolization provides curative or temporary treatment for spinal AVM. After embolic occlusion, delayed reassessment with arteriography is indicated, particularly if symptoms persist or recur

  6. Arteriovenous malformation of face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are rare congenital vascular malformations accounting only 1.5% of all vascular anomalies with 50% occurrence in the oral and maxillofacial region. It usually results from birth defects of the vasculature. A literature search revealed only few case reports of AVMs in the facial region. Lack of meticulous diagnosis, scarcity of knowledge, and paucity of literature can result in their exsanguinations leading to fatal hemorrhagic incidents after various dental procedures such as tooth extraction, surgical intervention, puncture wound, or blunt injury in involved area. The present case describes the accidental diagnosis of asymptomatic high-flow AVMs in the facial region of pediatric patient reported primarily for the treatment of periapical abscess. This case report is unique because although there was no history of bleeding episodes, thorough examination and investigations diagnosed it as high-flow vascular malformation. It is important for the dental practitioner to be aware of AVM which may be present in the head and neck region that can produce fatal bleeding episodes during various dental procedures. Proper diagnosis of AVMs through complete history, precise clinical examination, and advanced imaging modalities can help in preventing serious life-threatening complications.

  7. Combined spinal intramedullary arteriovenous malformation and lipomyelomeningocele

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    Weon, Y.C.; Roh, H.G.; Byun, H.S. [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Chung, J.I. [Medimoa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Eoh, W. [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-10-01

    Combined spinal arteriovenous malformation and lipomyelomeningocele are extremely rare. We present a rare combined case of a lipomyelomeningocele with an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) occurred at the L3-L4 level in a 30-year-old man who suffered from low back pain radiating to the lower extremities, dysuria, and frequency for 5 years. The MR studies showed an intradural mass with high-signal intensity on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, intermingled with multiple signal-void structures. The mass extended extradurally toward a subcutaneously forming fatty mass on the patient's back. Spinal angiography showed an AVM supplied by the radiculopial branches of the lumbar arteries and drained by tortuous, dilated, perimedullary veins. Endovascular embolization and surgical resection were performed. (orig.)

  8. Complex arteriovenous malformation - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirakov, S.; Penkov, M.; Marinov, M.; Kamenov, B.

    2014-01-01

    AVMs are composed of a network of channels interposed between feeding arteries and draining veins, without any direct shunt. Two different anatomic types of nidus may be more or less differentiated: The most frequent clinical presentations of brain AVMs are hemorrhage, seizure, chronic headache, and focal deficits not related to hemorrhage. We show a case of 27 years old female came to the hospital in heavy condition with subarachnoid hemorrhage Fisher 4. She had a history of 4 surgical operation of brain AVM in the last 10 years, without significant reduction of the malformation. After discussion of multidisciplinary team, of neuroradiologist and neurosurgeon was decided to be perform endovascular embolization, because of the better outcome for the patient. We performed endovascular treatment of the AVM with achieving subtotal embolization of malformation (90%). The patient recovery completely after 22 days and went home. For the next 18 months follow up there is no data of accidents for the patient. Key words: Arteriovenous Malformation. Subarachnoid hemorrhage. Endovascular treatment. Embolization

  9. Paraspinal arteriovenous malformation Onyx embolization via an Ascent balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Rodriguez-Arias, Carlos A; Utiel, Elena; Arreba, Emilio; Gonzalo, Miguel; Arenillas, Juan F

    2014-04-01

    Purely extradural lumbar spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions that have diverse presentations and imaging features. The treatment of a symptomatic high flow paraspinal AVM with multiple feeders remains a challenge. We report the first use of an Ascent balloon (dual lumen balloon catheter) to deliver Onyx with excellent penetration to a paraspinal AVM.

  10. Congenital pelvic arteriovenous malformation: uncommon symptoms of lower limb venous hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimaro Kudo, F; Nishibe, T; Miyazaki, K; Flores, J; Yasuda, K

    2001-12-01

    Congenital pelvic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare and their clinical behavior is quite variable. A case of congenital pelvic AVM manifesting with unusual extrapelvic symptoms of ipsilateral leg pain is described. The causes of symptoms associated with congenital pelvic AVMs are discussed.

  11. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: overview and transcatheter embolotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugash, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs) are found in people with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a condition also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. HHT is a clinically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder in which abnormal blood vessels cause bleeding and arteriovenous shunting. The 2 basic lesions of HHT - telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) - are closely related. Multisystem involvement leads to a staggering array of clinical manifestations, making HHT one of medicine's less familiar 'great pretenders'. Telangiectasias are dilated blood vessels, typically located in mucocutaneous surfaces (i.e., skin, conjunctiva, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract). Small telangiectasias are simply dilated post-capillary venules, whereas larger telangiectasias are made up of dilated arterioles and venules, often with no intervening capillary. They are, in essence, diminutive AVMs. These tiny lesions are visible as punctate bright red spots on skin and mucosal surfaces (Fig. 1). Their fragility and superficial location account for the disabling epistaxis and chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, which are so common with HHT. Hematuria (caused by urothelial telangiectasias) occurs occasionally but is not a prominent feature of the disease. Although tracheobronchial telangiectasias do occur and may cause hemoptysis, severe hemoptysis is typically related to pAVM rupture. AVMs are direct artery-to-vein connections. Though larger and far more impressive radiologically than telangiectasias, AVMs are more likely to be clinically silent until they either declare themselves in a catastrophic fashion or are detected by screening tests. In contrast to telangiectasias, which are generally found in epithelial surfaces, AVMs tend to develop within organs, most commonly the lung and brain. As screening methods evolve, liver involvement with both telangiectasias and complex AVMs is being recognized with increasing

  12. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: overview and transcatheter embolotherapy

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    Pugash, R.A. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    The majority of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs) are found in people with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a condition also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. HHT is a clinically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder in which abnormal blood vessels cause bleeding and arteriovenous shunting. The 2 basic lesions of HHT - telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) - are closely related. Multisystem involvement leads to a staggering array of clinical manifestations, making HHT one of medicine's less familiar 'great pretenders'. Telangiectasias are dilated blood vessels, typically located in mucocutaneous surfaces (i.e., skin, conjunctiva, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract). Small telangiectasias are simply dilated post-capillary venules, whereas larger telangiectasias are made up of dilated arterioles and venules, often with no intervening capillary. They are, in essence, diminutive AVMs. These tiny lesions are visible as punctate bright red spots on skin and mucosal surfaces (Fig. 1). Their fragility and superficial location account for the disabling epistaxis and chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, which are so common with HHT. Hematuria (caused by urothelial telangiectasias) occurs occasionally but is not a prominent feature of the disease. Although tracheobronchial telangiectasias do occur and may cause hemoptysis, severe hemoptysis is typically related to pAVM rupture. AVMs are direct artery-to-vein connections. Though larger and far more impressive radiologically than telangiectasias, AVMs are more likely to be clinically silent until they either declare themselves in a catastrophic fashion or are detected by screening tests. In contrast to telangiectasias, which are generally found in epithelial surfaces, AVMs tend to develop within organs, most commonly the lung and brain. As screening methods evolve, liver involvement with both telangiectasias and complex AVMs is being recognized

  13. Rare malformation of glans penis: arteriovenous malformation.

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    Akin, Y; Sarac, M; Yucel, S

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric glans penis malformations, especially arteriovenous malformations (AVM), are very rare. Herein, we report two rare cases. A 14-year-old boy attended our outpatient clinic with chief complaints of purple swelling and rapidly growing lesion on the glans penis. The lesion was excised surgically after physical and radiological evaluations. Pathology reported AVM and the patient is being followed up. The second case is a 2-year-old boy who was admitted with a big lesion involving glans penis and genital area that has been present since birth. In physical and radiological evaluations, lesion on the glans penis was pulsatile. Parents of the patient did not want any surgery and patient has been in follow-up. Diagnosis of the vascular lesions on glans penis is very easy by physical and radiological examinations today. Long-term follow-up is very important for AVM. Clinicians must make a careful effort to document new glans lesions in the pediatric population and decrease anxiety in the parents of affected children.

  14. Evaluation of the degree of arteriovenous shunting in intracranial arteriovenous malformations using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging

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    Sunwoo, Leonard; Park, Sun-Won [Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chul-Ho; Yun, Tae Jin; Choi, Seung Hong; Cho, Young Dae; Kim, Ji-hoon; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Young [Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kyung Sik [Chungbuk National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Yong Hwy; Kim, Jin Wook; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Kim, Dong Gyu [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) display venous signals on arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging due to the presence of arteriovenous shunting. Our aim was to quantitatively correlate AVM signal intensity on ASL with the degree of arteriovenous shunting estimated on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in AVMs. MR imaging including pseudo-continuous ASL at 3 T and DSA were obtained on the same day in 40 patients with intracranial AVMs. Two reviewers assessed the nidus and venous signal intensities on ASL images to determine the presence of arteriovenous shunting. Interobserver agreement on ASL between the reviewers was determined. ASL signal intensity of the AVM lesion was correlated with AVM size and the time difference between normal and AVM venous transit times measured from the DSA images. Interobserver agreement between two reviewers for nidus and venous signal intensities was excellent (κ = 0.80 and 1.0, respectively). Interobserver agreement regarding the presence of arteriovenous shunting was perfect (κ = 1.0). AVM signal intensity showed a positive relationship with the time difference between normal and AVM venous transit times (r = 0.638, P < 0.001). AVM signal intensity also demonstrated a positive relationship with AVM size (r = 0.561, P < 0.001). AVM signal intensity on ASL in patients with AVM correlates well with the degree of early vein opacification on DSA, which corresponds to the degree of arteriovenous shunting. (orig.)

  15. Linear accelerator radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations: Updated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, S; Heyes, G; Nightingale, P; Lamin, S; Chavda, S; Geh, I; Spooner, D; Cruickshank, G; Sanghera, P

    2017-04-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the leading causing of intra-cerebral haemorrhage. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established treatment for arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and commonly delivered using Gamma Knife within dedicated radiosurgery units. Linear accelerator (LINAC) SRS is increasingly available however debate remains over whether it offers an equivalent outcome. The aim of this project is to evaluate the outcomes using LINAC SRS for AVMs used within a UK neurosciences unit and review the literature to aid decision making across various SRS platforms. Results have shown comparability across platforms and strongly supports that an adapted LINAC based SRS facility within a dynamic regional neuro-oncology department delivers similar outcomes (in terms of obliteration and toxicity) to any other dedicated radio-surgical platform. Locally available facilities can facilitate discussion between options however throughput will inevitably be lower than centrally based dedicated national radiosurgery units. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Management of patients with brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, Michael; Andersson, Tommy; Karlsson, Bengt; Wallace, M. Christopher; Edner, Goeran

    2003-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain, which are probably genetically determined, are errors in the development of the vasculature that, together with the effects of blood flow, may lead to a focal arteriovenous shunt. Clinically, the adult patient may present with acute or chronic neurological symptoms--fixed or unstable--such as deficits, seizures or headache. Sometimes the lesion is an incidental finding. In about half of the patients, the revealing event is an intracranial haemorrhage. The prevalence of AVM in the western world is probably 10 ml could benefit from targeted partial embolisation followed by radiosurgery or surgery, depending on the angioarchitecture; and (IV) AVMs >20 ml nidus volume usually have a high treatment risk with any treatment modality and are not obvious targets for treatment at all

  17. Analysis of angiographic findings in arteriovenous malformations(AVM) of brain according to presenting clinical manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Kim, Jae Kyun; Suh, Dae Chul and others

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the different angio-architectures of brain arteriovenous malformations(AVMs) according to the presence of non-hemorrhagic symptoms or intracerebral (ICH) and/or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The results of complete cerebral angiography obtained in 215 patients with AVM between 1989 and 1994 were retrospectively reviewed. The M:F ratio was 136:78 and their mean age was 29 (ranged 4-66) years. On the base of clinical presentation, CT and/or MR images, they were divided into hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic groups. Angiograms were analyzed by two radiologists for the size and location of nidus;the number of feeding arteries and the extent of aneurysm, stenosis, dural supply, and angiomatous change;the number of draining veins and the extent of deep or superficial drainage, stenosis, ectasia, kinking, and stasis. The standard chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Hemorrhage was noted in 140 patients (65%), and no hemorrhage in 75 (35%). Hemorrhage was more common in AVM with deep-seated and callosal locations, a nidus of less than 2cm, single feeder and single venous drainage, and deep venous drainage only (p<0.05-0.001). Non-hemorrhagic presentations were more common in AVM with cortical and subcortical location, a nidus of more than 5cm, angiomatous change, dural supply, both superficial and deep venous drainage, kinking, and stasis(p<0.05-0.001). The angio-architechture of AVM with hemorrhage correlated with clinical symptomatic presentation. Analysis of the patterns of angioarchitectures useful for prognosis and in deciding the direction of treatment. =20

  18. Radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Shunsuke

    1994-01-01

    Steiner has first published a report of a case of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) treated with gamma knife radiosurgery in 1972. Since the mid-1980s, radiosurgery has increasingly received much attention. There have already been more than 6,000 radiosurgically treated AVM cases. This article reviews radiosurgery in the context of the following: (1) radiosurgery according to gamma knife, linear accelerator, heavy-charged particle Bragg-peak radiation and neutron; (2) therapeutic outcome in view of angiographically proven complete obliteration (CO) of AVM, including the time required for CO and factors regulating CO (such as the volume of AVM, radiation doses, correlation between the volume of AVM and radiation doses, age, and site of AVM), histopathological findings, and clinical complaints (such as headache and epilepsy) after radiosurgery; (3) bleeding after radiosurgery; (4) complications (including angiography-related complications, those immediately after radiosurgery, delayed complications, factors influencing delayed complications, and endocrine or growth retardation); (5) other problems (such as radiation doses, follow-up strategy, approaches to giant AVMs, and repeat irradiation); (6) indication of radiosurgery for lesions other than brain stem, and lesions of the mid-brain, pons and bulb. (N.K.) 134 refs

  19. Magnetic resonance angiography of arteriovenous malformation in the brainstem

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    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kida, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takayuki; Iwakoshi, Takayasu; Kai, Osamu; Hirose, Mitsuhiko [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) angiography appearance of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the tegmentum and pons is described. The interpeduncular perforating branches of the posterior cerebral artery and median pontine branches of the basilar artery were seen more clearly by MR angiography than by conventional angiography. MR angiography was very useful for the follow-up of AVM after stereotactic radiosurgery. (author).

  20. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, P.D.; Humphreys, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    We review the presentation, imaging findings and outcome in 18 children with cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVM). This group is of particular interest because of the reported poor outcome despite modern imaging and neurosurgical techniques. All children had CT and 15 underwent catheter angiography at presentation. Several of the children in the latter part of the study had MRI. Of the 18 children, 17 presented with a ruptured AVM producing intracranial haemorrhage. The remaining child presented with temporal lobe epilepsy and was shown to have temporal, vermian and cerebellar hemisphere AVM. This child had other stigmata of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Three other children had pre-existing abnormalities of possible relevance. One had a vascular malformation of the cheek and mandible, one a documented chromosomal abnormality and another a midline cleft upper lip and palate. Six of the 17 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM died within 7 days of the ictus. Vascular pathology other than an AVM was found in 10 of the 14 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM who had angiography: 4 intranidal aneurysms, 5 venous aneurysms and 2 cases of venous outflow obstruction (one child having both an aneurysm and obstruction). The severity of clinical presentation was directly related to the size of the acute haematoma, which was a reasonable predictor of outcome. (orig.)

  1. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Acad. Dept. of Radiol.; Blaser, S.; Armstrong, D.; Chuang, S.; Harwood-Nash, D. [Division of Neuroradiology, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Humphreys, R.P. [Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    We review the presentation, imaging findings and outcome in 18 children with cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVM). This group is of particular interest because of the reported poor outcome despite modern imaging and neurosurgical techniques. All children had CT and 15 underwent catheter angiography at presentation. Several of the children in the latter part of the study had MRI. Of the 18 children, 17 presented with a ruptured AVM producing intracranial haemorrhage. The remaining child presented with temporal lobe epilepsy and was shown to have temporal, vermian and cerebellar hemisphere AVM. This child had other stigmata of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Three other children had pre-existing abnormalities of possible relevance. One had a vascular malformation of the cheek and mandible, one a documented chromosomal abnormality and another a midline cleft upper lip and palate. Six of the 17 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM died within 7 days of the ictus. Vascular pathology other than an AVM was found in 10 of the 14 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM who had angiography: 4 intranidal aneurysms, 5 venous aneurysms and 2 cases of venous outflow obstruction (one child having both an aneurysm and obstruction). The severity of clinical presentation was directly related to the size of the acute haematoma, which was a reasonable predictor of outcome. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs.

  2. Embolization of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesekera, N. T.; Padley, S. P.; Kazmi, F.; Davies, C. L.; McCall, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and miscarriage. We report two cases of uterine AVMs in patients with a history of complex congenital heart disease, an association that has not been previously described. Both patients were treated by selective uterine artery embolization, a minimally invasive therapy that has revolutionized the management of uterine AVMs, thus offering an alternative to conventional hysterectomy.

  3. Endovascular treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seruga, T.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was the introduction of endovascular interventional treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with superselective embolization with cyanoacrylic polymerisation agent. Case reports. Endovascular embolization was performed in five patients with cerebral AVMs. Three of these patients were presented with intracerebral haemathomas whereas in other two patients, cerebral AVM was an incidental finding. Superselective catheterisation of AVMs was performed and acrylic glue was selectively injected into the nidus. Conclusions. Control cerebral angiography after embolization of AVM showed different results. In one patient, AVM was totally occluded after three sessions and in second case AVM was occluded in a single session. The rate of occlusion in other two cases was estimated between 70% in 80%. Both of these two patients underwent surgery. One patient is still in the process of treatment. Endovascular treatment of cerebral AVMs with superselective embolization with liquid cyanoacrilyc adhesive agent is a safe and effective alternative treatment paths next to microsurgery. Endovascular treatment in combination with radiosurgery could become the method of choice in the therapy of cerebral AVMs in the future. (author)

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery for deep intracranial arteriovenous malformations, part 1: Brainstem arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Inbar, Or; Ding, Dale; Chen, Ching-Jen; Sheehan, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    The management of brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are one of the greatest challenges encountered by neurosurgeons. Brainstem AVM have a higher risk of hemorrhage compared to AVM in other locations, and rupture of these lesions commonly results in devastating neurological morbidity and mortality. The potential morbidity associated with currently available treatment modalities further compounds the complexity of decision making for affected patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has an important role in the management of brainstem AVM. SRS offers acceptable obliteration rates with lower risks of hemorrhage occurring during the latency period. Complex nidal architecture requires a multi-disciplinary treatment approach. Nidi partly involving subpial/epipial regions of the dorsal midbrain or cerebellopontine angle should be considered for a combination of endovascular embolization, micro-surgical resection and SRS. Considering the fact that incompletely obliterated lesions (even when reduced in size) could still cause lethal hemorrhages, additional treatment, including repeat SRS and surgical resection should be considered when complete obliteration is not achieved by first SRS. Patients with brainstem AVM require continued clinical and radiological observation and follow-up after SRS, well after angiographic obliteration has been confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treat high cervical spinal arteriovenous malformation with Cyberknife radiosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of CyberKnife radiosurgery in the treatment of accidentally found cervical spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM. We present the case of a patient with cervical spinal AVM, who developed progressive neck pain, gait disturbance, urine and stool incontinence 2 weeks after the fell down accident. The patient underwent CyberKnife radiosurgery. After CyberKnife radiosurgery for 2 years, the patient′s neck pain diminished and was able to keep the walk without any assistance. The management of cervical spinal AVM varies. This patient demonstrated a successful treatment of cervical spinal AVM with CyberKnife radiosurgery.

  6. Transarterial embolisation of renal arteriovenous malformation: safety and efficacy in 24 patients with follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H.-J.; Shin, J.H.; Cho, Y.J.; Nam, D.H.; Ko, G.-Y.; Yoon, H.-K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of renal artery embolisation (RAE) for renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) as well as its outcomes. Materials and methods: The technical and clinical success rates, radiological and laboratory findings, and complications of RAE for 31 renal AVMs in 24 patients (M:F=9:15, mean age 46 years) at two separate medical institutions were retrospectively evaluated. Technical success was defined as complete occlusion of feeding arteries with no residual nidus seen on post-treatment angiography. Clinical failure was defined as recurrence of haematuria, presence of AVM on follow-up ultrasound or computed tomography, repeated RAE or surgery for the control of haematuria. Overall clinical success was defined as resolution haematuria or disappearance of AVM on follow-up imaging after single or multiple sessions of RAE. Results: Types of renal AVM were AVM, arterio-venous fistula (AVF) with intranidal aneurysm, and acquired AVF in 19, 1, and 4 patients, respectively. 18 patients (75%) underwent a single session of RAE, while 6 patients (25%) had two or more sessions of RAE. The level of embolisation was feeder, segmental artery, and main renal artery in 28 (90%), 2 (6%), and 1 (4%) procedures, respectively. Coil, n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate, and polyvinyl alcohol were the most frequently chosen embolic materials and were used in 19, 14, and 8 procedures, respectively. The clinical success rate after initial RAE was 67% (16/24). Overall clinical success rate, including multisession RAE, was 88% (21/24). The technical success rate of 31 procedures was 65% (20/31). Among 11 technical failures in 10 patients, 4 achieved clinical success without additional RAE, 3 underwent second session RAE to achieve clinical success, and 3 patients underwent nephrectomy due to recurrence. Conclusion: RAE is a safe and effective treatment for renal AVM. Technical failure of RAE does not always lead to clinical failure and multiple embolisation sessions may be

  7. Management of intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Jun C.

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital lesions that can cause serious neurological deficits or even death. They can manifest as intracranial hemorrhage, epileptic seizure, or other symptoms such as headache or tinnitus. They are detected by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Recently there have been significant developments in the management of AVMs. In this paper, the authors represent an overview of the epidemiology of AVMs and the existing treatment strategies. AVMs are ideally excised by standard microsurgical techniques. The grading scale which was proposed by Spetzler and Martin is widely used to estimate the risk of direct surgery. Stereotactic radiosurgery such as that using a gamma knife is very useful for small lesions located in eloquent areas. Technological advances in endovascular surgery have provided new alternatives in the treatment of AVMs. Currently indications for embolization can be divided into presurgical embolization in large AVMs to occlude deep arterial feeding vessels and embolization before stereotactic radiosurgery to reduce the size of the nidus. Palliative embolization can be also applied for patients with large, inoperable AVMs who are suffering from progressive neurological deficits secondary to venous hypertension and/or arterial steal phenomenon. (author)

  8. Management of intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Jun C [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital lesions that can cause serious neurological deficits or even death. They can manifest as intracranial hemorrhage, epileptic seizure, or other symptoms such as headache or tinnitus. They are detected by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Recently there have been significant developments in the management of AVMs. In this paper, the authors represent an overview of the epidemiology of AVMs and the existing treatment strategies. AVMs are ideally excised by standard microsurgical techniques. The grading scale which was proposed by Spetzler and Martin is widely used to estimate the risk of direct surgery. Stereotactic radiosurgery such as that using a gamma knife is very useful for small lesions located in eloquent areas. Technological advances in endovascular surgery have provided new alternatives in the treatment of AVMs. Currently indications for embolization can be divided into presurgical embolization in large AVMs to occlude deep arterial feeding vessels and embolization before stereotactic radiosurgery to reduce the size of the nidus. Palliative embolization can be also applied for patients with large, inoperable AVMs who are suffering from progressive neurological deficits secondary to venous hypertension and/or arterial steal phenomenon. (author)

  9. Neuropsychologic changes in patients with arterio-venous malformation (AVM) after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinvorth, S.; Wenz, F.; Wildermuth, S.; Fuss, M.; Debus, J.; Lohr, F.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Cerebral AVM are inborn malformations which may become symptomatic in young adult patients by hemorrhage, seizures or steal syndromes. Depending on size, location and drainage, there is a risk for rupture with potentially devastating consequences. Treatment options include neurosurgery, embolization or radiosurgery. The radiosensitivity of normal brain tissue is the main limitation for radiotherapy of CNS tumors. Improved treatment planning and irradiation techniques, however, minimize the dose to unaffected brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological effects of radiosurgical treatment in patients with cerebral AVM. Materials and Methods: Forty-four patients with cerebral arterio-venous malformations were included into the study. Patients with hemiparesis, aphasia or hemianopia were excluded from testing. The patients were examined the day before (n=44), acutely after radiosurgery (n=23) and during the regular follow-up (subacute phase n=21, chronic phase n=12). Radiosurgery was performed using a modified linear accelerator and either rotations of 9 non-coplanar arcs or 15 individually collimated, isocentric, non-coplanar fields. Doses of 15 - 22 Gy (median 20 Gy) were prescribed to the 80% isodose (minimum dose to the target volume). The dose to the total brain was calculated as 0.5 to 2 Gy depending on dose, location and size of the target volume. The neuropsychological testing was done using a computer assisted testing facility allowing standardized testing conditions. The extensive testing battery included assessment of general intelligence (shortened version Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Digit Symbol Test (DST), D2 test (D2), a letter cancellation test, a modified Trail Making Test A (ZVT), and the WDG measuring the reaction time in a complex signal-reaction-situation) and memory (Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Cube test). Testing during

  10. Splenic arteriovenous malformation manifested by thrombocytopenia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Yeong; Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyeong Jin [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by epistaxis, telangiectases and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung and cerebrum for HHT has been described, whereas little is known about AVMs of the spleen. We report here the radiological findings of a case of a splenic AVM manifested by thrombocytopenia in HHT.

  11. Splenic arteriovenous malformation manifested by thrombocytopenia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hee Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Yeong; Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyeong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by epistaxis, telangiectases and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung and cerebrum for HHT has been described, whereas little is known about AVMs of the spleen. We report here the radiological findings of a case of a splenic AVM manifested by thrombocytopenia in HHT

  12. Embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations using tracker catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Yong; Son, Mi Young; Jang, Jae Chun; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan

    1990-01-01

    With the recent advance in micro catheters, steerable guide wires, balloons, embolic materials and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), as well as technical refinements in endovascular surgery, there has been a revolution in therapeutic strategies for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We have performed super selective angiography and embolization with Tracker micro catheter about 12 cases of brain AVMs for therapeutic and preoperative aims. This micro catheter and guide wire provided high selectivity of feeding artery, greater maneuverability and useful for deliver various embolus materials

  13. UTERINE ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar Murthy; Kiran

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition, with less than 100 cases reported in the literature. Despite it being rare, it is a potentially life threatening disease. This case report describes 31- year-old women who presented with abnormal uterine bleeding. Trans abdominal sonography, colour and spectral Doppler imaging was performed, diagnosis was confirmed by non- invasive MRI scan. Laparoscopic bilateral uterine artery ligation was done successfully.

  14. Dural AVM (dAVM in Cowden disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Torres, DO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowden disease is a rare autosomal dominant disorder first described by Rachel Cowden in 1963 as one of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN gene hamartoma tumor syndromes. Commonly affecting multiple systems, patients typically have an increased risk of breast and thyroid cancers as well as macrocephaly and benign hamartomatous growths. Due to the benign nature of many of the symptoms, true prevalence is likely higher than reported rates. Malformations associated with PTEN gene lead to dysregulation of cell proliferation yielding increased risk of neoplasm and frequently benign growths. Associated dysregulation of angiogenesis may result in arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Intracranial AVMs may be asymptomatic. These AVMs present a risk of rupture and subsequent morbidity and mortality. Those with Cowden disease must be monitored for development of intracranial AVMs. Patients should be made aware that treatment for intracranial AVMs may be invasive and include serial embolization.

  15. Pathogenesis of arteriovenous malformations in the absence of endoglin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Marwa; Allinson, Kathleen R; Zhai, Zhenhua; Oakenfull, Rachael; Ghandi, Pranita; Adams, Ralf H; Fruttiger, Marcus; Arthur, Helen M

    2010-04-30

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) result in anomalous direct blood flow between arteries and veins, bypassing the normal capillary bed. Depending on size and location, AVMs may lead to severe clinical effects including systemic cyanosis (pulmonary AVMs), hemorrhagic stroke (cerebral AVMs) and high output cardiac failure (hepatic AVMs). The factors leading to AVM formation are poorly understood, but patients with the familial disease hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) develop AVMs at high frequency. As most HHT patients have mutations in ENG (endoglin) or ACVRL1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1), a better understanding of the role of these genes in vascular development is likely to reveal the etiology of AVM formation. Using a mouse with a conditional mutation in the Eng gene, we investigated the sequence of abnormal cellular events occurring during development of an AVM. In the absence of endoglin, subcutaneous Matrigel implants in adult mice were populated by reduced numbers of new blood vessels compared with controls, and resulted in local venous enlargement (venomegaly). To investigate abnormal vascular responses in more detail, we turned to the more readily accessible vasculature of the neonatal retina. Endoglin-deficient retinas exhibited delayed remodeling of the capillary plexus, increased proliferation of endothelial cells and localized AVMs. Muscularization of the resulting arteriovenous shunts appeared to be a secondary response to increased blood flow. AVMs develop when an angiogenic stimulus is combined with endoglin depletion. Moreover, AVM formation appears to result from the combination of delayed vascular remodeling and an inappropriate endothelial cell proliferation response in the absence of endoglin.

  16. Complications following linear accelerator based stereotactic radiation for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Roed, Henrik; Ohlhues, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Primarily, gamma knife centers are predominant in publishing results on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treatments including reports on risk profile. However, many patients are treated using a linear accelerator-most of these at smaller centers. Because this setting is different from a large...

  17. Is a Swine Model of Arteriovenous Malformation Suitable for Human Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation? A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Ming-ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com [Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China); Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China); Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)

    2013-10-15

    Objective: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. Methods: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. Results: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. Conclusions: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model.

  18. Is a Swine Model of Arteriovenous Malformation Suitable for Human Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation? A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Ming-ming; Fan, Xin-dong; Su, Li-xin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. Methods: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. Results: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. Conclusions: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model

  19. Assessment of neuropsychological changes in patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Wildermuth, Susanne; Lohr, Frank; Fuss, Martin; Debus, Juergen; Essig, Marco; Hacke, Werner; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate neuropsychological effects of radiosurgery in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), with special focus on attention and memory. This report describes the study setup and presents the first results during a follow-up of up to 1 year. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients were studied before, acutely after radiosurgery, and during the regular follow-up (subacute phase: Weeks 6-12, chronic phase: Months 6-12). Radiosurgery was performed using a modified linear accelerator (minimum doses to the target volume: 15-22 Gy, median 20 Gy). Estimated whole brain dose was 0.5 to 2 Gy. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine) and memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Benton Visual Retention Test). During follow-up, alternate test versions were used. Neuropsychological deficits were defined as a test score of at least one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the normal distribution. Results: The pretherapeutic evaluation revealed marked deviations from the normal population; 24% had deficits in intelligence (range 23-31% in different subtests), attention (35%, 23-59%) and memory (48%, 31-61%). The overall percentage of aberrant results was reduced by 12% (memory) to 14% (attention) in the chronic phase up to 12 months after therapy. The improvement in test scores was significant (p < 0.05) in 3 of 4 subtests of attention functions. Conclusions: The acute tolerance of radiosurgery seems to be very good in these patients, showing no relevant increase in number of patients with neuropsychological deficits. Although the long-term follow-up needs to be further increased, our data indicate a tendency to slight improvement in the overall neuropsychological performance of AVM patients in the chronic phase after radiosurgery

  20. Factors Associated With Proximal Intracranial Aneurysms to Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael Kerin; Alsahli, Khalid; Wiedmann, Markus; Assaad, Nazih N; Heller, Gillian Z

    2016-06-01

    The risk of hemorrhage from a brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is increased when an associated proximal intracranial aneurysm (APIA) is present. Identifying factors that are associated with APIA may influence the prediction of hemorrhage in patients with bAVM. To identify patient- and bAVM-specific factors associated with APIA. We analyzed a prospective database of bAVMs for factors associated with the presence of APIA. Factors analyzed included age, sex, bAVM size, aneurysm size, circulation contributing to the bAVM, location of the aneurysm, deep venous drainage, and Spetzler-Ponce categories. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify an association with APIA. Of 753 cases of bAVM with complete angiographic surveillance, 67 (9%) were found to have APIA. Older age (continuous variable; odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.05) and posterior circulation supply to the bAVM (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.99) were factors associated with increased detection of APIA. The association of posterior circulation-supplied bAVM was not due to infratentorial bAVM location because 72% of posterior circulation APIAs were supplying supratentorial bAVM. APIAs appear to develop with time, as evident from the increased age for those with APIAs. Furthermore, they were more likely present in bAVMs supplied by the posterior circulation. This may be due to a difference in hemodynamic stress. APIA, associated proximal intracranial aneurysmbAVM, brain arteriovenous malformationDSA, digital subtraction angiographySMG, Spetzler-Martin gradeSPC, Spetzler-Ponce category.

  1. Transcatheter coil embolisation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingen, M.; Guenther, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of technical success, complications and long-term results of transcatheter coil embolisation in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs). Material and Methods: Transcatheter embolisations of 46 pAVMs in 14 patients were analysed retrospectively, and, 5 years after treatment, the patients were interviewed by telefone concerning persistent symptoms and complications. Main symptoms before embolisation were dyspnoe (86%), hypoxaemia (100%), cerebral ischemia (21%), and hemoptysis (14%); 11 patients (79%) suffered from hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Results: Embolisation with an average of 3,9 coils (min. 1, max. 19 coils) per pAVM yielded technical success in all cases. Only two minor complications, transitory pleuritis and a small lung infarction were observed. On follow up examination after 5 years either no residual complaints or substantial improvement of dyspnoe were reported; no patient suffered from neurologic or hemorrhagic complications after the embolisation. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolisation is a safe and minimally invasive therapy for pAVMs and has rightfully replaced surgical resection as the therapy of choice. (orig.) [de

  2. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations. the relationship between clinical related events and rCBF SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Bo; Shi Xiangen

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between clinical related events and rCBF SPECT imaging in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the radioactive counting difference between normal and lesion site was divided by regional pixel considered as ischemic index (II). II was measured in 20 AVM cases and compared with patients' age, sex,neurological history and the size of lesions. The degree of rCBF reduction correlated with clinical neurological manifestation and showed no significant relationship with the age, sex and size of malformed vessels. II in patients with seizures was higher than that in patients with hemorrhage. The rCBF SPECT imaging may be useful for evaluation of the hemodynamics in AVMs

  3. Hemangiomas versus arterio-venous malformations: Role of elastic stains and mast cell density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Pawane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Vascular anomalies present diagnostic challenges to histopathologists. Mulliken and Glowacki′s classification categorizes vascular lesions into hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Aim: This study explored diagnostic clues in the histomorphology of hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 cases of benign vascular lesions were retrieved from 12 years period. A total of 94 cases, where complete clinical details and representative paraffin sections were available, were included in this study. Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain and Verhoeff′s stain for elastic tissue were done on all cases and lesions were classified into hemangiomas or arterio-venous malformations (AVM. Mast cell density in all lesions was calculated from toluidine blue stained sections. Results: Ten cases of hemangiomas were reclassified as AVM on the basis of presence and absence of arteriovenous structures. Intra-lesional nerves were seen in significantly higher number of AVMs compared to hemangiomas. Medium and thick sized nerve bundles were seen in 56% of AVMs, while they were not seen in any of the hemangiomas. Mean mast cell density was significantly higher in proliferating hemangiomas (53.12 ± 27.83 cells/mm 2 compared to involuting hemangiomas (11.43 ± 7.9 cells/mm 2 . Conclusions: Use of elastic tissue stains are useful ancillary tools to distinguish between AVMs and hemangiomas. The presence of arteries and arterioles are an integral part of AVMs. The presence of the intra-lesional nerves can be useful to distinguish between AVMs and hemangiomas even on H and E stained sections. The significantly higher mast cell density seen in proliferating hemangiomas compared with involuting ones, seem to suggest that mast cells play an important role in the natural history of these lesions.

  4. Complications following linear accelerator based stereotactic radiation for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Roed, Henrik; Ohlhues, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Primarily, gamma knife centers are predominant in publishing results on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treatments including reports on risk profile. However, many patients are treated using a linear accelerator-most of these at smaller centers. Because this setting is different from a large...... gamma knife center, the risk profile at Linac departments could be different from the reported experience. Prescribed radiation doses are dependent on AVM volume. This study details results from a medium sized Linac department center focusing on risk profiles....

  5. Stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Levy, R.P.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lyman, J.T.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.

    1989-12-01

    One of the more challenging problems of vascular neurosurgery is the management of surgically-inaccessible arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we have developed the method of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle (helium-ion) Bragg peak radiosurgery for treatment of inoperable intracranial AVMs in over 300 patients since 1980 [Fabrikant et al. 1989, Fabrikant et al. 1985, Levy et al. 1989]. This report describes patient selection, treatment method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered. 4 refs

  6. An Unusual Case Of Urinary Bladder Arteriovenous Malformation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gnanappiragasam, D

    2016-07-01

    A 45-year-old male presented with haematuria and urinary frequency. Computed Tomography (CT) urogram revealed gross thickening of the left bladder wall. Histology showed large vessels cuffed by eosinophonilic material suggestive of urinary bladder arteriovenous malformation (AVM). No further intervention was carried out as symptoms resolve after the resection. Follow up rigid cystoscopy and CT at 3 months showed resolution of all visible pathology and no evidence of recurrence.

  7. Pressure measurements in arterial feeders of brain arteriovenous malformations before and after endovascular embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkes, H.; Gotwald, T.F.; Brew, S.; Kaemmerer, F.; Miloslavski, E.; Kuehne, D.

    2004-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are composed of abnormal arterial and venous vessels in the brain causing arteriovenous shunts of arterialized blood directly from pial arteries to draining veins. The hemodynamics of these lesions is not well-understood. Changes in blood flow and pressure are probably related to the natural history of AVMs and may also play a major role in AVM treatment. In this study intra-arterial pressure was measured in feeding arteries of AVMs using a microcatheter that had been placed for subsequent embolization treatment (201 measurements were performed in 95 patients before and after the embolization procedure). Results show a direct relationship between pressure changes and degree of embolization. Since pressure changes during the embolization procedure are relatively small, it seems unlikely that these changes are the direct cause of rupture and periprocedural bleedings. (orig.)

  8. Revascularization of brain arteriovenous malformations after embolization with brucrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 49 - Angers; Terbrugge, K.; Lasjaunias, P.; Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre; Rodesch, G.

    1990-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1988, 52 brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were embolized in the Radiology Department of the Toronto Western Hospital. 9 were localized in the occipital lobe. There was angiographic follow-up ranging from one to four years. Two embolized AMVs, both occipital, showed revascularisation at 6 months and two years respectively. In one case the embolization had resulted in a complete obliteration of the AVM. In the other, the nidus was reduced by 95%. It is suggested that the occipital lobe, because of its rich vascularity, is more prone than other parts of the brain to produce intense collateralization leading indirectly to resupply of embolized AVMs. Existence of these collaterals may also explain the rarity of visual defects in occipital AVMs. These cases confirm the need for post therapeutic angiographic controls to assess the stability of the results obtain. (orig.)

  9. Susceptibility loci for sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation; a replication study and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P.H.; Koeleman, B.P.C.; Rinkel, G.J.; Diekstra, F.P.; Berg, L.H. van den; Veldink, J.H.; Klijn, C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Case-control studies have reported multiple genetic loci to be associated with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) but most of these have not been replicated in independent populations. The aim of this study was to find additional evidence for these reported associations

  10. Colonic arteriovenous malformation in a child misinterpreted as an idiopathic colonic varicosis on angiography: remarks on current classification of childhood intestinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defreyne, L.; Meersschaut, V.; Damme, S. van; Praet, M.; Berrevoet, F.; Robberecht, E.

    2003-01-01

    A case of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a child caused by an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the colon is presented. On diagnostic angiography, the lesion was misinterpretated as an idiopathic colonic varicosis because none of the characteristic features of an AVM were present. The role of angiography and shortcomings in nomenclature and classification of intestinal vascular anomalies in childhood are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Prediction of complications in Gamma Knife radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lax, I.; Karlsson, B.

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of complications following radiosurgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is presented. A simple relationship exists between average dose and risk of complications, and on this basis a model is presented that gives a qualitatively correct description of this relationship. The parameters of the model have been determined using a clinical material of 862 AVM treatments to give a quantitativley correct description of the risk of complications. The dose-response curve is described by a double-exponential function. An accurate description of the dose-response curve at high dose levels is shown to be very important in radiosurgery. (orig.)

  12. Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Edwin van der; Baalen, Jary M. van; Pattynama, Peter M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

  13. Combined embolization and gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.Y.; Wikholm, G.; Karlsson, B.; Lindquist, C.; Svendsen, P.; Ericson, K.

    1993-01-01

    In a study of 46 patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) the value of combining embolization and gamma knife radiosurgery was assessed. In 35 patients with large grade III to V AVMs (Spetzler-Martin system) staged combined treatment was planned. In 11 patients, radiosurgery complemented embolization for a residual AVM. The number of embolization sessions ranged from 1 to 7 (median 2). Twenty-six patients needed multiple embolization sessions. In 28 patients the grade of AVMs decreased as a result of embolization. In 16 patients collateral feeding vessels developed after embolization which made delineation of the residual nidus difficult. The time lag between the last embolization and radiosurgery ranged from 1 to 24 months (median 4). Nineteen of 35 large grade III to V AVMs were possible to treat by radiosurgery following embolization. In the 46 patients complications occurred in 9 from embolization and in 2 from radiosurgery. Two patients had transient and 9 had permanent neurologic deficits. It is concluded that embolization facilitates radiosurgery for some large AVMs and therefore this combined treatment has a role in the management of AVMs. (orig.)

  14. MR findings of cerebral arteriovenous malformations associated with hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro (National Defence Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    This study was developed to assess the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) associated with hemorrhage. MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 10 patients (age 8 to 60 years) who had an AVM with intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhage. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T obtaining T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted spin-echo images with a slice thickness of 5 mm, and a slice interval of 0-5 mm. The AVM was detected on MR in seven patients (70%), while enhanced CT was positive in six of eight patients (75%). In six patients in whom both the AVM and intracerebral hematoma (ICH) were depicted on MR, the nidi were located not inside but adjacent to the ICH. In three patients, MR disclosed a thin subdural hematoma (SDH) which was not noted on CT. There is little difference in the detectability of AVMs by MR and enhanced CT. However, MR clearly demonstrates the anatomic relationship to associated ICH. A non-traumatic SDH with an ICH demonstrated on MR may indicate the presence of an AVM even when the AVM itself is not apparent. (author).

  15. Arteriovenous malformations of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Shiro; Yoshida, Shinzo; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the cervical spinal cord has been known to constitute 5-13% of all spinal AVMs. In contrast to the AVMs located in thoracic or thoraco-lumbar regions, cervical AVM has several characteristic features such as preponderance in younger generation, high incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intramedullary location of the nidus usually fed by the anterior spinal arterial system. We reported three cases of cervical AVMs, which located intramedullary at the levels of C 4 -C 6 , C 1 -C 4 and C 1 -C 2 , respectively. Although selective angiography (vertebral artery, thyrocervical artery, costocervical artery) was essential for the diagnosis of these lesions, computerized tomographic (CT) study with both intrathecal injection of metrizamide and intravenous infusion of contrast material (dynamic and static study) was found to be extremely advantageous in detecting the topography of AVMs in the concerned horizontal planes of the spinal cord. Removal of AVM was given up in one case because of its possible involvement of the anterior spinal artery and central artery shown by CT scan. Removal of AVMs were performed in other two cases. A lateral approach was tried in one case with the AVM located in C 1 -C 2 level, in which CT scan revealed not only an intramedullary but the associated extramedullary AVM in ventrolateral surface of the spinal cord. This operative approach was found to involve less bone removal and markedly reduce spinal cord manipulation necessary to deal with ventrally situated high cervical lesions, compared with a posterior approach with laminectomy. (author)

  16. Molecular and cellular biology of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a review of current concepts and future trends in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Russin, Jonathan J; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Soriano-Baron, Hector; Spetzler, Robert F; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are classically described as congenital static lesions. However, in addition to rupturing, AVMs can undergo growth, remodeling, and regression. These phenomena are directly related to cellular, molecular, and physiological processes. Understanding these relationships is essential to direct future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The authors performed a search of the contemporary literature to review current information regarding the molecular and cellular biology of AVMs and how this biology will impact their potential future management. A PubMed search was performed using the key words "genetic," "molecular," "brain," "cerebral," "arteriovenous," "malformation," "rupture," "management," "embolization," and "radiosurgery." Only English-language papers were considered. The reference lists of all papers selected for full-text assessment were reviewed. Current concepts in genetic polymorphisms, growth factors, angiopoietins, apoptosis, endothelial cells, pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, medical treatment (including tetracycline and microRNA-18a), radiation therapy, endovascular embolization, and surgical treatment as they apply to AVMs are discussed. Understanding the complex cellular biology, physiology, hemodynamics, and flow-related phenomena of AVMs is critical for defining and predicting their behavior, developing novel drug treatments, and improving endovascular and surgical therapies.

  17. Massive Left-sided Congestive Colitis Due to Idiopathic Inferior Mesenteric Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martí Gelonch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVM of the inferior mesenteric artery are rare. They may be primary (congenital or idiopathic or secondary (acquired after trauma or of iatrogenic origin. Of the abdominal AVM, the inferior mesenteric trunk is the least commonly involved. Most reported cases are of iatrogenic origin, resulting from colon surgery. Only 17 cases have been described and published in the literature. The objective of this work is to make known a case treated in our center. We present a case of 73-year old male, who came to the emergency service with symptoms of abdominal distension, pain lasting 48 hours along with months of diarrhoea. CT scan and an abdominal CT angiography showed a massive left-sided congestive colitis due to idiopathic inferior mesenteric arteriovenous malformation. In our case, the decision was to carry out the treatment in two stages. Embolisation was performed in the first stage in order to decrease the blood flow and the risk of intraoperative bleeding, followed by resective surgery of the affected colon.

  18. Ethanol embolization of auricular arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xindong; Zheng Lianzhou; Yi Hongying; Su Lixin; Zheng Jiawei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present the authors' initial experience of treating auricular arteriovenous malformations(AVMs) with ethanol embolization and to assess the clinical effectiveness of this therapeutic method. Methods: Twenty-two patients with AVMs were enrolled in this study. Through local puncturing or super-selective catheterization the absolute ethanol,or diluted alcohol (based on the pattern of the AVMs), was manually injected into the abnormal vascular plexus of the auricular lesion. The clinical results were estimated with physical examination or angiography at intervals of 3-4 month, and telephone questionnaire was made at monthly intervals for all patients. Results: Thirty-eight ethanol embolization procedures were performed, the amount of ethanol used during the procedure ranged from 4 ml to 65 ml. After the treatment the clinical symptoms were improved, which were manifested as healing of the ulceration, stop of bleeding, disappearing or alleviation of tinnitus. Angiographic examination showed that the abnormal vascular lesion was completely vanished in 9 cases, decreased by 50%-75% in 8 cases and decreased less than 50% in remaining 5 cases. The common complications included irreversible local necrosis and vesiculation. Conclusion: For the treatment of auricular AVMs ethanol embolization is an effective and safe method,which might become the therapy of first choice. (authors)

  19. Ethanol embolization of auricular arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xindong, Fan; Lianzhou, Zheng [Department of Interventional Radiology, the Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai (China); Hongying, Yi; Lixin, Su; Jiawei, Zheng

    2009-11-15

    Objective: To present the authors' initial experience of treating auricular arteriovenous malformations(AVMs) with ethanol embolization and to assess the clinical effectiveness of this therapeutic method. Methods: Twenty-two patients with AVMs were enrolled in this study. Through local puncturing or super-selective catheterization the absolute ethanol,or diluted alcohol (based on the pattern of the AVMs), was manually injected into the abnormal vascular plexus of the auricular lesion. The clinical results were estimated with physical examination or angiography at intervals of 3-4 month, and telephone questionnaire was made at monthly intervals for all patients. Results: Thirty-eight ethanol embolization procedures were performed, the amount of ethanol used during the procedure ranged from 4 ml to 65 ml. After the treatment the clinical symptoms were improved, which were manifested as healing of the ulceration, stop of bleeding, disappearing or alleviation of tinnitus. Angiographic examination showed that the abnormal vascular lesion was completely vanished in 9 cases, decreased by 50%-75% in 8 cases and decreased less than 50% in remaining 5 cases. The common complications included irreversible local necrosis and vesiculation. Conclusion: For the treatment of auricular AVMs ethanol embolization is an effective and safe method,which might become the therapy of first choice. (authors)

  20. Successful Pregnancy with a Full-Term Vaginal Delivery One Year After n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Embolization of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, Colleen C.; Kim, Hyun S.

    2006-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) causes significant morbidity with vaginal bleeding. Traditional therapy is a hysterectomy with no potential for future pregnancy. We present a case of successful superselective embolization of uterine AVM using n-butyl cyanoacrylate with subsequent normal term pregnancy and uncomplicated vaginal delivery in 1 year

  1. Extensive white matter changes after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain arteriovenous malformations: a prognostic sign for obliteration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, R.; Buis, D. R.; Lagerwaard, F. J.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; Vandertop, W. P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Perinidal high-signal-intensity changes on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be seen surrounding radiosurgically treated brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Occasionally, these signal intensity changes develop far beyond the irradiated volume. A retrospective analysis of

  2. Extensive White Matter Changes After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Prognostic Sign for Obliteration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, R.; Buis, D.R.; Lagerwaard, F.J.; Nijeholt, G.J.L.A.; Vandertop, W.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Perinidal high-signal-intensity changes on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be seen surrounding radiosurgically treated brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Occasionally, these signal intensity changes develop far beyond the irradiated volume. A retrospective analysis of

  3. Cerebral arterio-venous malformations at Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Nacional Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rabanal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A review of 50 cases with cerebral arterio.venous malformations (AVM) treated since Junly 1988 through December 1992 in the Neurosurgery Service from Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital was done. Clinical records, surgical techniques and pre- and post-operative studies were evaluted by retrospective analysis. The more important results were the frecuency of presentations in male patients from the coast, the clinical onset with intracraneal hemorrhage, the operative technique of drain...

  4. The rationale and technique of staged-volume arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Bruce E.; Kline, Robert W.; Stafford, Scott L.; Foote, Robert L.; Schomberg, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective management strategy for properly selected arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients. However, the risk of postradiosurgical radiation-related injury generally limits this procedure to patients with AVMs of an average diameter of 3 cm or less. Radiosurgery of large AVMs in a planned staged fashion was undertaken to limit the radiation exposure to the surrounding normal brain. Methods and Materials: Between April 1997 and December 1999, 10 patients with a median AVM volume of 17.4 cm 3 (range, 7.4-53.3 cm 3 ) underwent staged-volume radiosurgery (23 procedures). At the first radiosurgical procedure, the total volume of the AVM is estimated and a dose plan calculated that covers 10 cm 3 -15 cm 3 , or one-half the nidus volume if the AVM is critically located (brainstem, thalamus, or basal ganglia). At 6-month intervals thereafter, radiosurgery was repeated to different portions of the AVM with the previous dose plan(s) being re-created utilizing intracranial landmarks to minimize radiation overlap. Radiosurgical procedures were continued until the entire malformation has been irradiated. Results: The radiation dosimetry of staged-volume AVM radiosurgery was compared to hypothetical single-session procedures for the 10 patients. Staged-volume radiosurgery decreased the 12-Gy volume by an average of 11.1% (range, 4.9-21%) (p < 0.001). The non-AVM 12-Gy volume was reduced by an average of 27.2% (range, 12.5-51.3%) (p < 0.001). Discussion: Staged-volume radiosurgery of large AVMs results in less radiation exposure to the adjacent brain. Further follow-up is needed to determine whether this technique provides a high rate of AVM obliteration while maintaining an acceptable rate of radiation-related complications

  5. Radiosurgery for brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorzeff, I.; Schlienger, M.; Sabatier, J.; Borius, P.Y.; Lotterie, J.A.; Bourdin, S.; Menegalli, D.; Cognard, C.; Januel, A.C.; Desal, H.; Debono, B.; Blond, S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiosurgery as treatment for arteriovenous malformations has shown a good efficacy in reducing intracranial bleeding due to rupture. The choice of therapeutic modalities is based on evolutive risk and arteriovenous malformations volume, patient profile and risks stratification following therapeutic techniques (microsurgery, radiosurgery, embolization). Nidus size, arteriovenous malformations anatomical localization, prior embolization or bleeding, distributed dose are predictive factors for radio-surgery's good results and tolerance. This review article will highlight arteriovenous malformations radiosurgery indications and discuss recent irradiation alternatives for large arteriovenous malformation volumes. (authors)

  6. Endovascular treatment of brain-stem arteriovenous malformations: safety and efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.M.; Wang, Y.H.; Chen, Y.F.; Huang, K.M. [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, 10016, Taipei (Taiwan); Tu, Y.K. [Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, 1001, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2003-09-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment of brain-stem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), reviewing six cases managed in the last 5 years. There were four patients who presented with bleeding, one with a progressive neurological deficit and one with obstructive hydrocephalus. Of the six patients, one showed 100%, one 90%, two 75% and two about 50% angiographic obliteration of the AVM after embolisation; the volume decreased about 75% on average. Five patients had a good outcome and one an acceptable outcome, with a mild postprocedure neurological deficit; none had further bleeding during midterm follow-up. Endovascular management of a brain-stem AVM may be an alternative to treatment such as radiosurgery and microsurgery in selected cases. It may be not as risky as previously thought. Embolisation can reduce the size of the AVM and possibly make it more treatable by radiosurgery and decrease the possibility of radiation injury. (orig.)

  7. Spontaneous regression of brain arteriovenous malformations--a clinical study and a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, Dennis R.; van den Berg, René; Lycklama, Geert; van der Worp, H. Bart; Dirven, Clemens M. F.; Vandertop, W. Peter

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Complete spontaneous obliteration of a brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare event, with 67 angiographically proven cases in the world literature. We present a new case and a systematic literature review to determine possible mechanisms underlying this unusual

  8. Target delineation in radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.Y.; Nordell, B.; Karlsson, B.; Soederman, M.; Lindqvist, M.; Ericson, K.; Franck, A.; Lax, I.; Lindquist, C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of 6 selected arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients was performed to investigate the feasibility of delineating an AVM on MR images and to compare the AVM volume outlined on different images. Conventional stereotaxic angiograms, stereotaxic MR images and MR angiograms using several different pulse sequences were obtained prior to radiosurgery. Treatment plans were made from the conventional stereotaxic angiograms. These plans were then transferred to a separate dose planning computer which displayed the MR images with the superimposed isodose lines. The radiated volumes of AVM and brain tissue were measured from these MR images. Last, an assessment was made of the radiation volume needed for an appropriate treatment of the AVM if the treatment plan was made from the MR images rather than from the conventional stereotaxic angiogram. It was possible to delineate medium and large size AVM nidi on stereotaxic MR images based on an integration of information obtained from various pulse sequences. The estimated volumes of the AVM nidi were found to be larger on the conventional stereotaxic angiograms than on the stereotaxic MR images. Consequently, a dose plan based on a conventional stereotaxic angiogram would result in a higher integral dose to the brain with the same target dose. By using reliable MR information it is expected that the volume of brain exposed to radiation could be decreased and the adverse effects of stereotactic radiosurgery for AVM thereby minimized. (orig.)

  9. Direct Puncture Embolization of Scalp Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with Severe Hemophilia A: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong; Park, Bong Jin; Kim, Keon Ha

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of scalp arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a patient with severe hemophilia A. The 22-year-old man presented with a pulsatile right parietal scalp mass. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an AVM in the right parietal scalp, supplied by superficial temporal and occipital arteries that drained into multiple venous structures. We successfully performed direct puncture embolization followed by surgical resection of the scalp AVM in conjunction with supplemental infusion of coagulation factor VIII before, during and after the embolization and the operation.

  10. Direct Puncture Embolization of Scalp Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with Severe Hemophilia A: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Jin [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha [Dept. of Radiology, Samsug Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We present a case of scalp arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a patient with severe hemophilia A. The 22-year-old man presented with a pulsatile right parietal scalp mass. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an AVM in the right parietal scalp, supplied by superficial temporal and occipital arteries that drained into multiple venous structures. We successfully performed direct puncture embolization followed by surgical resection of the scalp AVM in conjunction with supplemental infusion of coagulation factor VIII before, during and after the embolization and the operation.

  11. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.

  12. Analysis of angiography findings in cerebral arteriovenous malformations: Correlation with hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Jung, Jin Myung; Ha, Choong Kun; Chung, Sung Hoon [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is the most serious complication of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). To identify angiographic characteristics of AVM which correlate with a history of hemorrhage, we retrospectively analyzed angiographic findings of 25 patients with AVM. Nine characteristic were evaluated; these include nidus size, location, arterial aneurysm, intranidal aneurysm, angiomatous change, venous drainage pattern, venous stenosis, delayed drainage and venous ectasia. The characteristic were correlated with hemorrhage,which was seen in 18 (72%) patients on CT or MR images. Venous stenosis (P<0.5) and delaved venous drainage (P<0.5) well correlated with a history of hemorrhage. Arterial aneurysm and intranidal aneurysm also had a tendency hemorrhage although they did not prove to be statistically significant. Detailed analysis of angiographic finding of AVM is important for recognition of characteristic which are related to hemorrhage and may contribute to establishing a prognosis and treatment planning.

  13. Intra-arterial angio-CT for radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanami, Yutaka; Kunieda, Etsuo; Onozuka, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    Intra-arterial CT-angiograms were performed for four patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Helical and dynamic CT scans were carried out with a scanner installed in a angiographic examination room following routine angiography. Helical scans were performed with continuous arterial infusion of contrast media. Then, dynamic scans were repeated at several table positions. Subtractions were achieved for a post-embolization case. Normal and pathological vascular structures were demonstrated with different enhancement phases with the dynamic scans. The coordinates of the target points in the nidus could be clearly determined. We concluded that intra-arterial CT-angiograms are practical and useful for treatment planning of radiosurgery for cerebral AVM. (author)

  14. Intra-arterial angio-CT for radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanami, Yutaka; Kunieda, Etsuo; Onozuka, Satoshi [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan) School of Medicine] [and others

    1998-08-01

    Intra-arterial CT-angiograms were performed for four patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Helical and dynamic CT scans were carried out with a scanner installed in a angiographic examination room following routine angiography. Helical scans were performed with continuous arterial infusion of contrast media. Then, dynamic scans were repeated at several table positions. Subtractions were achieved for a post-embolization case. Normal and pathological vascular structures were demonstrated with different enhancement phases with the dynamic scans. The coordinates of the target points in the nidus could be clearly determined. We concluded that intra-arterial CT-angiograms are practical and useful for treatment planning of radiosurgery for cerebral AVM. (author)

  15. Recurrence of a paediatric arteriovenous malformation 9 years postcomplete excision: case report and review of literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a common congenital vascular anomaly, which often present in both children and adults. Surgery is considered curative once postoperative angiography confirms the absence of vessels. We describe a 6-year-old girl, who had a Spetzler-Martin Grade II AVM resected successfully, in which a recurrent AVM was detected on routine follow-up over 9 years post excision. The aetiopathogenesis of this rare occurrence with a review of literature is discussed. Long-term postoperative follow-up in the form of MRI\\/MR angiogram is recommended for all fully resected AVMs in the paediatric age group, anticipating the possibility of future recurrence.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute: How the Heart Works National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Arteriovenous Malformation Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Arteriovenous Malformation Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation ...

  17. Arterio-venous malformations in childhood: clinical presentation, results after operative treatment and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, W; Kessel, G; Schwarz, M; Voth, D

    1989-01-01

    In a series of 182 arterio-venous malformations (AVM) recently published we found 33 children aged 1 to 16 years. In 28 cases, the admitting condition was hemorrhage. For 31 AVMs total excision was possible. We observed one postoperative death accounting for a mortality of 3%. All children but two were followed-up by personal examination. Two were not able to work due to severe neurological deficits and seven had not been able to get into their intended occupation.

  18. Epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and prognostic classifications of cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozpinar, Alp; Mendez, Gustavo; Abla, Adib A

    2017-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are vascular deformities involving fistula formation of arterial to venous structures without an intervening capillary bed. Such anomalies can prove fatal as the high arterial flow can disrupt the integrity of venous walls, thus leading to dangerous sequelae such as hemorrhage. Diagnosis of these lesions in the central nervous system can often prove challenging as intracranial AVMs represent a heterogeneous vascular pathology with various presentations and symptomatology. The literature suggests that most brain AVMs (bAVMs) are identified following evaluation of the etiology of acute cerebral hemorrhage, or incidentally on imaging associated with seizure or headache workup. Given the low incidence of this disease, most of the data accrued on this pathology comes from single-center experiences. This chapter aims to distill the most important information from these studies as well as examine meta-analyses on bAVMs in order to provide a comprehensive introduction into the natural history, classification, genetic underpinnings of disease, and proposed pathophysiology. While there is yet much to be elucidated about AVMs of the central nervous system, we aim to provide an overview of bAVM etiology, classification, genetics, and pathophysiology inherent to the disease process. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modern radiosurgical and endovascular classification schemes for brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-05-04

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and endovascular techniques are commonly used for treating brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). They are usually used as ancillary techniques to microsurgery but may also be used as solitary treatment options. Careful patient selection requires a clear estimate of the treatment efficacy and complication rates for the individual patient. As such, classification schemes are an essential part of patient selection paradigm for each treatment modality. While the Spetzler-Martin grading system and its subsequent modifications are commonly used for microsurgical outcome prediction for bAVMs, the same system(s) may not be easily applicable to SRS and endovascular therapy. Several radiosurgical- and endovascular-based grading scales have been proposed for bAVMs. However, a comprehensive review of these systems including a discussion on their relative advantages and disadvantages is missing. This paper is dedicated to modern classification schemes designed for SRS and endovascular techniques.

  20. Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Involving the Duodenum Embolized with Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Luppi, Giacomo; Faiella, Eliodoro; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Giurazza, Francesco [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of Radiology (Italy); Borzomati, Domenico; Coppola, Roberto [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of General Surgery (Italy); Beomonte Zobel, Bruno [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas is a rare condition. Most patients are asymptomatic or alternatively may present with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Traditionally, surgery has been considered the treatment of choice; however, alternative approaches, such as transcatheter embolization (TAE), may be proposed. We report a case of a 48-year-old man with a pancreatic head AVM, presenting with upper abdominal pain and slight anemia. The patient refused surgery and underwent TAE by means of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). At 3 months follow-up, the patient was able to eat regularly, with no residual pain and no signs of anemia.

  1. MR-angiogram-added surface anatomy scanning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Hachiya, Junichi [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Shiokawa, Yoshiaki [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of surface anatomy scanning (SAS) of the brain with superimposition of MR angiograms in the diagnosis and presurgical planning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We performed SAS in 15 patients with superficial cerebral AVMs. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MR angiograms were then obtained in the same section and superimposed on the SAS images. The images were assessed regarding the visualization of each AVM component using a four-point grading scale (3=excellent to 0=poor). In 13 of the patients, the assessment was made comparing with conventional angiograms. The images were also compared with the surgical findings in 5 patients. The added images agreed well with the angiographic findings and demonstrated the relationships between the AVM components and the adjacent brain surface. The average scores of the feeder(s), nidus, and drainer(s) were 2.27, 2.33, and 2.67, respectively. The surgical findings also correlated well with the added images. Our technique can noninvasively demonstrate superficial AVMs along with the brain surface and provide information useful for planning surgery. (orig.)

  2. MR-angiogram-added surface anatomy scanning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Hachiya, Junichi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of surface anatomy scanning (SAS) of the brain with superimposition of MR angiograms in the diagnosis and presurgical planning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We performed SAS in 15 patients with superficial cerebral AVMs. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MR angiograms were then obtained in the same section and superimposed on the SAS images. The images were assessed regarding the visualization of each AVM component using a four-point grading scale (3=excellent to 0=poor). In 13 of the patients, the assessment was made comparing with conventional angiograms. The images were also compared with the surgical findings in 5 patients. The added images agreed well with the angiographic findings and demonstrated the relationships between the AVM components and the adjacent brain surface. The average scores of the feeder(s), nidus, and drainer(s) were 2.27, 2.33, and 2.67, respectively. The surgical findings also correlated well with the added images. Our technique can noninvasively demonstrate superficial AVMs along with the brain surface and provide information useful for planning surgery. (orig.)

  3. Percutaneous transfermoral embolization of intracerebral arteriovenous malformation by using conventional catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, In Wook; Park, Soo Sung; Yoon, Jung Sup; Lim, Hyo Keun; Lee, Kyu Ho; Eoh, Whan

    1988-01-01

    Non-surgical transfermoral embolization of centrally located huge intracerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was successfully performed by using conventional 6.5F DAVIS II Catheter in the department of Radiology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, May 17, 1988. The large A.V.M. was located in left basal ganglia and thalamus on brain C.T. and was supplied by multiple dilated lateral lenticulostriate arteries from left middle cerebral artery and posterior thalamoperforating artery, posterior choroidal artery from left posterior cerebral artery angiographically. The AVM was partially obliterated after embolization of lateral lenticulostriate arteries and thalamoperforating artery with P.V.A. (Polyvinyl Alcohol, ivalon) using conventional 6.5F DAVIS II angiographic catheter. There was no complication which was related to those embolization procedures except transient drowsy consciousness after embolization but it is completely recovered to the level of preembolization state after 10 hours.

  4. Generalized pixel profiling and comparative segmentation with application to arteriovenous malformation segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, D; Pižurica, A; Bellens, R; De Bock, J; Shang, Y; Goossens, B; Vansteenkiste, E; Philips, W

    2012-07-01

    Extraction of structural and geometric information from 3-D images of blood vessels is a well known and widely addressed segmentation problem. The segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is of great importance in diagnostic and clinical applications, with a special application in diagnostics and surgery on arteriovenous malformations (AVM). However, the techniques addressing the problem of the AVM inner structure segmentation are rare. In this work we present a novel method of pixel profiling with the application to segmentation of the 3-D angiography AVM images. Our algorithm stands out in situations with low resolution images and high variability of pixel intensity. Another advantage of our method is that the parameters are set automatically, which yields little manual user intervention. The results on phantoms and real data demonstrate its effectiveness and potentials for fine delineation of AVM structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multistage stereotactic radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations using the Gamma Knife platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chuxiong; Hrycushko, Brian; Whitworth, Louis; Li, Xiang; Nedzi, Lucien; Weprin, Bradley; Abdulrahman, Ramzi; Welch, Babu; Jiang, Steve B; Wardak, Zabi; Timmerman, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    Radiosurgery is an established technique to treat cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Obliteration of larger AVMs (> 10-15 cm 3 or diameter > 3 cm) in a single session is challenging with current radiosurgery platforms due to toxicity. We present a novel technique of multistage stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for large intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) using the Gamma Knife system. Eighteen patients with large (> 10-15 cm 3 or diameter > 3 cm) AVMs, which were previously treated using a staged SRS technique on the Cyberknife platform, were retrospectively selected for this study. The AVMs were contoured and divided into 3-8 subtargets to be treated sequentially in a staged approach at half to 4 week intervals. The prescription dose ranged from 15 Gy to 20 Gy, depending on the subtarget number, volume, and location. Gamma Knife plans using multiple collimator settings were generated and optimized. The coordinates of each shot from the initial plan covering the total AVM target were extracted based on their relative positions within the frame system. The shots were regrouped based on their location with respect to the subtarget contours to generate subplans for each stage. The delivery time of each shot for a subtarget was decay corrected with 60 Co for staging the treatment course to generate the same dose distribution as that planned for the total AVM target. Conformality indices and dose-volume analysis were performed to evaluate treatment plans. With the shot redistribution technique, the composite dose for the multistaged treatment of multiple subtargets is equivalent to the initial plan for total AVM target. Gamma Knife plans resulted in an average PTV coverage of 96.3 ± 0.9% and a PITV of 1.23 ± 0.1. The resulting Conformality indices, V 12Gy and R 50 dose spillage values were 0.76 ± 0.05, 3.4 ± 1.8, and 3.1 ± 0.5 respectively. The Gamma Knife system can deliver a multistaged conformal dose to treat large AVMs when correcting for

  6. Overall outcomes following early interventions for intracranial arteriovenous malformations with hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy Kumar; Konar, Subhas; Nanda, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the timing and predictors of surgical intervention for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with hematoma. A ruptured intracranial AVM with hematoma is an emergency condition, and the optimal timing for surgical intervention is not well understood. In addition, the outcome predictors of surgical intervention have rarely been reported. We identified and analyzed 78 patients treated with microsurgical resection for pathologically proven AVM at Louisiana State University Health in Shreveport from February 1992 to December 2004. All 78 patients were diagnosed with ruptured AVM before surgery. The independent variables, including patient demographics, timing of surgery, location of the AVM and comorbidities were analyzed to assess outcome. The results of this series revealed that surgical intervention after 48hours resulted in poor outcomes for patients with hematoma, following a ruptured AVM. Several other prognostic factors, including younger age (11-40years), Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II, and AVM in a supratentorial location, had significant positive effects on outcomes. However, hypertension, smoking, and a prior embolization showed significant negative effects on outcomes after surgery. The multiple logistic regression analyses also revealed that the timing of surgical intervention had a significant effect on outcomes in patients with hematoma following ruptured AVM. Early intervention is the key to success in these patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Arteriovenous malformations of the brain treated with gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa

    1994-01-01

    The early effects of treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were investigated in 25 children, 15 boys and 10 girls, aged 2 to 15 years (mean 11). Neurological signs were hemiparesis in 10, mental retardation in 2, etc. Initial events were hemorrhage in 23 (92%) and epilepsy in 2 patients. The locations of AVM were parietal lobe in 6, thalamus in 4 patients, etc. The mean diameter of the nidus was 1.97 cm, and the volume was under 10 cm 3 in 21 cases. Of the 25 patients were classified as Grade II or higher by the Spetzler and Martin grading system. The mean maximum dose was 36.2 Gy, and marginal dose of 20.2 Gy with a mean isocenter of 3.2 were used. Follow-up angiography was performed more than one year after treatment in 7 patients. Five of the 7 (71.4%) showed complete obliteration of the AVM. No patients has had rebleeding after treatment so far, but one patient has had hemiparesis due to radiation-induced edema. Stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma knife is a preventive treatment of intracranial AVM in childhood. (author)

  8. Application of MR digital subtraction angiography to the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katase, Shichiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Osawa, Ayako; Hachiya, Junichi

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of MR DSA using rapid thick-section T1-weighted imaging and bolus injections of gadolinium to diagnose cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We reviewed MR DSA images obtained from 16 patients (9 men and 7 women; average age, 35.8 years). Anatomic depictions of each component of the AVMs were rated using a four-point grade scale and compared with conventional and/or MR angiograms. We were able to obtain serial images demonstrating passage of gadolinium through the AVM. The average scores for feeders, nidus, and drainers was 1.4, 2.2, and 1.8, respectively with the overall average of 2.1. The MR DSA technique that we have developed presently has limited value in depicting the anatomic details of cerebral AVMs. However, we believe that MR DSA is valuable and should be used in addition to conventional MR imaging and angiography in patients with cerebral AVM at the time of their initial diagnosis and during follow-up after therapy. (author)

  9. Spontaneous regression of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: clinical and angiographic analysis with review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.; Vilela, P.; Willinsky, R.; TerBrugge, K.G.

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare and poorly understood. We reviewed the clinical and angiographic findings in patients who had spontaneous regression of cerebral AVMs to determine whether common features were present. The clinical and angiographic findings of four cases from our series and 29 cases from the literature were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical and angiographic features analyzed were: age at diagnosis, initial presentation, venous drainage pattern, number of draining veins, location of the AVM, number of arterial feeders, clinical events during the interval period to thrombosis, and interval period to spontaneous thrombosis. Common clinical and angiographic features of spontaneous regression of cerebral AVMs are: intracranial hemorrhage as an initial presentation, small AVMs, and a single draining vein. Spontaneous regression of cerebral AVMs can not be predicted by clinical or angiographic features, therefore it should not be considered as an option in cerebral AVM management, despite its proven occurrence. (orig.)

  10. Gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations located in the sensorimotor cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Komiyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Hideki; Yasui, Toshihiro; Nishikawa, Misao; Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Morikawa, Toshie [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this study was to define treatment results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) located in the sensorimotor cortex. We analyzed 27 patients followed up for at least 12 months. The onset of AVM was convulsion 10, clinical hemorrhage 7, neurological deficits 4, and headache 3. The mean diameter of the AVM nidus was 22.2 mm (range 8.5-33.6 mm) and mean volume was 7.4 ml (range 0.32-19.9 ml). According to the Spetzler-Martin scale, the AVMs were Grade II in 13, Grade III in 10, and Grade IV in 4 of the patients. GKS was performed with a mean dose of 19.0 Gy (range 14-25 Gy) to the margin of the nidus. The mean follow-up period was 29 months (range 12-72 months). Six AVMs showed complete obliteration angiographically and 5 AVMs showed obliteration on magnetic resonance image. Sixteen AVMs showed nidus shrinkage. Eight (53%) of 15 patients followed up for more than 24 months showed obliteration. Complications consisted of 32 (11.5%) of 27 patients with evidence of radiation injury to the brain parenchyma. Symptoms of slight hemiparesis resolved completely in all patients within several months. (author)

  11. Non-enhanced MR imaging of cerebral arteriovenous malformations at 7 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrede, Karsten H.; Dammann, Philipp; Johst, Soeren; Maderwald, Stefan; Moenninghoff, Christoph; Forsting, Michael; Schlamann, Marc; Sandalcioglu, I.E.; Ladd, Mark E.; Sure, Ulrich; Umutlu, Lale

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate prospectively 7 Tesla time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) for delineation of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in comparison to 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Twenty patients with single or multifocal AVMs were enrolled in this trial. The study protocol comprised 1.5 and 7 Tesla TOF MRA and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced MPRAGE sequences. All patients underwent an additional four-vessel 3D DSA. Image analysis of the following five AVM features was performed individually by two radiologists on a five-point scale: nidus, feeder(s), draining vein(s), relationship to adjacent vessels, and overall image quality and presence of artefacts. A total of 21 intracerebral AVMs were detected. Both sequences at 7 Tesla were rated superior over 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA in the assessment of all considered AVM features. Image quality at 7 Tesla was comparable with DSA considering both sequences. Inter-observer accordance was good to excellent for the majority of ratings. This study demonstrates excellent image quality for depiction of intracerebral AVMs using non-contrast-enhanced 7 Tesla MRA, comparable with DSA. Assessment of untreated AVMs is a promising clinical application of ultra-high-field MRA. (orig.)

  12. Non-enhanced MR imaging of cerebral arteriovenous malformations at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrede, Karsten H.; Dammann, Philipp [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Department of Neurosurgery, Essen (Germany); Johst, Soeren; Maderwald, Stefan [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Moenninghoff, Christoph; Forsting, Michael [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schlamann, Marc [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen, Department of Neuroradiology, Giessen (Germany); Sandalcioglu, I.E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Neurosurgery, Essen (Germany); Nordstadtkrankenhaus Hannover, Department of Neurosurgery, Hannover (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiology (E020), Heidelberg (Germany); Sure, Ulrich [University Hospital Essen, Department of Neurosurgery, Essen (Germany); Umutlu, Lale [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate prospectively 7 Tesla time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) for delineation of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in comparison to 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Twenty patients with single or multifocal AVMs were enrolled in this trial. The study protocol comprised 1.5 and 7 Tesla TOF MRA and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced MPRAGE sequences. All patients underwent an additional four-vessel 3D DSA. Image analysis of the following five AVM features was performed individually by two radiologists on a five-point scale: nidus, feeder(s), draining vein(s), relationship to adjacent vessels, and overall image quality and presence of artefacts. A total of 21 intracerebral AVMs were detected. Both sequences at 7 Tesla were rated superior over 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA in the assessment of all considered AVM features. Image quality at 7 Tesla was comparable with DSA considering both sequences. Inter-observer accordance was good to excellent for the majority of ratings. This study demonstrates excellent image quality for depiction of intracerebral AVMs using non-contrast-enhanced 7 Tesla MRA, comparable with DSA. Assessment of untreated AVMs is a promising clinical application of ultra-high-field MRA. (orig.)

  13. Systemic arteriovenous malformations as a cause of cardiac failure: Treatment with embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.J.; Hemingway, A.P.; Allison, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Massive cogenital systemic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) present considerable management problems for clinicians. Their size, position, and vascularity make successful surgical reaction impossible. Attempts at resection produce only temporary relief of symptoms and cause further disfigurement. Large AVMs give rise to pain, swelling, and distal ischaemia, can erode bone, and give rise to life-threatening hemorrhage, and a massive left or right shunt causes high-output cardiac failure and death. Ten patients (age range, 5-50 years; mean 26 years) have massive AVMs giving rise to high-output cardiac failure (26-28 liters). These patients (seven male, three female), have undergone a total of 43 embolization procedures. The advent of nonionic contrast media, digital subtraction angiography, steel coils, and balloons allows us to successfully treat these patients who until recently were condemned to die in high-output cardiac failure

  14. Analysis of angiographic findings in cerebral arteriovenous malformation with hemorrhage: comparison between intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyun; Kim, Joon Hyung; Kwon, Jin Sook; Yoon, Soo Woong; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the angioarchitectures of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and to determine whether there was correlation between angioarchitectures and patterns of intracranial hemorrhage (intracerebral, intraventricular, and both) in cerebral AVM. One hundred and twenty-eight patients who between November 1989 and December 1994 suffered supratentorial AVM with intracranial hemorrhage were studied retrospectively. Among 128 patients, intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage were seen in 68(53%) and 24 patients(19%), respectively, while both types were seen in the remaining 36 (28%). We analyzed the angioarchitectual characteristics of AVM, namely nidi, feeding arteries and draining veins, in three hemorrhagic groups of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and both. The X 2 test or Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. A cortically located nidus was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, while a periventricular location was most common in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001). Location in the corpus callosum, choroid plexus, or intraventricular area was more frequent in the intraventricular than the intracerebral hemorrhagic group (p<0.05). Superficial venous drainage was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (p<0.001), and deep venous drainage in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p=3D0.001). The angioarchitectual characteristics of cerebral arteriovenous malformation correlate significantly with patterns of intracranial hemorrhage, and awareness of the type of hemorrhage could help to manage patients and determine prognosis.=20

  15. Secondary necrosis: the radiosurgery in the cerebral arteriovenous malformations. CT and MR aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J.I.; Medrano, J.; Benito, J.L. de; Sierra, R. la; Feijoo, R.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Ct and MR findings are presented for two patients previously diagnosed as having cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM), treated by means of stereotaxic radiosurgery. The study of their course following corticosteroid therapy is also reported. The diagnosis was based on changes in the MR signal and density on CT and on their late onset, and was confirmed by puncture. The good clinical and radiological course is discussed. (Author) 10 refs

  16. MRI evidence for preserved regulation of intracranial pressure in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinel, Felix G.; Fischer, Judith; Pomschar, Andreas; Wöhrle, Natalie; Koerte, Inga K.; Steffinger, Denise [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Laubender, Rüdiger P. [Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Alperin, Noam [Department of Radiology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Ertl-Wagner, Birgit, E-mail: birgit.ertl-wagner@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate intracranial pressure and associated hemo- and hydrodynamic parameters in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations AVMs. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients with arteriovenous malformations (median age 38.7 years, 27/30 previously treated with radiosurgery) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were investigated on a 3.0 T MR scanner. Nidus volume was quantified on dynamic MR angiography. Total arterial cerebral blood flow (tCBF), venous outflow as well as aqueductal and craniospinal stroke volumes were obtained using velocity-encoded cine-phase contrast MRI. Intracranial volume change during the cardiac cycle was calculated and intracranial pressure (ICP) was derived from systolic intracranial volume change (ICVC) and pulse pressure gradient. Results: TCBF was significantly higher in AVM patients as compared to healthy controls (median 799 vs. 692 mL/min, p = 0.007). There was a trend for venous flow to be increased in both the ipsilateral internal jugular vein (IJV, 282 vs. 225 mL/min, p = 0.16), and in the contralateral IJV (322 vs. 285 mL/min, p = 0.09), but not in secondary veins. There was no significant difference in median ICP between AVM patients and control subjects (6.9 vs. 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.30) and ICP did not correlate with nidus volume in AVM patients (ρ = −0.06, p = 0.74). There was a significant positive correlation between tCBF and craniospinal CSF stroke volume (ρ = 0.69, p = 0.02). Conclusions: The elevated cerebral blood flow in patients with AVMs is drained through an increased flow in IJVs but not secondary veins. ICP is maintained within ranges of normal and does not correlate with nidus volume.

  17. A Retrograde Transvenous Embolization Technique with Balloon-Assisted Arterial Aspiration for a Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformation with a Venous Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhara, Asako, E-mail: kuhara-asako@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Norimitsu; Koganemaru, Masamichi; Kugiyama, Tomoko [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kiyokawa, Kensuke [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery and Maxillofacial Surgery (Japan); Abe, Toshi [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is challenging, and there is no consensus regarding either the ideal approach or the treatment timing. Percutaneous embolization is the most frequent approach currently used and is considered the first-line technique for AVMs. There is an ongoing discussion about the best technical approach to embolize AVMs. AVMs associated with a dominant outflow vein (DOV) are rare. Embolization of both the DOV and the nidus is considered more effective. Herein, we report a novel technique of transvenous embolization of a DOV under negative pressure from an arterial balloon catheter in a case of a peripheral AVM. This technique allows the embolization of the DOV and the nidus retrogradely.

  18. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Amplatzer vascular plug IV for occlusion of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in a patient with cryptogenic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendranath R Veeram Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxical embolism resulting in cryptogenic stroke has received much attention recently, with the primary focus on patent foramen ovale (PFO. However, it is essential to be vigilant in the search for other causes of paradoxical embolic events, such as pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM. We describe successful closure of pulmonary AVM with a St Jude Medical (Plymouth, MN Amplatzer TM vascular plug IV. The newer AVP-IV devices can be used for successful embolization of tortuous pulmonary AVM in remote locations where use of other traditional devices may be technically challenging.

  20. Double Coaxial Microcatheter Technique for Glue Embolization of Renal Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikawa, Yoko; Mori, Kensaku; Shiigai, Masanari; Konishi, Takahiro; Hoshiai, Sodai; Ishigro, Toshitaka; Hiyama, Takashi; Nakai, Yasunobu; Minami, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo demonstrate the technical benefit of the double coaxial microcatheter technique for embolization of renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and iodized oil (glue).Materials and MethodsSix consecutive patients (1 man and 5 women; mean age 61 years; range 44–77 years) with renal AVMs were included. Five patients had hematuria, and one had a risk of heart failure due to a large intrarenal arteriovenous shunt. All patients underwent transarterial embolization using glue and the double coaxial microcatheter technique with outer 2.6F and inner 1.9F microcatheters. After glue injection, the inner microcatheter was retracted, while the outer microcatheter was retained. We assessed the complications and clinical outcomes of this technique.ResultsTechnical success was achieved in all patients. In 9 sessions, 34 feeding arteries were embolized with glue using the double coaxial microcatheter technique, 1 was embolized with glue using a single microcatheter, and 2 were embolized with coils. The double coaxial microcatheter technique was useful for selecting small tortuous feeding arteries, preventing glue reflux to the proximal arteries, and approaching multiple feeding arteries without complete retraction of the microcatheters. As a minor complication, glue migrated into the venous system in four patients without any sequelae. In all patients, favorable clinical outcomes, including hematuria cessation in five patients and improvement of the large intrarenal arteriovenous shunt in one patient, were obtained without deterioration of renal function.ConclusionGlue embolization with the double coaxial microcatheter technique was useful for treating renal AVMs with multiple tortuous feeding arteries

  1. Double Coaxial Microcatheter Technique for Glue Embolization of Renal Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchikawa, Yoko, E-mail: jauchikawa@gmail.com [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Mori, Kensaku, E-mail: moriken@md.tsukuba.ac.jp [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Shiigai, Masanari, E-mail: m-41gai@yahoo.co.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Konishi, Takahiro, E-mail: soratobukangaruu@gmail.com [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Hoshiai, Sodai, E-mail: hoshiai@sb4.so-net.ne.jp [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ishigro, Toshitaka, E-mail: suzutokei@gmail.com; Hiyama, Takashi, E-mail: med-tak@hotmail.com [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nakai, Yasunobu, E-mail: nakaiya@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Minami, Manabu, E-mail: mminami@md.tsukuba.ac.jp [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo demonstrate the technical benefit of the double coaxial microcatheter technique for embolization of renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and iodized oil (glue).Materials and MethodsSix consecutive patients (1 man and 5 women; mean age 61 years; range 44–77 years) with renal AVMs were included. Five patients had hematuria, and one had a risk of heart failure due to a large intrarenal arteriovenous shunt. All patients underwent transarterial embolization using glue and the double coaxial microcatheter technique with outer 2.6F and inner 1.9F microcatheters. After glue injection, the inner microcatheter was retracted, while the outer microcatheter was retained. We assessed the complications and clinical outcomes of this technique.ResultsTechnical success was achieved in all patients. In 9 sessions, 34 feeding arteries were embolized with glue using the double coaxial microcatheter technique, 1 was embolized with glue using a single microcatheter, and 2 were embolized with coils. The double coaxial microcatheter technique was useful for selecting small tortuous feeding arteries, preventing glue reflux to the proximal arteries, and approaching multiple feeding arteries without complete retraction of the microcatheters. As a minor complication, glue migrated into the venous system in four patients without any sequelae. In all patients, favorable clinical outcomes, including hematuria cessation in five patients and improvement of the large intrarenal arteriovenous shunt in one patient, were obtained without deterioration of renal function.ConclusionGlue embolization with the double coaxial microcatheter technique was useful for treating renal AVMs with multiple tortuous feeding arteries.

  2. Endovascular treatment of head and neck arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmytriw, A.A. [University Health Network, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ter Brugge, K.G.; Krings, T.; Agid, R. [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Head and neck arteriovenous malformations (H and N AVM) are associated with considerable clinical and psychosocial burden and present a significant treatment challenge. We evaluated the presentation, response to treatment, and outcome of patients with H and N AVMs treated by endovascular means at our institution. Patients with H and N AVMs treated by endovascular means from 1984 to 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. These included AVMs involving the scalp, orbit, maxillofacial, and upper neck localizations. Patient's clinical files, radiological images, catheter angiograms, and surgical reports were reviewed. Eighty-nine patients with H and N AVMs (46 females, 43 males; 48 small, 41 large) received endovascular therapy. The goals of treatment were curative (n = 30), palliative (n = 34), or presurgical (n = 25). The total number of endovascular treatment sessions was 244 (average of 1.5 per patient). The goal of treatment was met in 92.1 % of cases. Eventual cure was achieved in 42 patients accounting for 58.4 % (52/89) of all patients who underwent treatment for any goal. Twenty-eight of these patients were cured by embolization alone (28/89, 31.4 %) of which 18 were single-hole AVFs. Twenty-four were cured by planned surgical excision after presurgical embolization (24/89, 27 %). Seven patients (7/89, 7.2 %) suffered transient and two (2/89, 2.2 %) permanent endovascular treatment complications. Endovascular treatment is effective for H and N AVMs and relatively safe. It is particularly effective for symptom palliation and presurgical aid. Embolization is curative mostly in small lesions and single-hole fistulas. In patients with large non-curable H and N AVMs, endovascular therapy is often the only palliative option. (orig.)

  3. Multi-staged robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Chuxiong; Solberg, Timothy D.; Hrycushko, Brian; Medin, Paul; Whitworth, Louis; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a multi-staged robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivery technique for the treatment of large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The treatment planning process and strategies to optimize both individual and composite dosimetry are discussed. Methods: Eleven patients with large (30.7 ± 19.2 cm 3 ) AVMs were selected for this study. A fiducial system was designed for fusion of targets between planar angiograms and simulation CT scans. AVMs were contoured based on single contrast CT, MRI and orthogonal angiogram images. AVMs were divided into 3–8 sub-target volumes (3–7 cm 3 ) for sequential treatment at 1–4 week intervals to a prescription dose of 16–20 Gy. Forward and inversely developed treatment plans were optimized for 95% coverage of the total AVM volume by dose summation from each sub-volume, while minimizing dose to surrounding tissues. Dose-volume analysis was used to evaluate the PTV coverage, dose conformality (CI), and R 50 and V 12Gy parameters. Results: The treatment workflow was commissioned and able to localize within 1 mm. Inverse optimization outperformed forward planning for most patients for each index considered. Dose conformality was shown comparable to staged Gamma Knife treatments. Conclusion: The CyberKnife system is shown to be a practical delivery platform for multi-staged treatments of large AVMs using forward or inverse planning techniques

  4. Appraising the plasticity of the circle of Willis: a model of hemodynamic modulation in cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yu-Ming; Guo, Wanyuo; Lin, Ching-Po

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) harbor a network of abnormal vasculatures, namely the nidus between arterial and venous components. The pressure gradient between these two components results in abnormal high-velocity arteriovenous shunts flowing through the nidus and alternate intracranial hemodynamics. This study hypothesizes that the flow patterns of the circle of Willis (CoW) are modulated by the alternation of intracranial hemodynamics occurring in cerebral AVMs. The flow patterns of the CoW before and after AVMs had been corrected and the arteriovenous shunts closed by radiosurgery were assessed to validate the hypothesis. Fifty patients (32 men and 18 women; mean age 35.8 +/- 4.2, range 23-52 years) with cerebral AVMs previously treated by radiosurgery were retrospectively investigated. This investigation used magnetic resonance angiography, performed prior to and after AVM surgery, to assess the CoW flow patterns. The CoW flow patterns in nearly half of the subjects (20/50, 40%) altered after the AVMs had been corrected. The alterations included: (1) decreased size or ceased flow patterns in the CoW vascular segment: ipsilateral A1 (n = 1) of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) segment (n = 7), contralateral PCoA collateral (n = 4), bilateral PCoA (n = 2); (2) increased size or opening of the previous 'hypoplastic' segment of CoW: ipsilateral A1 of ACA (n = 1), contralateral PCoA (n = 2), bilateral PCoA (n = 1), and (3) biphasic alteration of the CoW: ceased ipsilateral PCoA segment and opening ipsilateral A1 of the ACA (n = 1), ceased ipsilateral PCoA and opening contralateral P1 of the posterior cerebral artery (n = 1). The plasticity of the flow patterns in the CoW are modulated by intracranial hemodynamics as shown by the AVM model. The calibers of CoW arterial segments are not a static feature. Willisian collateralization with recruitment of the CoW segment may cease, or hypoplastic segments

  5. [The clinico-neuropsychological aspects of arteriovenous malformations of the hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklina, S B; Filatov, Iu M; Eliava, Sh Sh

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive examination was made in 39 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of hippocampus. Prior to and following surgery, all the patients underwent neuropsychological study after A. R. Luriia (1962). Mnestic disorder was found to be the most common abnormality in patients with AVM at this site. Before surgery, they were detected in 34 of 39 patients, 11 of them having severe memory disorders with the traits of the Korsakoff's syndrome. These patients were found to have mixed posthemorrhagic lesion of the hippocampus, other portions of the temporal lobe and periventricular structures. Twenty nine patients were operated on, 14 of them had progressive mnestic disorder of the modally nonspecific type irrespective the side operated on. There were no postoperative Korsakoff's syndromes. There was no progression in memory defects in patients after surgery on the brain drastically changed after hemorrhage or removal of minor malformations. Before hemorrhage, epileptic paroxysms were observed in 2 of the 39 patients only in the presence of massive AVM obligatorily involving the temporal cortex. Following surgery, there were no new epileptic paroxysms and changes in the emotional status and motivations in the patients. Thus, the hippocampal formation is involved in the primary mechanisms of fixation, retention, reproduction of a memory trace. The participation of many structures of the brain is required to form an emotional status, motivation, and clinical manifestations of epileptic activity.

  6. Microsurgical resection of incompletely obliterated intracranial arteriovenous malformations following stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.D.; Steinberg, G.K.; Levy, R.P.; Marks, M.P.; Frankel, K.A.; Shuster, D.L.; Marcellus, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Radiosurgery is effective in obliterating small arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), but less successful in thrombosing larger AVMs. This study reviewed patients who underwent surgical resection of their large AVMs following failed radiosurgical obliteration. AVMs from 36 patients (aged 7 to 64 years, mean 29.9) were surgically resected 1 to 11 years after radiosurgery. Initial AVM volumes were 0.7 to 117 cm 3 (mean 21.6 cm 3 ), and radiosurgical doses ranged from 4.6 to 45 Gray equivalent (GyE) (mean 21.1 GyE). Thirty AVMs (83%) were located in eloquent tissue. Venous drainage was deep (14), superficial (13), or both (9). Spetzler grades were II (2), III (12), IV (18), and V (4). Nine patients suffered rehemorrhage after radiosurgery but prior to surgery, while three patients developed radiation necrosis. Twenty-seven patients underwent endovascular embolization prior to surgery. During microsurgical resection, the AVMs were found to be significantly less vascular and more easily resected, compared to AVMs in patients who had not received radiosurgery. Histology showed endothelial proliferation with hyaline and mineralization in vessel walls. Partial or complete thrombosis of some AVM vessels, and evidence of vessel and brain necrosis were noted in many cases. Clinical outcome was excellent or good in 34 cases, with two patients dying of rebleeding from residual AVM. Five patients were neurologically worse following microsurgical resection. Final outcome was largely related to the pretreatment grade. Radiosurgery several years prior to surgical resection appears useful in treating unusually large and complex AVMs. (author)

  7. Eloquent area in the gamma knife treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazuo; Mori, Yoshimasa; Ohsuga, Koji; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Kondo, Toshiki [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    It has been long since cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) could be cured by gamma radiosurgery. In this study, it has been found that the complete obliteration of AVM by radiosurgery is depended on the factors such as the size of the nidus, the marginal dose, the location and the age of patients. It is also true that higher the marginal dose, higher the obliteration rate and also higher the risk of radiation injury. Therefore the marginal dose has to be limited by the radiosensitivity (tolerance) of surrounding brain, which means the obliteration rate is largely depended on the location of AVM. The definition of the eloquent area of AVM by microsurgery is based upon the anatomical and functional importance of the brain. However, the eloquency in radiosurgery is different in that it depends upon radiosensitivity of the surrounding brain around AVM. From this definition, the most eloquent area by radiosurgery is brain around the optic pathway, followed by cochlear nerve, other cranial nerves, brain stem and basal ganglia-thalamus. (author)

  8. Optimal low-dose radiosurgery combined with and without intervention for unruptured arteriovenous malformations. A long-term follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Naitou, Isao

    2006-01-01

    Treatment indication for unruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain was investigated based on long-term results of low-dose Gamma Knife (GK) surgery. Thirty-nine patients with unruptured AVMs treated with GK surgery were followed more than 7 years. These AVMs were found due to seizure and steal symptoms in 22 and 4 patients, respectively, and incidentally in 13. Embolization was performed in 6 patients before GK surgery. Total obliteration was obtained in 83.3% after initial treatment and 95.8% after additional treatment. Bleeding before total obliteration occurred in 2 patients and adverse effect on the internal capsule in 1. It is concluded that low-dose GK surgery is safe and effective for the treatment of unruptured AVMs, especially symptomatic AVMs in functional areas. (author)

  9. Modern classification and outcome predictors of surgery in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-02-23

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are challenging lesions. Part of this challenge stems from the infinite diversity of these lesions regarding shape, location, anatomy, and physiology. This diversity has called on a variety of treatment modalities for these lesions, of which microsurgical resection prevails as the mainstay of treatment. As such, outcome prediction and managing strategy mainly rely on unraveling the nature of these complex tangles and ways each lesion responds to various therapeutic modalities. This strategy needs the ability to decipher each lesion through accurate and efficient categorization. Therefore, classification schemes are essential parts of treatment planning and outcome prediction. This article summarizes different surgical classification schemes and outcome predictors proposed for bAVMs.

  10. Suppression of MMP-9 by doxycycline in brain arteriovenous malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jenny F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing doxycycline to suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 in brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Methods Ex-vivo treatment of AVM tissues: Intact AVM tissues were treated with doxycycline for 48 hours. Active and total MMP-9 in the medium were measured. Pilot trial: AVM patients received either doxycycline (100 mg or placebo twice a day for one week prior to AVM resection. Active and total MMP-9 in BVM tissues were measured. Results Ex-vivo treatment of AVM tissues: Doxycycline at 10 and 100 μg/ml significantly decreased MMP-9 levels in AVM tissues ex-vivo (total: control vs 10 vs 100 μg/ml = 100 ± 6 vs 60 ± 16 vs 61 ± 9%; active: 100 ± 8 vs 48 ± 16 vs 59 ± 10%. Pilot trial: 10 patients received doxycycline, and 4 patients received placebo. There was a trend for both MMP-9 levels to be lower in the doxycycline group than in the placebo group (total: 2.18 ± 1.94 vs 3.26 ± 3.58, P = .50; active: 0.48 ± 0.48 vs 0.95 ± 1.01 ng/100 μg protein, P = .25. Conclusions A clinically relevant concentration of doxycycline decreased MMP-9 in ex-vivo AVM tissues. Furthermore, there was a trend that oral doxycycline for as short as one week resulted in a decrease in MMP-9 in AVM tissues. Further studies are warranted to justify a clinical trial to test effects of doxycycline on MMP-9 expression in AVM tissues.

  11. Use of intracranial and ocular thermography before and after arteriovenous malformation excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Peter Y. K.; Lewis, Philip M.; Maller, Jerome J.

    2014-11-01

    Excision of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is known to carry a risk of postoperative hemorrhage, postulated to be the result of normal perfusion pressure breakthrough. It is also possible that AVMs may cause a steal effect, reducing perfusion in nearby vessels. There is currently no simple method of visualizing the presence or absence of steal effect intraoperatively. We hypothesized that the infrared thermographic (heat sensitive) imaging of perilesional brain may be useful for detecting reduced perfusion due to steal. Moreover, we hypothesized that if steal effect was present, it could impact on ocular perfusion and thereby temperature. Our objective was, therefore, to investigate whether perilesional cortical and ocular temperature (OT) may be a marker of steal effect. We intraoperatively acquired conventional and thermal images of the surgical field and eyes bilaterally, pre- and post-excisions of a large left hemisphere AVM. We found OT asymmetry preoperatively, which was absent after the AVM was excised. Intraoperative thermal images showed an increase of perilesional temperature, although this could be confounded by generalized changes in cortical perfusion due to anesthetics or surgery.

  12. Brain edema associated with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bum-soo; Sarma, Dipanka; Lee, Seon-Kyu; ter Brugge, Karel G.

    2009-01-01

    Brain edema in unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is rare; this study examines (1) its frequency and clinical presentation, (2) imaging findings with emphasis on venous drainage abnormalities, and (3) implications of these findings on natural history and management. Presentation and imaging features of all unruptured brain AVMs were prospectively collected in our brain AVM database. Neurological findings, size, location, venous drainage pattern, presence of venous thrombosis, ectasia, or stenosis, and brain edema were specifically recorded. Treatment details of all patients with brain edema and their clinical and imaging follow-up were reviewed. Finally, a comparison was made between patients with and without edema. Brain edema was found in 13/329 unruptured brain AVMs (3.9%). Neurological deficit (46.2%), venous thrombosis (38.5%), venous ectasia (84.6%), stenosis (38.5%), and contrast stagnation in the draining veins (84.6%) were more frequent in patients with brain edema than without edema. Eight patients with brain edema received specific treatment (embolization = 5, surgery = 2, radiosurgery = 1). Clinical features correlated well with change in degree of edema in six. Three of five embolized patients were stable or showed improvement after the procedure. On follow-up, however, intracranial hemorrhage developed in three. Brain edema in unruptured brain AVMs is rare, 3.9% in this series. Venous outflow abnormalities are frequently associated and appear to contribute to the development of edema. Progressive nonhemorrhagic symptoms are also associated, with a possible increased risk of hemorrhage. Palliative embolization arrests the nonhemorrhagic symptoms in selected patients, although it may not have an effect on hemorrhagic risk. (orig.)

  13. Development of three-dimensional brain arteriovenous malformation model for patient communication and young neurosurgeon education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mengqi; Chen, Guangzhong; Qin, Kun; Ding, Xiaowen; Zhou, Dong; Peng, Chao; Zeng, Shaojian; Deng, Xianming

    2018-01-15

    Rapid prototyping technology is used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) models and facilitate presurgical patient communication and medical education for young surgeons. Two intracranial AVM cases were selected for this study. Using 3D CT angiography or 3D rotational angiography images, the brain AVM models were reconstructed on personal computer and the rapid prototyping process was completed using a 3D printer. The size and morphology of the models were compared to brain digital subtraction arteriography of the same patients. 3D brain AVM models were used for preoperative patient communication and young neurosurgeon education. Two brain AVM models were successfully produced. By neurosurgeons' evaluation, the printed models have high fidelity with the actual brain AVM structures of the patients. The patient responded positively toward the brain AVM model specific to himself. Twenty surgical residents from residency programs tested the brain AVM models and provided positive feedback on their usefulness as educational tool and resemblance to real brain AVM structures. Patient-specific 3D printed models of brain AVM can be constructed with high fidelity. 3D printed brain AVM models are proved to be helpful in preoperative patient consultation, surgical planning and resident training.

  14. The strategy of the treatment for arteriovenous malformations by gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Seiji; Seo, Yoshinobu; Hyougo, Toshio; Sasaki, Takehiko; Toshima, Masahiko; Takeda, Rihei; Nakamura, Junichi; Suematu, Katsumi.

    1992-01-01

    Successful gamma knife radiosurgery depends on the volume of nidus of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Because of lower possibility of obliteration of large AVMs treated by gamma knife radiosurgery, embolization therapies were carried out in 10 cases out of 50 AVMs to reduce the volume of nidus before gamma knife radiosurgery. The strategy is as follows: 1) when the volume of nidus is less than 5 ml, gamma knife radiosurgery is selected as the first treatment; 2) when the procedure seems to be safely performed; 3) when the volume of nidus is over 10 ml, embolization should be tried in all cases. In this strategy, it is essential to evaluate the accurate volume of nidus before gamma knife radiosurgery to decide whether embolization should be carried out or not. Angiography with painless fixation of Leksell frame was thought to be best procedure to measure the accurate volume of nidus before gamma knife radiosurgery. (author)

  15. Non-Enhanced MR Imaging of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Karsten H; Dammann, Philipp; Johst, Sören; Mönninghoff, Christoph; Schlamann, Marc; Maderwald, Stefan; Sandalcioglu, I Erol; Ladd, Mark E; Forsting, Michael; Sure, Ulrich; Umutlu, Lale

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate prospectively 7 Tesla time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) for delineation of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in comparison to 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Twenty patients with single or multifocal AVMs were enrolled in this trial. The study protocol comprised 1.5 and 7 Tesla TOF MRA and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced MPRAGE sequences. All patients underwent an additional four-vessel 3D DSA. Image analysis of the following five AVM features was performed individually by two radiologists on a five-point scale: nidus, feeder(s), draining vein(s), relationship to adjacent vessels, and overall image quality and presence of artefacts. A total of 21 intracerebral AVMs were detected. Both sequences at 7 Tesla were rated superior over 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA in the assessment of all considered AVM features. Image quality at 7 Tesla was comparable with DSA considering both sequences. Inter-observer accordance was good to excellent for the majority of ratings. This study demonstrates excellent image quality for depiction of intracerebral AVMs using non-contrast-enhanced 7 Tesla MRA, comparable with DSA. Assessment of untreated AVMs is a promising clinical application of ultra-high-field MRA. • Non-contrast-enhanced 7 Tesla MRA demonstrates excellent image quality for intracerebral AVM depiction. • Image quality at 7 Tesla was comparable with DSA considering both sequences. • Assessment of intracerebral AVMs is a promising clinical application of ultra-high-field MRA.

  16. Post procedure headache in patients treated for neurovascular arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms using endovascular therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hauerberg, John

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Though endovascular therapy (EVT) is increasingly applied in the treatment of intracranial vascular lesions, little is known about the effect of EVT on post-procedure headache. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of headache in patients who have undergone EVT for cerebral...... arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and aneurysms. METHODS: A total of 324 patients underwent EVT treatment for aneurysms and AVMs at the Danish National Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We applied strict exclusion criteria in order to minimize the effect of other factors on headache occurrence, e.......g., craniotomy. Eligible subjects were phone-interviewed using a purpose-developed semi-structured questionnaire. Headaches were classified according to ICHD-III beta criteria. RESULTS: The 59 patients underwent treatment of aneurysms (n = 43), cranial dural fistulas (n = 11), and AVMs (n = 5...

  17. Complications from arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery: multivariate analysis and risk modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Pollock, Bruce E.; Maitz, Ann H.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the relationships of radiosurgery treatment parameters to the development of complications from radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Methods and Materials: We evaluated follow-up imaging and clinical data in 307 AVM patients who received gamma knife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh between 1987 and 1993. All patients had regular clinical or imaging follow up for a minimum of 2 years (range: 24-96 months, median = 44 months). Results: Post-radiosurgical imaging (PRI) changes developed in 30.5% of patients with regular follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, and were symptomatic in 10.7% of all patients at 7 years. PRI changes resolved within 3 years developed significantly less often (p = 0.0274) in patients with symptoms (52.8%) compared to asymptomatic patients (94.8%). The 7-year actuarial rate for developing persistent symptomatic PRI changes was 5.05%. Multivariate logistic regression modeling found that the 12 Gy volume was the only independent variable that correlated significantly with PRI changes (p < 0.0001) while symptomatic PRI changes were correlated with both 12 Gy volume (p = 0.0013) and AVM location (p 0.0066). Conclusion: Complications from AVM radiosurgery can be predicted with a statistical model relating the risks of developing symptomatic post-radiosurgical imaging changes to 12 Gy treatment volume and location

  18. Imaging of arteriovenous malformation following stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranchida, J.V.; Mehall, C.J.; Slovis, T.L.; Lis-Planells, M.

    1997-01-01

    Background. Stereotactic radiosurgery allows for a high dose of focused radiation to be delivered to a small lesion such as an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The clinical change and brain response over time to this localized high-dose radiation can be quite striking. Objective. The objective of this study to describe and analyse the imaging changes following radiotherapy for AVMs. Materials and methods. The clinical presentation and the imaging changes following radiotherapy in two patients were studied over the course of 1-2 years. Results. The imaging findings include diffuse low attenuation and contrast enhancement on CT. High-signal lesions were apparent on T2-weighted MR images with prominent contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images. Ring enhancement occurred over time. While new changes appeared over 12 months, these changes diminished during the second year. Conclusion. Radiotherapy induces inflammatory changes that are generally reversible but can lead to parenchymal destruction. These imaging changes are often nonspecific and therefore must be interpreted in light of clinical symptomatology and the time course since treatment. These patients should receive routine MR imaging within 3 months after radiosurgery with follow-up imaging at 6, 12, and 18 months. (orig.). With 8 figs

  19. Awake Craniotomy in Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery: The Usefulness of Cortical and Subcortical Mapping of Language Function in Selected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Alexander J; Schaffer, Sarah G; Nardi, Dominic J; Chalif, David J; Katz, Jeffery; Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-11-01

    Awake craniotomy for removal of intra-axial lesions is a well-established procedure. Few studies, however, have investigated the usefulness of this approach for resection of arteriovenous malformations adjacent to eloquent language areas. We demonstrate our experience by using cortical stimulation mapping and report for the first time on the usefulness of subcortical stimulation with interrogation of language function during resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) located near language zones. Patients undergoing awake craniotomy for AVMs located in language zones and at least 5 mm away from the closest functional magnetic resonance imaging activation were analyzed. During surgery, cortical bipolar stimulation at 50 Hz, with an intensity of 2 mA, increased to a maximum of 10 mA was performed in the region around the AVM before claiming it negative for language function. In positive language site, the area was restimulated 3 times to confirm the functional deficit. The AVM resection was started based on cortical mapping findings. Further subcortical stimulation performed in concert with speech interrogation by the neuropsychologist continued at key points throughout the resection as feasible. The usefulness of cortical and subcortical stimulation in addition to patient outcomes was analyzed. Between March 2009 and September 2014, 42 brain AVM resections were performed. Four patients with left-sided language zone AVMs underwent awake craniotomy. The AVM locations were fronto-opercular in 2 patients and posterior temporal in 2. The AVM Spetzler-Martin grades were II (2 patients) and III (2 patients). In 1 patient, complete speech arrest was noticed during mapping of the peri-malformation zone, which was not breached during resection. In a second patient who initially demonstrated negative cortical mapping, a speech deficit was noticed during resection and subcortical stimulation. This guided the approach to protect and avoid the sensitive zone. This patient

  20. Effect of the embolization material in the dose calculation for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galván de la Cruz, Olga Olinca; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio; García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda; Celis, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    It is reported in the literature that the material used in an embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can attenuate the radiation beams used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) up to 10% to 15%. The purpose of this work is to assess the dosimetric impact of this attenuating material in the SRS treatment of embolized AVMs, using Monte Carlo simulations assuming clinical conditions. A commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine was used to recalculate the dose distribution of 20 AVMs previously planned with a pencil beam dose calculation algorithm. Dose distributions were compared using the following metrics: average, minimal and maximum dose of AVM, and 2D gamma index. The effect in the obliteration rate was investigated using radiobiological models. It was found that the dosimetric impact of the embolization material is less than 1.0 Gy in the prescription dose to the AVM for the 20 cases studied. The impact in the obliteration rate is less than 4.0%. There is reported evidence in the literature that embolized AVMs treated with SRS have low obliteration rates. This work shows that there are dosimetric implications that should be considered in the final treatment decisions for embolized AVMs

  1. Effect of the embolization material in the dose calculation for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galván de la Cruz, Olga Olinca [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel, E-mail: jlarraga@innn.edu.mx [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Celis, Miguel Angel [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    It is reported in the literature that the material used in an embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can attenuate the radiation beams used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) up to 10% to 15%. The purpose of this work is to assess the dosimetric impact of this attenuating material in the SRS treatment of embolized AVMs, using Monte Carlo simulations assuming clinical conditions. A commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine was used to recalculate the dose distribution of 20 AVMs previously planned with a pencil beam dose calculation algorithm. Dose distributions were compared using the following metrics: average, minimal and maximum dose of AVM, and 2D gamma index. The effect in the obliteration rate was investigated using radiobiological models. It was found that the dosimetric impact of the embolization material is less than 1.0 Gy in the prescription dose to the AVM for the 20 cases studied. The impact in the obliteration rate is less than 4.0%. There is reported evidence in the literature that embolized AVMs treated with SRS have low obliteration rates. This work shows that there are dosimetric implications that should be considered in the final treatment decisions for embolized AVMs.

  2. Long-term outcomes of gamma knife surgery for posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Shigeo; Shuto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The long-term outcomes of gamma knife surgery (GKS) in patients with posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were retrospectively analyzed in 82 patients followed up for more than 5 years to evaluate the efficacy and safety. The median AVM volume at GKS was 0.95 cm 3 . The prescribed dose to the AVM margin was median 18 Gy with 1-18 isocenters. The actual complete AVM obliteration rate was 58.5% at 3 years and 78.0% at 5 years. The significant factors for higher complete obliteration rate were younger patient age and smaller maximum/minimum nidus diameter ratio. Two patients experienced hemorrhage caused by residual AVM rupture at 4 and 49 months. Twenty patients developed peri-nidal edema as an adverse radiation-induced reaction at median 13 months. One patient developed radiation-induced necrosis at 6.8 years. Neurological complication was observed in 12 patients and 6 patients remained with neurological dysfunction permanently. Larger nidus volume and location adjacent to an eloquent area significantly increased the risk of neurological complication. Pittsburgh radiosurgery-based AVM grading scale was significantly correlated with the outcome of neurological symptoms after GKS. GKS achieved acceptable and complete obliteration rate for posterior fossa AVM with relatively low risk of morbidity on neuroimaging and neurological symptoms for the long-term period after treatment. We recommend conformable and selective treatment planning to achieve both obliteration of the AVM nidus and preservation of neurological function. (author)

  3. Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome presenting with pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halefoglu, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between pulmonary arteries and veins. Patients with Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome may present with this vascular malformation, which is a typical finding of the disease. Approximately 5-15% of Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome patients have pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and there is usually a family history of AVM in these patients. The malformations are usually located in the lower lobes. In this paper, I describe a 49-year-old male patient with dyspnoea, cough, haemoptysis and epistaxis. Physical examination showed nasal telangiectasias, cyanosis of the lips and nails, and a systolic bruit over the left lung. Chest X-ray revealed a 5-cm mass in the left lower lobe and after magnetic resonance examination, together with 3-D magnetic resonance angiography, it was demonstrated to be a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. The history of a niece with a similar history of suspected pulmonary arteriovenous fistula led me to consider the possibility of Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome presenting with a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Carefully calibrated microsphere embolization of tumors and AVMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, A.; Wassef, M.; Beaujeux, R.; Hodes, J.E.; Gobin, P.Y.; Schenker, C.; Bouchez, B.; Brette, M.D.; Aymard, A.; Cophignon, J.; Merland, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the efficacy of a new type of uniformly calibrated microsphere for embolization of various pathologies. Fourteen tumors (five intracranial, eight extracranial, one spine), and seven facial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (nose, lip, and scalp) were embolized preoperatively. Angiographic, surgical devascularization, and histologic findings were correlated with the spheres' size. In the second part of the study, spinal cord (n = 22) and intracerbral (n = 14) AVM, Weber-Osler-Rendu disease (n = 2), and epistaxis (n = 1) embolization was angiographically evaluated

  5. Volume-Rendered 3D Display Of MR Angiograms in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Hachiya, J. [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Shiokawa, Y. [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2003-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether application of a volume-rendered display of 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography could assist the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Material and Methods: Volume-rendered 3D images of postcontrast 3D time-of-flight MR angiography were compared with conventional angiograms in 12 patients. The correlation between the 3D images and the operative findings was also analyzed in 5 patients. Results: The 3D-displayed images showed all of the feeders and drainers in 10 and 9 patients, respectively. In all patients, the nidus was three-dimensionally visualized. In 3 patients with hematomas, the relationship between the hematoma and the AVM was well demonstrated. The 3D images corresponded well with the operative findings in the 5 patients. Conclusion: This method is of help in assessing the relationship between the components of an AVM as well as that between an AVM and an associated hematoma.

  6. Volume-Rendered 3D Display Of MR Angiograms in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Hachiya, J.; Shiokawa, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether application of a volume-rendered display of 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography could assist the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Material and Methods: Volume-rendered 3D images of postcontrast 3D time-of-flight MR angiography were compared with conventional angiograms in 12 patients. The correlation between the 3D images and the operative findings was also analyzed in 5 patients. Results: The 3D-displayed images showed all of the feeders and drainers in 10 and 9 patients, respectively. In all patients, the nidus was three-dimensionally visualized. In 3 patients with hematomas, the relationship between the hematoma and the AVM was well demonstrated. The 3D images corresponded well with the operative findings in the 5 patients. Conclusion: This method is of help in assessing the relationship between the components of an AVM as well as that between an AVM and an associated hematoma

  7. A Case of Congenital Uterine Arterio-Venous Malformation Managed by Hysterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoil, Rohit; Raghuvanshi, Vandana; Basavaiah, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    A uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of uterine bleeding. It may have varied presentations ranging from being completely asymptomatic; to features of congestive heart failure to vaginal bleeding which may at times life be threatening. Clinical findings in such cases are often un-reliable; requiring a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis. Sonographic gray scale features are non-specific requiring confirmation with colour and spectral Doppler. We report a case of a 46-year-old lady who presented with heavy vaginal bleeding and ultrasound/colour Doppler evidence of uterine AVM managed by abdominal hysterectomy, describing the imaging features on ultrasound and Doppler. We also discuss in brief about this uncommon but serious condition which the radiologist/gynaecologist may encounter in thier practise. Uterine AV Malformation is a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of menorrhagia which must be kept in the differential diagnosis of sudden and massive vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound remains the modality of choice in diagnosing the condition which requires a high index of clinical suspicion. Color and spectral Doppler ultrasound should be used to supplement the findings and to confirm the diagnosis

  8. Gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuya [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of 38 children were treated by gamma knife radiosurgery. Their clinical courses and the effect of the treatment in 19 patients who had angiographies are described. There were 21 boys and 17 girls with a mean age of 11.2 years. The initial signs and symptoms were: intracranial hemorrhage in 32, seizures in 4, and headache in 2. Prior to the radiosurgery, craniotomy was performed in 10 patients, ventricular drainage, in 8, ventriculoperitoneal shunting in 4, and intravascular embolization in 3. The AVM was in the parietal lobe in 8 patients, in the thalamus in 7, in the occipital lobe in 5, in the temporal lobe in 4, in the basal ganglia in 4, in the corpus callosum in 3, and in other locations in 8. The mean diameter of the nidus was 18.9 mm. According to Spetzler`s classification of AVM, 23 (60.5%) were grade III, 10 were grade II, 3 were grade IV, and 2 were grade VI. The mean maximum dose was 36.3 Gy, and the mean peripheral dose was 20.2 Gy. Follow-up angiography was done in 19 patients during a mean follow-up period of 14.9 months. Complete occlusion of the nidus was obtained within 1 year in 10 of 15 patients (67%). All 6 patients who underwent angiography 2 years after treatment showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Only 1 patient developed hemiparesis due to radiation necrosis. It is considered that occlusion of AVMs by gamma knife radiosurgery is probably more effective and safer in children than in adults. (author).

  9. Image-guided microneurosurgical management of small cerebral arteriovenous malformations: the value of navigated computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, V.A.; Reinges, M.H.T.; Gilsbach, J.M.; Rohde, V.; Dammert, S.; Mull, M.

    2005-01-01

    In small arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with large hematomas, surgery remains the main therapeutic option. However, intraoperative identification of the AVM, feeders, and draining veins could be difficult in the environment of substantial intracerebral blood. In those selected cases, we use navigated computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the microneurosurgical management. It is our objective to report our initial experiences. Prior to operation a conventional CTA with superficial skin fiducials placed on a patient's head was acquired for diagnostic and neuronavigation purposes. Image data were transferred to a neuronavigation device with integrated volume rendering capacities which allows a three-dimensional reconstruction of the vascular tree and the AVM to be created. In all patients the AVM was removed successfully after having been localized with CTA-based neuronavigation. Navigated CTA is helpful for the operative management of small AVMs with large hematomas. The technique allows feeding arteries to be distinguished from draining veins thereby allowing the nidus of the AVM to be identified despite the presence of substantial intracerebral blood. CTA can be easily implemented into commercial neuronavigation systems. (orig.)

  10. Clinical-radiological evaluation of sequelae of stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.

    1989-12-01

    Stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery has been used to treat 322 patients with surgically-inaccessible intracranial vascular malformations. (The clinical results of this method for the treatment of angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain are described in separate reports of this symposium). The great majority of patients have had an uneventful post-treatment course with satisfactory health outcomes. However, several categories of delayed sequelae of stereotactic radiosurgery have been identified, involving the vascular structures essential for the integrity of the brain tissue and the brain parenchyma directly. These categories reflect both reaction to injury and to alterations in regional hemodynamic status, and include vasogenic edema, occlusion of functional vasculature, radiation necrosis, and local or remote effects on cerebral arterial aneurysms. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Clinical-radiological evaluation of sequelae of stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.

    1989-12-01

    Stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery has been used to treat 322 patients with surgically-inaccessible intracranial vascular malformations. (The clinical results of this method for the treatment of angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain are described in separate reports of this symposium). The great majority of patients have had an uneventful post-treatment course with satisfactory health outcomes. However, several categories of delayed sequelae of stereotactic radiosurgery have been identified, involving the vascular structures essential for the integrity of the brain tissue and the brain parenchyma directly. These categories reflect both reaction to injury and to alterations in regional hemodynamic status, and include vasogenic edema, occlusion of functional vasculature, radiation necrosis, and local or remote effects on cerebral arterial aneurysms. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Treatment of unruptured arteriovenous malformation. Experience in a community hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Osamu; Matsumoto, Masato; Hirata, Eishu

    2006-01-01

    We experienced 17 patients with unruptured arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in our department. Eight patients presented with epileptic seizure and 9 cases were diagnosed incidentally. Management strategies were as follows: extirpation following embolization in 3, extirpation alone in 2, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone in 3, SRS following embolization in 1 while no treatment was given on 8 patients based on informed consent. The mean follow-up period was 55.1 months. Disappearance of the lesion was confirmed in 8 of 9 patient with some treatment. In the group, there was no mortality. The 2 morbidities involved postoperative epidural abscess and epilepsy in 1, and transient hemiparesis and motor aphasia following embolization in the other. No hemorrhage was reported in patients with no treatment during the follow-up period. One patient with a frontal AVM has been bothered by intractable seizures in reaction to anticonvulsant medication. Reviewing the literatures, the mean risk of bleeding of the unruptured AVMs is 1 to 3% per year, while factors predicting hemorrhage are controversial. The prescribed treatment, nonetheless, should be defined from an objective assessment of what is optimal for each individual patient as well as from local expertise. (author)

  13. Congenital Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation Presenting as Postcoital bleeding: A Rare Presentation of a Rare Clinical Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM is an extremely rare condition with <100 cases documented in literature. We report multiparous women presenting to us with a history of postcoital bleed. Initial Doppler ultrasonography was consistent with features suggestive of AVM. Subsequently, computed tomography (CT angiography confirmed the diagnosis. Embolization was chosen as the treatment because of the large extension of AVM and the risk of hemorrhage during hysterectomy. The patient was discharged in a stable condition with a plan of repeat embolization in the next setting. At 6 and 12 weeks of follow-up, she did not experience any further episodes of bleed. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the salient clinical features, diagnosis, and the management options available for this rare clinical condition.

  14. Spatiotemporal Fractionation Schemes for Irradiating Large Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bussière, Marc R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To optimally exploit fractionation effects in the context of radiosurgery treatments of large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In current practice, fractionated treatments divide the dose evenly into several fractions, which generally leads to low obliteration rates. In this work, we investigate the potential benefit of delivering distinct dose distributions in different fractions. Methods and Materials: Five patients with large cerebral AVMs were reviewed and replanned for intensity modulated arc therapy delivered with conventional photon beams. Treatment plans allowing for different dose distributions in all fractions were obtained by performing treatment plan optimization based on the cumulative biologically effective dose delivered at the end of treatment. Results: We show that distinct treatment plans can be designed for different fractions, such that high single-fraction doses are delivered to complementary parts of the AVM. All plans create a similar dose bath in the surrounding normal brain and thereby exploit the fractionation effect. This partial hypofractionation in the AVM along with fractionation in normal brain achieves a net improvement of the therapeutic ratio. We show that a biological dose reduction of approximately 10% in the healthy brain can be achieved compared with reference treatment schedules that deliver the same dose distribution in all fractions. Conclusions: Boosting complementary parts of the target volume in different fractions may provide a therapeutic advantage in fractionated radiosurgery treatments of large cerebral AVMs. The strategy allows for a mean dose reduction in normal brain that may be valuable for a patient population with an otherwise normal life expectancy.

  15. The brain in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with pulmonary AVM: The clinical importance of paradoxical embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Kinnison, M.L.; Charnas, L.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; White, R.I. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Despite the literature's emphasis on the presence of intracerebral vascular malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), few cases have been documented. The authors prospectively evaluated brain CT scans in 29 consecutive patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and known HHT. Fifty-five percent of the CT scans revealed the signs of embolic phenomena: infarctions (n=11) and intracerebral abscesses (n=5). In only one patient was a small enhancing vascular lesion seen. They conclude that embolic phenomena rather than vascular malformations cause the majority of abnormal CT findings in patients with HHT and pulmonary AVMs. Infarctions and intracerebral abscesses probably result from paradoxical embolization through the AVMs in the lungs. The therapeutic implications seem clear, since 55% of these patients are potentially treatable by balloon occlusion of the pulmonary AVMs

  16. X-ray stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation in the teenagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qing; Huang Minggang; Hou Xiaoling

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the long-term results of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the teenagers treated by X-ray stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: From May 1996 to May 1998, 66 patients with AVM were treated by X-ray SRS with 65 patients followed up for 3-5 years. There were 42 men and 24 women who ranged in age from 8 to 39 years. The AVM volume ranged from 0.32 cm 3 to 42.88 cm 3 . The peripheral dose was prescribed to the 80% isodose line, which ranged from 18 Gy to 23 Gy, with a median of 19.3 Gy. Results: The complete obliteration rate was 65.2%, with 30.3% at 1 year and 62.1% at 2 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that the lesion volume was the only factor for obliteration, the complete obliteration rates were 87.1% and 45.7% for 3 and >10 cm 3 (x 2 = 10.644, P 3 and > 10 cm 3 (t = 2.066, P 20 Gy and 2 = 0.003, P > 0.05) and 1.474 years, 1.667 years (t = 1.073, P > 0.05) for children and young people, showing irrelevancy to age. Conclusions: The X-ray SRS is effective and safe for cerebral AVM, it gives high obliteration rate for AVM of volume 3 and serves as an auxiliary to surgery and endovascular embolization

  17. Augmented reality in the surgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: technique assessment and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrilo, Ivan; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl

    2014-09-01

    Augmented reality technology has been used for intraoperative image guidance through the overlay of virtual images, from preoperative imaging studies, onto the real-world surgical field. Although setups based on augmented reality have been used for various neurosurgical pathologies, very few cases have been reported for the surgery of arteriovenous malformations (AVM). We present our experience with AVM surgery using a system designed for image injection of virtual images into the operating microscope's eyepiece, and discuss why augmented reality may be less appealing in this form of surgery. N = 5 patients underwent AVM resection assisted by augmented reality. Virtual three-dimensional models of patients' heads, skulls, AVM nidi, and feeder and drainage vessels were selectively segmented and injected into the microscope's eyepiece for intraoperative image guidance, and their usefulness was assessed in each case. Although the setup helped in performing tailored craniotomies, in guiding dissection and in localizing drainage veins, it did not provide the surgeon with useful information concerning feeder arteries, due to the complexity of AVM angioarchitecture. The difficulty in intraoperatively conveying useful information on feeder vessels may make augmented reality a less engaging tool in this form of surgery, and might explain its underrepresentation in the literature. Integrating an AVM's hemodynamic characteristics into the augmented rendering could make it more suited to AVM surgery.

  18. Absolute Ethanol Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations in the Periorbital Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial & Head and Neck Oncology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China); Jia, Ren-Bing, E-mail: jrb19760517@hotmail.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China); Wang, De-Ming, E-mail: wdmdeming@hotmail.com; Lv, Ming-Ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com; Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@aliyun.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China)

    2015-06-15

    ObjectiveArteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the periorbital region are technically challenging clinical entities to manage. The purpose of the present study was to present our initial experience of ethanol embolization in a series of 16 patients with auricular AVMs and assess the outcomes of this treatment.MethodsTranscatheter arterial embolization and/or direct percutaneous puncture embolization were performed in the 16 patients. Pure or diluted ethanol was manually injected. The follow-up evaluations included physical examination and angiography at 1- to 6-month intervals.ResultsDuring the 28 ethanol embolization sessions, the amount of ethanol used ranged from 2 to 65 mL. The obliteration of ulceration, hemorrhage, pain, infection, pulsation, and bruit in most of the patients was obtained. The reduction of redness, swelling, and warmth was achieved in all the 16 patients, with down-staging of the Schobinger status for each patient. AVMs were devascularized 100 % in 3 patients, 76–99 % in 7 patients, and 50–75 % in 6 patients, according to the angiographic findings. The most common complications were necrosis and reversible blister. No permanent visual abnormality was found in any of the cases.ConclusionEthanol embolization is efficacious and safe in the treatment of AVMs in the periorbital region and has the potential to be accepted as the primary mode of therapy in the management of these lesions.

  19. Treatment selection for unruptured small cerebral arteriovenous malformations with clinical decision analysis. Observation, gamma knife or microsurgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Ono, Junichi

    2006-01-01

    We present an optimal treatment for unruptured small (3 cm or less) cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) among conservative treatment, gamma knife surgery (GKS) and microsurgery using clinical decision analysis according to patients' age. All cases for this study were small AVMs. We analyzed 973 cases with conservative treatment, 176 with GKS and 110 with microsurgery. The expected utility indexes were calculated from the results of each group. We hypothesized the standardized expected utility indexes as 100 in healthy, 75 in disabled and 0 in dead. Microsurgery was the first choice for patients younger than 55 years with AVM located in a surgically accessible region. GKS is recommended for patients aged between 55 and 70, and the best treatment is observation for patients older than 70 years. The proposed clinical decision analysis is very useful in obtaining informed consent for choosing the treatment modality for unruptured small AVM. (author)

  20. Arteriovenous malformations of the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, M; Martinez, N; Cura, A; Dalsaso, T J; Elmerhi, F

    2009-09-01

    Arterial venous malformations (AVM) of the uterus are uncommon entities and should be considered in patients who present with profuse genital bleeding. There are two types of uterine AVM: acquired and congenital. Acquired uterine AVMs are conformed by communications between the uterine arteries and the myometrial veins, and are caused by an iatrogenic event or a pathological condition. Congenital AVMs are the result of abnormal development of primitive vessels that result in connections between pelvic arteries and veins in the uterus without an interconnecting capillary bed. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive diagnostic method able to demonstrate and characterize AVMs of the uterus. AVM in the pelvis may be noted incidentally by computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used to confirm and further characterize the sonographic findings of uterine AVM. Catheter angiography and embolization are very effective in defining the vascular anatomy and treating uterine vascular abnormalities.

  1. Radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation during pregnancy: A case report focusing on fetal exposure to radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nagayama, Kazuki; Kurita, Hiroki; Tonari, Ayako; Takayama, Makoto; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We present the case of a pregnant woman who underwent linear accelerator (LINAC)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and we discuss the fetal exposure to radiation. Clinical Presentation: A 20-year-old woman at 18 weeks of gestation presented with right cerebral hemorrhage and underwent urgent evacuation of the hematoma. She recovered well after surgery, but cerebral angiography after the surgery revealed a small deeply seated arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the right fron...

  2. Pretreatment Predictors of Adverse Radiation Effects After Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Prooijen, Monique van; Cusimano, Michael; Tsao, May; Menard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Schwartz, Michael; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify vascular and dosimetric predictors of symptomatic T2 signal change and adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation, in order to define and validate preexisting risk models. Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were treated at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Eighty-five patients have at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up. Any new-onset headaches, new or worsening seizures, or neurological deficit were considered adverse events. Follow-up magnetic resonance images were assessed for new onset T2 signal change and the volume calculated. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. Results: There were 19 children and 66 adults in the study cohort, with a mean age of 34 (range 6–74). Twenty-three (27%) patients suffered adverse radiation effects (ARE), 9 patients with permanent neurological deficit (10.6%). Of these, 5 developed fixed visual field deficits. Target volume and 12 Gy volume were the most significant predictors of adverse radiation effects on univariate analysis (p 3 , above which the rate of ARE increased dramatically. Multivariate analysis target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage are the only significant predictors of ARE. The volume of T2 signal change correlates to ARE, but only target volume is predictive of a higher volume of T2 signal change. Conclusions: Target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage is the most accurate predictor of adverse radiation effects and complications after radiosurgery for AVMs. A high percentage of permanent visual field defects in this series suggest the optic radiation is a critical radiosensitive structure.

  3. Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM is not associated with iron deposition (indicator of micro-hemorrhage. Methods: Sections of unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens (n = 19 were stained immunohistochemically for T-lymphocytes (CD3 + , B-lymphocytes (CD20 + , plasma cells (CD138 + and macrophages (CD68 + . Iron deposition was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue stains. Superficial temporal arteries (STA were used as control. Results: Both T-lymphocytes and macrophages were present in unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens, whereas few B cells and plasma cells were detected. Iron deposition was detected in 8 specimens (42%; 95% confidence intervals = 20-67%. The samples with iron deposition tended to have more macrophages than those without (666 ± 313 vs. 478 ± 174 cells/mm 2 ; P = 0.11. T-cells were clustered on the luminal side of the endothelial surface, on the vessel-wall, and in the perivascular regions. There was no correlation between T-lymphocyte load and iron deposition (P = 0.88. No macrophages and lymphocytes were detected in STA controls. Conclusion: T-lymphocytes were present in bAVM specimens. Unlike macrophages, the load and location of T-lymphocytes were not associated with iron deposition, suggesting the possibility of an independent cell-mediated immunological mechanism in bAVM pathogenesis.

  4. Ethanol embolization of arteriovenous malformations: results and complications of 33 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yong Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Shin, Sung Wook; Liu, Wei Chiang; Cho, Jae Min; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Boong; Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook

    2003-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ethanol embolization for the treatment of arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and the complications, if any, arising. Thirty-three patients with AVMs underwent 145 staged sessions of ethanol embolization. AVMs were located in an upper extremity (n=14), a lower extremity (n=10), the pelvis (n=7), the thorax (n=1), or the abdomen (n=1). Eighty-five transcatheter embolizations and 60 direct percutaneous puncture embolizations were performed, and seven patients underwent additional coil embolization of the dilated outflow vein. The therapeutic effectiveness of embolization was evaluated in terms of the extent to which an AVM was obliterated between baseline and the final angiogram. Complications were classified as minor or major. In 13 patients (39%), AVMs were totally obliterated. In eight patients (24%), more than 75% were obliterated; in three (9%), the proportion was 50-75%; and in four (12%), less than 50%. Five patients (15%), were not treated. The reasons for failure were the difficulty of approaching the nidus due to previous surgical ligation or coil embolization of the feeding artery, the subcutaneous location of an AVM, post-procedural infection, and massive bleeding during the follow-up period. Twenty-one minor complications such as focal skin necrosis or transient nerve palsy developed during 145 sessions of (an incidence of 14%), but these were relieved by conservative treatment. The five major complications arising (3%) were cerebral infarction, urinary tract infection, acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis, permanent median nerve palsy, and infection. Ethanol embolization by direct percutaneous puncture or using a transcatheter technique is an effective approach to the treatment of an AVM. However, to overcome the considerable number of complications, arising, further investigation is required

  5. Ethanol embolization of arteriovenous malformations: results and complications of 33 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yong Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Shin, Sung Wook; Liu, Wei Chiang; Cho, Jae Min; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Boong; Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook [School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ethanol embolization for the treatment of arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and the complications, if any, arising. Thirty-three patients with AVMs underwent 145 staged sessions of ethanol embolization. AVMs were located in an upper extremity (n=14), a lower extremity (n=10), the pelvis (n=7), the thorax (n=1), or the abdomen (n=1). Eighty-five transcatheter embolizations and 60 direct percutaneous puncture embolizations were performed, and seven patients underwent additional coil embolization of the dilated outflow vein. The therapeutic effectiveness of embolization was evaluated in terms of the extent to which an AVM was obliterated between baseline and the final angiogram. Complications were classified as minor or major. In 13 patients (39%), AVMs were totally obliterated. In eight patients (24%), more than 75% were obliterated; in three (9%), the proportion was 50-75%; and in four (12%), less than 50%. Five patients (15%), were not treated. The reasons for failure were the difficulty of approaching the nidus due to previous surgical ligation or coil embolization of the feeding artery, the subcutaneous location of an AVM, post-procedural infection, and massive bleeding during the follow-up period. Twenty-one minor complications such as focal skin necrosis or transient nerve palsy developed during 145 sessions of (an incidence of 14%), but these were relieved by conservative treatment. The five major complications arising (3%) were cerebral infarction, urinary tract infection, acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis, permanent median nerve palsy, and infection. Ethanol embolization by direct percutaneous puncture or using a transcatheter technique is an effective approach to the treatment of an AVM. However, to overcome the considerable number of complications, arising, further investigation is required.

  6. ABC/2 Method Does not Accurately Predict Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Christopher; Vadlamudi, Venu; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Seinfeld, Joshua; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2018-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a treatment option for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to prevent intracranial hemorrhage. The decision to proceed with SRS is usually based on calculated nidal volume. Physicians commonly use the ABC/2 formula, based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA), when counseling patients for SRS. To determine whether AVM volume calculated using the ABC/2 method on DSA is accurate when compared to the exact volume calculated from thin-cut axial sections used for SRS planning. Retrospective search of neurovascular database to identify AVMs treated with SRS from 1995 to 2015. Maximum nidal diameters in orthogonal planes on DSA images were recorded to determine volume using ABC/2 formula. Nidal target volume was extracted from operative reports of SRS. Volumes were then compared using descriptive statistics and paired t-tests. Ninety intracranial AVMs were identified. Median volume was 4.96 cm3 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.79-8.85] with SRS planning methods and 6.07 cm3 (IQR 1.3-13.6) with ABC/2 methodology. Moderate correlation was seen between SRS and ABC/2 (r = 0.662; P ABC/2 (t = -3.2; P = .002). When AVMs were dichotomized based on ABC/2 volume, significant differences remained (t = 3.1, P = .003 for ABC/2 volume ABC/2 volume > 7 cm3). The ABC/2 method overestimates cerebral AVM volume when compared to volumetric analysis from SRS planning software. For AVMs > 7 cm3, the overestimation is even greater. SRS planning techniques were also significantly different than values derived from equations for cones and cylinders. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  7. Cognitive function in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery: prospective long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinvorth, Sarah; Wenz, Frederik; Wildermuth, Susanne; Essig, Marco; Fuss, Martin; Lohr, Frank; Debus, Juergen; Wannenmacher, Michael; Hacke, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term cognitive function of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) after radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: The data of 95 AVM patients were prospectively assessed up to 3 years after radiosurgery. Of these patients, 39 had a follow-up of at least 2 years. Radiosurgery was performed using a modified linear accelerator (minimal doses to the target volume 15-22 Gy, median dose 20). The neuropsychological evaluation included testing of intelligence, attention, and memory. The effect of a preexisting intracranial hemorrhage, as well as AVM occlusion, on cognitive functions was analyzed after 1 and 2 years. Results: No cognitive declines were observed during follow-up. Instead significant improvements occurred in intelligence (1 year, +6.1 IQ points; 2 years, +5.1 IQ points), memory (1 year, +18.3 percentile score; 2 years, +12.2 percentile score), and attention (1 year, +19 percentile score; 2 years, +18 percentile score). Patients without previous intracranial hemorrhage improved more than patients with intracranial hemorrhage, although this difference was not statistically significant. The role of AVM occlusion on cognitive function is not clear at present. Conclusion: Radiosurgery does not induce measurable deterioration of cognitive function in patients with cerebral AVMs

  8. Fractal dimension and vessel complexity in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

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    Gernot Reishofer

    Full Text Available The fractal dimension (FD can be used as a measure for morphological complexity in biological systems. The aim of this study was to test the usefulness of this quantitative parameter in the context of cerebral vascular complexity. Fractal analysis was applied on ten patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM and ten healthy controls. Maximum intensity projections from Time-of-Flight MRI scans were analyzed using different measurements of FD, the Box-counting dimension, the Minkowski dimension and generalized dimensions evaluated by means of multifractal analysis. The physiological significance of this parameter was investigated by comparing values of FD first, with the maximum slope of contrast media transit obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data and second, with the nidus size obtained from X-ray angiography data. We found that for all methods, the Box-counting dimension, the Minkowski dimension and the generalized dimensions FD was significantly higher in the hemisphere with AVM compared to the hemisphere without AVM indicating that FD is a sensitive parameter to capture vascular complexity. Furthermore we found a high correlation between FD and the maximum slope of contrast media transit and between FD and the size of the central nidus pointing out the physiological relevance of FD. The proposed method may therefore serve as an additional objective parameter, which can be assessed automatically and might assist in the complex workup of AVMs.

  9. Novel brain arteriovenous malformation mouse models for type 1 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

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    Eun-Jung Choi

    Full Text Available Endoglin (ENG is a causative gene of type 1 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT1. HHT1 patients have a higher prevalence of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM than the general population and patients with other HHT subtypes. The pathogenesis of brain AVM in HHT1 patients is currently unknown and no specific medical therapy is available to treat patients. Proper animal models are crucial for identifying the underlying mechanisms for brain AVM development and for testing new therapies. However, creating HHT1 brain AVM models has been quite challenging because of difficulties related to deleting Eng-floxed sequence in Eng(2fl/2fl mice. To create an HHT1 brain AVM mouse model, we used several Cre transgenic mouse lines to delete Eng in different cell-types in Eng(2fl/2fl mice: R26CreER (all cell types after tamoxifen treatment, SM22α-Cre (smooth muscle and endothelial cell and LysM-Cre (lysozyme M-positive macrophage. An adeno-associated viral vector expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (AAV-VEGF was injected into the brain to induce focal angiogenesis. We found that SM22α-Cre-mediated Eng deletion in the embryo caused AVMs in the postnatal brain, spinal cord, and intestines. Induction of Eng deletion in adult mice using R26CreER plus local VEGF stimulation induced the brain AVM phenotype. In both models, Eng-null endothelial cells were detected in the brain AVM lesions, and formed mosaicism with wildtype endothelial cells. However, LysM-Cre-mediated Eng deletion in the embryo did not cause AVM in the postnatal brain even after VEGF stimulation. In this study, we report two novel HHT1 brain AVM models that mimic many phenotypes of human brain AVM and can thus be used for studying brain AVM pathogenesis and testing new therapies. Further, our data indicate that macrophage Eng deletion is insufficient and that endothelial Eng homozygous deletion is required for HHT1 brain AVM development.

  10. Arteriovenous malformations of the brain treated with gamma knife; Early effects in 25 children

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    Tanaka, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa (Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The early effects of treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were investigated in 25 children, 15 boys and 10 girls, aged 2 to 15 years (mean 11). Neurological signs were hemiparesis in 10, mental retardation in 2, etc. Initial events were hemorrhage in 23 (92%) and epilepsy in 2 patients. The locations of AVM were parietal lobe in 6, thalamus in 4 patients, etc. The mean diameter of the nidus was 1.97 cm, and the volume was under 10 cm[sup 3] in 21 cases. Of the 25 patients were classified as Grade II or higher by the Spetzler and Martin grading system. The mean maximum dose was 36.2 Gy, and marginal dose of 20.2 Gy with a mean isocenter of 3.2 were used. Follow-up angiography was performed more than one year after treatment in 7 patients. Five of the 7 (71.4%) showed complete obliteration of the AVM. No patients has had rebleeding after treatment so far, but one patient has had hemiparesis due to radiation-induced edema. Stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma knife is a preventive treatment of intracranial AVM in childhood. (author).

  11. An approach to the symbolic representation of brain arteriovenous malformations for management and treatment planning

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    Orlowski, Piotr; Noble, Alison [University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); Mahmud, Imran; Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Summers, Paul [University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Modena (Italy); Ventikos, Yiannis [University College London, Department of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    There is currently no standardised approach to arteriovenous malformation (AVM) reporting. Existing AVM classification systems focuses on angioarchitectural features and omit haemodynamic, anatomical and topological parameters intuitively used by therapists. We introduce a symbolic vocabulary to represent the state of an AVM of the brain at different stages of treatment. The vocabulary encompasses the main anatomic and haemodynamic features of interest in treatment planning and provides shorthand symbols to represent the interventions themselves in a schematic representation. The method was presented to 50 neuroradiologists from14 countries during a workshop and graded 7.34 ± 1.92 out of ten for its usefulness as means of standardising and facilitating communication between clinicians and allowing comparisons between AVM cases. Feedback from the survey was used to revise the method and improve its completeness. For an AVM test case, participants were asked to produce a conventional written report and subsequently a diagrammatic report. The two required, on average, 6.19 ± 2.05 and 5.09 ± 3.01 min, respectively. Eighteen participants said that producing the diagram changed the way they thought about the AVM test case. Introduced into routine practice, the diagrams would represent a step towards a standardised approach to AVM reporting with consequent benefits for comparative analysis and communication as well as for identifying best treatment strategies. (orig.)

  12. An approach to the symbolic representation of brain arteriovenous malformations for management and treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, Piotr; Noble, Alison; Mahmud, Imran; Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V.; Summers, Paul; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no standardised approach to arteriovenous malformation (AVM) reporting. Existing AVM classification systems focuses on angioarchitectural features and omit haemodynamic, anatomical and topological parameters intuitively used by therapists. We introduce a symbolic vocabulary to represent the state of an AVM of the brain at different stages of treatment. The vocabulary encompasses the main anatomic and haemodynamic features of interest in treatment planning and provides shorthand symbols to represent the interventions themselves in a schematic representation. The method was presented to 50 neuroradiologists from14 countries during a workshop and graded 7.34 ± 1.92 out of ten for its usefulness as means of standardising and facilitating communication between clinicians and allowing comparisons between AVM cases. Feedback from the survey was used to revise the method and improve its completeness. For an AVM test case, participants were asked to produce a conventional written report and subsequently a diagrammatic report. The two required, on average, 6.19 ± 2.05 and 5.09 ± 3.01 min, respectively. Eighteen participants said that producing the diagram changed the way they thought about the AVM test case. Introduced into routine practice, the diagrams would represent a step towards a standardised approach to AVM reporting with consequent benefits for comparative analysis and communication as well as for identifying best treatment strategies. (orig.)

  13. MRI - a noninvasive tool for evaluating therapeutic embolisation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, L.; Wimberger, D.; Kramer, J.; Stiglbauer, R.; Richling, B.; Bavinzski, G.; Matula, Ch.; Imhof, H.

    1991-01-01

    Of 86 patients with whose cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were embolised in the period 1985-1990 29 were examined by high-field spin-echo (SE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after endovascular therapy with histoacryl-lipiodol. Embolisation-related changes in the nidus of the AVM and in the surrounding brain parenchyma were assessed. Results were compared with pretreatment MR and CT, and with follow-up angiograms in all patients. In accordance with angiographic findings, complete obliteration of pathological vessels was noted in 7 patients (24.1%) and partial occlusion in 22 (75.9%); small ischaemic infarcts were observed in 8 patients (27.6%) and extravascular deposits of blood breakdown products were seen in 3 (10.3%). MRI is a valuable noninvasive technique for assessing morphology and haemodynamics of cerebral AVMs before and after treatment. However, following embolotherapy, variable effects on signal intensity in vascular lumina caused by flowing blood, thrombosis and the embolisation agent have to be carefully analysed. To assess the exact site of histoacryl-lipiodol in embolised nidus territories or small areas of possible intracerebral hemorrhage, the time interval between endovascular therapy and MR examinations may have to be modified. (orig.)

  14. MRI - a noninvasive tool for evaluating therapeutic embolisation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, L. [Dept. of Radiology and MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Wimberger, D. [Dept. of Radiology and MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)]|[Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kramer, J. [Dept. of Radiology and MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Stiglbauer, R. [Dept. of Radiology and MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Richling, B. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Bavinzski, G. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Matula, Ch. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Imhof, H. [Dept. of Radiology and MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1991-08-01

    Of 86 patients with whose cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were embolised in the period 1985-1990 29 were examined by high-field spin-echo (SE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after endovascular therapy with histoacryl-lipiodol. Embolisation-related changes in the nidus of the AVM and in the surrounding brain parenchyma were assessed. Results were compared with pretreatment MR and CT, and with follow-up angiograms in all patients. In accordance with angiographic findings, complete obliteration of pathological vessels was noted in 7 patients (24.1%) and partial occlusion in 22 (75.9%); small ischaemic infarcts were observed in 8 patients (27.6%) and extravascular deposits of blood breakdown products were seen in 3 (10.3%). MRI is a valuable noninvasive technique for assessing morphology and haemodynamics of cerebral AVMs before and after treatment. However, following embolotherapy, variable effects on signal intensity in vascular lumina caused by flowing blood, thrombosis and the embolisation agent have to be carefully analysed. To assess the exact site of histoacryl-lipiodol in embolised nidus territories or small areas of possible intracerebral hemorrhage, the time interval between endovascular therapy and MR examinations may have to be modified. (orig.)

  15. The Radiosurgical Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformations: Obliteration, Morbidities, and Performance Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Daniel Q.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Raza, Shaan M.; Batra, Sachin; Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Lim, Michael; Huang, Judy; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the single-center treatment outcomes of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain using stereotactic radiosurgery, with regard to obliteration, predictive factors, morbidities, and patient performance status. Patients and Methods: 127 patients were treated between 1990 and 2008 by use of linear accelerator or Gamma Knife. Their median age was 37 years, the median AVM volume was 7.3 cc (range, 0.014-113.13 cc), and the median follow-up duration was 42 months (range, 6-209 months). Forty-two percent of patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage, 31% received embolization, and 8% underwent prior resection. Thirty-one percent of patients received more than one round of radiosurgery. Results: 64% of patients had complete obliteration confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. Positive predictors of obliteration included pretreatment hemorrhage (p = 0.042), smaller AVM volume (odds ratio = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03-1.52), and larger marginal dose (odds ratio = 0.292; 95% CI, 0.100-0.820), whereas embolization (p < 0.001) was a negative predictor . The annual risk of hemorrhage after radiosurgery was 2.2%, and the risk of death as a result of hemorrhage was 0.6-1.3%. Eleven percent of patients reported new or worsened neurologic symptoms. Radiosurgery was effective in treating AVM-related headaches (p < 0.001) but did not improve the performance status of patients. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective tool in the treatment of AVMs and amelioration of AVM-related headaches, but it did not affect the patients' performance status. Factors affecting obliteration include prior hemorrhage, marginal dose, prior embolization, and AVM volume. Risk of hemorrhage persists in the latency period after radiosurgery, and it remains finite even after complete obliteration.

  16. Radiologic diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok

    2002-01-01

    To analyze gray-scale US, color and duplex Doppler US, and angiographic findings in patients with acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and to evaluate the usefulness of these modalities in the diagnosis of this disease and the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization in its treatment. During a recent seven-year period, we diagnosed 21 cases of acquired uterine AVM. Nineteen of these patients had a history of causative D and C (between one and seven D and C procedures per patient), one had a history of causative cesarean section, and one had cervical conization. All patients underwent transabdominal and endovaginal gray-scale, color Doppler, and duplex Doppler US and angiography, with therapeutic embolization of bilateral uterine arteries. The majority underwent follow-up Doppler US after embolization. The gray-scale US morphology of uterine AVMs included subtle myometrial inhomogeneity and multiple distinct, small anechoic spaces in the thickened myometrium or endometrium. Color Doppler US showed a tangle of tortuous vessels with multidirectional, high-velocity arterial flow, which was focally or asymmetrically distributed. Duplex Doppler US depicted a waveform of fast arterial flow with low resistance, while angiography demonstrated a complex tangle of vessels supplied by enlarged uterine arteries, in association with early venous drainage during the arterial phase, and staiss of contrast medium within abnormal vasculature. Where AVMs were combined with a pseudoaneurysm, this finding was observed. Transcatheter arterial embolization provided a complete cure, without recurrence. Color and duplex Doppler US in an appropriate modality for the detection and diagnosis of uterine AVMs and for follow-up after embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a safe and effective method of treating this disease

  17. Radiologic diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok [College of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To analyze gray-scale US, color and duplex Doppler US, and angiographic findings in patients with acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and to evaluate the usefulness of these modalities in the diagnosis of this disease and the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization in its treatment. During a recent seven-year period, we diagnosed 21 cases of acquired uterine AVM. Nineteen of these patients had a history of causative D and C (between one and seven D and C procedures per patient), one had a history of causative cesarean section, and one had cervical conization. All patients underwent transabdominal and endovaginal gray-scale, color Doppler, and duplex Doppler US and angiography, with therapeutic embolization of bilateral uterine arteries. The majority underwent follow-up Doppler US after embolization. The gray-scale US morphology of uterine AVMs included subtle myometrial inhomogeneity and multiple distinct, small anechoic spaces in the thickened myometrium or endometrium. Color Doppler US showed a tangle of tortuous vessels with multidirectional, high-velocity arterial flow, which was focally or asymmetrically distributed. Duplex Doppler US depicted a waveform of fast arterial flow with low resistance, while angiography demonstrated a complex tangle of vessels supplied by enlarged uterine arteries, in association with early venous drainage during the arterial phase, and staiss of contrast medium within abnormal vasculature. Where AVMs were combined with a pseudoaneurysm, this finding was observed. Transcatheter arterial embolization provided a complete cure, without recurrence. Color and duplex Doppler US in an appropriate modality for the detection and diagnosis of uterine AVMs and for follow-up after embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a safe and effective method of treating this disease.

  18. Notch1 and 4 Signaling Responds to an Increasing Vascular Wall Shear Stress in a Rat Model of Arteriovenous Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch signaling is suggested to promote the development and maintenance of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs, and an increasing wall shear stress (WSS contributes to AVM rupture. Little is known about whether WSS impacts Notch signaling, which is important for understanding the angiogenesis of AVMs. WSS was measured in arteriovenous fistulas (AVF surgically created in 96 rats at different time points over a period of 84 days. The expression of Notch receptors 1 and 4 and their ligands, Delta1 and 4, Jagged1, and Notch downstream gene target Hes1 was quantified in “nidus” vessels. The interaction events between Notch receptors and their ligands were quantified using proximity ligation assay. There was a positive correlation between WSS and time (r=0.97; P<0.001. The expression of Notch receptors and their ligands was upregulated following AVF formation. There was a positive correlation between time and the number of interactions between Notch receptors and their ligands aftre AVF formation (r=0.62, P<0.05 and a positive correlation between WSS and the number of interactions between Notch receptors and their ligands (r=0.87, P<0.005. In conclusion, an increasing WSS may contribute to the angiogenesis of AVMs by activation of Notch signaling.

  19. Arteriovenous malformation of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Youn; Lee, Kang Sook; Choi, Karp Shik

    1995-01-01

    The arteriovenous malformation, an uncommon lesion, is a direct communication between an artery and a vein that bypasses the intervening capillary bed. The authors experienced two cases of arteriovenous malformation in 17-year-old and 18-year-old female patients who had suffered from mandibular pain and gingival bleeding. As a result of careful analysis of clinical and angiographic radiological examinations, we diagnosed them as arteriovenous malformations. The following result were obtained; 1. Main clinical symptoms were dull pain and gingival bleeding on the mandibular body area and redness, pain on palpitation in the lesional sites were also observed. 2. Radiographically, well-defined radiolucent lesions with multiple osteolytic defects were observed. In radionuclide scan, increased uptakes of radioisotope were observed in the lesional sites. 3. Increased venous shunt supplied by the facial, lingual and inferior alveolar arteries was observed in angiography. After embolotherapy was performed, no recurrence was reported during 3 to 6 months follow up.

  20. Awake craniotomy for cortical language mapping and resection of an arteriovenous malformation adjacent to eloquent areas under general anesthesia — A hybrid approach

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    Pree Nimmannitya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgery of arteriovenous malformation (AVM is sometimes challenging and carries a high risk of morbidity, especially when the AVM is located in an eloquent area of the brain. Unlike gliomas, awake craniotomy has not been widely used for resection of AVM. The authors present a case of an AVM in the left frontal lobe which was successfully removed with the aid of awake craniotomy with cortical language mapping. In conclusion, awake craniotomy for functional cortical mapping is beneficial for AVM resection, especially when the lesion is located in or adjacent to eloquent areas of the brain. A hybrid approach with functional mapping in the awake condition and AVM resection under general anesthesia may be useful in selected cases. Furthermore, en bloc resection with the nidus embedded in the brain parenchyma may be a useful means of removal to reduce operation time and intraoperative blood loss if there is no apparent functional cortex surrounding the AVM, as in the present case.

  1. Awake craniotomy for excision of arteriovenous malformations? A qualitative comparison study with stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David Yuen Chung; Chan, Danny Tat Ming; Zhu, Cannon Xian Lun; Kan, Patricia Kwok Yee; Ng, Amelia Yikjin; Hsieh, Yi-Pin Sonia; Abrigo, Jill; Poon, Wai Sang; Wong, George Kwok Chu

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) located at the eloquent area has been a challenge. Awake brain mapping allows identification of a non-eloquent gyrus for intervention and can potentially facilitate resection with preservation of functions. An alternative treatment option is stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The objective of this study was to perform a qualitative comparison of the treatment outcome of awake AVM excision versus SRS. We conducted a 13-year retrospective review of AVM excision under awake craniotomy performed at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, from 2003 to 2016. Patients' presentation, Spetzler-Martin (SM) grading, rate of obliteration and complication were reviewed and analyzed with the modified radiosurgery-based AVM score (RS score). Six patients had excision of AVM under awake mapping during this period of time. Two were SM Grade II and four were SM Grade III. Five located at the peri-rolandic region while one at the temporal language area. None had failed mapping. Five out of six achieved complete obliteration (83.3%). Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed better treatment outcome with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS with the obliteration rate of 100% versus 96% for RS score ≤1.00, 100% versus 78% for RS score 1.01-1.50, and 66% versus 50% for RS score >2.00 respectively. In conclusion, awake mapping and excision of AVMs at the eloquent area is feasible. Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed higher obliteration rate with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A treatment strategy for arteriovenous malformations of the brain based on results of gamma knife surgery experienced between 1991 and 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Nishi, Hideo; Sanada, Tomoyuki; Tachikawa, Yuichi; Nishimatsu, Terutaka; Ohye, Chihiro; Andou, Yoshitaka; Naitou, Isao

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a treatment strategy for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain based on results of 107 patients treated with Gamma Knife (GK) surgery between 1991 and 1995. Total obliteration was obtained in 80.5%. The obliteration rate was 82.1% in Grade 3 of Spetzler-Martin scale, 75.0% in Grade 4, 50.0% in Grade 5, and 66.7% in Grade 6. The obliteration rate of slow and low flow AVMs (moya type) within 12 months (65.5%) was significantly higher than that of rapid and/or high flow AVMs (shunt, mixed type). Six patients had bleeding 7 to 42 months after GK surgery. The annual rate of bleeding in accumulated years was 2.3%. Adverse effects appeared in 2 (1.9%) of 107 patients, and both patients had AVMs in the internal capsule. We concluded that microsurgery is recommended for AVMs operable without morbidity, and GK surgery is recommended for AVMs in functional areas, and that intravascular embolization is required for large, rapid and/or high flow AVMs, especially those with hemorrhagic risk factors. (author)

  3. Morbidity after Hemorrhage in Children with Untreated Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Kim, Helen; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Chun-Xue; Ma, Jun; Su, Hua; Zhao, Yuanli

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with untreated brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are at risk of encountering life-threatening hemorrhage very early in their lives. The primary aim of invasive treatment is to reduce unfavorable outcome associated with a bAVM rupture. A better understanding of the morbidity of bAVM hemorrhage might be helpful for weighing the risks of untreated bAVM and invasive treatment. Our aim was to assess the clinical outcome after bAVM rupture and identify features to predict severe hemorrhage in children. Methods We identified all consecutive children admitted to our institution for bAVMs between July 2009 and December 2014. Clinical outcome after hemorrhagic presentation and subsequent hemorrhage was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for children. The association of demographic characteristics and bAVM morphology with severe hemorrhage (mRS >3 or requiring emergency hematoma evacuation) was studied using univariate and multivariable regression analyses. A nomogram based on multivariable analysis was formulated to predict severe hemorrhage risk for individual patients. Results A total of 134 patients were identified with a mean treatment-free follow-up period of 2.1 years. bAVM ruptured in 83 (62%) children: 82 had a hemorrhage at presentation and 6 of them experienced a recurrent hemorrhage during follow-up; 1 patient had other diagnostic symptoms but bled during follow-up. Among them, 49% (41/83) had a severe hemorrhage; emergency hematoma evacuation was required in 28% of them (23/83), and 24% (20/83) remained as disabled (mRS ≥ 3) at last follow-up. Forty-six percent (38/82) of children with hemorrhagic presentation were severely disabled (mRS >3). Forty-three percent (3/7) were severely disabled after subsequent hemorrhage. The annual rate of severe subsequent hemorrhage was 1% in the overall cohort and 3.3% in children with ruptured presentation. All the subsequent severe hemorrhage events occurred in children with severe

  4. Multimodality treatment of large AVMs in eloquent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Naitou, Isao

    2004-01-01

    Our treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with Gamma Knife Radiosurgery (optimal dose treatment) showed 88.4% total obliteration in small AVMs less than 10 ml after the first treatment and very low morbidity (1.7%) in long-term follow-up (5 to 12 years). These results indicate that combined treatment is a good strategy for large AVMs in eloquent areas. Therefore, we evaluated larger AVMs treated with direct surgery including feeder clipping and/or intravascular embolization prior to radiosurgery for further development of radiosurgery of large AVMs. Fifty of 171 patients had combined treatment (embolization: 27, direct surgery: 19, both: 4) and were followed more than 4 years and 6 months. Mean volume at the time of radiosurgery was smallest in the surgery group. Total obliteration was obtained in 94.4% of small AVMs less than 10 ml (surgery: 100%, embolization: 88.9%), although larger AVMs still have a lower obliteration rate. No lethal hemorrhages appeared after combination treatment up to date. We concluded that radiosurgery combined with surgery and/or embolization is a safe and effective treatment for large AVMs in eloquent areas. (author)

  5. Results of a Conservative Dose Plan Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pediatric Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Moorthy, Ranjith K; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; John, Subhashini; Rangad, Faith; Viswanathan, P N; Ravindran, Paul; Singh, Rabiraja

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the obliteration rate and clinical outcome following linear accelerator (LINAC)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in pediatric patients (age ≤18 years). Factors associated with the obliteration rate and neurologic complications were studied retrospectively in pediatric patients who underwent LINAC-based SRS for AVM between June 1995 and May 2014. The study cohort comprised 36 males and 33 females, with a median age at the time of SRS of 14 years (range, 7-18 years). The mean AVM volume was 8.5 ± 8.7 cc (range, 0.6-41.8 cc). The median marginal dose of radiation delivered was 15 Gy (range, 9-20 Gy). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated complete obliteration of the AVM in 44 of the 69 patients (63.8%), at a mean follow up of 27.5 months (range, 12-90 months). On subgroup analysis, 41 of the 53 AVMs of ≤14 cc in volume (77.3%) were obliterated. AVMs with a modified AVM radiosurgery score <1 had significantly shorter obliteration times from the time of SRS (P = .006). On multivariate analysis, the mean marginal dose of radiation delivered to the AVM was the sole significant predictor of obliteration (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1 to 2.4). A modest median marginal dose of 15 Gy (16 Gy in the obliterated AVM group vs. 12 Gy in the nonobliterated group) resulted in an obliteration rate of 66.7% after LINAC-based SRS for intracranial AVM, with low rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Angiographic findings of congenital vascular malformation in soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dae Seob; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Moon, Woo Kyung; Han, Man Chung

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical, plain radiographic, and angiographic findings of congenital vascular malformation of the soft tissue. Retrospective analysis was performed in 36 patients. Pathological diagnosis was done in 25 patients by surgery and the others were clinically and angiographically diagnosed. On the basis of angiographic findings, we classified the lesions to three groups as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), hemangioma, and venous malformation. In pathologically proven 25 cases, we compared the angiographic diagnosis with the pathologic diagnosis. By angiographic classification, AVM was 13 cases, hemangioma 16 cases, and venous malformation 7 cases. The locations of the lesions were upper extremities in 14 cases, lower extremities in 20 cases, both extremities in 1 case, and back in 1 case. Clinical findings were bruit and thrill in 13 cases(12 AVMs,1 hemangioma) and varicosities in 16 cases(11 AVMs, 3 hemangiomas and 2 venous malformations). The varicosities in AVM were pulsating nature, but not in hemangioma and venous malformation. The concordance rate of the angiographic and pathologic diagnosis was 100%(6/6) in AVM, 71%(10/14) in hemangioma and 60% (3/5) in venous malformation. We think that angiography is an essential study for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of congenital vascular malformation

  7. Embolization techniques for high-flow arteriovenous malformations with a dominant outflow vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Allan M; Qato, Khalil; Drury, Jennifer; Rosen, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the management and outcomes of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with a dominant outflow vein (DOV) treated with retrograde venous embolization. A retrospective review was performed from November 2010 to May 2014 on all patients with a high-flow AVM and associated DOV who underwent transvenous embolization of the DOV. Indications, techniques, complications, and outcomes were reviewed. Fourteen patients (five male; 36%) underwent transvenous embolization of high-flow AVMs with a DOV. Median age was 41.6 years (15.7-65.8 years). The AVM was located on an extremity in eight patients (57%) and in the pelvis in six patients (43%). The indication for the procedure was pain in 11 patients (79%), swelling in 3 patients (21%), a nonhealing wound in 1 patient (7%), and impotence in 1 patient (7%). The median number of prior procedures to treat the AVM was 2.5 (0-13). Transvenous embolization with coils was performed in 13 patients (93%). The Amplatzer vascular plug and Amplatzer septal occluder (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, Minn) were used in four patients (29%). Concurrent percutaneous puncture embolization of the AVM nidus was used in seven patients (50%) and transcatheter arterial embolization in eight patients (57%). Technical angiographic success was seen in all patients. Five patients (36%) experienced a complete response to treatment, whereas eight (57%) experienced a partial response. Seven patients (50%) required further procedures for residual symptoms. AVMs with a DOV can be successfully treated by a transvenous approach. Percutaneous puncture embolization of the nidus or draining vein and transcatheter arterial embolization may assist in reducing flow. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vascular malformations in pediatrics; Vaskulaere Erkrankungen bei Neugeborenen, Saeuglingen und Kindern

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    Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Homburg/Saar (Germany); Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, 66421, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shamdeen, M.G. [Kinderklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [German] Vaskulaere Malformationen sind die haeufigste Ursache einer intrakraniellen Blutung im Saeuglings- und Kindesalter. Deswegen sollte jedes Kind mit einer intrakraniellen Blutung auf eine vaskulaere Malformation und Kindesmisshandlung untersucht werden. Intrazerebrale Gefaessmalformationen beinhalten Vena-Galeni-Anomalien, arteriovenoese Malformationen (AVM), Kavernome, durale arteriovenoese Fisteln, kapillaere Teleangiektasien und venoese Anlagevarianten (DVA). Obwohl einige familiaere Gefaessmalformationen beschrieben sind, tritt die ueberwiegende Mehrzahl spontan auf. Die Klinik, Diagnostik und therapeutischen Optionen werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  9. Gadofosveset-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography as a means of evaluating pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressacco, Josephine; Papas, Konstantin

    2012-07-01

    This case report is a unique presentation of a new potential indication for Gadofosvest (Ablavar), a blood pool contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Ablavar is an excellent MRA contrast agent because it provides optimal contrast opacification of both the arterial and venous system, unlike the conventional extracellular agents that are used for arterial imaging only. The present case report demonstrates the ability of Ablavar to demonstrate pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM), showing both its arterial feeders as well as its venous drainage tract. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact on cognitive functions following gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

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    A Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiosurgery is an alternative to surgical resection of arteriovenous malformation (AVM. Very few studies have addressed the concern of radiation injury to the brain and its attendant adverse effects on cognitive function. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included all patients who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS at our institute for cerebral AVM between 2006 and December 2008 (n = 34. All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before the procedure. Neuropsychological evaluation was repeated in eighteen patients 2 years following GKRS. Clinical outcome, AVM obliteration, and factors influencing outcome were analyzed in these eighteen patients. Results: Before GKRS, more than 50% had significant impairment of neuropsychological functions compared to normal population norms. 66.6% achieved the excellent radiosurgical outcome. At 2 years follow-up, patients showed varied improvement in neuropsychological function in various categories. Pretherapeutic median value for percentage perseverative responses was 26.5 and at follow-up, it reduced to 18.2 (P = 0.039. Set shifting improved in 11 patients (61.1%, remained same in 5 patients (27.7%, and deteriorated in two patients (11.1%. Patients with a higher Spetzler-Martin grade AVM demonstrated a significantly more favorable shift in follow-up test values for set shifting function (P = 0.021. Patients with postradiation imaging changes had lesser tendency to improve in neuropsychological performance at follow-up. Conclusions: GKRS has no clinically harmful effect on cognitive and neuropsychological functioning in patients with brain AVM. On the contrary, there is an improvement in majority of patients at 2 years following radiosurgery when nidus is obliterated.

  11. Impact on cognitive functions following gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, A; Bennett, Niranjana; Arimappamagan, Arivazhagan; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Thennarasu, K; Jamuna, R; Somanna, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Radiosurgery is an alternative to surgical resection of arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Very few studies have addressed the concern of radiation injury to the brain and its attendant adverse effects on cognitive function. This prospective study included all patients who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) at our institute for cerebral AVM between 2006 and December 2008 (n = 34). All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before the procedure. Neuropsychological evaluation was repeated in eighteen patients 2 years following GKRS. Clinical outcome, AVM obliteration, and factors influencing outcome were analyzed in these eighteen patients. Before GKRS, more than 50% had significant impairment of neuropsychological functions compared to normal population norms. 66.6% achieved the excellent radiosurgical outcome. At 2 years follow-up, patients showed varied improvement in neuropsychological function in various categories. Pretherapeutic median value for percentage perseverative responses was 26.5 and at follow-up, it reduced to 18.2 (P = 0.039). Set shifting improved in 11 patients (61.1%), remained same in 5 patients (27.7%), and deteriorated in two patients (11.1%). Patients with a higher Spetzler-Martin grade AVM demonstrated a significantly more favorable shift in follow-up test values for set shifting function (P = 0.021). Patients with postradiation imaging changes had lesser tendency to improve in neuropsychological performance at follow-up. GKRS has no clinically harmful effect on cognitive and neuropsychological functioning in patients with brain AVM. On the contrary, there is an improvement in majority of patients at 2 years following radiosurgery when nidus is obliterated.

  12. An analysis of the effects of smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors on obliteration rates after arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Ajay; Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relationships of smoking and other cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and gender) to rates of radiosurgery-induced obliteration of arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Methods and Materials: We evaluated follow-up imaging and clinical data in 329 AVM patients who received gamma knife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh between 1987 and 1994. There were 113 smokers, 29 hypertensives, 5 diabetics, 4 hypercholesterolemics, 159 male patients, and 170 female patients. All patients had regular clinical or imaging follow-up for a minimum of 3 years after radiosurgery. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that smoking had no effect on AVM obliteration (p>0.43). Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect on AVM obliteration in this study (p>0.78). However, females aged 12-49 had a statistically significant lower in-field obliteration rate than males (78% vs. 89%, p=0.0102). Conclusion: Smoking has no effect on AVM obliteration. Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect in this study. Further study is needed to establish whether estrogen has a vascular protective effect that could partially limit radiosurgical AVM obliteration, as suggested by this study

  13. Arteriovenous Malformation of the Pancreas

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    Alexandros Charalabopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM is a very rare and mostly congenital lesion, with less than 80 cases described in the English-published literature. It is defined as a tumorous vascular abnormality that is constructed between an anomalous bypass anastomosis of the arterial and venous networks within the pancreas. It represents about 5% of all arteriovenous malformations found in the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we present a 64-year-old patient with symptomatic PAVM involving the body and tail of the organ, which was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. The disease spectrum and review of the literature are also presented.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of concurrent facial and cerebral vascular malformation which caused congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Moradi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are rarely reported antenatally. Most in utero diagnosis of vascular malformation is related to vein of Galen malformation (VGM. We describe a case of simultaneously diagnosed pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF and facial vascular malformation in a 20 weeks old fetus. The dilated intracranial venous pouch appeared as a midline anechoic structure which was misdiagnosed as a VGM in her previous ultrasound exam. Another AVM was diagnosed in the same side of fetal face which fed by a branch of external carotid artery and communicated with the mentioned pial AVF. High output cardiac failure and hydrops were evident. To our knowledge this is the first report of prenatally detected combination of facial and cerebral vascular malformations at such as early pregnancy week.

  15. A cerebral arteriovenous malformation grading system for gamma knife radiosurgery with the aim of early obliteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Hirato, Masafumi; Yokoe, Takao; Iino, Yuichi; Ohye, Chihiro; Shibazaki, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    Bleeding in the latency period before obliteration considerably worsens the prognosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Bleeding risk should be considered and total obliteration should performed as early as possible. In this study we investigated factors related to early obliteration following Gamma Knife radiosurgery and proposed a grading system for AVMs. Forty-six patients with cerebral AVMs followed angiographically within twelve months after Gamma Knife radiosurgery were analyzed. Four factors, volume, type (categorized by our own method), location, and marginal dose were found to be correlated with early obliteration rate. We scored these factors, and categorized the scores into a grade O to 6 Gamma Knife Score (GKS), and evaluated the obliteration rate of each grade. The total obliteration rate in twelve months according to grade was: grades 0 and 1, 61.9%; grades 2 and 3, 36.0%, grades 4 and 5, 16.7%. AVMs with a low GKS (grades 0 and 1) had a high early obliteration rate and seemed suitable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Since early obliteration is difficult to obtain in the high grade group, endovascular surgery should be considered to reduce the GKS before Gamma Knife radiosurgery. (author)

  16. Factors Determining the Clinical Complications of Radiosurgery for AVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnowska, Matylda; Taeshineetanakul, Patamintita; Geibprasert, Sasikhan; Menezes, Ravi; Agid, Ronit; Terbrugge, Karel G; Andrade-Souza, Yuri; Schwartz, Michael L; Krings, Timo

    2013-11-01

    To identify the predictors of symptomatic post-radiation T2 signal change in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treated with radiosurgery. The charts of 211 consecutive patients with arteriovenous malformations treated with either gamma knife radisurgery or linear accelerator radiosurgery between 2000-2009 were retrospectively reviewed. 168 patients had a minimum of 12 months of clinical and radiologic follow-up following the procedure and complete dosage data. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. 141 patients had no clinical symptomatic complications. 21 patients had global or focal neurological deficits attributed to symptomatic edema. Variables associated with development of symptomatic edema included a non-hemorrhagic symptomatic presentation compared to presentation with hemorrhage, p=0.001; OR (95%CI) = 6.26 (1.99, 19.69); the presence of venous rerouting compared to the lack of venous rerouting, p=0.031; OR (95% CI) = 3.25 (1.20, 8.80); radiosurgery with GKS compared to linear accelerator radiosurgery p = 0.012; OR (95% CI) = 4.58 (1.28, 16.32); and the presence of more than one draining vein compared to a single draining vein p = 0.032; OR (95% CI) = 2.82 (1.06, 7.50). We postulated that the higher maximal doses used with gamma knife radiosurgery may be responsible for the greater number of adverse radiation effects with this modality compared to linear accelerator radiosurgery. We found that AVMs with greater venous complexity and therefore instability resulted in more adverse treatment outcomes, suggesting that AVM angioarchitecture should be considered when making treatment decisions. Facteurs en cause dans les complications cliniques de la radiochirurgie pour une malformation artérioveineuse.

  17. Transcatheter arterial embolization for congenital renal arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Hu Tingyang; Yuan Jianhua; Yu Wenqiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization for congenital renal arteriovenous malformation. Methods: Seven cases of congenital renal arteriovenous malformation causing gross hematuria were retrospectively studied. All of 7 cases were demonstrated by means of angiography and then the catheter was placed superselectively into the involved arterial end of the malformation undertaking embolization with gelfoam, dehydrated ethanol, coils, etc. Results: All the malformations of the 7 cases were successfully embolized with stoppage of gross hematuria within 24 hours. No serious complications occurred except lumbago, fever, gastrointestinal reaction for one week. There was no recurrence of haematuria and the renal function was also normal in all cases during the follow-up for 36 to 98 months. Conclusions: Transcatheter renal arterial angiography and embolization are the important and effective management for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital renal arteriovenous malformation. (authors)

  18. A multi-institutional analysis of complication outcomes after arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Lunsford, L. Dade; Pollock, Bruce E.; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Gorman, Deborah A.; Schomberg, Paula J.; Sneed, Patricia; Larson, David; Smith, Vernon; McDermott, Michael W.; Miyawaki, Lloyd; Chilton, Jonathan; Morantz, Robert A.; Young, Byron; Jokura, Hidefumi; Liscak, Roman

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand radiation complications of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) radiosurgery and factors affecting their resolution. Methods and Materials: AVM patients (102/1255) who developed neurological sequelae after radiosurgery were studied. The median AVM marginal dose (D min ) was 19 Gy (range: 10-35). The median volume was 5.7 cc (range: 0.26-143). Median follow-up was 34 months (range: 9-140). Results: Complications consisted of 80/102 patients with evidence of radiation injury to the brain parenchyma (7 also with cranial nerve deficits, 12 also with seizures, 5 with cyst formation), 12/102 patients with isolated cranial neuropathies, and 10/102 patients with only new or worsened seizures. Severity was classified as minimal in 39 patients, mild in 40, disabling in 21, and fatal in 2 patients. Symptoms resolved completely in 42 patients for an actuarial resolution rate of 54% ± 7% at 3 years post-onset. Multivariate analysis identified significantly greater symptom resolution in patients with no prior history of hemorrhage (p = 0.01, 66% vs. 41%), and in patients with symptoms of minimal severity: headache or seizure as the only sequelae of radiosurgery (p < 0.0001, 88% vs. 34%). Conclusion: Late sequelae of radiosurgery manifest in varied ways. Further long-term studies of these problems are needed that take into account symptom severity and prior hemorrhage history

  19. Noninvasive evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations by 4D-CT angiography using 320-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, H.; Jin, L.; Tsukiyama, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Sekine, S.; Shimizu, T.; Ohiwa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Objective: Four-dimensional computed tomography angiography (4D-CTA) is a new and promising technique in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the utility of 4D-CTA using whole-brain 320-detector row CT for assessing cerebral AVMs compared with conventional angiography (CA). Materials and methods: Participants included patients admitted to our institution from November 2010 to March 2012 due to cerebral AVMs who underwent both 4D-CTA and CA within 14 days. The diagnosis of AVM was finally confirmed by CA. Two readers reviewed 4D-CTA and CA under consensus regarding AVM detection rate and each component of the AVM (feeders, nidi, drainers) using a four-point grading scale (excellent=3, good=2, fair=1, poor=0), and the Spetzler-Martin (S-M) grade. Results: During the study period, 11 patients met the inclusion criteria. The average score for feeders, nidi, and drainers was 2.0, 2.3, and 2.5 in 4D-CTA and 2.4, 2.6, and 2.7 in CA, respectively. The average S-M grade score was 2.0 in all patients. There were no statistically significant differences between the two modalities (P<.005). Conclusion: 4D-CTA using 320-detector row CT is a very reliable method and offers diagnostic performance equivalent to CA for detecting and predicting S-M classification of cerebral AVMs.

  20. Linear Accelerator Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Central Nervous System Arteriovenous Malformations: A 15-Year Analysis of Outcome-Related Factors in a Single Tertiary Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenier-Villa, José Luis; Galárraga-Campoverde, Raúl Alejandro; Martínez Rolán, Rosa María; De La Lama Zaragoza, Adolfo Ramón; Martínez Cueto, Pedro; Muñoz Garzón, Víctor; Salgado Fernández, Manuel; Conde Alonso, Cesáreo

    2017-07-01

    Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery is one of the modalities available for the treatment of central nervous system arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The aim of this study was to describe our 15-year experience with this technique in a single tertiary center and the analysis of outcome-related factors. From 1998 to 2013, 195 patients were treated with linear accelerator-based radiosurgery; we conducted a retrospective study collecting patient- and AVM-related variables. Treatment outcomes were obliteration, posttreatment hemorrhage, symptomatic radiation-induced changes, and 3-year neurologic status. We also analyzed prognostic factors of each outcome and predictability analysis of 5 scales: Spetzler-Martin grade, Lawton-Young supplementary and Lawton combined scores, radiosurgery-based AVM score, Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale, and Heidelberg score. Overall obliteration rate was 81%. Nidus diameter and venous drainage were predictive of obliteration (P linear accelerator-based radiosurgery is a useful, valid, effective, and safe modality for treatment of brain AVMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anaesthetic management of a child with massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation

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    Faisal Shamim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular tumors affect the head and neck commonly but arteriovenous malformations are rare. Vascular malformations are often present at birth and grow with the patient, usually only becoming significant later in childhood. Embolization has been the mainstay of treatment in massive and complex arteriovenous malformations. We present a case of massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation in a 7-year-old boy causing significant workload on right heart and respiratory distress. The management of angioembolization under general anaesthesia and anaesthetic concerns are presented.

  2. Three-dimensional dynamic magnetic resonance angiography for the evaluation of radiosurgically treated cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Oppenheim, Catherine; Naggara, Olivier; Trystram, Denis; Fredy, Daniel; Meder, Jean-Francois; Nataf, Francois; Roux, Francois-Xavier; Munier, Thierry; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the value of three-dimensional (3D) dynamic magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the follow-up of patients with radiosurgically treated cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Fifty-four patients with cerebral AVMs treated by radiosurgery (RS) were monitored using conventional catheter angiography (CCA) and 3D dynamic MRA with sensitivity encoding based on the parallel imaging. Cerebral AVM was qualitatively classified by two radiologists into one of five categories in terms of residual nidus size and persistence of early draining vein (I, >6 cm; II, 3-6 cm; III, <3 cm; IV, isolated early draining vein; V, complete obliteration). 3D MRA findings showed a good agreement with CCA in 40 cases (κ=0.62). Of 23 nidus detected on CCA, 3D dynamic MRA showed 14 residual nidus. Of 28 occluded nidus on 3D dynamic MRA, 22 nidus were occluded on CCA. The sensitivity and specificity of 3D dynamic MRA for the detection of residual AVM were 81% and 100%. 3D dynamic MRA after RS may therefore be useful in association with MRI and can be repeated as long as opacification of the nidus or early venous drainage persists, one CCA remaining indispensable to affirm the complete occlusion at the end of follow-up. (orig.)

  3. Treatment of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations with Radiosurgery or Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in a Consecutive Pooled Linear Accelerator Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Jan P; Bruckermann, Ruth; Pintea, Bogdan; Boström, Azize; Surber, Gunnar; Hamm, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    To review outcomes after linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (hfSRT) of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) from a consecutive and pooled series of 2 Novalis centers and to analyze the influence of AVM size, Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade, pretreatment, and hemorrhagic versus nonhemorrhagic presentation. A subgroup analysis of A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA)-eligible patients also was performed. Prospectively collected treatment and outcome data were supplemented by retrospectively collected follow-up data for 93.8% of all patients. A total of 129 patients with AVM had SRS or hfSRT between 2000 and 2014 with the same linear accelerator system in 2 centers. Data analysis included initial presentation, SM grade, occlusion rates assessed by magnetic resonance and/or digital subtraction angiography, neurologic and therapeutic complications, and pretreatments. Statistical analysis was performed for patient demographic data and for factors potentially influencing outcome. Initial presentation was hemorrhage in 43.8% or seizures/neurologic deficits in 46.2%. The series included 6 SM grade I (5%), 26 SM II (21.5%), 55 SM III (45.5%), 28 SM IV (23%), and 6 SM V cases (5%). Pre-embolization was used in 36 patients (29.8%), 8 patients had previous surgery (6.6%), and 6 patients were irradiated before elsewhere (5%); 5 patients (4.2%) received multimodal pretreatment. Mean follow-up was 43 months. The occlusion rate for the total series was 71.1%, for SM I/II cases 80.6%, and 67.4% for the SM ≥ subgroup. The occlusion rate was 75.0% for the small volume (10 cc) subgroup. There was no statistical difference between the occlusion rate of patients with or without pretreatment if taken all modalities together (72.7% and 69.7%, respectively). There was only a trend of a belated occlusion of pre-embolized AVMs. The occlusion rate for hemorrhagic AVM was with 77.4% better than for

  4. Introduction to tractography-guided navigation: using 3-tesla magnetic resonance tractography in surgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, K; Takagi, Y; Nozaki, K; Hashimoto, N

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of magnetic resonance (MR) tractography in surgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). A preoperative evaluation of major neural tracts around the nidus was carried out with 3-tesla (3 T) MR tractography in 25 consecutive patients with cerebral AVMs. The patients were 12 men and 13 women ranging in age from 4 to 60 years of age (mean age: 31.2 +/- 14.1 years). Twelve presented with hemorrhage. Images were obtained with T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequences, axial T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences, three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (3D TOF MRA), and thin-section diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). The AVMs were obliterated in 22 of the 25 patients. A postoperative study of the MR tractography was carried out in 24 patients. In 21 patients, tracts were preserved and no postoperative neurological worsening was observed. Disruption of the tracts was found in 3 patients, and postoperative worsening was observed in 2 patients. However, no deterioration occurred in 1 patient with cerebellar AVM. Notwithstanding the limitations of this method, MR tractography can be considered useful for confirming the integrity of deviated tracts, for localizing deviated tracts, and for evaluating surgical risk, especially in cases of non-hemorrhagic AVM.

  5. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Presurgical Evaluation of Brain Vascular Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Natalia; Herrera, Diego A; Vargas Sergio A

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe our experience in presurgical evaluation of intracranial vascular malformations by means of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI). Method: To evaluate eight patients with cerebral vascular malformations (seven arterio-venous malformation [AVM ] and one cavernous malformation) to send to the eloquent cortex with RMf pre-surgical mapping is assessed. Used a technique that is dependent on the level of oxygen (BOLD) to locate these areas in the cerebral vascular malformation, by applying different paradigms. Results: We found one AVM at the right temporal lobe with activation of the parahipocampal gyrus at the contralateral side using a memory paradigm; another patient with an AVM at the right mesotemporal lobe showed activation of visual and spatial memory of the contralateral hippocampus and parahippocampus. One patient with an AVM at the left parietal lobe without compromise of sensorial and motor cortex; a cavernous malformation at the left angular gyrus with hemispheric language dominance in that side; one right thalamic AVM, one periventricular AVM bilateral language dominance; one left occipital AVM with decreased activation in visual association cortex; one temporoccipital AVM with left language dominance and neurovascular uncoupling. Conclusion: fMRI can delineate anatomically the relationship between the lesion and eloquent cortex, providing useful information for presurgical planning and allowing risk estimation of intervention.

  6. Angioarchitectural characteristics associated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in supratentorial brain arteriovenous malformations

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    Pan, Jianwei, E-mail: swordman_pan@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Feng, Lei, E-mail: lei_feng66@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Vinuela, Fernando, E-mail: fvinuela@mednet.ucla.edu [Interventional Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiological Sciences, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); He, Hongwei, E-mail: ttyyhhw@126.com [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050 (China); Wu, Zhongxue, E-mail: 252694812@qq.com [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050 (China); Zhan, Renya, E-mail: neurovasword@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: The difference in arterial supply, venous drainage, functional localization in supratentorial and infratentorial compartments may contribute to the conflicting results about risk factors for hemorrhage in published case series of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). Further investigation focused on an individual brain compartment is thus necessary. This retrospective study aims to identify angioarchitectural characteristics associated with the initial hemorrhagic event of supratentorial bAVMs. Materials and methods: The clinical and angiographic features of 152 consecutive patients with supratentorial bAVMs who presented to our hospital from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All these patients had new diagnosis of bAVM. Univariate (χ{sup 2} test) and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the angiographic features in patients with and without initial hemorrhagic presentations. A probability value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant in each analysis. Results: In 152 patients with supratentorial AVMs, 70.6% of deep and 52.5% of superficial sbAVMs presented with hemorrhage. The deep location was correlated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in univariate analysis (χ{sup 2} = 3.499, p = 0.046) but not in the multivariate model (p = 0.144). There were 44 sbAVMs with perforating feeders, 39 (88.6%) of which bled at a significantly higher rate than those with terminal feeders (χ{sup 2} = 25.904, p = 0.000). 87.5% (21/24) of exclusive deep venous drainage presented with hemorrhage, a significantly higher rate than those of the other type of venous drainage (χ{sup 2} = 11.099, p = 0.004). All 10 patients with both perforating feeders and exclusive deep draining vein presented with initial hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic presentation was correlated with perforating feeders (p = 0.000) and exclusive deep draining vein (p = 0.007) in multivariate analysis as well. Conclusions: Supratentorial bAVMs with perforating feeders

  7. Angioarchitectural characteristics associated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in supratentorial brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jianwei; Feng, Lei; Vinuela, Fernando; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue; Zhan, Renya

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The difference in arterial supply, venous drainage, functional localization in supratentorial and infratentorial compartments may contribute to the conflicting results about risk factors for hemorrhage in published case series of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). Further investigation focused on an individual brain compartment is thus necessary. This retrospective study aims to identify angioarchitectural characteristics associated with the initial hemorrhagic event of supratentorial bAVMs. Materials and methods: The clinical and angiographic features of 152 consecutive patients with supratentorial bAVMs who presented to our hospital from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All these patients had new diagnosis of bAVM. Univariate (χ 2 test) and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the angiographic features in patients with and without initial hemorrhagic presentations. A probability value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant in each analysis. Results: In 152 patients with supratentorial AVMs, 70.6% of deep and 52.5% of superficial sbAVMs presented with hemorrhage. The deep location was correlated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in univariate analysis (χ 2 = 3.499, p = 0.046) but not in the multivariate model (p = 0.144). There were 44 sbAVMs with perforating feeders, 39 (88.6%) of which bled at a significantly higher rate than those with terminal feeders (χ 2 = 25.904, p = 0.000). 87.5% (21/24) of exclusive deep venous drainage presented with hemorrhage, a significantly higher rate than those of the other type of venous drainage (χ 2 = 11.099, p = 0.004). All 10 patients with both perforating feeders and exclusive deep draining vein presented with initial hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic presentation was correlated with perforating feeders (p = 0.000) and exclusive deep draining vein (p = 0.007) in multivariate analysis as well. Conclusions: Supratentorial bAVMs with perforating feeders and deep venous

  8. Analysis of neurological sequelae from radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations: how location affects outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Maitz, Ann H.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    1998-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To elucidate how the risks of developing temporary and permanent neurological sequelae from radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are related to AVM location, the addition of stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to angiographic targeting, and prior hemorrhage or neurological deficits. Materials and Methods: We evaluated follow-up imaging and clinical data in 332 AVM patients who received gamma knife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh between 1987 and 1994. All patients had regular clinical or imaging follow-up for a minimum of 2 years (range: 24-96 months, median = 45 months). There were 83 patients with MR-assisted planning, 187 with prior hemorrhages, and 143 with prior neurological deficits. Results: Symptomatic postradiosurgery sequelae (any neurological problem including headache) developed in 30 (9%) of 332 patients. Symptoms resolved in 58% of patients within 27 months with a significantly greater proportion (p = 0.006) resolving in patients with Dmin 0.3), including the addition of MR targeting, average radiation dose in 20 cc, prior hemorrhage, or neurological deficit. We used these results to construct a risk prediction model for symptomatic postradiosurgery sequelae. The risk of radiation necrosis was significantly correlated with PIE score (p < 0.048), but not with 12-Gy volume. Conclusion: The risks of developing complications from AVM radiosurgery can be predicted according to location with the PIE score, in conjunction with the 12-Gy treatment volume. Further study of factors affecting persistence of these sequelae (progression to radiation necrosis) is needed

  9. Delayed radiation necrosis 7 years after gamma knife surgery for arteriovenous malformation. Two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Yatsushiro, Kazutaka; Arita, Kazunori; Hirahara, Kazuho; Uetsuhara, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman and a 55-year-old woman were treated with gamma knife surgery (GKS) for occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Angiography confirmed complete nidus obliterations 2 years after GKS. However, both patients complained of chronic headache and visual symptoms from around 7 years after GKS. Magnetic resonance imaging showed round masses with or without cystic change surrounded by large areas of brain edema. Angiography also showed complete obliteration of AVM at this time. Extended corticosteroid treatment failed to control the edema. Both patients underwent total surgical removal of the mass. Visual disturbance and chronic headache improved postoperatively and the brain edema rapidly subsided. The histological diagnosis was radiation necrosis in both cases, attributed to the low conformity index and large 12-Gy volume due to usage of a large collimator for GKS. These cases of delayed radiation necrosis after GKS suggest that surgical removal of necrotic lesions is necessary for radiation necrosis intractable to medical treatment. (author)

  10. Surgical experience with arteriovenous malformations of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    Personal experience with the treatment of 200 arteriovenous malformations of the brain seen during the past decade is presented. One hundred and twenty of these patients underwent surgery, with a mortality of 1,7%. The morbidity rate of 10% includes cases of hemianopia after occipital malformations had been removed. Significant morbidity, including aphasia, hemiparesis and hemisensory loss, occurred in under 10% of cases. Computerized tomography plays an important role in determining the relationships of the arteriovenous malformations to associated structures such as the ventricular system

  11. Neuronavigation for arteriovenous malformation surgery by intraoperative three-dimensional ultrasound angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Tiit; Peredo, Inti; Edner, Göran; Kihlström, Lars; Svensson, Mikael; Ulfarsson, Elfar; Andersson, Tommy

    2007-04-01

    Neuronavigational devices have traditionally used preoperative imaging with limited possibilities for adjustment to brain shift and intraoperative manipulation of the surgical lesions. We have used an intraoperative imaging and navigation system that uses navigation on intraoperatively acquired three-dimensional ultrasound data, as well as preoperatively acquired magnetic resonance imaging scans and magnetic resonance angiograms. The usefulness of this system for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) surgery was evaluated prospectively. Nine consecutive patients with Spetzler Grade 1 (n = 3), 2 (n = 3), 3(n = 2) or 4 (n = 1) AVMs underwent operation using this intraoperative imaging and navigation system. The system provides real-time rendering of three-dimensional angiographic data and can visualize such projections in a stereoscopic (virtual reality) manner using special glasses. The experiences with this technology were analyzed and the outcomes assessed. Angiographic reconstructions of three-dimensional images were obtained before and after resection. Conventional navigation on the basis of preoperative magnetic resonance angiography was helpful to secure positioning of the bone flap; stereoscopic visualization of the same data represented a powerful means to construct a mental three-dimensional picture of the extent of the AVM and the feeder anatomy even before skin incision. Intraoperative ultrasound corresponded well to the intraoperative findings and allowed confirmation of feeding vessels in surrounding gyri and rapid identification of the perinidal dissection planes, regardless of brain shift. The latter feature was particularly helpful because the intraoperative navigational identification of surgical planes leads to minimal exploration into the nidus or dissection at a greater distance from the malformation. Application of the system was thought to increase surgical confidence. In two patients, postresection ultrasound prompted additional nidus removal

  12. Screening for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxhøj, H; Kjeldsen, A D; Nielsen, G

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) cause right-to-left shunt and imply risk of paradoxical embolism and cerebral abscess. These complications can be prevented by appropriate treatment. Detection of PAVMs is therefore important, so simple and reliable screening methods are needed...... for this purpose. The aim of this investigation was to compare pulse oximetry and contrast echocardiography as screening tools for detection of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Eighty-five hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients and first-degree relatives identified in a comprehensive study...... echocardiography with intravenous injection of echo contrast was performed in all subjects. Outcome measures were oxygen saturation change >2% units on changing body position and echo contrast observed in the left-sided heart chambers. Positive contrast echocardiography indicating the presence of PAVM was found...

  13. Surgical Treatment for a Complex Congenital Arteriovenous Malformation of the Lower Limb

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan, Ali Vefa; Boysan, Emre; Isikli, Osman Yasar; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula is defined as an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems. The complexity of congenital arteriovenous malformations makes treatment challenging. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who had a complex congenital arteriovenous malformation in her left leg and a history of 2 unsuccessful coil-embolization procedures. We ligated all the feeding arteries of the arteriovenous malformation in the region of the superficial femoral artery, and the surg...

  14. Surgical excision of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.B.; Schueler, R.O.; Kornegay, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    A 7-year-old dog was presented with seizures and epistaxis. Computed tomography showed a contrast-enhancing lesion in the cerebrum. An arteriovenous malformation was identified at surgery and resected. A discussion of intracranial arteriovenous malformation is presented

  15. Contrast-enhanced MR 3D angiography in the assessment of brain AVMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlu, Ercument; Temizoz, Osman; Albayram, Sait; Genchellac, Hakan; Hamamcioglu, M. Kemal; Kurt, Imran; Demir, M. Kemal

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the current reference standard for the diagnosis, assessment, and management of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic utility of three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and contrast-enhanced 3D MRA in patients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in different sizes and locations. The AVM diagnosis was proved via DSA and almost half of the patients had also hematoma. Materials and methods: Two radiologists, experienced on neurovascular imaging and independent from each other, retrospectively reviewed two MRA techniques and DSA with regard to the assessment of feeding arteries, AVM nidus, and venous drainage patterns on 20 patients with 23 examinations by scoring system. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: An excellent agreement between contrast-enhanced MRA and DSA was found in order to assess the numbers of arterial feeders and draining veins (Spearman r = 0.913, P < 0.001). The average scores in contrast-enhanced MRA for feeders, nidi, and drainers were respectively 2.26, 2.69, and 2.48, while in TOF-MRA they are 1.96, 1.35, and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion: Compared to TOF-MRA, 3D contrast-enhanced MRA is useful for visualization by subtraction technique of malformation components presented by hematoma or by haem product. On the other hand, for the cases presented by slow or complex flow that is especially in around or nidi or around the venous portion is also advantageous because of the independence from flow-related enhancement. Therapeutic effects were clearly demonstrated in three follow-up patients. A major limitation of this technique is the low spatial resolution. Since there is such a limitation, arterial feeder of a case with micro-AVM is not detected by contrast-enhanced MRA and nidus for the same case was observed retrospectively. In this respect, we

  16. Contrast-enhanced MR 3D angiography in the assessment of brain AVMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unlu, Ercument [Department of Radiology, Trakya University Medicine School, Edirne (Turkey)]. E-mail: drercument@yahoo.com; Temizoz, Osman [Department of Radiology, Trakya University Medicine School, Edirne (Turkey); Albayram, Sait [Department of Radiology, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medicine School, Istanbul (Turkey); Genchellac, Hakan [Department of Radiology, Trakya University Medicine School, Edirne (Turkey); Hamamcioglu, M. Kemal [Department of Neurosurgery, Trakya University Medicine School, Edirne (Turkey); Kurt, Imran [Department of Biostatistics, Trakya University Medicine School, Edirne (Turkey); Demir, M. Kemal [Department of Radiology, Trakya University Medicine School, Edirne (Turkey)

    2006-12-15

    Background and purpose: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the current reference standard for the diagnosis, assessment, and management of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic utility of three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and contrast-enhanced 3D MRA in patients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in different sizes and locations. The AVM diagnosis was proved via DSA and almost half of the patients had also hematoma. Materials and methods: Two radiologists, experienced on neurovascular imaging and independent from each other, retrospectively reviewed two MRA techniques and DSA with regard to the assessment of feeding arteries, AVM nidus, and venous drainage patterns on 20 patients with 23 examinations by scoring system. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: An excellent agreement between contrast-enhanced MRA and DSA was found in order to assess the numbers of arterial feeders and draining veins (Spearman r = 0.913, P < 0.001). The average scores in contrast-enhanced MRA for feeders, nidi, and drainers were respectively 2.26, 2.69, and 2.48, while in TOF-MRA they are 1.96, 1.35, and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion: Compared to TOF-MRA, 3D contrast-enhanced MRA is useful for visualization by subtraction technique of malformation components presented by hematoma or by haem product. On the other hand, for the cases presented by slow or complex flow that is especially in around or nidi or around the venous portion is also advantageous because of the independence from flow-related enhancement. Therapeutic effects were clearly demonstrated in three follow-up patients. A major limitation of this technique is the low spatial resolution. Since there is such a limitation, arterial feeder of a case with micro-AVM is not detected by contrast-enhanced MRA and nidus for the same case was observed retrospectively. In this respect, we

  17. Haemorrhage in intracerebral arteriovenous malformations: detection with MRI and comparison with clinical history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, L. (Dept. of Radiology, and MR Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Wimberger, D (Dept. of Radiology, and MR Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria) Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Stiglbauer, R. (Dept. of Radiology, and MR Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Kramer, J. (Dept. of Radiology, and MR Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Richling, B. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Bavinzski, G. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Czech, T. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Imhof, H. (Dept. of Radiology, and MR Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with 59 angiographically proven cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were examined by high-field MRI to detect blood breakdown products. Results were correlated with the history of intracranial bleeding. Evidence of previous episodes of haemorrhage was seen in 10 of 12 patients (83.3%) with verified bleeding, 4 of 9 patients (44.4%) with symptoms which could suggest bleeding and in 6 of 30 patients (20%) with negative histories. Because of the known rebleeding rate and the increased risk of associated complications, identification of the subgroup who had had haemorrhage and should therefore be considered for surgery may be beneficial. MRI can make a contribution to management by demonstrating prior haemorrhage in patients with an inadequate clinical history. (orig.)

  18. A Young Male with Spontaneous Ruptured Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM is considered a congenital condition characterized by arterial-venous connections in the absence of intermediate capillaries with circulatory and functional changes, inclusive on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics. Case: A previously healthy young man with abrupt onset of intense headache followed by incoercible vomiting and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. On admission, he was in Glasgow scale IV with respiratory gasping, signs of decerebration and anisocoric mydriasis, and right paresis. Computed tomography showed left intraparenchymal hematoma and intraventricular blood. The abnormal vessels and blood clots were removed by neurosurgery. In early postoperative phase a large cerebrospinal fluid leak developed, and was aspirated and further controlled. The patient had respiratory complications, including pulmonary infection by Pseudomonas. Conclusions: After longstanding hospitalization, he was referred to other medical institution and home care. 

  19. Radiologic findings of deep seated cerebral arteriovenous malformation with nonvisualization of straight sinus: focused on angiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Boo; Park, Sung Ho; Hong, Jong Won; Kim, Yoo Kyoung; Shin, Mi Jeong; Baik, Seung Kuk; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1999-01-01

    To analyze the radiologic-especially angiographic-findings of deep seated cerebral arteriovenous malformation(AVM) involving nonvisualized straight sinus. In six patients aged between 15 and 53 years with deep seated cerebral AVM, CT and MR images were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the following features : the presence of straight sinus, the location of AVM, and the occurrence of hemorrhage. Angiograms were analyzed for venous drainage routes of AVM, the appearance of veins, the presence of falcine sinus and venous drainage from normal deep brain parenchyme. In four patients who had undergone intravascular embolization therapy, pre- and post- embolization angiograms were compared. CT and MR images showed neither straight sinus nor thrombosis. AVMs were deeply seated in the brain, and in all cases there was cerebral hemorrhage. Angiograms disclosed that venous drainage of all AVMs occurred via the veins of Galen. In one case, venous flow via the falcine sinus to the superior sagittal sinus was noted, but in others, retrograde flow in the deep venous system was observed. Marked collateral routes followed in response to the obstruction of straight sinus included the basal vein of Rosenthal, the internal occipital, internal cerebral, and cerebellar hemispheric veins (which are Galenic afferents), and the inferior sagittal sinus. In all patients, contralateral routes were partially involved. Venous drainage from normal deep parenchyme through the transcerebral veins to the superficial venous system was noted, and in one case, straight sinus which had been observed on an angiogram five years earlier was no longer present. Angiography offers effective evaluation of the dynamic aspect of venous flow in cases involving deep-seated AVM, and of normal deep parenchyme in cases in which AVM involves nonvisualized straight sinus. Before intravascular treatment of AVM, venous flow must be carefully analyzed

  20. Multimodality Management of Spetzler-Martin Grade 3 Brain Arteriovenous Malformations with Subgroup Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecassis, Isaac Josh; Nerva, John D; Feroze, Abdullah; Barber, Jason; Ghodke, Basavaraj V; Kim, Louis J; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2017-06-01

    Spetzler-Martin grade 3 (SM3) lesions entail 4 distinct subtypes described based on size, eloquence, and deep venous drainage (3A-3D). The ideal management of each is contentious, and the results of A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain AVMs (ARUBA) introduced additional controversy and attention toward management strategies of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). We retrospectively reviewed 114 patients with treated SM3 bAVMs, including both ruptured and unruptured lesions. Primary outcomes included modified Rankin score at most recent follow-up, angiographic cure, and permanent treatment-related complications (morbidity). Other outcomes included mortality, bAVM recurrence or rebleed, and transient treatment-related complications. We used univariate and multivariate modeling to determine whether any specific features were predictive of outcomes. For unruptured bAVMs, an "ARUBA eligible" subgroup analysis was performed. We also reviewed the literature on management of ruptured and unruptured SM3 bAVMs. Of the 114 identified SM3 bAVMs, 40% were unruptured. Most (43.5%) lesions in the unruptured group were type 3C, whereas most ruptured bAVMs (66.2%) were type 3A. Unruptured lesions were mostly managed with radiosurgery (47.8%) and ruptured ones with preoperative embolization and surgery (36.7%). Surgical intervention was predictive of angiographic cure in multivariate modeling, even after controlling for ≥2 years of follow-up, although associated with a slightly higher rate of morbidity. Focal neurological deficit was the only predictor of a worse (modified Rankin score ≥2) functional outcome in follow-up for unruptured bAVMs. For ruptured bAVMs, superficial and cerebellar locations were predictive of better outcomes in multivariate models, in the absence of a focal neurological deficit at presentation and new after surgery deficit. ARUBA SM3 bAVMs specifically underwent more embolization as a monotherapy and less microsurgical resection than

  1. Radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation during pregnancy: A case report focusing on fetal exposure to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kazuki; Kurita, Hiroki; Tonari, Ayako; Takayama, Makoto; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We present the case of a pregnant woman who underwent linear accelerator (LINAC)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and we discuss the fetal exposure to radiation. Clinical Presentation: A 20-year-old woman at 18 weeks of gestation presented with right cerebral hemorrhage and underwent urgent evacuation of the hematoma. She recovered well after surgery, but cerebral angiography after the surgery revealed a small deeply seated arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the right frontal lobe extending to the right basal ganglia. Methods and Results: We examined the diffuse AVM and treated it with LINAC-based SRS at 24 weeks of gestation. Before SRS, the fetus was exposed to a radiation dose of 8.26 mGy, which was estimated by conducting an experiment using an adult RANDO phantom, and a radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass rod dosimeter (GRD) system. The patient underwent Caesarean delivery at 36 weeks of gestation and gave birth to a healthy baby. Conclusion: The exposure of fetus to radiation during SRS was exceedingly low. SRS can be used as an alternative treatment to microsurgery for resolving small deeply seated AVMs even in pregnant patients. PMID:22028762

  2. Transcatheter arterial ethanol embolization for congenital renal arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingbing; Wang Han; An Xiao; Wang Linchuan; Gao Liqiang; Zhou Zhiguo; Zhang Guixiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the effect and safety of trans-microcatheter arterial embolization with ethanol for the treatment of congenital renal arteriovenous malformations. Methods: Clinical data of 11 patients with congenital renal arteriovenous malformations manifested mainly as gross hematuria were retrospectively analyzed. Selective renal angiography was performed in all 11 patients. After the diagnosis was confirmed, super-selective catheterization of the diseased arteries was carried out and the trans-microcatheter arterial embolization with ethanol was conducted. Results: A total of 12 procedures were completed in 11 patients. The ethanol dose used in one procedure was 5-25 ml. Successful embolization of the congenital renal arteriovenous malformations was obtained in all patients. The gross hematuria disappeared within 24-48 hours after the treatment. Lumbago at treated side, low fever, abdominal distension, nausea, vomiting, etc. occurred within one week and no other serious complications developed. During the follow-up period lasting for 4-96 months, no recurrence of hematuria was observed and the renal function remained normal. Conclusion: Transcatheter arterial ethanol embolization is an economic, safe and effective treatment for congenital renal arteriovenous malformations. (authors)

  3. Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral arteriovenous malformations involving the motor pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdoba, C.; Remonda, L.; Loevblad, K.O.; Schroth, G.; Nirkko, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate cortical, basal ganglia and cerebellar activation in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the motor pathways, we studied ten patients (six male, four female, mean age 30.3 years, range 7.4-44.1) by whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a 1.5-T scanner with the EPI-BOLD-technique. In seven cases multiple fMRI studies were available, acquired in the course of the multi-session endovascular interventional treatment. Self-paced right- and left-handed finger-tapping tasks were used to invoke activation. In six patients a super-selective amytal test (Wada test) was performed during diagnostic pre-interventional angiography studies. Abnormal cortical activation patterns, with activation of the primary sensorimotor area, the supplementary motor area and/or the cerebellum shifted to unphysiological locations, were found in four patients. In all cases, localization of the AVM could account for the changes from the normal. After endovascular procedures, fMRI demonstrated shifts in the activation pattern in three patients. In the six patients that had undergone fMRI studies and the Wada test, both methods yielded comparable results. The fact that AVMs are structural anomalies for which the brain can partly compensate ('plasticity') was underlined by these results. fMRI is a valuable tool in the pre-therapeutic evaluation and post-interventional follow-up of patients with cerebral AVMs in whom an operation or an endovascular procedure is planned. (orig.)

  4. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation. Relationships between clinical and radiographic factors and cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batjer, H H; Devous, M D; Seibert, G B; Purdy, P D; Ajmani, A K; Delarosa, M; Bonte, F J [Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (USA). Southwestern Medical Center

    1989-05-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) dramatically alter normal cerebral circulatory dynamics. Clinical and radiographic data from 62 patients were analyzed to determine their impact on total brain blood flow (TBF) measured by single-photon emission computed tomography. 48% of patients presented with hemorrhage and 34% with progressive deficits. 37% had angiographic steal and 21% developed postoperative hyperemic complications. 40% were under 30 years old, 45% were between 30 and 50 years of age, and 15% were over 50. TBF was less than 70 ml/100 gm/min in 32% of patients, between 70 and 84 ml/100 gm/min in 40%, and greater than 84 ml/100 gm/min in 27%. Female patients had higher TBF than males; 42% of females but only 17% of males had values greater than 84 ml/100 gm/min (p < 0.05). A trend toward decreased TBF with advancing age was noted. Intracranial hemorrhage was associated with lower TBF; 47% of patients with hemorrhage and 19% of those without had TBF of < 70 ml/100 gm/min (p < 0.05). 89% of patients with AVMs less than 5 cm in diameter had TBF of {le}84 ml/100 gm/min, and 65% of those with larger AVMs had similarly low flows (p < 0.05). A trend toward lower TBF was observed in patients with unfavorable outcomes. (author).

  5. Treatment of High-Flow Vascular Malformations by Venous Embolization Aided by Flow Occlusion Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, James E.; Mansfield, Averil O.; Allison, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Transvenous embolization techniques may be helpful as alternatives to the arterial route when treating high-flow vascular malformations. We present our experience using these techniques in four patients. Methods: In one patient the venous portion of the arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was punctured directly; in the other three patients it was catheterized via a retrograde venous approach. Flow occlusion techniques were utilized in all patients during embolization, which was performed with absolute alcohol or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.Results: Excellent clinical and angiographic results were obtained, with obliteration of arteriovenous shunting in all patients. There were no complications.Conclusion: The embolization of certain AVMs using a venous approach is a safe and effective treatment

  6. Analysis of X-knife and surgery in treatment of arteriovenous malformation of brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Pooja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of treatment in arteriovenous malformation (AVM is total obliteration of the AVM, restoration of normal cerebral function, and preservation of life and neurological function. Aim: To analyze the results of X-knife and surgery for AVM of the brain. The endpoints for success or failure were as follows: success was defined as angiographic obliteration and failure as residual lesion, requiring retreatment, or death due to hemorrhage from the AVM. Materials and Methods: From May 2002 to May 2007, 54 patients were enrolled for this study. Grade I AVM was seen in 9%, grade II in 43%, grade III in 26%, grade IV in 9%, and grade V in 13%. Thirty-eight patients were treated by microsurgical resection out of which Grade I was seen in 5 patients, Grade II was seen in 17 patients, Grade III was seen in 9 patients and Grade V was seen in 7 patients. Rest of the sixteen patients were treated by linear accelerator radiosurgery out of which Grade II was seen in 6 patients, Grade III was seen in 5 patients and Grade IV was seen in 5 patients. The follow up was in range of 3-63 months. In follow up, digital subtraction angiography/ magnetic resonance angiography (DSA/MRA was performed 3 months after surgery and 1 year and 2 years after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS. Results: Among the patients treated with X-knife, 12/16 (75% had proven angiographic obliteration. Complications were seen in 4/16 (25% patients. Among the patients treated with microsurgical resection, 23/38 (61% had proven angiographic obliteration. Complications (both intraoperative and postoperative were seen in 19/38 (50% patients. Conclusions: Sixty-one percent of patients were candidates for surgical resection. X-knife is a good modality of treatment for a low-grade AVM situated in eloquent areas of the brain and also for high-grade AVMs, when the surgical risk and morbidity is high.

  7. Clinical features and prognostic factors in patients with intraventricular hemorrhage caused by ruptured arteriovenous malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zengpanpan; Ai, Xiaolin; Hu, Xin; Fang, Fang; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) was associated with poor outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. IVH had a high incidence in patients with ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In this study, we aimed to discuss the clinical features and prognostic factors of outcomes in the patients with AVM-related IVH. From January 2010 to January 2016, we collected the data of the patients with AVM-related IVH retrospectively. The data, including clinical and radiological parameters, were collected to evaluate the clinical features. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the prognostic factors for clinical outcomes (hydrocephalus, 6-month outcomes measured by the modified Rankin scale) in our cohort. A total of 67 eligible patients were included and 19 patients (28%) only presented with IVH. Thirty-three patients (49%) presented hydrocephalus, and 12 patients (18%) presented brain ischemia. Nineteen patients (28%) had a poor outcome after 6 months. In multivariate logistic regression, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (P = .028) was associated with hydrocephalus and higher Graeb score (P = .080) tended to increase the risk of hydrocephalus. The high Glasgow coma scale (P = .010), large hematoma volume of parenchyma (P = .006), and high supplemented Spetzler–Martin (sup-SM) score (P = .041) were independent factors of the poor outcome. IVH was common in ruptured AVMs and increased the poor outcomes in patients with the ruptured AVMs. The AVM-related IVH patients had a high incidence of hydrocephalus, which was associated with brain ischemia and SAH. Patients with lower Glasgow coma scale, lower sup-SM score, and smaller parenchymal hematoma had better long-term outcomes. PMID:29137064

  8. Consensus Document of the International Union of Angiology (IUA)-2013. Current concept on the management of arterio-venous management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.B.; Baumgartner, I.; Berlien, H.P.; Bianchini, G.; Burrows, P.; Do, Y.S.; Ivancev, K.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Laredo, J.; Loose, D.A.; Lopez-Gutierrez, J.C.; Mattassi, R.; Parsi, K.; Rimon, U.; Rosenblatt, M.; Shortell, C.; Simkin, R.; Stillo, F.; Villavicencio, L.; Yakes, W.

    2013-01-01

    Arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) are congenital vascular malformations (CVMs) that result from birth defects involving the vessels of both arterial and venous origins, resulting in direct communications between the different size vessels or a meshwork of primitive reticular networks of dysplastic

  9. Benefit of cone-beam computed tomography angiography in acute management of angiographically undetectable ruptured arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Jason P; Malek, Adel M

    2013-10-01

    Ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a frequent cause of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In some cases, compression from the associated hematoma in the acute setting can partially or completely occlude an AVM, making it invisible on conventional angiography techniques. The authors report on the successful use of cone-beam CT angiography (CBCT-A) to precisely identify the underlying angioarchitecture of ruptured AVMs that are not visible on conventional angiography. Three patients presented with ICH for which they underwent examination with CBCT-A in addition to digital subtraction angiography and other imaging modalities, including MR angiography and CT angiography. All patients underwent surgical evacuation due to mass effect from the hematoma. Clinical history, imaging studies, and surgical records were reviewed. Hematoma volumes were calculated. In all 3 cases, CBCT-A demonstrated detailed anatomy of an AVM where no lesion or just a suggestion of a draining vein had been seen with other imaging modalities. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated enhancement in 1 patient; CT angiography demonstrated a draining vein in 1 patient; 2D digital subtraction angiography and 3D rotational angiography demonstrated a suggestion of a draining vein in 2 cases and no finding in the third. In the 2 patients in whom CBCT-A was performed prior to surgery, the demonstrated AVM was successfully resected without evidence of a residual lesion. In the third patient, CBCT-A allowed precise targeting of the AVM nidus using Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Cone-beam CT angiography should be considered in the evaluation and subsequent treatment of ICH due to ruptured AVMs. In cases in which the associated hematoma compresses the AVM nidus, CBCT-A can have higher sensitivity and anatomical accuracy than traditional angiographic modalities, including digital subtraction angiography.

  10. Case Report: Microsurgical excision of grade 5 cerebral AVM [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Munakomi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we discuss the microsurgical management of a Spetzler-Martin grade 5 arteriovenous malformation (AVM in a young boy who presented with a hemorrhagic episode and had a high calculated risk of rebleeding. We also outline the rationale for choosing the management option.

  11. Analysis of neurological sequelae from radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations: how location effects outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Maitz, Ann H.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To elucidate how the risks of developing temporary and permanent neurological sequelae from radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations (AVM) relate to AVM location, the addition of stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to angiographic targeting, and prior hemorrhage or neurological deficits. Materials and Methods: We evaluated follow-up imaging and clinical data in 332 AVM patients who received gamma knife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh between 1987 and 1994. All patients had regular clinical or imaging follow up for a minimum of two years (range: 24-96 mo., median=45 mo.). 83 patients had MR. planning, and 187 previously bled. Results: Symptomatic post-radiosurgery sequelae (any neurological problem including headache) developed in 30/332 patients (9.0%). Symptoms resolved in 58% of patients within 24 mo. with a significantly greater proportion (p=0.006) resolving in patients with Dmin <20 vs. ≥20 Gy (89 vs. 36%). The 7 yr. actuarial rate for developing persistent symptomatic sequelae was 3.8%. We first evaluated the relative risks for different locations to construct a post-radiosurgery injury expression (PIE) score for AVM location (see Table 1). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of symptomatic post-radiosurgery injury identified independent significant correlations with PIE location score (p=0.0007) and 12 Gy volume (p=0.008) but none of the other factors tested (p≥0.3) including the addition of MR targeting, average radiation dose in 20 cc, prior bleed or neurological deficit. We used these results to construct risk prediction models for any symptomatic post-radiosurgery sequelae and for symptomatic necrosis. Conclusion: The risks of complications from AVM radiosurgery can be predicted according to location with the PIE score and by the 12 Gy treatment volume (Table 2)

  12. Utility of pharmacologic provocative neurological testing before embolization of occipital lobe arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawk, Rabih G; Tummala, Ramachandra P; Memon, Muhammad Z; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Hopkins, L Nelson; Levy, Elad I

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular treatment is an established option for treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, embolization has been associated with postprocedural neurological complications. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of intra-arterial pharmacologic provocative (superselective Wada) testing before embolization of occipital lobe AVMs. We performed a retrospective review of cases of occipital AVMs that were embolized at our institution (Millard Fillmore Gates Hospital) while the patient was under conscious sedation. Visual field testing was performed before and after superselective Wada testing and again after embolization. After microcatheterization of the target feeding pedicle, amobarbital (or, occasionally, methohexital) was administered, followed immediately by neurological testing. If the provocative test results were negative, the evaluated feeder was embolized with a liquid agent. Complications were categorized as transient or permanent neurological deficit, visual field loss, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and death. Thirteen patients with occipital AVMs underwent 39 Wada tests of 34 pedicles before embolization during 26 endovascular treatment sessions. Patients were treated under conscious sedation with local anesthesia. The mean age of these patients was 43.5 years (range 16-62 years); 6 were women. Testing induced a neurological deficit in six patients. A positive test result led us to abort embolization attempts in four pedicles. In the two remaining cases, advancement of the catheter tip distally within the feeding pedicle allowed us to proceed with embolization after initial test failure. Neither patient developed a visual field deficit after embolization. Despite passing the Wada test before embolization, one other patient had a visual deficit that was detected a few hours after the procedure; this deficit lessened but was permanent. No further ischemic complications and no hemorrhagic complications occurred. Pharmacologic

  13. Surgical treatment for a complex congenital arteriovenous malformation of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Ali Vefa; Boysan, Emre; Isikli, Osman Yasar; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula is defined as an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems. The complexity of congenital arteriovenous malformations makes treatment challenging. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who had a complex congenital arteriovenous malformation in her left leg and a history of 2 unsuccessful coil-embolization procedures. We ligated all the feeding arteries of the arteriovenous malformation in the region of the superficial femoral artery, and the surgery was successful without sequelae. The patient returned 2 years later with thrombosis of the great saphenous vein and underwent a second operation. The thrombosed vein and all varicosities were excised successfully. Surgery can be an effective method for correcting complex congenital arteriovenous malformations, especially in the lower limbs. A 2-staged surgical approach like ours might be a good option in suitable patients.

  14. Transarterial embolization for hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformations or fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiaoxi; Liu Shiyuan; Dong Weihua; Dong Sheng; Jia Ningyang; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transarterial embolization for hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformation or fistulae. Methods: Seven patients with gross hematuria caused by renal arterial abnormalities were retrospectively reviewed, of which three had congenital renal arteriovenous malformations and the other four had non-neoplastic acquired renal arteriovenous fistulae. All patients were confirmed by renal arterial angiography and undergone embolization with various embolic materials. Results: Embolization was successfully carried out in all cases. Gross hematuria disappeared one to seven days after the procedure. No severe complications were encountered. No recurrence occurred within 12 to 36 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Transarterial embolization is safe and effective for hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformations or fistulae. (authors)

  15. Seizure control of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for non-hemorrhagic arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Y.J.; Lee, C.Y.; Koh, J.S.; Kim, T.S.; Kim, G.K.; Rhee, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although radiosurgery has been found to be a safe and effective alternative treatment, seizure outcome of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) radiosurgery has not been documented in detail. We report the effect of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) on seizures associated with AVMs and discuss the various factors that influence the prognosis. Between 1992 and 2001 246 patients were treated with GKRS for AVMs at Kyung-Hee medical center. Forty five (17.0 %) patients have non-hemorrhagic AVMs and presenting symptom was seizure. Two patients of all were excluded from this study due to loss of follow-up after radiosurgery. In this study retrospective analysis of clinical characteristics, radiological findings, radiosurgical seizure outcome were performed. There were 32 male and 11 female with age ranging from 10 to 74 years (mean 35 years). Type of seizure included: general tonic clonic (n = 28); focal motor or sensory (n = 7): partial complex (n = 8). The location of AVM was temporal (n = 18); frontal (n = 9): deep seated (n =7): parietal (n = 5); occipital (n = 4). Follow-up period was from 8 months to 12 years (mean 46 months). Mean volume was 6.2 cc (2.7-20), mean marginal and maximal dosage was 19.5 (17-26) and 36.6 Gy (13-50). During follow-up after radiosurgical treatment, 23 (53.5 %) of 43 patients were seizure-free. 10 (23.3 %) had significant improvement, were unchanged in 8 (18.6 %) and aggravated in 2 (4.6 %) patients. In 33 patients, follow-up angiography or MRI was performed. Complete obliteration was achieved in 16 (49.0 %) patients, partial obliteration in 13 (39.0 %). Four were unchanged (12.0 %). Of 33 patients with follow-up performed, 26 were followed for over 2 years. Eleven (84.6 %) of 13 patients with complete obliteration were seizure-free (p < 0.005). Four (36.3 %) of 13 with partial obliteration and unchanged remained seizure-free. Fifteen patients had experienced intractable seizure before radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, seizures disappeared in 8

  16. Pathologic effects of gamma-knife radiosurgery on arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.F.; Eberhard, D.A.; Steiner, L.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective method for treating many arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Hemodynamic changes and varying degrees of obliteration of an AVM nidus following radiosurgery have been described with angiography, but there have been no detailed reports describing histopathologic changes in AVM after radiation. The purpose of this study was to examine AVM at various times after gamma-knife radiosurgery in order to determine the mechanism of vessel occlusion after this procedure. Methods: Nine AVM specimens were obtained at autopsy or after surgical excision of residual nidus at times ranging from 10 months to more than 5 years after gamma knife radiosurgery. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were examined using routine histopathologic stains: hematoxylin and eosin (H and E), Mallory's phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin (PTAH), Elastic-van Gieson (EVG), and Hematoxylin-van Gieson (HVG). Additionally, immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect: smooth muscle actin (SMA), Factor VIII, and Type IV collagen. Results: Blood vessels within the AVM show progressive occlusion which correlated with the time interval after radiosurgery. The earliest changes after radiation appear to be damage to and loss of endothelial cells. At this early stage of vascular damage fibrin thrombi are sometimes apparent in the lumen of vessels. With time after radiation there is progressive thickening of the intimal layer, due to proliferation of smooth muscle cells. It is clearly demonstrated, immunohistochemically, that this accumulation of cells within the intimal layer reacts positively for smooth muscle actin, and negatively for Factor VIII (an endothelial cell marker). Using immunohistochemistry it is, also, apparent that these smooth muscle cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix of Type I collagen, which increases in amount and density over time. Ultimately, vessels are completely occluded by an acellular, amorphous hyalin

  17. Single-Fraction Proton Beam Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kim, Daniel; Niemierko, Andrzej; Bussière, Marc R.; Stringham, Alison; Daartz, Juliane [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ogilvy, Christopher [Department of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To evaluate the obliteration rate and potential adverse effects of single-fraction proton beam stereotactic radiosurgery (PSRS) in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2010, 248 consecutive patients with 254 cerebral AVMs received single-fraction PSRS at our institution. The median AVM nidus volume was 3.5 cc (range, 0.1-28.1 cc), 23% of AVMs were in critical/deep locations (basal ganglia, thalamus, or brainstem), and the most common prescription dose was 15 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess factors associated with obliteration and hemorrhage. Results: At a median follow-up time of 35 months (range, 6-198 months), 64.6% of AVMs were obliterated. The median time to total obliteration was 31 months (range, 6-127 months), and the 5-year and 10-year cumulative incidence of total obliteration was 70% and 91%, respectively. On univariable analysis, smaller target volume (hazard ratio [HR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-0.93, P<.0001), smaller treatment volume (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.96, P<.0001), higher prescription dose (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07-1.26, P=.001), and higher maximum dose (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.23, P=.002) were associated with total obliteration. Deep/critical location was also associated with decreased likelihood of obliteration (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.98, P=.04). On multivariable analysis, critical location (adjusted HR [AHR] 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.65, P<.001) and smaller target volume (AHR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97, P=.02) remained associated with total obliteration. Posttreatment hemorrhage occurred in 13 cases (5-year cumulative incidence of 7%), all among patients with less than total obliteration, and 3 of these events were fatal. The most common complication was seizure, controlled with medications, both acutely (8%) and in the long term (9.1%). Conclusions: The current series is the largest

  18. Extravasation of contrast (Spot Sign) predicts in-hospital mortality in ruptured arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zengpanpan; Ai, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jun; Hu, Xin; You, Chao; Andrew M, Faramand; Fang, Fang

    2017-10-09

    The spot sign is a highly specific and sensitive predictor of hematoma expansion in following primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Rare cases of the spot sign have been documented in patients with intracranial hemorrhage secondary to arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The purpose of this retrospective study is to assess the accuracy of spot sign in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with ruptured AVM. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed for patients who presented to West China Hospital with ICH secondary to AVM in the period between January 2009 and September 2016. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical data independently assessed the imaging data, including the presence of spot sign. Statistical analysis using univariate testing, multivariate logistic regression testing, and receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was performed. A total of 116 patients were included. Overall, 18.9% (22/116) of subjects had at least 1 spot sign detected by CT angiography, 7% (8/116) died in hospital, and 27% (31/116) of the patients had a poor outcome after 90 days. The spot sign had a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 84.3% for predicting in-hospital mortality (p = .02, AUC 0.734). No correlation detected between the spot sign and 90-day outcomes under multiple logistic regression (p = .19). The spot sign is an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality. The presence of spot sign did not correlate with the 90 day outcomes in this patient cohort. The results of this report suggest that patients with ruptured AVM with demonstrated the spot sign on imaging must receive aggressive treatment early on due to the high risk of mortality.

  19. Angiographic treatment of the arteriovenous malformation occurred after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Büyükkurt

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uterine arteriovenous malformations are classified as acquired or congenital. Caesarean section which is performed more frequently on nowadays, uterine curettage and other uterine surgeries are the most common causes of the acquired arteriovenous malformations. CASE: Twenty-two years old woman delivered her second child by caesarean section, due to history of caesarean section, was admitted with complaint of profuse vaginal bleeding 15 days after the surgery. She demonstrated the clinical features of the hypovolemic shock. At first she treated with four units of red blood suspension, two units of fresh frozen plasma and rapid infusion of the fluids. On endometrial curettage only blood and coagulum were obtained. The bleeding could only be controlled by the internal pressure of the 18 F Foley catheter. Doppler analyze of the uterus revealed a vascular malformation signifying a turbulent flow pattern with low pressure and high flow rate. A unilateral uterine artery embolization was performed her and her menstruel cycles are resumed at the fifth month of the puerperium. DISCUSSION: The clinical presentation of the uterine arteriovenous malformations depends on the localization and the dimensions of the malformation. The uterine arteriovenous malformation should be kept in mind in cases of late occurrence vaginal bleeding unresponsive to the uterotonic medications, especially in a woman with previous history of uterine damage, such as curettage or caesarean section.

  20. Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with a Dominant Outflow Vein: Results of Ethanol Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Ki; Do, Young Soo; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Young Wook; Shin, Sung Wook; Park, Kwang Bo; Ko, Justin Sang; Lee, Ae Ryoung; Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook

    2008-01-01

    To assess retrospectively the treatment results of ethanol embolization of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with a dominant outflow vein (DOV). Nineteen patients who had peripheral AVMs with a DOV were enrolled in this study (mean age, 29.7 years; range, 15 42 years). Fifty-one ethanol embolizations (mean, 2.7; range, 1 8) were performed by direct puncture (n = 29), the transarterial approach (n = 13), the transvenous approach (n = 5), or a combination of methods (n = 4) under general anesthesia. Coil and/or core-removed guide wire embolization of the DOV or another flow occlusion technique (i.e., use of an external pneumatic pressure cuff) to achieve vascular stasis were required in all patients during ethanol embolization. Clinical follow-up (mean, 22.2 months; range, 1 53 months) was performed for all patients, and imaging follow-up (mean, 22.1 months; range, 2 53 months) from the last treatment session was performed for 14 patients. The therapeutic outcome (cure, improvement, no change, or aggravation) was assessed according to the clinical response and the degree of devascularization at angiography. Ethanol embolization was considered as an effective procedure in all patients. Thirteen (68%) of 19 patients were cured and six displayed improvement. Three of six patients with improvement needed further treatment sessions for residual AVMs. Four patients (21%) experienced a total of eight complications. Five complications (three events of a distal embolism and one event each of a urinary bladder necrosis and a brain infarct related to the accidental cannulation of the common carotid artery during insertion of the Swan-Ganz catheter) were major and three complications (skin necrosis) were minor. Peripheral AVMs with a DOV can be effectively treated with a high cure rate by the use of ethanol embolization alone or in conjunction with the use of coil and/or core-removed guide wire embolization

  1. The correlation between hematoma volume and outcome in ruptured posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations indicates the importance of surgical evacuation of hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Adem; Musluman, Ahmet Murat; Kanat, Ayhan; Cavusoglu, Halit; Terzi, Yuksel; Aydin, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between hematoma volume and outcome in ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with accompanying posterior fossa hematoma was retrospectively evaluated. Microsurgery operations were performed on 127 patients with intracranial AVM between January 1998 and January 2009 at our clinic. Fifteen (11.8%) patients were identified as suffering from posterior fossa AVM, and twelve of these patients presented with a cerebellar hematoma. All patients were clinically evaluated according to the following criteria: modified Rankin Scale (mRS) prior to surgery, Spetzler-Martin grade (SMG) of the AVMs, hematoma volume prior to surgery, and mRS following surgery. Postoperative mRS scores were significantly lower than preoperative scores (p=0.0001). Postoperative outcomes were concordant with the SMG of the AVMs (r=0.67, p=0.033), hematoma volume (r=0.537, p=0.072) and preoperative mRS scores (r=0.764, p=0.004). These analyses show that the postoperative mRS score is strongly correlated with a preoperative mRS score, hematoma volume and SMG. Posterior fossa AVMs present an increased risk for hemorrhage and for increased morbidity and mortality. Cases with hematoma should be operated on an urgent basis. We conclude that hematoma volume is a factor that impacts postoperative results and prognosis. SMG and preoperative mRS scores were also correlated with outcome.

  2. The use of 4D-CTA in the diagnostic work-up of brain arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, Peter W.A. [Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Taeshineetanakul, Patamintita; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Krings, Timo [Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Schenk, Barry; Brouwer, Patrick A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    We aimed to evaluate the use of time-resolved whole-head CT angiography (4D-CTA) in patients with an untreated arteriovenous malformation of the brain (bAVM), as demonstrated by catheter angiography (DSA). Seventeen patients with a DSA-proven bAVM were enrolled. These were subjected to 4D-CTA imaging using a 320 detector row CT scanner. Using a standardized scoring sheet, all studies were analyzed by a panel of three readers. This panel was blind to the DSA results at the time of reading the 4D-CTA. 4D-CTA detected all bAVMs. With regard to the Spetzler-Martin grade, 4D-CTA disagreed with DSA in only one case, where deep venous drainage was missed. Further discrepancies between 4D-CTA and DSA analyses included underestimation of the nidus size in small lesions (four cases), misinterpretation of a feeding vessel (one case), misinterpretation of indirect feeding through pial collaterals (three cases) and oversight of mild arterial enlargement (two cases). 4D-CTA correctly distinguished low-flow from high-flow lesions and detected dural/transosseous feeding (one case), venous narrowing (one case) and venous pouches (nine cases). In this series, 4D-CTA was able to detect all bAVMs. Although some angioarchitectural details were missed or misinterpreted when compared to DSA, 4D-CTA evaluation was sufficiently accurate to diagnose the shunt and classify it. Moreover, 4D-CTA adds cross-sectional imaging and perfusion maps, helpful in treatment planning. 4D-CTA appears to be a valuable new adjunct in the non-invasive diagnostic work-up of bAVMs and their follow-up when managed conservatively. (orig.)

  3. The use of 4D-CTA in the diagnostic work-up of brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Peter W.A.; Taeshineetanakul, Patamintita; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Krings, Timo; Schenk, Barry; Brouwer, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the use of time-resolved whole-head CT angiography (4D-CTA) in patients with an untreated arteriovenous malformation of the brain (bAVM), as demonstrated by catheter angiography (DSA). Seventeen patients with a DSA-proven bAVM were enrolled. These were subjected to 4D-CTA imaging using a 320 detector row CT scanner. Using a standardized scoring sheet, all studies were analyzed by a panel of three readers. This panel was blind to the DSA results at the time of reading the 4D-CTA. 4D-CTA detected all bAVMs. With regard to the Spetzler-Martin grade, 4D-CTA disagreed with DSA in only one case, where deep venous drainage was missed. Further discrepancies between 4D-CTA and DSA analyses included underestimation of the nidus size in small lesions (four cases), misinterpretation of a feeding vessel (one case), misinterpretation of indirect feeding through pial collaterals (three cases) and oversight of mild arterial enlargement (two cases). 4D-CTA correctly distinguished low-flow from high-flow lesions and detected dural/transosseous feeding (one case), venous narrowing (one case) and venous pouches (nine cases). In this series, 4D-CTA was able to detect all bAVMs. Although some angioarchitectural details were missed or misinterpreted when compared to DSA, 4D-CTA evaluation was sufficiently accurate to diagnose the shunt and classify it. Moreover, 4D-CTA adds cross-sectional imaging and perfusion maps, helpful in treatment planning. 4D-CTA appears to be a valuable new adjunct in the non-invasive diagnostic work-up of bAVMs and their follow-up when managed conservatively. (orig.)

  4. Severe pulmonary oedema following therapeutic embolization with Onyx for cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, C.; Saravanan, Sundararaj; Rajkumar, John; Prasad, Jagadish; Banakal, Sanjay; Muralidhar, Kanchi [Narayana Hrudayalaya Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2008-05-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by sudden onset of respiratory distress, infiltrates on radiographs consistent with pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia and increased work in breathing. Infiltrates on radiographs are bilateral, but may be patchy or diffuse and fluffy or dense. It is associated with absence of left heart failure and a PaO{sub 2}/FiO{sub 2} ratio of {<=}200. Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was approved by the US FDA in July 2005, is used as an embolic agent for cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). It is a biocompatible liquid polymer that precipitates and solidifies on contact with blood, thus forming a soft and spongy embolus. We report a case of ARDS following therapeutic embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer for cerebral AVM under general anaesthesia. Experienced perioperative physicians adopted standard anaesthetic technique and monitoring for this procedure. Acute respiratory distress and hypoxaemia developed in the patient following extubation of the trachea. Infiltrates seen on postprocedural chest radiographs were consistent with pulmonary oedema. DMSO, the solvent for the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, is excreted via the lungs after administration and we postulate that DMSO was the possible cause of ARDS in this patient. Monitoring of haemodynamic parameters (invasive blood pressure, electrocardiography) and ventilatory parameters (ETCO{sub 2}, SpO{sub 2}, airway pressure monitoring) are important in the recognition of this possible event. One should be vigilant and anticipate this complication following therapeutic embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol polymer for the treatment of cerebral AVM. (orig.)

  5. Emergency hepatectomy for hepatic arteriovenous malformation combined with pulmonary hypertension in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruhiko Murase

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hepatic arteriovenous malformations rarely present with pulmonary hypertension. We report the case of a 3-month-old boy who developed severe pulmonary hypertension due to a hepatic arteriovenous malformation. The use of pulmonary vasodilators to treat the patient's pulmonary hypertension worsened his high-output heart failure. This is the first case in which emergency hepatectomy rescued a patient with hepatic arteriovenous malformations who developed pulmonary hypertension.

  6. Improvement of cerebral hypometabolism after resection of radiation-induced necrotic lesion in a patient with cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yae; Hirata, Kenji; Nakayama, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Yoshida, Michiharu; Onodera, Shunsuke; Manabe, Osamu; Shiga, Tohru; Terae, Satoshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman underwent radiosurgery for a left cerebral hemisphere arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and developed radiation-induced necrosis causing a massive edema in the surrounding brain tissues. Despite various therapies, the edema expanded to the ipsilateral hemisphere and induced neurological symptoms. The radiation-induced necrotic lesion was surgically removed 4 years after radiosurgery. While the preoperative FDG PET revealed severe hypometabolism in the left cerebrum, the necrotomy significantly ameliorated the brain edema, glucose metabolism (postoperative FDG PET), and symptoms. This case indicates that radiation necrosis-induced neurological deficits may be associated with brain edema and hypometabolism, which could be reversed by appropriate necrotomy

  7. Linear Accelerator-Based Radiosurgery Alone for Arteriovenous Malformation: More Than 12 Years of Observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Takayuki, E-mail: takayuki@nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Kamada, Kensaku; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Izumi

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although radiosurgery is an accepted treatment method for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), its long-term therapeutic effects have not been sufficiently evaluated, and many reports of long-term observations are from gamma-knife facilities. Furthermore, there are few reported results of treatment using only linear accelerator (LINAC)-based radiosurgery (LBRS). Methods and Materials: Over a period of more than 12 years, we followed the long-term results of LBRS treatment performed in 51 AVM patients. Results: The actuarial obliteration rates, after a single radiosurgery session, at 3, 5, 10, and 15 years were 46.9%, 54.0%, 64.4%, and 68.0%, respectively; when subsequent radiosurgeries were included, the rates were 46.9%, 61.3%, 74.2%, and 90.3%, respectively. Obliteration rates were significantly related to target volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}, marginal doses ≥12 Gy, Spetzler-Martin grades (1 vs other), and AVM scores ≥1.5; multivariate analyses revealed a significant difference for target volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}. The postprocedural actuarial symptomatic radiation injury rates, after a single radiation surgery session, at 5, 10, and 15 years were 12.3%, 16.8%, and 19.1%, respectively. Volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}, location (lobular or other), AVM scores ≥1.5, and the number of radiosurgery were related to radiation injury incidence; multivariate analyses revealed significant differences associated with volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3} and location (lobular or other). Conclusions: Positive results can be obtained with LBRS when performed with a target volume ≤4 cm{sup 3}, an AVM score ≤1.5, and ≥12 Gy radiation. Bleeding and radiation injuries may appear even 10 years after treatment, necessitating long-term observation.

  8. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of a Gastric Vascular Malformation: An Innovative Approach to Treatment of a Rare Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansing, Catherine E.; Marquardt, Joseph P.; Sutton, Daniel M.; York, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a high-flow form of a vascular malformation, which can be found anywhere in the body. While historically treated surgically, a multidisciplinary approach utilizing multiple specialties and treatment modalities is now commonly employed. In order to effectively treat an AVM, the nidus must be targeted and eradicated, which can be done via multiple approaches. We present the case of a 43-year-old male with a gastric wall AVM, which was initially incompletely treated using a percutaneous transarterial approach. The gastric AVM was noted to have dominant drainage through a gastrorenal shunt; therefore, Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) was utilized to eradicate the AVM nidus. This case illustrates the utility of Interventional Radiology, specifically BRTO, as another treatment option for challenging AVMs.

  9. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of a Gastric Vascular Malformation: An Innovative Approach to Treatment of a Rare Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansing, Catherine E., E-mail: catherine.e.hansing.mil@mail.mil [Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Transitional Year/Graduate Medical Education Department, Medical Corps, United States Navy (United States); Marquardt, Joseph P.; Sutton, Daniel M.; York, John D. [Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Radiology Department, Medical Corps, United States Navy (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a high-flow form of a vascular malformation, which can be found anywhere in the body. While historically treated surgically, a multidisciplinary approach utilizing multiple specialties and treatment modalities is now commonly employed. In order to effectively treat an AVM, the nidus must be targeted and eradicated, which can be done via multiple approaches. We present the case of a 43-year-old male with a gastric wall AVM, which was initially incompletely treated using a percutaneous transarterial approach. The gastric AVM was noted to have dominant drainage through a gastrorenal shunt; therefore, Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) was utilized to eradicate the AVM nidus. This case illustrates the utility of Interventional Radiology, specifically BRTO, as another treatment option for challenging AVMs.

  10. Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla for evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of vascular malformations: description of distinct subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Simone; Uller, Wibke; Manger, Florentine; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Wohlgemuth, Walter A

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of arteriovenous and venous malformations using time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla. Time-resolved MRA with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST) at 3.0 Tesla was studied in 83 consecutive patients with venous malformations (VM) and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Enhancement characteristics were calculated as percentage increase of signal intensity above baseline over time. Maximum percentage signal intensity increase (signal max ), time intervals between onset of arterial enhancement and lesion enhancement (t onset ), and time intervals between beginning of lesion enhancement and maximum percentage of lesion enhancement (t max ) were analyzed. All AVMs showed a high-flow hemodynamic pattern. Two significantly different (p 3.0 Tesla provides hemodynamic characterization of vascular malformations. VMs can be subclassified into two hemodynamic subgroups due to presence or absence of AVFs. • Time-resolved MRA at 3.0 Tesla provides quantitative hemodynamic characterization of vascular malformations. • Malformations significantly differ in time courses of enhancement and signal intensity increase. • AVMs show a distinctive high-flow hemodynamic pattern. • Two significantly different types of VMs emerged: VMs with and without AVFs.

  11. Relative risk of hemorrhage during pregnancy in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijnum, Janneke; Wilkinson, Tim; Whitaker, Heather J.; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W. Peter; van den Berg, René; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Rinkel, Gabriël Je; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Klijn, Catharina Jm

    2017-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the risk of bleeding from brain arteriovenous malformations is higher during pregnancy, delivery, or puerperium. We compared occurrence of brain arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage in women during this period with occurrence of hemorrhage outside this period during

  12. Prevalence of brain arteriovenous malformations in first-degree relatives of patients with a brain arteriovenous malformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijnum, Janneke; van der Worp, H. Bart; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W. Peter; van den Berg, René; Brouwer, Patrick A.; van der Sprenkel, Jan Willem Berkelbach; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Rinkel, Gabriël J. E.; Klijn, Catharina J. M.

    2014-01-01

    It is uncertain whether familial occurrence of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) represents coincidental aggregation or a shared familial risk factor. We aimed to compare the prevalence of BAVMs in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with BAVM and the prevalence in the general

  13. Planned Two-Fraction Proton Beam Stereotactic Radiosurgery for High-Risk Inoperable Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi, Jona A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bussiere, Marc R.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ogilvy, Christopher S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Rowell, Alison; Daartz, Juliane; Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patients with high-risk cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), based on eloquent brain location or large size, who underwent planned two-fraction proton stereotactic radiosurgery (PSRS). Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2009, 59 patients with high-risk cerebral AVMs received two-fraction PSRS. Median nidus volume was 23 cc (range, 1.4-58.1 cc), 70% of cases had nidus volume {>=}14 cc, and 34% were in critical locations (brainstem, basal ganglia). Median AVM score based on age, AVM size, and location was 3.19 (range, 0.9-6.9). Many patients had prior surgery or embolization (40%) or prior PSRS (12%). The most common prescription was 16 Gy radiobiologic equivalent (RBE) in two fractions, prescribed to the 90% isodose. Results: At a median follow-up of 56.1 months, 9 patients (15%) had total and 20 patients (34%) had partial obliteration. Patients with total obliteration received higher total dose than those with partial or no obliteration (mean dose, 17.6 vs. 15.5 Gy (RBE), p = 0.01). Median time to total obliteration was 62 months (range, 23-109 months), and 5-year actuarial rate of partial or total obliteration was 33%. Five-year actuarial rate of hemorrhage was 22% (95% confidence interval, 12.5%-36.8%) and 14% (n = 8) suffered fatal hemorrhage. Lesions with higher AVM scores were more likely to hemorrhage (p = 0.024) and less responsive to radiation (p = 0.026). The most common complication was Grade 1 headache acutely (14%) and long term (12%). One patient developed a Grade 2 generalized seizure disorder, and two had mild neurologic deficits. Conclusions: High-risk AVMs can be safely treated with two-fraction PSRS, although total obliteration rate is low and patients remain at risk for future hemorrhage. Future studies should include higher doses or a multistaged PSRS approach for lesions more resistant to obliteration with radiation.

  14. Four cases of intracranial AVM successfully treated by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mau-Nan; Imaya, Hisatoshi; Nakazawa, Shozo.

    1990-01-01

    We have treated three patients with conventional radiotherapy and one with stereotactic radiosurgery and report the follow-up results. A 63-year-old woman had a dural arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the right cavernous sinus. She was irradiated using 10 MV X-ray with a total of 30 Gy. Post irradiation angiography showed a complete absence of dural AVM. A 62-year-old woman had a dural AVM fed by the left external carotid artery in the right cavernous sinus. Embolization by gelfoam was performed before irradiation. The irradiation was given with a total dose of 30 Gy. Post irradiation angiography showed disappearance of the dural AVM. A 26-year-old woman had a small AVM (about 20 x 15 x 15 mm) in the posterior corpus callosum. An operation was performed but the AVM was not excised completely. We irradiated to the residual AVM with a total of 30 Gy. The follow-up angiography one year after treatment, showed disappearance of the AVM. She had no neurological deficit two years after the treatment. A 14-year-old boy had a small AVM (about 20 x 15 x 10 mm) in the left anterior wall of the fourth ventricle. The AVM was located deeply, so an operation was not performed. Radiosurgery was undertaken four months after onset in Buenos Aires. The total dose was 36 Gy. The follow-up angiography one year after treatment, showed disappearance of the AVM. He also had no neurological deficit two years after the treatment. These four cases of AVM (two dural AVMs) were successfully treated by radiation therapy. No side effect was observed. (author)

  15. The Retrograde Transvenous Push-Through Method: A Novel Treatment of Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with Dominant Venous Outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Walter A.; Müller-Wille, René; Teusch, Veronika I.; Dudeck, Oliver; Cahill, Anne M.; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Uller, Wibke

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel retrograde transvenous embolization technique of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent transvenous retrograde Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow over a 29-month period. The embolization is aimed at retrograde filling of the nidus after building a solid plug in the dominant venous outflow (push-through). Classification, clinical signs, technical aspects, clinical and technical success rates, and complications were recorded. Short-term outcome was assessed.Results11 Symptomatic patients (8 female; mean age 31.4 years) were treated at our Vascular Anomalies Center with this method between January 2012 and May 2014. The AVMs were located on the upper extremity (n = 3), pelvis (n = 2), buttock (n = 2), and lower extremity (n = 4). Retrograde embolization was successfully carried out after preparatory transarterial-flow reduction in eight cases (73 %) and venous-flow reduction with Amplatzer Vascular Plugs in four cases (36 %). Complete devascularization (n = 10; 91 %) or 95 % devascularization (n = 1; 9 %) led to complete resolution (n = 8; 73 %) or improvement of clinical symptoms (n = 3; 27 %). One minor complication occurred (pain and swelling). During a mean follow-up time of 8 months, one clinically asymptomatic recurrence of AVM was detected.ConclusionInitial results suggest that retrograde transvenous Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow is a safe and effective novel technique with a low complication rate

  16. The Retrograde Transvenous Push-Through Method: A Novel Treatment of Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with Dominant Venous Outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, Walter A., E-mail: walter.wohlgemuth@ukr.de; Müller-Wille, René, E-mail: Rene.Mueller-Wille@ukr.de; Teusch, Veronika I., E-mail: Veronika.Teusch@gmx.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Dudeck, Oliver, E-mail: Oliver.Dudeck@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Cahill, Anne M., E-mail: Cahill@email.chop.edu [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Alomari, Ahmad I., E-mail: Ahmad.Alomari@childrens.harvard.edu [Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Uller, Wibke, E-mail: Wibke.Uller@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel retrograde transvenous embolization technique of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent transvenous retrograde Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow over a 29-month period. The embolization is aimed at retrograde filling of the nidus after building a solid plug in the dominant venous outflow (push-through). Classification, clinical signs, technical aspects, clinical and technical success rates, and complications were recorded. Short-term outcome was assessed.Results11 Symptomatic patients (8 female; mean age 31.4 years) were treated at our Vascular Anomalies Center with this method between January 2012 and May 2014. The AVMs were located on the upper extremity (n = 3), pelvis (n = 2), buttock (n = 2), and lower extremity (n = 4). Retrograde embolization was successfully carried out after preparatory transarterial-flow reduction in eight cases (73 %) and venous-flow reduction with Amplatzer Vascular Plugs in four cases (36 %). Complete devascularization (n = 10; 91 %) or 95 % devascularization (n = 1; 9 %) led to complete resolution (n = 8; 73 %) or improvement of clinical symptoms (n = 3; 27 %). One minor complication occurred (pain and swelling). During a mean follow-up time of 8 months, one clinically asymptomatic recurrence of AVM was detected.ConclusionInitial results suggest that retrograde transvenous Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow is a safe and effective novel technique with a low complication rate.

  17. Atypical MRI features in soft-tissue arteriovenous malformation: a novel imaging appearance with radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Anand S. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Interventional Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Schulman, Joshua M.; Ruben, Beth S. [University of California, San Francisco, Departments of Pathology and Dermatology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hoffman, William Y. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Plastic Surgery, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States); Dowd, Christopher F. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States); Frieden, Ilona J. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Dermatology, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hess, Christopher P. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neuroradiology, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The absence of a discrete mass, surrounding signal abnormality and solid enhancement are imaging features that have traditionally been used to differentiate soft-tissue arteriovenous malformations from vascular tumors on MRI. We have observed that these findings are not uncommon in arteriovenous malformations, which may lead to misdiagnosis or inappropriate treatment. To estimate the frequency of atypical MRI features in soft-tissue arteriovenous malformations and assess their relationship to lesion size, location, tissue type involved and vascular architecture. Medical records, MRI and histopathology were reviewed in consecutive patients with soft-tissue arteriovenous malformations in a multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinic. Arteriovenous malformations were divided into those with and without atypical MRI findings (perilesional T2 signal abnormality, enhancement and/or a soft-tissue mass). Lesion location, size, tissue involved and vascular architecture were also compared between groups. Tissue stains were reviewed in available biopsy or resection specimens to assess relationships between MRI findings and histopathology. Thirty patients with treatment-naive arteriovenous malformations were included. Fifteen lesions demonstrated atypical MRI. There was no difference in age, gender, lesion size or involved body part between the groups. However, more than half of the atypical lesions demonstrated multicompartmental involvement, and tiny intralesional flow voids were more common in atypical arteriovenous malformations. Histopathology also differed in atypical cases, showing densely packed endothelial cells with connective tissue architectural distortion and edema. Arteriovenous malformations may exhibit features of a vascular tumor on MRI, particularly when multicompartmental and/or containing tiny internal vessels. These features are important to consider in suspected fast-flow vascular malformations and may have implications with respect to their treatment

  18. Surgical planning for microsurgical excision of cerebral arterio-venous malformations using virtual reality technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ivan; Hwang, Peter Y K; Kumar, Dinesh; Lee, Cheng Kiang; Kockro, Ralf A; Sitoh, Y Y

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of surgical planning using a virtual reality platform workstation in the treatment of cerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) Patient-specific data of multiple imaging modalities were co-registered, fused and displayed as a 3D stereoscopic object on the Dextroscope, a virtual reality surgical planning platform. This system allows for manipulation of 3D data and for the user to evaluate and appreciate the angio-architecture of the nidus with regards to position and spatial relationships of critical feeders and draining veins. We evaluated the ability of the Dextroscope to influence surgical planning by providing a better understanding of the angio-architecture as well as its impact on the surgeon's pre- and intra-operative confidence and ability to tackle these lesions. Twenty four patients were studied. The mean age was 29.65 years. Following pre-surgical planning on the Dextroscope, 23 patients underwent microsurgical resection after pre-surgical virtual reality planning, during which all had documented complete resection of the AVM. Planning on the virtual reality platform allowed for identification of critical feeders and draining vessels in all patients. The appreciation of the complex patient specific angio-architecture to establish a surgical plan was found to be invaluable in the conduct of the procedure and was found to enhance the surgeon's confidence significantly. Surgical planning of resection of an AVM with a virtual reality system allowed detailed and comprehensive analysis of 3D multi-modality imaging data and, in our experience, proved very helpful in establishing a good surgical strategy, enhancing intra-operative spatial orientation and increasing surgeon's confidence.

  19. Massive hematuria due to a congenital renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal pelvis tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sountoulides P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are very rare benign lesions. They are more common in women and rarely manifest in elderly people. In some cases they present with massive hematuria. Contemporary treatment consists of transcatheter selective arterial embolization which leads to resolution of the hematuria whilst preserving renal parenchyma. Case presentation A 72-year-old man, who was heavy smoker, presented with massive hematuria and flank pain. CT scan revealed a filling defect caused by a soft tissue mass in the renal pelvis, which initially led to the suspicion of a transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the upper tract, in view of the patient's age and smoking habits. However a subsequent retrograde study could not depict any filling defect in the renal pelvis. Selective right renal arteriography confirmed the presence of a renal AVM by demonstrating abnormal arterial communication with a vein with early visualization of the venous system. At the same time successful selective transcatheter embolization of the lesion was performed. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of careful diagnostic work-up in the evaluation of upper tract hematuria. In the case presented, a congenital renal AVM proved to be the cause of massive upper tract hematuria and flank pain in spite of the initial evidence indicating the likely diagnosis of a renal pelvis tumor.

  20. Decision making in treatment strategy of AVMs. Treatment board system at Tohoku University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokura, Hidefumi; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of some large, deep-seated arteriovenous malformations is still a challenge to neurosurgeons. The recent development of non-invasive imaging modalities has increased the chance of finding asymptomatic AVM's, for which evaluation for treatment is more complicated than in symptomatic cases. Currently there are 3 major treatment options for AVM: microsurgical removal, radiosurgery, and intravascular embolization. It is not easy to choose the best single modality or combination of modalities for individual patients, who have different types of onset, neurological deficits, size and location, and social background. After the installation of the Gamma Knife in November 1991, we established an 'AVM Treatment Board.' It comprises vascular neurosurgeons, endovascular neurosurgeons, and radio-neurosurgeons, and meetings are held twice a month. Every AVM case referred to us is presented to the board, and treatment strategy is selected after a discussion among experts who know the advantages and drawbacks of each treatment modality. We describe this board system in detail and emphasize the importance of gathering expertise in decision making. (author)

  1. Arteriovenous Malformation Detected by Small Bowel Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Fujii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding that originates in the small intestine is often difficult to diagnose. When successful diagnosis reveals a lesion that can be localized preoperatively, the laparoscopic approach is an appropriate and beneficial treatment modality for small bowel resection. A 69-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of gastrointestinal bleeding and symptomatic transfusion-dependent anemia. Upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Double-balloon endoscopy established the source of the bleeding as a 0.5-cm polypoid mass appearing as a submucosal tumor with redness and pulsation in the lower ileum, suggesting a vascular lesion. Laparoscopic small bowel resection was successful in removing the mass in the ileum. Histological evaluation of the mass revealed an arteriovenous malformation. Preoperative small bowel endoscopy can be useful for diagnosing the cause and localization of arteriovenous malformation in the small intestine.

  2. Interventional treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) are congenital vascular communications in the lungs. They act as right to left shunts so that the blood running through these malformations is not oxygenated or filtered. These patients are typically hypoxaemic with exercise intolerance and are at high...... risk of paradoxical emboli to the brain and other organs. These malformations are most commonly seen in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) (Mb. Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome). Nowadays, the generally accepted treatment strategy of first choice is embolization of the afferent arteries...... the functional level. Embolization is a well-established method of treating PAVM, with a significant effect on oxygenation of the blood. Screening for PAVM in patients at risk is recommended, especially in patients with HHT....

  3. Obliteration dynamics in cerebral arteriovenous malformations after cyberknife radiosurgery: quantification with sequential nidus volumetry and 3-tesla 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wowra, Berndt; Muacevic, Alexander; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Reiser, Maximilian; Herrmann, Karin A

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the time-dependent obliteration of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVM) after CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS) (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) by means of sequential 3-T, 3-dimensional (3D), time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and volumetry of the arteriovenous malformation (AVM) nidus. In this prospective study, 3D TOF MRA was performed on 20 patients with cAVMs treated by single-fraction CKRS. Three-dimensional TOF MRA was performed on a 3-T, 32-channel magnetic resonance scanner (Magnetom TIM Trio; Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) with isotropic voxel size at a spatial resolution of 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm3. The time-dependent relative decay of the transnidal blood flow evidenced by 3D TOF MRA was referred to as "obliteration dynamics." Volumetry of the nidus size was performed with OsiriX imaging software (OsiriX Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland). All patients had 3 to 4 follow-up examinations at 3- to 6-month intervals over a minimum follow-up period of 9 months. Subtotal obliteration was determined if the residual nidus volume was 5% or less of the initial nidus volume. Stata/IC software (Version 10.0; Stata Corp., College Station, TX) was used for statistical analysis and to identify potential factors of AVM obliteration. Regarding their clinical status, case history, and pretreatments, the participants of this study represent difficult-to-treat cAVM patients. The median nidus volume was 1.8 mL (range, 0.4-12.5 mL); the median minimum dose prescribed to the nidus was 22 Gy (range, 16-24 Gy) delivered to the 67% isodose line (range, 55-80%). CKRS was well tolerated, with complications in 2 patients. No further hemorrhages occurred after RS, except 1 small and clinically inapparent incident. The median follow-up period after RS was 25.0 months (range, 11.7-36.8 months). After RS, a statistically significant obliteration was observed in all patients. However, the obliteration dynamics of the cAVMs showed a

  4. CT, MRI and MRA of cerebrovascular malformations (report of 16 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Qingguo; Hu Chunhong; Guo Liang; Ding Yi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of CT, MRI and MRA in cerebrovascular malformations. Methods: 16 cases of cerebrovascular malformations were confirmed by angiography and pathology, including 12 cases of arteriovenous malformations, 4 cases of cavernous angiomas. All of these cases were performed with CT, MRI non-contrast scan and 3D-TOF MRA. Results: CT appearances of AVM were mixed density with hypo-density, iso-density or hyper-density. Some had calcification or acute hemorrhage. MRI scan showed the dilated and tortuous nidus of AVMs on T 1 WI and T 2 WI. The appearances of hemorrhage were variable. Feeding arteries and draining veins were showed clearly on MRA. The typical sign of cavernous angiomas was mixed signals with hypointensity ring on MRI, while MRA could not provide much information. Conclusions: CT, MRI and MRA had different value in diagnosis of cerebrovascular malformations. CT combined with MRI and MRA could sharply improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and aid in the comprehensive evaluation of cerebrovascular malformations

  5. Clinical and imaging findings in spinal cord arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Heum; Kim, Dong Ik; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeon, Pyoung; Ihn, Yeon Kwon

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and selective spinal angiography of spinal cord arteriovenous malformations (SCAVMs) and to investigate the correlation of these findings with the development of clinical symptoms. In 16 patients diagnosed as suffering from SCAVMs, MR imaging and selective spinal angiograms were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with clinical symptoms. Clinical data were reviewed, especially concerning the mode of onset of clinical symptoms, and MR images of SCAVMs were evaluated with regard to the following parameters: spinal cord swelling with T2 hyperintensity, cord atrophy, intramedullary hemorrhage, and contrast enhancement of the spinal cord. Selective spinal angiographic findings of SCAVMs were also evaluated in terms of the following , parameters: type of SCAVM, presence of aneurysms, and patterns of venous drainage. Imaging findings were also correlated with the development of clinical symptoms. Systematic evaluation of the findings of MR imaging and angiography provides detailed information on the type of AVM and status of the spinal cord parenchyma, and this can be correlated with clinical manifestations of SCAVM. In patients suffering from this condition, spinal cord dysfunction due to venous congestion appears to be the main cause of clinical symptoms. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Post procedure headache in patients treated for neurovascular arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms using endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabrina; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hauerberg, John; Holtmannspötter, Markus; Petersen, Julie Falkenberg; Fakhril-Din, Zainab; Gaist, David; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-12-01

    Though endovascular therapy (EVT) is increasingly applied in the treatment of intracranial vascular lesions, little is known about the effect of EVT on post-procedure headache. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of headache in patients who have undergone EVT for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and aneurysms. A total of 324 patients underwent EVT treatment for aneurysms and AVMs at the Danish National Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We applied strict exclusion criteria in order to minimize the effect of other factors on headache occurrence, e.g., craniotomy. Eligible subjects were phone-interviewed using a purpose-developed semi-structured questionnaire. Headaches were classified according to ICHD-III beta criteria. The 59 patients underwent treatment of aneurysms (n = 43), cranial dural fistulas (n = 11), and AVMs (n = 5). There was a significant increase in overall headache (p = 0.017) and tension-type headache (TTH) (p = 0.012) within the first 3 months after EVT compared to 1 month before EVT. However, at interview time (median 2.5 years post-EVT), the increase in overall headache, migraine, and tension-type headache was not statistically significant. A minority of patients experienced headaches for the first time within 3 months of their EVT (migraine 4, TTH 10). At interview time, 50 % of these new headaches still persisted. Our results suggest a temporary increase in headache in the first 3 months after EVT, which normalizes over time. Clinicians may use this knowledge to better inform their patients of functional outcomes after their EVT procedure.

  7. Evaluation of intracranial arteriovenous malformations before and after embolization with dynamic MR digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuang; Feng Xiaoyuan; Baleriaux, D.; Metens, T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical utility and accuracy of dynamic MR digital subtraction angiography (MR-DSA) in the detection of intracranial arteriovenous malformations before and after embolization. Methods: A prospective blinded comparison of MR-DSA, 3D contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted MR angiography (3D-CEMRA), proton-weighted imaging and conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were underwent in 22 consecutive AVMs patients before and after embolization. Two readers independently interpreted images and compared with DSA images. Results: There was complete agreement between MR-DSA and DSA for classification and size of nidus before and after embolization in all cases. MR-DSA showed the modified hemodynamic features (the time of nidus, early venous enhancement delayed after carotid arteries appearance) in 17 cases, and nidus size were reduced in 13 cases (including 4 complete embolized cases) after embolization, which were 100% consistence compared with DSA. MR-DSA failed to depict 1 intranidal aneurysm and missed 1 less dilated artery and draining vein after embolization respectively, which were demonstrated clearly by 3D-CEMRA confirmed with DSA. The relatively more or less hyperintensity could be seen on proton-weighted imaging in all cases after embolization than before. Conclusion: MR-DSA is a fast, efficient, and noninvasive technique to provide hemodynamic information relevant for AVMs before and after embolization. Proton imaging is sensitive in delineation of the embolized region, MR-DSA, 3D-CEMRA and proton-weighted imaging should be combined in the evaluation and follow-up AVMs after partial embolization. (authors)

  8. Arteriovenous malformation of the external ear: a clinical assessment with a scoping review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Auricular Arteriovenous Malformation of the external ear is a rarely encountered disease; in particular, arteriovenous malformation arising from the auricle, with spontaneous bleeding, has seldom been reported. Objective: In the current study, we report an unusual case of late-onset auricular arteriovenous malformation originating from the posterior auricular artery that was confirmed by computed tomographic angiography. The case was successfully managed by pre-surgical intravascular embolization followed by total lesion excision. Prompted by this case, we also present a scoping review of the literature. Methods: A case of a 60 year-old man with right auricular arteriovenous malformation treated in our tertiary care center, and 52 patients with auricular arteriovenous malformation described in 10 case reports and a retrospective review are presented. Auricular arteriovenous malformation can manifest as swelling of the ear, pulsatile tinnitus, pain, and/or bleeding. On physical examination, a pulsatile swelling and/or a tender mass is evident. When arteriovenous malformation is suspected, the lesions should be visualized using imaging modalities that optimally detect vascular lesions, and managed via embolization, mass excision, or auricular resection. Effectiveness of the various diagnostic methods used and the treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: Various imaging modalities including Doppler sonography, computed tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and/or transfemoral cerebral angiography were used to diagnose 38 cases reported in the literature. In another 15 cases, no imaging was performed; treatment was determined solely by physical examination and auscultation. Of the total of 53 cases, 12 were not treated (their symptoms were merely observed whereas 20 underwent therapeutic embolization. In total, 32 patients, including 1 patient who was not treated and 10 with persistent or aggravated

  9. Embolization with Gamma Knife Radiosurgery of Giant Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dong Hyun; Kim, Moo Seong; Kim, Sung Tae; Paeng, Sung Hwa; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Won Hee

    2016-01-01

    Giant arteriovenous malformations (i.e., those greater than 6 cm maximum diameter or volume > 33 cc) are difficult to treat and often carry higher treatment morbidity and mortality rates. In our study, we reviewed the angiographic results and clinical outcomes for 11 patients with giant arteriovenous malformations who were treated between 1994 and 2012. The patients selected included 9 males (82%) and 2 females (18%). Their presenting symptoms were hemorrhage (n=2; 18%), seizure (n=7; 64%), and headache (n=2; 12%). Nine patients were Spetzler-Martin Grade III, 2 were Spetzler-Martin Grade IV. The mean arteriovenous malformation volume was 41 cc (33-52 cc). The mean age of the patients was 45.1 years (24-57 years) and the mean radiation dose delivered to the margin of the nidus was 14.2 Gy. Ten patients received pre-Gamma Knife radiosurgery embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery, 1 patient received pre-Gamma Knife radiosurgery embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery twice and the interval between Gamma Knife radiosurgeries was 3 months. The complete obliteration rate following Gamma Knife radiosurgery was 36%, subtotal obliteration ( > 70% decreased size of nidus) was 36%, and partial obliteration was 28%. One patient experienced a small hemorrhage after embolization. Combined embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery showed successful obliteration of the arteriovenous malformation nidus. The use of embolization to initially reduce nidus size followed by Gamma Knife radiosurgery improves the treatment results. Repeated Gamma Knife radiosurgery should be a treatment option when there is a small nidus remnant.

  10. Bipolar electrocoagulation on cortex after AVMs lesionectomy for seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Wang, Rong; Yang, Lijun; Bai, Qin; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jizong

    2011-01-01

    The findings of previous studies remain controversial on the optimal management required for effective seizure control after surgical excision of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We evaluated the efficacy of additional bipolar electrocoagulation on the electrically positive cortex guided by intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) for controlling cerebral AVMs-related epilepsy. Sixty consecutive patients with seizure due to cerebral AVMs, who underwent surgical excision of cerebral AVMs and intraoperative ECoG, were assessed. The AVMs and surrounding hemosiderin stained tissue were completely removed, and bipolar electrocoagulation was applied on the surrounding cerebral cortex where epileptic discharges were monitored via intraoperative ECoG. Patients were followed up at three to six months after the surgery and then annually. We evaluated seizure outcome by using Engel's classification and postoperative complications. Forty-nine patients (81.6%) were detected of epileptic discharges before and after AVMs excision. These patients underwent the removal of AVMs plus bipolar electrocoagulation on spike-positive site cortex. After electrocoagulation, 45 patients' epileptic discharges disappeared, while four obviously diminished. Fifty-five of 60 patients (91.7%) had follow-up lasting at least 22 months (mean 51.1 months; range 22-93 months). Determined by the Engel Seizure Outcome Scale, 39 patients (70.9%) were Class I, seven (12.7%) Class II, five (9.0%) Class III, and four (7.2%) Class IV. Even after the complete removal of AVM and surrounding gliotic and hemosiderin stained tissue, a high-frequency residual spike remained on the surrounding cerebral cortex. Effective surgical seizure control can be achieved by carrying out additional bipolar electrocoagulation on the cortex guided by the intraoperative ECoG.

  11. Late clinical and radiological complications of stereotactical radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhutik, Vera [Hospital Universitario la Fe, Department of Neurology, Valencia (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, PhD Program of the Department of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Lago, Aida; Vazquez, Juan Francisco; Tembl, Jose Ignacio [Hospital Universitario la Fe, Department of Neurology, Valencia (Spain); Aparici, Fernando; Guillen, Lourdes; Mainar, Esperanza; Vazquez, Victor [Hospital Universitario la Fe, Department of Neuroradiology, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Post-radiation injury of patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) include blood-brain barrier breakdown (BBBB), edema, and necrosis. Prevalence, clinical relevance, and response to treatment are poorly known. We present a series of consecutive brain AVM treated with stereotactic radiosurgery describing the appearance of radiation injury and clinical complications. Consecutive patients with annual clinical and radiological follow-up (median length 63 months). Edema and BBBB were classified in four groups (minimal, perilesional, moderate, or severe), and noted together with necrosis. Clinical symptoms of interest were intracranial hypertension, new neurological deficits, new seizures, and brain hemorrhages. One hundred two cases, median age 34 years, 52 % male. Median irradiated volume 3.8 cc, dose to the margin of the nidus 18.5 Gy. Nineteen patients underwent a second radiosurgery. Only 42.2 % patients remained free from radiation injury. Edema was found in 43.1 %, blood-brain barrier breakdown in 20.6 %, necrosis in 6.9 %. Major injury (moderate or severe edema, moderate or severe BBBB, or necrosis) was found in 20 of 102 patients (19.6 %). AVM diameter >3 cm and second radiosurgery were independent predictors. Time to the worst imaging was 60 months. Patients with major radiation injury had a hazard ratio for appearance of focal deficits of 7.042 (p = 0.04), of intracranial hypertension 2.857 (p = 0.025), hemorrhage into occluded nidus 9.009 (p = 0.079), appearance of new seizures not significant. Major radiation injury is frequent and increases the risk of neurological complications. Its late appearance implies that current follow-up protocols need to be extended in time. (orig.)

  12. Technique for Targeting Arteriovenous Malformations Using Frameless Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Dimitre; Liu, Lina; Adler, John R.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Moore, Teri; Sarmiento, Marily; Chang, Steve D.; Dodd, Robert; Marks, Michael; Do, Huy M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To integrate three-dimensional (3D) digital rotation angiography (DRA) and two-dimensional (2D) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging into a targeting methodology enabling comprehensive image-guided robotic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods and Materials: DRA geometric integrity was evaluated by imaging a phantom with embedded markers. Dedicated DSA acquisition modes with preset C-arm positions were configured. The geometric reproducibility of the presets was determined, and its impact on localization accuracy was evaluated. An imaging protocol composed of anterior-posterior and lateral DSA series in combination with a DRA run without couch displacement between acquisitions was introduced. Software was developed for registration of DSA and DRA (2D-3D) images to correct for: (a) small misalignments of the C-arm with respect to the estimated geometry of the set positions and (b) potential patient motion between image series. Within the software, correlated navigation of registered DRA and DSA images was incorporated to localize AVMs within a 3D image coordinate space. Subsequent treatment planning and delivery followed a standard image-guided robotic radiosurgery process. Results: DRA spatial distortions were typically smaller than 0.3 mm throughout a 145-mm x 145-mm x 145-mm volume. With 2D-3D image registration, localization uncertainties resulting from the achievable reproducibility of the C-arm set positions could be reduced to about 0.2 mm. Overall system-related localization uncertainty within the DRA coordinate space was 0.4 mm. Image-guided frameless robotic radiosurgical treatments with this technique were initiated. Conclusions: The integration of DRA and DSA into the process of nidus localization increases the confidence with which radiosurgical ablation of AVMs can be performed when using only an image-guided technique. Such an approach can increase patient comfort, decrease time pressure on clinical and

  13. Long-term Outcomes With Planned Multistage Reduced Dose Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Inoperable High-Grade Arteriovenous Malformations: An Observational Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciscano, Ariel E; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J; Hu, Chen; Khattab, Mohamed H; Aggarwal, Sameer; Lim, Michael; Redmond, Kristin J; Rigamonti, Daniele; Kleinberg, Lawrence R

    2017-07-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal management of inoperable high-grade arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This long-term study of 42 patients with high-grade AVMs reports obliteration and adverse event (AE) rates using planned multistage repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of multistage SRS with treatment of the entire AVM nidus at each treatment session to achieve complete obliteration of high-grade AVMs. Patients with high-grade Spetzler-Martin (S-M) III-V AVMs treated with at least 2 multistage SRS treatments from 1989 to 2013. Clinical outcomes of obliteration rate, minor/major AEs, and treatment characteristics were collected. Forty-two patients met inclusion criteria (n = 26, S-M III; n = 13, S-M IV; n = 3, S-M V) with a median follow-up was 9.5 yr after first SRS. Median number of SRS treatment stages was 2, and median interval between stages was 3.5 yr. Twenty-two patients underwent pre-SRS embolization. Complete AVM obliteration rate was 38%, and the median time to obliteration was 9.7 yr. On multivariate analysis, higher S-M grade was significantly associated ( P = .04) failure to achieve obliteration. Twenty-seven post-SRS AEs were observed, and the post-SRS intracranial hemorrhage rate was 0.027 events per patient year. Treatment of high-grade AVMs with multistage SRS achieves AVM obliteration in a meaningful proportion of patients with acceptable AE rates. Lower obliteration rates were associated with higher S-M grade and pre-SRS embolization. This approach should be considered with caution, as partial obliteration does not protect from hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  14. 133Xe blood flow monitoring during arteriovenous malformation resection: a case of intraoperative hyperperfusion with subsequent brain swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.L.; Solomon, R.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Ornstein, E.; Weinstein, J.; Stein, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the i.v. 133Xe technique was carried out during resection of a right temporooccipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with ipsilateral middle and posterior cerebral arterial supply. Intraoperatively, a rCBF detector was in place over the right frontotemporal area, about 5 to 6 cm from the border of the AVM. Anesthesia was 0.75% isoflurane in oxygen and nitrous oxide. After dural exposure, the rCBF was 27 ml/100 g/min at a pCO2 of 29 mm Hg and a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 90 mm Hg. The pCO2 was then elevated to 40 mm Hg, and the rCBF was increased to 55 ml/100 g/min at a MAP of 83 mm Hg. After AVM removal, the rCBF rose to 50 ml/100 g/min at a pCO2 of 27 mm Hg and a MAP of 75 mm Hg. The pCO2 was elevated to 33 mm Hg and the rCBF increased to 86 ml/100 g/min at a MAP of 97 mm Hg. During skin closure, the rCBF was 94 ml/100 g/min at a pCO2 of 26 mm Hg and a MAP of 97 mm Hg. The patient was neurologically normal postoperatively except for a mild, new visual field defect. After 2 to 3 days, the patient gradually developed lethargy, confusion, and nausea with relatively normal blood pressure. An angiogram revealed residual enlargement of the posterior cerebral artery feeding vessel. Computed tomography showed edema extending from the area of AVM resection as far as the frontal region, producing a significant midline shift anteriorly. Intraoperative rCBF monitoring revealed significant hyperperfusion after AVM resection, which was associated with signs and symptoms of the normal perfusion pressure breakthrough syndrome

  15. Single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy: a dose-response analysis of arteriovenous malformation obliteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, Emmanuel; Al Halabi, Assem; Buffat, Laurent; Merienne, Louis; Huart, Judith; Schlienger, Michel; Lefkopoulos, Dimitrios; Mammar, Hamid; Missir, Odile; Meder, Jean-Francois; Laurent, Alex; Housset, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiotherapy delivered in a high-dose single fraction is an effective technique to obliterate intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM). To attempt to analyze the relationships between dose, volume, and obliteration rates, we studied a group of patients treated using single-isocenter treatment plans. Methods and Materials: From May 1986 to December 1989, 100 consecutive patients with angiographically proven AVM had stereotactic radiotherapy delivered as a high-dose single fraction using a single-isocenter technique. Distribution according to Spetzler-Martin grade was as follows: 79 grade 1-3, three grade 4, 0 grade 5, and 18 grade 6. The target volume was spheroid in 74 cases, ellipsoid in 11, and large and irregular in 15. The targeted volume of the nidus was estimated using two-dimensional stereotactic angiographic data and, calculated as an ovoid-shaped lesion, was 1900 ± 230 mm 3 (median 968 mm 3 ; range 62-11, 250 mm 3 ). The mean minimum target dose (D min ) was 19 ± 0.6 Gy (median 20 Gy; range: 3-31.5). The mean volume within the isodose which corresponded to the minimum target dose was 2500 ± 300 mm 3 (median 1200 mm 3 ; range 75-14 900 mm 3 ). The mean maximum dose (D max ) was 34.5 ± 0.5 Gy (median 35 Gy; range 15-45). The mean angiographic follow-up was 42 ± 2.3 months (median 37.5; range 7-117). Results: The absolute obliteration rate was 51%. The 5-year actuarial obliteration rate was 62.5 ± 7%. After univariate analysis, AVM obliteration was influenced by previous surgery (p = 0.0007), D min by steps of 5 Gy (p = 0.005), targeted volume of the nidus (≤968 mm 3 vs. >968 mm 3 ; p = 0.015), and grade according to Spetzler-Martin (grade 1-3 vs. grade 4-6; p = 0.011). After multivariate analysis, the independent factors influencing AVM obliteration were the D min [relative risk (RR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.5; p min but does not seem to be influenced by D max and the targeted volume of the nidus

  16. Displacement of the central sulcus in cerebral arteriovenous malformations situated in the peri-motor cortex as assessed by magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki; Ogane, Kazumi; Manabe, Hiroshi; Yagihashi, Akinori; Kikkawa, Tomoshige; Suzuki, Shigeharu

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine the optimal treatment for a pen-motor cortex lesion, preoperative orientation of central sulcus (CS) is indispensable. The purpose of this study is to detect a discrepancy between ''functional'' CS and ''anatomical'' CS in cerebral lesions. Stereotactic mapping of functional'' CS was performed on 12 subjects using somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) with MRI-linked whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system preoperatively. All subjects who underwent axial T1-weighted MRI scans had a left-sided lesion with diagnoses including: three arteriovenous malformations (AVM), six gliomas and three meningiomas. Two certified neurosurgeons identified the anatomical CS of the cerebral hemispheres in MRI. Right median nerves were stimulated at the wrists using the following parameters of stimulation: 1 Hz rectangular electrical wave, 0.2 msec duration, and 3 to 5 mA intensity. The sampling rate was 600 Hz and band pass filters were 0.1 to 200 Hz. One hundred epochs were averaged to determine SEFs during a 50 msec pre-stimulus to 300 msec following stimulus onset. Estimations of single dipole were corresponded with N20m of SEFs. Estimated current dipoles were superimposed on the MR images. Anatomical CS accorded with functional CS in the intracranial tumor cases. AVM cases in which the nidus was situated in the peri-motor cortex showed discrepancies between functional CS and anatomical CS marking one gyrus. AVMs situated in the peri-motor area have the ability to displace the CS. Preoperative consideration for AVM treatment should include functional brain mapping to decide the most suitable operative approach and avoid postoperative deficits. (author)

  17. Frameless Angiogram-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xingqi; Mahadevan, Anand; Mathiowitz, George; Lin, Pei-Jan P.; Thomas, Ajith; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Floyd, Scott R.; Holupka, Edward; La Rosa, Salvatore; Wang, Frank; Stevenson, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an effective alternative to microsurgical resection or embolization for definitive treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard for pretreatment diagnosis and characterization of vascular anatomy, but requires rigid frame (skull) immobilization when used in combination with SRS. With the advent of advanced proton and image-guided photon delivery systems, SRS treatment is increasingly migrating to frameless platforms, which are incompatible with frame-based DSA. Without DSA as the primary image, target definition may be less than optimal, in some cases precluding the ability to treat with a frameless system. This article reports a novel solution. Methods and Materials: Fiducial markers are implanted into the patient’s skull before angiography. Angiography is performed according to the standard clinical protocol, but, in contrast to the previous practice, without the rigid frame. Separate images of a specially designed localizer box are subsequently obtained. A target volume projected on DSA can be transferred to the localizer system in three dimensions, and in turn be transferred to multiple CT slices using the implanted fiducials. Combined with other imaging modalities, this “virtual frame” approach yields a highly precise treatment plan that can be delivered by frameless SRS technologies. Results: Phantom measurements for point and volume targets have been performed. The overall uncertainty of placing a point target to CT is 0.4 mm. For volume targets, deviation of the transformed contour from the target CT image is within 0.6 mm. The algorithm and software are robust. The method has been applied clinically, with reliable results. Conclusions: A novel and reproducible method for frameless SRS of AVMs has been developed that enables the use of DSA without the requirement for rigid immobilization. Multiple pairs of DSA can be used for better conformality

  18. Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla for evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of vascular malformations: description of distinct subgroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Simone; Fellner, Claudia; Wohlgemuth, Walter A. [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Uller, Wibke [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Manger, Florentine [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Zeman, Florian [University Hospital Regensburg, Center for Clinical Trials, Regensburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Quantitative evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of arteriovenous and venous malformations using time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla. Time-resolved MRA with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST) at 3.0 Tesla was studied in 83 consecutive patients with venous malformations (VM) and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Enhancement characteristics were calculated as percentage increase of signal intensity above baseline over time. Maximum percentage signal intensity increase (signal{sub max}), time intervals between onset of arterial enhancement and lesion enhancement (t{sub onset}), and time intervals between beginning of lesion enhancement and maximum percentage of lesion enhancement (t{sub max}) were analyzed. All AVMs showed a high-flow hemodynamic pattern. Two significantly different (p < 0.001) types of venous malformations emerged: VMs with arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) (median signal{sub max} 737 %, IQR [interquartile range] = 511 - 1182 %; median t{sub onset} 5 s, IQR = 5 - 10 s; median t{sub max} 35 s, IQR = 26 - 40 s) and without AVFs (median signal{sub max} 284 %, IQR = 177-432 %; median t{sub onset} 23 s, IQR = 15 - 30 s; median t{sub max} 60 s, IQR = 55 - 75 s). Quantitative evaluation of time-resolved MRA at 3.0 Tesla provides hemodynamic characterization of vascular malformations. VMs can be subclassified into two hemodynamic subgroups due to presence or absence of AVFs. (orig.)

  19. Cerebral arteriovenous malformation in Noonan's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Schon, F.; Bowler, J.; Baraitser, M.

    1992-01-01

    Noonan's syndrome involves the association of multiple congenital abnormalities including neck webbing, pectus excavatum, facial anomalies with a variety of cardiac defects. In this paper the association of Noonan's syndrome with a large cerebral arteriovenous malformation is reported. Congenital cerebrovascular abnormalities are not a recognized feature of the syndrome. The paper also reviews previous reports of neurological associations with Noonan's syndrome, the commonest being mild intel...

  20. Embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations: results of 42 cases treated with N. B. C. A. and flow-guided microcatheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Sang Hyung; Han, Dae Hee

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of embolization in 42 cases of brain arteriovenous malformation and discuss the technical problems. Flow-guided microcatheter for the superselection of the feeding arteries and n-butyl cyanoacrylate as an embolic agent were used. Wire-guided microcatheter and microparticle were used in two exceptional cases. As preembolization functional evaluation, 30-50 mg of thiopental sodium solution was injected into the feeding arteries through superselected microcatheters in 40 cases with supratentorial lesions. There was no local arterial complication by injection of thiopental solution. Embolization caused a permanent neurologic deficit(mild to moderated hemiparesis) in 2 patients (4.8%) by a reflux of embolic agent or probable spasm of main arterial trunk. In 8 patients(19%), the AVMs were completely obliterated and 25 patients(60%) showed angiographic obliterations of 50-90% of the lesions. Embolization-induced venous occlusion was demonstrated at post-embolization angiography in 6 patients, and 3 patients of them showed delayed and transient neurologic deficits. Embolization of cerebral AVM can be performed effectively and safely by a superselective method and appropriate functional evaluation. Superselective thiopental sodium injection is a safe and reliable test for the evaluation of local brain function before embolization

  1. Embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations: results of 42 cases treated with N. B. C. A. and flow-guided microcatheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Sang Hyung; Han, Dae Hee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    We report the results of embolization in 42 cases of brain arteriovenous malformation and discuss the technical problems. Flow-guided microcatheter for the superselection of the feeding arteries and n-butyl cyanoacrylate as an embolic agent were used. Wire-guided microcatheter and microparticle were used in two exceptional cases. As preembolization functional evaluation, 30-50 mg of thiopental sodium solution was injected into the feeding arteries through superselected microcatheters in 40 cases with supratentorial lesions. There was no local arterial complication by injection of thiopental solution. Embolization caused a permanent neurologic deficit(mild to moderated hemiparesis) in 2 patients (4.8%) by a reflux of embolic agent or probable spasm of main arterial trunk. In 8 patients(19%), the AVMs were completely obliterated and 25 patients(60%) showed angiographic obliterations of 50-90% of the lesions. Embolization-induced venous occlusion was demonstrated at post-embolization angiography in 6 patients, and 3 patients of them showed delayed and transient neurologic deficits. Embolization of cerebral AVM can be performed effectively and safely by a superselective method and appropriate functional evaluation. Superselective thiopental sodium injection is a safe and reliable test for the evaluation of local brain function before embolization.

  2. Brain arteriovenous malformation diagnosis: value of time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3.0T compared to DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machet, A.; Kadziolka, K.; Robin, G.; Lanoix, O.; Pierot, L.; Portefaix, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the value of time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (TR-CE-MRA) with a 3.0-T magnetic field compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard for the diagnosis of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). Nineteen patients with 19 angiographically confirmed untreated bAVM were investigated with both DSA and TR-CE-MRA for the initial diagnosis. Examinations were compared by two independent readers. Interobserver agreement and intermodality agreement with respect to nidus size, arterial feeders, and venous drainage were determined using the K statistic test. Also, the quality of the TR-CE-MRA images was evaluated. Seventeen of the 19 bAVM (89.5%) detected with DSA were diagnosed with TR-CE-MRA. Interobserver agreement for TR-CE-MRA was good for nidus size, venous drainage, and arterial feeders (K = 0.75, 95% CI 0.50-1.00; K = 0.77, 95% CI 0.54-1.00; and K = 0.80, 95% CI 0.59-1.00 respectively). Intermodality agreement was good for nidus size and venous drainage (K = 0.75, 95% CI 0.49-1.00 and K = 0.77, 95% CI 0.54-1.00, respectively) and moderate for arterial feeders (K = 0.44, 95% CI 0.17-0.70). TR-CE-MRA at 3.0 T has a good sensitivity for bAVM detection and good agreement with DSA for determining nidus size and the type of venous drainage, suggesting that TR-CE-MRA is potentially a reliable tool for the diagnosis and assessment of bAVMs. However, it still suffers from low spatial resolution and vessel superposition, making differentiation of the arterial feeders of the nidus difficult at times. (orig.)

  3. A theoretical analysis of hemodynamic and biomechanical alterations in intracranial AVMs after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is being increasingly used to treat intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, successful radiosurgery may involve latent periods of 1-2 years prior to AVM obliteration. This latent period include states of altered flow patterns that may not influence hemorrhage probabilities. The probability of hemorrhage is likely to be related to the degree of biomechanical stress across the AVM shunt walls. This paper describes a theoretical analysis of the altered hemodynamics and biomechanical stresses within AVM shunts post-radiosurgery. The mathematical model is comprised of linked flow compartments that represent the AVM and adjacent normal vasculature. As obliteration of the irradiated shunts occurs, changes in flow rates and pressure gradients are calculated based on first order fluid dynamics. Stress on the AVM shunt walls is calculated based on tangential forces due to intramural pressure. Two basic models are presented: a distribution of shunts with fixed thin walls subject to step-function obliteration, and a distribution of shunts subject to luminal obliteration from slowly thickening walls. Variations on these models are analyzed, including sequential, selective and random shunt obliteration, and uniform or Poisson distributions of shunt radii. Model I reveals that the range of pressure alterations in the radiosurgically-treated AVM include the possibility of transient increases in the total biomechanical stress within the shunt walls prior to obliteration. Model II demonstrates that uniform luminal narrowing via thickened walls should lead to reduced transmural stresses. The precise temporal pattern of AVM flow decrease and biomechanical stress reduction depends on the selection of shunts that are obliterated. 34 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children/adolescents and adults. Part II: Differences in obliteration rates, treatment-obliteration intervals, and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolato, Antonio; Lupidi, Francesco; Sandri, Marco F. Dr. Econom.; Foroni, Roberto; Zampieri, Piergiuseppe; Mazza, Carlo; Pasqualin, Alberto; Beltramello, Alberto; Gerosa, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare obliteration rates (OBRs) and treatment-obliteration intervals (TOIs) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery in children/adolescents and adults; and to determine factors predicting the OBR and TOI in these two populations. Methods and Materials: This study concerned 62 children/adolescents and 193 adults observed for ≥3 years. Fisher exact two-tailed and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, multiple logistics, and Cox proportional hazard models were used for statistical analysis. Results: The overall OBR was 85.5% in children/adolescents and 87.6% in adults (p 0.671), but children/adolescents showed higher 36-month actuarial OBRs (69.35%) and shorter median TOIs (25.7 months) than adults (66.84% and 28.2 months; p 0.006 and p = 0.017, respectively). In children/adolescents, lower Spetzler-Martin grades (p = 0.043) and younger age (p = 0.019) correlated significantly with OBRs, and lower Spetzler-Martin grades (p 0.024) and noneloquent cAVM locations (p = 0.046) with TOIs. In adults, low flow through the cAVM and 3 volume were associated with both OBR and TOI (p 0.012 and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The differences in OBRs within 3 years and TOIs, although slight, seem to show that pediatric cAVMs behave differently from those in adults after Gamma Knife radiosurgery

  5. Contemporary management of spinal AVFs and AVMs: lessons learned from 110 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Russin, Jonathan J; Zaidi, Hasan A; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Park, Min S; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Spinal arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare, complex spinal vascular lesions that are challenging to manage. Recently, understanding of these lesions has increased thanks to neuroimaging technology. Published reports of surgical results and clinical outcome are limited to small series. The authors present a large contemporary series of patients with spinal AVFs and AVMs who were treated at Barrow Neurological Institute in Phoenix, Arizona. Retrospective detailed review of a prospective vascular database was performed for all patients with spinal AVFs and AVMs treated between 2000 and 2013. Patient demographic data, AVF and AVM characteristics, surgical results, clinical outcomes, complications, and long-term follow-up were reviewed. Between 2000 and 2013, 110 patients (57 male and 53 female) underwent obliteration of spinal AVFs and AVMs. The mean age at presentation was 42.3 years (range 18 months-81 years). There were 44 patients with AVFs and 66 with AVMs. The AVM group included 27 intramedullary, 21 conus medullaris, 12 metameric, and 6 extradural. The most common location was thoracic spine (61%), followed by cervical (22.7%), lumbar (14.5%), and sacral (1.8%). The most common presenting signs and symptoms included paresis/paralysis (75.5%), paresthesias (60%), pain (51.8%), bowel/bladder dysfunction (41.8%), and myelopathy (36.4%). Evidence of rupture was seen in 26.4% of patients. Perioperative embolization was performed in 42% of patients. Resection was performed in 95 patients (86.4%). Embolization alone was the only treatment in 14 patients (12.7%). One patient was treated with radiosurgery alone. Angiographically verified AVF and AVM obliteration was achieved in 92 patients (83.6%). At a mean follow-up duration of 30.5 months (range 1-205 months), 43 patients (97.7%) with AVFs and 57 (86.4%) with AVMs remained functionally independent (McCormick Scale scores ≤ 2). Perioperative complications were seen in 8

  6. Long-Term Follow-up After Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Detachable Silicone Balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette D.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term follow-up results after embolization of 13 pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in 10 patients by use of 14 detachable silicone balloons are given. Patients were followed for a mean of 99 months (range, 63-123 months) with chest x-rays and for a mean of 62 months (range, 3-101 months) with pulmonary angiography. Fifty-four percent of the balloons were deflated at latest radiographic chest film follow-up, but at pulmonary angiographic follow-up all embolized malformations were without flow irrespective of whether or not the balloons were visible. Detachable silicone balloons are not available anymore, but use of these balloons for embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations has been shown to be a safe and precise method, with immediate occlusion of the feeding artery and with long-lasting occlusion, even though many balloons deflate with time, leaving a fibrotic scar replacing the pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. No case of recanalization has been discovered, and these results seem to justify a reduced number of controls of these balloon-embolized malformations

  7. Cyst formation after radiosurgery for brain arteriovenous malformation treated with cystoperitoneal shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morihiro, Yusuke; Kato, Syoichi; Imoto, Hirochika

    2010-01-01

    Gamma knife and CyberKnife radiosurgery are well established and less invasive treatments for arteriovenous malformation. Delayed cyst formation is a rare but well-known complication of radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations. The optimal treatment of cysts forming after radiosurgery remains debatable. We present a case of cyst formation after radiosurgery for brain arteriovenous malformation that was treated with a cystoperitoneal shunt (C-P shunt). A 36-year-old woman presented with left hemiparesis and numbness. Computed tomography (CT) revealed intracranial hemorrhage in the right basal ganglia. Digital subtraction angiography revealed arteriovenous malformation in the brain. Intravascular embolization was performed three times and radiosurgery was performed twice, whereby complete obliteration of the nidus was achieved. Six and a half years later, routine follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed cyst formation, and the patient gradually developed left hemiparesis. First, we performed stereotactic cyst aspiration. This initially resulted in a reduction in the size of the cyst and disappearance of left hemiparesis, but within a short time, the cyst increased in size again and there was recurrence of hemiparesis. Therefore, an Ommaya reservoir was established; aspiration of the cyst through this reservoir brought about an initial reduction in cyst size and alleviation of symptoms; however, no further reduction in cyst size or improvement in symptoms could be achieved. Twenty months after the placement of the Ommaya reservoir, we performed a C-P shunt operation. After the operation, further reduction in the cyst size and complete symptomatic recovery were observed. (author)

  8. Congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: a rare cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare condition in which there is abnormal connection between pulmonary arteries and veins. The disorder usually appears in late childhood or early adult life, with dyspnea on exertion, clubbing or cyanosis. We present two patients with severe cyanosis and their work-up ...

  9. Uterine arteriovenous malformation as a rare cause of genital bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Escartin, I.; Riazuelo, G.; Zaragozano, R.

    2002-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation is a rarely described entity, the presenting sign of which is usually genital bleeding. We report a case of this malformation in a woman of child-bearing age with a history of traumatic delivery and repeated subsequent curettage, describing the ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings, as well as the results of arteriography. (Author) 5 refs

  10. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Honmou, Osamu; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Hashi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  11. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Honmou, Osamu; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Hashi, Kazuo [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  12. Arteriovenous Malformation in Temporal Lobe Presenting as Contralateral Ocular Symptoms Mimicking Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzillah Mohd-Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To report a rare case of arteriovenous malformation in temporal lobe presenting as contralateral orbital symptoms mimicking carotid-cavernous fistula. Method. Interventional case report. Results. A 31-year-old Malay gentleman presented with 2-month history of painful progressive exophthalmos of his left eye associated with recurrent headache, diplopia, and reduced vision. Ocular examination revealed congestive nonpulsating 7 mm exophthalmos of the left eye with no restriction of movements in all direction. There was diplopia in left lateral gaze. Left IOP was elevated at 29 mmHg. Left eye retinal vessels were slightly dilated and tortuous. CT scan was performed and showed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with a nidus of 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm with right middle cerebral artery as feeding artery. There was dilated left superior ophthalmic vein of 0.9 mm in diameter with enlarged left cavernous sinus. MRA and carotid angiogram confirmed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with no carotid-cavernous fistula. Most of the intracranial drainage was via left cavernous sinus. His signs and symptoms dramatically improved following successful embolisation, completely resolved after one year. Conclusion. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation is rarely presented with primary ocular presentation. Early intervention would salvage the eyes and prevent patients from more disaster morbidity or fatality commonly due to intracranial haemorrhage.

  13. A case of obstructive hydrocephalus by aqueduct stenosis following gamma knife surgery for arteriovenous malformation around the pineal body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funakoshi, Yusuke; Natori, Yoshihiro; Imamoto, Naoyuki; Inoue, Daisuke; Mori, Megumu; Yamada, Tetsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery, including gamma knife surgery, has been widely performed as minimally invasive treatment for arteriovenous malformation (AVM). While its safety and efficacy have been well reported, some problems also have been reported. Patients who undergo radiosurgery must wait for a few years from the time of treatment and remain exposed to the risk of bleeding until obliteration of the AVM is confirmed, and technical limitations may lead to incomplete administration of the intended treatment. In addition, severe complications are occasionally reported. Here, we present a case of obstructive hydrocephalus caused by aqueductal stenosis in a 63-year-old man who underwent gamma knife surgery for AVM around the pineal body 8 years previously. On visiting our department, he presented with mild disturbance of gait and consciousness. Other physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. CT demonstrated dilatation of the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle. Because the aqueduct of the midbrain and fourth ventricle were not dilated, obstructive hydrocephalus due to localized aqueductal stenosis was suspected. Endoscopic neurosurgery was performed and stenosis in the aqueduct of the midbrain caused by a membrane-like structure was confirmed. Aqueductal stenosis occurred as a result of inflammation following gamma knife surgery, which extended to the cicatricial tissue and eventually caused a stenosed aqueduct of the midbrain. After the endoscopic third ventriculostomy, the hydrocephalus improved and no recurrence has appeared since. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of obstructive hydrocephalus attributable to aqueductal stenosis caused by inflammation following gamma knife surgery. (author)

  14. Magnetic resonance angiography of arteriovenous malformation in the thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kida, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takayuki; Iwakoshi, Takayasu; Kai, Osamu; Hirose, Mitsuhiko [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    A comparative study of magnetic resonance angiography and conventional angiography of arteriovenous malformation in the thalamus showed that both methods clearly visualized the feeding arteries: perforating branches of the posterior cerebral artery, posterior choroidal artery and lenticulostriate artery. Draining veins such as the internal cerebral vein were also demonstrated well. (author).

  15. Imaging findings of arteriovenous malformations involving lung and liver in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia(Osler-weber-rendu disease): two cases report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jeong Geun; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Seong, Su Ok [Cheongju St. Mary' s Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Osler-Weber-Rendu disease is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of bleeding. Multiple telangiectases consisting of thin-walled, dilated vascular channels with arteriovenous communication may involve, for example, mucocutaneous tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, and the liver, lung, and brain. We report the imaging findings of two cases of HHT involving arteriovenous malformation of both the lungs and liver, a rare condition. Chest radiography revealed a round mass, while helical CT showed a feeding artery and draining vein with arteriovenous malformation in the lung. Color Doppler sonography revealed an enlarged and tortuous hepatic artery with high systolic velocity. CT demonstrated an enlarged hepatic artery, arteriovenous shunt, and early draining hepatic vein in the liver. Celiac angiography showed arteriovenous malformation.

  16. Imaging findings of arteriovenous malformations involving lung and liver in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia(Osler-weber-rendu disease): two cases report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jeong Geun; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Seong, Su Ok

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Osler-Weber-Rendu disease is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of bleeding. Multiple telangiectases consisting of thin-walled, dilated vascular channels with arteriovenous communication may involve, for example, mucocutaneous tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, and the liver, lung, and brain. We report the imaging findings of two cases of HHT involving arteriovenous malformation of both the lungs and liver, a rare condition. Chest radiography revealed a round mass, while helical CT showed a feeding artery and draining vein with arteriovenous malformation in the lung. Color Doppler sonography revealed an enlarged and tortuous hepatic artery with high systolic velocity. CT demonstrated an enlarged hepatic artery, arteriovenous shunt, and early draining hepatic vein in the liver. Celiac angiography showed arteriovenous malformation

  17. Congenital intrahepatic arterioportal and portosystemic venous fistulae with jejunal arteriovenous malformation depicted on multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Eun Jin; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Seong-Chul

    2004-01-01

    We report a symptomatic infant with very rare congenital arterioportal and portosystemic venous fistulae in the liver. Multislice CT after partial transcatheter embolisation revealed not only the complicated vascular architecture of the lesion, but also an incidental jejunal arteriovenous malformation which explained the patient's melena. The patient underwent ligation of the hepatic artery and resection of the jejunal arteriovenous malformation. Postoperative multislice CT clearly demonstrated the success of the treatment. (orig.)

  18. PI3 kinase inhibition improves vascular malformations in mouse models of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Roxana; Dubrac, Alexandre; Han, Jinah; Zhang, Feng; Fang, Jennifer S; Larrivée, Bruno; Lee, Monica; Urarte, Ana A; Kraehling, Jan R; Genet, Gael; Hirschi, Karen K; Sessa, William C; Canals, Francesc V; Graupera, Mariona; Yan, Minhong; Young, Lawrence H; Oh, Paul S; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-11-29

    Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial serine-threonine kinase receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 9 and 10. Inactivating mutations in the ALK1 gene cause hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2), a disabling disease characterized by excessive angiogenesis with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Here we show that inducible, endothelial-specific homozygous Alk1 inactivation and BMP9/10 ligand blockade both lead to AVM formation in postnatal retinal vessels and internal organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in mice. VEGF and PI3K/AKT signalling are increased on Alk1 deletion and BMP9/10 ligand blockade. Genetic deletion of the signal-transducing Vegfr2 receptor prevents excessive angiogenesis but does not fully revert AVM formation. In contrast, pharmacological PI3K inhibition efficiently prevents AVM formation and reverts established AVMs. Thus, Alk1 deletion leads to increased endothelial PI3K pathway activation that may be a novel target for the treatment of vascular lesions in HHT2.

  19. Radiation dermatitis after spinal arteriovenous malformation embolization: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, G.J.; Horowitz, M.B.; Purdy, P.D.; Pandya, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Few cases of radiation injury related to lengthy interventional neuroradiologic procedures have been reported, although concern has been heightened, as evidenced by a 1994 FDA Public Health Advisory. We report a case of radiation-induced dermatitis in a patient undergoing multiple diagnostic and embolization procedures for treatment of a spinal arteriovenous malformation. (orig.). With 2 figs

  20. Radiological evaluation with Doppler sonography and multidetector CT angiography in congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformation in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaletli, Ibrahim; Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Kilic, Fahrettin [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (Turkey); Senyuz, Osman F. [Istanbul University, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (Turkey); Dervisoglu, Sergulen [Istanbul University, Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (Turkey)

    2006-11-15

    Although hepatic arteriovenous malformations are rarely reported, they frequently have life-threatening complications such as cardiac failure and are associated with a high mortality rate. Consequently, accurate prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis is important and therapeutic procedures depend on the imaging features. We report the early postnatal sonographic, Doppler sonographic, multidetector CT and CT angiography findings of a congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformation in a newborn. (orig.)

  1. Radiological evaluation with Doppler sonography and multidetector CT angiography in congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformation in a newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaletli, Ibrahim; Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Kilic, Fahrettin; Senyuz, Osman F.; Dervisoglu, Sergulen

    2006-01-01

    Although hepatic arteriovenous malformations are rarely reported, they frequently have life-threatening complications such as cardiac failure and are associated with a high mortality rate. Consequently, accurate prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis is important and therapeutic procedures depend on the imaging features. We report the early postnatal sonographic, Doppler sonographic, multidetector CT and CT angiography findings of a congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformation in a newborn. (orig.)

  2. Treatment decision for occipital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to achieve hemorrhagic control while maximizing visual preservation: Our experience and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuyang; Porras, Jose L; Philadelphia, Eunice; Law, Jody; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Caplan, Justin M; Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy

    2018-02-01

    Despite concern of hemorrhagic risk, patients with occipital AVMs are at significant risk for visual disturbances after treatment. We aim to characterize the hemorrhage risk and visual disturbance in occipital AVMs patients from our experience and literature review. We performed retrospective review of occipital AVM patients seen at our institution from 1990 to 2015. Patient characteristics were compared using multivariable logistic regression with follow-up visual disturbance as the outcome. We also systematically reviewed the PubMed database for English literature describing occipital AVMs (with exclusion of case reports). Ninety-seven patients satisfied inclusion criteria for our study. Mean age was 34.9 ± 16.4 years, with 50.5% male. Thirty-one (32.0%) presented with hemorrhage, and 32 (33.0%) presented with visual disturbance. Average AVM size was 4.0 ± 2.5 cm. Twenty-five (25.8%) were conservatively managed, 13 (13.4%) underwent surgery, and the rest were managed by radiosurgery (52.6%) or embolization (8.2%), with an obliteration rate of 38.9% in treated patients. During average follow-up of 5.4 years, 6 patients (6.7%) hemorrhaged yielding an annual hemorrhage rate of 1.2% for all patients, and 0.0% for surgically-treated patients. Thirty-seven (38.3%) patients experienced visual disturbance in some capacity, nineteen (21.1%) had de novo visual disturbance, fourteen of which were surgically treated patients (19.4%). Multivariable analysis reveals visual disturbance at presentation (p = .012) and microsurgery (p = .047) are significantly predictors of follow-up visual disturbance. While hemorrhage control remains the primary goal of AVM treatment, visual preservation in occipital AVMs is also a major concern. Recommending patients for microsurgery should be weighed carefully and individualized as it bears the highest risk of visual field disturbance despite most optimal hemorrhage control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Embolization biomaterial reinforced with nanotechnology for an in-situ release of anti-angiogenic agent in the treatment of hyper-vascularized tumors and arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeli, E; Yagoubi, N; Pascale, F; Bédouet, L; Slimani, K; Labarre, D; Saint-Maurice, J P; Laurent, A; Moine, L

    2015-10-01

    A polymer based material was developed to act as an embolic agent and drug reservoir for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and hyper vascularized solid tumors. The aim was to combine the blocking of blood supply to the target region and the inhibition of the embolization-stimulated angiogenesis. The material is composed of an ethanolic solution of a linear acrylate based copolymer and acrylate calibrated microparticles containing nanospheres loaded with sunitinib, an anti-angiogenic agent. The precipitation of the linear copolymer in aqueous environment after injection through microcatheter results in the formation of an in-situ embolization gel whereas the microparticles serve to increase the cohesive properties of the embolization agent and to form a reservoir from which the sunitinib-loaded nanospheres are released post-embolization. The swollen state of the microparticles in contact with aqueous medium results in the release of the nanospheres out of microparticles macromolecular structure. After the synthesis, the formulation and the characterization of the different components of the material, anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in vitro using endothelial cells and in vivo using corneal neovascularization model in rabbit. The efficiency of the arterial embolization was tested in vivo in a sheep model. Results proved the feasibility of this new system for vascular embolization in association with an in situ delivery of anti-angiogenic drug. This combination is a promising strategy for the management of arteriovenous malformations and solid tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of life and disability 12 months after surgery vs. conservative management for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations: Scottish population-based and Australian hospital-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Joan Margaret; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Manuguerra, Maurizio; Assaad, Nazih; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2018-03-01

    Few data are available on disability and quality of life (QOL) after surgery versus conservative management for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (uAVMs). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that QOL and disability are worse after surgery ± preoperative embolisation for uAVM compared with conservative management. We included consecutive patients diagnosed with uAVM from a prospective population-based study in Scotland (1999-2003; 2006-2010) and a prospective hospital-based series in Australia (2011-2015). We assessed outcomes on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the Short Form (SF)-36 at ~ 12 months after surgery or conservative treatment and compared these groups using continuous ordinal regression in the two cohorts separately. Surgery was performed for 29% of all uAVM cases diagnosed in Scotland and 84% of all uAVM referred in Australia. There was no statistically significant difference between surgery and conservative management at 12 months among 79 patients in Scotland (mean SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS) 39 [SD 14] vs. 39 [SD 13]; mean SF-36 Mental Component Score (MCS) 38 [SD 14] vs. 39 [SD 14]; mRS > 1, 24 vs. 9%), nor among 37 patients in Australia (PCS 51 [SD 10] vs. 49 [SD 6]; MCS 48 [SD 12] vs. 49 [SD 10]; mRS > 1, 19 vs. 30%). In the Australian series, there was no statistically significant change in the MCS and PCS between baseline before surgery or conservative management and 12 months. We did not find a statistically significant difference between surgery ± preoperative embolisation and conservative management in disability or QOL at 12 months.

  5. Effect of Embolization Material in the Calculation of Dose Deposition in Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz, O. O. Galvan; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Celis-Lopez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work it is studied the impact of the incorporation of high Z materials (embolization material) in the dose calculation for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment for arteriovenous malformations. A statistical analysis is done to establish the variables that may impact in the dose calculation. To perform the comparison pencil beam (PB) and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation algorithms were used. The comparison between both dose calculations shows that PB overestimates the dose deposited. The statistical analysis, for the quantity of patients of the study (20), shows that the variable that may impact in the dose calculation is the volume of the high Z material in the arteriovenous malformation. Further studies have to be done to establish the clinical impact with the radiosurgery result.

  6. Radiosurgical treatment planning for intracranial AVM based on images generated by principal component analysis. A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kunieda, Etsuo; Nyui, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is to determine accurate target delineation of the nidus. However, since intracranial AVMs are complicated in structure, it is often difficult to clearly determine the target delineation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of principal component analysis (PCA) on intra-arterial contrast enhanced dynamic CT (IADCT) images as a tool for delineating accurate target volumes for stereotactic radiosurgery of AVMs. IADCT and intravenous contrast-enhanced CT (IVCT) were used to examine 4 randomly selected cases of AVM. PCA images were generated from the IADCT data. The first component images were considered feeding artery predominant, the second component images were considered draining vein predominant, and the third component images were considered background. Target delineations were first carried out from IVCT, and then again while referring to the first and second components of the PCA images. Dose calculation simulations for radiosurgical treatment plans with IVCT and PCA images were performed. Dose volume histograms of the vein areas as well as the target volumes were compared. In all cases, the calculated target volumes based on IVCT images were larger than those based on PCA images, and the irradiation doses for the vein areas were reduced. In this study, we simulated radiosurgical treatment planning for intracranial AVM based on PCA images. By using PCA images, the irradiation doses for the vein areas were substantially reduced. (author)

  7. Challenges in the management of massive intraorbital and hemifacial arteriovenous malformation as causing life-threatening epistaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anura Michelle Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations are congenital lesions that may evolve with time and manifest in a plethora of presentations. They can occur as torrential epistaxis when it extensively involves the facial region. Multi-imaging modalities are available to assist in characterizing the structure of the lesion as well as its location and extent. This complex disease requires a multidisciplinary team approach with preoperative embolization and surgery. We present a rare cause of life-threatening epistaxis in a gentleman with a longstanding orbital and hemifacial arteriovenous malformation and discuss the complexities involved in its management.

  8. A case of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation with portal hypertension: treatment with transjuguIar intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young Whan; Kim, Yong Joo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-01

    Arteriovenous malformation of the pancreas is a rare disease, and it is manifested by gastrointestinal bleeding and/or portal hypertension. Surgery is definitely the treatment of choice at the early stage of the disease, and a transcatheter embolization is an alternative treatment for the control of bleeding and if the lesion is surgically inaccessible. We describe a 62-year-old man who had refractory ascites and esophageal variceal bleeding caused by a pancreatic arteriovenous malformation associated with portal hypertension; this was successfully treated by a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

  9. A case of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation with portal hypertension: treatment with transjuguIar intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young Whan; Kim, Yong Joo

    2004-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformation of the pancreas is a rare disease, and it is manifested by gastrointestinal bleeding and/or portal hypertension. Surgery is definitely the treatment of choice at the early stage of the disease, and a transcatheter embolization is an alternative treatment for the control of bleeding and if the lesion is surgically inaccessible. We describe a 62-year-old man who had refractory ascites and esophageal variceal bleeding caused by a pancreatic arteriovenous malformation associated with portal hypertension; this was successfully treated by a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

  10. Extrasinusal dural arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piske, R.L.; Lasjaunias, P.

    1988-01-01

    Of 60 cases of dural arteriovenous malformations (DAVM) explored and treated in the Vascular Neuroradiology Unit of the Hospital of Bicetre between 1980 and 1986, 3 presented in an extrasinusal location: intraorbital, middle cerebral fossa and the region of the superior orbital fissure. We have not found any prior description of DAVMs in these regions in the literature. The classic concept that DAVMs rise in direct relationship with the dural sinuses is limited. We believe that these lesions may also developed in relationship with the venous drainage system of the sinuses and the venous drainage of the peripheral nervous system. We note that the superior ophthalmic vein which drains DAVMs of the orbit and the olfactory vein which drains DAVMs of the anterior cranial fossa and other veins that accompany the cranial nerves through the skull base have the characteristics of emissary veins. It may be that DAVMs can develop wherever veins follow a transosseous trajectory. (orig.)

  11. Intensive care management of patients with severe intracerebral haemorrhage after endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, E.; Yonekawa, Y.; Imhof, H.G.; Tanaka, M.; Valavanis, Anton

    2002-01-01

    We studied the impact of emergency neurosurgery and intensive care on the outcome for patients with severe intracerebral haemorrhage after endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We reviewed the case notes of 18 patients with severe haemorrhage after embolisation of a brain AVM between 1986 and 2001. During this period the treatment changed: before 1993, these patients were not surgically treated, and they died, while after 1994, all patients underwent emergency surgery. We established a standardised protocol for emergency treatment and intensive care in May 1998, and emergency surgery was performed as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms of haemorrhage. Postoperative intensive care was according to a standardised regime. During these 15 years, 24 out of 605 patients undergoing 1066 interventions had a haemorrhage during or after the procedure, of which 18 were severe (3% of patients, 1.7% of interventions). All patients had a severe clinical deficit (mean Glasgow coma scale 4.2); eight had uni- or bilateral mydriasis. From 1989 to April 1998 four (31%) of 13 patients died, one (7.5%) remained in a vegetative state and eight (61.5%) made a good recovery. All five patients treated between 1998 and 2001 had a favourable outcome. The mean time from onset of the symptoms of haemorrhage to reaching the operation room was 129 min between 1989 and 1998 and 24 min between 1998 and 2001. Standardised emergency treatment and intensive care with early resuscitation, minimal radiological exploration before rapid surgery improved the outcome. A short time between the onset of the symptoms of haemorrhage and evacuation of the haematoma may be the most important factor for a favourable outcome. (orig.)

  12. Risk factors for worsened muscle strength after the surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the eloquent motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fuxin; Zhao, Bing; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lijun; Jin, Zhen; Cao, Yong; Wang, Shuo

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Case selection for the surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the eloquent motor area remains challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for worsened muscle strength after surgery in patients with this disorder. METHODS At their hospital the authors retrospectively studied 48 consecutive patients with AVMs involving motor cortex and/or the descending pathway. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), followed by resection. Both functional and angioarchitectural factors were analyzed with respect to the change in muscle strength. Functional factors included lesion-to-corticospinal tract distance (LCD) on DTI and lesion-to-activation area distance (LAD) and cortical reorganization on fMRI. Based on preoperative muscle strength, the changes in muscle strength at 1 week and 6 months after surgery were defined as short-term and long-term surgical outcomes, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS (version 20.0.0, IBM Corp.). RESULTS Twenty-one patients (43.8%) had worsened muscle strength 1 week after surgery. However, only 10 patients (20.8%) suffered from muscle strength worsening 6 months after surgery. The LCD was significantly correlated with short-term (p 0 mm (p = 0.009) and LCD > 5 mm (p 0 mm group and LCD > 5 mm group (p = 0.116). Nidus size was the other significant predictor of short-term (p = 0.021) and long-term (p = 0.016) outcomes. For long-term outcomes, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.728, and the cutoff point was 3.6 cm. Spetzler-Martin grade was not associated with short-term surgical outcomes (0.143), although it was correlated with long-term outcomes (0.038). CONCLUSIONS An AVM with a nidus in contact with tracked eloquent fibers (LCD = 0) and having a large size is more likely to be associated with worsened muscle strength after surgery in patients with eloquent motor area AVMs. Surgical

  13. Management of Intrauterine Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) in 14 Patients by Sonographically Guided Tisseel Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Patrick; Rawnaq, Tamina; Holzknecht, Annette; Cetin, Emine; Reemts, Petra; Zoi, Panagiota; Schwärzler, Peter

    2018-02-01

    AVMs are rare tumorous vascular lesions derived from placental tissue that may present with massive post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) causing potentially life-threatening anemic shock. Current treatment options include the embolization of uterine arteries and emergency postpartum hysterectomy. We present a new form of minimally invasive, highly specific sonographically guided treatment in the form of the application of a human fibrin sealant leading to the instant cease of blood loss.  A management protocol was established and a case series of 14 patients is presented. Diagnosis by endovaginal color Doppler sonography is followed by the sonographically guided application of biological glue (TISSEEL ® ), thus allowing for super-selective occlusion of the feeding vessels.  The procedure was technically successful in all 14 patients, 3 of whom (21 %) had a repeated procedure after 4 - 7 days. The mean age (yrs.) of the patients was 31 (25 - 40), the gravity was median 2 (1 - 5) and the parity was median 1 (0 - 4), the lowest Hb value was on average 9.35 ± 2.25 (5.2 - 14.2) g/dl, the lowest Ht was on average 30.82 ± 6.02 (18 - 41 %). Spectral Doppler analysis revealed an average of 80.71 ± 11.2 (66 - 115) cm/sec for the maximal detectable PSV. In the period of 4 - 55 months after treatment, 7 patients (50 %) had 8 successful pregnancies and 2 miscarriages.  In PPH there is vital interest in timely diagnosis of the underlying cause, thus allowing fertility-sparing, minimally invasive and super-selective emergency treatment. In AVMs causing PPH, a positive impact on perinatal morbidity and mortality may be achieved by sonographically guided application of this biological glue. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Challenges in the management of massive intraorbital and hemifacial arteriovenous malformation as causing life-threatening epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Anura Michelle; Kalimuthu, Santhi; Pathmanathan, Sitra Siri; Narayanan, Prepageran; Zainal Abidin, Zurina; Azmi, Khairul; Khalil, Alizan

    2017-04-01

    Arteriovenous malformations are congenital lesions that may evolve with time and manifest in a plethora of presentations. They can occur as torrential epistaxis when it extensively involves the facial region. Multi-imaging modalities are available to assist in characterizing the structure of the lesion as well as its location and extent. This complex disease requires a multidisciplinary team approach with preoperative embolization and surgery. We present a rare cause of life-threatening epistaxis in a gentleman with a longstanding orbital and hemifacial arteriovenous malformation and discuss the complexities involved in its management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Clinical results of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle radiosurgery for intracranial angiographically occult vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Lyman, J.T.

    1989-12-01

    Angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain have been recognized for many years to cause neurologic morbidity and mortality. They generally become symptomatic due to intracranial hemorrhage, focal mass effect, seizures or headaches. The true incidence of AOVMs is unknown, but autopsy studies suggest that they are more common than high-flow angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We have developed stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery for the treatment of inoperable intracranial vascular malformations, using the helium ion beams at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 184-inch Synchrocyclotron and Bevatron. This report describes the protocol for patient selection, radiosurgical treatment planning method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the method. 10 refs., 1 fig

  16. Giant congenital malformation of the perirectal plexus in computed tomography imaging – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kędzierski, Bartłomiej; Nowak, Grzegorz; Kuśmierska, Małgorzata; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Szuba, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Congenital arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the pelvic area is uncommon in males. The described case is of a giant lesion of this type that caused recurrent hemorrhaging in the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract. Preliminary diagnosis of vascular pathology was made on the basis of an endoscopic examination that revealed numerous pulsating protuberances of the rectal wall, in which blood flow was identified by means of transrectal ultrasonography. Complementing the diagnostics with a CT revealed a considerable extent of malformation, as well as its morphology and anatomical relations with the surrounding tissues. Following a two-year follow-up period, the malformation did not progress or demonstrate any intensification of clinical symptoms, therefore the patient continues to undergo conservative treatment

  17. Clinical results of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle radiosurgery for intracranial angiographically occult vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Lyman, J.T.

    1989-12-01

    Angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain have been recognized for many years to cause neurologic morbidity and mortality. They generally become symptomatic due to intracranial hemorrhage, focal mass effect, seizures or headaches. The true incidence of AOVMs is unknown, but autopsy studies suggest that they are more common than high-flow angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We have developed stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery for the treatment of inoperable intracranial vascular malformations, using the helium ion beams at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 184-inch Synchrocyclotron and Bevatron. This report describes the protocol for patient selection, radiosurgical treatment planning method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the method. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Retroperitoneal arteriovenous malformation extending through the inferior vena cava into the heart and causing inferior vena cava dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yon Mi; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Seung Woo; Park, Pyo Won; Sung, Chang Ohk

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of retroperitoneal arteriovenous malformation extending through the inferior vena cava into the heart, which was associated with dissection of the inferior vena cava in a 32-year-old female. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a double-lumen inferior vena cava and a rod-like solid component attached to a sac-like lesion in the right heart chambers. Digital subtraction angiography showed an arteriovenous malformation draining to the inner lumen of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  19. Contemporary Management of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Nicholas; Gurley, John; Saha, Sibu

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are atypical vascular structures involving a direct connection between the pulmonary arterial and venous circulations. While PAVMs are a relatively uncommon disorder, unmanaged cases are at risk for the development of serious complications including embolization and infection. Since their first description in 1897, PAVMs have been identified and treated in a variety of ways. Advancements in diagnostic methods and operative techniques have allowed for more effective treatment of the disease. Most recently, the use of vascular plug transcatheter embolization has been described as an effective therapeutic procedure in the management of PAVMs. In this report, we present our experience with nine cases of PAVMs treated at the University of Kentucky, including special consideration of an exemplary case that illustrates the typical course of treatment for the disease.

  20. Amplatzer vascular plugs in congenital cardiovascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwad, Parag; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Gupta, Saurabh K; Juneja, Rajnish; Gulati, Gurpreet Singh; Jagia, Priya; Sharma, Sanjiv

    2013-01-01

    Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVPs) are devices ideally suited to close medium-to-large vascular communications. There is limited published literature regarding the utility of AVPs in congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVMs). To describe the use of AVPs in different CCVMs and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. All patients who required an AVP for the closure of CCVM were included in this retrospective review of our catheterization laboratory data. The efficacy and safety of AVPs are reported. A total of 39 AVPs were implanted in 31 patients. Thirteen (33%) were AVP type I and 23 (59%) were AVP type II. AVP type III were implanted in two patients and type IV in one patient. The major indications for their use included closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (n = 7), aortopulmonary collaterals (n = 7), closure of a patent Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 5), systemic AVM (n = 5), coronary AVM (n = 4), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (n = 3), pulmonary artery aneurysms (n = 3), and venovenous collaterals (n = 2). Deployment of the AVP was done predominantly via the 5 – 7F Judkin's right coronary guide catheter. Overall 92% of the AVPs could be successfully deployed and resulted in occlusion of the target vessel in all cases, within 10 minutes. No procedure-related or access site complication occurred. AVPs are versatile, easy to use, and effective devices to occlude the vascular communications in a variety of settings. AVP II is especially useful in the closure of tubular structures with a high flow

  1. Amplatzer vascular plugs in congenital cardiovascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Barwad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVPs are devices ideally suited to close medium-to-large vascular communications. There is limited published literature regarding the utility of AVPs in congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVMs. Aims: To describe the use of AVPs in different CCVMs and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Materials and Methods: All patients who required an AVP for the closure of CCVM were included in this retrospective review of our catheterization laboratory data. The efficacy and safety of AVPs are reported. Results: A total of 39 AVPs were implanted in 31 patients. Thirteen (33% were AVP type I and 23 (59% were AVP type II. AVP type III were implanted in two patients and type IV in one patient. The major indications for their use included closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM (n = 7, aortopulmonary collaterals (n = 7, closure of a patent Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 5, systemic AVM (n = 5, coronary AVM (n = 4, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (n = 3, pulmonary artery aneurysms (n = 3, and venovenous collaterals (n = 2. Deployment of the AVP was done predominantly via the 5 - 7F Judkin′s right coronary guide catheter. Overall 92% of the AVPs could be successfully deployed and resulted in occlusion of the target vessel in all cases, within 10 minutes. No procedure-related or access site complication occurred. Conclusions: AVPs are versatile, easy to use, and effective devices to occlude the vascular communications in a variety of settings. AVP II is especially useful in the closure of tubular structures with a high flow.

  2. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 02: Feasibility of using multileaf collimation for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young; Ruschin, Mark; Tsao, May; Schwartz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    SRS using linac and cones offers steep dose fall-off but a tradeoff exists between conformality and treatment time, which depends on the number of isocentres. Purpose of this study is to quantify planning metrics between cones- and MLC-based SRS for arteriovenous malformation(AVM). Seven AVM cases treated with cones were re-planned with MLC on Pinnacle treatment planning system. Planning target volume(PTV) was created with 1mm uniform margin to the AVM to account for MLC positional variation. Clinically-planned prescription dose(15–25Gy) was used. Four plans were generated per case:non-coplanar VMAT(ncV), single-arc VMAT(saV), non-coplanar IMRT(ncI), non-coplanar conformal(ncC). Plans were compared for conformity(CI), heterogeneity(HI) and gradient(GI) indices and brain doses. Estimated treatment times and monitor units(MU) were compared. Cone-based plans required 2–6 isocentres. Though CI-RTOG was similar for plans(median=0.98), CI-Paddick was most favourable for ncV(median=0.86) and worst for cones(0.54). HI for MLC plans(median=1.19–1.27) were lower than cone-based plans(1.43). GI was similar for all plans. For 2/7 ncC had brainstem maximum dose>16.7Gy and therefore were clinically unacceptable. Brain V12Gy,V10Gy,V2Gy were lowest in the cones plan. ncV brain V12Gy,V10Gy,V2Gy were lowest of all MLC-based plans studied. Treatment MUs were similar for MLC-based plans and up to 70% lower than clinically delivered plans. ncV showed best conformality in this study. Of the MLC-based plans, ncV also showed lowest normal tissue dose with reasonable treatment time.

  3. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 02: Feasibility of using multileaf collimation for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young; Ruschin, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto (Canada); Tsao, May [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    SRS using linac and cones offers steep dose fall-off but a tradeoff exists between conformality and treatment time, which depends on the number of isocentres. Purpose of this study is to quantify planning metrics between cones- and MLC-based SRS for arteriovenous malformation(AVM). Seven AVM cases treated with cones were re-planned with MLC on Pinnacle treatment planning system. Planning target volume(PTV) was created with 1mm uniform margin to the AVM to account for MLC positional variation. Clinically-planned prescription dose(15–25Gy) was used. Four plans were generated per case:non-coplanar VMAT(ncV), single-arc VMAT(saV), non-coplanar IMRT(ncI), non-coplanar conformal(ncC). Plans were compared for conformity(CI), heterogeneity(HI) and gradient(GI) indices and brain doses. Estimated treatment times and monitor units(MU) were compared. Cone-based plans required 2–6 isocentres. Though CI-RTOG was similar for plans(median=0.98), CI-Paddick was most favourable for ncV(median=0.86) and worst for cones(0.54). HI for MLC plans(median=1.19–1.27) were lower than cone-based plans(1.43). GI was similar for all plans. For 2/7 ncC had brainstem maximum dose>16.7Gy and therefore were clinically unacceptable. Brain V12Gy,V10Gy,V2Gy were lowest in the cones plan. ncV brain V12Gy,V10Gy,V2Gy were lowest of all MLC-based plans studied. Treatment MUs were similar for MLC-based plans and up to 70% lower than clinically delivered plans. ncV showed best conformality in this study. Of the MLC-based plans, ncV also showed lowest normal tissue dose with reasonable treatment time.

  4. Ischemic stroke in combined cerebrovascular abnormalities - aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery and arteriovenous malformation temporo occipital in the right hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolova, T.; Naydenov, K.; Manchev, I.; Manchev, L.

    2016-01-01

    A case of combined vascular abnormalities is presented- an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery and arterio-venous malformation temporooccipitally on the right, clinically presented by an ischemic brain stroke in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral artery. Treatment included - hypo-tensive drugs, antiplatelet (antiaggregants) agents and vasodilators, which lead to significant improvement of the general and focal neurological symptoms. Neurosurgical intervention is been discussed, in order to remove the vascular malformation and to prevent future vascular events. Key words: Aneurysm. Arteriovenous Malformation. Ischemic Stroke

  5. A Case Report of Onyx Pulmonary Arterial Embolism Contributing to Hypoxemia During Awake Craniotomy for Arteriovenous Malformation Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolly, Brian T; Kosky, Jenna L; Koht, Antoun; Hemmer, Laura B

    2017-02-15

    A healthy 26-year-old man with cerebral arteriovenous malformation underwent staged endovascular embolization with Onyx followed by awake craniotomy for resection. The perioperative course was complicated by tachycardia and severe intraoperative hypoxemia requiring significant oxygen supplementation. Postoperative chest computed tomography (CT) revealed hyperattenuating Onyx embolization material within the pulmonary vasculature, and an electrocardiogram indicated possible right heart strain, supporting clinically significant embolism. With awake arteriovenous malformation resection following adjunctive Onyx embolization becoming increasingly employed for lesions involving the eloquent cortex, anesthesiologists need to be aware of pulmonary migration of Onyx material as a potential contributor to significant perioperative hypoxemia.

  6. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation. Contralateral steal phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batjer, H H; Devous, M D; Seibert, G B; Purdy, P D; Ajmani, A K; Delarosa, M; Bonte, F J [Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (USA). Southwestern Medical Center

    1989-05-01

    Sixty-two patients with radiographically proven intracranial arteriovenous malformations underwent preoperative regional cerebral blood flow measurement with {sup 133}Xe signal-photon emission computed tomography. Contralateral regions of hypoperfusion were deteceted in all cases. Steal severity was assessed according to the contralateral steal index (ISteal(c)). ISteal(c) was < 0.7 (severe) in 22 (35%), 0.7-0.8 (intermediate) in 18 (29%), and > 0.8 (mild) in 22 (35%). ISteal(c) was more frequently severe or mild in females and more often intermediate in males in males (p < 0.05). Hyperemic complications were encountered more frequently in patients with intermediate ISteal(c) (p = 0.086). An unfavorable outcome was associated with less severe contralateral steal (p = 0.12). A detailed clinical, radiographic, and hemodynamic profile may help to preperatively identify patients at high risk for a poor surgical outcome. (author).

  7. Transvenous sclerotherapy of peripheral arteriovenous malformations and hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.W.; Moradian, G.P.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplantz, K.

    1989-01-01

    After exsanguination of the lesion and control of arterial inflow and venous outflow, the authors used a transvenous or direct puncture technique for injection of a sclerosing solution (3% sotradecol and ionic contrast material) to treat 18 patients with peripheral arteriovenous malformations or hemangiomas. The results are discussed. Good results were achieved in 12 patients. The other six patients had residual symptoms. Multiple treatment sessions were usually necessary. Short-term management included the use of intravenous heparin, steroids, and antibiotics. No significant long-term complications occurred. Short-term complications, including swelling, local pain, blistering, and localized deep venous thrombosis, occurred in 70% of the patients

  8. Improved target volume definition in radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations by stereotactic correlation of MRA, MRI, blood bolus tagging, and functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, L.R.; Bock, M.; Baudendistel, K.; Essig, M.; Debus, J.; Knopp, M.V.; Engenhart, R.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors report the sterotactic correlation of different MRI-techniques [MR angiography (MRA), MRI, blood bolus tagging (STAR), and functional MRI] in 10 patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and its application in precision radiotherapy planning. The patient's head was fixed in a stereotactic localization system. By phantom measurements different materials (steel, aluminium, titanium, plastic, wood, ceramics) used for the stereotactic system were tested for mechanical stability and geometrical MR image distortion. All metallic stereotactic rings led to a more or less dramatic geometrical distortion and signal cancellation in the MR images. The best properties - nearly no distortion and high mechanical stability - are provided by a ceramic ring. If necessary, the remaining geometrical MR image distortion can be 'corrected' by calculations based on modeling the distortion as a fourth-order 2D-polynomial. Using this method multimodality matching can be performed automatically as long as all images are acquired in the same examination and the patient is sufficiently immobilized. Precise definition of the target volume could be performed by the radiotherapist either directly in MR images or in calculated projection MR angiograms. As a result, information about the hemodynamics of the AVM was provided by a 3D-phase-contrast flow measurement and a dynamic MRA with the STAR technique leading to an improved definition of the size of the nidus, and the pattern of the venous drainage. In addition, functional MRI was performed in patients with lesions close to the primary motor cortex area leading to an improved definition of structures at risk for high-dose application in radiosurgery. (orig./MG)

  9. The MDCT and MRI Findings of a Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Combined with Isolated Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Oo [Naval Pohang Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ji Young; Song, Soon Young [Hanyang University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation and isolated spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery are both rare maladies, and now they can be easily diagnosed due to the development of such noninvasive modalities as multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We report here on the multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a rare case of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation combined with isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery.

  10. The MDCT and MRI Findings of a Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Combined with Isolated Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Jin Oo; Oh, Ji Young; Song, Soon Young

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation and isolated spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery are both rare maladies, and now they can be easily diagnosed due to the development of such noninvasive modalities as multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We report here on the multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a rare case of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation combined with isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery

  11. Treatment of arteriovenous malformations with stereotactic radiosurgery employing both magnetic resonance angiography and standard angiography as a database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petereit, D.; Mehta, M.; Turski, P.; Levin, A.; Strother, C.; Mistretta, C.; Mackie, R.; Gehring, M.; Kubsad, S.; Kinsella, T.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one arteriovenous malformations were prospectively evaluated using magnetic resonance angiography, compare it to stereotactic angiography, employ magnetic resonance angiography in follow-up, and semiquanitfy flow. A correlative evaluation between flow and response to stereotactic radiosurgery was carried out. Phase contrast angiograms were obtained at flow velocities of 400, 200, 100, 60 and 20 cm/sec. The fractionated velocities provided images that selectively demonstrated the arterial and venous components of the arteriovenous malformations. Qualitative assessment of the velocity within the arteriovenous malformations and the presence of fistulae were also determined by multiple velocity images. In addition, 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiograms were obtained to define the exact size and shape of the nidus. This technique also permitted evaluation of the nidus and feeding arteries for the the presence of low flow aneurysms. Correlation between the two imaging modalities was carried out by subjective and semiquantitative estimation of flow velocity and estimation of nidus size. The following velocity parameters were employed: fast, intermediate, slow, and none. Early analysis suggests that slower flowing arteriovenous malformations may obliterate faster after stereotactic radiosurgery an flow parameters should be employed to predict response. In conclusion, magnetic resonance angiography permits semiquantitative flow velocity assessment and may therefore be superior to stereotactic angiography. An additional advantage of magnetic resonance angiography is the generation of serial transverse images which can replace the conventional CT scan employed for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning. A single diagnostic test may therefore be used for diagnosis, radiosurgical treatment planning, follow-up, and treatment selection by identifying patients likely to respond early to radiosurgical management

  12. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation: relationships between clinical and radiographic factors and ipsilateral steal severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batjer, H.H.; Devous, M.D. Sr.; Seibert, G.B.; Purdy, P.D.; Ajmani, A.K.; Delarosa, M.; Bonte, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are high flow shunts that may jeopardize the perfusion of adjacent tissue. Clinical and radiographic data from 62 patients were analyzed to determine their relationship to the severity of steal measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The ipsilateral steal index [ISteal(i)] was determined by dividing regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values within hand-drawn regions of hypoperfusion in the ipsilateral hemisphere by total brain flow, which was calculated as the average rCBF of each hemisphere. Of the patients, 40% were less than 30 years of age, 45% were 30 to 50 years old, and 15% were over 50. Forty-eight per cent presented with hemorrhage and 34% presented with progressive deficits. There was angiographic steal in 37%, and postoperative hyperemic complications developed in 21%. All patients had ipsilateral regions of hypoperfusion. The ISteal(i) was less than 0.7 in 23 (37%), 0.7 to 0.8 in 20 (32%), and greater than 0.8 in 19 (31%). The ISteal(i) was significantly less severe in the patients over 50; 78% of these patients had an ISteal(i) of greater than 0.8 (P less than 0.01). A history of hemorrhage was associated with less severe steal than that in patients who had not bled (P = 0.088). Patients presenting with a history of progressive deficits had increased severity of steal compared with those without progressive deficits (P less than 0.05). A trend toward decreased severity of steal was noted in patients with unfavorable outcomes

  13. Bragg peak proton beam treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellberg, R.N.; Poletti, C.E.; Roberson, G.H.; Adams, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes 27 patients treated for arteriovenous malformations of the brain by the Bragg Peak proton beam method during the past 12 years. The authors are led to a measure of confidence that Bragg Peak proton therapy can be provided without lethal risk attributed to the procedure. In 21 patients no neurological change has occurred, two patients experienced neurological improvement and four have developed new neurological abnormalities considered complications of the therapy. (Auth.)

  14. Computerized transverse tomography of vascular lesions of the brain. I. Arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressman, B.D.; Kirkwood, J.R.; Davis, D.O.

    1975-01-01

    Computerized transverse tomography (CTT) of the brain is a recently developed method which allows non-invasive roentgenologic evaluation of intracranial disease. Since its inception, major attention has been given to the diagnosis and evaluation of tumors, clots, infarcts, venticular size, and orbital lesions. The purpose of this report is to discuss the application of CTT to the diagnosis and evaluation of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations. (U.S.)

  15. Transseptal Guidewire Stabilization for Device Closure of a Large Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, George; Kunwar, Brajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old man presenting with massive hemoptysis was found to have a large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) in the right lung. Closure of the PAVM with an Amplatzer-type duct occluder was hampered by inability to advance the device delivery sheath into the PAVM due to vessel tortuosity and inadequate guidewire support. Atrial septal puncture was performed and a femorofemoral arteriovenous guidewire loop through the right pulmonary artery, PAVM, and left atrium was created. Traction on both ends of the guidewire loop allowed advancement of the device delivery sheath into the PAVM and successful completion of the procedure. Transseptal guidewire stabilization can be a valuable option during device closure of large PAVMs when advancement, stability, or kinking of the device delivery sheath is an issue.

  16. Ischaemic strokes in patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: associations with iron deficiency and platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Shovlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary first pass filtration of particles marginally exceeding ∼7 µm (the size of a red blood cell is used routinely in diagnostics, and allows cellular aggregates forming or entering the circulation in the preceding cardiac cycle to lodge safely in pulmonary capillaries/arterioles. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations compromise capillary bed filtration, and are commonly associated with ischaemic stroke. Cohorts with CT-scan evident malformations associated with the highest contrast echocardiographic shunt grades are known to be at higher stroke risk. Our goal was to identify within this broad grouping, which patients were at higher risk of stroke. METHODOLOGY: 497 consecutive patients with CT-proven pulmonary arteriovenous malformations due to hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia were studied. Relationships with radiologically-confirmed clinical ischaemic stroke were examined using logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic analyses, and platelet studies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-one individuals (12.3% had acute, non-iatrogenic ischaemic clinical strokes at a median age of 52 (IQR 41-63 years. In crude and age-adjusted logistic regression, stroke risk was associated not with venous thromboemboli or conventional neurovascular risk factors, but with low serum iron (adjusted odds ratio 0.96 [95% confidence intervals 0.92, 1.00], and more weakly with low oxygen saturations reflecting a larger right-to-left shunt (adjusted OR 0.96 [0.92, 1.01]. For the same pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, the stroke risk would approximately double with serum iron 6 µmol/L compared to mid-normal range (7-27 µmol/L. Platelet studies confirmed overlooked data that iron deficiency is associated with exuberant platelet aggregation to serotonin (5HT, correcting following iron treatment. By MANOVA, adjusting for participant and 5HT, iron or ferritin explained 14% of the variance in log-transformed aggregation-rate (p = 0

  17. Search for RASA1 Variants in Capillary Malformations of the Legs in 113 Children: Results from the French National Paediatric Cohort CONAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Maruani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an inherited autosomal-dominant disorder, capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM, frequently have mutations in Ras P21 protein activator 1 (RASA1. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of germline RASA1 variants in a French multicentre national cohort of children, age range 2–12 years, with sporadic occurrence of capillary malformation (CM of the legs, whatever the associated abnormalities, and to identify genotype–phenotype correlates. DNA was extracted from leukocytes in blood samples, purified and amplified, and all exons of the RASA1 gene were analysed. Among 113 children analysed, 7 had heterozygous variants (6.1%. Four different variants were identified; 2 were new. In children with RASA1 variants, CMs were more frequently bilateral and multifocal. In conclusion, RASA1 variants are rarely found in children with sporadic CM of lower limbs without CM-AVM syndrome. CMs in this study were heterogeneous, and no disease-causing relationship could be proven.

  18. Retrospective analysis of linac-based radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations and testing of the Flickinger formula in predicting radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, I.A.; Marmara Univ., Ustkaynarca/Pendik; Ates, R.; Dhaens, J.; Storme, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of the study was to validate the use of linac-based radiosurgery in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients and to predict complications using an integrated logistic formula (ILF) in comparison with clinical outcomes. Patients and methods: The results of radiosurgery in 92 AVM patients were examined. All patients were treated with linac-based radiosurgery. Of these, 70 patients were followed for 12-45 months (median, 24 months) and were analyzed. The treated volume varied from 0.09 to 26.95 cm 3 (median, 2.3 cm 3 ) and the median marginal dose was 20 Gy (range, 10.4-22). The median 12-Gy volume was 9.94 cm 3 (range, 0.74-60.09 cm 3 ). Patients and lesion characteristics potentially affecting nidus obliteration and excellent outcome were evaluated by performing a log-rank test and univariate and multivariate analyses. The risk for radiation injury (RRI) was calculated with an integrated logistic formula. The predictive power of the RRI was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) angiography revealed complete AVM obliteration in 56 of 70 patients. The MR angiography confirmed an obliteration rate of 80%. The annual hemorrhage rate was 1.4% for the first 2 years after radiosurgery and 0% thereafter. The number of patients with an excellent outcome was 48 (68%). Factors associated with better obliteration were higher radiation dose to the lesion margins [12-Gy volume (V12) > 10 cm 3 ], small volume, and a Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49; those predicting excellent outcomes were V12 3 , small volume, and Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49, as determined by multivariate analyses. Factors associated with radiation injury were V12 > 10 cm 3 (p=0.03) and volume greater than 2 cm 3 (p=0.001), as determined by a univariate analysis. The analyses showed an ROC of 0.66. Conclusion: These data suggest that linac-based radiosurgery is

  19. What Is an Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensory information, such as interpretation of pain and temperature, light touch, vibration and more. The temporal lobe functions to process things related to hearing, memory, learning and receptive speech. The occipital lobe functions to ...

  20. Chronic Encapsulated Expanding Thalamic Hematoma Associated with Obstructive Hydrocephalus following Radiosurgery for a Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma is a unique type of intracerebral hematoma accompanied by a capsule that is abundant in fragile microvasculature occasionally causing delayed regrowth. A 37-year-old man who had undergone radiosurgery for an arteriovenous malformation (AVM causing intracerebral hematoma in the left parietal lobe presented with headache, vomiting, and progressive truncal ataxia due to a cystic lesion that had been noted in the left thalamus, leading to progressive obstructive hydrocephalus. He underwent left frontal craniotomy via a transsylvian fissure approach, and the serous hematoma was aspirated. The hematoma capsule was easy to drain and was partially removed. Pathological findings demonstrated angiomatous fibroblastic granulation tissue with extensive macrophage invasion. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was high in the hematoma (12012 pg/mL. The etiology and pathogenesis of encapsulated hematoma are unclear, but the gross appearance and pathological findings are similar to those of chronic subdural hematoma. Based on the high concentration of VEGF in the hematoma, expansion of the encapsulated hematoma might have been caused by the promotion of vascular permeability of newly formed microvasculature in the capsule.

  1. Definition of the key target volume in radiosurgical management of arteriovenous malformations: a new dynamic concept based on angiographic circulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Ramiro Del; Zenteno, Marco; Jaramillo, José; Lee, Angel; De Anda, Salvador

    2008-12-01

    The cumulative experience worldwide indicates complete radiosurgical obliteration rates of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) ranging from 35 to 90%. The purpose of this study was to propose a strategy to increase the obliteration rate for AVMs through the dynamic definition of the key target volume (KTV). A prospective series of patients harboring an AVM was assessed using digital subtraction angiography in which a digital counter was used to measure the several stages of the frame-by-frame circulation time. All the patients were analyzed using dynamic measurement planning to define the KTV, corresponding to the volume of the shunt with the least vascular resistance and the earliest venous drainage. All patients underwent catheter-based angiography, a subgroup was additionally assessed by means of a superselective catheterization, and among these a further subgroup received embolization. The shunts were also categorized according to their angioarchitectural type: fistulous, plexiform, or mixed. The authors applied the radiosurgery-based grading system (RBGS) as well to find a correlation with the obliteration rate. This series includes 44 patients treated by radiosurgery; global angiography was performed for all patients, including dynamic measurement planning. Eighty-four percent of them underwent superselective catheterization, and 50% of the total population underwent embolization. In the embolized arm of the study, the pretreatment volume was up to 120 ml. In patients with a single treatment, the mean volume was 8.5 ml, and the median volume was 6.95 +/- 4.56 ml (mean +/- standard deviation), with a KTV of up to 15 ml. For prospectively staged radiosurgery, the mean KTV was 28 ml. The marginal radiation dose was 18-22 Gy, with a mean of dose 20 Gy. The mean RBGS score was 1.70. The overall obliteration rate was 91%, including the repeated radiosurgery group (4 patients), in which 100% showed complete obliteration. The overall permanent deficit was 2 of

  2. Rare malformation of glans penis: Arteriovenous malformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... when patients suffer from pain, ulceration, heaviness, and bleeding. The treatment options for hemangiomas are same with AVM.[6]. All of the vascular lesions on glans penis in childhood are benign. Treatment depends on request of patients or their parents. Neodymium laser, sclerotherapy, or surgical ...

  3. The causes and the nursing interventions of the complications due to repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingfang; Sun Ge

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the causes of the complications occurred after repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations and to discuss their nursing interventions. Methods: A total of 54 embolization procedures were performed in 17 patients with huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The causes of complications were carefully examined and the preventive measures were discussed. The prompt and necessary nursing interventions were formulated in order to prevent the complications or serious consequences. Results: Among the total 17 patients, one patient gave up the treatment because of the cerebral hemorrhage which occurred two months after receiving 3 times of embolization therapy. One patient experienced cerebral vascular spasm during the procedure, which was relieved after antispasmodic medication and no neurological deficit was left behind. Two patients developed transient dizziness and headache, which were alleviated spontaneously. One patient presented with nervousness, fear and irritability, which made him hard to cooperate with the operation and the basis intravenous anesthesia was employed. No complications occurred in the remaining cases. Conclusion: The predictive nursing interventions for the prevention of complications are very important for obtaining a successful repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations, which will ensure that the patients can get the best treatment and the complications can be avoided. (authors)

  4. Automatic definition of prescription isodose for stereotactic irradiations of arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejean, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Schlienger, M.; Touboul, E.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate dosimetric consequences generated by the automatic definition based on lesion coverage of prescription isodose. A clinical series of 124 arteriovenous malformations was analysed. Plan quality was quantified by the standard deviation of the differential dose volume histogram calculated in the lesion. We define two quantitative protocols based on lesion coverage for the automatic definition of prescription isodose using a volumetric definition of coverage (90% of lesion volume), and an isodose-based definition proposed) by RTOG (prescription isodose equals minimum isodose in the lesion divided by 0.9). We have evaluated the plans obtained for these two protocols, calculating several dose-volume indices. These indices are presented as a function of dose-volume histogram standard deviation in order to quantify the consequences of their variations for this representative series of plans. The margin our team tolerates is such that the sum of under-dosed lesion and overdosed healthy tissues factors remains lower than one. Protocol based on volumetric coverage gives results situated within this margin. Protocol based on RTOG definition produces conformation indices that could be greater than 1. The absolute dose would be decided taking into account examined dose-volume indices and clinical data. A protocol for automatic definition of prescription isodose using volumetric lesion coverage seems to be more judiciously adapted to arteriovenous malformation conformal plans in stereotactic conditions because of variations observed in the overdosage of healthy tissues. (authors)

  5. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in cryptogenic liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, N.

    2013-01-01

    The cause in 10 - 20% cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) cannot be elucidated, and are thus termed cryptogenic. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are relatively rare, but the most common anomaly involving the pulmonary tree. Although the rare correlation between LC and PAVM is well-known, there have been no reports of PAVMs occurring in cryptogenic LC. We report a case of PAVM that occurred in cryptogenic liver cirrhosis in a 3 years old male child. The child presented with complaints of malena, hematemesis and variceal bleed. The examination revealed a child with respiratory distress, irritability, tachycardia, clubbing and abdominal distention. He was worked up for recurrent variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension but the oxygen saturation during hospital stay kept deteriorating. The diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome as the cause of persistent hypoxemia in the absence of other cardio-pulmonary causes was then made by enhanced echocardiogram using agitated saline. He improved significantly after liver transplantation performed abroad. At a 6 months follow-up, the child was stable with no evidence of intrapulmonary shunting on repeat echo. (author)

  6. Impact of target point deviations on control and complication probabilities in stereotactic radiosurgery of AVMs and metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treuer, Harald; Kocher, Martin; Hoevels, Moritz; Hunsche, Stefan; Luyken, Klaus; Maarouf, Mohammad; Voges, Juergen; Mueller, Rolf-Peter; Sturm, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Determination of the impact of inaccuracies in the determination and setup of the target point in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on the expectable complication and control probabilities. Methods: Two randomized samples of patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (n = 20) and with brain metastases (n = 20) treated with SRS were formed, and the probability for complete obliteration (COP) or complete remission (CRP), the size of the 10 Gy-volume in the brain tissue (VOI10), and the probability for radiation necrosis (NTCP) were calculated. The dose-effect relations for COP and CRP were fitted to clinical data. Target point deviations were simulated through random vectors and the resulting probabilities and volumes were calculated and compared with the values of the treatment plan. Results: The decrease of the relative value of the control probabilities at 1 mm target point deviation was up to 4% for AVMs and up to 10% for metastases. At 2 mm the median decrease was 5% for AVMs and 9% for metastases. The value for the target point deviation, at which COP and CRP decreased about 0.05 in 90% of the cases, was 1.3 mm. The increase of NTCP was maximally 0.0025 per mm target point deviation for AVMs and 0.0035/mm for metastases. The maximal increase of VOI10 was 0.7 cm 3 /mm target point deviation in both patient groups. Conclusions: The upper limit for tolerable target point deviations is at 1.3 mm. If this value cannot be achieved during the system test, a supplementary safety margin should be applied for the definition of the target volume. A better accuracy level is desirable, in order to ensure optimal chances for the success of the treatment. The target point precision is less important for the minimization of the probability of radiation necroses

  7. Rare malformation of glans penis: Arteriovenous malformation | Akin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AVM), are very rare. Herein, we report two rare cases. A 14‑year‑old boy attended our outpatient clinic with chief complaints of purple swelling and rapidly growing lesion on the glans penis. The lesion was excised surgically after physical and ...

  8. Volumetric Modulated Arc-Based Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Selected Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Dosimetric Report and Early Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Sai; Srinivas, Chilukuri; Ramalingam, K.; Babaiah, M.; Swamy, S. Thirumalai; Arun, G.; Kathirvel, M.; Ashok, S. [Yashoda Super Specialty Hospital, Hyderabad (India); Clivio, Alessandro [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.fogliata-cozzi@eoc.ch [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Nicolini, Giorgia [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Rao, K. Srinivasa; Reddy, T. Pratap; Amit, Jotwani [Yashoda Super Specialty Hospital, Hyderabad (India); Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, with a dosimetric and clinical feasibility study, RapidArc (a volumetric modulated arc technique) for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy treatment of large arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were subject to multimodality imaging (magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography) to determine nidus and target volumes, as well as involved organs at risk (optical structures, inner ear, brain stem). Plans for multiple intensity-modulated arcs with a single isocenter were optimized for a fractionation of 25 Gy in 5 fractions. All plans were optimized for 6-MV photon beams. Dose-volume histograms were analyzed to assess plan quality. Delivery parameters were reported to appraise technical features of RapidArc, and pretreatment quality assurance measurements were carried out to report on quality of delivery. Results: Average size of AVM nidus was 26.2 cm{sup 3}, and RapidArc plans provided complete target coverage with minimal overdosage (V{sub 100%} = 100% and V{sub 110%} < 1%) and excellent homogeneity (<6%). Organs at risk were highly spared. The D{sub 1%} to chiasm, eyes, lenses, optic nerves, and brainstem (mean {+-} SD) was 6.4 {+-} 8.3, 1.9 {+-} 3.8, 2.3 {+-} 2.2, 0.7 {+-} 0.9, 4.4 {+-} 7.2, 12.2 {+-} 9.6 Gy, respectively. Conformity index (CI{sub 95%}) was 2.2 {+-} 0.1. The number of monitor units per gray was 277 {+-} 45, total beam-on time was 2.5 {+-} 0.3 min. Planning vs. delivery {gamma} pass rate was 98.3% {+-} 0.9%. None of the patients developed acute toxicity. With a median follow-up of 9 months, 3 patients presented with deterioration of symptoms and were found to have postradiation changes but responded symptomatically to steroids. These patients continue to do well on follow-up. One patient developed headache and seizures, which was attributed to intracranial bleed, confirmed on imaging. Conclusion: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy can be

  9. The multiple brain abscesses associated with congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seok; Lim, Dong-Jun; Chung, Yong-Gu; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Lim, Seong-Jun; Kim, Woo-Jae; Park, Jung-Yul; Suh, Jung-Keun

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of multiple brain abscesses associated with diffuse congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Although the cases of brain abscesses associated with congenital PAVM are very rare, the brain abscess could be an initial clinical manifestation in asymptomatic PAVM as in the case presented in this report. PAVM may contribute to the development of a brain abscess by allowing easy bacterial access to systemic circulation through the right-to-left pul...

  10. Retrospective analysis of linac-based radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations and testing of the Flickinger formula in predicting radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, I.A. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marmara Univ., Ustkaynarca/Pendik (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ates, R.; Dhaens, J.; Storme, G. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: The aim of the study was to validate the use of linac-based radiosurgery in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients and to predict complications using an integrated logistic formula (ILF) in comparison with clinical outcomes. Patients and methods: The results of radiosurgery in 92 AVM patients were examined. All patients were treated with linac-based radiosurgery. Of these, 70 patients were followed for 12-45 months (median, 24 months) and were analyzed. The treated volume varied from 0.09 to 26.95 cm{sup 3} (median, 2.3 cm{sup 3}) and the median marginal dose was 20 Gy (range, 10.4-22). The median 12-Gy volume was 9.94 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.74-60.09 cm{sup 3}). Patients and lesion characteristics potentially affecting nidus obliteration and excellent outcome were evaluated by performing a log-rank test and univariate and multivariate analyses. The risk for radiation injury (RRI) was calculated with an integrated logistic formula. The predictive power of the RRI was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) angiography revealed complete AVM obliteration in 56 of 70 patients. The MR angiography confirmed an obliteration rate of 80%. The annual hemorrhage rate was 1.4% for the first 2 years after radiosurgery and 0% thereafter. The number of patients with an excellent outcome was 48 (68%). Factors associated with better obliteration were higher radiation dose to the lesion margins [12-Gy volume (V12) > 10 cm{sup 3}], small volume, and a Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49; those predicting excellent outcomes were V12 < 10 cm{sup 3}, small volume, and Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49, as determined by multivariate analyses. Factors associated with radiation injury were V12 > 10 cm{sup 3} (p=0.03) and volume greater than 2 cm{sup 3} (p=0.001), as determined by a univariate analysis. The analyses showed an ROC of 0.66. Conclusion: These data

  11. Decision-making procedure for the prescription of treatment by radiosurgery of arteriovenous cerebral malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, N.; Bernier, V.; Marchal, C.; Peiffert, D.; Anxionnat, R.; Picard, L.; Buchheit, I.

    2007-01-01

    The study confirmed the need to prescribe a dose on the outskirts of the arteriovenous malformation greater than or equal to 18 Gy to improve the rate of local control and the importance of reducing the V12 Gy (Volume of healthy cerebral parenchyma covered by the 12 Gy isodose) to reduce the risk of radio-necrosis. A decision tree prescription is essential to optimize treatment. (N.C.)

  12. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children/adolescents and adults. Part I: Differences in epidemiologic, morphologic, and clinical characteristics, permanent complications, and bleeding in the latency period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolato, Antonio; Lupidi, Francesco; Sandri, Marco F.; Foroni, Roberto; Zampieri, Piergiuseppe; Mazza, Carlo; Maluta, Sergio; Beltramello, Alberto; Gerosa, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the epidemiologic, morphologic, and clinical characteristics of 92 children/adolescents (Group A) and 362 adults (Group B) with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) considered suitable for radiosurgery; to correlate radiosurgery-related permanent complication and post-radiosurgery bleeding rates in the 75 children/adolescents and 297 adults available for follow-up. Methods and Materials: Radiosurgery was performed with a model C 201-source Co 6 Leksell Gamma Unit (Elekta Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden). Fisher exact two-tailed, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and two-sample binomial exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were significant differences between the two populations in sex (p = 0.015), clinical presentation (p = 0.001), and location (p = 0.008). The permanent complication rate was lower in younger (1.3%) than in older patients (5.4%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.213). The postradiosurgery bleeding rate was lower in Group A (1.3%) than in Group B (2.7%) (p = 0.694), with global actuarial bleeding rates of 0.56% per year and 1.15% per year, respectively. Conclusions: The different characteristics of child/adolescent and adult cAVMs suggest that they should be considered two distinct vascular disorders. The similar rates of radiosurgery-related complications and latency period bleeding in the two populations show that gamma knife radiosurgery does not expose young patients to a higher risk of sequelae than that for older patients

  13. Diagnostic management of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch-Nyhan, A.; White, R.I.; Terry, P.; Mitchell, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. In the past 8 years, the authors have studied 21 patients. Symptoms included dyspnea (n = 13), epistaxis (n = 13), migraine headaches (n = 9), transient ischemic attacks (n = 6), hemoptysis (n = 3), and seizures (n = 3). Seventeen patients had hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasis (HHT). All patients underwent diagnostic angiography, and 19 underwent detachable balloon embolotherapy. In patients with focal PAVMs, treatment increased the average preembolization arterial oxygen pressure of 63 mm Hg to a posttreatment average of 83 mm Hg. Marked clinical improvement was documented at follow-up (3 - 90 months), except in four patients with diffuse disease. Six patients underwent repeated embolotherapy of PAVMs that were not occluded initially. The authors conclude that PAVMs in children and adolescents are frequently symptomatic and associated with HHT. Detachable balloon embolotherapy is a safe and effective therapeutic modality

  14. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picel, Andrew C., E-mail: apicel@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States); Koo, Sonya J. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Roberts, Anne C. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).Materials and methodsA retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %).ResultsEmbolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization.ConclusionsTAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  15. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picel, Andrew C.; Koo, Sonya J.; Roberts, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).Materials and methodsA retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %).ResultsEmbolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization.ConclusionsTAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  16. Pulmonale arteriovenøse malformationer, moderne behandlingsprincipper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D

    2001-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are congenital vascular malformations in the lungs, which act as shunts so that the blood is not oxygenated or filtered. These patients are typically hypoxaemic with exercise intolerance and are at high risk of paradoxical emboli to the brain. About 25...... technical success and few complications. Embolisation prevents cerebral stroke and abscess and pulmonary haemorrhage and further raises the functional level. Screening for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in patients at risk is recommended....

  17. Computed tomography of arteriovenous malformation in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Sonobe, Makoto; Kuwayama, Naoya; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    1985-01-01

    Cases of AVM in children under the age of 15 were analyzed and compared with adult cases. Thirty-nine cases of AVM have been experienced since CT was introduced, consisting of eight cases in children. The initial symptom in children was hemorrhage in seven cases and convulsive seizure in one case. In adults, hemorrhage was found in 26 cases and convulsive seizure in five cases. Initial CT was performed within 24 hours after onset in seven cases in children and in 12 cases in adults. In children, findings of those initial CT were intracerebral hematoma (ICH) in one case, ICH+intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in three cases and IVH in two cases. In adults, ICH was found in five cases, ICH+IVH in five cases and ICH+IVH+SAH in two cases. As in the adult cases, it may be proper to consider that the primary lesion in the acute stage of ruptured AVM in children is not SAH but ICH or IVH. (author)

  18. SU-E-T-382: Evaluation of Clinical Application and Dosimetric Comparison for Treatment Plans of Gamma Knife and CyberKnife for Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical Univer, New Taipei City, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To analyze and compare the characteristics of dose distributions between Gamma Knife (GK) and CyberKnife (CK), in treating arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and evaluate the influences on their clinical applications. Methods: Twenty four patients with AVMs treated with CK of prescribed dose (PD) of 16–25 Gy in single fraction were selected. Each patient’s CT images used for CK treatment planning with contours of targets and critical organs were exported and then loaded into the GK planning system. GK treatment plan with the same PD used in CK was generated for each patient. The metrics for dose comparison between GK and CK included conformity index (CI), gradient index (GI) of 75%, 50% and 25% of the PD, heterogeneity index (HI), volume of brain tissues covered by 10 Gy and 12 Gy, maximum dose to brainstem and beam-on time. Paired Samples t-test was used to analyze these metrics for significance (p value). Results: The CI were 0.744 ± 0.075 (GK) and 0.768 ± 0.086 (CK), p = 0.281. The GI75%, GI50%, and GI25% in GK and CK were 1.735 ± 0.100 and 2.439 ± 0.338 (p < 0.001), 3.169 ± 0.265 and 4.972 ± 0.852 (p < 0.001), and 8.650 ± 0.914 and 14.261 ± 2.476 (p < 0.001). The HI were 0.728 ± 0.072 (GK) and 0.313 ± 0.069 (CK), p < 0.001. There were significant differences both for volume of brain tissues covered by 10 Gy and 12 Gy in GK and CK (p < 0.001). GK had smaller maximum dose to brainstem. CK had shorter beam-on time. Conclusion: GK has similar dose conformity as CK, and has better normal tissue sparing but is less efficient than CK.

  19. SU-E-T-382: Evaluation of Clinical Application and Dosimetric Comparison for Treatment Plans of Gamma Knife and CyberKnife for Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze and compare the characteristics of dose distributions between Gamma Knife (GK) and CyberKnife (CK), in treating arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and evaluate the influences on their clinical applications. Methods: Twenty four patients with AVMs treated with CK of prescribed dose (PD) of 16–25 Gy in single fraction were selected. Each patient’s CT images used for CK treatment planning with contours of targets and critical organs were exported and then loaded into the GK planning system. GK treatment plan with the same PD used in CK was generated for each patient. The metrics for dose comparison between GK and CK included conformity index (CI), gradient index (GI) of 75%, 50% and 25% of the PD, heterogeneity index (HI), volume of brain tissues covered by 10 Gy and 12 Gy, maximum dose to brainstem and beam-on time. Paired Samples t-test was used to analyze these metrics for significance (p value). Results: The CI were 0.744 ± 0.075 (GK) and 0.768 ± 0.086 (CK), p = 0.281. The GI75%, GI50%, and GI25% in GK and CK were 1.735 ± 0.100 and 2.439 ± 0.338 (p < 0.001), 3.169 ± 0.265 and 4.972 ± 0.852 (p < 0.001), and 8.650 ± 0.914 and 14.261 ± 2.476 (p < 0.001). The HI were 0.728 ± 0.072 (GK) and 0.313 ± 0.069 (CK), p < 0.001. There were significant differences both for volume of brain tissues covered by 10 Gy and 12 Gy in GK and CK (p < 0.001). GK had smaller maximum dose to brainstem. CK had shorter beam-on time. Conclusion: GK has similar dose conformity as CK, and has better normal tissue sparing but is less efficient than CK

  20. Oral Surgical Procedures Performed Safely in Patients With Head and Neck Arteriovenous Malformations: A Retrospective Case Series of 12 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Abdul Basit; Lindsey, Sean; Bovino, Brian; Berenstein, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    This case series describes patients with head and neck arteriovenous malformations who underwent oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures combined with interventional radiology techniques to minimize blood loss. Twelve patients underwent femoral cerebral angiography to visualize the extent of vascular malformation. Before the surgical procedures, surgical sites were devascularized by direct injection of hemostatic or embolic agents. Direct puncture sclerotherapy at the base of surgical sites was performed using Surgiflo or n-butylcyanoacrylate glue. Surgical procedures were carried out in routine fashion. A hemostatic packing of FloSeal, Gelfoam, and Avitene was adapted to the surgical sites. Direct puncture sclerotherapy with Surgiflo or n-butylcyanoacrylate glue resulted in minimal blood loss intraoperatively. Local application of the FloSeal, Gelfoam, and Avitene packing sustained hemostasis and produced excellent healing postoperatively. Patients with arteriovenous malformations can safely undergo routine oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures with minimal blood loss when appropriate endovascular techniques and local hemostatic measures are used by the interventional radiologist and oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation causing cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladden, David; Casha, Aaron; Azzopardi, Conrad; Manche', Alexander

    2015-04-16

    The incidence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) is 2.5 in 100,000. 80% are associated with Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome or hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. We report the case of a 70-year-old man with a 6 cm spherical mass incidentally found on chest X-ray. There was a localised systolic bruit over the right lower zone posteriorly; however, he was asymptomatic. He had suffered a stroke, affecting his right hand and his speech, from which he recovered. He experienced regular transient ischaemic attacks, on an average of every 2 months. He underwent a right lower lobectomy and on ligating the right lower lobe pulmonary artery the saturations of oxygen rose from 92% to 97%, demonstrating a significant right to left extracardiac shunt. Postoperative recovery was excellent and 1 year later the patient reports no further neurological symptoms. 40% of such lesions exhibit symptoms, however, only one-third are neurological. Treatment should be by percutaneous embolisation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Transcatheter Closure of Bilateral Multiple Huge Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Homemade Double-Umbrella Occluders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Hongshan; Xu Ke; Shao Haibo

    2008-01-01

    A 28-year-old man underwent successful transcatheter occlusion of three huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using homemade double-umbrella occluders and stainless steel coils. Thoracic CT with three-dimensional reconstruction and pulmonary angiography were used for treatment planning and follow-up. The diameters of the feeding vessels were 11 mm, 13 mm, and 14 mm, respectively. This report demonstrates the novel design and utility of the double-umbrella occluder, an alternative tool for treatment of large PAVMs.

  3. Mandibular Arteriovenous Malformation in an 8-year-old Child: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudagi, B M; Patil, Sudha; Hammannavar, Reshma; Jaiswal, Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Arteriovenous (AV) malformation is a congenital vascular anomaly in which there is an abnormal connection between the arterial and venous system resulting from developmental arrest during embryogenesis. In children, they are rare and potentially life-threatening. In the present case, an 8-year-old male patient presented with a simple gingival swelling associated with mobility of the corresponding teeth, which appeared relatively simple to excise but had an AV malformation associated with it. Timely diagnosis and investigations revealed its presence and hence prevented a catastrophy from occurring. Conventional method of surgical ligation of the external carotid artery was done as an emergency procedure and surgical resection was done without compromising the associated anatomic structures. This procedure helped control the bleeding as well as achieved an uneventful healing. This case report intends to create an awareness among Pediatric Dentists regarding the condition and thereby preventing an uncontrolled and unmanageable hemorrhage occurring in the Dental Office.

  4. Dural AVM supplied by the ophthalmic artery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    Dural arteriovenous malformations in the anterior cranial fossa are rare and are especially prone to haemorrhage. These lesions are usually treated by surgical excision. We report the embolization of an anterior cranial fossa DAVM using an endovascular approach via the ophthalmic artery.

  5. Intra-arterial CT-angiography for cerebral arteriovenous malformation--initial experiences for treatment planning of radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Etsuo; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Onozuka, Satoshi; Momoshima, Suketaka; Takeda, Atsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Hashimoto, Subaru; Ohira, Takayuki; Kubo, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the feasibility and effectiveness of intra-arterial CT angiography (IACTA) for treatment planning of arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A CT scanner installed in an angiographic examination room was used. Helical IACTA was performed in 22 patients during continuous intra-arterial infusion of contrast medium via the internal carotid or vertebral artery, and dynamic IACTA was performed in 20 of these patients with reconstruction at 0.2-s intervals. The dynamic IACTA was repeated for each 3- or 5-mm increment to encompass the nidus. Subtractions were performed in postembolization cases. A retrospective review of IACTA was performed to assess the effectiveness of dynamic scans. Results: No complications related to the angiographic procedure or CT imaging were detected. High contrast enhancement was obtained for both helical and dynamic IACTA. In 18 of the 20 cases (90%), draining veins were separated from the nidus by using the enhancement patterns, and in 13 cases (65%), feeding arteries were separated. Conclusion: Dynamic IACTA added important information for target-volume determinations. Conventional CT and MRI could be omitted from the protocol, and the period that patients wore the frame was substantially shortened. We conclude that IACTA is a practical and useful method for radiosurgical treatment planning of arteriovenous malformations

  6. Embolization as one modality in a combined strategy for the management of cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; Iancu, D; Weill, A; Guilbert, F; Bahary, J P; Bojanowski, M; Roy, D

    2005-10-05

    We attempted to assess clinical results of management of cerebral arteriovenous malformation using a combination of endovascular, surgical and radiotherapeutic approaches. We retrospectively reviewed the angiographic and clinical data on prospectively collected consecutive patients treated by embolization from 1994 to 2004. The general philosophy was to attempt treatment by a combination of approaches only when an angiographic cure was likely or at least possible. The clinical outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin scale. Although 404 patients were collected, complete files and follow-ups are available for 227 or 56% only. Most patients presented with hemorrhages (53%) or seizures (23%). The final management consisted in embolization alone in 34%, embolization followed by surgery in 47%, embolization and radiotherapy in 16%, and embolization, surgery and radiotherapy in 3% of patients. The embolization procedure itself could lead to an angiographic cure in only 16% of patients. When the management strategy could be completed, the cure rate increased to 66%. Complications of embolization occurred in 22.6% of patients. Overall clinical outcome was excellent (Rankin 0) in 43%, good (Rankin 1) in 38%, fair (Rankin 2) in 10%, poor (Rankin 3-5) in 2%, and the death rate was 7%. A combined strategy initially designed to provide angiographic cures cannot be completed in a significant number of patients; the total morbidity of treatment remains significant. There is no scientific evidence that cerebral arteriovenous malformations should be treated, and no clinical trial to prove that one approach is better than the other. Various treatment protocols have been proposed on empirical grounds. Small lesions can often be eradicated, with surgery when lesions are superficial, or with radiation therapy for deeper ones. There has been little controversy regarding therapeutic indications in these patients (1). The management of larger AVMs, sometimes in more eloquent

  7. Ten-year detection rate of brain arteriovenous malformations in a large, multiethnic, defined population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rodney A; Kim, Helen; Sidney, Stephen; McCulloch, Charles E; Singh, Vineeta; Johnston, S Claiborne; Ko, Nerissa U; Achrol, Achal S; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Young, William L

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether increased neuroimaging use is associated with increased brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) detection, we examined detection rates in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of northern California between 1995 and 2004. We reviewed medical records, radiology reports, and administrative databases to identify BAVMs, intracranial aneurysms (IAs: subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] and unruptured aneurysms), and other vascular malformations (OVMs: dural fistulas, cavernous malformations, Vein of Galen malformations, and venous malformations). Poisson regression (with robust standard errors) was used to test for trend. Random-effects meta-analysis generated a pooled measure of BAVM detection rate from 6 studies. We identified 401 BAVMs (197 ruptured, 204 unruptured), 570 OVMs, and 2892 IAs (2079 SAHs and 813 unruptured IAs). Detection rates per 100 000 person-years were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3 to 1.6) for BAVMs, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.3) for OVMs, and 10.3 (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.7) for IAs. Neuroimaging utilization increased 12% per year during the time period (PIAs (PIAs (P4) per 100 000 person-years, without heterogeneity between studies (P=0.25). Rates for BAVMs, OVMs, and IAs in this large, multiethnic population were similar to those in other series. During 1995 to 2004, a period of increasing neuroimaging utilization, we did not observe an increased rate of detection of unruptured BAVMs, despite increased detection of unruptured IAs.

  8. Spinal cord arteriovenous shunts: from imaging to management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2003-01-01

    Spinal cord arteriovenous shunts (SCAVSs) are either fistulas or niduses that can be separated in four different groups according to their localization and relationship to the dura. Paraspinal AVSs are located outside the spine and are responsible for neurological symptoms because of cord compression by ertatic veins, venous congestion or arterial steal. Epidural shunts are located in the epidural space and drain in epidural veins with secondary intradural congestion. Dural shunts are embedded in the dura, produce a cord venous myelopathy after draining through veins that either pierce the dura far from a nerve root or accompany a nerve root. Intradural shunts affect the cord, the roots or the filum. Additionally, they can be classified according to their potential relationships with genetics, vascular biological features and angiogenesis into genetic hereditary lesions (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia), genetic non-hereditary lesions (multiple lesions with metameric links) and single lesions (AVMs or micro AVFs). MRI and MRA are able to visualise SCAVS early after the onset of clinical symptoms. The type of shunt and its localization may remain difficult to be precise. Angiography remains the gold standard for analysis of the anatomical, morphological and architectural features necessary for therapeutic decisions in both paediatric and adult populations. In our series, embolisation is chosen in first intention whatever the type of shunt responsible for the clinical symptoms and glue is preferably used. In paraspinal, dural or epidural arteriovenous shunts, the goal of treatment should be complete closure of the shunt. A complete cure by embolization is rather easily achieved in paraspinal lesions. Failure of endovascular therapy in dural or epidural shunts must bring the patient to surgery. The prognosis of most intradural shunts seems better than previously thought, even after haemorrhage. In intradural spinal cord arteriovenous shunts, embolisation

  9. Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain cells begin to die. Causes include a bleeding aneurysm, an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), or an artery ... first steps are to find the cause of bleeding in the brain and then control it. Surgery ...

  10. Dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations on daily or alternate day schedule outside the linear quadratic model: Proof of concept and early results. A substitute to volume fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Tripathi, Manjul; Oinam, Arun S; Ahuja, Chirag K; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kaur, Rupinder; Bhatt, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (DFGKRS) on a daily schedule beyond the linear quadratic (LQ) model, for large volume arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between 2012-16, 14 patients of large AVMs (median volume 26.5 cc) unsuitable for surgery or embolization were treated in 2-3 of DFGKRS sessions. The Leksell G frame was kept in situ during the whole procedure. 86% (n = 12) patients had radiologic evidence of bleed, and 43% (n = 6) had presented with a history of seizures. 57% (n = 8) patients received a daily treatment for 3 days and 43% (n = 6) were on an alternate day (2 fractions) regimen. The marginal dose was split into 2 or 3 fractions of the ideal prescription dose of a single fraction of 23-25 Gy. The median follow up period was 35.6 months (8-57 months). In the three-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 8.9-11.5 Gy, while in the two-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 11.3-15 Gy at 50% per fraction. Headache (43%, n = 6) was the most common early postoperative complication, which was controlled with short course steroids. Follow up evaluation of at least three years was achieved in seven patients, who have shown complete nidus obliteration in 43% patients while the obliteration has been in the range of 50-99% in rest of the patients. Overall, there was a 67.8% reduction in the AVM volume at 3 years. Nidus obliteration at 3 years showed a significant rank order correlation with the cumulative prescription dose (p 0.95, P value 0.01), with attainment of near-total (more than 95%) obliteration rates beyond 29 Gy of the cumulative prescription dose. No patient receiving a cumulative prescription dose of less than 31 Gy had any severe adverse reaction. In co-variate adjusted ordinal regression, only the cumulative prescription dose had a significant correlation with common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) severity (P value 0.04), independent of age, AVM volume

  11. A case report of Ggeneralized uterine arteriovenous malformation after molar pregnancy in an infertile woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine arteriovenous malformation (UAVM is a rare vascular condition in reproductive age presented mostly with bleeding. Although this malformation is infrequent, it is potentially life-threatening. Transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography is a widely available, noninvasive and excellent diagnostic method. Case: The case is a 30-yr-old woman with a history of eight-yr infertility.following intrauterine insemination treatment, she had a molar pregnancy. Despite methotrexate treatment, there was persistent vaginal bleeding. Assessment of this patient was done with transvaginal sonography and color Doppler. According to suspicious appearances, angiography was planned for confirmation of UAVM. Conclusion: UAVM is one of the molar pregnancy complications. The first step for diagnosis of UAVM is transvaginal ultrasonography and color Doppler assessment. Embolization is the best treatment for women who intend to preserve fertility.

  12. Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome complicated with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: A case report and review of literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome is a hereditary disease which is diagnosed by criterions of clinical symptoms and examinations. Here, we report a definite case of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome who had epistaxis, skin telangiectasia, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM. His initial clinical presentations were growing pulmonary nodule with cough and occasional chest pain. PAVM with rupture of aneurysm was diagnosed histologically after wedge resection of the nodule in his right lower lung.

  13. Symptomatic Granuloma Secondary to Embolic Agent: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawat, Prashant; Shaikh, Salman Tehran; Karmarkar, Vikram; Deopujari, Chandrashekhar

    2016-11-01

    Onyx is a liquid embolic agent presently gaining wide acceptance for embolisation of multiple vascular cranial pathologies like Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) and Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF). Onyx stays in the nidus of vascular pathology and initiates inflammatory response leading to thrombosis and subsequently resulting in occlusion of vascular nidus. However, if onyx spills into the surrounding brain tissue, reaction occurs in the form of foreign body inflammatory reaction. This is one of the very few cases in literature whereby embolisation of AVM with onyx lead to granuloma formation which needed surgical excision. It presented with limb weakness and seizure episodes.

  14. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Christopher, E-mail: cherbert@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); McKenzie, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Redekop, Gary [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hsu, Fred [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Abbotsford, BC (Canada); Gete, Ermias; Gill, Brad; Lee, Richard; Luchka, Kurt [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Haw, Charles [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lee, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, BC (Canada); Toyota, Brian [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martin, Montgomery [Department of Medical Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log-rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associated with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a V{sub x} for doses {>=}8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p < 0.05) in a multivariate model. According to the log-rank test, AVM volumes >5 cm{sup 3} and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p < 0.01). The V{sub 12} also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V{sub 12} was <28 cm{sup 3} and 53.2% if >28 cm{sup 3} (log-rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.

  15. Experience of the Irish National Centre for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia 2003-2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Bhuachalla, C F

    2012-01-31

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a group of autosomal dominant disorders of vascular structure. The Irish National Centre for HHT at the Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland was founded in 2003. From 2003 to 2008, screening of 164 patients with contrast echocardiography, thoracic computerised tomography (CT) and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has identified 88 patients with definite HHT, 72 (82%) of whom had epistaxis, 70 (80%) had telangiectasia and 81 (92%) had a first-degree relative with HHT. We sought to describe the manifestations of HHT in an Irish population and to determine differences between internationally reported data. The HHT patient database was analysed to describe demographics, clinical manifestations and interventional procedures performed in all referred patients. Contrast echocardiography and\\/or CT were performed in 86 patients with definite HHT, identifying 27 patients (31%) with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs). Nineteen patients with single or multiple pAVMs had 28 embolisation procedures performed, with 1-6 pAVMs embolised per procedure. Cerebral MRI was performed in 78 (89%) patients and 2 (2.3%) had cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs). HHT prevalence is thought to be 1 in 2500-8000, suggesting that there are many undiagnosed cases in Irish patients. Internationally published data suggest a prevalence of 15-35% for pAVMs and 10-23% for cAVMs in patients with HHT. While the prevalence of pAVMs in our group is consistent with these data, the prevalence of cAVMs is considerably lower, suggesting that Irish patients with HHT may differ genotypically and phenotypically from those in other countries.

  16. Use of intraoperative cerebral and spinal digital angiography as an aid to vascular neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, G.J.; Barrow, D.L.; Hoffman, J.C.; O'Brien, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the utility of intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (IODSA) in evaluating completeness of resection/clipping of vascular abnormalities of the central nervous system. IODSA was performed in 61 patients undergoing resection of intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) (n = 25), aneurysms (n = 33), and spinal AVMs (n = 3). Results were reviewed immediately; if further surgery was required, additional studies were performed until resection was considered radiographically and surgically complete. All patients with AVM and 15 with aneurysm underwent postoperative angiography for confirmation of IODSA findings

  17. Symptomatic Granuloma Secondary to Embolic Agent: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawat, Prashant; Shaikh, Salman Tehran; Karmarkar, Vikram; Deopujari, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Onyx is a liquid embolic agent presently gaining wide acceptance for embolisation of multiple vascular cranial pathologies like Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) and Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF). Onyx stays in the nidus of vascular pathology and initiates inflammatory response leading to thrombosis and subsequently resulting in occlusion of vascular nidus. However, if onyx spills into the surrounding brain tissue, reaction occurs in the form of foreign body inflammatory reaction.

  18. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  19. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  20. Consensus Document of the International Union of Angiology (IUA)-2013. Current concept on the management of arterio-venous management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B B; Baumgartner, I; Berlien, H P; Bianchini, G; Burrows, P; Do, Y S; Ivancev, K; Kool, L S; Laredo, J; Loose, D A; Lopez-Gutierrez, J C; Mattassi, R; Parsi, K; Rimon, U; Rosenblatt, M; Shortell, C; Simkin, R; Stillo, F; Villavicencio, L; Yakes, W

    2013-02-01

    Arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) are congenital vascular malformations (CVMs) that result from birth defects involving the vessels of both arterial and venous origins, resulting in direct communications between the different size vessels or a meshwork of primitive reticular networks of dysplastic minute vessels which have failed to mature to become 'capillary' vessels termed "nidus". These lesions are defined by shunting of high velocity, low resistance flow from the arterial vasculature into the venous system in a variety of fistulous conditions. A systematic classification system developed by various groups of experts (Hamburg classification, ISSVA classification, Schobinger classification, angiographic classification of AVMs,) has resulted in a better understanding of the biology and natural history of these lesions and improved management of CVMs and AVMs. The Hamburg classification, based on the embryological differentiation between extratruncular and truncular type of lesions, allows the determination of the potential of progression and recurrence of these lesions. The majority of all AVMs are extra-truncular lesions with persistent proliferative potential, whereas truncular AVM lesions are exceedingly rare. Regardless of the type, AV shunting may ultimately result in significant anatomical, pathophysiological and hemodynamic consequences. Therefore, despite their relative rarity (10-20% of all CVMs), AVMs remain the most challenging and potentially limb or life-threatening form of vascular anomalies. The initial diagnosis and assessment may be facilitated by non- to minimally invasive investigations such as duplex ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR angiography (MRA), computerized tomography (CT) and CT angiography (CTA). Arteriography remains the diagnostic gold standard, and is required for planning subsequent treatment. A multidisciplinary team approach should be utilized to integrate surgical and non-surgical interventions for optimum

  1. Fast-flow lingual vascular anomalies in the young patient: is imaging diagnostic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khong, Pek-Lan; Burrows, Patricia E.; Kozakewich, Harry P.; Mulliken, John B.

    2003-01-01

    To describe the imaging findings (MR imaging and angiography) of high-flow vascular anomalies of the tongue, hemangiomas and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), with emphasis on the discrepant imaging findings in lingual AVMs. Retrospective review of clinical records, histologic reports and imaging studies of five consecutive patients with high-flow lingual vascular anomalies. One patient had hemangioma (aged 1 month) and four patients had AVMs (aged 15 months, 6, 24, and 33 years). Diagnosis was made on the basis of histology in four lesions and was based on typical clinical history in one lesion. MR imaging and angiographic findings of the hemangioma were typical, but similar findings of focal hyperintense mass on T2-weighted images and angiographic stain were seen in three AVMs (patients aged 15 months, 6 and 33 years). On angiography, there was no nidus or direct arteriovenous (AV) shunting in one AVM (patient aged 15 months). The fourth AVM had typical MR imaging and angiographic findings. The imaging findings in lingual AVMs can be atypical or inconclusive and can mimic hemangiomas, especially in the young patient. Since treatment depends on accurate diagnosis, biopsy may be necessary for lesions with inconclusive imaging findings. (orig.)

  2. Delayed angiography in the investigation of intracerebral hematomas caused by small arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willinsky, R.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Brain Vascular Malformation Study Group, ON (Canada)); Fitzgerald, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada)); TerBrugge, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Brain Vascular Malformation Study Group, ON (Canada)); Montanera, W. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Wallace, M. (Div. of Neurosurgery, Dept. of Surgery, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., ON (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Brain Vascular Malformation Study Group, ON (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    We reviewed the clinical and radiological features of ten patients with small arteriovenous malformations that caused intracerebral hematomas. In six patients, angiography showed a small nidus (less than 1 cm in diameter) with a shunt at the site of the hematoma, and in four only an early-filling vein was evident. Six patients had only delayed angiography (4 weeks or more after the ictus). In three, angiography within 2 days of the ictus failed to reveal the cause of the bleed, but repeat angiography showed an early-filling vein in two, and a nidus with shunting in one. In only one patient did early angiography reveal the malformation. MRI was obtained in eight patients, and in two prominent vessels were evident in the wall of the hematoma cavity. In investigation of an unexplained intracerebral hematoma, MRI may be useful to exclude a neoplasm or cavernoma, although the latter may be not be evident in the presence of a recent hematoma. We suggest early MRI and angiography for investigation of an unexplained, nonhypertensive intracerebral bleed, with follow-up MRI and dealyed angiography if the initial studies fail to reveal the cause. (orig.)

  3. Radiation arteriopathy in the transgenic arteriovenous fistula model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Michael T; Arnold, Christine M; Kim, Yung J; Bogarin, Ernesto A; Stewart, Campbell L; Wulfstat, Amanda A; Derugin, Nikita; Deen, Dennis; Young, William L

    2008-05-01

    The transgenic arteriovenous fistula model, surgically constructed with transgenic mouse aorta interposed in common carotid artery-to-external jugular vein fistulae in nude rats, has a 4-month experimental window because patency and transgenic phenotype are lost over time. We adapted this model to investigate occlusive arteriopathy in brain arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery by radiating grafted aorta before insertion in the fistula. We hypothesized that high-dose radiation would reproduce the arteriopathy observed clinically within the experimental time window and that deletions of endoglin (ENG) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes would modify the radiation response. Radiation arteriopathy in the common carotid arteries of 171 wild-type mice was examined with doses of 25, 80, 120, or 200 Gy (Experiment 1). Radiation arteriopathy in 68 wild-type arteriovenous fistulae was examined histologically and morphometrically with preoperative radiation doses of 0, 25, or 200 Gy (Experiment 2). Radiation arteriopathy in 51 transgenic arteriovenous fistulae (36 ENG and 15 eNOS knock-out fistulae) was examined using preoperative radiation doses of 0, 25, or 200 Gy (Experiment 3). High-dose radiation (200 Gy) of mouse common carotid arteries induced only mild arteriopathy (mean score, 0.66) without intimal hyperplasia and with high mortality (68%). Radiation arteriopathy in wild-type arteriovenous fistulae was severe (mean score, 3.5 at 200 Gy), with intimal hyperplasia and medial disruption at 3 months, decreasing luminal areas with increasing dose, and no mortality. Arteriopathy was robust in transgenic arteriovenous fistulae with ENG +/- and with eNOS +/-, with thick intimal hyperplasia in the former and distinct smooth muscle cell proliferation in the latter. The transgenic arteriovenous fistula model can be adapted to rapidly reproduce radiation arteriopathy observed in resected brain arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery. High

  4. Stereotactic Radiosurgery with Neoadjuvant Embolization of Larger Arteriovenous Malformations: An Institutional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Dalyai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the safety and efficacy of a multimodality approach combining staged endovascular embolizations with subsequent SRS for the management of larger AVMs. Methods. Ninety-five patients with larger AVMs were treated with staged endovascular embolization followed by SRS between 1996 and 2011. Results. The median volume of AVM in this series was 28 cm3 and 47 patients (48% were Spetzler-Martin grade IV or V. Twenty-seven patients initially presented with hemorrhage. Sixty-one patients underwent multiple embolizations while a single SRS session was performed in 64 patients. The median follow-up after SRS session was 32 months (range 9–136 months. Overall procedural complications occurred in 14 patients. There were 13 minor neurologic complications and 1 major complication (due to embolization while four patients had posttreatment hemorrhage. Thirty-eight patients (40% were cured radiographically. The postradiosurgery actuarial rate of obliteration was 45% at 5 years, 56% at 7 years, and 63% at 10 years. In multivariate analysis, larger AVM size, deep venous drainage, and the increasing number of embolization/SRS sessions were negative predictors of obliteration. The number of embolizations correlated positively with the number of stereotactic radiosurgeries (P<0.005. Conclusions. Multimodality endovascular and radiosurgical approach is an efficacious treatment strategy for large AVM.

  5. Renal arteriovenous shunts, fistulae and malformations - angiographic case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, P.W.; Duex, A.

    1989-01-01

    Individual case reports serve to demonstrate the pathogenetically different renal arteriovenous shunt formations, such as congenital arteriovenous angioma, spontaneous arteriovenous aneurysm, iatrogenic arterio-venous fistula and neoplasia-conditioned arteriovenous fistula. These are discussed in detail, including treatment possibilities. The ranking of digital subtraction angiography is emphasised. Our case reports show that in preoperative diagnosis of pathological structures in the kidney, renovasography is an invaluable tool, especially with i.a. DSA technique, and is superior to all other methods such as sonography, CT, MR and colour-coded Doppler sonography. Due to improved techniques of angiography (markedly lower amounts of contrast medium when using catheters of narrow lumen) indication for i.a. DSA in haematuria of unknown origin should be liberal. Above all, the method should be performed at an early stage. If there is a NAD renal finding in the i.a. DSA renovasogram in renally conditioned haematuria even when using a 1024 x 1024 image matrix, it is advisable to perform selective renal arteriography to either exclude or confirm the existence of an intrarenal angioma, additionally in conventional sheet film technique because of the superior power of resolution. (orig.) [de

  6. What the Neurosurgeon needs to know about Cerebral Developmental Venous anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Miranda Hernando Raphael

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Venous Angiomas or Developmental venous anomalies (DVA are extreme variations of normal transmedullary veins that are necessary for the drainage of white and gray matter, also are one type of cerebrovascular malformation (CVM, sharing category with capillary telangiectesias, cavernous malformations (CM, and arteriovenous malformations (AVM, each of which may also be associated with a DVA. DVA are the most commonly encountered CVM, accounting for up to 60% of all CVM. We present a review of the literatura

  7. Anaesthetic management of appendectomy in a patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of anaesthetic management for appendectomy in a patient with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is to maintain a stable cardiovascular system. As this condition is rare, there are no definitive guidelines regarding the anaesthetic management of such patients. Case report: We report a case of ...

  8. Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome: Case report | Akintayo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is an under-recognized disorder that results from multisystem vascular dysplasia. It is characterized by telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of skin, mucosa and viscera. Most affected persons present with recurrent epistaxis which increases in frequency and severity with age. We report a 35 year old ...

  9. Functional impairments for outcomes in a randomized trial of unruptured brain AVMs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohr, J.P.; Overbey, J.R.; Kummer, R. von; Stefani, M.A.; Libman, R.; Stapf, C.; Parides, M.K.; Pile-Spellman, J.; Moquete, E.; Moy, C.S.; Vicaut, E.; Moskowitz, A.J.; Harkness, K.; Cordonnier, C.; Biondi, A.; Houdart, E.; Berkefeld, J.; Klijn, C.J.M.; Barreau, X.; Kim, H.; Hartmann, A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of medical vs interventional management on functional outcome in A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA). METHODS: We used the initial results of a nonblinded, randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial involving adults >/=18

  10. Functional impairments for outcomes in a randomized trial of unruptured brain AVMs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohr, J P; Overbey, Jessica R; von Kummer, Ruediger; Stefani, Marco A; Libman, Richard; Stapf, Christian; Parides, Michael K; Pile-Spellman, John; Moquete, Ellen; Moy, Claudia S; Vicaut, Eric; Moskowitz, Alan J; Harkness, Kirsty; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Biondi, Alessandra; Houdart, Emmanuel; Berkefeld, Joachim; Klijn, Karin J M; Barreau, Xavier; Kim, Helen; Hartmann, Andreas; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Luijckx, Gert Jan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of medical vs interventional management on functional outcome in A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA). METHODS: We used the initial results of a nonblinded, randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial involving adults ≥18

  11. Recent Trends in Neuro-endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke, Cerebral Aneurysms, Carotid Stenosis, and Brain Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumaru, Yuji; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira

    2017-06-15

    The efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers for emergent large vessel occlusion has been proved by randomized trials. Mechanical thrombectomy is increasingly being adopted in Japan since stent retrievers were first approved in 2014. An urgent clinical task is to offer structured systems of care to provide this treatment in a timely fashion to all patients with emergent large vessel occlusion. Treatment with flow-diverting stents is currently a preferred treatment option worldwide for large and giant unruptured aneurysms. Initial studies reported high rates of complete aneurysm occlusion, even in large and giant aneurysms, without delayed aneurysmal recanalization and/or growth. The Pipeline Embolic Device is a flow diverter recently approved in Japan for the treatment of large and giant wide-neck unruptured aneurysms in the internal carotid artery, from the petrous to superior hypophyseal segments. Carotid artery stenting is the preferred treatment approach for carotid stenosis in Japan, whereas it remains an alternative for carotid endarterectomy in Europe and the United States. Carotid artery stenting with embolic protection and plaque imaging is effective in achieving favorable outcomes. The design and conclusions of a randomized trial of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) trial, which compared medical management alone and medical management with interventional therapy in patients with an unruptured arteriovenous brain malformation, are controversial. However, the annual bleeding rate (2.2%) of the medical management group obtained from this study is worthy of consideration when deciding treatment strategy.

  12. Intraprocedural Safety and Technical Success of the MVP Micro Vascular Plug for Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Miles B; Ishaque, Brandon M; Surman, Andrew M; Kerlan, Robert K; Hope, Michael D; Dickey, Melissa A; Hetts, Steven W; Wilson, Mark W

    2015-11-01

    This case series describes early experience, intraprocedural safety, and technical success of the MVP Micro Vascular Plug (MVP; Covidien, Irvine, California) for embolization of 20 pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using 23 plugs in seven patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. There was no device migration, and all devices were successfully detached electrolytically. Immediate cessation of flow through the feeding artery was achieved in 21 of 23 (91%) deployments. There was one minor complication. This series demonstrates the MVP to be safe and technically successful in the treatment of PAVMs. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors for occlusion of cerebral AVMs following radiation therapy. Radiation dose and prior embolization, but not Spetzler-Martin grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippen, Stefan; Putz, Florian; Semrau, Sabine; Lambrecht, Ulrike; Knippen, Arzu; Fietkau, Rainer [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Buchfelder, Michael; Schlaffer, Sven [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Struffert, Tobias [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) may show a harmful development. AVMs are treated by surgery, embolization, or radiation therapy. This study investigated obliteration rates and side effects in patients with AVMs treated by radiation therapy. A total of 40 cases treated between 2005 and 2013 were analyzed. Single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was received by 13 patients and 27 received hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT). In 20 patients, endovascular embolization had been performed prior to irradiation and 24 patients (60 %) had a history of previous intracranial hemorrhage. Treatment resulted in complete obliteration (CO) in 23/40 cases and partial obliteration in 8/40. CO was achieved in 85 % of patients receiving SRS compared to 44 % of those receiving HSRT. In the HSRT group, a first indication of an influence of AVM volume on obliteration rate was found. Equivalent 2 Gy fraction doses (EQD2) >70 Gy showed an obliteration rate of 50 %. Prior embolization was significantly associated with a higher portion of CO (p = 0.032). Median latency period (24.2 vs. 26 months) until CO was similar in both groups (SRS vs. HSRT). The rate of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with no prior bleeding events was 0 %. Excellent obliteration rates were achieved by SRS. Consistent with the literature, this data analysis suggests that the results of HSRT are volume-dependent. Furthermore, regimens with EQD2 doses >70 Gy appear more likely to achieve obliteration than schemes with lower doses. The findings indicate that radiation therapy does not increase the risk of bleeding. Prior embolization may have a good prognostic impact. (orig.) [German] Intrakranielle arteriovenoese Malformationen (AVM) koennen einen komplikationsbehafteten Verlauf zeigen. AVMs sind mittels Operation, Embolisation oder Strahlentherapie behandelbar. Die Studie untersucht Obliterationsraten und Nebenwirkungen bestrahlter AVM-Patienten. Analysiert wurden 40 Faelle, die

  14. Integration of Three-Dimensional Rotational Angiography in Radiosurgical Treatment Planning of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Alfredo; Pontoriero, Antonio; Farago, Giuseppe; Midili, Federica; Siragusa, Carmelo; Granata, Francesca; Pitrone, Antonio; De Renzis, Costantino; Longo, Marcello; Tomasello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Accuracy in delineating the target volume is a major issue for successful stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations. The aim of the present study was to describe a method to integrate three-dimensional (3D) rotational angiography ( (3DRA)) into CyberKnife treatment planning and to investigate its potential advantages compared with computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography. Methods and Materials: A total of 20 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformation were included in the present study. All patients underwent multislice computed tomography and 3D-volumetric CTA, (3DRA), and 3D magnetic resonance angiography. The contouring of the target and critical volumes was done separately using CTA and thereafter directly using (3DRA). The composite, conjoint, and disjoint volumes were measured. Results: The use of CTA or (3DRA) resulted in significant differences in the target and critical volumes. The target volume averaged 3.49 ± 3.01 mL measured using CTA and 3.26 ± 2.93 mL measured using (3DRA), for a difference of 8% (p < .05). The conjoint and disjoint volume analysis showed an 88% volume overlap. The qualitative evaluation showed that the excess volume obtained using CTA was mostly tissue surrounding the nidus and venous structures. The mean contoured venous volume was 0.67 mL measured using CTA and 0.88 mL (range, 0.1-2.7) measured using (3DRA) (p < .05). Conclusions: (3DRA) is a volumetric angiographic study that can be integrated into computer-based treatment planning. Although whether (3DRA) provides superior accuracy has not yet been proved, its high spatial resolution is attractive and offers a superior 3D view. This allows a better 3D understanding of the target volume and distribution of the radiation doses within the volume. Additional technical efforts to improve the temporal resolution and the development of software tools aimed at improving the performance of 3D contouring are

  15. S-20: Profesyonel Futbolcuda İntrakranial Arteriovenöz Malformasyon - Olgu Sunumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin Şenişik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available İntrakranial arteriovenöz malformasyonlar (AVM beyin içindeki kapiller damarların olmamasından dolayı arterlerin direkt olarak yanındaki venlere bağlanması ile oluşan nadir bir durumdur. Arteriovenöz bağlantının doğrudan olması özellikle venlerde fibromusküler kalınlaşmaya ve dayanıksız elastik laminaya neden olur. Damarların basınç artışına veya travmaya maruz kalmaları AVM’nin yırtılmasına neden olabilir. Arteriovenöz malformasyonun genel popülasyondaki bildiren prevalansı 0.001-0.50% arasında değişmektedir. AVM yirmili yaşlara kadar belirti vermeden kalabilir. En sık görülen bulgusu 20-40 yaşlarındaki hastalarda oluşan intrakranial kanamadır (50%. Yırtılmamış AVM’ye bağlı en sık görülen şikayetler nöbet (25% ve baş ağrısıdır (15%. AVM tedavisindeki başlıca amaç tamamen yok edilmesidir. Tedavi seçenekleri arasında cerrahi rezeksiyon, endovasküler tedavi (embolizasyon ve stereotaktik radyasyon cerrahisi gibi işlemler bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmadaki olgu Türkiye 2. Futbol Liginde oynayan 32 yaşında futbolcuydu. Soy geçmişinde ve öz geçmişinde herhangi bir özelliği ve travma öyküsü olmayan futbolcunun yaklaşık 15 gündür devam eden baş ağrısı, başının bir bölgesinde yanma ve uyuşma şikayetleri mevcuttu. Fizik muayenesi normal olarak değerlendirilen sporcuya şikayetlerine yönelik ilaç tedavisi düzenlendi. Şikayetlerinde gerileme olmaması nedeni ile kontrol amaçlı yapılan MRI ve MRI anjiyo tetkikleri sonucunda sağ serebral hemisfer temporal lob yüzeyel bölümünde yaklaşık 2 cm boyutunda AVM olabileceği düşünülen lezyon görüldü. Bunun üzerine tanısal amaçlı serebral anjiyografi tetkiki yapılan futbolcuda yüzeyel ve derin venöz sisteme drene olan Spetzler Martin Grade II AVM nidusu saptandı. Beyin cerrahisi kliniğine yönlendirilen olguya cerrahi rezeksiyon işlemi uygulandı. Ameliyattan 6 hafta sonra yapılan kontrol

  16. Radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations based on magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Minesh; Kubsad, Shrikant; Petereit, Daniel; Turski, Patrick; Levin, Allan; Kinsella, Timothy

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) was performed to establish its feasibility, compare it with standard angiography (SA), employ MRA in follow-up and semiquantify AVM flow velocity (FV). A correlative evaluation between flow velocity and response to stereotactic radiosurgery was also attempted. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab

  17. Embolotherapy for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D; Oxhøj, H

    1998-01-01

    experienced an improved functional level. One patient experienced severe pleurisy and another a rise in temperature following treatment, but otherwise no symptomatic complications were observed. CONCLUSION: Embolotherapy is a definitive treatment for PAVMs: it is very effective with a high success rate......PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical results of embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), the Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve patients in the county of Fyn, Denmark, were treated...... with transcatheter embolization of 20 PAVMs using 12 detachable silicone balloons and 26 steel coils. RESULTS: All PAVMs were completely occluded and we observed a significant rise in PaO2 after treatment and a significant decrease in right-to-left shunt estimated by contrast echocardiography. All patients...

  18. Malformación vascular intraósea en el maxilar que se presenta en forma de sangrado gingival Intra-osseous vascular malformation in the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveenjayakumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las malformaciones arterio-venosas intraóseas (MAVs en la región maxilofacial son entidades clínicas poco frecuentes. Ofrecen una amplia gama de presentación clínica y no siempre se diagnostican sin sorpresa. El tratamiento de estas lesiones siempre ha representado un reto para el cirujano debido a su intensa vascularización y a la elevada incidencia de recurrencia. Se presenta el caso de una malformación arterio-venosa intraósea en el maxilar superior que se manifiesta como sangrado gingival, cuyos exámenes radiológicos de rutina no fueron concluyentes. Se llevó a cabo la excisión quirúrgica y el empaquetado del hueso con cera, y se realizó el seguimiento del paciente durante 1 año sin que se produjera recurrencia. Las malformaciones vasculares deben tenerse en consideración en el diagnóstico diferencial del sangrado gingival con radiografías dentales no concluyentes.Intraosseous arterio-venous malformations (AVM in the maxillofacial region are rare clinical entities. They have a wide range of clinical presentation and are not always diagnosed without a surprise. Treatment of these lesions has always been a challenge to the surgeon due to extreme vascularity and the high recurrence rate. The case presented is that of an intraosseous arterio-venous malformation in the maxilla that started as gingival bleeding and routine radiographic examinations were inconclusive. Surgical excision and bone wax packing was performed there were no recurrences during 1-year of follow-up. Vascular malformations may be considered in differential diagnosis of gingival bleeding with inconclusive dental radiographs.

  19. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Play an Important Role in Vascular Remodeling and Hemorrhaging in Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukihiko; Sugita, Yasuo; Nakashima, Shinji; Okada, Yousuke; Yoshitomi, Munetake; Kimura, Yoshizou; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Morioka, Motohiro; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenic and immunoactive lesions in brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) contribute to hemorrhagic events and the growth of BAVMs. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Our objective is to clarify the relationship between hemorrhagic events of BAVM and alternatively activated macrophages in the perinidal dilated capillary network (PDCN). We examined microsurgical specimens of BVMs (n = 29) and focused on the PDCN area. Ten autopsied brains without intracranial disease were the controls. We performed immunostaining of the inflammatory and endothelial cell markers, macrophage markers (CD163 and CD68), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). We evaluated each cell's density and the vessel density in the PDCN and analyzed the relationship to hemorrhagic events of BAVM. The PDCN was involved in all the resected arteriovenous malformations, and these vessels showed a high rate of CD105 expression (72.0 ± 10.64%), indicating newly proliferating vessels. Alternatively activated macrophages were found, with a high rate (85.6%) for all macrophages (controls, 56.6%). In the hemorrhagic cases, the cell density was significantly higher than that in the nonhemorrhagic cases and controls (hemorrhagic group, 290 ± 44 cells/mm(2); nonhemorrhagic group, 180 ± 59 cells/mm(2); and control, 19 ± 8 cells/mm(2)). The cell density of alternatively activated macrophages showed a positive correlation with the vessel density of the PDCN. Double immunostaining showed that VEGF-A was secreted by alternatively activated macrophages. Our data suggest that alternatively activated macrophages may have some relationships with angiogenesis of PDCN and hemorrhagic event of BAVM. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy and gamma knife surgery for brain arteriovenous malformations in China: Study protocol for an observational clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengwei Jin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The treatment of BAVM remains controversial. Microinvasive treatment, including endovascular therapy and gamma knife surgery, has been the first choice in many conditions. However, the overall clinical outcome of microinvasive treatment remains unknown and a prospective trial is needed. Methods: This is a prospective, non-randomized, and multicenter observational registry clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of microinvasive treatment for BAVMs. The study will require up to 400 patients in approximately 12 or more centers in China, followed for 2 years. Main subjects of this study are BAVM patients underwent endovascular therapy and/or gamma knife surgery. The trial will not affect the choice of treatment modality. The primary outcomes are perioperative complications (safety, and postoperative hemorrhage incidence rate and complete occlusion rate (efficacy. Secondary outcomes are elimination of hemorrhage risk factors (coexisting aneurysms and arteriovenous fistula, volume reduction and remission of symptoms. Safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy, gamma knife surgery, and various combination modes of the two modalities will be compared. Operative complications and outcomes at pretreatment, post-treatment, at discharge and at 3 months, 6 months and 2 years follow-up intervals will be analyzed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS. Discussion: The most confusion on BAVM treatment is whether to choose interventional therapy or medical therapy, and the choice of interventional therapy modes. This study will provide evidence for evaluating the safety and efficacy of microinvasive treatment in China, to characterize the microinvasive treatment strategy for BAVMs. Keywords: Brain arteriovenous malformation, Clinical trial, Endovascular therapy, Gamma knife, Safety, Efficacy

  1. Facial vascular malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelle, F.O.; Lallemand, D.; Chaumont, P.; Teillac, D.; Manach, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present their experience with conventional and digital angiography of vascular malformations of the head and neck in children. 22 hemangioendotheliomas, 8 venous angiomas, and 3 arteriovenous fistula were studied. 22 patients were embolised. DSA offers many advantages during the diagnostic as well as during the therapeutic phase of angiography. Embolization appears to have a major role in treatment of such vascular malformations. (orig.)

  2. 内視鏡的脳内血腫除去術が困難であったmicroAVMの1例

    OpenAIRE

    陶山, 大輔; 伊藤, 建次郎; 谷井, 雅人; 古市, 晋; 吉澤, 卓; 山際, 修; Daisuke, SUYAMA; Kenjiro, ITO; Masahito, TANII; Susumu, FURUICHI; Takashi, YOSHIZAWA; Osamu, YAMAGIWA; 横浜新都市脳神経外科病院脳神経外科; 横浜新都市脳神経外科病院脳神経外科; 横浜新都市脳神経外科病院脳神経外科

    2003-01-01

    We report a difficult case of endoscopic hematoma evacuation due to micro-arteriovenous malformation (AVM). A 60-year-old male presented with left hemiparesis and confusion. Computed tomography demonstrated right putaminal hemorrhage, but cerebral angiography revealed no definite vascular abnormalities. Endoscopic hematoma evacuation was immediately undertaken using a transparent sheath. Massive arterial hemorrhaging occurred following hematoma decompression, so endoscopic evacuation was abor...

  3. Autodestrucción espontánea de una malformación arteriovenosa cerebral Spontaneous self-destruction of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guevara Melcón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una paciente que fue investigada y operada en el Hospital Universitario "Gral. Calixto García", portadora de una malformación arteriovenosa cerebral, que desapareció espontáneamente después de un cuadro neurológico de intensa gravedad. Arteriográficamente se comprobó que estaba asociada a un aneurisma arterial en su mismo sistema vascular cerebral. La paciente había sufrido 3 eventos neurológicos en orden ascendente de gravedad, y fue el último motivo de ingreso en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva, con un nivel de 5 en la escala de Glasgow para el coma y sin signos meníngeos evidenciables. La lesión valorada como malformación arteriovenosa cerebral en las tomografías axiales cumputarizadas previas, no se evidenció en la panangiografía cerebral realizada en la fase de mejoría clínica relativa después de su etapa más crítica. Dicha angiografía demostró un aneurisma arterial homolateral a la malformación arteriovenosa ya desaparecida, el cual fue excluido de la circulación por presillamiento de su cuello sin eventos transoperatorios ni posoperatorios relevantes. Se realiza una revisión de la literatura al respecto.Authors present the case of a patient researched and operated on in the "General Calixto García" University Hospital presenting with a cerebral arteriovenous malformation disappeared spontaneously after a neurologic picture of intense severity. From the arteriographic point of view it was verified that it was associated with an arterial aneurysm present in her same cerebral vascular system. The patient has had three neurological events in rising order of severity which was the last reason for admission in the Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU with a level of 5 in the Glasgow scale for the coma and without obvious meningeal signs. The injury classified as a cerebral arteriovenous malformation according to the previous computerized axial tomographies was not evidenced in the cerebral panangiograpy carried out

  4. Neurovascular phenotypes in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia patients according to age. Review of 50 consecutive patients aged 1 day-60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krings, T.; Ozanne, A.; Chng, S.M.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P.L.; Rodesch, G.

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with varying penetrance and expressivity. Some of the most devastating consequences of this disease result from cerebral vascular malformations that manifest themselves in either arteriovenous fistulae (AVF), small nidus-type arteriovenous malformations (AVM) or micro-AVMs with a nidus less than 1 cm in size. The purpose of this study was to compare the phenotypes of CNS-manifestations of HHT with the age of the patient. The charts and angiographic films of 50 patients diagnosed with HHT according to the Curacao criteria were retrospectively evaluated concerning age of onset of symptoms, or, if not applicable of first consultation. The files were reviewed for clinical presentation, family and personal history, while the patients' angiograms were analysed with respect to the number of lesions (single and multiple), the location (superficial supratentorial, deep supratentorial, infratentorial, and spinal), and type of lesion (fistulous AVM, nidus-type AVM, and micro-AVM). A total of 75 central nervous system manifestations of HHT were found. Lesions included seven spinal cord AVFs that were all present in the paediatric age group (mean age: 2.2 years), 34 cerebral AV fistulae, all but two affected patients were less than 6 years (mean age 3.0). Sixteen nidus type AVMs (mean age: 23.1 years) and 18 micro-AVMs (mean age: 31.8 years) were found. HHT displays an age-related penetrance of clinical manifestations. Since members of the same family can present with completely different phenotypes of this disease there seems to be no relationship between the type of mutation and the phenotype of the disease. Since there seems to be a continuum of vascular abnormalities (from large fistulous areas to small AVMs and micro-AVMs) associated with HHT, the most likely determinating factor of the HHT phenotype is the timing of the revealing event in relation to the maturity of the vessel

  5. A proposed angioarchitecture grading system related to embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Bing; Wang Yirong; Li Tielin; Duan Chuanzhi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the risk of embolization of brain AVMs, study the angioarchitectural factors affecting the difference of embolization level, and to establish the angioarchitecture grading system for embolization of brain AVMs. Methods: The clinical data, angioarchitectural features, embolism complication and embolism level were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to determine if any of the variables was predictive of a poor outcome of embolization (death or permanent neurological deficit), and if any of the variables was predictive of the percentage obliteration achieved by embolization. Based on the above results, we established the angioarchitecture grading system. Results: Endovascular procedures for embolization were performed 324 times in 189 patients during an 11-year period. Embolization was performed using N-butyl cyanoacrylate. In those patients, 3 (1.6%) died and 5(2.6%) had a permanent neurological deficit as a result of the embolization. The AVMs were given a score from 0 to 5 based on the size, number of the first grade feeding artery, and number of the second grade feeding artery. The assigned scores were as follows: nidus size (AVF=0, <30 mm=1, ≥30 mm=2), number of the first grade feeding artery (1=0, 2-3=1, ≥4=2)and number of the second grade feeding artery(≤3=0, ≥4=1). Angiographic results based on percentage obliteration were grouped into four categories: complete, 80%-99%, 50%-79%, and 0%-50%. In the AVMs with angioarchitecture scores 0-1, 24(77.4% )of 31 were fully embolised, with scores of 4-5, none of the 101 were fully embolised, 82(81.2%)were below 50% embolization percentage. The correlation between the angioarchitecture grading system and the embolization percentage was strong (κ= 0.736, P<0.05). Conclusions: The angioarchitecture grading system predicts the embolization percentage perfectly. The lower the scores, the higher the possibility of fully embolization is; the higher the scores

  6. Clinical and Radiological Long-Term Follow-up After Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the clinical and radiological long-term results of embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and to assess the quality of life after treatment. A clinical follow-up was undertaken after 67 months (mean) in 35 consecutive patients with 106 PAVMs. Outcome parameters at follow-up were PaO 2 and patients' satisfaction. During follow-up, the patients had a clinical examination, measurement of arterial blood gases, chest X-ray, and contrast echocardiography performed and were asked to fill in a questionnaire exploring experience of the treatment and subjective effect of treatment on physical and social functioning. A significant rise in oxygenation of the blood after embolization was measured. In 77% of the patients symptoms improved, and 71% felt better performance. In eight patients, one of the PAVMs was found insufficiently embolized or recanalized at follow-up angiography and therefore were re-embolized. Endovascular embolization for PAVMs is effective. Clinical parameters and quality of life improved significantly. Regular clinical controls after therapy are necessary to discover insufficiently embolized, recanalized or new PAVMs

  7. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pregnancy: potential adverse events and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari O

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Omar Bari,1 Philip R Cohen2 1School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT is an autosomal dominant condition with a prevalence of ~1 in 5,000 individuals. The pathophysiology of this condition centers on the lack of capillary beds between arterioles and venules, leading to direct contact between these vessels. This results in telangiectases on characteristic locations such as the face, fingers, mouth, and nasal mucosa. Visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are also observed in many patients, and these are most commonly seen in the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. Liver AVMs are present in many patients with HHT, though these individuals are usually asymptomatic; however, liver AVMs may lead to serious complications, such as high output cardiac failure. Diagnosis of HHT hinges upon fulfilling three out of four criteria: family history of the condition, mucocutaneous telangiectases, spontaneous and recurrent episodes of epistaxis, and visceral AVMs. Management is guided by international consensus guidelines and targets patients’ specific AVMs. Prognosis is good, though severe complications including hemorrhage and paradoxical emboli are possible. Novel therapeutics are being explored in clinical trials; bevacizumab and pazopanib inhibit angiogenesis, while thalidomide bolsters blood vessel maturation. Pregnancy in patients with HHT is considered high risk. While the majority of pregnancies proceed normally, severe complications have been reported in some women with HHT; these include heart failure, intracranial hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage, and stroke. Such complications occur most often in the second and third trimesters when maternal changes such as peripheral vasodilation and increased cardiac output are at their maximum. Awareness of the diagnosis of HHT has

  8. Development and validation of a CT-3D rotational angiography registration method for AVM radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancanello, Joseph; Cavedon, Carlo; Francescon, Paolo; Cerveri, Pietro; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Colombo, Federico; Perini, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a novel technique is proposed and validated for radiosurgery treatment planning of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The technique was developed for frameless radiosurgery by means of the CyberKnife, a nonisocentric, linac-based system which allows highly conformed isodose surfaces to be obtained, while also being valid for other treatment strategies. The technique is based on registration between computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA). Tests were initially performed on the effectiveness of the correction method for distortion offered by the angiographic system. These results determined the registration technique that was ultimately chosen. For CT-3DRA registration, a twelve-parameter affine transformation was selected, based on a mutual information maximization algorithm. The robustness of the algorithm was tested by attempting to register data sets increasingly distant from each other, both in translation and rotation. Registration accuracy was estimated by means of the 'full circle consistency test'. A registration quality index (expressed in millimeters) based on these results was also defined. A hybrid subtraction between CT and 3DRA is proposed in order to improve 3D reconstruction. Preprocessing improved the ability of the algorithm to find an acceptable solution to the registration process. The robustness tests showed that data sets must be manually prealigned within approximately 15 mm and 20 deg. with respect to all three directions simultaneously. Results of the consistency test showed agreement between the quality index and registration accuracy stated by visual inspection in 20 good and 10 artificially worsened registration processes. The quality index showed values smaller than the maximum voxel size (mean 0.8 mm compared to 2 mm) for all successful registrations, while it resulted in much greater values (mean 20 mm) for unsuccessful registrations. Once registered, the two data sets can be used for

  9. [A vertebral arteriovenous fistula diagnosed by auscultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Escalera, G; Diaz-Delgado Peñas, R; Carrasco Marina, M Ll; Maraña Perez, A; Ialeggio, D

    2015-01-01

    Cervical artery fistulas are rare arteriovenous malformations. The etiology of the vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) can be traumatic or spontaneous. They tend to be asymptomatic or palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. An arteriography is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. The treatment is complete embolization of the fistula. We present the case of a two year-old male, where the mother described it «like a washing machine in his head». On palpation during the physical examination, there was a continuous vibration, and a continuous murmur in left cervical region. A vascular malformation in vertebral region was clinically suspected, and confirmed with angio-MRI and arteriography. AVF are rare in childhood. They should be suspected in the presence of noises, palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. Early diagnosis can prevent severe complications in asymptomatic children. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Pediatric congenital vertebral artery arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shownkeen, Harish; Chenelle, Andrew G.; Origitano, Thomas C.; Bova, Davide

    2003-01-01

    Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas are rare in children and the congenital form has been seldom reported in the literature. Prior to using endovascular therapy techniques, only surgery was the main treatment. The most common endovascular treatment is through the use of detachable balloons. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a congenital vertebral artery fistula in a 20-month-old child. Balloons could not be safely employed; therefore, embolization was performed with Guglielmi detachable microcoils. We review the history and treatment of these lesions, their clinical presentation, and imaging features, including their outcome, with particular attention to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  11. Linear accelerator based stereotactic radiosurgery with micro multi-leaf collimator : technological advancement in precision radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayananda, S.; Kinhikar, R.A.; Saju, Sherley; Deshpande, D.D.; Jalali, R.; Sarin, R.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Dinshaw, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) is an advancement on precision radiotherapy, in which stereo tactically guided localized high dose is delivered to the lesion (target) in a single fraction, while sparing the surrounding normal tissue. Radiosurgery has been used to treat variety of benign and malignant lesions as well as functional disorders in brain such as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), acoustic neuroma, solitary primary brain tumor, single metastasis, pituitary adenoma etc

  12. Augmented reality in neurovascular surgery: feasibility and first uses in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten-Oertel, Marta; Gerard, Ian; Drouin, Simon; Mok, Kelvin; Sirhan, Denis; Sinclair, David S; Collins, D Louis

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this report is to present a prototype augmented reality (AR) intra-operative brain imaging system. We present our experience of using this new neuronavigation system in neurovascular surgery and discuss the feasibility of this technology for aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs). We developed an augmented reality system that uses an external camera to capture the live view of the patient on the operating room table and to merge this view with pre-operative volume-rendered vessels. We have extensively tested the system in the laboratory and have used the system in four surgical cases: one aneurysm, two AVMs and one AVF case. The developed AR neuronavigation system allows for precise patient-to-image registration and calibration of the camera, resulting in a well-aligned augmented reality view. Initial results suggest that augmented reality is useful for tailoring craniotomies, localizing vessels of interest, and planning resection corridors. Augmented reality is a promising technology for neurovascular surgery. However, for more complex anomalies such as AVMs and AVFs, better visualization techniques that allow one to distinguish between arteries and veins and determine the absolute depth of a vessel of interest are needed.

  13. Stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations - preliminary results; Radiocirurgia estereotaxica no tratamento das malformacoes arteriovenosas - resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Antonio Belmiro Rodrigues Campbell [Hospital dos Servidores do Estado (HSE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Vieira, Sergio Lannes [Hospital Sao Vicente de Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Rossini Junior, Olamir [Clinica Radioterapia Botafogo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents the clinical and radiological results of six patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery with a 6 MeV linear accelerator for arteriovenous malformations. All patients had been previously examined by neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists who contraindicated surgery or embolization due to the size and location of the nidus. Radiological investigations performed 12 to 36 months after the treatments showed complete response in five patients and partial response in one patient, adding up to a total response rate of 100%. No signs or symptoms of permanent injury to the cranial nerves or cerebral parenchyma were detected up to the last follow-up visit. No episodes of cerebral hemorrhage were diagnosed and no deaths related to the radiosurgical treatment were reported during the follow-up period. (author)

  14. Perkutan transluminal embolisering af pulmonale arteriovenøse misdannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Andersen, P E; Oxhøj, H

    1998-01-01

    A series of nine patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) treated with embolotherapy at Odense University Hospital is presented. In all patients the arterial oxygen tension increased after embolisation. PAVM causes right-to-left shunting, which may result in severe hypoxaemia, and...

  15. A case report of Wyburn-Mason syndrome and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayani, P.N.; Sadun, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Wyburn-Mason syndrome is a distinct congenital neurocutaneous entity comprised of ipsilateral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the midbrain, vascular abnormalities affecting the visual pathway, and facial nevi. We report a case and review of the literature of all other reported cases of Wyburn-Mason syndrome (n = 26) in the English literature since 1973. In this review, we report on a 41/2-year-old boy with Wyburn-Mason syndrome who presented with left retinal and orbital AVMs and a ruptured thalamic AVM. The patient did not respond to light in the left eye and demonstrated a left afferent pupillary defect. He did not have any cutaneous lesions. We also characterize other reported cases of Wyburn-Mason syndrome. The presentation of patients with Wyburn-Mason syndrome can vary greatly according to the site and the extent of vascular lesions. Intracranial AVMs occasionally hemorrhage with significant morbidity. Treatment is controversial, and patients are typically managed conservatively by observation. (orig.)

  16. Successful management with glue injection of arterial rupture seen during embolization of an arteriovenous malformation using a flow-directed catheter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Won; Baik, Seung Kug; Shin, Mi Jung; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    We present a case in which an arterial rupture occurring during embolization of an arteriovenous malformation of the left occipital lobe with a flow-directed micro-catheter, was successfully sealed with a small amount of glue. We navigated a 1.8-Fr Magic catheter through the posterior cerebral artery, and during superselective test injection, extravasation was observed at the parieto-occipital branch. The catheter was not removed and the perforation site was successfully sealed with a small amount of glue injected through the same catheter. Prompt recognition and closure of the perforation site is essential for good prognosis. (author)

  17. Stereotactic Radiotherapy by 6MV Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oho, Yoon Kyeong; Kim, Mi Hee; Gil, Hak Jun [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1988-12-15

    Eight patients with intracranial tumors or arteriovenous malformation (AVM)s which were less than 3 cm in diameter were treated by a technique of stereotactic radiotherapy during the 4 months period from July 1988 through October 1988 at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Kang-Nam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College. The patients were diagnosed as AVMs in 3 cases, acoustic neurinoma, craniopharyngioma (recurrent), hemangioblastoma, pineocytoma, and pituitary microadenoma in each case. There are several important factors in this procedure, such as localization system, portal, field size, radiation dose, and perioperative supportive care. It is suggested that stereotactic radiotherapy may be performed safely with a radiation dose of 12-30 Gy. So this noninvasive procedure can be used to treat unresectable intracranial tumors or AVMs. Of these, clinical symptoms had been regressed in AVMs in 2 cases at 3 months and 2 months after Stereotactic radiotherapy, one of whom was confirmed slightly regressed on the follow-up angiogram. And also craniopharyngioma and pineocytoma was minimally regressed on 3 month follow-up CT.

  18. Stereotactic Radiotherapy by 6MV Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oho, Yoon Kyeong; Kim, Mi Hee; Gil, Hak Jun

    1988-01-01

    Eight patients with intracranial tumors or arteriovenous malformation (AVM)s which were less than 3 cm in diameter were treated by a technique of stereotactic radiotherapy during the 4 months period from July 1988 through October 1988 at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Kang-Nam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College. The patients were diagnosed as AVMs in 3 cases, acoustic neurinoma, craniopharyngioma (recurrent), hemangioblastoma, pineocytoma, and pituitary microadenoma in each case. There are several important factors in this procedure, such as localization system, portal, field size, radiation dose, and perioperative supportive care. It is suggested that stereotactic radiotherapy may be performed safely with a radiation dose of 12-30 Gy. So this noninvasive procedure can be used to treat unresectable intracranial tumors or AVMs. Of these, clinical symptoms had been regressed in AVMs in 2 cases at 3 months and 2 months after Stereotactic radiotherapy, one of whom was confirmed slightly regressed on the follow-up angiogram. And also craniopharyngioma and pineocytoma was minimally regressed on 3 month follow-up CT

  19. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  20. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula: Clinical and Histologic Spectrum of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomin Ahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF is abnormally dilated vessels that provide a right-to-left shunt between pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein and is clinically divided into simple and complex type. Here, we report four cases of surgically resected sporadic PAVFs presenting various clinical and histologic spectrums. Cases 1 (a 57-old-female and 2 (a 54-old-female presented as incidentally identified single aneurysmal fistulas and the lesions were surgically removed without complication. On the other hand, case 3 (an 11-old-male showed diffuse dilated vascular sacs involving both lungs and caused severe hemodynamic and pulmonary dysfunction. Embolization and surgical resection of the main lesion failed to relieve the symptoms. Case 4 (a 36-old-male had a localized multiloculated cyst clinically mimicking congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of dilated thick vessels, consistent with the diagnosis of fistulous arteriovenous malformation/hemangioma.

  1. Venous hemodynamics of arteriovenous meningeal fistulas in the posterior cranial fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainin, M.; Samec, P.

    1983-01-01

    The etiology of arteriovenous meningeal fistulas (AVMFs) of the posterior fossa often remains unclear. Analyses of three personal cases, however, suggest a change in venous hemodynamics due to a primary lesion, the cases being of sinus thrombosis, intracerebral abcess with oedema and arteriovenous malformation. It is suggested that increase of venous pressure in the posterior fossa leads to increased drainage and, consequently, to dilatation of infratentorial veins and of meningeal branches of the external carotid and vertebral artery. Clinical findings and anatomical facts underlying AVMF lesions tend to confirm the view that the concept of a congenital malformation decompensating with age cannot be upheld for all AVMFs, especially when located in the posterior fossa and when clinical symptoms arise in middle age. It is proposed that a pressure activated mechanism of growth results in widening of normally insignificantly small dural vessels. (orig.)

  2. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cerebro-vascular malformations by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, M.; Stoeter, P.; Voigt, K.

    1980-01-01

    In 38 patients, the diagnosis of a cerebrovascular malformation (17 arteriovenous angiomas including one low-flow- and two venous angiomas; 10 aneurysms; 4 arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus, the tentorium and one of the Great Vein of Galen; 6 megadolical basilar arteries) was initially made by computertomographic (CT) examination, including contrast enhancement. The characteristic and pathognomonic CT findings are described and compared with those of cerebral angiography also done in these cases. The problems of differential diagnosis and the reasons for a false CT diagnosis in 5 other patients with a cerebro-vascular malformation are investigated; and the diagnostic value of cerebral angiography and CT is discussed and their complementary functions are being pointed out. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MKO [de

  3. A case of pancreatic AV malformation in an elderly man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Kedia, Saurabh; Sonika, Ujjwal; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Pal, Sujoy; Garg, Pramod

    2018-06-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain and weight loss for 6 months. Abdominal imaging showed a large vascular lesion in the head and neck of pancreas suggestive of arteriovenous malformation (AV malformation). Endoscopic ultrasound was done which showed features of AV malformation with no evidence of pancreatic malignancy. Surgery was planned for definitive treatment of malformation. Digital subtraction angiography with angioembolization was done prior to surgery to reduce vascularity of the lesion. He recovered after a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of the resected specimen confirmed the pancreatic AV malformation. There has been no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up.

  4. Comparison between fast contrast-enhanced MR angiography and DSA in diagnosing spinal cord vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wu; Li Minghua; Fang Chun; Wang Jue; Xiao Yunfeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and clinical value of fast contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) with elliptic centric phase-encoding in spinal cord vascular malformations. Methods Fast three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography with elliptic centric phase-encoding and superconducting 1.5T system was applied prospectively in twenty-five consecutive patients with clinically suspected of spinal cord vascular malformations. All cases were performed with selective spinal digital subtraction angiography, including 18 cases treated by surgery and 2 of them with embolization before surgery, MR angiography follow up were undertaken in ten patients after surgery. Comparing fast contrast-enhanced MR angiography with DSA in diagnosing spinal cord vascular malformations included the origin of feeding artery, the feeding artery, the fistula or the nidus, the draining vein, and the vessel image quality based on the gold standard of selective spinal digital subtraction angiography. Results: Surgically proven diseases included spinal arteriovenous malformations(3 cases), spinal cord perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (5 cases), spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (8 cases), paravertebral arteriovenous fistulas (1 case), and spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas (2 eases). Comparing with DSA, the accuracy of MR angiography in diagnosing spinal cord vascular malformations; and detecting the origin of the feeding artery, the feeding artery, the shunt or the nidus and the draining vein were 93.8%, 92%, 96.2%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Overall the degree vascular enhencement were judged to be similar(P>0.05), but the vessel continuity of MRA was inferior to DSA (P<0.05). However, 9 cases of MRA showed no abnormal vascular malformation coinciding with those of surgery. Posttreatment MR angiography did not depict any abnormal vessels again. Conclusions: Fast three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography with elliptic centric phase-encoding may provide

  5. [Multiple coronary arteriovenous fistulae. Hazard or predetermination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Alberto; Muñoz-Castellanos, Luis; Solorio, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    The authors present the clinical cases of three adult patients (49, 53 and 61 year-old), with rheumatic cardiac valvulopathy, and bilateral coronary arteriovenous fistulae draining in the main pulmonary artery. Based on documental investigation, the authors speculate about the predeterminate origin of coronary arteriovenous fistulae. At first glance, it seems obvious that congenital cardiopathies occur at random, i.e., embryonic development deviate or stops due to unknown reasons, originating the persistence of lacunar blood spaces prior to the development of coronary arteries cords. There are two factors involved in the genesis of congenital malformations: a genomic preexisting factor and the presence of an environmental precipitating factor, i.e., isolated pulmonary valve atresia or left ventricular hypoplastic syndrome, with mitral and aortic valve stenosis, can predispose development of coronary arteriovenous fistulae. Recently, the question has been raised whether there is a relation of coronary arteries fistulae with: ethnic groups, hereditary gigantism, autoimmune diseases, such as polymyositis, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and apical hypertrophic myocardiopathy. Coronary arteriovenous fistulae, as well as some congenital cardiopathies, could be due to chromosome alterations or might be related to hereditary diseases, such as hemorrhagic telangiectasia, induced by a disturbed genetic program. Although, there is no concrete evidence that a genetic factor is related to the development of coronary arteriovenous fistulae, there are signs that suggest that such a possibility could be investigated.

  6. Imaging of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carette, Marie-France; Nedelcu, Cosmina; Tassart, Marc; Grange, Jean-Didier; Wislez, Marie; Khalil, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    This pictorial review is based on our experience of the follow-up of 120 patients at our multidisciplinary center for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or HHT is a multiorgan autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance, characterized by epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The research on gene mutations is fundamental and family screening by clinical examination, chest X-ray, research of pulmonary shunting, and abdominal color Doppler sonography is absolutely necessary. The angioarchitecture of pulmonary AVMs can be studied by unenhanced multidetector computed tomography; however, all other explorations of liver, digestive bowels, or brain require administration of contrast media. Magnetic resonance angiography is helpful for central nervous system screening, in particular for the spinal cord, but also for pulmonary, hepatic, and pelvic AVMs. Knowledge of the multiorgan involvement of HHT, mechanism of complications, and radiologic findings is fundamental for the correct management of these patients.

  7. Pharmacological Therapy of Vascular Malformations of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Szilagyi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular malformation (AVM in the gastrointestinal tract is an uncommon, but not rare, cause of bleeding and iron deficiency anemia, especially in an aging population. While endoscopic coagulative therapy is the method of choice for controlling bleeding, a substantial number of cases require additional therapy. Adjunctive or even primary phamacotherapy may be indicated in recurrent bleeding. However, there is little evidence-based proof of efficacy for any agent. The bulk of support is derived from anecdotal reports or case series. The present review compares the outcome of AVM after no intervention, coagulative therapy or focus on pharmacological agents. Most of the literature encompasses two common AVMs, angiodysplasia and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Similarly, the bulk of information evaluates two therapies, hormones (estrogen and progesterone and the somatostatin analogue octreotide. Of these, the former is the only therapy evaluated in randomized trials, and the results are conflicting without clear guidelines. The latter therapy has been reported only as case reports and case series without prospective trials. In addition, other anecdotally used medications are discussed.

  8. Demographic and angioarchitectural features associated with seizures presentation in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogwale Samson Motebejane, MBChB, Mmed Neurosurg (UKZN, FC Neurosurg (SA

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Improved knowledge of specific morphological factors associated with brain AVM epilepsy could aid in the formulation of appropriate therapeutic strategies for control and/or cure of these brain AVM-associated seizures.

  9. [Paradoxical brain embolism mediated through a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia in a Japanese patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, June; Todo, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Shiro; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Michi; Kohara, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of paradoxical brain embolism mediated through a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). A 25-year-old right handed man was admitted to our hospital after sudden headache and visual field abnormality. In neurologic examinations, he had left superior-quadrantanopsia. Laboratory findings showed iron deficiency anemia. Diffusion weighted images disclosed a high-signal-intensity area in the right occipito-temporal lobe, and intraarterial digital subtraction cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the right posterior cerebral artery. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed continuous right-to-left shunt. We confirmed his history of spontaneous recurrent epistaxis and the first-degree relatives with epistaxis or PAVM. A contrast enhanced CT scan of the chest revealed a PAVM. The diagnosis of paradoxical brain embolism mediated through the PAVM with HHT was, thus, established. The PAVM was occluded by using embolization coils successfully. In Asian countries, the prevalence of PAVM with HHT is thought to be lower than in European countries. We should carefully take medical and family histories, especially epistaxis, in a young stroke patient.

  10. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Correlations between computed tomography findings and cerebral complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etievant, Johan; Si-Mohamed, Salim; Vinurel, Nicolas; Revel, Didier [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Cardiologique Louis Pradel, Departement d' Imagerie Cardiaque et Thoracique, Diagnostique et Interventionnelle, Bron (France); Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Dupuis-Girod, Sophie [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Femme-Mere-Enfant, Service de Genetique, Centre de Reference pour la maladie de Rendu-Osler, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pole Information Medicale Evaluation Recherche, Lyon (France); Gamondes, Delphine [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Cardiologique Louis Pradel, Departement d' Imagerie Cardiaque et Thoracique, Diagnostique et Interventionnelle, Bron (France); Khouatra, Chahera [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Cardiologique Louis Pradel, Service de pneumologie - Centre des Maladies Orphelines Pulmonaires, Lyon (France); Cottin, Vincent [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Cardiologique Louis Pradel, Service de pneumologie - Centre des Maladies Orphelines Pulmonaires, Lyon (France)

    2018-03-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice to characterise pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Our objective was to determine if CT findings were associated with frequency of brain abscess and ischaemic stroke. This retrospective study included patients with HHT-related PAVMs. CT results, i.e. PAVM presentation (unique, multiple, disseminated or diffuse), the number of PAVMs and the largest feeding artery size, were correlated to prevalence of ischaemic stroke and brain abscess. All CTs were reviewed in consensus by two radiologists. Of 170 patients, 73 patients had unique (42.9 %), 49 multiple (28.8 %), 36 disseminated (21.2 %) and 12 diffuse (7.1 %) PAVMs. Fifteen patients presented with brain abscess; 26 patients presented with ischaemic stroke. The number of PAVMs was significantly correlated with brain abscess (11.5 vs. 6.2, respectively; p=0.025). The mean diameter of the largest feeding artery was significantly correlated with ischaemic stroke frequency (4.9 vs. 3.2 mm, respectively; p=0.0098). The number of PAVMs correlated significantly with risk of brain abscess, and a larger feeding artery significantly with more ischaemic strokes. These findings can lead to a better recognition and management of the PAVMs at risk of cerebral complications. (orig.)

  11. A tale of two cases of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: How they fared after cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzkey, Bethany L; Magyar, Dari L; Jones, Thomas K; Boucek, Robert J; Permut, Lester C; Kemna, Mariska S; Law, Yuk M

    2018-02-01

    In single ventricle patients, aortopulmonary collaterals (APCs) and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) following superior cavopulmonary shunt (CPS) can complicate orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) by cyanosis and hemoptysis. Although PAVMs can regress with the restoration of hepatic venous flow to the pulmonary circulation, the effects of hypoxemia on the "unconditioned" allograft are not known. Two patients with significant PAVMs after CPS were cyanotic following OHT. One patient with predominantly unilateral left PAVMs had arterial saturation levels less than 70% despite pulmonary vasodilators and ventilation. A custom flow restrictor-covered stent was deployed in the pulmonary artery of the affected side, redirecting the blood flow to the contralateral lung, immediately improving cyanosis. When the PAVMs regressed, the flow restrictor stent was dilated to eliminate the constriction. The second patient with PAVMs had cyanosis and severe hemoptysis from APCs post-OHT. The APCs required an extensive coil embolization, while the cyanosis responded to oxygen and pulmonary vasodilators. Both recipients did well with gradual resolution of PAVMs within 8 months. Despite cyanosis from right-to-left intrapulmonary shunting, allograft function recovered. Novel transcatheter interventions can play a role in patients with significant APCs or PAVM following cardiac transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Retrieving microcatheters from Onyx casts in a series of brain arteriovenous malformations: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, A; Hyodo, A; Suzuki, K; Tanaka, Y; Uchida, T; Takano, I; Kowata, K; Iwatate, K; Suzuki, R

    2012-11-01

    To date, the "monorail snare technique" for the retrieval of entombed microcatheter tips during Onyx(TM) (ev3, Irvine, CA) embolisation of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) has not been described. We report our experiences and some technical aspects in using this technique for the retrieval of entombed Marathon(TM) microcatheter (ev3, Plymouth, MN) tips during Onyx embolisation of BAVM treatment. Onyx was used in the embolisation of 11 patients using 25 feeders over 14 sessions. The 'monorail snare technique' was employed for 14 feeders. Each time, an Amplatz 4 mm Gooseneck Microsnare(TM) (ev3, Plymouth, MN) was loaded into an Excelsior 1018(TM) microcatheter (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA). The Marathon microcatheter was cut just distal to the hub, and the Amplatz/Excelsior combination was introduced along the length of the Marathon microcatheter towards its distal end, as far as possible. The embedded catheter was ensnared and both catheters were pulled free. Microcatheter tip removal was successful in all cases, except for one microcatheter tip becoming detached and needing no further intervention. There were no complications as a direct result of the snare technique. The monorail snare technique is a safe and easy technique for retrieving Onyx-encased microcatheter tips in the treatment of BAVM.

  13. Impact of radiation therapy for benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.; Van Houtte, P.; Beauvois, S.; Roelandts, M.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation therapy of benign diseases represent a wide panel of indications. Some indications are clearly identified as treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM), hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, postoperative heterotopic bone formations or keloid scars. Some indications are under evaluation as complications induced by neo-vessels of age-related macular degeneration or coronary restenosis after angioplasty. Some indications remain controversial with poor evidence of efficiency as treatment of bursitis, tendinitis or Dupuytren's disease. Some indications are now obsolete such as warts, or contra-indicated as treatment of infant and children. (authors)

  14. Giant High-Flow Type Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation: Coil Embolization with Flow Control by Balloon Occlusion and an Anchored Detachable Coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Goshima, Satoshi; Tsuge, Yusuke; Watanabe, Haruo; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are often treated by pushable fibered or non-fibered microcoils, using an anchor or scaffold technique or with an Amplatzer plug through a guiding sheath. When performing percutaneous transcatheter microcoil embolization, there is a risk of coil migration, particularly with high-flow type PAVMs. The authors report on a unique treatment in a patient with a giant high-flow PAVM whose nidus had a maximum diameter of 6 cm. A detachable coil, not detached from a delivery wire (an anchored detachable coil), was first placed in the feeding artery under flow control by balloon occlusion, and then multiple microcoils were packed proximally to the anchored detachable coil. After confirming the stability of the microcoils during a gradual deflation of the balloon, we finally released the first detachable coil. The nidus was reduced in size to 15 mm at one year postoperatively.

  15. CT imaging of cervical spinal vascular malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Munehisa; Miyamoto, Etsuo; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi; Hayama, Tsuneto

    1982-01-01

    The patient had a history of the onset of motor paralysis of the right upper and lower extremities. Eight years later, numbness of the right upper extremity and a severe neck pain developed, and transverse paralysis of the lower extremities appeared in about 10 hours. CT demonstrated the presence of spinal vascular abnormality. Angiography suggested arteriovenous malformation of glomus type. (Chiba, N.)

  16. CT imaging of cervical spinal vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Munehisa; Miyamoto, Etsuo; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi; Hayama, Tsuneto [Wakayama Red Cross Hospital, Wakayama (Japan)

    1982-05-01

    The patient had a history of the onset of motor paralysis of the right upper and lower extremities. Eight years later, numbness of the right upper extremity and a severe neck pain developed, and transverse paralysis of the lower extremities appeared in about 10 hours. CT demonstrated the presence of spinal vascular abnormality. Angiography suggested arteriovenous malformation of glomus type.

  17. Impact of radiation therapy for benign diseases; Role de la radiotherapie dans les affections benignes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, G. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Fondation Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Van Houtte, P.; Beauvois, S.; Roelandts, M. [Institut Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Radiation therapy of benign diseases represent a wide panel of indications. Some indications are clearly identified as treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM), hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, postoperative heterotopic bone formations or keloid scars. Some indications are under evaluation as complications induced by neo-vessels of age-related macular degeneration or coronary restenosis after angioplasty. Some indications remain controversial with poor evidence of efficiency as treatment of bursitis, tendinitis or Dupuytren`s disease. Some indications are now obsolete such as warts, or contra-indicated as treatment of infant and children. (authors)

  18. Surgical management of dural arteriovenous fistulas with transosseous arterial feeders involving the jugular bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirakotai, W; Benes, L; Kappus, C; Sure, U; Farhoud, A; Bien, S; Bertalanffy, H

    2007-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas located in the vicinity of the jugular foramen are complex vascular malformations and belong to the most challenging skull base lesions to treat. The authors comprehensively analyze multiple features in a series of dural arteriovenous fistulas with transosseous arterial feeders involving the jugular bulb. Four patients who underwent surgery via the transcondylar approach to treat dural arteriovenous fistulas around the jugular foramen were retrospectively reviewed. Previously, endovascular treatment was attempted in all patients. The success of the surgical treatment was examined with postoperative angiography. Complete obliteration of the dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) was achieved in three patients, and significant flow reduction in one individual. All patients had a good postoperative outcome, and only one experienced mild hypoglossal nerve palsy. Despite extensive bone drilling, an occipitocervical fusion was necessary in only one patient with bilateral lesions. The use of an individually tailored transcondylar approach to treat dural arteriovenous fistulas at the region of the jugular foramen is most effective. This approach allows for complete obliteration of the connecting arterial feeders, and removal of bony structures containing pathological vessels.

  19. Interplay between VEGF and Nrf2 regulates angiogenesis due to intracranial venous hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwen; Pan, Hao; Wang, Handong; Li, Xiang; Bu, Xiaomin; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Yongyue; Wen, Guodao; Zhou, Yali; Cong, Zixiang; Yang, Youqing; Tang, Chao; Liu, Zhengwei

    2016-11-21

    Venous hypertension(VH) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and is closely associated with the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2) significantly influences angiogenesis; however, the interplay between Nrf2 and VEGF under VH in brain AVMs remains unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the interplay between Nrf2 and VEGF due to VH in brain AVMs. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Nrf2 and VEGF were highly expressed in human brain AVM tissues. In vivo, we established a VH model in both wild-type (WT) and siRNA-mediated Nrf2 knockdown rats. VH significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and VEGF. Loss of Nrf2 markedly inhibited the upregulation of VEGF, as determined by Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR. In vitro, primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) were isolated from WT and Nrf2 -/- mice, and a VEGF-Nrf2 positive feed-back loop was observed in BMECs. By trans well assay and angiogenesis assay, Nrf2 knockout significantly inhibited the migration and vascular tube formation of BMECs. These findings suggest that the interplay between Nrf2 and VEGF can contribute to VH-induced angiogenesis in brain AVMs pathogenesis.

  20. Chronic intestinal bleeding caused by congenital arteriovenous malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haringsma, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1988-01-01

    A case of vascular malformation over the entire length of the colon and small intestine in a 41-year-old male with an almost life-long history of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is presented. The patient's history, in connection with the findings at colonoscopy and surgery, was highly suggestive of

  1. A rare case of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Apostolova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF is a rare vascular malformation of the spine. Only a limited number of cases of SDAVF have been reported in the current literature. We describe the case of a 74 year old male who presented with gradually progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness and bladder dysfunction and was subsequently diagnosed with SDAVF affecting both the thoracic and lumbar spine. The patient later underwent embolization with some improvement in his neurologic symptoms.

  2. Investigating the use of Automated Valuation Models (AVMs) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    construction of AVMs, and a better terminology includes data- analysis methods ... property valuations, as in many other industries, has transformed business operations. ... starts by providing an AVM and comparable transactions. The valuer ...

  3. A case report of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula: origins, determinants, and consequences of abnormal vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhary, Sherry M; Hoehmann, Christopher L; Cuoco, Joshua A; Hitscherich, Kyle; Alam, Hamid; Torres, German

    2017-06-01

    A spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is an abnormally layered connection between radicular arteries and venous plexus of the spinal cord. This vascular condition is relatively rare with an incidence of 5-10 cases per million in the general population. Diagnosis of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is differentiated by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography or structural magnetic resonance imaging, but a definitive diagnosis requires spinal angiography methods. Here, we report a case of a 67-year-old female with a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, provide a pertinent clinical history to the case nosology, and discuss the biology of adhesive proteins, chemotactic molecules, and transcription factors that modify the behavior of the vasculature to possibly cause sensorimotor deficits.

  4. Use of a new mixture for embolization of intracranial vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lylyk, P.; Vinuela, F.; Dion, J.; Bentson, J.; Duckwiler, G.; Lin, T.; Vinters, H.V.

    1990-01-01

    The internal carotid artery system in swines has a special anatomic configuration similar to a brain 'arterial-arterial malformation'. The internal carotid artery breaks up into a multitude of fine channels (rete mirabile) situated at the base of the skull on the side of the hypophysis. This anatomic arterial model was used to analyze acute and chronic angiographic and histological changes after occlusion of the rete mirabile with I) avitene, II) avitene, and 50% ethanol, III) avitene, 30% ethanol and polyvinyl alcohol, IV) avitene, 50% ethanol and polyvinyl alcohol, V) IBCA and VI) silk. Histopathological changes observed in the rete mirabile six weeks following occlusion demonstrated that a mixture of avitene, 30% ethanol and polyvinyl alcohol and IBCA produced the best anatomic results. Embolization with avitene, PVA and ethanol induced a more bland histological reaction than the one observed with IBCA. Preliminary clinical experience with this mixture is reassuring in those cases in which the AVM was surgically resected. The partially thrombosed AVM was easily depressed and compressed by the neurosurgeon allowing for satisfactory hemostasis in and around the nidus of the AVM. (orig.)

  5. Osler's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U.; Lieb, J.; Schneider, G.; Ulmer, S.

    2013-01-01

    Osler's disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes and often in organs, such as the lungs, liver and brain (arteriovenous malformations AVM). Various types are known. Patients may present with epistaxis. Teleangiectasia can be identified by visual inspection during physical examination of the skin or oral cavity or by endoscopy. Diagnosis is made after clinical examination and genetic testing based on the Curacao criteria. Modern imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become more important as they can depict the AVMs. Pulmonary AVMs can be depicted in CT imaging even without the use of a contrast agent while other locations including the central nervous system (CNS) usually require administration of contrast agents. Knowledge of possible clinical manifestations in various organs, possible complications and typical radiological presentation is mandatory to enable adequate therapy of these patients. Interventional procedures are becoming increasingly more important in the treatment of HHT patients. (orig.) [de

  6. Color-coded perfusion analysis of CEUS for pre-interventional diagnosis of microvascularisation in cases of vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusch, V I; Wohlgemuth, W A; Piehler, A P; Jung, E M

    2014-01-01

    Aim of our pilot study was the application of a contrast-enhanced color-coded ultrasound perfusion analysis in patients with vascular malformations to quantify microcirculatory alterations. 28 patients (16 female, 12 male, mean age 24.9 years) with high flow (n = 6) or slow-flow (n = 22) malformations were analyzed before intervention. An experienced examiner performed a color-coded Doppler sonography (CCDS) and a Power Doppler as well as a contrast-enhanced ultrasound after intravenous bolus injection of 1 - 2.4 ml of a second-generation ultrasound contrast medium (SonoVue®, Bracco, Milan). The contrast-enhanced examination was documented as a cine sequence over 60 s. The quantitative analysis based on color-coded contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) images included percentage peak enhancement (%peak), time to peak (TTP), area under the curve (AUC), and mean transit time (MTT). No side effects occurred after intravenous contrast injection. The mean %peak in arteriovenous malformations was almost twice as high as in slow-flow-malformations. The area under the curve was 4 times higher in arteriovenous malformations compared to the mean value of other malformations. The mean transit time was 1.4 times higher in high-flow-malformations compared to slow-flow-malformations. There was no difference regarding the time to peak between the different malformation types. The comparison between all vascular malformation and surrounding tissue showed statistically significant differences for all analyzed data (%peak, TTP, AUC, MTT; p < 0.01). High-flow and slow-flow vascular malformations had statistically significant differences in %peak (p < 0.01), AUC analysis (p < 0.01), and MTT (p < 0.05). Color-coded perfusion analysis of CEUS seems to be a promising technique for the dynamic assessment of microvasculature in vascular malformations.

  7. A case report of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula: origins, determinants, and consequences of abnormal vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry M. Zakhary, DO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is an abnormally layered connection between radicular arteries and venous plexus of the spinal cord. This vascular condition is relatively rare with an incidence of 5–10 cases per million in the general population. Diagnosis of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is differentiated by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography or structural magnetic resonance imaging, but a definitive diagnosis requires spinal angiography methods. Here, we report a case of a 67-year-old female with a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, provide a pertinent clinical history to the case nosology, and discuss the biology of adhesive proteins, chemotactic molecules, and transcription factors that modify the behavior of the vasculature to possibly cause sensorimotor deficits.

  8. Replication Study of Polymorphisms Associated With Brain Arteriovenous Malformation in a Population From South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscatto, André Cerutti; Ludwig, Fernanda S; Matte, Ursula S; Mota, Simone; Stefani, Marco A

    2016-02-24

    The aim of this study was to reproducibly determine if any of the polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility to brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) or the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) presentation. We recruited 63 BAVM patients and 96 controls. The polymorphisms selected for evaluation were apolipoprotein E (APOE), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF 238G>A - rs361525), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B 511C>T - rs16944 and IL1B -31T>C - rs1143627), activin-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1 IVS3-35A>G - rs2071219), endoglin (ENG 207G>A - rs11545664), and interleukin 6 (IL6 174G>C - rs1800795). In the single analysis, we observed statistically significant differences in the allele distributions for IL1B -31T>C (rs1143627) between the BAVM patients and control subjects (P = 0.02). There was a trend toward significance for the association between the IL1B 511C>T (rs16944) allele and BAVM risk (P = 0.07). In further logistic regression analysis, no polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of BAVM. No polymorphisms were associated with hemorrhage presentation according to both single and multivariable analyses. In our sample from a south Brazil population, we found no association between the risks of BAVM and ICH presentation with any of the selected polymorphisms.

  9. TOF MR angiography of cerebral arteriovenous malformations before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlemmer, H.P.; Hess, T.; Debus, J.; Knopp, M.V.; Schad, L.R.; Engenhart, R.

    1994-01-01

    We studied whether 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography can be used for therapy planning and monitoring. MRI and TOF-MRA studies of 28 patients undergoing radiotherapy were evaluated. They were compared to conventional angiography to assess the MRA study. A correct identification of the arterial feeder and the nidus was possible in about 75% of the patients. In combination with the MRI study, an important 3D dataset for treatment planning could be obtained that includes therapeutically relevant information on the localization and spatial structure of the AVM as well as the adjacent brain tissue. As a noninvasive technique, close-meshed follow-up studies could be performed with MRA. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Superselective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen-Kondering, Ulf [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Lindner, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.lindner@uksh.de [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Osch, Matthias J.P. van [C. J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Rohr, Axel; Jansen, Olav [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Helle, Michael [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Now with Philips GmbH Innovative Technologies, Research Laboratories, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Superselective arterial spin labeling was capable of acquiring angiograms of individually selected arteries. • Image quality was similar compared with a routinely used time-of-flight angiography. • Superselective arterial spin labeling was utilized in patients with arterio-venous malformations and made it possible to visualize individual feeding vessels in a complete non-invasive way - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a novel non-contrast enhanced, vessel-selective magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) approach based on superselective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) for the morphologic assessment of intracranial arteries when compared to a clinically used time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. Materials and methods: Three sets of selective ASL angiographies (right and left internal carotid artery, basilar artery) as well as one TOF data set were obtained from each of the five volunteers included in this study on a clinical 1.5T system. The depiction of arterial segments as well as their delineation was evaluated and independently analyzed by two radiologists. Additionally, the ASL angiography approach was performed in two patients suffering from arterio-venous malformations (AVM) in order to illustrate potential applications in a clinical setting. Results: In both angiography techniques, intracranial arteries and their segments (distal branches up to A5 segments of the anterior cerebral arteries, M8 segments of the middle cerebral arteries, and P5 segments of the posterior cerebral arteries) were continuously depicted with excellent inter-reader agreement (κ > 0.81). In AVM patients, reconstructed images of the TOF angiography presented similar information about the size and shape of the AVM as did superselective ASL angiography. In addition, the acquired ASL angiograms of selected vessels allowed assessing the blood supply of individually labeled arteries to the AVM which could also be confirmed by digital subtraction angiography

  11. Superselective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen-Kondering, Ulf; Lindner, Thomas; Osch, Matthias J.P. van; Rohr, Axel; Jansen, Olav; Helle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Superselective arterial spin labeling was capable of acquiring angiograms of individually selected arteries. • Image quality was similar compared with a routinely used time-of-flight angiography. • Superselective arterial spin labeling was utilized in patients with arterio-venous malformations and made it possible to visualize individual feeding vessels in a complete non-invasive way - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a novel non-contrast enhanced, vessel-selective magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) approach based on superselective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) for the morphologic assessment of intracranial arteries when compared to a clinically used time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. Materials and methods: Three sets of selective ASL angiographies (right and left internal carotid artery, basilar artery) as well as one TOF data set were obtained from each of the five volunteers included in this study on a clinical 1.5T system. The depiction of arterial segments as well as their delineation was evaluated and independently analyzed by two radiologists. Additionally, the ASL angiography approach was performed in two patients suffering from arterio-venous malformations (AVM) in order to illustrate potential applications in a clinical setting. Results: In both angiography techniques, intracranial arteries and their segments (distal branches up to A5 segments of the anterior cerebral arteries, M8 segments of the middle cerebral arteries, and P5 segments of the posterior cerebral arteries) were continuously depicted with excellent inter-reader agreement (κ > 0.81). In AVM patients, reconstructed images of the TOF angiography presented similar information about the size and shape of the AVM as did superselective ASL angiography. In addition, the acquired ASL angiograms of selected vessels allowed assessing the blood supply of individually labeled arteries to the AVM which could also be confirmed by digital subtraction angiography

  12. A case report of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula: origins, determinants, and consequences of abnormal vascular malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Zakhary, Sherry M.; Hoehmann, Christopher L.; Cuoco, Joshua A.; Hitscherich, Kyle; Alam, Hamid; Torres, German

    2017-01-01

    A spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is an abnormally layered connection between radicular arteries and venous plexus of the spinal cord. This vascular condition is relatively rare with an incidence of 5–10 cases per million in the general population. Diagnosis of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is differentiated by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography or structural magnetic resonance imaging, but a definitive diagnosis requires spinal angiography methods. Here, we report a cas...

  13. "Dual pathology" and the significance of surgical outcome in "Dostoewsky's epilepsy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, C L; Patel, S J; Naso, W

    2000-03-01

    A patient with a right occipital arterio-venous malformation (AVM) and seizures heralded by "lights", and experiencing "ecstasy" underwent a right occipital lobectomy after the AVM was embolized. Thereafter, seizures began with motor arrest and lip smacking, but never again with "light and ecstasy". A right temporal lobectomy and electrocorticogram (E.Co.G) were performed under local anesthesia four years after occipital lobectomy. Abundant spiking activity was recorded from the right hippocampus which showed gliosis and neuronal loss in the pathology studies. Electrical stimulation of the lateral and basal temporal cortices failed to elicit the vision of "lights" or the experience of "ecstasy". The patient has had two seizures in the last two years as a result of a lapse in taking his anti-convulsant medication. He now lives alone, seizure-free. The possible abnormally induced functional network organization and structures involved in the production of the "ecstasy" phenomenon are discussed.

  14. Relationship of bleeding complications and impairment of draining veins after α-n-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Bing; Wang Yirong; Li Tielin; Duan Chuanzhi; Wang Qiujing; Zhao Qingping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the causes, consequences and management of injuries to the draining veins after embolization of brain arterioven0us malformations (BAVMs) with α-n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Methods: The angiographic imaging data of 189 BAVMs patients who underwent NBCA embolization were studied retrospectively. The status of the draining veins before and after NBCA embolization was observed and compared. The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)complications and their relation to their angiographic features were analyzed. Results: Twenty-three patients out of 189 patients showed injuries to the draining venous system, including 10 low-grade injury, 6 moderate injury, and 7 high-grade injury. Six patients suffered from ICH after embolization, of whom 4 patients were due to injuries of the draining veins (2 moderate and 2 high-grade). In the 3 months follow-up evaluation of 4 patients with ICH, one died, one was in vegetative state, and the other two patients suffered from residual severe or minor (1 patient for each) permanent neurological deficits. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that injury of the draining veins is the major cause of ICH and may lead to serious consequences after embolization of BAVMs with NBCA. (authors)

  15. Advances in automated valuation modeling AVM after the non-agency mortgage crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Kauko, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses several problems related to automated valuation methodologies (AVM). Following the non-agency mortgage crisis, it offers a variety of approaches to improve the efficiency and quality of an automated valuation methodology (AVM) dealing with emerging problems and different contexts. Spatial issue, evolution of AVM standards, multilevel models, fuzzy and rough set applications and quantitative methods to define comparables are just some of the topics discussed.

  16. Indocyanine green videoangiography "in negative": definition and usefulness in intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda Lloret, Pablo; Aparici Robles, Fernando; Beltrán Giner, Andrés; Botella Asunción, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Indocyanine green videoangiography (IGV) raises important limitations when we use it in vascular pathology, especially in cases with arterialization of the venous system such as arteriovenous malformations and fistulae. Our objective was to provide a simple procedure that overcomes the limitations of conventional IGV. We define IGV in negative (IGV-IN), so-called because, in its first phase, the vessel to analyze is clipped, and we report 3 cases of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae treated with this procedure. In 2011, we applied IGV-IN to 3 patients at our center with Borden type III intracranial arteriovenous fistulae. In all 3 cases, IGV-IN enabled both diagnosis and post-dural arteriovenous fistula exclusion control in 1 integrated procedure no longer than 1 minute, requiring only 1 visualization. IGV-IN is an improvement over the conventional IGV method and is able to provide more information in a shorter period of time. It is an intuitive and highly visual procedure, and, more importantly, it is reversible. Studies with larger samples are necessary to determine whether IGV-IN can further reduce the need for postoperative digital subtraction angiography.

  17. Direct costs of microsurgical management of radiosurgically amenable intracranial pathology in Germany: an analysis of meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, metastases and arteriovenous malformations of less than 3 cm in diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellis, G.; Nagel, R.; Vollmar, C.; Steiger, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis was to appreciate and compare the effective direct costs of microsurgical treatment of intracranial pathology potentially amenable to radiosurgery as they arose in 1998-99. Treatment costs of 127 microsurgically treated patients harboring an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), acoustic neuroma, meningioma or brain metastasis potentially amenable to radiosurgery were reviewed. Costs for the surgical procedure, ICU rare, medical and nursing care on the ward, interclinical bills (ICB) for services provided by other departments and the overhead for basic hotel service were added. For comparison gamma knife costs were calculated by dividing the global operating cost of the gamma knife centre by the number of patients treated in 1999. Average hospitalization time for the entire microsurgical patients was 15.4 + 8.6 days. The patients spent an average of 1.2 ± 2.8 days on ICU. Average operating time for all patients, including preparation, was 393 ± 118 minutes. Average costs for the microsurgical therapy were Eur 10814 ± 6108. These consisted of Eur 1417 ± 426 for the surgical procedure, Eur 1188 ± 2658 for ICU care, Eur 2333 ± 1582 for medical and nursing care on the ward, Eur 1671 ± 1433 for interclinical bills and Eur 4204 ± 2338 for basic hotel service (overhead, Eur 273 per day). 70 % of the microsurgically treated patients needed ancillary inpatient rehabilitation or radiotherapy resulting in an average additional cost for all patients of Eur 2744. Furthermore 20 % of the microsurgically treated patients required an unplanned readmission after discharge, resulting in an average additional costs for all patients of Eur 1684. Average overall costs per patient including ancillary therapy and unplanned read-missions amounted to Eur 15242. For comparison, gamma knife treatment costs per patient amounted to Eur 7920 in 1999. The current analysis showed that for established radiosurgical indications the primary costs of microsurgery

  18. Safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy and gamma knife surgery for brain arteriovenous malformations in China: Study protocol for an observational clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hengwei; Huo, Xiaochuan; Jiang, Yuhua; Li, Xiaolong; Li, Youxiang

    2017-09-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The treatment of BAVM remains controversial. Microinvasive treatment, including endovascular therapy and gamma knife surgery, has been the first choice in many conditions. However, the overall clinical outcome of microinvasive treatment remains unknown and a prospective trial is needed. This is a prospective, non-randomized, and multicenter observational registry clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of microinvasive treatment for BAVMs. The study will require up to 400 patients in approximately 12 or more centers in China, followed for 2 years. Main subjects of this study are BAVM patients underwent endovascular therapy and/or gamma knife surgery. The trial will not affect the choice of treatment modality. The primary outcomes are perioperative complications (safety), and postoperative hemorrhage incidence rate and complete occlusion rate (efficacy). Secondary outcomes are elimination of hemorrhage risk factors (coexisting aneurysms and arteriovenous fistula), volume reduction and remission of symptoms. Safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy, gamma knife surgery, and various combination modes of the two modalities will be compared. Operative complications and outcomes at pretreatment, post-treatment, at discharge and at 3 months, 6 months and 2 years follow-up intervals will be analyzed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The most confusion on BAVM treatment is whether to choose interventional therapy or medical therapy, and the choice of interventional therapy modes. This study will provide evidence for evaluating the safety and efficacy of microinvasive treatment in China, to characterize the microinvasive treatment strategy for BAVMs.

  19. Utility of the angio resonance in the diagnose of the vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado de B, Jorge Andres; Pulgarin, Luis German; Toro, Nancy; Bolivar Guillermo

    1997-01-01

    Vascular malformations (VMS) can be successfully evaluated with a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The MRA gives good anatomic information while the MRA gives important functional and complementary structural information. The main objectives in a radiological evaluation of the (VMS) is to offer data about the feeding arteries, size and location of the nidus of some malformation, the morphology and the type of venous drainage and other important features that may have therapeutic and prognostic value. From a total of 186 MRA performed in our institution (IATM) from January of 1994 to June 1996, we have diagnosed 17 vascular malformations, most of them categorized as arteriovenous malformations (11 cases) the others were developmental venous anomalies (5 cases of venous angiomas) and one case of a cavernous malformation. Previous imaging did not identify many of the VMS detected by MRA. MRI-MRA is the most sensitive and specific non-invasive method for the evaluation of this congenital lesion

  20. The use of 3D computer graphics in the diagnosis and treatment of spinal vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Keisuke; Kin, Taichi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Iijima, Akira; Shojima, Masaaki; Nishido, Hajime; Saito, Nobuhito

    2011-12-01

    Digital subtraction (DS) angiography is the gold standard for diagnosing spinal vascular malformations. Recently, multidetectorrow spiral CT and contrast-enhanced MR angiography have been introduced as screening examinations before DS angiography. These methods, however, do not always determine the accurate location of an arteriovenous shunt because the resulting images lack information about the spinal cord or the dura mater. Between April 2009 and December 2010, 13 patients underwent imaging evaluations for spinal vascular malformations at the authors' university hospital. This group included 8 patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), 3 with perimedullary AVFs, and 2 with intramedullary arteriovenous malformations. Using data from these patients, the authors attempted to develop 3D computer graphics (CG) based upon the fusion of 3D rotational angiography and postmyelographic CT. They subsequently verified the accuracy of this imaging method. Ten of these 13 patients underwent surgical treatment for their lesions (11 AVFs), and for these 11 lesions the authors compared the diagnoses obtained using 3D CG with those obtained using conventional DS angiography. In all 13 cases, 3D CG images of the spinal lesions were successfully developed using the patients' actual data. Four (36%) of 11 AVFs were correctly identified using DS angiography, whereas 10 (91%) were correctly identified using 3D CG. Results from 3D CG of spinal AVFs corresponded well with operative findings, and 3D CG was significantly better than conventional DS angiography at predicting AVF location (p = 0.024, Fisher exact test). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case series in which 3D CG of spinal vascular malformations was used to provide simultaneous, stereoscopic visualization of the spinal vascular system, spinal cord, dura mater, and bone. The 3D CG method provides precise visual images for the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions.

  1. Gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yohsimasa; Kida, Yoshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery has become a new treatment modality in the field of neurosurgery since the first gamma knife was brought into Japan in 1990. Advances in applications of new indications and long-term results have been continued to evolve during the past 12 years. Based on the experience of more than 4,500 cases treated by gamma knife at Komaki City Hospital, long-term results of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), metastatic brain tumors, acoustic neurinomas, meningiomas and trigeminal neuralgias are presented. Radiosurgery has become a novel treatment modality, especially for AVM, acoustic neurinoma and meningioma, which were once only treatable by conventional surgery, and shows a high cure rate in AVM cases and high control rate in benign tumors without major complications. The effects of radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors have been thought to be superior to fractionated radiotherapy due to high response and control rates, and patients showed improved quality of life although no prolongation of the life span was obtained. Gamma knife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia has been shown to be effective and less invasive than microvascular decompression, and is useful for cases resistant to conventional therapies and as an initial treatment as well. (author)

  2. Transient gyriform brightness on non-contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) brain scan of seven infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, P.J.; Carty, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous gyriform brightness seen on CT scan is an unusual finding unless associated with arteriovenous malformations (AVM). There are sporadic case reports in the literature of its occurrence in association with herpex simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE), purulent meningitis, following chemotherapy for leukaemia, in a child with chronic renal failure, and in a child with folic acid deficiency. We present a series of seven cases exhibiting this phenomenon, none of whom have AVMs, who have been scanned at this hospital in the first 2 1/2 years following the installation of a CT scanner. Four of the cases had congenital heart disease requiring corrective surgery or cardiac catheterisation. The other three had probable meningo-encephalitis. In all cases the gyriform brightness followed an ischaemic insult to the child's brain. We hypothesise that this phenomenon is an ischaemic response in the immature brain and that its occurrence is not so rare as the literature may suggest. (orig.)

  3. A genome-wide investigation of copy number variation in patients with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrine Bendjilali

    Full Text Available Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM are clusters of abnormal blood vessels, with shunting of blood from the arterial to venous circulation and a high risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage. Most BAVMs are sporadic, but also occur in patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a Mendelian disorder caused by mutations in genes in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling pathway.To investigate whether copy number variations (CNVs contribute to risk of sporadic BAVM, we performed a genome-wide association study in 371 sporadic BAVM cases and 563 healthy controls, all Caucasian. Cases and controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. CNVs were called using the PennCNV and Birdsuite algorithms and analyzed via segment-based and gene-based approaches. Common and rare CNVs were evaluated for association with BAVM.A CNV region on 1p36.13, containing the neuroblastoma breakpoint family, member 1 gene (NBPF1, was significantly enriched with duplications in BAVM cases compared to controls (P = 2.2×10(-9; NBPF1 was also significantly associated with BAVM in gene-based analysis using both PennCNV and Birdsuite. We experimentally validated the 1p36.13 duplication; however, the association did not replicate in an independent cohort of 184 sporadic BAVM cases and 182 controls (OR = 0.81, P = 0.8. Rare CNV analysis did not identify genes significantly associated with BAVM.We did not identify common CNVs associated with sporadic BAVM that replicated in an independent cohort. Replication in larger cohorts is required to elucidate the possible role of common or rare CNVs in BAVM pathogenesis.

  4. Assessment of blood supply to intracranial pathologies in children using MR digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chooi, Weng Kong; Coley, Stuart C. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Connolly, Dan J.A. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Paul D. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Floor C, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Section of Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR-DSA) is a contrast-enhanced MR angiographic sequence that enables time-resolved evaluation of the cerebral circulation. We describe the feasibility and technical success of our attempts at MR-DSA for the assessment of intracranial pathology in children. We performed MR-DSA in 15 children (age range 5 days to 16 years) referred for MR imaging because of known or suspected intracranial pathology that required a dynamic assessment of the cerebral vasculature. MR-DSA consisted of a thick (6-10 mm) slice-selective RF-spoiled fast gradient-echo sequence (RF-FAST) acquired before and during passage of an intravenously administered bolus of Gd-DTPA. The images were subtracted and viewed as a cine loop. MR-DSA was performed successfully in all patients. High-flow lesions were shown in four patients; these included vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, dural fistula, and two partially treated arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Low-flow lesions were seen in three patients, all of which were tumours. Normal flow was confirmed in eight patients including two with successfully treated AVMs, and in three patients with cavernomas. Our early experience suggests that MR-DSA is a realistic, non-invasive alternative to catheter angiography in certain clinical settings. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of blood supply to intracranial pathologies in children using MR digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chooi, Weng Kong; Coley, Stuart C.; Connolly, Dan J.A.; Griffiths, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR-DSA) is a contrast-enhanced MR angiographic sequence that enables time-resolved evaluation of the cerebral circulation. We describe the feasibility and technical success of our attempts at MR-DSA for the assessment of intracranial pathology in children. We performed MR-DSA in 15 children (age range 5 days to 16 years) referred for MR imaging because of known or suspected intracranial pathology that required a dynamic assessment of the cerebral vasculature. MR-DSA consisted of a thick (6-10 mm) slice-selective RF-spoiled fast gradient-echo sequence (RF-FAST) acquired before and during passage of an intravenously administered bolus of Gd-DTPA. The images were subtracted and viewed as a cine loop. MR-DSA was performed successfully in all patients. High-flow lesions were shown in four patients; these included vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, dural fistula, and two partially treated arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Low-flow lesions were seen in three patients, all of which were tumours. Normal flow was confirmed in eight patients including two with successfully treated AVMs, and in three patients with cavernomas. Our early experience suggests that MR-DSA is a realistic, non-invasive alternative to catheter angiography in certain clinical settings. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of blood supply to intracranial pathologies in children using MR digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, Weng Kong; Connolly, Dan J A; Coley, Stuart C; Griffiths, Paul D

    2006-10-01

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR-DSA) is a contrast-enhanced MR angiographic sequence that enables time-resolved evaluation of the cerebral circulation. We describe the feasibility and technical success of our attempts at MR-DSA for the assessment of intracranial pathology in children. We performed MR-DSA in 15 children (age range 5 days to 16 years) referred for MR imaging because of known or suspected intracranial pathology that required a dynamic assessment of the cerebral vasculature. MR-DSA consisted of a thick (6-10 mm) slice-selective RF-spoiled fast gradient-echo sequence (RF-FAST) acquired before and during passage of an intravenously administered bolus of Gd-DTPA. The images were subtracted and viewed as a cine loop. MR-DSA was performed successfully in all patients. High-flow lesions were shown in four patients; these included vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, dural fistula, and two partially treated arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Low-flow lesions were seen in three patients, all of which were tumours. Normal flow was confirmed in eight patients including two with successfully treated AVMs, and in three patients with cavernomas. Our early experience suggests that MR-DSA is a realistic, non-invasive alternative to catheter angiography in certain clinical settings.

  7. Computer-assisted analysis and scientific evaluation of patients with cerebral angiomas. Die computerunterstuetzte Analyse und wissenschaftliche Auswertung von Patienten mit zerebralen Angiomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killer, M

    1993-04-01

    The treatment of cerebral arterio-venous malformations currently consists of a combination of different techniques, such as surgical extirpation, endovascular embolization and radiosurgery. Depending on the patient's anamnesis and pathomorphology the objective of the treatment is either a total elimination of the AVM or an improvement of the symptoms. In order to capture the large quantities of data accumulated during the variously combined methods as well as from manifold medical examinations before and during the treatment, a data capture program is presented. This program, developed on the basis of the File Maker 2.0 by Claris, allows the registration of data obtained in preliminary examinations, therapies and follow-ups. The database thus created, allows for a simple and fast registration of all the important parameters pertaining to the current treatment of AVM. The analysis of the data, when related to a particular patient, facilitates determining the further course of action and treatment of this patient. Furthermore the statistical analysis of different relationships of AVM-parameters permits to gain important feedback about the efficacy of the selected strategies of treatment. In this thesis, the data of 143 patients, who underwent treatment for cerebral AVM at the Department of Neurosurgery of the University of Vienna between March 1985 and October 1992 was evaluated. Of these patients 47% were female and 53% male, their mean age being 35.6 years.

  8. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  9. Embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas using PHIL liquid embolic agent in 26 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamin, S.; Chew, H. S.; Chavda, S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of liquid embolic agents has revolutionized endovascular approach to cranial vascular malformations. The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of Precipitating Hydrophobic Injectable Liquid (PHIL), a new nonadhesive liquid......: This was a retrospective multicenter study. Twenty-six consecutive patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (de novo or previously treated) treated by injection of PHIL only or with PHIL in combination with other embolization products (such as Onyx or detachable coils) were included in the study. Recruitment started......, 3 were retreated with PHIL and 1 achieved angiographic cure. An adverse event was seen in 1 patient who developed worsening of preexisting ataxia due to acute thrombosis of the draining vein. CONCLUSIONS: PHIL appears to be safe and effective for endovascular treatment of cranial dural arteriovenous...

  10. Definition of AVM nidus for radiosurgery using segmentation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.H.; Mehta, M.P.; Sorenson, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The complex 3-D anatomy of an AVM nidus is very difficult to appreciate and reconstruct using conventional angiography. MR angiography (MRA) is increasingly being utilized to assist in better defining the nidus. There is, however, considerable operator-dependent bias in determining the true extent of the nidus, with any imaging technique. The generic problem of dividing an image into meaningful regions is known as image segmentation. We have developed several image segmentation tools for our 3-D treatment planning software and have applied these tools to attempt to improve nidus localization. Materials and Methods: Five AVM patients from our archives who had both MRI and MRA images prior to radiosurgery were evaluated. These patients were studied with a spin-echo sequence with density-weighted anatomical images of the entire brain and a time-of-flight (TOF) sequence with vascular images of the AVM. The density-weighted images have good contrast among stationary tissues such as grey matter and white matter, but all vessels are black 'flow voids'. On the TOF images, vessels have a signal that is roughly proportional to the velocity of the flow within them; fast-moving blood is very bright, while slow-moving blood is similar to stationary tissues. By applying segmentation techniques to registered image sets, we were able to use information in density-weighted images to distinguish vessels from non-vessels, and information in TOF images to distinguish fast-flowing blood in the feeder vessels from slower-flowing blood in the nidus. Results: Since this work is in progress, image acquisition parameters varied, and some TOF images had poor signal-to-noise. In spite of this, we were able to segment the AVM nidus in all cases and display it in a readily-distinguishable manner. The nidus velocity appeared to be moderate in three cases, mixed in one, and slow in another. In the latter case, the slow velocity produced some overlap with draining veins. In all

  11. The clinical application studies of CT spinal angiography with 64-detector row spiral CT in diagnosing spinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Sijia; Zhang Mengwei; Liu Xiping; Zh Yushen; Liu Jinghong; Wang Zhonghui; Zang Peizhuo; Shi Qiang; Wang Qiang; Liang Chuansheng; Xu Ke

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To explore the value of CT spinal angiography with 64-detector row spiral CT in diagnosing spinal vascular malformations. Methods: Seventeen patients with initial MR and clinical findings suggestive of spinal vascular diseases underwent CT spinal angiography. Among these, 14 patients took DSA examination within 1 week after CT scan, 7 patients underwent surgical treatment, and 6 patients underwent vascular intervention embolotheraphy. CT protocol: TOSHIBA Aquilion 64 Slice CT scanner, 0.5 mm thickness, 0.5 s/r, 120 kV and 350 mA, positioned at the aortic arch level, and applied with 'sure start' technique with CT threshold of 180 Hu. Contrast agent Iohexol (370 mg I/ml) was injected at 6 ml/s velocity with total volume of 80 ml. The post-processing procedures included MPR, CPR, MIP, VR, etc. Among the 17 patients, four patients underwent fast dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography imaging. CT spinal angiography and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography (3D CE-MRA) images were compared and evaluated with DSA and operation results based on disease type, lesion range, feeding arteries, fistulas, draining veins of vascular malformation by three experienced neuroradiologists independently, using double blind method. The data were analyzed using SPSS analytic software with χ 2 -test. We compared the results with DSA and operation results. Results: The statistical analysis of the diagnostic results by the three experienced neuroradiologists had no statistical difference (P > 0.05). All of the 17 patients showed clearly the abnormality of spinal cord vessels and the range of lesions by CT spinal angiography. Among them, one patient was diagnosed as arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) by MRI and CT spinal angiography, which was verified by surgical operation. DSA of the same patient, however, did not visualize the lesion. One case was diagnosed as AVM complicated with AVF by DSA, but CT spinal angiography could only show AVM not AVF. The

  12. The clinical application studies of CT spinal angiography with 64-detector row spiral CT in diagnosing spinal vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Sijia [Department of Radiology, No. 1 Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)], E-mail: scarlettgao@126.com; Zhang Mengwei; Liu Xiping; Zh Yushen; Liu Jinghong; Wang Zhonghui [Department of Radiology, No. 1 Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zang Peizhuo [Department of Neurosurgery, No. 1 Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Shi Qiang; Wang Qiang [Department of Radiology, No. 1 Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liang Chuansheng [Department of Neurosurgery, No. 1 Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Xu Ke [Department of Radiology, No. 1 Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)

    2009-07-15

    Background and purpose: To explore the value of CT spinal angiography with 64-detector row spiral CT in diagnosing spinal vascular malformations. Methods: Seventeen patients with initial MR and clinical findings suggestive of spinal vascular diseases underwent CT spinal angiography. Among these, 14 patients took DSA examination within 1 week after CT scan, 7 patients underwent surgical treatment, and 6 patients underwent vascular intervention embolotheraphy. CT protocol: TOSHIBA Aquilion 64 Slice CT scanner, 0.5 mm thickness, 0.5 s/r, 120 kV and 350 mA, positioned at the aortic arch level, and applied with 'sure start' technique with CT threshold of 180 Hu. Contrast agent Iohexol (370 mg I/ml) was injected at 6 ml/s velocity with total volume of 80 ml. The post-processing procedures included MPR, CPR, MIP, VR, etc. Among the 17 patients, four patients underwent fast dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography imaging. CT spinal angiography and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography (3D CE-MRA) images were compared and evaluated with DSA and operation results based on disease type, lesion range, feeding arteries, fistulas, draining veins of vascular malformation by three experienced neuroradiologists independently, using double blind method. The data were analyzed using SPSS analytic software with {chi}{sup 2}-test. We compared the results with DSA and operation results. Results: The statistical analysis of the diagnostic results by the three experienced neuroradiologists had no statistical difference (P > 0.05). All of the 17 patients showed clearly the abnormality of spinal cord vessels and the range of lesions by CT spinal angiography. Among them, one patient was diagnosed as arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) by MRI and CT spinal angiography, which was verified by surgical operation. DSA of the same patient, however, did not visualize the lesion. One case was diagnosed as AVM complicated with AVF by DSA, but CT spinal angiography could only show

  13. Current Trends in Intraoperative Optical Imaging for Functional Brain Mapping and Delineation of Lesions of Language Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Neal; Uhleman, Falk; Sheth, Sameer A.; Bookheimer, Susan; Martin, Neil; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), epileptic focus, or glioma, ideally has a prerequisite of microscopic delineation of the lesion borders in relation to the normal gray and white matter that mediate critical functions. Currently, Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used for preoperative mapping of critical function, whereas electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is used for intraoperative mapping. For lesion delineation, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) are used preoperatively, whereas microscopy and histological sectioning are used intraoperatively. However, for lesions near eloquent cortex, these imaging techniques may lack sufficient resolution to define the relationship between the lesion and language function, and thus not accurately determine which patients will benefit from neurosurgical resection of the lesion without iatrogenic aphasia. Optical techniques such as intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals (iOIS) show great promise for the precise functional mapping of cortices, as well as delineation of the borders of AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas. Here we first review the physiology of neuroimaging, and then progress towards the validation and justification of using intraoperative optical techniques, especially in relation to neurosurgical planning of resection AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas near or in eloquent cortex. We conclude with a short description of potential novel intraoperative optical techniques. PMID:18786643

  14. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation in Neonates Presenting With Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjenie Madhuban MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a neonate presenting with signs of a congenital cardiac disease. Echocardiography showed a structural normal heart, right-to-left ductal flow, a dilated superior caval vein, and reversed diastolic flow in the proximal descending aorta. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation. This highlights the importance of considering an intracranial cause in the differential diagnosis of neonatal congestive heart failure.

  15. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Embolized Using a Micro Vascular Plug System: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatta, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.boatta@yahoo.it; Jahn, Christine, E-mail: christine.jahn@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Canuet, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.canuet@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service Service de Pneumologie, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2017-02-15

    AIMTo report our preliminary experience using a Micro Vascular Plug (MVP) deployed through a 2.8Fr micro-catheter for the treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in a cohort of patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT).Materials and MethodsFour consecutive female patients (mean age 38.0 years; range 25–55 years) with PAVMs diagnosed on echocardiogram/bubble test and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) underwent MVP embolization. One patient was symptomatic with recent transient ischaemic attack. Follow-up was undertaken at 1-month post-procedure with CECT to assess PAVMs permeability and MVP positioning and at 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-procedure, with echocardiography/bubble test and standard neurological history, to confirm absence of right-to-left shunts and recurrent symptoms.ResultsEight PAVMs were treated in 4 patients over 5 interventional sessions (mean 1.6 PAVMs per session). All PAVMs were simple, with mean feeding artery diameter of 4.25 mm. Eight 6.5 mm MVPs were deployed in total (one per lesion). Technical success was 100%. Mean procedural time and patient dose per session were 70 min (range 40–70 min) and 53418 mGy.cm{sup 2} (range 6113–101628 mGy.cm{sup 2}), respectively. No signs of reperfusion neither of MPV migration were noted at 1-month CECT follow-up. At early follow-up (mean 3.75 months; range 1–12 months), clinical success was 100% with no evidence of recurrent right-to-left shunt, and no neurological symptoms. No immediate or late complications were observed.ConclusionsMVP embolization of PAVMs appears technically feasible, safe, and effective at early follow-up. Further prospective studies are required to confirm long-term safety and efficacy of this promising technique.

  16. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, Christopher; Moiseenko, Vitali; McKenzie, Michael; Redekop, Gary; Hsu, Fred; Gete, Ermias; Gill, Brad; Lee, Richard; Luchka, Kurt; Haw, Charles; Lee, Andrew; Toyota, Brian; Martin, Montgomery

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator–based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log–rank test