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Sample records for arterial vascular calcifications

  1. Significant Association Between Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase and Vascular Calcification of the Hand Arteries in Male Hemodialysis Patients

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    Eiji Ishimura

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP hydrolyzes pyrophosphate, which inhibits vascular calcification. We examined association between serum BAP and vascular calcification of male hemodialysis patients. Methods: Hand roentgenography of 167 male maintenance hemodialysis patients was conducted, and visible vascular calcification of the hand arteries was evaluated. Serum levels of 3 bone formation markers (BAP, osteocalcin, and N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen and 2 bone resorption markers (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen were measured, along with serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH. Results: Of 167 patients, visible vascular calcification was seen in 37 patients. Among the bone formation and resorption markers, serum BAP was significantly higher in patients with vascular calcification than in those without (pConclusions: Higher serum BAP, but not other bone markers, is significantly associated with the presence of vascular calcification in male hemodialysis patients.

  2. Coronary artery calcification in chronic kidney disease: An update

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    Stompór, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Arterial calcification is a well-recognized complication of advanced atherosclerosis. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by significantly more pronounced, disseminated and fast-progressing calcification of the vascular system, including the coronary arteries. New computed tomography-based imaging techniques allow for the noninvasive assessment and monitoring of calcification in different vascular sites. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) develops early in the course of CKD and is ...

  3. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

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    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  4. Mechanisms of vascular calcification and associated diseases.

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    Marulanda, Juliana; Alqarni, Saleh; Murshed, Monzur

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of bone and tooth extracellular matrix (ECM) is a physiologic process, while soft tissue mineralization, also known as ectopic mineralization (calcification), is a pathologic condition. Vascular calcification is common in aging and also in a number of genetic and metabolic disorders. The calcific deposits in arteries complicate the prognosis and increase the morbidity in diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To completely understand the pathophysiology of these lifethreatening diseases, it is critical to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. Unveiling these mechanisms will eventually identify new therapeutic targets and also improve the management of the associated complications. In the current review, we discussed the common determinants of ECM mineralization, the mechanism of vascular calcification associated with several human diseases and outlined the most common therapeutic approaches to prevent its progression.

  5. Superficial temporal artery calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease: Association with vascular risk factors and ischemic cerebrovascular disease

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    Zeeshan Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Extracranial superficial temporal artery (STA calcification is an unusual finding seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and has unknown ramifications with respect to intracranial ischemic disease. We sought to determine the association between the risk factors for vascular calcification and this rare phenomenon, in patients with chronic renal failure, and to assess the coexistence of cerebral ischemia. Materials and Methods: Medical records and laboratory data on risk factors for vascular calcification were retrospectively retrieved for 453 patients with a discharge diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD. CT head examinations were reviewed to identify and associate STA calcification with 1 risk factors for the vascular calcification, 2 intracranial artery calcification, and 3 cerebral ischemia (white matter and/or cortical ischemic changes. Results: STA calcification was present in 9.9% (45/453 of the studied cohort. The prevalence of cerebral ischemia was 24.4% (11/45 in patients with STA calcification and 9.3% (38/408 in patients without it. Diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.059-6.208; P=0.037 was independently associated with the risk of STA calcification. The risk of cerebral ischemia, however, was not related to STA calcification (P=0.221. Conclusion: The presence of diabetes mellitus is important in describing the risk of STA calcification in patients with ESRD, whereas age, gender, hypertension, serum calcium, serum phosphate, or serum hemoglobin levels are not. The risk of cerebral ischemia is not related to STA calcification but has the strongest association with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Menaquinone-7 Supplementation to Reduce Vascular Calcification in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Rationale and Study Protocol (VitaK-CAC Trial).

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    Vossen, Liv M; Schurgers, Leon J; van Varik, Bernard J; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Vermeer, Cees; Meeder, Johannes G; Rahel, Braim M; van Cauteren, Yvonne J M; Hoffland, Ge A; Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Reesink, Koen D; de Leeuw, Peter W; Kroon, Abraham A

    2015-10-28

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) develops early in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial calcification is caused by an imbalance in calcification regulatory mechanisms. An important inhibitor of calcification is vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP). Both preclinical and clinical studies have shown that inhibition of the vitamin K-cycle by vitamin K antagonists (VKA) results in elevated uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) and subsequently in extensive arterial calcification. This led us to hypothesize that vitamin K supplementation may slow down the progression of calcification. To test this, we designed the VitaK-CAC trial which analyses effects of menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation on progression of CAC. The trial is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial including patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with a baseline Agatston CAC-score between 50 and 400 will be randomized to an intervention-group (360 microgram MK-7) or a placebo group. Treatment duration will be 24 months. The primary endpoint is the difference in CAC-score progression between both groups. Secondary endpoints include changes in arterial structure and function, and associations with biomarkers. We hypothesize that treatment with MK-7 will slow down or arrest the progression of CAC and that this trial may lead to a treatment option for vascular calcification and subsequent CVD.

  7. Relationship between arterial vascular calcifications seen on screening mammograms and biochemical markers of endothelial injury

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    Pidal, Diego [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: dpidal@hotmail.com; Sanchez Vidal, M Teresa [Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: medicinainterna@hospitaldejove.com; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain); Servicio de Cirugia General, Hospital de Jove (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: investigacion@hospitaldejove.com; Corte, M Daniela [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: mdanielac@hotmail.com; Pravia, Paz [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: radiologia@hospitaldejove.com; Guinea, Oscar [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: oscarfguinea@seram.org; Pidal, Ivan [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: ivanpida@hotmail.com; Bongera, Miguel [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: mbchoppy@hotmail.com; Escribano, Damaso [Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: medicinainterna@hospitaldejove.com; Gonzalez, Luis O. [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: lovidiog@telefonica.net; Diez, M Cruz [Servicio de Cirugia General, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: cirugiageneral@hospitaldejove.com; Venta, Rafael [Servicio de Analisis Clinicos, Hospital de San Agustin, Aviles (Spain); Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: rafael.venta@sespa.princast.es; Vizoso, Francisco J. [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain); Servicio de Cirugia General, Hospital de Jove (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: fjvizoso@telefonica.net

    2009-01-15

    To assess whether breast arterial calcifications (BAC) are associated with altered serum markers of cardiovascular risk, mammograms and records from 1759 women (age range: 45-65 years) screened for breast cancer were revised. One hundred and forty seven (8.36%) women showed BAC. A total of 136 women with BAC and controls (mean age: 57 and 55 years, respectively) accepted entering the study. There were no significant differences in serum levels of urea, glucose, uric acid, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, folic acid, vitamin B{sub 12}, TSH or cysteine, between both groups of patients. However, women with BAC showed higher serum levels of triglycerides (p = 0.006), homocysteine (p = 0.002) and hs-CRP (p = 0.003) than women without BAC. Likewise, we found a significantly higher percentage of cases with an elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (coronary risk index >2) amongst women with BAC than in women without BAC (56.7 and 38.2%, respectively; p = 0.04). Our results indicate that the finding of BAC identify women showing altered serum markers of cardiovascular risk.

  8. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

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    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  9. Idiopathic arterial calcification in childhood

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    Patel, Maya [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Red Cross Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Andronikou, Savvas; Solomon, Rustum; Sinclair, Paul; McCulloch, Mignon [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2004-08-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification in infancy is usually fatal with death in early life and diagnosis at post mortem. This report describes a unique, late presentation with hypertension and cardiac failure in a child aged 33 months, found to have widespread arterial calcification at radiological imaging. The calcium-phosphate axis was normal and there was no other demonstrable cause for calcification. Additionally, the histological features of arterial calcification at renal biopsy paralleled the findings in infants with this disorder. The late presentation in this case is unusual and has not been previously reported. Ultrasound and CT are sensitive for calcification, and the disease should be suspected in children presenting with cardiac or respiratory manifestations and features of arterial calcification, where no metabolic cause is established. (orig.)

  10. ADVANCE: Study to Evaluate Cinacalcet Plus Low Dose Vitamin D on Vascular Calcification in Subjects With Chronic Kidney Disease Receiving Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Chronic Kidney Disease; End Stage Renal Disease; Coronary Artery Calcification; Vascular Calcification; Calcification; Cardiovascular Disease; Chronic Renal Failure; Hyperparathyroidism; Kidney Disease; Nephrology; Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

  11. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  12. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Angela H. E. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J. M.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin K is an important co-factor in the production of proteins that inhibit vascular calcification. A low dietary Vitamin K intake has been associated with aortic and coronary calcifications and an elevated cardiovascular risk. Calcifications in the arteries of the breasts have also b

  13. Vascular Effects of Advanced Glycation End-Products: Content of Immunohistochemically Detected AGEs in Radial Artery Samples as a Predictor for Arterial Calcification and Cardiovascular Risk in Asymptomatic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Katarzyna Janda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Our aim was to determine whether vascular deposition of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs is associated with arterial calcification and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients and to assess the relationships between vascular content of AGEs and selected clinical and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods. The study comprised 54 CKD patients (33 hemodialyzed, 21 predialyzed. Examined parameters included BMI, incidence of diabetes, plasma fasting glucose, AGEs, soluble receptor for AGEs and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging, serum C-reactive protein (hsCRP, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and fetuin-A. Fragments of radial artery obtained during creation of hemodialysis access were stained for calcifications using alizarin red. AGEs deposits were identified immunohistochemically and their relative content was quantified. Results. Vascular content of AGEs was positively correlated with BMI, hsCRP, fetuin-A, PAI-1, and DPPH scavenging in simple regression; only fetuin-A was an independent predictor in multiple regression. There was a significant positive trend in the intensity of AGEs immunostaining among patients with grades 1, 2, and 3 calcifications. AGEs immunostaining intensity predicted 3-year cardiovascular mortality irrespective of patient’s age. Conclusions. The present study demonstrates an involvement of AGEs in the development of medial arterial calcification and the impact of arterial AGE deposition on cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients.

  14. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphisms are associated with coronary artery calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a key regulator of vascular calcification. Genetic variation at the MGP locus could modulate the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). We examined the cross-sectional association between MGP SNPs [rs1800802 (T-138C), rs1800801 (G-7A),and rs4236 (Ala102Thr)...

  15. Arterial calcification: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Henein, Michael Y

    2013-07-31

    There is a significant relationship between the presence, extent and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in both CV and renal patients and CAC scoring can provide improved predictive ability over risk factor scoring alone. There is also a close relationship between CAC presence and atherosclerotic plaque burden, with angiography studies showing very high sensitivity but poor specificity of CAC score for predicting obstructive disease. Nevertheless, there are objections to CAC screening because of uncertainties and lack of studies showing improved outcome. Furthermore, histopathology studies indicate that heavily calcified plaque is unlikely to result in a CV event, while the vulnerable plaque tends to be uncalcified or 'mixed', suggesting that calcification may be protective. This scenario highlights a number of paradoxes, which may indicate that the association between CAC and CV events is spurious, following from the adoption of CAC as a surrogate for high plaque burden, which itself is a surrogate for the presence of vulnerable plaque. Since studies indicate that arterial calcification is a complex, organised and regulated process similar to bone formation, there is no particular reason why it should be a reliable indicator of either the plaque burden or the risk of a future CV event. We suggest that it is time to divorce arterial calcification from atherosclerosis and to view it as a distinct pathology in its own right, albeit one which frequently coexists with atherosclerosis and is related to it for reasons which are not yet fully understood.

  16. Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles.

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    Goettsch, Claudia; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Aikawa, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroshi; Pham, Tan; Nykjaer, Anders; Kjolby, Mads; Rogers, Maximillian; Michel, Thomas; Shibasaki, Manabu; Hagita, Sumihiko; Kramann, Rafael; Rader, Daniel J; Libby, Peter; Singh, Sasha A; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Vascular calcification is a common feature of major cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular vesicles participate in the formation of microcalcifications that are implicated in atherosclerotic plaque rupture; however, the mechanisms that regulate formation of calcifying extracellular vesicles remain obscure. Here, we have demonstrated that sortilin is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) calcification via its recruitment to extracellular vesicles. Sortilin localized to calcifying vessels in human and mouse atheromata and participated in formation of microcalcifications in SMC culture. Sortilin regulated the loading of the calcification protein tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) into extracellular vesicles, thereby conferring its calcification potential. Furthermore, SMC calcification required Rab11-dependent trafficking and FAM20C/casein kinase 2-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation of sortilin. In a murine model, Sort1-deficiency reduced arterial calcification but did not affect bone mineralization. Additionally, transfer of sortilin-deficient BM cells to irradiated atherosclerotic mice did not affect vascular calcification, indicating a primary role of SMC-derived sortilin. Together, the results of this study identify sortilin phosphorylation as a potential therapeutic target for ectopic calcification/microcalcification and may clarify the mechanism that underlies the genetic association between the SORT1 gene locus and coronary artery calcification. PMID:26950419

  17. Associations between Thyroid Hormones, Calcification Inhibitor Levels and Vascular Calcification in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Lucas Meuwese

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a common, serious and elusive complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD. As a pro-calcifying risk factor, non-thyroidal illness may promote vascular calcification through a systemic lowering of vascular calcification inhibitors such as matrix-gla protein (MGP and Klotho.In 97 ESRD patients eligible for living donor kidney transplantation, blood levels of thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH, total uncarboxylated MGP (t-ucMGP, desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP, descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA-II, and soluble Klotho (sKlotho were measured. The degree of coronary calcification and arterial stiffness were assessed by means of cardiac CT-scans and applanation tonometry, respectively.fT3 levels were inversely associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC scores and measures of arterial stiffness, and positively with dp-ucMGP and sKlotho concentrations. Subfractions of MGP, PIVKA-II and sKlotho did not associate with CAC scores and arterial stiffness. fT4 and TSH levels were both inversely associated with CAC scores, but not with arterial stiffness.The positive associations between fT3 and dp-ucMGP and sKlotho suggest that synthesis of MGP and Klotho is influenced by thyroid hormones, and supports a link between non-thyroidal illness and alterations in calcification inhibitor levels. However, the absence of an association between serum calcification inhibitor levels and coronary calcification/arterial stiffness and the fact that MGP and Klotho undergo post-translational modifications underscore the complexity of this association. Further studies, measuring total levels of MGP and membrane bound Klotho, should examine this proposed pathway in further detail.

  18. Prevention of vascular calcification with bisphosphonates without affecting bone mineralization: a new challenge?

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    Neven, Ellen G; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2009-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been found to coexist with bone loss. Bisphosphonates, used as standard therapy for osteoporosis, inhibit experimentally induced vascular calcification, offering perspectives for the treatment of vascular calcification in renal failure patients. However, Lomashvili et al. report that the doses of etidronate and pamidronate that are effective in attenuating aortic calcification also decrease bone formation and mineralization in uremic rats, limiting their therapeutic use as anticalcifying agents.

  19. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzini, Michael J. [Department of Cardiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Schulze, P. Christian [Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: christian.schulze@bmc.org

    2006-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease.

  20. The role of cellular senescence during vascular calcification: a key paradigm in aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, N C W; MacRae, V E

    2011-07-01

    Vascular calcification has severe clinical consequences and is considered an accurate predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events. Vascular calcification refers to the deposition of calcium phosphate mineral, most often hydroxyapatite, in arteries. Extensive calcification of the vascular system is a key characteristic of aging. In this article, we outline the mechanisms governing vascular calcification and highlight its association with cellular senescence. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of cellular senescence and its affect on calcification of vascular cells, the relevance of phosphate regulation and the function of FGF23 and Klotho proteins. The association of vascular calcification and cellular senescence with the rare human aging disorder Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is highlighted and the mouse models used to try to determine the underlying pathways are discussed. By understanding the pathways involved in these processes novel drug targets may be elucidated in an effort to reduce the effects of cellular aging as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

  1. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persi...

  2. Medial arterial calcification, calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification in a diabetic patient with severe autonomic neuropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Medial arterial calcification (Monckeberg\\'s arteriosclerosis) is well described in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. There is also a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus among subjects with calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification. We describe a diabetic patient with autonomic neuropathy and extensive medial arterial calcification who also had calcification of the aortic valve and of the mitral valve annulus. We propose that autonomic neuropathy may play a role in calcification of these structures at the base of the heart.

  3. Arterial calcification: Conscripted by collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jordan D.

    2016-03-01

    In atherosclerotic plaques, patterns of calcification -- which have profound implications for plaque stability and vulnerability to rupture -- are determined by the collagen's content and patterning throughout the plaque.

  4. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-11-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. She was admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, where she was ventilated and proper treatment was provided. Molecular genetic testing was positive for mutations of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 gene which is reported in 80% of cases of Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy. The baby died at about 5 month of age because of myocardial ischemia and cardiorespiratory arrest. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy should be considered in any newborn who presented with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, severe systemic hypertension and echogenic vessels on any radiological study. Calcifications of large and medium-sized arteries are important diagnostic finding. PMID:27252793

  5. Reversible vascular calcifications associated with hypervitaminosis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Massimo; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cirillo, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    A 64-year-old man was hospitalized in 2002 with symptoms of stupor, weakness, and renal colic. The clinical examination indicated borderline hypertension, small masses in the glutei, and polyuria. Laboratory tests evidenced high serum concentrations of creatinine, calcium, and phosphate. Imaging assessments disclosed widespread vascular calcifications, gluteal calcifications, and pelvic ectasia. Subsequent lab tests indicated suppressed serum parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and normal serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Treatment was started with intravenous infusion of saline and furosemide due to the evidence of hypercalcemia. Prednisone and omeprazole were added given the evidence of hypervitaminosis D. The treatment improved serum calcium, kidney function, and consciousness. The medical history disclosed recent treatment with exceptionally high doses of slow-release intra-muscular cholecalciferol and the recent excretion of urinary stones. The patient was discharged when it was possible to stop the intravenous treatment. The post-discharge treatment included oral hydration, furosemide, prednisone and omeprazole for approximately 6 months up to complete resolution of the hypercalcemia. The patient came back 12 years later because of microhematuria. Lab tests were normal for calcium/phosphorus homeostasis and kidney function. Imaging tests indicated only minor vascular calcifications. This is the first evidence of reversible vascular calcifications secondary to hypervitaminosis D. PMID:26318020

  6. Dual Effects of Bisphosphonates on Ectopic Skin and Vascular Soft Tissue Mineralization versus Bone Microarchitecture in a Mouse Model of Generalized Arterial Calcification of Infancy.

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    Li, Qiaoli; Kingman, Joshua; Sundberg, John P; Levine, Michael A; Uitto, Jouni

    2016-01-01

    Generalized arterial calcification of infancy is an intractable ectopic mineralization disorder caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, resulting in reduced plasma inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) levels. We previously characterized the Enpp1(asj) mutant mouse as a model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy, and we have now explored the potential efficacy of bisphosphonates, nonhydrolyzable PPi analogs, in preventing ectopic mineralization in these mice. The mice were maintained on either basic diet (control) or diets containing etidronate or alendronate in three different concentrations (experimental). Considering low bioavailability of bisphosphonates when administered orally, subsequent studies tested the mice with subcutaneous injections of etidronate. The treatments were initiated at 4 weeks of age, and the degree of mineralization was assessed at 12 weeks of age by quantitation of calcium deposits in the muzzle skin containing dermal sheath of vibrissae and in aorta. We found that bisphosphonate treatments significantly reduced mineralization in skin and aorta. These changes in treated mice were accompanied with restoration of their bone microarchitecture, determined by microcomputed tomography. The inhibitory capacity of bisphosphonates, with mechanistic implications, was confirmed in a cell-based mineralization assay in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that bisphosphonate treatment may be beneficial by a dual effect for preventing ectopic soft tissue mineralization while correcting decreased bone mineralization in generalized arterial calcification of infancy caused by ENPP1 mutations. PMID:26763447

  7. Delayed sodium (18)F-fluoride PET/CT imaging does not improve quantification of vascular calcification metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Thomassen, Anders; Takx, Richard A P;

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if delayed sodium (18)F-fluoride (Na(18)F) PET/CT imaging improves quantification of vascular calcification metabolism. Blood-pool activity can disturb the arterial Na(18)F signal. With time, blood-pool activity declines. Therefore, delayed imaging can potentially...... improve quantification of vascular calcification metabolism....

  8. Vascular diseases: aortitis, aortic aneurysms, and vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladich, Elena; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Romero, Maria E; Virmani, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the aorta broadly include noninfectious and infectious aortitis, periaortitis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory atherosclerotic aneurysms. Aortitis is uncommon but is increasingly recognized as an important cause of aortic aneurysms and dissections. Abdominal (AAA) and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) have different pathologies and etiologies. AAAs are the most common type of aortic aneurysm, and the vast majority of these are atherosclerotic. The causes of TAA vary depending on the site of involvement, but medial degeneration is a common pathologic substrate, regardless of etiology, and genetic influences play a prominent role in TAA expression. Standardized classification schemes for inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the aorta have only recently been added to the pathology literature. A brief overview of the new histopathologic classifications for aortic inflammatory and degenerative diseases has recently been published by the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology as a consensus document on the surgical pathology of the aorta. Vascular calcification is a highly regulated biologic process, and the mechanisms leading to vascular calcification are under investigation. Calcification may occur in the intima (atherosclerotic) or in the media secondary to metabolic disease. Rarely, vascular calcification may be associated with genetic disorders. PMID:27526100

  9. Sudden death in a captive meerkat (Suricata suricatta with arterial medial and myocardial calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bongiovann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old male meerkat was found dead by the owner. The animal was clinically healthy and was regularly vaccinated for distemper virus. Necropsy revealed multifocal to confluent dry white areas in the myocardium, pneumonia and congestive hepatopathy. All the other organs, including gross vessels, were macroscopically normal. The heart showed histologically large, multifocal to confluent areas of mineralization of the myocardium and the wall of small coronary artery. Vascular calcifications were also observed in the hepatic portal tracts and kidneys arteries of small/medium sizes. The arterial lumen appeared narrowed and the wall thickened due to the calcification of the tunica media. In veterinary medicine, arterial mineralization is regarded as a metastatic calcification, as the result of hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia. However, today, the pathogenesis of medial artery calcification in humans seems to be the results of an active process resembling embryonic osteogenesis, rather than a mere passive process.

  10. Safety of Tourniquet Use in Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients With Radiographic Evidence of Vascular Calcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Steven M; Fields, Adam; Noori, Naudereh; Weiser, Mitchell; Moucha, Calin S; Bronson, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Tourniquets are often used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to improve visualization of structures, shorten operative time, reduce intraoperative bleeding, and improve cementing technique. Despite these advantages, controversy remains regarding the safety of tourniquet use. Tourniquets have been associated with nerve palsies, vascular injury, and muscle damage. Some have hypothesized they may also cause deep vein thrombosis. Last, increased incidence of postoperative wound complications has been reported with use of tourniquets. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine whether tourniquet use in TKA in patients with preexisting radiographic evidence of vascular disease increases the risk for wound complications or venous thromboembolism (VTE). Patients (N = 373) were placed in 2 groups: One had no preoperative radiographic evidence of knee arterial calcification (n = 285), and the other had arterial calcifications (n = 88). Overall, arterial calcification did not increase the risk for wound complication or VTE (P > .05). Furthermore, location of arterial calcification did not affect risk for wound complication or VTE. There were no arterial injuries. Diabetes, hypertension, prior VTE, coronary artery disease, and male sex were linked to higher wound complication rates (P < .05). Patients who have preoperative radiographic evidence of arterial calcification can safely undergo tourniquet-assisted TKA.

  11. Apoptosis and calcification of vascular endothelial cell under hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuaifa; Chen, Zhujun; Liu, Meng; Peng, Jian; Wu, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it is found that increase in Hcy level in blood can directly or indirectly cause vascular endothelial cell injury and induce vascular calcification. However, the mechanism of vascular endothelial cell injury and vascular calcification has not been studied thoroughly. This paper carried out experiment for research aiming at discussing the effect and action mechanism of Hhcy on endothelial cells and vascular calcification. Firstly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and then intervened by Hcy of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mmol/L) and at different action time (3, 6, 12, 24 h). Then apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen were detected by flow cytometry. At the same time, the model for the culture of rat vascular calcification was set up and induced into Hhcy so as to detect the total plasma Hcy level and judge vascular calcification degree. The results showed that with the increase in Hcy concentration and extension of action period, the apoptosis rate and generation of reactive oxygen of HUVECs all significantly increased, and the differences were all statistically significant (P animal calcification model, mass of black particle deposition was seen after Von Kossa staining of rat vessels in calcification group. Compared with the control group, the vascular calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin content in calcification group all increased (P benefits on clinical prevention works. PMID:25476479

  12. [Multidetector row CT in assessment of coronary artery calcification on hemodialisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, P; Delgado, R; Dapena, F; Núñez, A

    2007-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcification is more frequent, more extensive and progresses more rapidly in CKD than in general population. They are also considered a marker of coronary heart disease, with high prevalence and functional significance. It suggests that detection and surveillance may be worthwhile in general clinical practice. New non-invasive image techniques, like Multi-detector row CT, a type of spiral scanner, assess density and volume of calcification at multiple sites and allow quantitative scoring of vascular calcification using calcium scores analogous to those from electron-beam CT. We have assessed and quantified coronary artery calcification with 16 multidetector row CT in 44 patients on hemodialysis and their relationship with several cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary artery calcification prevalence was of 84 % with mean calcium score of 1580 +/- 2010 ( r 0-9844) with calcium score > 400 in 66% of patients. It was usually multiple, affecting more than two vessels in more than 50%. In all but one patient, left anterior descending artery was involved with higher calcium score level at right coronary artery. Advanced age, male, diabetes, smoking, more morbidity, cerebrovascular disease previous, and calcium-binders phosphate and analogous vitamin D treatment would seem to be associated with coronary artery calcification. Coronary artery calcification is very frequent and extensive, usually multiple and associated to modifiable risk factors in hemodialysis patients. Multi-detector-row CT seems an effective, suitable, readily applicable method to assess and quantify coronary artery calcification. PMID:18336102

  13. Review article: Getting the balance right: assessing causes and extent of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Markus; Biggar, Patrick H

    2009-06-01

    Vascular calcification is part of the definition of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). It is also a surrogate parameter of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk in the CKD population. However, vascular calcification is not a homogenous entity, but a rather complex manifestation influenced by derangements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, by dysregulated calcification inhibitors and promoters, and by the type of arterial disease (atherosclerosis vs arteriosclerosis). Despite the clear-cut risk association between the presence of vascular calcification and mortality, it is currently not well defined, how this knowledge about calcification should be translated into active clinical management. Further, the choice of the appropriate imaging test is a matter of debate. This article attempts to provide an update on insights into the pathophysiology of vascular calcification processes and a subjective view of the clinical consequences of management of CKD patients at risk. PMID:19563380

  14. Inhibition of angiotensin Ⅱ and blockade of endothelin receptors reduce arterial calcification in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juxiang LI; Shengying WU; Chunshui PAN; Yongfen QI; Bin GENG; Xiuhua LIU; Chaoshu TANG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine whether the two vascular paracrine/autocrine factors, angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) and endothelin, participate in the pathogenesis of arterial calcification. Methods Nicotine and vitamin D3 treated rats were studied. Vascular calcification was confirmed by using Von Kossa staining, measurement of calcium content,45Ca2+ uptake assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The plasma and vascular Ang Ⅱ and endothelin levels were measured by using radioimmunoassay. Angiotensinogen and endothelin mRNA levels were determined by RTPCR. Results The arterial calcium content, 45Ca2+ uptake and ALP activity were increased in calcification groups compared with control ( P < 0.01 ). Administration of the angiotensin receptor antagonist losartan, the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril reduced significantly the arterial calcium content, 45Ca2+ uptake and ALP activity. In addition, the plasma and aortic Ang Ⅱ and endothelin contents, and vascular angiotensinogen and endothelin mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated ( P <0.05).Conclusions These findings suggest that functional renin-angiotensin system and endothelin pathway are involved in vascular calcification, and that activation of these systems could potentiate pathogenesis of arterial calcification. ( J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2) :108-113. )

  15. The Association Between Serum Magnesium Concentrations and Coronary Artery Calcification Scores in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Jenna; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist, and is inversely associated with coronary heart disease, cardiovascular mortality rates, and vascular calcification. Coronary artery calcification score is a tool used to evaluate the prognosis of coronary artery disease in individuals. Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower coronary artery calcification scores (CACS), and recent studies have found a significant inverse relationship between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS in Korean and Mexican-mestizo populations. The correlation between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS is not well researched, so our aim was to examine this relationship in astronauts. We found that a higher serum magnesium concentration is significantly related to a higher coronary artery calcification score (p=.0217), and that there is a significant difference in magnesium concentrations of subjects who have a CACS greater than 100 and a CACS less than 100.

  16. 血管钙化的分子机理与临床展望%Molecular Mechanism and clinical perspective of vascular calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko Kurabayashi

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cardiovascular disease is a major consideration in the patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD).Vascular calcification is an important problem among these patients,and contributes to the increased risk of cardiovascular events by a variety of mechanism,including an increase in arterial stiffness by medial calcification or an increase in plaque vulnerability by a specific type of atherosclerotic calcification.

  17. Vascular and Valvular Calcifications in Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Di Lullo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease patients cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality, with incidence of cardiac related mortality increasing as renal function declines. Even after controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, age, gender, dyslipidaemia, and arterial hypertension, patients with CKD have a higher incidence of major cardiovascular events. CKD is characterised by the presence of many other non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as chronic inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, and especially, secondary hyperparathyroidism. This review will summarise the current evidence on vascular calcifications and valvular heart disease in CKD patients, from pathophysiology to therapeutic strategies.

  18. Vascular calcification of the lower extremities demonstrated by Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in a patient with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The femoral vessels are sometimes visualized on bone scintigraphy. This is almost always caused by calcification of the femoral artery associated with atherosclerotic changes of the arterial wall. Vascular calcification is frequently seen in the elderly and in diabetics. A 78 year old woman was admitted for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In this patient with diabetes mellitus, tibial arteries as well as femoral arteries were visualized onTc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in contrast with visualization of femoral artery alone observed in the elderly

  19. Vascular calcification of the lower extremities demonstrated by Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in a patient with diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju, l (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    The femoral vessels are sometimes visualized on bone scintigraphy. This is almost always caused by calcification of the femoral artery associated with atherosclerotic changes of the arterial wall. Vascular calcification is frequently seen in the elderly and in diabetics. A 78 year old woman was admitted for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In this patient with diabetes mellitus, tibial arteries as well as femoral arteries were visualized onTc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in contrast with visualization of femoral artery alone observed in the elderly.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Specific Coronary Artery Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Prokop

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarctions at different locations have been related to different sets of risk factors. This study was designed to examine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and specific coronary artery calcification (CAC.Methods: The study population comprised 573 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Established vascular risk factors were measured. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (16-MDCT (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16 to assess coronary calcium. The Agatston score was used to quantify coronary calcium. Logistic regression models were utilized to assess the relations.Results: The prevalence of coronary artery calcification (Agatston score>0 was 61.5% (n=348. CAC was most common in the left anterior descending (LAD artery with a prevalence of 43.9%; and the rates of prevalence in the right coronary artery (RCA, the circumflex (LCX, the left main artery (LM, and the posterior descending artery (PDA were 23.1%, 19.4%, 15.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. In the multivariate regression models, age was predominantly related to the calcification in the LAD and LCX, low density lipoprotein to calcification in the LAD, and cholesterol to the calcification of the RCA. Hypertension and systolic & diastolic blood pressures were related to the calcification of the LCX, whereas smoking was predominantly related to the calcification of both LAD and RCA. Finally, age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure were significantly related to the calcification in the LM.Conclusion: Our findings showed that the consequences of elevated risk factor levels on the development of atherosclerosis appeared to be different across the segments of the coronary arteries.

  1. Adipocyte induced arterial calcification is prevented with sodium thiosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Neal X., E-mail: xuechen@iupui.edu [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); O’Neill, Kalisha; Akl, Nader Kassis [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Moe, Sharon M. [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • High phosphorus can induce calcification of adipocytes, even when fully differentiated. • Adipocytes can induce vascular calcification in an autocrine manner. • Sodium thiosulfate inhibits adipocyte calcification. - Abstract: Background: Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate was determined. Results: The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. Conclusion: High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and

  2. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  3. Association of Serum Phosphate and Related Factors in ESRD-Related Vascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Mei Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is common in ESRD patients and is important in increasing mortality from cardiovascular complications in these patients. Hyperphosphatemia related to chronic kidney disease is increasingly known as major stimulus for vascular calcification. Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification become popular discussion among nephrologist environment more than five decades, and many researches have been evolved. Risk factors for calcification are nowadays focused for the therapeutic prevention of vascular calcification with the hope of reducing cardiovascular complications.

  4. Blood serum atherogenicity and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobenin, Igor A; Myasoedova, Veronica A; Anisimova, Elena V; Pavlova, Xenia N; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Seibel, Rainer; Berenbein, Sina; Lehmann, Nils; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, KarlHeinz; Orekhov, Alexander N; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24533940

  5. Aortic root, not valve, calcification correlates with coronary artery calcification in patients with severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henein, Michael; Hällgren, Peter; Holmgren, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The underlying pathology in aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery stenosis (CAS) is similar including atherosclerosis and calcification. We hypothesize that coronary artery calcification (CAC) is likely to correlate with aortic root calcification (ARC) rather than with aortic valve...... calcification (AVC), due to tissue similarity between the two types of vessel rather than with the valve leaflet tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 212 consecutive patients (age 72.5 ± 7.9 years, 91 females) with AS requiring aortic valve replacement (AVR) in two Heart Centers, who underwent multidetector...... even after adjusting for age (p = 0.01). AVC score was associated with BAV after adjusting for age (p = 0.03) but ARC was not. Of the total cohort, 82 patients (39%) had significant coronary stenosis (>50%), but these were not different in the pattern of calcification from those without CAS. CAC...

  6. The vascular phenotype in pseudoxanthoma elasticum and related disorders: Contribution of a genetic disease to the understanding of vascular calcification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eLeftheriotis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a complex and dynamic process occurring in various physiological conditions such as aging and exercise or in acquired metabolic disorders like diabetes or chronic renal insufficiency. Arterial calcifications are also observed in several genetic diseases revealing the important role of unbalanced or defective anti- or pro-calcifying factors. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is an inherited disease (OMIM 264800 characterized by elastic fiber fragmentation and calcification in various soft conjunctive tissues including the skin, eyes and arterial media. The PXE disease results from mutations in the ABCC6 gene, encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter primarily expressed in the liver, kidneys suggesting that it is a prototypic metabolic soft-tissue calcifying disease of genetic origin. The clinical expression of the PXE arterial disease is characterized by an increased risk for coronary (myocardial infarction, cerebral (aneurysm and stroke and lower limb peripheral artery disease. However, the structural and functional changes in the arterial wall induced by PXE are still unexplained. The use of a recombinant mouse model inactivated for the Abcc6 gene is an important tool for the understanding of the PXE pathophysiology although the vascular impact in this model remains limited to date. Overlapping of the PXE phenotype with other inherited calcifying diseases could bring important informations to our comprehension of the PXE disease.

  7. A preliminary study of periodontitis and vascular calcification compound model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGYun; DENGJing; PanKe-qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective This experiment is desired to establish a compound model of chronic periodontitis and vascular calcification,so as to study the relation of periodontal and vascular calcification.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into:control group(group C),periodontitis group(group CP),vascular calcification group(group VDN),compound group (group CP+VDN).Every groups accepted the corresponding manages to establish the animal model.Eight weeks later,al the rats were sacrificed and the fol owing items were observed:inflam-matory factor in serum were tested,Hematoxylin-eosin staining(HE)staining of vascular tissue were taken to test.Results Through detection of periodontal tissue,serum and vascular tissue,an-imal models were successful.Histopathologic observation revealed:obvious inflammation of periodontal tissue was obversed in group CP and CP+VDN.The red Mineralized nodules deposition in group VDN and CP+VDN were higher than in group C and CP(P<0.05)by HE staining,and that in group CP+VDN was significantly higher than in group VDN(P<0.05);Animals in group CP+VDN showed higher level of IL-1 in serum than that in group CP,VDN and C.Conclusion This study has demonstrated that periodontitis have some promoting ef ect on vascular cal-cification.

  8. Clinical and imaging features associated with intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications in patients with ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Arda [Mersin University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Akpinar, Erhan [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Mehmet Akif; Arsava, Ethem Murat [Hacettepe University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    Intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications (ICAC), a frequent finding on imaging studies, are predictive of future stroke risk in population-based studies. The clinical significance of this observation among ischemic stroke patients is however less clear. In this study, we analyzed ICAC burden in relation to vascular risk factor profile, stroke etiology, and extent of craniocervical vascular calcifications in a consecutive series of ischemic stroke patients. The burden of ICAC was determined both on non-contrast CT and CT-angiography source images by semiquantitative scoring algorithms. The distribution of vascular risk factors, etiologic stroke subtype, and calcification burden in other craniocervical arteries was assessed among patients with no ICAC, mild-moderate ICAC, and severe ICAC. Of 319 patients included into the study, 28 % had no ICAC, 35 % had mild-moderate ICAC, and 37 % had severe ICAC on CT angiography. Independent factors associated with ICAC burden in multivariate analysis included age (p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.006), and coronary artery disease (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a stroke etiology of large artery atherosclerosis or cardioaortic embolism was significantly related to higher ICAC burden (p = 0.006). Patients with severe ICAC were more likely to harbor calcifications in other vascular beds (p < 0.001). All of these findings persisted when analyses were repeated with CT-based ICAC burden assessments. ICAC burden reflects a continuum of atherosclerotic disease involving carotid arteries together with other craniocervical vascular beds. ICAC is significantly associated with stroke of large vessel or cardioembolic origin. This information might help the clinician in prioritizing etiologic work-up in the acute period. (orig.)

  9. Clinical and imaging features associated with intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications in patients with ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications (ICAC), a frequent finding on imaging studies, are predictive of future stroke risk in population-based studies. The clinical significance of this observation among ischemic stroke patients is however less clear. In this study, we analyzed ICAC burden in relation to vascular risk factor profile, stroke etiology, and extent of craniocervical vascular calcifications in a consecutive series of ischemic stroke patients. The burden of ICAC was determined both on non-contrast CT and CT-angiography source images by semiquantitative scoring algorithms. The distribution of vascular risk factors, etiologic stroke subtype, and calcification burden in other craniocervical arteries was assessed among patients with no ICAC, mild-moderate ICAC, and severe ICAC. Of 319 patients included into the study, 28 % had no ICAC, 35 % had mild-moderate ICAC, and 37 % had severe ICAC on CT angiography. Independent factors associated with ICAC burden in multivariate analysis included age (p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.006), and coronary artery disease (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a stroke etiology of large artery atherosclerosis or cardioaortic embolism was significantly related to higher ICAC burden (p = 0.006). Patients with severe ICAC were more likely to harbor calcifications in other vascular beds (p < 0.001). All of these findings persisted when analyses were repeated with CT-based ICAC burden assessments. ICAC burden reflects a continuum of atherosclerotic disease involving carotid arteries together with other craniocervical vascular beds. ICAC is significantly associated with stroke of large vessel or cardioembolic origin. This information might help the clinician in prioritizing etiologic work-up in the acute period. (orig.)

  10. Inflammatory, metabolic, and genetic mechanisms of vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demer, Linda L; Tintut, Yin

    2014-04-01

    This review centers on updating the active research area of vascular calcification. This pathology underlies substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, through adverse mechanical effects on vascular compliance, vasomotion, and, most likely, plaque stability. Biomineralization is a complex, regulated process occurring widely throughout nature. Decades ago, its presence in the vasculature was considered a mere curiosity and an unregulated, dystrophic process that does not involve biological mechanisms. Although it remains controversial whether the process has any adaptive value or past evolutionary advantage, substantial advances have been made in understanding the biological mechanisms driving the process. Different types of calcific vasculopathy, such as inflammatory versus metabolic, have parallel mechanisms in skeletal bone calcification, such as intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Recent work has identified important regulatory roles for inflammation, oxidized lipids, elastin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprogenitor cells, matrix γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein, transglutaminase, osteoclastic regulatory factors, phosphate regulatory hormones and receptors, apoptosis, prelamin A, autophagy, and microvesicles or microparticles similar to the matrix vesicles of skeletal bone. Recent work has uncovered fascinating interactions between matrix γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein, vitamin K, warfarin, and transport proteins. And, lastly, recent breakthroughs in inherited forms of calcific vasculopathy have identified the genes responsible as well as an unexpected overlap of phenotypes. Until recently, vascular calcification was considered a purely degenerative, unregulated process. Since then, investigative groups around the world have identified a wide range of causative mechanisms and regulatory pathways, and some of the recent developments are highlighted in this review.

  11. The association of breast arterial calcification and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4 years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05. Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, p = 0.001 and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005 were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047 and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes.

  12. Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by

  13. Both pelvic radiography and lateral abdominal radiography correlate well with coronary artery calcification measured by computed tomography in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Daqing; Ruan, Yizhe; Pu, Lei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Deng, Fei; Yang, Hongling; Li, Guisen; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Lateral abdominal radiograph is suggested as an alternative to coronary artery computed tomography (CT) in evaluating vascular calcification. Simple scoring systems including pelvic radiograph scoring and abdominal scoring system were utilized to study their correlation with coronary artery calcification. Methods In 106 MHD patients, coronary artery CT, lateral abdominal, and pelvic radiograph were taken. The Agatston scoring system was applied to evaluate the degree of coronary artery calcification which was categorized according to Agatston coronary artery calcification score (CACS) ≥ 30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000. Abdominal aortic calcification was scored by 4-scored and 24-scored systems. Pelvic artery calcification was scored by a 4-scored system. Sensitivities and specificities of abdominal aortic calcification scores and pelvic artery calcification scores to predict different categories of coronary artery calcification were analyzed. We studied the diagnostic capability of abdominal aorta calcification and pelvic artery calcification to predict different CACS categories by calculating likelihood ratios. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the area under the curve for each of these testing procedures. Findings The prevalence was 48(45.3%), 15 (14.2%), 11 (10.4%), 11 (10.4%), and 11 (10.4%) for CACs > 0, ≥30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000, respectively. The degree of CACs was positively correlated with patient age, prevalence of diabetes, abdominal aorta scores, and pelvic calcification scores. The areas under the curves for different CACS by all X-ray scoring systems were above 0.70 except pelvic 4-scored system for diagnosing CACS ≥30, without significant difference (P > 0.05). Discussion Both lateral abdominal and pelvic plain radiographs were demonstrated as acceptable alternatives to CT in evaluating vascular calcification. PMID:26932162

  14. Distal arterial occlusive disease in diabetes is related to medial arterial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Lee, K M; Jungblut, R

    1997-01-01

    In diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial occlusive disease predominantly affects the lower leg (tibial and peroneal vessel disease). Our study suggests that this feature is related to the presence of forefoot medial arterial calcification.

  15. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  16. Magnesium intake is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium intake is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). BACKGROUND: Animal and cell studies suggest that magnesium may prevent calcification within atherosclerotic plaques underlying c...

  17. [Pathogenesis and treatment of vascular calcification in CKD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaccio, D; Gallieni, M; Pasho, S; Fallabrino, G; Olivi, L; Volpi, E; Ciceri, P; Missaglia, E; Ronga, C; Brambilla, C; Butti, A; Rocca-Rey, L; Chiarelli, G; Cozzolino, M

    2009-01-01

    Increased vascular calcification is a major cause of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is the result of an active ossification process counteracted by ''bone'' proteins such as osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, and osteocalcin. Chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism that occurs in CKD. In addition to abnormalities in the serum calcium and phosphate profile, CKD-MBD is characterized by abnormalities of bone turnover, mineralization, volume and growth as well as vascular calcification. Considering that the presence and extent of vascular calcification in CKD portend a poor prognosis, many efforts have been made to shed light on this complicated phenomenon to prevent vascular calcium deposition and its progression. Indeed, careful control of calcium load, serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone along with the use of calcium-free phosphate binders and vitamin D receptor activators represent a new therapeutic armamentarium to improve quality of life and reduce mortality in CKD. PMID:19382090

  18. Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes as Predictors for Radial Artery Calcification in End Stage Renal Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Janda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between selected clinical and biochemical parameters of end stage renal disease (ESRD patients and arterial calcification. Materials and Methods. The study comprised 59 stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients (36 hemodialyzed and 23 predialysis. The examined parameters included common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT, BMI, incidence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and 3-year mortality. Plasma levels asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, osteopontin (OPN, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and osteocalcin (OC were also measured. Fragments of radial artery obtained during creation of hemodialysis access were stained for calcifications using von Kossa method and alizarin red. Results. Calcification of radial artery was significantly associated with higher prevalence of IFG and diabetes (P=0.0004 and older age (P=0.003, as well as higher OPG (P=0.014 and ADMA concentrations (P=0.022. Fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/l (IFG and diabetes significantly predicted vascular calcification in multiple logistic regression. The calcification was also associated with higher CCA-IMT (P=0.006 and mortality (P=0.004; OR for death 5.39 [1.20–24.1] after adjustment for dialysis status and age. Conclusion. Combination of renal insufficiency and hyperglycemic conditions exerts a synergistic effect on vascular calcification and increases the risk of death.

  19. Medial arterial calcification in diabetes and its relationship to neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffcoate, W J; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Hofbauer, L C;

    2009-01-01

    is not strictly accurate because the morphological changes incorporate those of new bone formation, i.e. ossification. The processes are complex, but are closely related to those involved in bone homeostasis, and it is relevant that calcification of the arterial wall and osteopenia often co-exist. One particular...

  20. Advanced Glycation End-Products Induce Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: A Mechanism for Vascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayo Koike

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification, especially medial artery calcification, is associated with cardiovascular death in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD. To determine the underlying mechanism of vascular calcification, we have demonstrated in our previous report that advanced glycation end-products (AGEs stimulated calcium deposition in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs through excessive oxidative stress and phenotypic transition into osteoblastic cells. Since AGEs can induce apoptosis, in this study we investigated its role on VSMC apoptosis, focusing mainly on the underlying mechanisms. A rat VSMC line (A7r5 was cultured, and treated with glycolaldehyde-derived AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE3-BSA. Apoptotic cells were identified by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. To quantify apoptosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for histone-complexed DNA fragments was employed. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the mRNA levels. Treatment of A7r5 cells with AGE3-BSA from 100 µg/mL concentration markedly increased apoptosis, which was suppressed by Nox inhibitors. AGE3-BSA significantly increased the mRNA expression of NAD(PH oxidase components including Nox4 and p22phox, and these findings were confirmed by protein levels using immunofluorescence. Dihydroethidisum assay showed that compared with cBSA, AGE3-BSA increased reactive oxygen species level in A7r5 cells. Furthermore, AGE3-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nox4 or p22phox. Double knockdown of Nox4 and p22phox showed a similar inhibitory effect on apoptosis as single gene silencing. Thus, our results demonstrated that NAD(PH oxidase-derived oxidative stress are involved in AGEs-induced apoptosis of VSMCs. These findings might be important to understand the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in diabetes and CKD.

  1. Breast arterial calcification on mammogram: correlation with carotid arterial atherosclerosis on ultrasonogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Ju; Suh, Jung Ho [School of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyung [College of Medicine, KonYang Univ., Nonsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of breast arterial calcification in Korean women, and to determine its association with systemic diseases and carotid arterial atherosclerosis. One thousand seven hundred and thirteen female subjects who underwent mammography at a health care center between May 1999 and May 2000 were included in this study. Of the total, 172 were found to have breast arterial calcification, and were classified according to age. The coincidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia was examined in both the subject group and the control group selected on the same age basis. To investigate the presence and degree of carotid atherosclerosis, sonographic imaging was performed and the findings were compared between the two groups. The incidence of breast arterial calcification showed statistically significant differences according to age, with a higher incidence in older patients (p<0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in the incidence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus between groups. Carotid atherosclerosis was subjects more prevalent among subjects than in the control group (p<0.05), though there was no statistically significant difference in the degree of luminal stenosis. The most common pathologic cause of breast arterial calcification is arteriosclerosis. Breast arterial calcification is demonstrated at mammography, along with other clinical risk factors for atherosclerosis or coincidental neurologic symptoms. We stress that further evaluation of the carotid artery is necessary.

  2. Relationship Between Carotid Artery Calcification Detected in Dental Panoramic Images and Hypertension and Myocardial Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotid artery calcification may be related to cerebrovascular accident, which may result in death or physical and mental disabilities in survivors. Our purpose is to study the association of carotid artery calcification (CAC) on dental panoramic radiographs and two risk factors of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) including hypertension and myocardial infarction (MI). Panoramic images of 200 patients that were all women above 50 years of age (a population suffering from vascular diseases) were investigated. All panoramic images were provided under similar conditions in terms of the type of panoramic radiograph equipment, type of applied films and the automatic film processor. Then, the patients answered questions about MI history and taking antihypertensive drugs. We also measured the blood pressure of patients in two separate surveys. Data analysis was performed by SPSS statistical program. We used Exact Fisher test and Chi-Square test at a significant level of less than 0.05 to study the effect of these variables on the occurrence of carotid artery calcification. Among 200 studied samples, 22 of the patients (11%) had carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiograph. In total, 52 patients (26%) had hypertension and four people (2%) had a history of MI. Eleven individuals among patients suffering from hypertension (21.2%) and three individuals among patients with a history of MI (75%) demonstrated CAC on dental panoramic images . The relationship between CAC found on dental panoramic radiographs and two CVA risk factors--hypertension and MI-- was significant. Therefore, it seems that detection of CAC on panoramic images of dental patients must be considered by dentists

  3. Dietary vitamin K and therapeutic warfarin alter susceptibility to vascular calcification in experimental chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), with vascular calcification (VC) being a key modifier of disease progression. A local regulator of vascular calcification is vitamin K. This gamma-glutamyl carboxylase substrate is an essential ...

  4. Does treatment with statins have the potential of enhancing Vascular calcification?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; LI Xu-ping; QIAO Yan; NIE Shao-ping; MA Chang-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Vascular calcification is commonly found in atherosclerosis and recognized as a marker of atherosclerotic plaque burden.Many evdiences have demonstrated that vascular calcification is an active process and can be seen in all stages of development and intimately associated with atherosclerosis.

  5. Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signal transduction prevents the medial vascular calcification associated with matrix Gla protein deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Malhotra

    Full Text Available Matrix Gla protein (MGP is reported to inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signal transduction. MGP deficiency is associated with medial calcification of the arterial wall, in a process that involves both osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and mesenchymal transition of endothelial cells (EndMT. In this study, we investigated the contribution of BMP signal transduction to the medial calcification that develops in MGP-deficient mice.MGP-deficient mice (MGP(-/- were treated with one of two BMP signaling inhibitors, LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc, beginning one day after birth. Aortic calcification was assessed in 28-day-old mice by measuring the uptake of a fluorescent bisphosphonate probe and by staining tissue sections with Alizarin red. Aortic calcification was 80% less in MGP(-/- mice treated with LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc compared with vehicle-treated control animals (P<0.001 for both. LDN-193189-treated MGP(-/- mice survived longer than vehicle-treated MGP(-/- mice. Levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5 and Id1 mRNA (markers of BMP signaling did not differ in the aortas from MGP(-/- and wild-type mice. Markers of EndMT and osteogenesis were increased in MGP(-/- aortas, an effect that was prevented by LDN-193189. Calcification of isolated VSMCs was also inhibited by LDN-193189.Inhibition of BMP signaling leads to reduced vascular calcification and improved survival in MGP(-/- mice. The EndMT and osteogenic transdifferentiation associated with MGP deficiency is dependent upon BMP signaling. These results suggest that BMP signal transduction has critical roles in the development of vascular calcification in MGP-deficient mice.

  6. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 Promotes Vascular Calcification via SMAD1/5/8 Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Joo Lee; Ji Yun Jeong; Chang Joo Oh; Sungmi Park; Joon-Young Kim; Han-Jong Kim; Nam Doo Kim; Young-Keun Choi; Ji-Yeon Do; Younghoon Go; Chae-Myung Ha; Je-Yong Choi; Seung Huh; Nam Ho Jeoung; Ki-Up Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcification, a pathologic response to defective calcium and phosphate homeostasis, is strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In this study, we have observed that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is upregulated and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex phosphorylation is increased in calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and in calcified vessels of patients with atherosclerosis, suggesting that PDK4 plays an important role in vascular calcification...

  7. Vitamin K antagonism aggravates chronic kidney disease-induced neointimal hyperplasia and calcification in arterialized veins: role of vitamin K treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragatski, Emma; Grommes, Jochen; Schurgers, Leon J; Langer, Stephan; Kennes, Lieven; Tamm, Miriam; Koeppel, Thomas A; Kranz, Jennifer; Hackhofer, Tina; Arakelyan, Karen; Jacobs, Michael J; Kokozidou, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the common vascular access type for a hemodialysis patient. Its failure is due to neointimal hyperplasia. Vitamin K antagonists are given to lower thrombosis tendency, but have side effects that enhance arterial calcifications. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin K antagonists and vitamin K2 (K2) treatment on neointimal hyperplasia development and calcification in rats and in arterialized human veins. AVF was generated in female rats while chronic kidney disease (CKD) was induced using an adenine-enriched diet. Arterialization, CKD, and vitamin K antagonists all significantly enhanced venous neointimal hyperplasia. K2 treatment, additional to vitamin K antagonists, significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia in arterialized veins in healthy rats but not in rats with CKD. Arterialization, CKD, and vitamin K antagonism all significantly increased, whereas K2 supplementation attenuated calcification in healthy rats and rats with CKD. K2 significantly enhanced matrix Gla protein carboxylation in control rats and rats with CKD. Arterialized human vein samples contained inactive matrix Gla protein at calcification and neointimal hyperplasia sites, indicating local vitamin K deficiency. Thus, vitamin K antagonists have detrimental effects on AVF remodeling, whereas K2 reduced neointimal hyperplasia and calcification indicating vasoprotective effects. Hence, K2 administration may be useful to prevent neointimal hyperplasia and calcification in arterialized veins

  8. Lack of Correlation Between Depression and Coronary Artery Calcification in a Non-Selected Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Sand, Niels Peter;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis seems to play a central role in this relation. In several studies, multislice computed tomography (CT) has been applied for detection and quantification of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in relation...

  9. Sonological appearance of idiopathic arterial calcification in fetus: A rare case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic arterial calcification (IAC) is a rare disease characterized by extensive arterial wall calcification. This condition is almost always fatal. A total of 162 cases have been reported to date, with most cases diagnosed postnatally and less than 13 cases having been suspected antenatally. This case report describes a case of IAC detected antenatally with USG at 28 weeks' gestation

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE WITH CAROTID ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS, DENTAL PULP CALCIFICATIONS AND DENTAL PULP STONES

    OpenAIRE

    DAĞISTAN, Saadettin; MİLOĞLU, Özkan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of carotid artery calcifications in dental panoramic radiographs and dental pulp calcifications together with dental pulp stones in periapical radiographs in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis and healthy individuals, and to identify the relationship between the two groups.Patients and methods: A total of 115 cases (57 patients on haemodialysis for chronic renal failure and 58 healthy individu...

  11. Magnesium Modifies the Impact of Calcitriol Treatment on Vascular Calcification in Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, Jason G E; McCabe, Kristin M; Svajger, Bruno; Barron, Henry; Laverty, Kim; Holden, Rachel M; Adams, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are commonly treated with vitamin D analogs, such as calcitriol. Recent epidemiologic evidence revealed a significant interaction between vitamin D and magnesium, since an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and mortality mainly occurs in patients with a high magnesium intake. The aim of the study was to assess the mechanisms involved by determining whether magnesium alone or combined with calcitriol treatments differentially impacts vascular calcification (VC) in male Sprague-Dawley rats with adenine-induced CKD. Treatment with moderate doses of calcitriol (80 μg/kg) suppressed parathyroid hormone to near or slightly below control levels. Given alone, this dose of calcitriol increased the prevalence of VC; however, when magnesium was given in combination, the severity of calcification was attenuated in the abdominal aorta (51% reduction), iliac (44%), and carotid arteries (46%) compared with CKD controls. The decreases in vascular calcium content were associated with a 20-50% increase in vascular magnesium. Calcitriol treatment alone significantly decreased TRPM7 protein (↓ to ∼11%), whereas the combination treatment increased both mRNA (1.7×) and protein (6.8×) expression compared with calcitriol alone. In summary, calcitriol increased VC in certain conditions, but magnesium prevented the reduction in TRPM7 and reduced the severity of VC, thereby increasing the bioavailable magnesium in the vascular microenvironment. These findings suggest that modifying the adverse effect profile of calcitriol with magnesium may be a plausible approach to benefiting the increasing number of CKD patients being prescribed calcitriol.

  12. Vascular ossification – calcification in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and calciphylaxis – calcific uremic arteriolopathy: the emerging role of sodium thiosulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowers James R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular calcification is associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and end stage renal disease. Each of the above contributes to an accelerated and premature demise primarily due to cardiovascular disease. The above conditions are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities resulting in an increase in reactive oxygen species to the arterial vessel wall, which results in a response to injury wound healing (remodeling. The endothelium seems to be at the very center of these disease processes, acting as the first line of defense against these multiple metabolic toxicities and the first to encounter their damaging effects to the arterial vessel wall. Results The pathobiomolecular mechanisms of vascular calcification are presented in order to provide the clinician – researcher a database of knowledge to assist in the clinical management of these high-risk patients and examine newer therapies. Calciphylaxis is associated with medial arteriolar vascular calcification and results in ischemic subcutaneous necrosis with vulnerable skin ulcerations and high mortality. Recently, this clinical syndrome (once thought to be rare is presenting with increasing frequency. Consequently, newer therapeutic modalities need to be explored. Intravenous sodium thiosulfate is currently used as an antidote for the treatment of cyanide poisioning and prevention of toxicities of cisplatin cancer therapies. It is used as a food and medicinal preservative and topically used as an antifungal medication. Conclusion A discussion of sodium thiosulfate's dual role as a potent antioxidant and chelator of calcium is presented in order to better understand its role as an emerging novel therapy for the clinical syndrome of calciphylaxis and its complications.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates vascular calcification induced by vitamin D3 plus nicotine in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-ying WU; Chun-shui PAN; Bin GENG; Jing ZHAO; Fang YU; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Yong-fen QI

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the role of the endogenous cystathionine γ-synthase(CSE)/hydrogen sulfide(H2S)pathway in vascular calcification in vivo.Methods:A rat vascular calcitication model was established by administration of vitamin D3 plus nicotine(VDN).The amount of CSE and osteopontin(OPN)mRNA was determined by using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.The calcium content,45Ca2+ accumulation and alkaline phosphatase(ALP)activity were measured.H2S production and CSE activity were measured.Results:von Kossa staining produced strong positive black/brown staining in areas among the elastic fibers of the medial layer in the calcified aorta.The calcium content,45Ca2+ accumulation and ALP activity in calcified arteries increased by 6.77-,1.42-,and 1.87-fold,respectively,compared with controls.The expression of the OPN gene was upregulated(P<0.01).Expression of the CSE gene was downregulated.However,calcium content.45Ca2+ uptake and ALP activity in the VDN plus NaHS group was lower than that in the VDN group.The content of calcium and 45Ca2+ accumulation and activity of ALP in the aorta were 34.8%,40.75%and 63.5%lower in the low-dosage NaHS group than in the VDN group,respectively(P<0.01),and the calcium content and deposition of 45Ca2+ and activity of ALP was 83.9%,37.8%and 46.2% lower in the aorta in the high-dosage NaHS group than in the VDN group,respectively(P<0.01).The expression of the OPN gene was downregulated.Conclusion:The production of H2S,and CSE activity were decreased and CSE gene expression was downregulated in rats with vascular catcification.H2S can ameliorate vascular calcification,suggesting that the H2S/CSE pathway plays a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification.

  14. Indoxyl Sulfate Enhance the Hypermethylation of Klotho and Promote the Process of Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Han; Liu, Tongqiang; Zhang, Hui; Teng, Jie; Ji, Jun; Ding, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a state of Klotho deficiency. The Klotho expression may be suppressed due to DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells so we have investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The vascular Klotho hypermethylation in radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease was described. Cultured HASMCs and 5/6-nephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with indoxyl sulfate (IS) were used as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. IS increased CpG hypermethylation of the Klotho gene and decreased Klotho expression in HASMCs, and potentiated HASMCs calcification. The expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and 3a in HASMCs treated with IS was significantly increased and specific inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine(5Aza-2dc) caused demethylation of the Klotho gene and increased Klotho expression. In rats, injection of IS potentiated vascular calcification, increased CpG hypermethylation of the Klotho gene and decreased Klotho expression in the aortic medial layer and all of these changes could be reverted by 5Aza-2dc treatment. Transcriptional suppression of vascular Klotho gene expression by IS and epigenetic modification of Klotho by IS may be an important pathological mechanism of vascular calcification in CKD. PMID:27766038

  15. Association of Aortic Calcification on Plain Chest Radiography with Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han; Chang, Jeong Ho [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Sam [Dept. of Radiologic Tecnology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was conducted to determine an association between aortic calcification viewed on plain chest radiography and obstructive coronary artery disease. Retrospective review of all chest radiography obtained from consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Chest PA images were reviewed by technical radiologist and radiologist. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, images were compared with the results of coronary angiography. In addition, the size of aortic arch calcification were divided into two groups - the smaller and the larger than 10 mm. Among the total 846 patients, the number of the patients with obstructive coronary artery disease is total 417 (88.3%) in males and 312 (83.4%) in females. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, the positive predictive value of relation between aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease was 91.4% and the relative risk of the group with aortic arch calcification to the opposite group was 1.10. According to the size of aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease, the positive predictive value was 91.9% and the relative risk between two groups was 1.04. This study shows that aortic calcification was closely associated with obstructive coronary artery disease. If the aortic calcification is notified on plain chest radiography, we strongly recommend to consult with doctor.

  16. Association of Aortic Calcification on Plain Chest Radiography with Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine an association between aortic calcification viewed on plain chest radiography and obstructive coronary artery disease. Retrospective review of all chest radiography obtained from consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Chest PA images were reviewed by technical radiologist and radiologist. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, images were compared with the results of coronary angiography. In addition, the size of aortic arch calcification were divided into two groups - the smaller and the larger than 10 mm. Among the total 846 patients, the number of the patients with obstructive coronary artery disease is total 417 (88.3%) in males and 312 (83.4%) in females. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, the positive predictive value of relation between aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease was 91.4% and the relative risk of the group with aortic arch calcification to the opposite group was 1.10. According to the size of aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease, the positive predictive value was 91.9% and the relative risk between two groups was 1.04. This study shows that aortic calcification was closely associated with obstructive coronary artery disease. If the aortic calcification is notified on plain chest radiography, we strongly recommend to consult with doctor.

  17. Reliability of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Lacerda Brasileiro Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study evaluated the reliability of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications. Materials and Methods Thirty-five patients under high-risk for development of carotid artery calcifications who had digital panoramic radiography were referred to undergo ultrasonography. Thus, 70 arteries were assessed by both methods. The main parameters utilized to evaluate the panoramic radiography reliability in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications were accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of this method as compared with ultrasonography. Additionally, the McNemar's test was utilized to verify whether there was a statistically significant difference between digital panoramic radiography and ultrasonography. Results Ultrasonography demonstrated carotid artery calcifications in 17 (48.57% patients. Such individuals presented with a total of 29 (41.43% carotid arteries affected by calcification. Radiography was accurate in 71.43% (n = 50 of cases evaluated. The degree of sensitivity of this method was 37.93%, specificity of 95.12% and positive predictive value of 84.61%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was observed between the methods evaluated in their capacity to diagnose carotid artery calcifications. Conclusion Digital panoramic radiography should not be indicated as a method of choice in the investigation of carotid artery calcifications.

  18. Vascular Calcification in Uremia: New-Age Concepts about an Old-Age Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward R

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of aging, and major contributor to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), is the progressive structural and functional deterioration of the arteries and concomitant accrual of mineral. Vascular calcification (VC) was long viewed as a degenerative age-related pathology that resulted from the passive deposition of mineral in the extracellular matrix; however, since the discovery of "bone-related" protein expression in calcified atherosclerotic plaques over 20 years ago, a plethora of studies have evoked the now widely accepted view that VC is a highly regulated and principally cell-mediated phenomenon that recapitulates many features of physiologic ossification. Central to this theory are changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype and viability, thought to be driven by chronic exposure to a number of dystrophic stimuli characteristics of the uremic state. Here, dedifferentiated synthetic VSMCs are seen to spawn calcifying matrix vesicles that actively seed mineralization of the arterial matrix. This review provides an overview of the major epidemiological, histological, and molecular aspects of VC in the context of CKD, and a counterpoint to the prevailing paradigm that emphasizes the primacy of VSMC-mediated mechanisms. Particular focus is given to the import of protein and small molecule inhibitors in regulating physiologic and pathological mineralization and the emerging role of mineral nanoparticles and their interplay with proinflammatory processes.

  19. Calcification at orifices of aortic arch branches is a reliable and significant marker of stenosis at carotid bifurcation and intracranial arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Simple rating scale for calcification in the cervical arteries and the aortic arch on multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) was evaluated its reliability and validity. Additionally, we investigated where is the most representative location for evaluating the calcification risk of carotid bifurcation stenosis and atherosclerotic infarction in the overall cervical arteries covering from the aortic arch to the carotid bifurcation. Method: The aortic arch and cervical arteries among 518 patients (292 men, 226 women) were evaluated the extent of calcification using a 4-point grading scale for MDCTA. Reliability, validity and the concomitant risk with vascular stenosis and atherosclerotic infarction were assessed. Results: Calcification was most frequently observed in the aortic arch itself, the orifices from the aortic arch, and the carotid bifurcation. Compared with the bilateral carotid bifurcations, the aortic arch itself had a stronger inter-observer agreement for the calcification score (Fleiss’ kappa coefficients; 0.77), but weaker associations with stenosis and atherosclerotic infarction. Calcification at the orifices of the aortic arch branches had a stronger inter-observer agreement (0.74) and enough associations with carotid bifurcation stenosis and intracranial stenosis. In addition, the extensive calcification at the orifices from the aortic arch was significantly associated with atherosclerotic infarction, similar to the calcification at the bilateral carotid bifurcations. Conclusions: The orifices of the aortic arch branches were the novel representative location of the aortic arch and overall cervical arteries for evaluating the calcification extent. Thus, calcification at the aortic arch should be evaluated with focus on the orifices of 3 main branches

  20. Calcification at orifices of aortic arch branches is a reliable and significant marker of stenosis at carotid bifurcation and intracranial arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shigeki, E-mail: shigekiyamada3@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery and Stroke Center, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashiken8022@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Kishiwada Municipal Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Ogata, Hideki, E-mail: hidogata@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshihiko, E-mail: ynabe@magic.odn.ne.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Oshima, Marie, E-mail: marie@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Miyake, Hidenori, E-mail: hi-miyake@hamamatsuh.rofuku.go.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Simple rating scale for calcification in the cervical arteries and the aortic arch on multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) was evaluated its reliability and validity. Additionally, we investigated where is the most representative location for evaluating the calcification risk of carotid bifurcation stenosis and atherosclerotic infarction in the overall cervical arteries covering from the aortic arch to the carotid bifurcation. Method: The aortic arch and cervical arteries among 518 patients (292 men, 226 women) were evaluated the extent of calcification using a 4-point grading scale for MDCTA. Reliability, validity and the concomitant risk with vascular stenosis and atherosclerotic infarction were assessed. Results: Calcification was most frequently observed in the aortic arch itself, the orifices from the aortic arch, and the carotid bifurcation. Compared with the bilateral carotid bifurcations, the aortic arch itself had a stronger inter-observer agreement for the calcification score (Fleiss’ kappa coefficients; 0.77), but weaker associations with stenosis and atherosclerotic infarction. Calcification at the orifices of the aortic arch branches had a stronger inter-observer agreement (0.74) and enough associations with carotid bifurcation stenosis and intracranial stenosis. In addition, the extensive calcification at the orifices from the aortic arch was significantly associated with atherosclerotic infarction, similar to the calcification at the bilateral carotid bifurcations. Conclusions: The orifices of the aortic arch branches were the novel representative location of the aortic arch and overall cervical arteries for evaluating the calcification extent. Thus, calcification at the aortic arch should be evaluated with focus on the orifices of 3 main branches.

  1. Hypothesis: Phytate is an important unrecognised nutrient and potential intravenous drug for preventing vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Pieter; Ketteler, Markus; Salcedo, Carolina; Perello, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular calcification (CVC) associated with conditions such as ageing, diabetes or renal impairment, results from the deposition of hydroxyapatite in the endothelium or media of blood vessels. Key medical management options are directed towards controlling plasma calcium and phosphate concentrations (e.g. parathormone inhibition, phosphate binders, dialysis), enhancing the effect of calcification inhibitors (e.g. fetuin-A, pyrophosphate, vitamin K, osteopontin, matrix Gla protein) and decreasing the effect of promoters of calcification (e.g. vitamin D, lipids, cytokines). Dietary phytate prevents the calcification of ageing in rats and epidemiological data suggest that phytate rich diets are associated with a lower incidence of CVC in the elderly. Intravenous phytate prevents aggressive CVC induced by vitamin D in rats. We propose that phytate should be added to the list of inhibitors of vascular calcification. We further suggest that adequate dietary phytate could prevent mild forms of calcification and that the low phytate content of diets for patients with renal disease can contribute to the increased risk of vascular calcification. It is also our contention that supra-physiological systemic phytate concentrations not achievable orally, might prevent aggressive vascular calcification. Appropriate epidemiological (to determine nutritional value) and clinical studies (evaluating safety and efficacy) are required to confirm, modify or reject our hypothesis. PMID:27515210

  2. CO2 vascular anastomosis of atherosclerotic and calcified arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John V.; Leefmans, Eric; Stewart, Gwendolyn J.; Katz, Mira L.; Comerota, Anthony J.

    1990-06-01

    The technique for CO2 laser fusion vascular anastomosis in normal vessels has been well established. Normal arterial wall has a predictable thermal response to the incident laser energy, with rapid heating and cooling of collagen within the arterial wall. Since atherosclerosis involves subendothelial cellular proliferation, lipid and calcium deposition, it may modify the thermal responsiveness of the arterial wall. To this study, CO2 laser fusion anastomoses were attempted in rabbits with non-calcific atherosclerosis and humans with calcific atherosclerosis. All anastomoses were successfully completed without alteration in technique despite the presence of plaque at the site of laser fusion. Histology of rabbit vessels revealed the classic laser fusion cap within the adventitia and persistent atherosclerotic plaque at the flow surface. Duplex imaging of patients post-operatively demonstrated long term anastomotic patency in 2 of 3 fistulae. These results suggest that neither non-calcified or calcified atherosclerosis significantly alters the arterial wall thermal responsiveness to CO2 laser energy or inhibits creation of laser fusion anastomoses. Therefore, this technique may be applicable to the treatment of patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease.

  3. Lower Extremity Arterial Calcification as a Predictor of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwa Seon; Jung Park, Mi; Nyeo Jeon, Kyung; Min Cho, Jae; Soo Bae, Kyung; Seob Choi, Dae; Boem Na, Jae; Cheol Choi, Ho; Young Choi, Hye; Eun Kim, Ji; Bueum Cho, Soo; Eun Park, Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background Until now, there has been no study on the relationship between the calcification of the lower extremity arteries and significant coronary arterial disease (CAD). Objectives To evaluate whether lower extremity calcium scores (LECS) are associated with CAD and whether this can predict multivessel-CAD in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients and Methods We retrospectively enrolled 103 PAD patients without cardiac symptoms or known CAD. All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT) and lower extremity CT within 1 month and were categorized as nonsignificant CAD, single-CAD, or multivessel-CAD. The coronary calcium scores (CCS) were quantitatively measured according to the Agatston method and LECS were semi-quantitatively measured according to the presence of lower extremity calcification in the segment. The extent of CAD was evaluated according to the presence of ≥ 50% luminal diameter stenosis in the segment of CAD. Results LECS in multivessel-CAD were significantly higher than those in nonsignificant CAD (10.0 ± 5.8 versus 4.0 ± 3.1, P < 0.001). LECS significantly correlated with CCS (r = 0.831, P < 0.001) and the extent of CAD (r = 0.631, P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated LECS and log-transformed CCS were independent predictors for multivessel-CAD. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the diagnostic performance of LECS was 0.807 (95% confidence interval = 0.724-0.891, P < 0.001) for predicting multivessel-CAD. Conclusion Peripheral arterial calcification is significantly correlated with CAD extent in patients with PAD. Peripheral arterial calcification can be a useful marker for predicting multivessel-CAD.

  4. Effect of medial arterial calcification on O2 supply to exercising diabetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Ma, X Y; Herrnberger, S; Dohmen, C; Trappe, P; Baba, T

    1990-08-01

    We investigated whether medial arterial calcification (MAC) impairs O2 supply to the exercising foot in diabetic patients with foot lesions. Transcutaneous O2 tension (tcPO2) was monitored at the dorsum of the foot before and after bicycle exercise in 11 diabetic patients with peripheral ischemic vascular disease (PIVD) with or without concomitant existence of MAC, 10 patients with MAC but without PIVD, 10 diabetic control subjects, and 6 nondiabetic control subjects. The mean preexercise tcPO2 level was comparable in these four groups. However, tcPO2 decreased significantly with exercise in feet with PIVD (mean +/- SE -17.9 +/- 2.7%, P less than 0.01, n = 11), regardless of presence or absence of vascular calcification. On the other hand, the value increased significantly with exercise in feet with MAC but without PIVD (21.2 +/- 3.5%, P less than 0.01, n = 10) and in those of diabetic control subjects (14.9 +/- 3.6%, P less than 0.01), respectively. The tcPO2 remained unchanged in the feet of nondiabetic control subjects (1.7 +/- 1.1%). The results suggest that MAC is not associated with reduced O2 supply to the exercising foot in diabetic patients.

  5. 糖尿病相关血管钙化%Diabetes-related vascular calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓来

    2015-01-01

    多项研究显示糖尿病患者的冠状动脉钙化(CAC)积分升高,CAC进展迅速.糖尿病相关血管钙化与高血糖、维生素D缺乏、胰岛素抵抗、肥胖、贲门上部脂肪、肾脏疾病等多种危险因素相关.心血管疾病(CVD)是导致成人糖尿病患者死亡的主要原因.CAC是斑块负担较好标志,其与糖尿病患者的CVD风险增加显著相关.在糖尿病人群中,CAC的发生及程度可以预测未来心血管事件.%Several studies have shown that in patients with diabetes if the coronary artery calcification (CAC) score increases, the CAC will progress rapidly.Diabetes-related vascular calcification is associated with hyperglycemia, vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance, obesity, epicardial fat, renal disease and other risk factors.Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.CAC is a useful marker of plaque burden.It is significantly correlated with the increase of CVD risk in diabetic patients.In diabetic population, the occurrence and level of CAC can be used to predict cardiovascular events in the future.

  6. Intramural location and size of arterial calcification are associated with stenosis at carotid bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shigeki, E-mail: shigekiyamada3@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery and Stroke Center, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Otowachinji-cho 2, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8602 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Oshima, Marie, E-mail: marie@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshihiko, E-mail: ynabe@magic.odn.ne.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Ogata, Hideki, E-mail: hidogata@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashiken8022@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Kishiwada Municipal Hospital, 1001 Gakuhara-cho, Kishiwada city, Osaka 596-8501 (Japan); Miyake, Hidenori, E-mail: hi-miyake@hamamatsuh.rofuku.go.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and intramural location and size of calcification at the ICA origins and the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA. Method: A total of 1139 ICAs were evaluated stenosis and calcification on the multi-detector row CT angiography. The intramural location was categorized into none, outside and inside location. The calcification size was evaluated on the 4-point grading scale. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol habits. Results: Outside calcification at the ICA origins showed the highest multivariate odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ICA stenosis (30.0) and severe calcification (a semicircle or more of calcification at the arterial cross-sectional surfaces) did the second (14.3). In the subgroups of >70% ICA stenosis, the multivariate OR of outside location increased to 44.8 and that of severe calcification also increased to 32.7. Four of 5 calcified carotid plaque specimens extracted by carotid endarterectomy were histologically confirmed to be calcified burdens located outside the internal elastic lamia which were defined as arterial medial calcification. Conclusions: ICA stenosis was strongly associated with severe calcification located mainly outside the carotid plaque. Outside calcification at the ICA origins should be evaluated separately from inside calcification, as a marker for the ICA stenosis. Additionally, we found that calcification at the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA was significantly associated with the ICA stenosis.

  7. Intramural location and size of arterial calcification are associated with stenosis at carotid bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and intramural location and size of calcification at the ICA origins and the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA. Method: A total of 1139 ICAs were evaluated stenosis and calcification on the multi-detector row CT angiography. The intramural location was categorized into none, outside and inside location. The calcification size was evaluated on the 4-point grading scale. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol habits. Results: Outside calcification at the ICA origins showed the highest multivariate odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ICA stenosis (30.0) and severe calcification (a semicircle or more of calcification at the arterial cross-sectional surfaces) did the second (14.3). In the subgroups of >70% ICA stenosis, the multivariate OR of outside location increased to 44.8 and that of severe calcification also increased to 32.7. Four of 5 calcified carotid plaque specimens extracted by carotid endarterectomy were histologically confirmed to be calcified burdens located outside the internal elastic lamia which were defined as arterial medial calcification. Conclusions: ICA stenosis was strongly associated with severe calcification located mainly outside the carotid plaque. Outside calcification at the ICA origins should be evaluated separately from inside calcification, as a marker for the ICA stenosis. Additionally, we found that calcification at the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA was significantly associated with the ICA stenosis

  8. Atorvastatin Protects Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells From TGF-β1-Stimulated Calcification by Inducing Autophagy via Suppression of the β-Catenin Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial calcification is a major event in the progression of atherosclerosis. It is reported that statins exhibit various protective effects against vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC inflammation and proliferation in cardiovascular remodeling. Although statins counteract atherosclerosis, the molecular mechanisms of statins on the calcium release from VSMCs have not been clearly elucidated. Methods: Calcium content of VSMCs was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The expression of proteins involved in cellular transdifferentiation was analyzed by western blot. Cell autophagy was measured by fluorescence microscopic analysis for acridine orange staining and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The autophagic inhibitors (3-MA, chloroquine, NH4Cl and bafilomycin A1 and β-catenin inhibitor JW74 were used to assess the effects of atorvastatin on autophagy and the involvement of β-catenin on cell calcification respectively. Furthermore, cell transfection was performed to overexpress β-catenin. Results: In VSMCs, atorvastatin significantly suppressed transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1-stimulated calcification, accompanied by the induction of autophagy. Downregulation of autophagy with autophagic inhibitors significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on cell calcification. Moreover, the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on calcification and autophagy was reversed by β-catenin overexpression. Conversely, JW74 supplement enhanced this effect. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that atorvastatin protect VSMC from TGF-β1-stimulated calcification by inducing autophagy through suppression of the β-catenin pathway, identifying autophagy induction might be a therapeutic strategy for use in vascular calcification.

  9. Inverse Associations Between Perceived Racism and Coronary Artery Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVERAGE, NICHOLAS J.; GJELSVIK, ANNIE; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN T.; LINKLETTER, CRYSTAL D.; LOUCKS, ERIC B.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether racial discrimination is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in African-American participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS: The study included American Black men (n = 571) and women (n = 791) aged 33 to 45 years in the CARDIA study. Perceived racial discrimination was assessed based on the Experiences of Discrimination scale (range, 1–35). CAC was evaluated using computed tomography. Primary analyses assessed associations between perceived racial discrimination and presence of CAC using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic position (SEP), psychosocial variables, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. RESULTS: In age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression models, odds of CAC decreased as the perceived racial discrimination score increased (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90–0.98 per 1-unit increase in Experiences of Discrimination scale). The relationship did not markedly change after further adjustment for SEP, psychosocial variables, or CHD risk factors (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87–0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived racial discrimination was negatively associated with CAC in this study. Estimation of more forms of racial discrimination as well as replication of analyses in other samples will help to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:22365645

  10. Phosphate and Vascular Calcification: Emerging Role of the Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Cotransporter PiT-1

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Wei Ling; Festing, Maria H; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is a risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular events in kidney disease as well as in the general population. Elevated phosphate levels drive vascular calcification, in part, by regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) gene expression, function, and fate. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, is necessary for phosphate-induced VSMC osteochondrogenic phenotype change and calcification, and has recently been shown to have une...

  11. Computer-aided detection and quantification of arterial calcifications with CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Išgum, I.

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. Arterial calcifications are a marker of the disease and can be detected with computed tomography (CT) scans. In this thesis automatic methods for CT calcium scoring are presented. In CT scans calcifications appear as

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study for Coronary Artery Calcification With Follow-Up in Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Kavousi, Maryam; Smith, Albert V.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Sun, Yan V.; Province, Michael A.; Aspelund, Thor; Dehghan, Abbas; Hoffmann, Udo; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Fox, Caroline S.; de Andrade, Mariza; Kraja, Aldi T.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Elias-Smale, Suzette E.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Launer, Lenore J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Kathiresan, Sekar; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Herrington, David M.; Howard, Timothy D.; Liu, Yongmei; Post, Wendy S.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Shen, Haiqing; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Altshuler, David; Elosua, Roberto; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Bis, Joshua C.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Heiss, Gerardo; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp S.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Muenzel, Thomas; White, Charles C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Nalls, Michael; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Johnson, Andrew D.; Newman, Anne B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Cunningham, Julie; Harris, Tamara B.; Hofman, Albert; Peyser, Patricia A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background-Coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by computed tomography is a noninvasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, which underlies most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to identify common genetic variants associated with CAC and further investigate their associations

  13. Pre-existing Arterial Micro-Calcification Predicts Primary Unassisted Arteriovenous Fistula Failure in Incident Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Jin; Yoon, Hye Eun; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Sun Ae; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Soo; Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access micro-calcification is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients but its influence on vascular access patency is still undetermined. Our study aimed to determine the impact of arterial micro-calcification (AMiC) on the patency of vascular access in HD patients. One-hundred fourteen HD patients receiving arteriovenous fistula (AVF) operation were included in this study. During the operation, we obtained partial arterial specimen and performed pathological examination by von Kossa stain to identify AMiC. We compared primary unassisted AVF failure within 1 year between positive and negative AMiC groups, and performed Cox regression analysis for evaluating risk factor of AVF failure. The incidence of AMiC was 37.7% and AVF failure occurred in 45 patients (39.5%). The AVF failure rate within 1 year was greater in the positive AMiC group than those in the negative AMiC group (53.5% vs. 31.0%, p = 0.02). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the positive AMiC group had a lower AVF patency rate than the negative AMiC group (p = 0.02). The presence of AMiC was an independent risk factor for AVF failure. In conclusion, preexisting AMiC of the vascular access is associated with primary unassisted AVF failure in incident HD patients. PMID:25787294

  14. Pre-existing Arterial Micro-Calcification Predicts Primary Unassisted Arteriovenous Fistula Failure in Incident Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Jin; Yoon, Hye Eun; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Sun Ae; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Soo; Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access micro-calcification is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients but its influence on vascular access patency is still undetermined. Our study aimed to determine the impact of arterial micro-calcification (AMiC) on the patency of vascular access in HD patients. One-hundred fourteen HD patients receiving arteriovenous fistula (AVF) operation were included in this study. During the operation, we obtained partial arterial specimen and performed pathological examination by von Kossa stain to identify AMiC. We compared primary unassisted AVF failure within 1 year between positive and negative AMiC groups, and performed Cox regression analysis for evaluating risk factor of AVF failure. The incidence of AMiC was 37.7% and AVF failure occurred in 45 patients (39.5%). The AVF failure rate within 1 year was greater in the positive AMiC group than those in the negative AMiC group (53.5% vs. 31.0%, p = 0.02). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the positive AMiC group had a lower AVF patency rate than the negative AMiC group (p = 0.02). The presence of AMiC was an independent risk factor for AVF failure. In conclusion, preexisting AMiC of the vascular access is associated with primary unassisted AVF failure in incident HD patients.

  15. Breast arterial calcifications : A systematic review and meta-analysis of their determinants and their association with cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Eva J E; de Jong, Pim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P Th M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Breast arterial calcifications (BAC), regularly observed at mammography, are medial calcifications and as such an expression of arteriosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate and summarize the available evidence on the associations of BAC with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascul

  16. Association between metabolic syndrome, smoking status and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ah; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook; Rho, Jun-Seung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC), an indicator of coronary artery stenosis, is an independent risk factor of ischemic heart disease. Smoking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. Almost no previous studies have evaluated the combined effect of MS and smoking status on CAC. Therefore, in this study we examined the relationships between CAC, MS, and smoking. This study included 775 adult males without histories of cardiovascular disease who visited the Health Promotion Center at the University Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea from January 2, 2010 to December 31, 2012. All subjects were screened for CAC by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). CAC increased significantly with age and body mass index (BMI). Among MS components, abdominal obesity and elevated fasting blood glucose were correlated with CAC. After adjusting for age and BMI, MS was associated with a 1.46-fold increase in CAC (95% CI:1.02-2.09), abdominal obesity was associated with a 1.45-fold increase (95% CI:1.04-2.04), elevated fasting blood glucose was associated with a 2-fold increase (95% CI:1.36-2.94), and MS and smoking combined were associated with 2.44-fold increase in CAC. Thus, the combination of smoking and MS had a greater impact on CAC than any single factor alone. MS is correlated with an increased risk of CAC, and a combination of MS and smoking is associated with even greater risk. These findings can be used to prevent cardiovascular disease in adults.

  17. Mammographically detected breast arterial calcifications: Indicators for arteriosclerotic diseases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of breast arterial calcifications (BAC) detected on mammography and search for conditions that may influence their existence. Materials and methods: The mammograms of 6156 consecutive patients were reevaluated for the presence of BAC. Four hundred eighty-five women having BAC were enrolled in the patient group. Additionally, randomly selected 500 women, without BAC constituted the control group. Hospital records of the participants were reviewed for parity, menopausal status, oral contraceptive agent (OCA) usage, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) usage, presence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, albuminuria and history of myocardial infarction (MI). Results: Prevalence of BAC was 7.9% on mammograms. Ninety-four women were aged between 40 and 49 years, 165 were aged between 50 and 59 years and 226 were over 60 years among BAC positive 485 women. A significant relationship was found for the frequency of BAC versus age and HRT usage in all age groups (p 0.05). Conclusion: Most benign findings like BAC are not routinely reported during mammographic evaluation. Our study showed that, presence of BAC on mammography was strongly related to advancing age. However, these findings may signify a systemic risk and can be used as precautious indicators for undocumented systemic diseases, especially in premenopausal women

  18. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blackham, Aaron [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  19. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  20. Coronary artery calcification is increased in patients with COPD and associated with increased morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, M. C.; Murchison, J. T.; Edwards, L. D.;

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary artery calcification is pathognomonic of coronary artery disease (CAD). Whether CAD in patients with COPD is linked to lung function, functional capacity and/or clinically relevant outcomes is unknown. The objective was to assess the association between CAD and disease severit...

  1. [Ectopic calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    Calcium deposition can be observed in many tissues in addition to bones and teeth which physiologically calcify. This unphysiological calcification can damage several organs. It has been shown that vascular calcification which is a risk factor for cardiovascular events develops through similar mechanisms to physiological calcification. Further studies to clarify detailed mechanisms of calcification are necessary to develop measures that inhibit unphysiological ectopic calcification without affecting physiological calcification in bones and teeth.

  2. Mammographically detected breast arterial calcifications: Indicators for arteriosclerotic diseases?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskin, Fuesun [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey)]. E-mail: fusuntaskin@yahoo.com; Akdilli, Alev [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Karaman, Can [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Unsal, Alparslan [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Koeseoglu, Kutsi [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Ergin, Filiz [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Aydin (Turkey)

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of breast arterial calcifications (BAC) detected on mammography and search for conditions that may influence their existence. Materials and methods: The mammograms of 6156 consecutive patients were reevaluated for the presence of BAC. Four hundred eighty-five women having BAC were enrolled in the patient group. Additionally, randomly selected 500 women, without BAC constituted the control group. Hospital records of the participants were reviewed for parity, menopausal status, oral contraceptive agent (OCA) usage, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) usage, presence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, albuminuria and history of myocardial infarction (MI). Results: Prevalence of BAC was 7.9% on mammograms. Ninety-four women were aged between 40 and 49 years, 165 were aged between 50 and 59 years and 226 were over 60 years among BAC positive 485 women. A significant relationship was found for the frequency of BAC versus age and HRT usage in all age groups (p < 0.05). Similarly, significant relationships were also found for the frequency of BAC versus OCA usage, HRT usage, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in age group of 40-49 and in age group of 50-59, and for the frequency of BAC versus albuminuria in age group of 40-49, BAC versus history of myocardial infarction in age group of 59-59 and over 60 years (p < 0.05). The correlations were not significant for the relationships of BAC with OCA usage, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and albuminuria in women over 60 years (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Most benign findings like BAC are not routinely reported during mammographic evaluation. Our study showed that, presence of BAC on mammography was strongly related to advancing age. However, these findings may signify a systemic risk and can be used as precautious indicators for undocumented systemic diseases, especially in premenopausal women.

  3. Osteoprotegerin Serum Level is Associated with Severity of Coronary Artery Calcification in Non Diabetic Centrally Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilis Yulianti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG is produced by a variety of tissues including those of the cardiovascular system. Recent clinical studies have suggested a significant correlation between elevated OPG serum level and cardiovascular mortality. Since coronary artery calcification (CAC is positively associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD events, we carried out a study to investigate whether OPG serum level is associated with the severity of CAC in non diabetic centrally obese men. METHODS: A cross sectional study was done on seventy non diabetic centrally obese men. CAC score was determined by using dual source computed tomography (DSCT. OPG serum level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS for windows ver 16. ANOVA was performed to analyze mean, maximum, minimum value, and standard deviation. Spearman correlation test was performed to determine the correlation between OPG serum level and CAC score. Significance value was defined as alpha level=0.05 based on two-tailed tests. RESULTS: OPG serum level was significantly correlated with CAC score. The severity of CAC increased with the increase of OPG level. Age was significantly correlated with OPG serum level and CAC score. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that serum OPG level was associated with the severity of CAC, which highlights that OPG could be involved in the progression of CAC in non diabetic obese men. KEYWORDS: obesity, vascular calcification, osteoprotegerin, coronary artery calcification.

  4. Osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, C E; Kalamara, P; Konsta, M; Papaioannou, I; Papadima, E; Antoniou, Z; Andrianopoulou, A; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To estimate the correlation between osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women and the influence of calcium/vitamin D supplements on vascular calcification. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including 29 women with osteoporosis (15 not taking supplements) and 18 age-matched, non-osteoporotic women. They were evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors and blood tests, lateral X-ray of lumbar spine (assessment of abdominal aorta calcification, AAC) and carotid ultrasound (increased intima media thickness (iIMT) or calcified plaques) were performed. Results In univariate analysis, osteoporotic women were 16 times more likely to develop AAC (odds ratio (OR) 15.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-135.4) and seven times more likely to develop iIMT (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.8-25.4) compared to normal individuals. The odds of developing AAC and iIMT were increased each year after menopause (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.2 and OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.3, respectively) and with aging (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.1-1.47 and OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.3, respectively). Calcified plaques were significantly correlated with osteoporosis (p = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, osteoporosis was an independent risk factor for AAC (OR 13.3, 95% CI 1.3-134.4) and iIMT (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.1-19.9). Low doses of supplements did not appear to affect vascular calcification (p = 0.6). Conclusions Osteoporosis is associated with increased calcification of the abdominal aorta and carotids. Low doses of supplements do not appear to cause any increase in vascular calcification in osteoporotic women. PMID:27045323

  5. Vascular calcification and chronic kidney disease; the role of vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for vascular calcification such as dialysis vintage, higher mean phosphorus concentrations and higher prescribed daily doses of vitamin D and calcium-containing phosphorus binders are unique to the dialysis population. Therefore, consideration of risk factors beyond those within the tr...

  6. Case Report: Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis Due to Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Sener

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this case, it was reported that a 48 year old male patient with spontaneous central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO due to calcific aortic valve stenosis. He had no other systemic disease. CRAO usually occurs in elder patients with systemic risk factors. CRAO results in sudden, painless and severe vision loss. Altough, CRAO is seen rarely under 50 year old, it may appear in younger patient with aortic valve disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis caused cardiac disease.

  7. Intra-Section Analysis of Human Coronary Arteries Reveals a Potential Role for Micro-Calcifications in Macrophage Recruitment in the Early Stage of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn L L Chatrou

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. Histochemical analysis of calcification and the expression of proteins involved in mineralization are usually based on whole section analysis, thereby often ignoring regional differences in atherosclerotic lesions. At present, limited information is available about factors involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.This study investigates the intra-section association of micro-calcifications with markers for atherosclerosis in randomly chosen section areas of human coronary arteries. Moreover, the possible causal relationship between calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammation was explored in vitro.To gain insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we performed analysis of the distribution of micro-calcifications using a 3-MeV proton microbeam. Additionally, we performed systematic analyses of 30 to 40 regions of 12 coronary sections obtained from 6 patients including histology and immuno-histochemistry. Section areas were classified according to CD68 positivity. In vitro experiments using human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs were performed to evaluate causal relationships between calcification and inflammation.From each section multiple areas were randomly chosen and subsequently analyzed. Depositions of calcium crystals at the micrometer scale were already observed in areas with early pre-atheroma type I lesions. Micro-calcifications were initiated at the elastica interna concomitantly with upregulation of the uncarboxylated form of matrix Gla-protein (ucMGP. Both the amount of calcium crystals and ucMGP staining increased from type I to IV atherosclerotic lesions. Osteochondrogenic markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin were only significantly increased in type IV atheroma lesions, and at this stage correlated with the degree of calcification. From atheroma area type III onwards a considerable number of CD68 positive cells were observed

  8. Generalized arterial calcification of infancy and pseudoxanthoma elasticum can be caused by mutations in either ENPP1 or ABCC6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitschke, Y.; Baujat, G.; Botschen, U.; Wittkampf, T.; du Moulin, M.; Stella, J.; Merrer, M. le; Guest, G.; Lambot, K.; Tazarourte-Pinturier, M.F.; Chassaing, N.; Roche, O.; Feenstra, I.; Loechner, K.; Deshpande, C.; Garber, S.J.; Chikarmane, R.; Steinmann, B.; Shahinyan, T.; Martorell, L.; Davies, J.; Smith, W.E.; Kahler, S.G.; McCulloch, M.; Wraige, E.; Loidi, L.; Hohne, W.; Martin, L.; Hadj-Rabia, S.; Terkeltaub, R.; Rutsch, F.

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous pathologic arterial calcifications in childhood can occur in generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) or in pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). GACI is associated with biallelic mutations in ENPP1 in the majority of cases, whereas mutations in ABCC6 are known to cause PXE. Howeve

  9. Relation of coronary vasoreactivity and coronary calcification in asymptomatic subjects with a family history of premature coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) allows non-invasive imaging of coronary calcification and has been promoted as a screening tool for coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic high-risk subjects. This study assessed the relation of coronary calcifications to alterations in coronary vascular reactivity by means of positron emission tomography (PET) in asymptomatic subjects with a familial history of premature CAD. Twenty-one subjects (mean age 51±10 years) underwent EBCT imaging for coronary calcifications expressed as the coronary calcium score (CCS according to Agatston) and rest/adenosine-stress nitrogen-13 ammonia PET with quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). The mean CCS was 237±256 (median 146, range 0-915). The CCS was 100 units in 13. As defined by age-related thresholds, 15 subjects had an increased CCS (>75th percentile). Overall mean resting and stress MBF and CFR were 71±16 ml 100 g-1 min-1, 218±54 ml 100 g-1 min-1 and 3.20±0.77, respectively. Three subjects with CCS ranging from 114 to 451 units had an abnormal CFR (<2.5). There was no relation between CCS and resting or stress MBF or CFR (r=0.17, 0.18 and 0.10, respectively). In asymptomatic subjects a pathological CCS was five times more prevalent than an abnormal CFR. The absence of any close relationship between CCS and CFR reflects the fact that quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging with PET characterises the dynamic process of vascular reactivity while EBCT is a measure of more stable calcified lesions in the arterial wall whose presence is closely related to age. (orig.)

  10. Effect of water fluoridation on the development of medial vascular calcification in uremic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • F− prevents calcification in vitro, cell death and trans-differentiation. • Prevention is independent of cellular activity, with IC50 of 8.7 μM, similar to PPi. • In rats with experimental CKD F− dramatically increases aortic calcification. • This effect seems to be mediated through deterioration of residual renal function. • F− alters the crystallization, composition and shape of calcium phosphates. - Abstract: Public water fluoridation is a common policy for improving dental health. Fluoride replaces the hydroxyls of hydroxyapatite, thereby improving the strength of tooth enamel, but this process can also occur in other active calcifications. This paper studies the effects of water fluoridation during the course of vascular calcification in renal disease. The effect of fluoride was studied in vitro and in vivo. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells were calcified with 2 mM Pi for 5 days. Fluoride concentrations of 5–10 μM – similar to those found in people who drink fluoridated water – partially prevented calcification, death, and osteogene expression in vitro. The anticalcifying mechanism was independent of cell activity, matrix Gla protein, and fetuin A expressions, and it exhibited an IC50 of 8.7 μM fluoride. In vivo, however, fluoridation of drinking water at 1.5 mg/L (concentration recommended by the WHO) and 15 mg/L dramatically increased the incipient aortic calcification observed in rats with experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD, 5/6-nephrectomy), fed a Pi-rich fodder (1.2% Pi). Fluoride further declined the remaining renal function of the CKD animals, an effect that most likely overwhelmed the positive effect of fluoride on calcification in vitro. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that fluoride did not modify the Ca/P atomic ratio, but it was incorporated into the lattice of in vivo deposits. Fluoride also converted the crystallization pattern from plate to rode-like structures. In conclusion, while fluoride prevents

  11. Calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells: associations with osteoprotegerin expression and acceleration by high-dose insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ping; Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen Nguyen; Wogensen, Lise;

    2007-01-01

    Arterial medial calcifications occur often in diabetic individuals as part of the diabetic macroangiopathy. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the presence of calcifications predicts risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of insulin on calcifying smooth muscle cells in vitro...

  12. 慢性肾脏病5期患者桡动脉gremlin表达与血管钙化的关系%Association of vascular calcification and gremlin expression in radial arteries of patients with stage 5 of chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚立峰; 卢景奎; 唐卫刚; 姜维; 马桂香

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性肾脏病(CKD)5期患者桡动脉中骨形态发生蛋白(BMP)拮抗剂gremlin表达与血管钙化的关系.方法 40例CKD5期患者为试验组,于行首次动静脉内瘘术时取桡动脉标本;38例单纯外伤性脾破裂患者为对照组,取其脾小梁动脉标本.用钙盐特异性染色法( von Kossa)对动脉进行钙化染色;用免疫组化法检测动脉gremlin、BMP-2、-7的表达,并用ELISA法检测血清中3者浓度;用病理图像分析系统(IPP6.0)对组织切片进行半定量化图像分析;用SPSS 19.0统计分析软件进行数据处理.结果 试验组12例(30%)钙盐染色显著阳性,位于中膜的平滑肌细胞层,而对照组无显著钙盐染色.试验组钙盐染色显著阳性的桡动脉均有gremlin、BMP-2显著表达,位于中膜的平滑肌细胞层,且2者的表达量与钙盐染色程度均呈正相关.试验组BMP-7的表达量显著低于对照组.结论 gremlin、BMP-2均可能参与了CKD5期患者桡动脉平滑肌细胞向成骨样细胞表型转化这一过程,而BMP-7可能阻止此过程的进展.%Objective To study the association of the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist gremlin and vascular calcification in radial arteries of patients with stage 5 of chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods Radial arteries of 40 patients with stage 5 of CKD were collected as specimens of the study group,which were trimmed off during arterial venous fistula operations.Splenic trabecular arteries were collected as specimens of the control group,which were removed from 38 patients with simple traumatic splenic rupture.All the arteries were examined histologically for calcification with yon Kossa stain.Expressions of gremlin and BMP-2,-7were detected by immunohistochemistry and their serum concentrations were detected by ELISA.Images of histological sections were semi-quantitatively analyzed by Image-Pro Plus 6.0.SPSS 19.0software was used to perform statistical analysis

  13. Relationship of vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease in maintenance hemodialysis patients%维持性血液透析患者血管钙化情况及其与心血管疾病的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 贾艳丽; 刘惠兰

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查维持性血液透析(MHD)患者血管钙化的发生情况.方法应用X线摄片方法调查MHD患者胸主动脉及四肢血管发生的钙化情况,初步分析血管钙化与心血管疾病的关系.结果 69例患者中38例有至少一处血管钙化,占55%(38/69).23例有四肢血管钙化的患者中,大部分(14/23)为内膜、中膜钙化同时存在.有血管钙化患者与无血管钙化患者相比,年龄更大,既往有缺血性心脏病的患者更多(P<0.05).随访1年,有16例患者在此期间发生心衰.有血管钙化患者发生心衰的人数明显多于无血管钙化患者(P<0.01).结论血管钙化可能与MHD患者心血管疾病有关.%Objective To observe the occurrence of vascular calcification in maintenance hemedialysis (MHD) patients. Method Sixty-nine MHD patients were enrolled in this study. Vascular calcification was evaluated by plain X-my films of chest, upper and lower extremites. Analyzed the relationship of vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Results Vascular calcification on X-ray films presented in 38 cases (55%). Of the 23 cases with calcification on arteries of extremites, 14 cases were found to have both intimal calcification and medial calcification. Patients with vascular calcification were older. Ischemic heart disease and cardiac failure appeared more frequently in the patients with vascular calcification. Conclusions Both intimal calcification and medial calcification are frequently found in the MHD patients. Vascular calcification is probablly associated with cardiovascular disease in MHD patients.

  14. Coronary artery calcification scoring in low-dose ungated CT screening for lung cancer: interscan agreement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.C.; Isgum, I.; Gondrie, M.J.; Mali, W.P.Th.; Ginneken, B. van; Prokop, M.; Graaf, Y. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In previous studies detection of coronary artery calcification (CAC) with low-dose ungated MDCT performed for lung cancer screening has been compared with detection with cardiac CT. We evaluated the interscan agreement of CAC scores from two consecutive low-dose ungated MDCT examinations.

  15. Coronary Artery Calcification Scoring in Low-Dose Ungated CT Screening for Lung Cancer : Interscan Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Peter C. A.; Isgum, Ivana; Gondrie, Martijn J. A.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; van Ginneken, Bram; Prokop, Mathias; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. In previous studies detection of coronary artery calcification (CAC) with low-dose ungated MDCT performed for lung cancer screening has been compared with detection with cardiac CT. We evaluated the interscan agreement of CAC scores from two consecutive low-dose ungated MDCT examinations.

  16. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population...

  17. Renal Function Is Related to Severity of Coronary Artery Calcification in Elderly Persons : The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Elias-Smale, Suzette; Dehghan, Abbas; Vliegenthart-Proenca, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism of the increased risk of coronary heart disease with reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since renal function diminishes with aging we examined the association between GFR and CAC in the Rott

  18. A rare cause of death in infancy: idiopathic infantile arterial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, M; Faten, H; Rim, H; Nidhal, H S; Njim, L; Moussa, A; Zakhama, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the autopsy findings of an Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification-new-born male and describe its follow-up. Y.R, a 23-days-old male, hasn't any relevant personal past medical or family history. The baby was weighing 3.2 kg at birth. He was breast fed and appeared to be perfectly normal. In the last 24 hours, he presented to the family doctor with vomitis, refuse of feeds without fever or diarrhea. He was diagnosed as having gastroenteritis and was medicated accordingly. A few hours later, he had an hematemese episode associated with facial cyanosis. Death occurred despite cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. Forensic autopsy was required. The macroscopic examination showed a bilateral pleural liquid effusion without any other abnormalities. Microscopic investigation revealed a generalized arterial calcification of all organs. Idiopathic arterial calcification is primarily a disease of infancy. It is characterized pathologically by generalized arterial calcification within the internal elastic lamina, associated with intimal fibrous proliferation. Death occur often in the first sixth months due to heart failure. PMID:26591630

  19. Longitudinal Relationships among Coronary Artery Calcification, Serum Phosphorus, and Kidney Function

    OpenAIRE

    Tuttle, Katherine R.; Short, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is common in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet its onset and time course are uncertain. The study objective was to assess longitudinal relationships among CAC, kidney function, and traditional and putative cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.

  20. Calcification of the external carotid arteries and their branches

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, D. S.; Zhang, L.; Gu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This patient had longstanding hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia owing to chronic renal disease, then finally failure, inducing tertiary hyperparathyroidism. He also had long histories of diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. He then reported a painful expansile swelling of the anterior mandible which was diagnosed as a “brown tumour”. Subsequent review of the CT data set by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist revealed two patterns of calcification of the car...

  1. NT-proBNP and potential vascular calcification in Black and Caucasian African men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Ruan; Schutte, Rudolph; Huisman, Hugo W;

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a reliable marker of cardiac strain. In hypertensive heart disease, NT-proBNP levels increase and may lose its protective function. Simultaneously, the vasculature is also subject to hemodynamic stress, resulting in vascular matrix...... remodeling and stiffening which contribute to further cardiac alterations. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a marker of osteoblast activity and is involved in vascular calcification. We explored the link between NT-proBNP and ALP in Black and Caucasian African men....

  2. Arterial calcification: Finger-pointing at resident and circulating stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco; Vasuri; Silvia; Fittipaldi; Gianandrea; Pasquinelli

    2014-01-01

    The term "Stammzelle"(stem cells) originally appeared in 1868 in the works of Ernst Haeckel who used it to describe the ancestor unicellular organism from which he presumed all multicellular organisms evolved. Since then stem cells have been studied in a wide spectrum of normal and pathological conditions; it is remarkable to note that ectopic arterial calcification was considered a passive deposit of calcium since its original discovering in 1877; in the last decades, resident and circulating stem cells were imaged to drive arterial calcification through chondro-osteogenic differentiation thus opening the idea that an active mechanism could be at the basis of the process that clinically shows a Janus effect: calcifications either lead to the stabilization or rupture of the atherosclerotic plaques. A review of the literature underlines that 130 years after stem cell discovery, antigenic markers of stem cells are still debated and the identification of the osteoprogenitor phenotype is even more elusive due to tissue degradation occurring at processing and manipulation. It is necessary to find a consensus to perform comparable studies that implies phenotypic recognition of stem cells antigens. A hypothesis is based on the singular morphology and amitotic mechanism of division of osteoclasts: it constitutes the opening to a new approach on osteoprogenitors markers and recognition. Our aim was to highlight all the present evidences of the active calcification process, summarize the different cellular types involved, and discuss a novel approach to discover osteoprogenitor phenotypes in arterial wall.

  3. Calpain-1 Mediated Disorder of Pyrophosphate Metabolism Contributes to Vascular Calcification Induced by oxLDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Futian; Chan, Erqing; Lu, Meili; Zhang, Xiaowen; Dai, Chunmei; Mei, Meng; Zhang, Suping; Wang, Hongxin; Song, Qing

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) accelerated the calcification in aorta of rats and rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the acceleration remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of calpain-1, Ca2+-sensitive intracellular cysteine proteases, in the vascular calcification of rats treated with both high dose of vitamin D2 and high cholesterol diet. The results showed that calpain activity significantly increased in calcified aortic tissue of rats and RVSMCs treated with oxLDL. Specific calpain inhibitor I (CAI, 0.5mg/kg, intraperitoneal) inhibited the vascular calcification in rats with hypercholesterolemia accompanied by the increase in the level of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), the endogenous inhibitor of vascular calcification. In addition, CAI increased the content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), decreased the activity, mRNA and protein expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and reduced the production of superoxide anion in calcified aortic tissue. CAI also increased the activity of ATP synthase as well as protein expression of ATP5D, δ subunit of ATP synthase. In the in vitro study, suppression of calpain-1 using siRNA assay inhibited the calcium deposition, increased the levels of PPi and ATP, improved the activity of ATP synthase as well as protein expression of ATP5D in RVSMCs treated with oxLDL. Calpain-1 suppression also decreased the activity, mRNA and protein expression of ALP and reduced the mitochondrial ROS (Mito-ROS) production in RVSMCs. However, mito-TEMPO, the mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger, reduced the calcium deposition, increased the PPi in culture medium, decreased the activity, mRNA and protein expression of ALP in RVSMCs treated with oxLDL. Taken together, the results suggested that calpain-1 activation plays critical role in vascular calcification caused by oxLDL, which might be mediated by PPi

  4. Vascular Calcification and Stone Disease: A New Look towards the Mechanism

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    Allen J. Yiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate (CaP crystals are formed in pathological calcification as well as during stone formation. Although there are several theories as to how these crystals can develop through the combined interactions of biochemical and biophysical factors, the exact mechanism of such mineralization is largely unknown. Based on the published scientific literature, we found that common factors can link the initial stages of stone formation and calcification in anatomically distal tissues and organs. For example, changes to the spatiotemporal conditions of the fluid flow in tubular structures may provide initial condition(s for CaP crystal generation needed for stone formation. Additionally, recent evidence has provided a meaningful association between the active participation of proteins and transcription factors found in the bone forming (ossification mechanism that are also involved in the early stages of kidney stone formation and arterial calcification. Our review will focus on three topics of discussion (physiological influences—calcium and phosphate concentration—and similarities to ossification, or bone formation that may elucidate some commonality in the mechanisms of stone formation and calcification, and pave the way towards opening new avenues for further research.

  5. Ablation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinaseα1 in vascular smooth muscle cells promotes diet-induced atherosclerotic calcification in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhe-jun; DING Ye; ZHANG Miao; LU Qiu-lun; WU Sheng-nan; ZHU Huai-ping; SONG Ping; ZOU Ming-hui

    2016-01-01

    AIM:Atherosclerotic calcification is highly linked with plaque instability and cardiovascular events .Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase ( AMPK) has been involved in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disease .The contributions of AMPKαsubunits to the development of atherosclerotic calcification in vivo remained unknown .We hypothesized that AMPKαsubunits may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic calcification .METHODS: Atherosclerotic calcification was generated by 24-week fed of western diet in ApoE-/-background mice .Calcification was evaluated in aortic roots and innominate arteries of ApoE-/-mice or in mice with dual deficiencies of ApoE and AMPKαsubunits globally ( AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 ) , or vascular smooth muscle cell ( VSMC)-specific or macrophage-specific knockout of AMPKα1 with atherosclerotic calcification pone diet . The mechanism of AMPKα1 in regulating Runx2 was further explored in human aortic VSMC .RESULTS: Ablation of AMPKα1 but not AMPKα2 in ApoE-/-background promoted atherosclerotic calcification with increased Runt -related transcription factor ( Runx2 ) expression in VSMC compared with ApoE-/-mice.Conversely, chronic administration of metformin, which activated AMPK, markedly reduced ath-erosclerotic calcification and Runx2 expression in ApoE-/-mice but had less effects in ApoE-/-/AMPKα1 -/-mice.Furthermore, VSMC-but not macrophage-specific deficiency of AMPKα1 in ApoE-/-background promoted atherosclerotic calcification in vivo com-pared with the controls .AMPKα1 silencing in human aortic VSMC prevented Runx 2 from proteasome degradation to trigger osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC .Conversely , activation of AMPK led to Runx 2 instability by inducing its small ubiquitin-like modifier modifi-cation (SUMOylation).Protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (PIAS1), the SUMO E3-ligase of Runx2, was directly phosphorylated by AMPKα1 at serine 510, to enhance its SUMO E3-ligase activity.Ablation of PIAS1

  6. The Association between Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 and Vascular Calcification Is Mitigated by Inflammation Markers

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    Mohamed M. NasrAllah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 has been linked to vascular calcification, ventricular hypertrophy and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD, although these links may not be direct and independent. Similar grave outcomes are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in CKD. Recently, accumulating evidence has linked components of phosphate homeostasis to inflammation and oxidative stress. The interaction between the triad of inflammation, FGF-23 and cardiovascular outcomes is underinvestigated. Methods: We studied 65 patients with stage 5 CKD on hemodialysis. Serum levels of FGF-23, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, endogenous soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (esRAGE, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, parathormone, lipids, calcium and phosphorous were measured. The aortic calcification index (ACI was determined using non-contrast CT scans of the abdominal aorta. Results: FGF-23 was elevated (mean: 4,681 pg/ml, SD: 3,906 and correlated with hsCRP, esRAGE, AOPP, dialysis vintage and phosphorus in univariate analysis. In multiple regression analysis, hsCRP, AOPP and phosphorus but not esRAGE were all significantly correlated to FGF-23 (R2 = 0.7, p 2 = 0.65, p Conclusion: FGF-23 is strongly correlated to various markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients. The association between FGF-23 and vascular calcification was mitigated when corrected for inflammation markers.

  7. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling inhibition ameliorates vascular calcification via Klotho upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Cai, Yan; Zheng, Ming-Fei; Sun, Wei-Liang; Zhang, Song-Yang; Kong, Wei; Gu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients, but the pathogenesis remains partially unknown and effective therapeutic targets should be urgently explored. Here we pursued the therapeutic role of rapamycin in CRF-related VC. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal was activated in the aortic wall of CRF rats. As expected, oral rapamycin administration significantly reduced VC by inhibiting mTOR in rats with CRF. Further in vitro results showed that activation of mTOR by both pharmacological agent and genetic method promoted, while inhibition of mTOR reduced, inorganic phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and chondrogenic/osteogenic gene expression, which were independent of autophagy and apoptosis. Interestingly, the expression of Klotho, an antiaging gene that suppresses VC, was reduced in calcified vasculature, whereas rapamycin reversed membrane and secreted Klotho decline through mTOR inhibition. When mTOR signaling was enhanced by either mTOR overexpression or deletion of tuberous sclerosis 1, Klotho mRNA was further decreased in phosphate-treated VSMCs, suggesting a vital association between mTOR signaling and Klotho expression. More importantly, rapamycin failed to reduce VC in the absence of Klotho by using either siRNA knockdown of Klotho or Klotho knockout mice. Thus, Klotho has a critical role in mediating the observed decrease in calcification by rapamycin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26061549

  8. The effects of 3-month atorvastatin therapy on arterial inflammation, calcification, abdominal adipose tissue and circulating biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has the potential to track vascular inflammation and monitor therapeutic response. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between arterial inflammation, calcification and serological biomarkers in subjects with atherosclerosis, and to assess their therapeutic response to 12-week atorvastatin treatment. Forty-three statin-naive subjects with atherosclerosis received atorvastatin (40 mg/day) for 12 weeks and underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT, coronary calcification and abdominal adipose tissue volume measurements. A panel of serological biomarkers was analysed. Arterial inflammation was measured at seven arterial segments and normalized to venous FDG activity to produce target to background ratios (TBR). Thirty-four subjects without cardiovascular disease who repeated PET 1-4 years apart for routine health check-ups were retrospectively evaluated for comparison. The baseline mean TBR values in atherosclerotic patients were positively correlated with age (R = 0.36), body mass index (R = 0.54), abdominal visceral adipose tissue volume (R = 0.65), coronary calcification score (R = 0.40), levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (R = 0.54), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 (R = 0.46) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) (R = 0.67, all p < 0.05). The TBR as well as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), E-selectin, MMP-9, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, FABP4 and follistatin values were reduced significantly after the 12-week atorvastatin treatment. The TBR reduction marginally correlated with changes in MMP-9 levels (R = 0.56, p = 0.05). The control group, whose median age was younger, by comparison had lower hsCRP and arterial TBR than the subjects with atherosclerosis (all p < 0.05), and moreover had a slight but insignificant increase in mean TBR at their 2.5±0.8 year follow-up. The medium dose of atorvastatin over a 12-week period resulted in a significant reduction of

  9. Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery: An Unusual Cause of Vascular Tinnitus

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    Ananya Panda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatile tinnitus is generally of vascular origin and can be due to arterial, venous, or systemic causes. While certain congenital anatomical variants and arterial vascular loops have been commonly found in symptomatic patients undergoing imaging, persistent primitive trigeminal artery in association with isolated tinnitus is unusual. Thus we report a patient with unilateral isolated pulsatile tinnitus who was evaluated with magnetic resonance angiography and was found to have a persistent primitive trigeminal artery. We also briefly discuss vascular tinnitus as well as the embryology, imaging, and classification of persistent primitive trigeminal artery with the clinical implications.

  10. Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery: An Unusual Cause of Vascular Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arundeep; Jana, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is generally of vascular origin and can be due to arterial, venous, or systemic causes. While certain congenital anatomical variants and arterial vascular loops have been commonly found in symptomatic patients undergoing imaging, persistent primitive trigeminal artery in association with isolated tinnitus is unusual. Thus we report a patient with unilateral isolated pulsatile tinnitus who was evaluated with magnetic resonance angiography and was found to have a persistent primitive trigeminal artery. We also briefly discuss vascular tinnitus as well as the embryology, imaging, and classification of persistent primitive trigeminal artery with the clinical implications. PMID:24459596

  11. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery: an unusual cause of vascular tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ananya; Arora, Arundeep; Jana, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is generally of vascular origin and can be due to arterial, venous, or systemic causes. While certain congenital anatomical variants and arterial vascular loops have been commonly found in symptomatic patients undergoing imaging, persistent primitive trigeminal artery in association with isolated tinnitus is unusual. Thus we report a patient with unilateral isolated pulsatile tinnitus who was evaluated with magnetic resonance angiography and was found to have a persistent primitive trigeminal artery. We also briefly discuss vascular tinnitus as well as the embryology, imaging, and classification of persistent primitive trigeminal artery with the clinical implications. PMID:24459596

  12. Critical Parameters of the In Vitro Method of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Calcification.

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    Luis Hortells

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification (VC is primarily studied using cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the use of very different protocols and extreme conditions can provide findings unrelated to VC. In this work we aimed to determine the critical experimental parameters that affect calcification in vitro and to determine the relevance to calcification in vivo.Rat VSMC calcification in vitro was studied using different concentrations of fetal calf serum, calcium, and phosphate, in different types of culture media, and using various volumes and rates of change. The bicarbonate content of the media critically affected pH and resulted in supersaturation, depending on the concentration of Ca2+ and Pi. Such supersaturation is a consequence of the high dependence of bicarbonate buffers on CO2 vapor pressure and bicarbonate concentration at pHs above 7.40. Such buffer systems cause considerable pH variations as a result of minor experimental changes. The variations are more critical for DMEM and are negligible when the bicarbonate concentration is reduced to ¼. Particle nucleation and growth were observed by dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Using 2mM Pi, particles of ~200nm were observed at 24 hours in MEM and at 1 hour in DMEM. These nuclei grew over time, were deposited in the cells, and caused osteogene expression or cell death, depending on the precipitation rate. TEM observations showed that the initial precipitate was amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP, which converts into hydroxyapatite over time. In blood, the scenario is different, because supersaturation is avoided by a tightly controlled pH of 7.4, which prevents the formation of PO43--containing ACP.The precipitation of ACP in vitro is unrelated to VC in vivo. The model needs to be refined through controlled pH and the use of additional procalcifying agents other than Pi in order to reproduce calcium phosphate deposition in vivo.

  13. Pharmacological inhibition of PHOSPHO1 suppresses vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Yadav, Manisha C; Zhu, Dongxing; Narisawa, Sonoko; Sheen, Campbell; Stec, Boguslaw; Cosford, Nicholas D; Dahl, Russell; Farquharson, Colin; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Macrae, Vicky E; Millán, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Medial vascular calcification (MVC) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease, obesity, and aging. MVC is an actively regulated process that resembles skeletal mineralization, resulting from chondro-osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we used mineralizing murine VSMCs to study the expression of PHOSPHO1, a phosphatase that participates in the first step of matrix vesicles-mediated initiation of mineralization during endochondral ossification. Wild-type (WT) VSMCs cultured under calcifying conditions exhibited increased Phospho1 gene expression and Phospho1(-/-) VSMCs failed to mineralize in vitro. Using natural PHOSPHO1 substrates, potent and specific inhibitors of PHOSPHO1 were identified via high-throughput screening and mechanistic analysis and two of these inhibitors, designated MLS-0390838 and MLS-0263839, were selected for further analysis. Their effectiveness in preventing VSMC calcification by targeting PHOSPHO1 function was assessed, alone and in combination with a potent tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) inhibitor MLS-0038949. PHOSPHO1 inhibition by MLS-0263839 in mineralizing WT cells (cultured with added inorganic phosphate) reduced calcification in culture to 41.8% ± 2.0% of control. Combined inhibition of PHOSPHO1 by MLS-0263839 and TNAP by MLS-0038949 significantly reduced calcification to 20.9% ± 0.74% of control. Furthermore, the dual inhibition strategy affected the expression of several mineralization-related enzymes while increasing expression of the smooth muscle cell marker Acta2. We conclude that PHOSPHO1 plays a critical role in VSMC mineralization and that "phosphatase inhibition" may be a useful therapeutic strategy to reduce MVC.

  14. Impact of menaquinone-4 supplementation on coronary artery calcification and arterial stiffness: an open label single arm study

    OpenAIRE

    Ikari, Yuji; Torii, Sho; Shioi, Atsushi; Okano, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of vitamin K has been reported to reduce coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown whether supplemental menaquinone (MK)-4 can reduce CAC or arterial stiffness. To study the effect of MK-4 supplementation on CAC and brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Methods This study is a single arm design to take 45 mg/day MK-4 daily as a therapeutic drug for 1 year. Primary endpoint was CAC score determined using 64-slice multi...

  15. Calciphylaxis: Temporal Artery Calcification Preceding Widespread Skin Lesions and Penile Necrosis

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    Manzoor A. Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal artery calciphylaxis has rarely been described in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. We report a case of 72-year-old Caucasian man with multiple comorbidities and end-stage renal disease on dialysis who presented with temporal artery calcification leading to bilateral loss of vision followed by extensive skin lesions including one on glans penis. While on peritoneal dialysis, he developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, had no improvement on high dose steroids, and temporal artery biopsy showed marked calcification without any evidence of vasculitis. Few weeks later on hemodialysis, he developed widespread cutaneous lesions on extremities and penile necrosis with skin biopsy revealing calciphylaxis. On literature review of calciphylaxis in chronic kidney disease, we found only four cases of temporal artery calciphylaxis leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and blindness. We believe this is the first case in which the rare temporal artery calciphylaxis and the uncommon penile necrosis are being described together. The objective is to emphasize the need to recognize this condition early in the CKD patients on dialysis presenting with visual symptoms as the different treatment strategies may help prevent complete loss of vision and also modify or prevent a full blown calciphylaxis.

  16. Autophagy inhibits PDGF-BB-induced calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Qian-qian; MEI Han; ZHANG Xu-hui; DONG Li-hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between autophagy and calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells ( VSMCs) after platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB stimulation.METHODS:Cultured VSMCs were stimulated with PDGF-BB for different time, the expression of vascular calcification-related proteins and autophagy-related proteins were detected by Western blot .The interaction be-tween Beclin1 and PI3KC3 was detected by co-immunoprecipitation.RESULTS: The expression of BMP2 and ALP showed a trend from decline to rise.ALP slumped at 12 h, and BMP2 slumped at 6 h.Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 showed a trend from rise to decline, and peaked at 12 h.The conversion of LC3-ⅠtoⅡincreased in a time-dependent manner , and peaked at 24 h.The ex-pression of BMP2 and ALP was increased in VSMCs incubated with PDGF-BB and autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, compared with PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs.Furthermore, the interaction between Beclin1 and PI3KC3 was enhanced at 6 h after PDGF-BB stimulated, peaked at 12 h, and kept in high level at 24 h.Moreover, the phosphorylation level of Beclin 1 was enhanced by PDGF-BB stimulation, and peaked at 6 h.CONCLUSION:Our findings demonstrate that PDGF-BB-induced autophagy inhibits VSMC calcification by en-hancing Beclin1 phosphorylation and interaction between Beclin 1 and PI3KC3.

  17. An abdominal aortic calcification as a RISK FACTOR FOR cardio -cerebral events in patients with peripheral arterial

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    V. A. Zelinskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The patients with abdominal aortic calcification have a high risk of cardiocerebral events, but the pathways of them have not been reported so far. The goal of our study was to assess the structure and function of myocardium and to determine the morphological features of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients with abdominal aortic calcification.Materials and methods. A total of 167 executive patients with peripheral arterial disease were enrolled in study. The study group included 85 patients with abdominal aortic calcification (men – 95.3 %; age median was – 66.6 ± 12. Control group included 82 patients without objective signs of abdominal aortic calcification. Abdominal aortic calcification was detected by CT imaging. All patients have undergone echocardiography and duplex scanning of carotid arteries.Results. Prevalence and severity of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were statistically significant higher in patients with abdominal aortic calcification (91.7, 65.8 % vs. 67, 37.3 % (р < 0.01. We have found statistically significant differences between groupsin heart structure and function. A high left ventricular wall thickness (р < 0.01, left atrium dilation (р < 0.01 and enhanced of left ventricular mass (р < 0.05, ejection fraction reduction (р < 0.05 and more common diastolic dysfunction (р < 0.05 were determined inpatients with abdominal aortic calcification. An intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery was significantly higher in study group patients (1.38 ± 0.07 mm vs. 1.14 ± 0.06 mm (р < 0.001.Conclusion. Our findings suggested that abdominal aortic calcification is main reason of hypertrophy and dilation in the left heart due to enhanced peripheral resistance. Hypertrophy and dilation in the left heart is provided a high risk of cardiovascular events in patients withabdominal aortic calcification.

  18. Disseminated arterial calcification and enhanced myogenic response are associated with abcc6 deficiency in a mouse model of pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffenstein, Gilles; Pizard, A; Le Corre, Y; Vessières, E; Grimaud, L; Toutain, B; Labat, C; Mauras, Y; Gorgels, T G; Bergen, A A; Le Saux, O; Lacolley, P; Lefthériotis, G; Henrion, D; Martin, L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum is an inherited metabolic disorder resulting from ABCC6 gene mutations. It is characterized by progressive calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers in the skin, retina, and the arterial wall. Despite calcium accumulation in the arteries of patients with p

  19. Fetuin-A decrease induced by a low-protein diet enhances vascular calcification in uremic rats with hyperphosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Tatsumoto, Narihito; Noguchi, Hideko; Kitazono, Takanari; Ooboshi, Hiroaki

    2015-10-15

    Although dietary phosphate restriction is important for treating hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease, it remains unclear whether a low-protein diet (LPD), which contains low phosphate, has beneficial effects on malnutrition, inflammation, and vascular calcification. The effects of LPD on inflammation, malnutrition, and vascular calcification were therefore assessed in rats. Rats were fed a normal diet or diets containing 0.3% adenine and low/normal protein and low/high phosphate. After 6 wk, serum and urinary biochemical parameters, systemic inflammation, and vascular calcification were examined. The protective effect of fetuin-A and albumin were assessed in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Rats fed the diet containing 0.3% adenine developed severe azotemia. LPD in rats fed high phosphate induced malnutrition (decreases in body weight, food intake, serum albumin and fetuin-A levels, and urinary creatinine excretion) and systemic inflammation (increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-α and urinary oxidative stress marker). LPD decreased the serum fetuin-A level and fetuin-A synthesis in the liver and increased serum calcium-phosphate precipitates. A high-phosphate diet increased aortic calcium content, which was enhanced by LPD. Reduced fetal calf serum in the medium of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells enhanced phosphate-induced formation of calcium-phosphate precipitates in the media and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells, both of which were prevented by fetuin-A administration. Our results suggest that phosphate restriction by restricting dietary protein promotes vascular calcification by lowering the systemic fetuin-A level and increasing serum calcium-phosphate precipitates and induces inflammation and malnutrition in uremic rats fed a high-phosphate diet. PMID:26180236

  20. Multiple vascular anomalies involving testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar veins

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    P Jyothsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity.

  1. Tortuosity and calcification of the splenic artery. More than an additional finding; Schlaengelung und Verkalkung der Milzarterie im Roentgenbild. Mehr als ein Nebenbefund

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    Golder, W.A. [SELARL Association d' Imagerie Medicale, Troyes (France)

    2008-11-15

    Tortuosity of the splenic artery and calcification of the vessel wall are typical additional findings on plain abdominal x-ray. The combination of both anomalies is common in elderly persons presenting without symptoms of splenic ischemia. Its pathogenesis is thought to be multifactorial. In infancy and childhood, the splenic artery is stretched in its entire course. A growing difference between the length of the vessel and the distance between its origin and the splenic hilum gives rise to tortuosity. The artery's proximal segment is involved more frequently and more severely than the distal one. The tortuous route of the vessel is accentuated by the direction of its major branches, which is roughly perpendicular to the main trajectory. Neither tortuosity nor calcification should be taken to be risk factors for the comparatively common splenic artery aneurysm. Calcific deposits are not confined to the media but are also detected in the intima of the vascular wall. Critical narrowings of the lumen arising on the calcium deposits are not observed. Calcifying atherosclerosis of the splenic artery is comparable to medial sclerosis of the peripheral arteries frequently noticed in diabetics and dialysis patients. Only the less important calcification of the intima may be attributed to mechanisms of the hydrohemodynamic theory of atherosclerosis. The spleen's blood storage capacity may contribute to the characteristic age-dependent alterations of the shape and course of the splenic artery. (orig.) [German] Die Schlaengelung der Milzarterie und Verkalkungen in der Wand des Gefaesses sind ein typischer Nebenbefund bei der Roentgenuntersuchung des Abdomens. Die Kombination wird v. a. bei Senioren beobachtet, ohne dass Symptome einer Mangelperfusion der Milz fassbar sind. Bei der Pathogenese wirken eine Reihe verschiedener Faktoren zusammen. Im Kindesalter verlaeuft die A. lienalis stets gestreckt. Die zunehmende Schlaengelung wird durch die wachsende Differenz

  2. Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification: A Rare Cause of Sudden Unexpected Death in Childhood

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    Susana Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected child death investigation is a difficult area of forensic practice in view of the wide range of possible genetic, congenital, and acquired natural and nonnatural causes. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC is a rare autosomic recessive disease usually diagnosed postmortem. Inactivating mutations of the ENPP1 gene were described in 80% of the cases with IIAC. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl submitted to a forensic autopsy due to sudden death and possible medical negligence/parents child abuse. Major alterations found (intimal proliferation and deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite around the internal elastic lamina and media of arteries; acute myocardial infarct, stenotic and calcified coronary artery; perivascular and interstitial myocardial fibrosis; and subendocardial fibroelastosis were diagnostic of IIAC. We reviewed IIAC cases published in the English literature and highlight the importance of adequate autopsy evaluation in cases of sudden child death.

  3. Vascular nanomedicine: Site specific delivery of elastin stabilizing therapeutics to damaged arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Aditi

    Elastin, a structural protein in the extra-cellular matrix, plays a critical role in the normal functioning of blood vessels. Apart from performing its primary function of providing resilience to arteries, it also plays major role in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, response to injury, and morphogenesis. Medial arterial calcification (MAC) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are two diseases where the structural and functional integrity of elastin is severely compromised. Although the clinical presentation of MAC and AAA differ, they have one common underlying causative mechanism---pathological degradation of elastin. Hence prevention of elastin degradation in the early stages of MAC and AAA can mitigate, partially if not wholly, the fatal consequences of both the diseases. The work presented here is motivated by the overwhelming statistics of people afflicted by elastin associated cardiovascular diseases and the unavailability of cure for the same. Overall goal of our research is to understand role of elastin degradation in cardiovascular diseases and to develop a targeted vascular drug delivery system that is minimally invasive, biodegradable, and non-toxic, that prevents elastin from degradation. Our hope is that such treatment will also help regenerate elastin, thereby providing a multi-fold treatment option for elasto-degenerative vascular diseases. For this purpose, we have first confirmed the combined role of degraded elastin and hyperglycemia in the pathogenesis of MAC. We have shown that in the absence of degraded elastin and TGF-beta1 (abundantly present in diabetic arteries) vascular smooth muscle cells maintain their homeostatic state, regardless of environmental glucose concentrations. However simultaneous exposure to glucose, elastin peptides and TGF-beta1 causes the pathological transgenesis of vascular cells to osteoblast-like cells. We show that plant derived polyphenols bind to vascular elastin with great affinity resulting in

  4. Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification: A Possible Cause of Refractory Cardiopulmonary Failure in Infancy

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    A. Nael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification is a rare autosome recessive disease characterized by extensive calcification of medium and large arteries. Loss-of-function mutations in ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 gene have been described in more than 80% of the cases. Although the diagnosis is usually made at autopsy, it is possible to identify cases based on clinical presentation, radiology findings, and molecular studies. Appropriate treatment can be initiated and has been shown to successfully induce permanent remission. We report a 4-week-old neonate who initially presented with respiratory distress, heart failure, and Coxsackie B viremia suggestive of viral induced cardiomyopathy. His symptoms progressed to multiple organ failure and he eventually expired at four weeks of age. On autopsy, diffuse calcium deposition within the internal elastic lamina of medium and large arteries was identified, as well as narrowing of lumen due to myointimal proliferation. This case report will emphasize the importance of taking this rare curable disease into consideration in all cases of infants with cardiopulmonary failure.

  5. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults With Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Simonsen, Jane A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in adults with polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) compared to healthy controls and to assess the association between CV risk factors, PM/DM, and CAC score. METHODS....../DM, and CAC were studied by multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of the patients were obese compared to 11% of the controls (P = 0.005). Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more frequent in patients (71% versus 42%; P = 0.002, and 13% versus 0%; P = 0.007), and patients had higher levels...

  6. New Insights into Dialysis Vascular Access: Impact of Preexisting Arterial and Venous Pathology on AVF and AVG Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Allon, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Despite significant improvements in preoperative patient evaluation and surgical planning, vascular access failure in patients on hemodialysis remains a frequent and often unforeseeable complication. Our inability to prevent this complication is, in part, because of an incomplete understanding of how preexisting venous and arterial conditions influence the function of newly created arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. This article reviews the relationship between three preexisting vascular pathologies associated with CKD (intimal hyperplasia, vascular calcification, and medial fibrosis) and hemodialysis access outcomes. The published literature indicates that the pathogenesis of vascular access failure is multifactorial and not determined by any of these pathologies individually. Keeping this observation in mind should help focus our research on the true causes responsible for vascular access failure and the much needed therapies to prevent it. PMID:27401525

  7. Coronary artery calcification is associated with atherogenic lipid changes, cardiac dysfunction and morphologic abnormalities in HIV-1 infected black adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-yi; DU Jie-fu; LAI Hong; LAI Sheng-han

    2005-01-01

    @@ The heart is an organ frequently affected in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.1 But there is little information as to whether the coronary artery calcification can identify asymptomatic individuals at high risk for having cardiac morphological and functional abnormalities and cardiac risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether coronary artery calcification was associated with cardiac morphological and functional abnormalities, atherogenic lipid and C-reactive protein (CRP) changes in a black adult population with HIV-1 infection.

  8. Population Screening for Coronary Artery Calcification Does Not Increase Mental Distress and the Use of Psychoactive Medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Daldorph; Videbech, Poul; Gerke, Oke;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE:: Detection of coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been proposed for population screening. It remains unknown whether such a strategy would result in unnecessary concern among participants. Therefore, we set out to assess whether CAC screening affects the psychological well-being of s......PURPOSE:: Detection of coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been proposed for population screening. It remains unknown whether such a strategy would result in unnecessary concern among participants. Therefore, we set out to assess whether CAC screening affects the psychological well...

  9. Inverse relationship between bioavailable testosterone and subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese Korean men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byoung-Jin Park; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Jae Lee; Jung-Hyun Lee; Hye-Ree Lee

    2012-01-01

    Although low testosterone levels in men have been associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease,little is known about the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary disease in men with apparently low cardiometabolic risk.This study was performed to investigate the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary artery calcification measured as coronary calcium score in non-obese Korean men.We examined the relationship of total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin,bioavai lable testosterone and free testosterone with coronary calcium score in 291 non-obese Korean men (mean age:52.8±9.3 years)not having a history of cardiovascular disease.Using multiple linear regression,we evaluated associations between log (sex hormone)levels and log (coronary calcium score) after adjusting for confounding variables in 105 men with some degree of coronary calcification defined as coronary calcium score ≥ 1.In multiple linear regression analysis,bioavailable testosterone was inversely associated with coronary calcium score (P=0.046) after adjusting for age,body mass index,smoking status,alcohol consumption,regular exercise,mean blood pressure,resting heart rate,C-reactive protein,fasting plasma glucose,total cholesterol,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,hypertension medication and hyperlipidemia medication,whereas total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone were not (P=0.674,P=0.121 and P=0.102,respectively).Our findings indicate that bioavailable testosterone is inversely associated with the degree of subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese men.

  10. Association of lower extremity arterial calcification with amputation and mortality in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Lun Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical implication of the coronary artery calcium score (CS is well demonstrated. However, little is known about the association between lower extremity arterial calcification and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-two patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (age 61.0±12.4 years were followed for 21±11 months. CSs, ranging from the common iliac artery bifurcation to the ankle area, were analyzed through noncontrast multidetector computed tomography images retrospectively. The primary endpoints of this study were amputation and mortality. Old age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and end-stage renal disease were associated with higher CSs. Patients with more advanced Fontaine stages also tended to have significantly higher CSs (p = 0.03. During the follow-up period (21±11 months, 29 (35% patients underwent amputation, and 24 (29% patients died. Among the patients who underwent amputation, there were no significant differences in CSs between the amputated legs and the non-amputated legs. In the Cox proportional hazard model with CS divided into quartiles, patients with CS in the highest quartile had a 2.88-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-12.72, p = 0.03 and a 5.16-fold (95% CI 1.13-21.61, p = 0.04 higher risk for amputation and all-cause mortality, respectively, than those with CS in the lowest quartile. These predictive effects remained after conventional risk factor adjustment. CONCLUSION: Lower extremity arterial CSs are associated with disease severity and outcomes, including amputation and all-cause mortality, in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease. However, the independent predictive value needs further investigation in large scale, prospective studies.

  11. Extracellular Matrix Proteins, Alkaline Phosphatase and Pyrophosphate as Molecular Determinants of Bone, Tooth, Kidney and Vascular Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Marc D.

    2008-09-01

    Progress in biomineralization research in recent years has identified, characterized and described functions for key noncollagenous extracellular matrix proteins regulating crystal growth in the skeleton and dentition. Some of these same proteins expressed in soft tissues undergoing pathologic calcification also inhibit ectopic crystal growth. In addition to extracellular matrix proteins regulating matrix mineralization, the enzyme tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase—which is highly expressed by cells in mineralized tissues—cleaves pyrophosphate, an anionic small-molecule inhibitor of mineralization. Together with the required mineral ion availability necessary for crystal growth, these molecular determinants appear to function in limiting the spread of pathologic calcification seen in soft tissues such as blood vessels and kidneys. Osteopontin, in particular, is a potent calcification inhibitor that accumulates in mineralized tissues and in calcified deposits during vascular calcification and nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis. Additional research is required to establish the exact temporal sequence in which the molecular determinants of pathologic calcification appear relative to mineral crystal growth in different tissues, and to establish their relationship (if any) to the activation of osteogenic differentiation programs.

  12. Relation between uric acid and coronary artery calcification: a community-based cross-sectional survey among Beijing natural population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of uric acid on coronary artery calcification in the natural population in Beijing.Methods From April to July 2012,903 subjects from the natural population (aged 37—76 years for men,aged 42—76 years for women) in Xishan

  13. The relation between coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic subjects and both traditional risk factors and living in the city centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechtsen, J; Gerke, Oke; Egstrup, Kenneth;

    2012-01-01

    Objective:  To evaluate the association between the risk factor of living in the city centre as a surrogate for air pollution and the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a population of asymptomatic Danish subjects. Design and subjects:  A random sample of 1825 men and women...

  14. α-Lipoic acid attenuates vascular calcification via reversal of mitochondrial function and restoration of Gas6/Axl/Akt survival pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Han-Jong; Lee, Kyunghee; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Hee Sun; KIM, JAE-RYONG; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Joon-young; Harris, Robert A.; Jeong, Daewon; Lee, In-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular calcification is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease and leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although several reports have implicated mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease, little is known about the potential role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the process of vascular calcification. This study investigated the effect of α-lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occurring antioxidant that improves mitochond...

  15. Automated Coronary Artery Calcification Scoring in Non-Gated Chest CT: Agreement and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takx, Richard A. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Leiner, Tim; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J.; Mol, Christian P.; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the agreement and reliability of fully automated coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in a lung cancer screening population. Materials and Methods 1793 low-dose chest CT scans were analyzed (non-contrast-enhanced, non-gated). To establish the reference standard for CAC, first automated calcium scoring was performed using a preliminary version of a method employing coronary calcium atlas and machine learning approach. Thereafter, each scan was inspected by one of four trained raters. When needed, the raters corrected initially automaticity-identified results. In addition, an independent observer subsequently inspected manually corrected results and discarded scans with gross segmentation errors. Subsequently, fully automatic coronary calcium scoring was performed. Agatston score, CAC volume and number of calcifications were computed. Agreement was determined by calculating proportion of agreement and examining Bland-Altman plots. Reliability was determined by calculating linearly weighted kappa (κ) for Agatston strata and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous values. Results 44 (2.5%) scans were excluded due to metal artifacts or gross segmentation errors. In the remaining 1749 scans, median Agatston score was 39.6 (P25–P75∶0–345.9), median volume score was 60.4 mm3 (P25–P75∶0–361.4) and median number of calcifications was 2 (P25–P75∶0–4) for the automated scores. The κ demonstrated very good reliability (0.85) for Agatston risk categories between the automated and reference scores. The Bland-Altman plots showed underestimation of calcium score values by automated quantification. Median difference was 2.5 (p25–p75∶0.0–53.2) for Agatston score, 7.6 (p25–p75∶0.0–94.4) for CAC volume and 1 (p25–p75∶0–5) for number of calcifications. The ICC was very good for Agatston score (0.90), very good for calcium volume (0.88) and good for number of calcifications (0.64). Discussion Fully automated

  16. Automated coronary artery calcification detection on low-dose chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiting; Cham, Matthew D.; Henschke, Claudia; Yankelevitz, David; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2014-03-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurement from low-dose CT images can be used to assess the risk of coronary artery disease. A fully automatic algorithm to detect and measure CAC from low-dose non-contrast, non-ECG-gated chest CT scans is presented. Based on the automatically detected CAC, the Agatston score (AS), mass score and volume score were computed. These were compared with scores obtained manually from standard-dose ECG-gated scans and low-dose un-gated scans of the same patient. The automatic algorithm segments the heart region based on other pre-segmented organs to provide a coronary region mask. The mitral valve and aortic valve calcification is identified and excluded. All remaining voxels greater than 180HU within the mask region are considered as CAC candidates. The heart segmentation algorithm was evaluated on 400 non-contrast cases with both low-dose and regular dose CT scans. By visual inspection, 371 (92.8%) of the segmentations were acceptable. The automated CAC detection algorithm was evaluated on 41 low-dose non-contrast CT scans. Manual markings were performed on both low-dose and standard-dose scans for these cases. Using linear regression, the correlation of the automatic AS with the standard-dose manual scores was 0.86; with the low-dose manual scores the correlation was 0.91. Standard risk categories were also computed. The automated method risk category agreed with manual markings of gated scans for 24 cases while 15 cases were 1 category off. For low-dose scans, the automatic method agreed with 33 cases while 7 cases were 1 category off.

  17. [Local vascular complications after iatrogenic femoral artery puncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhwirth, J; Pascher, O; Hauser, H; Amann, W

    1996-01-01

    Over a period of 5 years 81 vascular complications after 15,460 catheterizations of the femoral artery for diagnostic (n = 11,883) or therapeutic (n = 3577) procedures were registered. The following complications were observed in declining frequency: 1. False aneurysm (n = 65), 2. arterial occlusion (dissection, embolia, thrombosis) (n = 8), 3. vascular lesion causing profuse bleeding (n = 7), 4. AV-fistula (n = 1). The total complication rate was 0.52%. The complication rate was significantly higher in therapeutical procedures (1,03%) than in diagnostic investigations (0.37%). Pseudoaneurysms were complicated by thrombosis of the femoral vein (n = 3), lymphatic fistula (n = 3) and deep wound infection (n = 9); secondary complication rate 18.5%. Risk factors for local vascular complications are old age, female gender, high grade arteriosclerosis at the puncture site, overweight, manifest arterial hypertension and medication with cumarin, acetylsalicylic acid or heparin. Further complicating factors are connected with technical risks such as duration of the procedure. French size of the catheter, the catheter sheath and multiple punctures. Vascular repair was performed by simple angiography in most cases, but in 14.8% more extensive surgical procedures were required. In patients with signs of occlusive vascular disease the external iliac artery was replaced by a PTFE-vascular access graft in 4 cases and an arterioplasty of the deep femoral artery was performed in 2 patients. 36% of the operations were undertaken as emergencies. Reintervention was necessary for a postoperative bleeding complication in 1 case (surgical complication rate 1.2%). A female patient suffering from aortic valve stenosis died during emergency operation due to massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage after cardiac catheterization (mortality rate 1.2%). Over a median follow-up period of 37 months no late complications of the intervention were recorded, nor recurrences of peripheral arterial occlusive

  18. Application of plain radiography for diagnosis of vascular calcification in maintenance hemodialysis patients%X线平片在诊断血液透析患者血管钙化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘良英; 王梅; 于小勇; 蔡美顺

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价X线平片检测维持性血液透析(MHD)患者动脉钙化的敏感性和特异性.方法 54例MHD患者行腹部-股骨上1/3多层螺旋CT(MSCT)平扫及侧位腹平片、骨盆片X线榆测.以腰椎(L)2~3间隙为界将腹主动脉分为上段、下段.MSCT结果据钙化严重程度分为0~5级.两位放射科医师分别盲法阅片诊断.以MSCT结果为金标准,X线平片结果作为诊断性指标,评价X线平片诊断腹主动脉和髂、股动脉钙化的敏感性和特异性.结果 MSCT结果显示,腹主动脉钙化发生率为86.1%,髂、股动脉钙化发生率为74.5%,二者差异有统计学意义(X2=5.695,P=0.017);腹主动脉2级以上钙化的发生率为60.2%,髂、股动脉为42.6%,腹主动脉钙化的严重程度显著高于髂、股动脉(X2=8.922,P=0.003).X线平片结果表明,腹主动脉钙化发生率为51.9%,髂、股动脉钙化发生率为18.5%.X线平片诊断腹主动脉和髂、股动脉钙化的特异性均为100%,敏感性随MSCT动脉钙化程度的加重而增高.据MSCT钙化评分的不同,其诊断腹主动脉和髂、股动脉钙化的敏感性分别如下:≥1级:60.2%和24.8%;≥2级:76.9%和43.5%;≥3级:100%和74.4%.结论 X线平片诊断中、重度动脉钙化敏感性高,诊断腹主动脉钙化的敏感度高于髂、股动脉,可用于MHD患者中、重度动脉钙化的检测.%Objective To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of vascular calcification in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Methods Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) was used as the reference standard in the assessment of vascular calcification in MHD patients. A total of 54 MHD patients, 26 male and 28 female, mean age (60.4±13.3) years, underwent both MSCT and plain radiography of lateral abdomen and pelvis to evaluate abdominal aortic calcification, bilateral iliac and femoral artery calcification. Abdominal aorta was divided into upper and lower segment by L2-L3

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A. Leopold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a devastating disease that is precipitated by hypertrophic pulmonary vascular remodeling of distal arterioles to increase pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance in the absence of left heart, lung parenchymal, or thromboembolic disease. Despite available medical therapy, pulmonary artery remodeling and its attendant hemodynamic consequences result in right ventricular dysfunction, failure, and early death. To limit morbidity and mortality, attention has focused on identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant pulmonary artery remodeling to identify pathways for intervention. While there is a well-recognized heritable genetic component to PAH, there is also evidence of other genetic perturbations, including pulmonary vascular cell DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response, and variations in microRNA expression. These findings likely contribute, in part, to dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis signaling pathways akin to what is observed in cancer; changes in cellular metabolism, metabolic flux, and mitochondrial function; and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as key signaling pathways that promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. This review will highlight recent advances in the field with an emphasis on the aforementioned molecular mechanisms as contributors to the pulmonary vascular disease pathophenotype.

  20. Vascular Endothelin and Angiotensin Receptors Regulation in Inflammatory Arterial Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijevic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis is aimed to examine the hypothesis that the degree of vascular inflammation correlates with the expression of vascular endothelin and angiotensin receptors. The receptor changes were studied in subcutaneous resistance arteries in patients with different degrees of ischemic heart disease (IHD). In addition, patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) were also investigated because of the massive inflammatory activity in affected vessels. For functional studies of the resistance...

  1. No influence of OPG and its ligands, RANKL and TRAIL, on proliferation and regulation of the calcification process in primary human vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Malene; Skov, Vibe; Mechta, Mie;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the OPG-RANKL-TRAIL system on proliferation, regulation of calcification-associated genes and calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMCs). Small interfering (si)RNA-mediated knockdown of OPG was followed by treatment of HVSMCs...... with recombinant RANKL or TRAIL. Regulation of a calcification-associated gene set was assayed by pathway analysis of microarray results. The lack of OPG in HVSMCs or treatment with RANKL or TRAIL did not affect proliferation of HVSMCs. In addition, OPG, RANKL or TRAIL did not modify the regulation...... of a calcification-associated gene set. Finally, in the long term calcification assay, we found that cells isolated from seven different human donors showed a great variability in the response to RANKL and insulin. However, overall RANKL and/or insulin did not affect the development of calcification of HVSMCs...

  2. The Impact of Different Amounts of Calcium Intake on Bone Mass and Arterial Calcification in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Umon; Park, Jong-Hoon; Hattori, Satoshi; Aikawa, Yuki; Kakutani, Yuya; Ezawa, Ikuko; Akimoto, Takayuki; Omi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Reduced estrogen secretion and low calcium (Ca) intake are risk factors for bone loss and arterial calcification in female rodents. To evaluate the effects of Ca intake at different amounts on bone mass changes and arterial calcification, 8-wk-old female Wistar rats were randomly placed in ovariectomized (OVX) control and OVX with vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN) treatment groups. The OVX with VDN rats were then divided into six groups to receive different amounts of Ca in their diets: 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.2%, or 2.4% Ca. After 8 wk of administration, low Ca intake groups with 0.01% and 0.1% Ca diets had significantly reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mechanical properties as compared with those of the other groups, whereas high Ca intake groups with 1.2% and 2.4% Ca diets showed no differences as compared with the 0.6% Ca intake group. For both the 0.01% and 2.4% Ca intake groups, Ca levels in their thoracic arteries were significantly higher as compared with those of the 0.6% Ca diet group, and that was highly correlated with serum PTH levels. An increase in relative BMP-2 mRNA expression in the arterial tissues of the 0.01% and 2.4% Ca diet groups was also observed. These results suggested that extremely low Ca intake during periods of estrogen deficiency may be a possible risk for the complications of reduced BMD and arterial calcification and that extremely high Ca intake may promote arterial calcification with no changes in BMD.

  3. Circulating microRNAs correlated with the level of coronary artery calcification in symptomatic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ling, Shukuan; Sun, Weijia; Liu, Tong; Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Zhao, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Jin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Zi; Song, Hailin; Li, Qi; Liu, Shujuan; Chai, Meng; Dai, Qinyi; He, Yi; Fan, Zhanming; Zhou, Yu Jie; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) co-related with the severity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), and testify whether the selected miRNAs could reflect the obstructive coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients. Patients with chest pain and moderated risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) were characterized with coronary artery calcium score (CACS) from cardiac computed tomography (CT). We analyzed plasma miRNA levels of clinical matched 11 CAC (CACS > 100) and 6 non-CAC (CACS = 0) subjects by microarray profile. Microarray analysis identified 34 differentially expressed miRNAs between CAC and non CAC groups. Eight miRNAs (miR-223, miR-3135b, miR-133a-3p, miR-2861, miR-134, miR-191-3p, miR-3679-5p, miR-1229 in CAC patients) were significantly increased in CAC plasma in an independent clinical matched cohort. Four miRNAs (miR-2861, 134, 1229 and 3135b) were correlated with the degree of CAC. Validation test in angiographic cohort showed that miR-134, miR-3135b and miR-2861 were significantly changed in patients with obstructive CAD . We identified three significantly upregulated circulating miRNAs (miR-134, miR-3135b and 2861) correlated with CAC while detected obstructive coronary disease in symptomatic patients. PMID:26537670

  4. Mutant Enpp1asj mice as a model for generalized arterial calcification of infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Li

    2013-09-01

    Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI, an autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by early mineralization of blood vessels, often diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound and usually resulting in demise during the first year of life. It is caused in most cases by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, encoding an enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate, the latter being a powerful anti-mineralization factor. Recently, a novel mouse phenotype was recognized as a result of ENU mutagenesis – those mice developed stiffening of the joints, hence the mutant mouse was named ‘ages with stiffened joints’ (asj. These mice harbor a missense mutation, p.V246D, in the Enpp1 gene. Here we demonstrate that the mutant ENPP1 protein is largely absent in the liver of asj mice, and the lack of enzymatic activity results in reduced inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi levels in the plasma, accompanied by extensive mineralization of a number of tissues, including arterial blood vessels. The progress of mineralization is highly dependent on the mineral composition of the diet, with significant shortening of the lifespan on a diet enriched in phosphorus and low in magnesium. These results suggest that the asj mouse can serve as an animal model for GACI.

  5. Mutant Enpp1asj mice as a model for generalized arterial calcification of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoli; Guo, Haitao; Chou, David W; Berndt, Annerose; Sundberg, John P; Uitto, Jouni

    2013-09-01

    Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), an autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by early mineralization of blood vessels, often diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound and usually resulting in demise during the first year of life. It is caused in most cases by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, encoding an enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate, the latter being a powerful anti-mineralization factor. Recently, a novel mouse phenotype was recognized as a result of ENU mutagenesis - those mice developed stiffening of the joints, hence the mutant mouse was named 'ages with stiffened joints' (asj). These mice harbor a missense mutation, p.V246D, in the Enpp1 gene. Here we demonstrate that the mutant ENPP1 protein is largely absent in the liver of asj mice, and the lack of enzymatic activity results in reduced inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) levels in the plasma, accompanied by extensive mineralization of a number of tissues, including arterial blood vessels. The progress of mineralization is highly dependent on the mineral composition of the diet, with significant shortening of the lifespan on a diet enriched in phosphorus and low in magnesium. These results suggest that the asj mouse can serve as an animal model for GACI.

  6. N-acetylcysteine improves arterial vascular reactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittstock, Antje; Burkert, Magdalena; Zidek, Walter;

    2009-01-01

    Patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease show increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that are partly related to impaired arterial vascular reactivity. We investigated whether intravenous administration of the antioxidant acetylcysteine improves arterial vascular reactivity...

  7. Arterial vascular properties in individuals with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Langen, H. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the vascular characteristics of the arterial circulation in individuals with spina bifida (SB) in comparison with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied controls (C). SETTING: University Medical Centre, Nijmeg

  8. Multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, testicular and suprarenal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations of blood vessels of the abdomen is important during operative, diagnostic and endovascular pro- cedures. During routine dissection of the abdominal cavity, we came across multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, suprarenal and testicular arteries. The left kidney was supplied by two renal arteries originating together from the abdomi- nal aorta, and the right kidney was supplied by two accessory renal arteries, one of which was arising from the right renal artery and the other one from the aorta (about 2 inches below the origin of the renal artery. Accessory renal veins were present on both sides. The right testicular artery was arising from the lower accessory renal artery. The left testicular artery was looping around the inferior tributary of the left renal vein, whereby forming a sharp kink. The left middle suprarenal artery was diving into three small branches; the upper two branches were supplying the left suprarenal gland, whereas the lower branch was supplying the left kidney. Furthermore, detailed literature and the clinical and surgical importance of the case are discussed. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(3.000: 168-171

  9. 冠状动脉钙化的机制与缺血性心脏病%Mechanism of the calcification in coronary arteries and ischemic heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko Kurabayashi

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vascular calcification is a common problem a-mong the elderly and the patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease(CKD),and may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovas-cular disease.

  10. Ceramide mediates Ox-LDL-induced human vascular smooth muscle cell calcification via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Liao

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and has been demonstrated as an actively regulated process resembling bone formation. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL has been identified as a regulatory factor involved in calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Additionally, over-expression of recombinant human neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase has been shown to stimulate VSMC apoptosis, which plays an important role in the progression of vascular calcification. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ceramide regulates Ox-LDL-induced calcification of VSMCs via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway. Ox-LDL increased the activity of N-SMase and the level of ceramide in cultured VSMCs. Calcification and the osteogenic transcription factor, Msx2 mRNA expression were reduced by N-SMase inhibitor, GW4869 in the presence of Ox-LDL. Usage of GW4869 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in VSMCs, an effect which was reversed by C2-ceramide. Additionally, C2-ceramide treatment accelerated VSMC calcification, with a concomitant increase in ALP activity. Furthermore, C2-ceramide treatment enhanced Ox-LDL-induced VSMC calcification. Addition of caspase inhibitor, ZVAD-fmk attenuated Ox-LDL-induced calcification. Both Ox-LDL and C2-ceramide treatment increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 attenuated Ox-LDL-induced calcification of VSMCs. These data suggest that Ox-LDL activates N-SMase-ceramide signaling pathway, and stimulates phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, leading to apoptosis in VSMCs, which initiates VSMC calcification.

  11. Coronary artery calcification and ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy or strain identify different healthy individuals at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Gerke, Oke; Olsen, Michael Hecht;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To improve risk stratification for development of ischaemic heart disease, several markers have been proposed. Both the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy/strain have been shown to provide independent prognostic information....... In this study, we investigated the association between established risk factors, ECG measurements and the presence of coronary artery calcification. METHOD:: A random sample of healthy men and women aged 50 or 60 years were invited to the screening study. Established risk factors were measured. A noncontrast...... computed tomographic (CT) scan was performed to assess the CAC score. ECG analysis included left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) using the Sokolow-Lyon criteria and the Cornell voltage × QRS duration product, and strain pattern based on ST segment depression and T-wave abnormalities. The association between...

  12. On arterial physiology, pathophysiology of vascular compliance, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, S P

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, the main emphasis in hypertension treatment has been on lowering diastolic blood pressure. Recently, this emphasis has been shifting toward systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, the latter of which might be a better indicator of future clinical events than either blood pressure reading alone or in combination. Increased pulse pressure indicates increased arterial stiffness and hence is commonly seen in older subjects. As patients age and vessels stiffen, there is a resulting loss of arterial compliance, the ability of the vessel to store blood volume temporarily as it is ejected with each systole. The arterial system acts like a Windkessel, or pump, as it converts intermittent flow from the heart into continuous flow to the organs. The process of stiffening occurs via vascular remodeling, a redistribution of the heterogeneous elements of the vascular wall. Endothelial dysfunction can trigger this remodeling process, increasing stiffness, raising blood pressure and pulse pressure, and ultimately leading to atherosclerosis, plaque formation, and attendant clinical events. Because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium antagonists can restore arterial compliance, they are suitable choices for hypertension treatment when it is complicated by vascular stiffness. PMID:11728285

  13. Arterial structure and function in vascular ageing: are you as old as your arteries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Carter, Sophie E; Green, Daniel J

    2016-04-15

    Advancing age may be the most potent independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, a relationship that is not fully explained by time-related changes in traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Since some arteries exhibit differential susceptibility to atherosclerosis, generalisations regarding the impact of ageing in humans may be overly simplistic, whereas in vivo assessment of arterial function and health provide direct insight. Coronary and peripheral (conduit, resistance and skin) arteries demonstrate a gradual, age-related impairment in vascular function that is likely to be related to a reduction in endothelium-derived nitric oxide bioavailability and/or increased production of vasoconstrictors (e.g. endothelin-1). Increased exposure and impaired ability for defence mechanisms to resist oxidative stress and inflammation, but also cellular senescence processes, may contribute to age-related changes in vascular function and health. Arteries also undergo structural changes as they age. Gradual thickening of the arterial wall, changes in wall content (i.e. less elastin, advanced glycation end-products) and increase in conduit artery diameter are observed with older age and occur similarly in central and peripheral arteries. These changes in structure have important interactive effects on artery function, with increases in small and large arterial stiffness representing a characteristic change with older age. Importantly, direct measures of arterial function and structure predict future cardiovascular events, independent of age or other cardiovascular risk factors. Taken together, and given the differential susceptibility of arteries to atherosclerosis in humans, direct measurement of arterial function and health may help to distinguish between biological and chronological age-related change in arterial health in humans.

  14. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chan, Christina K; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [(35)S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:27683612

  15. Association between chronic kidney disease and coronary artery calcification: the Dallas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Holly; Toto, Robert; Peshock, Ronald; Cooper, Richard; Victor, Ronald

    2005-02-01

    The hypothesis that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased coronary artery calcification (CAC) was tested using data from the Dallas Heart Study, a representative sample of Dallas County residents aged 30 to 65 yr. CKD was defined as presence of microalbuminuria and GFR > or =60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (stage 1 to 2), or GFR 10, >100, and >400 versus scores 100 (odds ratio, 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.92 to 8.80) and >400 (odds ratio, 8.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.94 to 35.95) in the total population after adjustment for covariates, but these associations were substantially reduced after exclusion of participants with diabetes. Participants with diabetes and stage 3 to 5 CKD had a ninefold increased odds of CAC scores >10 versus scores 10 in the nondiabetic population. In conclusion, stage 3 to 5 CKD is associated with increased CAC scores, but this association may be substantially stronger among adults with diabetes. These findings need to be confirmed in study populations that include adults >65 yr of age and a larger number of CKD cases. PMID:15601745

  16. Prevalence and Degree of Breast Arterial Calcifications on Mammography: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Loberant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to establish a database including prevalence and degree of breast arterial calcifications (BAC in our population of women presenting for mammography. Materials and Methods: The mammograms of 1786 women over the age of 40 years were examined for the presence and degree of BAC. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate patient′s age and ethnic origin with the presence and degree of BAC. Results: There was statistically significant and strong correlation between the patient′s age and presence of BAC. There was also a less strong yet statistically significant correlation between patient age and degree of BAC. Regression analysis showed the likelihood of BAC at various ages. The prevalence of BAC is only 2% of women under 50 years of age; the prevalence of Grade 2-3 BAC is only 1% in women under 60 years of age. Conclusion: There is a predictable increase with age in both prevalence and degree of BAC in women. The presence of high degree BAC in women under 60 years of age or any BAC in women under 50 years of age is unusual.

  17. Carotid artery calcification at the initiation of hemodialysis is a risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda Hirofumi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular calcification has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV events in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. However, the association of carotid artery calcification (CAAC with CV events remains unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether CAAC is associated with composite CV events in ESRD patients. Methods One-hundred thirty-three patients who had been started on hemodialysis between 2004 and 2008 were included in this retrospective cohort study. These patients received multi-detector computed tomography to assess CAAC at the initiation of hemodialysis. Composite CV events, including ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases, and CV deaths after the initiation of hemodialysis, were examined in each patient. Results CAAC was found in 94 patients (71%. At the end of follow-up, composite CV events were seen in 47 patients: ischemic heart disease in 20, heart failure in 8, cerebrovascular disease in 12, and CV deaths in 7. The incidence of CAAC was 87% in patients with CV events, which was significantly higher than the rate (62% in those without. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant increase in composite CV events in patients with CAAC compared with those without CAAC (p = 0.001, log-rank test. Univariate analysis using a Cox hazards model showed that age, smoking, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and CAAC were risk factors for composite CV events. In multivariate analysis, only CAAC was a significant risk factor for composite CV events (hazard ratio, 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-8.00; p = 0.02. Conclusions CAAC is an independent risk factor for CV events in ESRD patients. The assessment of CAAC at the initiation of hemodialysis is useful for predicting the prognosis.

  18. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Regulation of mineral metabolism and mineralization by FGF23].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) decreases serum phosphate by inhibiting proximal tubular phosphate reabsorption and intestinal phosphate absorption through the reduction of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25 (OH) (2)D] levels. Excessive actions of FGF23 cause hypophosphatemic diseases with impaired mineralization of bone. On the other hand, impaired actions of FGF23 result in hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis characterized by hyperphosphatemia and high 1,25 (OH) (2)D levels. Ectopic calcification around large joints and in blood vessels can be observed in patients with this disease. Therefore, FGF23 plays essential roles in the regulation of bone mineralization and prevention of ectopic calcification.

  19. Correlation between coronary artery calcification and the need for revascularization in patients with no previous diagnosis of arterial coronary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: about half of deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) are not preceded by cardiac symptoms or previous diagnosis. Quantification of coronary artery calcification (CAC) by computed tomography is a strong predictor of events and improves the stratification the Framingham Risk Score. Objective: to evaluate the ability of the calcium score to predict the necessity invasive treatment (bypass (CABG) or intervention coronary percutaneous (ICP)) with no previous CAD. Method: retrospective study in pts without prior CAD and with quantification of CAC during 2009. The CAC was obtained in 64 multislice CT without contrast, with synchronized ECG acquisition, 120kV, 80-100mA, radiation <1mSv, and measured by the Agatston calcium score (CS) (threshold of 130 HU). Mean, median, and diagnostic tests were used. Results: We evaluated 263 pts (171 men), 59±13 years, BMI = 27.7 kg/m2, and mean follow up of 18±3 months. The total CS was 199.5±24.39. In patients with diabetes (DM), the CS was 320.5±67.56 and 166±24.47 in non-DM. The 23 patients who underwent invasive treatment had an average CS of 692 ± 72.3 versus 134.7 ± 21.35 in patients not treated (p <0.001). Of the 47 pts with CS ≥ 400, 17 were treated (CABG or ICP). Of the 216 pts with CS <400, 6 underwent treatment. Of the treated pts, 15 without diabetes had average CS 672.7 ± 92.04 versus 728.3 ± 11 of DM (8pts). In pts without DM who not underwent invasive treatment (191 pts), only 18 pts had SC ≥ 400. Conclusion: CS ≥ 400 was a strong predictor of revascularization (CABG or ICP) with good diagnostic performance in patients without prior diagnosis of CAD in the following 18 months. (author)

  20. Correlation between coronary artery calcification and the need for revascularization in patients with no previous diagnosis of arterial coronary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prazeres, Carlos Eduardo Elias dos; Cury, Roberto Caldeira; Bello, Juliana Hiromi Silva Matsumoto [Instituto do Coracao (InCor/FM/USP), Sao paulo, SP (Brazil); Magalhaes, Tiago Augusto [Hospital Pro-Cardiaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, Valeria de Melo; Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, E-mail: rochitte@gmail.com, E-mail: crochitte@hcor.com.br [Hospital do Coracao (HCOR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: about half of deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) are not preceded by cardiac symptoms or previous diagnosis. Quantification of coronary artery calcification (CAC) by computed tomography is a strong predictor of events and improves the stratification the Framingham Risk Score. Objective: to evaluate the ability of the calcium score to predict the necessity invasive treatment (bypass (CABG) or intervention coronary percutaneous (ICP)) with no previous CAD. Method: retrospective study in pts without prior CAD and with quantification of CAC during 2009. The CAC was obtained in 64 multislice CT without contrast, with synchronized ECG acquisition, 120kV, 80-100mA, radiation <1mSv, and measured by the Agatston calcium score (CS) (threshold of 130 HU). Mean, median, and diagnostic tests were used. Results: We evaluated 263 pts (171 men), 59±13 years, BMI = 27.7 kg/m2, and mean follow up of 18±3 months. The total CS was 199.5±24.39. In patients with diabetes (DM), the CS was 320.5±67.56 and 166±24.47 in non-DM. The 23 patients who underwent invasive treatment had an average CS of 692 ± 72.3 versus 134.7 ± 21.35 in patients not treated (p <0.001). Of the 47 pts with CS ≥ 400, 17 were treated (CABG or ICP). Of the 216 pts with CS <400, 6 underwent treatment. Of the treated pts, 15 without diabetes had average CS 672.7 ± 92.04 versus 728.3 ± 11 of DM (8pts). In pts without DM who not underwent invasive treatment (191 pts), only 18 pts had SC ≥ 400. Conclusion: CS ≥ 400 was a strong predictor of revascularization (CABG or ICP) with good diagnostic performance in patients without prior diagnosis of CAD in the following 18 months. (author)

  1. The influence of vascular anatomy on carotid artery stenting: a parametric study for damage assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, F; Debusschere, N; De Bock, S; De Beule, M; Van Loo, D; Vermassen, F; Segers, P; Verhegghe, B

    2014-03-01

    Carotid artery stenting is emerging as an alternative technique to surgery for the treatment of symptomatic severe carotid stenosis. Clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that both plaque morphology and biomechanical changes due to the device implantation can be possible causes of an unsuccessful treatment. In order to gain further insights of the endovascular intervention, a virtual environment based on structural finite element simulations was built to emulate the stenting procedure on generalized atherosclerotic carotid geometries which included a damage model to quantify the injury of the vessel. Five possible lesion scenarios were simulated by changing both material properties and vascular geometrical features to cover both presumed vulnerable and stable plaques. The results were analyzed with respect to lumen gain and wall stresses which are potentially related to the failure of the procedure according to previous studies. Our findings show that an elliptic lumen shape and a thinner fibrous cap with an underlying lipid pool result in higher stenosis reduction, while large calcifications and fibrotic tissue are more prone to recoil. The shielding effect of a thicker fibrous cap helps to reduce local compressive stresses in the soft plaque. The presence of a soft plaque reduces the damage in the healthy vascular structures. Contrarily, the presence of hard plaque promotes less damage volume in the fibrous cap and reduces stress peaks in this region, but they seem to increase stresses in the media-intima layer. Finally the reliability of the achieved results was put into clinical perspective.

  2. Increased discordance between HeartScore and coronary artery calcification score after introduction of the new ESC prevention guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel C P; Mahabadi, Amir-Abbas; Gerke, Oke;

    2015-01-01

    -contrast Cardiac-CT scan was performed to detect coronary artery calcification (CAC). RESULTS: Agreement of HeartScore risk groups with CAC groups was poor, but higher when applying the algorithm for the low-risk compared to the high-risk country model (agreement rate: 77% versus 63%, and weighted Kappa: 0.......22 versus 0.15). However, the number of subjects with severe coronary calcification (CAC score ≥400) increased in the low and intermediate HeartScore risk group from 78 to 147 participants (from 2.7 % to 4.2 %, p = 0.001), when estimating the risk based on the algorithm for low-risk countries. CONCLUSION...

  3. Dietary magnesium, not calcium, prevents vascular calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); A. de Wolf (Anneke); J.B. ten Brink (Jacoline); W.J.P. Loves (Willem); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by ectopic calcification of connective tissue in skin, Bruch's membrane of the eye, and walls of blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, but the exact etiology is still unknown. While observations o

  4. Dietary magnesium, not calcium, prevents vascular calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.M.F. Gorgels; J.H. Waarsing; A. de Wolf; J.B. ten Brink; W.J.P. Loves; A.A.B. Bergen

    2010-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by ectopic calcification of connective tissue in skin, Bruch's membrane of the eye, and walls of blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, but the exact etiology is still unknown. While observations on patients s

  5. Metabolic syndrome and coronary artery calcification:a community-based natural population study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hui-li; CHEN Xiong-biao; LU Jin-guo; HOU Zhi-hui; FANG Xiang; GAO Yang; YU Fang-fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on coronary artery calcification (CAC) in China.In this article,we aimed to explore the distribution of CAC in populations with and without MetS,and estimate the influence of MetS and its components on CAC in a community-based population of Beijing.Methods A total of 1647 local residents of Beijing,age 40-77 years,were recruited for a cardiovascular risk factors survey and were determined fasting plasma glucose (FPG),blood lipids,and 64 multi-detector computed tomography (64-MDCT)coronary artery calcium score (CACS) measurement (Agatston scoring).The distribution of CAC was described,and the influence of MetS components on CAC was evaluated.Results In this population,the prevalence and extent of CAC increased with increasing age and both were higher in MetS subjects compared to nonMetS subjects (all P <0.05),with the exception of those older than 65 years old.The risk of CAC increased with increasing numbers of MetS components,and the odds ratios for predicting positive CAC in subjects with 1,2,3,and->4 MetS components were 1.60,1.84,2.12,and 3.12,respectively (all P <0.05).Elevated blood pressure,elevated FPG,elevated triglycerides,and overweight increased the risk of CAC,yielding odds ratios of 2.64,1.67,1.32,and 1.37,respectively (all P <0.05).Conclusions In the Beijing community-based population,MetS increases the risk of CAC.The risk of CAC increases with increasing numbers of MetS components.Not only the number,but also the variety of risk factors for MetS is correlated with the risk of CAC.Elevated blood pressure,hyperglycemia,hypertriglyceridemia and overweight increase the risk of CAC.

  6. Study of association between the aortic valve calcification and coronary artery disease%主动脉瓣钙化与冠心病的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿峰; 葛艺东; 秦信

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the aortic valve calcification(AVC)and coronary artery disease(CAD). Methods Six hundred and fifty-three patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography and coronary arteriography at the same time were analyzed retro-spectively in the study. All patients were divided into two groups: normal control group and aortic valve calcification group (left valve calcification, right valve calcification, multiple aortic valve calcification), comparison of the incidence of coronary artery disease between aortic valve calcification group and normal control group. Analysis of the correlation between single aortic valve calcification and coronary artery stenosis. Results The incidence of coronary artery disease aortic in AVC group was markedly higher than in normal control group. There was no obvious correlation between single aortic valve calcification and the same side coronary artery stenosis. Conclusion Patients with aortic valve calcification have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease, aortic valve calcification can be used as a reference index of noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease.%目的:探讨主动脉瓣钙化与冠心病发病之间的关系。方法回顾性研究同期行冠状动脉造影检查和超声心动图检查患者653例,并对所有患者分组:正常对照组和主动脉瓣钙化组(左冠瓣钙化、右冠瓣钙化,主动脉瓣多瓣膜钙化),对比研究主动脉瓣钙化组与正常对照组间冠心病发病率差异,同时比较单瓣主动脉瓣钙化与冠状动脉狭窄是否发生于同侧。结果主动脉瓣钙化组冠心病的检出率明显高于正常对照组,单瓣主动脉瓣钙化与同侧冠脉狭窄无明显相关性。结论主动脉瓣钙化患者有更高的冠心病发病率,主动脉瓣钙化可以作为冠心病无创评估的一个参考指标。

  7. Haptoglobin genotype predicts development of coronary artery calcification in a prospective cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease has been linked with genotypes for haptoglobin (Hp which modulates extracorpuscular hemoglobin. We hypothesized that the Hp genotype would predict progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods CAC was measured three times in six years among 436 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 526 control subjects participating in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI study. Hp typing was performed on plasma samples by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results The Hp 2-2 genotype predicted development of significant CAC only in subjects with diabetes who were free of CAC at baseline (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.07-3.56, p = 0.03, compared to those without the Hp 2-2 genotype, controlling for age, sex, blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol. Hp 2 appeared to have an allele-dose effect on development of CAC. Hp genotype did not predict CAC progression in individuals without diabetes. Conclusions Hp genotype may aid prediction of accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 1 diabetes.

  8. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scheiber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7 supplementation (100 µg/g diet on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05 and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05 calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01. MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression (10-fold; p < 0.05. CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures.

  9. Vascular function and mild renal impairment in stable coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, P; Smilde, TDJ; Buikema, H; Voors, AA; Navis, G; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Gilst, WH

    2006-01-01

    Objective - In patients with coronary artery disease, the concomitant presence of renal function impairment is associated with decreased survival. We aimed to assess whether in coronary artery diseased patients renal function impairment is associated with systemic vascular function, functional param

  10. Current Trends in Heparin Use During Arterial Vascular Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durran, Alexandra C., E-mail: durranjobs@hotmail.com [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth International Business Park (United Kingdom); Watts, Christopher, E-mail: Christopher.watts@salisbury.nhs.uk [Salisbury District Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the current use of heparinized saline and bolus doses of heparin in non-neurological interventional radiology and to determine whether consensus could be reached to produce guidance for heparin use during arterial vascular intervention. Methods: An interactive electronic questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Society of Interventional Radiology regarding their current practice in the use, dosage, and timing of heparin boluses and heparinized flushing solutions.ResultsA total of 108 completed questionnaires were received. More than 80% of respondents used heparinized saline with varying concentrations; the most prevalent was 1,000 IU/l (international units of heparin per liter) and 5,000 IU/l. Fifty-one percent of interventionalists use 3,000 IU as their standard bolus dose; however, the respondents were split regarding the timing of bolus dose with {approx}60% administering it after arterial access is obtained and 40% after crossing the lesion. There was no consensus on altering dose according to body weight, and only 4% monitored clotting parameters. Conclusions: There seems to be some coherence among practicing interventionalists regarding heparin administration. We hypothesize that heparinized saline should be used at a recognized standard concentration of 1,000 IU/l as a flushing concentration in all arterial vascular interventions and that 3,000 IU bolus is considered the standard dose for straightforward therapeutic procedures and 5000 IU for complex, crural, and endovascular aneurysm repair work. The bolus should be given after arterial access is obtained to allow time for optimal anticoagulation to be achieved by the time of active intervention and stenting. Further research into clotting abnormalities following such interventional procedures would be an interesting quantifiable follow-up to this initial survey of opinions and practice.

  11. Current Trends in Heparin Use During Arterial Vascular Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the current use of heparinized saline and bolus doses of heparin in non-neurological interventional radiology and to determine whether consensus could be reached to produce guidance for heparin use during arterial vascular intervention. Methods: An interactive electronic questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Society of Interventional Radiology regarding their current practice in the use, dosage, and timing of heparin boluses and heparinized flushing solutions.ResultsA total of 108 completed questionnaires were received. More than 80% of respondents used heparinized saline with varying concentrations; the most prevalent was 1,000 IU/l (international units of heparin per liter) and 5,000 IU/l. Fifty-one percent of interventionalists use 3,000 IU as their standard bolus dose; however, the respondents were split regarding the timing of bolus dose with ∼60% administering it after arterial access is obtained and 40% after crossing the lesion. There was no consensus on altering dose according to body weight, and only 4% monitored clotting parameters. Conclusions: There seems to be some coherence among practicing interventionalists regarding heparin administration. We hypothesize that heparinized saline should be used at a recognized standard concentration of 1,000 IU/l as a flushing concentration in all arterial vascular interventions and that 3,000 IU bolus is considered the standard dose for straightforward therapeutic procedures and 5000 IU for complex, crural, and endovascular aneurysm repair work. The bolus should be given after arterial access is obtained to allow time for optimal anticoagulation to be achieved by the time of active intervention and stenting. Further research into clotting abnormalities following such interventional procedures would be an interesting quantifiable follow-up to this initial survey of opinions and practice.

  12. Ultrasound screening for asymptomatic carotid stenosis in subjects with calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Directed ultrasonic screening for carotid stenosis is cost-effective in populations with > 5% prevalence of the diagnosis. Occasionally, calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries are incidentally detected on odontological panoramic radiographs. We aimed to determine if directed screening for carotid stenosis with ultrasound is indicated in individuals with such calcifications. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed on consecutive persons, with findings of calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiography that were otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Results Calcification in the area of the carotid arteries was seen in 176 of 1182 persons undergoing panoramic radiography. Of these, 117 fulfilled the inclusion criterion and were examined with carotid ultrasound. Eight persons (6.8%; 95% CI 2.2-11.5% had a carotid stenosis - not significant over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.232, Binomial test. However, there was a significant sex difference (p = 0.008, as all stenoses were found in men. Among men, 12.5% (95%CI 4.2-20.8% had carotid stenosis - significantly over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.014, Binomial test. Conclusions The incidental finding of calcification in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs should be followed up with carotid screening in men that are otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Trial Registration The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00514644

  13. Calcification of coronary arteries and abdominal aorta in relation to traditional and novel risk factors of atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencak Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Process of accelerated atherosclerosis specific for uremia increases cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and may be influenced by the different structure of arteries. The study assesses the influence of traditional and novel risk factors on calcification of coronary arteries (CAC and abdominal aorta (AAC in hemodialysis patients (HD. Methods CAC and AAC were assessed by CT in 104 prevalent adult HD and 14 apparently healthy subjects with normal kidney function (control group. Mineral metabolism parameters, plasma levels of FGF-23, MGP, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, fetuin-A, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured. Results CAC and AAC (calcification score ≥ 1 were found in 76 (73.1% and 83 (79.8% HD respectively, more frequent than in the control group. In 7 HD with AAC no CAC were detected. The frequency and severity of calcifications increased with age. Both CAC and AAC were more frequently detected in diabetics (OR = 17.37 and 13.00, respectively. CAC score was significantly greater in males. CAC and AAC scores were correlated significantly with pack-years of smoking and plasma osteoprotegrin levels. However the independent contribution of plasma osteoprotegerin levels was not confirmed in multiple regression analysis. Age (OR = 1.13 and hemodialysis vintage (OR = 1.14 were the independent risk factor favoring the occurrence of CAC; while age (OR = 1.20 was the only predictor of AAC occurrence in HD. Conclusions 1. AAC precedes the occurrence of CAC in HD patients. 2. The exposition to uremic milieu and systemic chronic microinflammation has more deteriorative effect on the CAC than the AAC.

  14. Osteoprotegerin is higher in peripheral arterial disease regardless of glycaemic status.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2010-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are both associated with excessive vascular calcification and elevated levels of inflammatory markers IL-6 and hsCRP. The recently identified Osteoprotegerin(OPG)\\/RANKL\\/TRAIL pathway has been implicated in vascular calcification, but data on levels in PAD and effect of co-existent DM are lacking.

  15. Arterial vascularization of the brain of the agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sávio Bessa da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti, a rodent that is geographically distributed throughout South America, is greatly valued for its meat. This paper describes the arterial vascularization of the base of the agouti’s brain, characterizing behavior, and arterial origin and distribution. Ten animals from the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals (CEMAS/UFERSA were used and the study was approved by SISBIO (report number 32413- 1 and the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA/UFERSA (protocol 02/2010. After euthanasia, the animals were incised in the thoracic cavity by an injection of red-stained Neoprene latex 650 and the skulls were subsequently opened. The brains were extracted from the skulls for ventral surface analysis and then fixed in an aqueous 10% formaldehyde solution. The agouti’s arterial vascularization of the brain has two main components, namely the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. The agouti’s carotid system accounts for vascularization of almost the entire forebrain, while the vertebrobasilar system accounts for vascularization of almost the entire posterior brain (medulla oblongata, pyramid, trapezoid body, cerebellum, bridge, and part of the third caudal section of the forebrain through the caudal cerebral arteries originating from the terminal branches of the basilar artery. The main arteries on the brain surface include the basilar artery, which is unique, and the arterial pairs, specifically the vertebral arteries, cerebellar caudal arteries, trigeminal artery, rostral cerebellar artery, basilar terminal branch artery, cerebral caudal artery, communicating caudal branch of the cerebral carotid artery, cerebral carotid artery, communicating branch rostral cerebral carotid artery, choroidal rostral artery, medial branch of the communicating branch rostral artery, internal ophthalmic artery, middle cerebral artery, and rostral cerebral artery.

  16. Healing arterial ulcers: Endothelial lining regeneration upon vascular denudation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Austin I; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa

    2015-09-01

    Thrombosis and restenosis are the most prevalent late complications of coronary artery stenting. Current standards of clinical care focus on prevention of smooth muscle cell proliferation by the use of drug-eluting stents able to release anti-proliferative drugs. Unfortunately, these drugs also block endothelial cell proliferation and, in this manner, prevent recovery of endothelial cell coverage. Continued lack of endothelial repair leaves the root cause of thrombosis and restenosis unchanged, creating a vicious cycle where drug-mediated prevention of restenosis simultaneously implies promotion of thrombosis. In this issue of Vascular Pharmacology, Hussner and colleagues provide in vitro evidence and a mechanistic basis for the use of atorvastatin in stents as a way to bypass this roadblock. Here we review the pathological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches to restore flow in occluded arteries. We argue that rational design of drug eluting stents should focus on specific inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation with concurrent stimulation of endothelial regeneration. We comment on the current poor understanding of the cellular and molecular regulation of endothelial cell proliferation in the context of a functional artery, and on the pitfalls of extrapolating from the well-studied process of neovascularization by sprouting vessel formation.

  17. Major and minor arterial malformations in patients with cutaneous vascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel I; Viaño, Juan; López-Gutierrez, Juan C; Palencia, Rafael

    2010-05-01

    The association of persistent embryonic arteries and the absence of 1 carotid or vertebral arteries with facial or neck hemangioma or vascular malformation have been frequently described. The abnormalities can involve major or minor vessels. Of 22 patients of our series with this neurocutaneous syndrome, 20 had the origin of both anterior cerebral arteries from the same internal carotid artery. Thirteen patients showed absence or hypoplasia of 1 carotid artery and 10 of 1 vertebral artery; 10 showed persistence of the trigeminal artery; 3 had persistent proatlantal artery; 6 showed the absence of the posterior communicating artery; and 4 had hypoplastic posterior cerebral artery. Other less frequent abnormalities were found in 7 patients. Intellectual level of most patients was either borderline or below normal. Abnormalities in the vascularization and perfusion of the frontal lobes may contribute to the borderline or lower mental level of these patients. PMID:19808986

  18. Comparison between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Coronary Artery Calcification in the Prediction of Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Muljadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the atherosclerosis etiologies that can lead to death. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of atherosclerosis. Screening tool is very beneficial for detecting atherosclerotic plaque, especially in subclinical atherosclerotic cases. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and coronary artery calcification score (CACS are two kinds of tools that are widely used, and each of these tools has its own superiority. This study was aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of both of these tools as screening tools. METHODS: The study was conducted with a cross sectional design involving 43 diabetic and 68 non-diabetic male subjects aged above 45 years old. All subjects fulfilled inclusion criteria. Carotid artery ultrasonography and CACS measurement were performed. RESULTS: Fischer exact test was used to show a significant correlation between CIMT and CACS (p<0.05. Diagnostic test was used to assess the sensitivity of CIMT toward CACS in above 75 percentile. The left common carotid artery (LCCA showed the highest sensitivity either in diabetic (76.4% or non-diabetic male subjects (90%. CONCLUSIONS: CIMT has the same sensitivity with CACS. CIMT can be used as the preferred screening tool for high risk patients and as a substitution tool to CACS for low risk patients in subclinical atherosclerosis detection. KEYWORDS: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, carotid intima-media thickness, coronary artery calciication score.

  19. The combination of lanthanum chloride and the calcimimetic calindol delays the progression of vascular smooth muscle cells calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciceri, Paola; Volpi, Elisa; Brenna, Irene; Elli, Francesca [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Borghi, Elisa [Dipartimento di Salute Pubblica, Microbiologia e Virologia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Brancaccio, Diego [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Cozzolino, Mario, E-mail: mario.cozzolino@unimi.it [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium receptor agonists and the calcimimetic calindol reduce calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol cooperate on reducing calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol may interact with the same receptor. -- Abstract: Phosphate (Pi)-binders are commonly used in dialysis patients to control high Pi levels, that associated with vascular calcification (VC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl{sub 3}) on the progression of high Pi-induced VC, in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Pi-induced Ca deposition was inhibited by LaCl{sub 3}, with a maximal effect at 100 {mu}M (59.0 {+-} 2.5% inhibition). Furthermore, we studied the effects on VC of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) agonists. Gadolinium chloride, neomycin, spermine, and the calcimimetic calindol significantly inhibited Pi-induced VC (55.9 {+-} 2.2%, 37.3 {+-} 4.7%, 30.2 {+-} 5.7%, and 63.8 {+-} 5.7%, respectively). To investigate the hypothesis that LaCl{sub 3} reduces the progression of VC by interacting with the CaSR, we performed a concentration-response curve of LaCl{sub 3} in presence of a sub-effective concentration of calindol (10 nM). Interestingly, this curve was shifted to the left (IC{sub 50} 9.6 {+-} 2.6 {mu}M), compared to the curve in the presence of LaCl{sub 3} alone (IC{sub 50} 19.0 {+-} 4.8 {mu}M). In conclusion, we demonstrated that lanthanum chloride effectively reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced vascular calcification. In addition, LaCl{sub 3} cooperates with the calcimimetic calindol in decreasing Ca deposition in this in vitro model. These results suggest the potential role of lanthanum in the treatment of VC induced by high Pi.

  20. Changes in medical treatment six months after risk stratification with HeartScore and coronary artery calcification scanning of healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Lambrechtsen, Jess;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT-scan as ......Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT......-scan as a part of a screening programme. Using the European HeartScore, the total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated (≥5% risk was considered as high). Risk factors and CAC scores were reported to both the patients and their general practitioner. Six months after the screening, follow...

  1. Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuteri Angelo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC and aortic annular calcification (AVC may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elederly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT, are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Aim To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness. Methods We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. Results Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 ± 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 ± 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p 0.0001. Conclusion MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease.

  2. Relation of Pulmonary Function Impairment and Coronary Artery Calcification by Multi-detector Computed Tomography in Group Exposed to Inorganic Dusts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won-Jeong; Shin, Jae Hoon; Park, So Young

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of pulmonary function impairment (PFI) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), and the effect of pneumoconiosis on CAC or PFI. Methods Seventy-six subjects exposed to inorganic dusts underwent coronary artery calcium scoring by MDCT, spirometry, laboratory tests, and a standardized questionnaire. CAC was quantified using a commercial software (Rapidia ver. 2.8), and all the subj...

  3. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto Kei; Nishioka Makiko; Miyashita Yumi; Hiki Yoshito; Sasaki Takashi; Nishimura Rimei; Nemoto Masami; Sakuma Toru; Ohashi Toya; Fukuda Kunihiko; Eto Yoshikatsu; Tajima Naoko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery c...

  4. Osteoprotegerin inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cell via down regulation of the Notch1-RBP-Jκ/Msx2 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqiong Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is a common pathobiological process which occurs among the elder population and in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Osteoprotegerin, a secreted glycoprotein that regulates bone mass, has recently emerged as an important regulator of the development of vascular calcification. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to explore novel signaling mechanisms of osteoprotegerin in the osteoblastic differentiation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: VSMCs were isolated from thoracic aorta of Sprague Dawley rats. Osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs was induced by an osteogenic medium. We confirmed by Von Kossa staining and direct cellular calcium measurement that mineralization was significantly increased in VSMCs cultured in osteogenic medium; consistent with an enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. This osteoblastic differentiation in VSMCs was significantly reduced by the addition of osteoprotegerin in a dose responsive manner. Moreover, we identified, by real-time qPCR and western blotting, that expression of Notch1 and RBP-Jκ were significantly up-regulated in VSMCs cultured in osteogenic medium at both the mRNA and protein levels, these effects were dose-dependently abolished by the treatment of osteoprotegerin. Furthermore, we identified that Msx2, a downstream target of the Notch1/RBP-Jκ signaling, was markedly down-regulated by the treatment of osteoprotegerin. CONCLUSION: Osteoprotegerin inhibits vascular calcification through the down regulation of the Notch1-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway.

  5. The Use of ExoSeal Vascular Closure Device for Direct Antegrade Superficial Femoral Artery Puncture Site Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Khaitovich, Boris, E-mail: borislena@012.net.il [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Yakubovich, Dmitry, E-mail: Dmitry.Yakubovitch@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Bensaid, Paul, E-mail: paulbensaid@hotmail.com; Golan, Gil, E-mail: gilgolan201@gmail.com [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Silverberg, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Silverberg@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of the ExoSeal vascular closure device (VCD) to achieve hemostasis in antegrade access of the superficial femoral artery (SFA).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the outcome of ExoSeal VCD used for hemostasis in 110 accesses to the SFA in 93 patients between July 2011 and July 2013. All patients had patent proximal SFA based on computer tomography angiography or ultrasound duplex. Arterial calcifications at puncture site were graded using fluoroscopy. The SFA was accessed in an antegrade fashion with ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance. In all patients, 5–7F vascular sheaths were used. The ExoSeal VCD was applied to achieve hemostasis at the end of the procedure. All patients were clinically examined and had ultrasound duplex exam for any puncture site complications during the 24 h postprocedure.ResultsIn all procedures, the ExoSeal was applied successfully. We did not encounter any device-related technical failure. There were four major complications in four patients (3.6 %): three pseudoaneurysms, which were treated with direct thrombin injection, and one hematoma, which necessitated transfusion of two blood units. All patients with complications were treated with anticoagulation preprocedure or received thrombolytic therapy.ConclusionsThe ExoSeal VCD can be safely used for antegrade puncture of the SFA, with a high procedural success rate (100 %) and a low rate of access site complications (3.6 %)

  6. Toward early diagnosis of arteriosclerotic diseases: collaborative detection of carotid artery calcifications by computer and dentists on dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Takahashi, Ryo; Hara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) as a possible sign of arteriosclerotic diseases. However, CACs are not easily visible at the common window level for dental examinations, and dentists, in general, are not looking for CACs. Computerized detection of CACs may help dentists in referring patients with a risk of arteriosclerotic diseases to have a detailed examination at a medical clinic. Downside of our previous method was a relatively large number of false positives (FPs). In this study, we attempted to reduce FPs by including an additional feature and selecting effective features for the classifier. A hundred DPRs including 34 cases with calcifications were included. Initial candidates were detected by thresholding the output of top-hat operation. For each candidate, 10 features and a new feature characterizing the relative position of a CAC with reference to the lower mandible edge were determined. After the rule-based FP reduction, candidates were classified into CACs and FPs by a support vector machine. Based on the leave-one-out cross-validation evaluations, an average number of FPs was 3.1 per image at 90.4% sensitivity using seven features selected. Compared to our previous method, the number of FPs was reduced by 38% at the same sensitivity level. The proposed method has a potential in identifying patients with a risk of arteriosclerosis early via general dental examinations.

  7. SGLT inhibitors attenuate NO-dependent vascular relaxation in the pulmonary artery but not in the coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Cho, Young-Eun; Ayon, Ramon; Guo, Rui; Youssef, Katia D; Pan, Minglin; Dai, Anzhi; Yuan, Jason X-J; Makino, Ayako

    2015-11-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT)2 are a new class of oral drugs for type 2 diabetic patients that reduce plasma glucose levels by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption. There is increasing evidence showing the beneficial effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on glucose control; however, less information is available regarding the impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes. The present study was designed to determine whether SGLT inhibitors regulate vascular relaxation in mouse pulmonary and coronary arteries. Phlorizin (a nonspecific SGLT inhibitor) and canagliflozin (a SGLT2-specific inhibitor) relaxed pulmonary arteries in a dose-dependent manner, but they had little or no effect on coronary arteries. Pretreatment with phlorizin or canagliflozin significantly inhibited sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a nitric oxide donor)-induced vascular relaxation in pulmonary arteries but not in coronary arteries. Phlorizin had no effect on cGMP-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries. SNP induced membrane hyperpolarization in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, and pretreatment of cells with phlorizin and canagliflozin attenuated SNP-induced membrane hyperpolarization by decreasing K(+) activities induced by SNP. Contrary to the result observed in ex vivo experiments with SGLT inhibitors, SNP-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries was not altered by chronic administration of canagliflozin. On the other hand, canagliflozin administration significantly enhanced SNP-dependent relaxation in coronary arteries in diabetic mice. These data suggest that SGLT inhibitors differentially regulate vascular relaxation depending on the type of arteries, duration of the treatment, and health condition, such as diabetes. PMID:26361875

  8. Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease is Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 via a Mechanism Involving the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Rong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular calcification (VC, in which vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs undergo a phenotypic transformation into osteoblast-like cells, is one of the emergent risk factors for the accelerated atherosclerosis process characteristic of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Phosphate is an important regulator of VC. Methods: The expression of different smooth muscle cell or osteogenesis markers in response to high concentrations of phosphate or exogenous bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 was examined by qRT-PCR and western blotting in rat VSMCs. Osteocalcin secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay. Differentiation and calcification of VSMCs were examined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity assay and Alizarin staining. Short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of β-catenin was performed to examine the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in VSMC calcification and osteoblastic differentiation induced by high phosphate or BMP-2. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay and immunofluorescence imaging. Results: BMP-2 serum levels were significantly higher in CKD patients than in controls. High phosphate concentrations and BMP-2 induced VSMC apoptosis and upregulated the expression of β-catenin, Msx2, Runx2 and the phosphate cotransporter Pit1, whereas a BMP-2 neutralization antibody reversed these effects. Knockdown of β-catenin abolished the effect of high phosphate and BMP-2 on VSMC apoptosis and calcification. Conclusions: BMP-2 plays a crucial role in calcium deposition in VSMCs and VC in CKD patients via a mechanism involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  9. Effect of Heart Rate and Coronary Calcification on the Diagnostic Accuracy of the Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography, with a particular focus on the effect of heart rate and calcifications. One hundred and nine patients with suspected coronary disease were divided into 2 groups according to a mean heart rate ( 400). Next, the effect of heart rate and calcification on the accuracy of coronary artery stenosis detection was analyzed by using an invasive coronary angiography as a reference standard. Coronary segments of less than 1.5 mm in diameter in an American Heart Association (AHA) 15-segment model were independently assessed. The mean heart rate during the scan was 71.8 bpm, whereas the mean Agatston score was 226.5. Of the 1,588 segments examined, 1,533 (97%) were assessable. A total of 17 patients had calcium scores above 400 Agatston U, whereas 50 had heart rates ≥ 70 bpm. Overall the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for significant stenoses were: 95%, 91%, 65%, and 99% (by segment), respectively and 97%, 90%, 81%, and 91% (by artery), respectively (n = 475). Heart rate showed no significant impact on lesion detection; however, vessel calcification did show a significant impact on accuracy of assessment for coronary segments. The specificity, PPV and accuracy were 96%, 80%, and 96% (by segment), respectively for an Agatston score less than 100% and 99%, 96% and 98% (by artery). For an Agatston score of greater to or equal to 400 the specificity, PPV and accuracy were reduced to 79%, 55%, and 83% (by segment), respectively and to 79%, 69%, and 85% (by artery), respectively. The DSCT provides a high rate of accuracy for the detection of significant coronary artery disease, even in patients with high heart rates and evidence of coronary calcification. However, patients with severe coronary calcification (> 400 U) remain a challenge to diagnose

  10. The Wnt5a/Ror2 pathway is associated with determination of the differentiation fate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huaping; Xin, Fang; Zhou, Shaoqiong; Guan, Siming

    2013-03-01

    Accumulating evidence have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in the initiation and progression of various vascular diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling controls the fate of MSCs, and plays an important role in vascular calcification. However, vascular calcification can be inhibited by the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway Wnt5a/Ror2. This study aimed to investigate whether the Wnt5a/Ror2 pathway is associated with determination of the differentiation fate of MSCs in vascular calcification. Direct co-cultures were established by seeding smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or calcified SMCs and MSCs together at ratios of SMCs or calcified SMCs 15x104; SMCs or calcified SMCs 5x104: MSCs 10x104, SMCs or calcified SMCs 10x104: MSCs 5x104. Osteosynthesis-inducing medium (OS) was added to the culture medium in the groups of MSCs with non-calcified SMCs. Cells were cultured for nine days. Osteoblastic differentiation was evaluated by cell morphology and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in cell lysates and ALP staining. Furthermore, we investigated the inhibition of Wnt signaling, and observed that the members of the non-canonical signaling pathway Wnt5a/Ror2 were expressed in each group. Additionally, MSCs cultured in culture media with OS did not differentiate into an osteoblast phenotype when in direct contact with non-calcified SMCs, irrespective of the number of MSCs. However, an osteoblast phenotype was observed when MSCs were cultured in media without OS differentiation towards direct contact with calcified SMCs, and the levels of osteoblastic markers had a direct correlation with the number of MSCs. Of note, the Wnt5a protein was associated with the levels of calcification, thus, although rarely detected in non-calcification, Ror2 mRNA in the non-calcified groups was significantly higher compared to that in the calcified groups. Therefore, the Wnt5a/Ror2 pathway is associated with determination of the differentiation fate of bone marrow

  11. Serum Gamma-glutamyltransferase Levels Predict the Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Li; Wei-Hua, Lu; Rong, Ai; Jian-Hong, Yang; Zi-Hua, Zhou; Zhong-Zhi, Tang

    2015-08-01

    Progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) may be more predictive of future coronary heart disease events than a baseline CAC score. We determined whether serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity can independently predict the progression of CAC in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients (n = 326) without symptomatic cardiovascular (CV) disease were evaluated by CAC imaging. The CAC scores were assessed at baseline and after 20 ± 4 months. Serum GGT activities were significantly higher in progressors compared with nonprogressors (39 ± 16 vs. 27 ± 11 U/L, P < .001). Multivariable analyses demonstrated that GGT activity retained a strong association with CAC progression after adjustment for CV risk factors. Additionally, there was a graded association between GGT activity quartile and annualized CAC progression. In asymptomatic patients with T2DM, we prospectively found that serum GGT activity may be an independent predictor of CAC progression but not a predictor of CAC incidence.

  12. Coronary artery calcification in clinical practice: what we have learned and why should it routinely be reported on chest CT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The recent acceptance of low dose chest computed tomography (LDCT) as a screening modality for early lung cancer detection will significantly increase the number of LDCT among high risk population. The target subjects are at the same time at high risk to develop cardiovascular (CV) events. The routine report on coronary artery calcification (CAC) will therefore, enhances the screening benefit by providing the clinicians with an additive powerful risk stratification tool for the management or primary prevention of CV events. This review will provide the radiologists with helpful information for the daily practice regarding on what is CAC, its clinical applications and how to diagnose, quantify and report on CAC while reading the LDCT. PMID:27195277

  13. Direct Needle Puncture and Embolization of Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm in Case of Chronic Atrophic Calcific Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amit; Rampal, Jagadeesh Singh; Reddy, D. Nageshwar; Rao, Guduru Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Gastro-Intestinal bleeding remains a frequent clinical dilemma and common cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. Case Report We report a case of pseudo aneurysm of splenic artery developed after an episode of acute on chronic pancreatitis which was treated by direct percutaneous puncture of pseudoaneurysm and embolization by coils. Conclusions The aim was to preserve the main splenic artery and avoid the complications of splenic artery embolization like infarcts and abscess. PMID:27757174

  14. Saturated phosphatidic acids mediate saturated fatty acid–induced vascular calcification and lipotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Masashi; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Audrey L Keenan; Okamura, Kayo; Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel; Offermanns, Stefan; James M. Ntambi; Kuro-o, Makoto; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that saturated fatty acid–induced (SFA-induced) lipotoxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie SFA-induced lipotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we have shown that repression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzymes, which regulate the intracellular balance of SFAs and unsaturated FAs, and the subsequent accumulation of SFAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), are characteristic...

  15. 血清可溶性CD40L和C反应蛋白在慢性血透患者外周血管钙化的作用%Role of soluble CD40L and C-reactive protein in peripheral vascular calcification in patients undergoing of chronic hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍强; 孙艳; 杨铁城; 张海燕

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in peripheral vascular calcification in hemodialytic patients.Methods 40 hemodialytic patients with uremia underwent arteriovenous fistula reconstruction.The stumps of radial artery were removed for assessing vascular calcification.The patients were grouped according to the presence or absence of calcification and its degree.Serum levels of sCD40L and CRP were detected.The differences in levels of sCD40L and CRP were compared between calcification group and non-calcification group and between calcification groups at different degrees calcification.Results Radial artery calcification was detectable in 23 of the patients with calcium staining,9 of whom had severe calcification and the rest 14 had mild to moderate calcification.Levels of sCD40L and CRP were significantly higher in calcification group than in non-calcification group (P<0.01); they were also higher in severe calcification group than in mild to moderate calcification group (P<0.05).Levels of sCD40L were positively correlated with those of CRP.%目的 探讨血清可溶性白细胞分化抗原40配体(sCD40L)和C反应蛋白(CRP)在尿毒症血液透析患者外周血管钙化中的作用.方法 尿毒症血液透析患者40例因动静脉内瘘失功行内瘘重建术,术中取桡动脉残端行钙化染色观察血管钙化情况,依据血管钙化有无及程度分组,同时检测血清sCD40L和CRP水平,比较钙化组与非钙化组,不同程度钙化组间血清sCD40L和CRP水平的差异.结果 40例患者桡动脉钙化染色检出血管钙化23例,其中重度钙化9例,轻中度钙化14例,钙化组血清sCD40L和CRP水平高于非钙化组,有统计学差异(P<0.01).重度钙化组sCD40L和CRP水平高于轻中度钙化组.有统计学差异(P<0.05).血清sCD40L和CRP含量呈正相关.结论 sCD40L和炎症反应可能参与了尿毒症血液透析患者外周血管钙化的发生.

  16. Differential effects of relaxin deficiency on vascular aging in arteries of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinic, Maria; Tare, Marianne; Conrad, Kirk P; Parry, Laura J

    2015-08-01

    Exogenous treatment with the naturally occurring peptide relaxin increases arterial compliance and reduces vascular stiffness. In contrast, relaxin deficiency reduces the passive compliance of small renal arteries through geometric and compositional vascular remodeling. The role of endogenous relaxin on passive mechanical wall properties in other vascular beds is unknown. Importantly, no studies have investigated the effects of aging in arteries of relaxin-deficient mice. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mesenteric and femoral arteries stiffen with aging, and this is exacerbated with relaxin deficiency. Male wild-type (Rln (+/+)) and relaxin knockout (Rln (-/-)) mice were aged to 3, 6, 12, 18, and 23 months. Passive mechanical wall properties were assessed by pressure myography. In both genotypes, there was a significant increase in circumferential stiffening in mesenteric arteries with aging, whereas in the femoral artery, aging reduced volume compliance. This was associated with a reduced ability of the artery to lengthen with aging. The predominant phenotype observed in Rln (-/-) mice was reduced volume compliance in young mice in both mesenteric and femoral arteries. In summary, aging induces circumferential stiffening in mesenteric arteries and axial stiffening in femoral arteries. Passive mechanical wall properties of Rln (-/-) mouse arteries predominantly differ at younger ages compared with Rln (+/+) mice, suggesting that a lack of endogenous relaxin only has a minor effect on vascular aging.

  17. Prevalencia de calcificación arterial y factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados: Estudio multicéntrico poblacional ARTPER Prevalence of arterial calcification and related risk factors: The multicenter population-based ARTPER study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Alzamora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar la prevalencia de calcificación arterial (índice tobillo-brazo >1,4 y de factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados en población general >49 años de edad. Métodos: Estudio transversal, 3786 sujetos seleccionados aleatoriamente en 28 centros. Para el cálculo de la prevalencia se usó toda la muestra, excluyendo los sujetos con arteriopatía periférica (índice tobillo-brazo Objective: To determine the prevalence of arterial calcification (ankle-brachial index >1.4 and its related factors among the general population aged >49 years. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 3,786 people randomly selected from 28 centers. To assess the factors associated with arterial calcification using a multivariate logistic model, the whole sample was used to compute prevalence, excluding persons with peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index <0.9. Results: Arterial calcification was found in 235 persons (prevalen 6.2%; 95% CI: 5.6-7.0, and was twice as frequent in men as in women. Patients with arterial calcification were older, had more previous cardiovascular events, diabetes and obesity, and were less able to perform physical activity than persons with a healthy ankle-brachial index. Conclusions: We recommend measurement of the ankle-brachial index in primary care centers to detect arterial calcification among men, persons with diabetes, overweight, obesity or difficulty in performing physical activity, and in those with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  18. Breast arterial calcification and risk of carotid atherosclerosis: Focusing on the preferentially affected layer of the vessel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, Nahid, E-mail: nsedighi@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radmard, Amir Reza, E-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radmehr, Ali, E-mail: radmehr@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Pari, E-mail: phtums@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajizadeh, Abdolmahmoud, E-mail: mroomezi@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Amir Pejman Hashemi, E-mail: hashemip@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: To assess the relationship between breast arterial calcification (BAC) detected on screening mammography and atherosclerosis of carotid arteries considering the most likely involved layer of the arterial wall. Materials and methods: A total of 537 consecutive women who underwent screening mammography were enrolled in this study. Seventy-nine subjects having BAC, aged 46-75 years, and 125 age-matched controls from those without BAC were selected for ultrasound examination of carotid arteries assessing intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque presence. Participants were divided into three groups of risk including, low-risk: IMT < 0.6 mm without plaque, medium-risk: 0.6 mm {<=} IMT {<=} 0.8 mm without plaque and high-risk: IMT > 0.8 mm and/or plaque. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were obtained from medical records for independent effects. Results: BAC was present in 14.7% of mammograms. According to multivariable logistic regression analyses, significant association was identified between the carotid atherosclerosis risk and presence of BAC. Compared to women with IMT < 0.6 mm, those with 0.6 mm {<=} IMT{<=} 0.8 mm and IMT > 0.8 mm had OR (95% CI) of 4.88 (1.47-16.16) and 23.36 (4.54-120.14), respectively. The OR (95% CI) for carotid plaque was 3.13 (1.3-7.57). There was no interaction between IMT category and plaque. Significant associations were also detected with postmenopausal duration (P = 0.02) and hypertension (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The risk of carotid atherosclerosis increases with the presence of BAC. Women with BAC are more likely to have thicker IMT than plaque, which could be attributed to the preferentially similar affected layer of media causing thick IMT rather than plaque.

  19. Correlation between Circulating Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines TNF-alpha and Vascular Calcification Inhibitor Matrix Gla Protein in Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilis Yulianti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult obesity is rapidly increasing in the world including Indonesia. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α was chronically elevated in obese adipose tissue. TNF-α, a pleiotropic cytokine and also a regulator of bone formation, may might represent an important link between obesity and vascular calcification. Elegant genetic studies in mice and human have highlighted the important roles for Matrix Gla Protein (MGP as an inhibitor of vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and vascular calcification inhibitor MGP in obese men. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study including 40 central obese men (waist circumference ≥90 cm aged 31-60 years old. Serum MGP and serum TNF-α concentrations were quantified by ELISA principle. Fasting plasma glucose was assessed using hexokinase methods, triglyceride by GPO-PAP methods, and creatinine by Jaffe methods. All assays were performed according to the manufacture instruction. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS for windows ver 16. Univariate analysis were performed to analyze mean, maximum, minimum value and SD. Pearson correlation statistic were performed to determine the correlation between variables. Significance value were define as alpha level=0.05 based on two-tailed tests. RESULTS: The cross-sectional study (n=40 showed that the advancing age was correlated with plasma TNF-α concentration (r = 0.348; p = 0.028. The mean concentration of TNF-α and MGP were 8.323 and 8.368, respectively. We found a significant negative correlation between TNF-α with MGP (r=-0.425; p=0.006 and a significant correlation between TNF-α and triglyceride (r=0.375; p=0.017. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating level of TNF-α was inversely correlated with MGP concentration in obese men. This finding suggested that high level TNF-α leads to low MGP concentration obese men, hence, limits inhibitory

  20. Phenylephrine Decreases Vascular Tension in Goat Arteries in Specific Circumstances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu R Raj

    Full Text Available Phenylephrine (PE causes vasoconstriction through alpha adrenergic receptors. PE-induced vasodilatation has also been reported earlier in pre-constricted vessels. Here we demonstrate in spiral strips of goat arteries that addition of PE can decrease tone even from base-line levels (i.e. not pre-constricted and show that this process requires nitric oxide (NO and alpha adrenergic stimulation, but is cGMP-independent. Under control conditions, PE caused vasoconstriction, but under conditions where NO levels are higher, as with L-Arginine or sodium nitroprusside, PE decreased vessel tension. L-Arginine/PE combination was not able to decrease tension when alpha adrenoceptors were blocked with Phentolamine or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was blocked with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA. Propranolol, a beta blocker, was unable to prevent the reduction in tension by the L-Arginine/PE combination. Adrenaline and noradrenaline (and not isoproterenol also reduced vessel tension in the presence of L-Arginine. Even when NO levels were not enhanced, relieving NO from having to stimulate the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC (either by using sGC blockers, namely ODQ or methylene blue, or by enhancing cGMP levels (with sildenafil which by negative feedback probably inhibits sGC led to PE-induced reduction of vascular tension. PMA-phorbol myristate acetate-an agonist which stimulates Protein Kinase C was able to prevent the ability of PE to reduce vascular tension in a high NO environment. Our conclusion is that PE reduces vascular tension through alpha adrenoceptors if there is excess NO availability to activate a putative pathway. Though the reduction of vessel tone by PE is dependent on NO, it is independent of cGMP. Prior treatment with PMA or PE itself can prevent further PE-induced reduction of tension in a high NO environment. The results here suggest, counter-intuitively, that alpha blockers may be of help in the treatment of septic shock

  1. The relationship between coronary artery calcification detected by non-gated multi-detector CT in patients with suspected ischemic heart disease and myocardial ischemia detected by thallium exercise stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to examine whether we could predict myocardial ischemia when coronary artery calcification is detected by non-gated multidetector CT in patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. Eighty-three patients suspected of having ischemic heart disease (55 men, 28 women; age range 36-83 years; mean age 68 years) underwent multidetector CT and Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography. Prediction of myocardial ischemia by coronary arterial calcification detected on CT was evaluated by comparing the coronary artery territories that showed calcification with the area of myocardial ischemia determined by SPECT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of multidetector CT for predicting myocardial ischemia were calculated. Coronary angiography was also examined and compared with multidetector CT. Risk factors, including hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and family history, were compared for evidence of coronary artery calcification detected by multidetector CT and myocardial ischemia detected by thallium nuclear scans. For analysis by patients, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of coronary artery calcification for myocardial ischemia detection were 65, 63, 56, and 71%, respectively. Similarly, for analysis by coronary arterial territories, those values were 56, 77, 41 and 86%, respectively. Coronary stenosis on CAG was also related to the ischemia determined by SPECT and calcification on multidetector CT. Ischemia was better influenced by risk factors than was coronary arterial calcification. For analysis by coronary arterial territories, the specificity and negative predictive value of coronary arterial calcification seen by multidetector CT are relatively high. (author)

  2. Nanoparticles (nanobacteria) responsible from calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Dal, Tuba; Dal, Mehmet Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) are particles smaller (80-500nm) than known bacteria and have bacteria-like features (membrane structures, in two division, colony formation). CNPs have shown in human and animal sera, human\\'s pathological calcifications (kidney stones, dental pulp stones, heart valve calcifications, arterial calcifications, psammoma bodies in ovarian cancer, etc.), the nature\\'s calcifications (travertines, etc.) and Mars meteors. CNPs are able to grow in Dulbecco's m...

  3. Concomitant atherosclerotic disease detected by whole-body MR angiography in relation to coronary artery calcification in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seng, K.; Schlosser, T.; Barkhausen, J.; Ladd, S.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Breuckmann, F.; Geckeis, K.; Schmermund, A.; Erbel, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie, Westdeutsches Herzzentrum Essen; Budde, T.; Hoefs, C. [Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) show a high prevalence for concomitant atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD). On the other hand, PAD seems to be an additional risk factor for cardiac events. We evaluated the correlation between arterial pathologies as found in whole-body MR angiography and coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and multislice CT (MSCT). Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-eight patients (161 men; 67 women) with suspicion for CAD/known CAD underwent whole-body contrast-enhanced MR angiography (wb-ce-MRA) and EBCT/MSCT. An atherosclerosis index was calculated for each patient Index = sum {sub n=1}{sup 40}w{sub i} with w{sub i} being the grading of the stenosis of the i{sup ten} of 40 arteria segments (grade: 0 - no plaque; 1 - plaque - {<=} 50 % stenosis; 2 - > 50 % stenosis - {<=} 90 % stenosis; 3 - > 90 % stenosis - < 100 % stenosis; 4 - occlusion). Correlations between CAC and atherosclerosis index were performed. Results: Wb-ce MRA and CAC correlate only moderately in this population. An atherosclerosis index 8 renders a positive predictive value for a CAC 100 of 63.3 %. Conclusion: An atherosclerosis index as defined in this study does not fully correlate with the extent of CAD as revealed by catheter angiography or EBCT/MSCT, but it might theoretically mirror the increased risk by PAD. It thus might be a promising complementary parameter for the prediction of cardiac events. Future studies need to show its possible additional predictive impact.

  4. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Daniel; Veulemans, Verena; Horn, Patrick; Chatrou, Martijn L; Potthoff, Sebastian A; Kelm, Malte; Schurgers, Leon J; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation (100 µg/g diet) on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (10-fold; p < 0.05). CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures. PMID:26295257

  5. 筛选大鼠血管钙化消退差异表达基因及初步分析%Identification of differentially expressed genes in rats and preliminary analvsis in regression of vascular calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀娟; 刘毅; 孙文学; 杜晓红; 陈天新; 毛瑞阳; 徐利鸳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differentially expressed genes in rat in the process of regression of vascular calcification by using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Methods: 24 SD male rats which aged 6 weeks and specific pathogen free grade were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups( n = 8):control group, calcification group and regression group respectively. Vascular calcification model (vitamin D3 plus nicotine, VDN) were made from rats in calcification group and regression group, and rats in control group were intragas-tric administered with normal saline and kvaged with peanut oil. Rats were bred for 8 weeks in calcification group and control group, while rats in regression group were fed for 16 weeks. All rats were killed to measure concentration of calcium in the arterial tissue and examine the patho-lo-gical lesion changes. Subtractive hybridization among vascular cDNA sequences from calcification group and regression group were established. The cDNA fragments which expressed higher or lower in regression group than those in calcification group were isolated. Differentially expressed genes with cDNA fragment were inserted into PMD18-T plasmid vector and transformed competent DH-5α, cDNA libraries of differentially expressed gene between calcification group and regression group were then constructed. Recombinant vectors were analyzed by colony PCR, positive genes were randomly selected for sequencing and analyzed by BLAST. 4 genes were randomly selected for RT-PCR certification combined with semi-quantitative analysis of DNA bands. Results: VDN model of rats were successfully constructed. Concentration of tissue calcium in calcification group( 15.34 mg/g± 2.51 mg/g) was significantly increased compared to that in control group (5.20 mg/g± 0.75 mg/g, P<0.001), while in comparison with calcification group( 15.34 mg/g±2.51 mg/g), calcium in regression group was relatively lower (12.73 mg/g± 1.89 mg/g, P < 0.05). 28 up-regulated genes

  6. 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Luo

    Full Text Available The 3D geometry of individual vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, which are essential for understanding the mechanical function of blood vessels, are currently not available. This paper introduces a new 3D segmentation algorithm to determine VSMC morphology and orientation.A total of 112 VSMCs from six porcine coronary arteries were used in the analysis. A 3D semi-automatic segmentation method was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs from cell clumps as well as to extract the 3D geometry of VSMCs. A new edge blocking model was introduced to recognize cell boundary while an edge growing was developed for optimal interpolation and edge verification. The proposed methods were designed based on Region of Interest (ROI selected by user and interactive responses of limited key edges. Enhanced cell boundary features were used to construct the cell's initial boundary for further edge growing. A unified framework of morphological parameters (dimensions and orientations was proposed for the 3D volume data. Virtual phantom was designed to validate the tilt angle measurements, while other parameters extracted from 3D segmentations were compared with manual measurements to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. The length, width and thickness of VSMCs were 62.9±14.9 μm, 4.6±0.6 μm and 6.2±1.8 μm (mean±SD. In longitudinal-circumferential plane of blood vessel, VSMCs align off the circumferential direction with two mean angles of -19.4±9.3° and 10.9±4.7°, while an out-of-plane angle (i.e., radial tilt angle was found to be 8±7.6° with median as 5.7°.A 3D segmentation algorithm was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs of blood vessel walls based on optical image stacks. The results were validated by a virtual phantom and manual measurement. The obtained 3D geometries can be utilized in mathematical models and leads a better understanding of vascular mechanical properties and function.

  7. Coronary artery calcification detected in lung cancer screening predicts cardiovascular death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Køber, Lars; Abdulla, Jawdat;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It remains unknown whether non-electrocardiogram-gated coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in lung cancer screening provides incremental prognostic value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of CAC in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST), in addition t...

  8. Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with coronary artery calcification and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Pareek, Manan; Gerke, O;

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 1:2 matched case-control study in order to evaluate whether the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or strain was higher in patients with uncontrolled hypertension than in subjects from the general population, and ...

  9. Risk loci for coronary artery calcification replicated at 9p21 and 6q24 in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pechlivanis Sonali; Mühleisen Thomas W; Möhlenkamp Stefan; Schadendorf Dirk; Erbel Raimund; Jöckel Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann Per; Nöthen Markus M; Scherag André; Moebus Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary heart disease (CHD), preceding the onset of cardiovascular disease by decades in most cases. Here we examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) integrated on Metabochip and coronary artery calcification (CAC), a valid risk factor for CHD, in an unselected, population-based German cohort. Methods The Metabochip is a custom iSELECT array containing >195,000 SNPs that was designed to support large-sc...

  10. Genes Involved in Systemic and Arterial Bed Dependent Atherosclerosis - Tampere Vascular Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mari Levula; Niku Oksala; Nina Airla; Rainer Zeitlin; Juha-Pekka Salenius; Otso Järvinen; Maarit Venermo; Teemu Partio; Jukka Saarinen; Taija Somppi; VeliPekka Suominen; Jyrki Virkkunen; Juha Hautalahti; Reijo Laaksonen; Mika Kähönen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a complex disease with hundreds of genes influencing its progression. In addition, the phenotype of the disease varies significantly depending on the arterial bed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized the genes generally involved in human advanced atherosclerotic (AHA type V-VI) plaques in carotid and femoral arteries as well as aortas from 24 subjects of Tampere Vascular study and compared the results to non-atherosclerotic internal thoracic arterie...

  11. Calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Bouzas, A. [ENEP Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Ballesteros-Maresma, A. [Radiologia Clinica de Cuernavaca (Mexico); Casian, G.; Hernandez-Martinez, P. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico S. S. (Mexico); Martinez-Lopez, M. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We report calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis. Calcification was observed in the middle cerebral arteries in two patients, and the circle of Willis in two others. The patients with middle cerebral artery calcification underwent CT with inhaled stable xenon and an area of mild hypoperfusion was observed in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. (orig.)

  12. CT-based abdominal aortic calcification score as a surrogate marker for predicting the presence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Chansik; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Ahn, Sung Soo; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, 50 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Sun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Department of Research Affairs, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the value of a CT-based abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) score as a surrogate marker for the presence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). The AAC scores of 373 patients without cardiac symptoms who underwent both screening coronary CT angiography and abdominal CT within one year were calculated according to the Agatston method. Logistic regression was used to derive two multivariate models from traditional cardiovascular risk factors, with and without AAC scores, to predict the presence of CAD. The AAC score and the two multivariate models were compared by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the net reclassification improvement (NRI). The AAC score alone showed a marginally higher AUC (0.823 vs. 0.767, P = 0.061) and significantly better risk classification (NRI = 0.158, P = 0.048) than the multivariate model without AAC. The multivariate model using traditional factors and AAC did not show a significantly higher AUC (0.832 vs. 0.823, P = 0.616) or NRI (0.073, P = 0.13) than the AAC score alone. The optimal cutoff value of the AAC score for predicting CAD was 1025.8 (sensitivity, 79.5 %; specificity, 75.9 %). AAC scores may serve as a surrogate marker for the presence or absence of asymptomatic CAD. (orig.)

  13. Relationship between Conventional Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Coronary Artery Calcification in Group Exposed to Inorganic Dusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the coronary artery calcification (CAC) and the conventional cardiovascular disease risk assessment (CCDRA). This study included 101 subjects who were exposed to inorganic dusts and underwent CAC scoring by multidetector CT (MDCT), laboratory tests, and a standardized questionnaire for CCDRA, after being approved from the Institutional Review Board and providing informed consent. All subjects were divided as either non-calcified group (< 1, 55.4%) or calcified group (≥ 1, 44.6%) from total CAC, and evaluated by CCDRA, such as Framingham risk score (FRS) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area of FRS was generated for predicting CAC risk using SPSS program (ver. 19.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Total CAC was significantly correlated with FRS (r = 0.283, p = 0.004). Crude odds ratio for CAC risk was 3.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-9.52] in FRS ≥ 20%, and 2.87 (95% CI 1.24-6.65) in the high risk group of NCEP. Subjects with pneumoconiosis showed higher values of CAC (p 0.541) and FRS (p = 0.035) scores compared with subjects without pneumoconiosis. ROC area of FRS was 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.79) with a cutoff point of 13.5%. CAC measured MDCT is significantly correlated with FRS than other CCDRA

  14. Relationship between Conventional Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Coronary Artery Calcification in Group Exposed to Inorganic Dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jeong; Park, So Young [Occupational Lung Diseases Institute, KCOMWEL, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the coronary artery calcification (CAC) and the conventional cardiovascular disease risk assessment (CCDRA). This study included 101 subjects who were exposed to inorganic dusts and underwent CAC scoring by multidetector CT (MDCT), laboratory tests, and a standardized questionnaire for CCDRA, after being approved from the Institutional Review Board and providing informed consent. All subjects were divided as either non-calcified group (< 1, 55.4%) or calcified group ({>=} 1, 44.6%) from total CAC, and evaluated by CCDRA, such as Framingham risk score (FRS) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area of FRS was generated for predicting CAC risk using SPSS program (ver. 19.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Total CAC was significantly correlated with FRS (r = 0.283, p = 0.004). Crude odds ratio for CAC risk was 3.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-9.52] in FRS {>=} 20%, and 2.87 (95% CI 1.24-6.65) in the high risk group of NCEP. Subjects with pneumoconiosis showed higher values of CAC (p 0.541) and FRS (p = 0.035) scores compared with subjects without pneumoconiosis. ROC area of FRS was 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.79) with a cutoff point of 13.5%. CAC measured MDCT is significantly correlated with FRS than other CCDRA.

  15. Correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Emarah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Emarah1, Shawky M El-Haggar2, Ihab A Osman2, Abdel Wahab S Khafagy21Departments of Ophthalmology, 2Andrology and Sexology, Cairo University Hospital, EgyptObjectives: Arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED is a target organ disease of atherosclerosis, and therefore might be a predictor of systemic atherosclerosis. Being systemic, it might be possible to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis from retinal vascular findings. We investigated the possible correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in patients with arteriogenic ED.Patients and methods: Sixty patients with ED were divided according to the peak systolic velocity (PSV in their penile cavernosal arteries into two groups; Group A included 30 patients with PSV less than 25 cm/sec, and Group B included 30 patients with PSV more than 35 cm/sec. Blood flow in the penile cavernosal artery was measured with color Doppler ultrasonography. All patients were assessed by ocular fundus examination under amydriatic conditions to evaluate retinal vascular atherosclerotic changes using Hyman’s classification.Results: Evidence of retinal vascular atherosclerotic changes was found in 19 patients (63.3% in Group A and in 10 patients (33.3% in Group B.Conclusions: Our study confirms the possibility of predicting penile arterial vascular status in patients with ED from their retinal vascular findings by using amydriatic simple, practical funduscopy.Keywords: erectile dysfunction, atherosclerosis, retinal vascular atherosclerosis

  16. Restoration of bone mineralization by cinacalcet is associated with a significant reduction in calcitriol-induced vascular calcification in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Tineke M; Behets, Geert J; Jung, Susanne; Neven, Ellen; D'Haese, Patrick C; Querfeld, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigated to what extent normalization of bone turnover goes along with a reduction of high-dose calcitriol-induced vascular calcifications in uremic rats. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: sham-operated controls (n = 7), subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) uremic (CRF) animals (n = 12), CRF + calcitriol (vitD) (0.25 μg/kg/day) (n = 12), CRF + vitD + cinacalcet (CIN) (10 mg/kg/day) (n = 12), and CRF + vitD + parathyroidectomy (PTX) (n = 12). Treatment started 2 weeks after SNX and continued for the next 14 weeks. High-dose calcitriol treatment in hyperparathyroid rats went along with the development of distinct vascular calcification, which was significantly reduced by >50 %, in both CIN-treated and PTX animals. Compared to control animals and those of the CRF group, calcitriol treatment either in combination with CIN or PTX or not was associated with a significant increase in bone area comprising ±50 % of the total tissue area. However, whereas excessive woven bone accompanied by a dramatically increased osteoid width/area was seen in the CRF + vitD group, CIN treatment and PTX resulted in significantly reduced serum PTH level, which was accompanied by a distinct reduction of both the bone formation rate and the amount of osteoid. These data indicate that less efficient calcium and phosphorus incorporation in bone inherent to the severe hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-treated uremic rats goes along with excessive vascular calcification, a process which is partially reversed by CIN treatment in combination with a more efficacious bone mineralization, thus restricting the availability of calcium and phosphate for being deposited in the vessel wall.

  17. Effect of Heart Rate and Coronary Calcification on the Diagnostic Accuracy of the Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Lingdong; Cui, Lianqun; Cheng, Yuntao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Tang, Yuansheng; Wang, Yong; Xu, Fayun [Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan (China)

    2009-08-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography, with a particular focus on the effect of heart rate and calcifications. One hundred and nine patients with suspected coronary disease were divided into 2 groups according to a mean heart rate (< 70 bpm and {>=} 70 bpm) and into 3 groups according to the mean Agatston calcium scores ({<=} 100, 101-400, and > 400). Next, the effect of heart rate and calcification on the accuracy of coronary artery stenosis detection was analyzed by using an invasive coronary angiography as a reference standard. Coronary segments of less than 1.5 mm in diameter in an American Heart Association (AHA) 15-segment model were independently assessed. The mean heart rate during the scan was 71.8 bpm, whereas the mean Agatston score was 226.5. Of the 1,588 segments examined, 1,533 (97%) were assessable. A total of 17 patients had calcium scores above 400 Agatston U, whereas 50 had heart rates {>=} 70 bpm. Overall the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for significant stenoses were: 95%, 91%, 65%, and 99% (by segment), respectively and 97%, 90%, 81%, and 91% (by artery), respectively (n = 475). Heart rate showed no significant impact on lesion detection; however, vessel calcification did show a significant impact on accuracy of assessment for coronary segments. The specificity, PPV and accuracy were 96%, 80%, and 96% (by segment), respectively for an Agatston score less than 100% and 99%, 96% and 98% (by artery). For an Agatston score of greater to or equal to 400 the specificity, PPV and accuracy were reduced to 79%, 55%, and 83% (by segment), respectively and to 79%, 69%, and 85% (by artery), respectively. The DSCT provides a high rate of accuracy for the detection of significant coronary artery disease, even in patients with high heart rates and evidence of coronary calcification. However, patients with severe coronary

  18. Inhibition of Phosphate-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Osteo-/Chondrogenic Signaling and Calcification by Bafilomycin A1 and Methylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Alesutan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excessive phosphate concentrations trigger vascular calcification, an active process promoted by osteoinduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs with increased expression and activity of transcription factor RUNX2 (Core-binding factor α1, CBFA1, alkaline phosphatase (ALPL, TGFß1, transcription factor NFAT5, and NFAT5-sensitive transcription factor SOX9. The osteoinductive signaling and vascular calcification of hyperphosphatemic klotho-hypomorphic mice could be reversed by treatment with NH4Cl, effects involving decrease of TGFß1 and inhibition of NFAT5-dependent osteoinductive signaling. Known effects of NH4Cl include alkalinization of acidic cellular compartments. The present study explored whether osteo-/chondrogenic signaling could be influenced by alkalinization of acidic cellular compartments following inhibition of the vacuolar H+ ATPase with bafilomycin A1 or following dissipation of the pH gradient across the membranes of acidic cellular compartments with methylamine. Methods: Primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs were treated with high phosphate to trigger osteo-/chondrogenic signaling and calcification in the absence or presence of bafilomycin A1 or methylamine. Calcium content was determined using a QuantiChrom Calcium assay, ALP activity by a colorimetric assay and transcript levels by quantitative RT-PCR. Results: High phosphate increased significantly the calcium deposition, CBFA1 and ALPL mRNA expression as well as alkaline phosphatase activity in HAoSMCs, all effects ameliorated by both, bafilomycin A1 and methylamine. High phosphate further significantly up-regulated the mRNA levels of TGFB1, NFAT5 and SOX9, effects significantly blunted by additional treatment with bafilomycin A1 or methylamine. Treatment of HAoSMCs with human TGFß1 protein or high phosphate up-regulated NFAT5, SOX9, CBFA1 and ALPL mRNA expression to similarly high levels which could not be further increased by combined

  19. Mammogram - calcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microcalcifications or macrocalcifications; Breast cancer - calcifications; Mammography - calcifications ... to cancer. You will rarely need more testing. Microcalcifications are tiny calcium specks seen on a mammogram. ...

  20. Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Affara, Nada; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Pennings, Sebastiaan W C; Takens, Janny; Berger, Rolf M F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progeni

  1. Clinical Outcomes of Cryopreserved Arterial Allograft Used as a Vascular Conduit for Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Young Hoon; Chang, Jai Won; Park, Yangsoon; Han, Youngjin; Kwon, Hyunwook; Kwon, Tae-Won; Han, Duck Jong; Cho, Yong-Pil; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    This single center cohort study aimed to test the hypothesis that use of a cryopreserved arterial allograft could avoid the maturation or healing process of a new vascular access and to evaluate the patency of this technique compared with that of vascular access using a prosthetic graft. Between April 2012 and March 2013, 20 patients underwent an upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft for failed or failing vascular accesses and 53 using a prosthetic graft were included in this study. The mean duration of catheter dependence, calculated as the time interval from upper arm access placement to removal of the tunneled central catheter after successful cannulation of the access, was significantly longer for accesses using a prosthetic graft than a cryopreserved arterial allograft (34.4 ± 11.39 days vs. 4.9 ± 8.5 days, P unassisted; P = 0.314) and cumulative (assisted; P = 0.673) access survivals were similar in the two groups. There were no postoperative complications related to the use of a cryopreserved iliac arterial allograft except for one patient who experienced wound hematoma. In conclusion, upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft may permit immediate hemodialysis without the maturation or healing process, resulting in access survival comparable to that of an access using a prosthetic graft. PMID:27478338

  2. Clinical Outcomes of Cryopreserved Arterial Allograft Used as a Vascular Conduit for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Young Hoon; Chang, Jai Won; Park, Yangsoon; Han, Youngjin; Kwon, Hyunwook; Kwon, Tae-Won; Han, Duck Jong; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    This single center cohort study aimed to test the hypothesis that use of a cryopreserved arterial allograft could avoid the maturation or healing process of a new vascular access and to evaluate the patency of this technique compared with that of vascular access using a prosthetic graft. Between April 2012 and March 2013, 20 patients underwent an upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft for failed or failing vascular accesses and 53 using a prosthetic graft were included in this study. The mean duration of catheter dependence, calculated as the time interval from upper arm access placement to removal of the tunneled central catheter after successful cannulation of the access, was significantly longer for accesses using a prosthetic graft than a cryopreserved arterial allograft (34.4 ± 11.39 days vs. 4.9 ± 8.5 days, P unassisted; P = 0.314) and cumulative (assisted; P = 0.673) access survivals were similar in the two groups. There were no postoperative complications related to the use of a cryopreserved iliac arterial allograft except for one patient who experienced wound hematoma. In conclusion, upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft may permit immediate hemodialysis without the maturation or healing process, resulting in access survival comparable to that of an access using a prosthetic graft.

  3. Clinical Outcomes of Cryopreserved Arterial Allograft Used as a Vascular Conduit for Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Young Hoon; Chang, Jai Won; Park, Yangsoon; Han, Youngjin; Kwon, Hyunwook; Kwon, Tae-Won; Han, Duck Jong; Cho, Yong-Pil; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    This single center cohort study aimed to test the hypothesis that use of a cryopreserved arterial allograft could avoid the maturation or healing process of a new vascular access and to evaluate the patency of this technique compared with that of vascular access using a prosthetic graft. Between April 2012 and March 2013, 20 patients underwent an upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft for failed or failing vascular accesses and 53 using a prosthetic graft were included in this study. The mean duration of catheter dependence, calculated as the time interval from upper arm access placement to removal of the tunneled central catheter after successful cannulation of the access, was significantly longer for accesses using a prosthetic graft than a cryopreserved arterial allograft (34.4 ± 11.39 days vs. 4.9 ± 8.5 days, P unassisted; P = 0.314) and cumulative (assisted; P = 0.673) access survivals were similar in the two groups. There were no postoperative complications related to the use of a cryopreserved iliac arterial allograft except for one patient who experienced wound hematoma. In conclusion, upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft may permit immediate hemodialysis without the maturation or healing process, resulting in access survival comparable to that of an access using a prosthetic graft.

  4. Value of cerebral perfusion and vascular reserve for the treatment of symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li'an Huang; Xuewen Song; Anding Xu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is crucial to understand cerebral perfusion and vascular reserve in stegnotic arterial blood-supply regions to treat ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, effects on symptomatic intracrani-al arterial stenosis (SICAS) need to be further studied in additional applications. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and summarize the effects of cerebral perfusion and vascular reserve on the treatment of SICAS. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: A computer-based online search of English language publications from January 2000 to July 2007 was conducted in PubMed to identify publications that addressed cerebral perfusion and vascular reserve of SICAS. Search key words were "intracranial stenosis, perfusion, brain reserve". Relevant data were also searched with the China Journal Net, using the same key words in Chinese from January 2000 to January 2007. In total, 101 articles were retrieved. Inclusion criteria: ① Articles describing the current status for the diagnosis and treatment of SICAS; ② Articles concerning research developments of cerebral perfusion and vascular reserve of SICAS. Exclusion criteria: duplicated articles. LITERATURE EVALUATION: This study included 21 articles of experimental studies and conference re-ports.DATA SYNTHESIS: When performing interventional surgery in SICAS patients, it is important to under-stand cerebral perfusion and vascular reserve in addition to knowing the clinical symptoms and degrees of arterial stenosis. In recent years, there are a growing number of reports on measurements of vascular reserve through the use of magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (MR-PWI). Investigations demonstrate cerebral perfusion and vascular reserve decrease in many SICAS patients. Many studies show that both improve after surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Cerebral perfusion could provide direct evidence of whether ischemia has occurred in the brain. Because of lateral circulation and cerebral vascular reserve, intracranial vascular stenosis and/or decreased

  5. Retrospective angiographic study to determine the effect of atherosclerotic stenoses of upstream arteries on the degree of atherosclerosis in distal vascular territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehwald, Rafael; Petersen, Johannes; Gratl, Alexandra; Zoller, Heinz; Mader, Andreas; Loizides, Alexander; Grams, Astrid E; Klocker, Josef; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Experimental coarctation of the aorta prevents the development of downstream atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to find out whether or not atherosclerotic stenoses protect distal vascular territories from developing atherosclerosis in humans. Design and setting A total of 2125 vascular segments from angiographies of 101 patients were evaluated by calculating the maximum degree of stenosis (NASCET criteria), the degree of calcification, the degree of collaterals and the Friesinger score. Results Stenosis ≥30–49% was found in 685 vascular segments (32.2%), ≥50–69% in 490 (23.1%), ≥70–89% in 373 (17.6%) and ≥90% in 265 (12.5%). If a stenosis of at least ≥70–89% was present in the common iliac, the external iliac or the common femoral artery, the degrees of stenosis distal to it were lower than those on the contralateral side (19.8±22.3% (CI 11.7 to 28.0) vs 25.2±20.7% (CI 21.2 to 29.1); Friesinger scores 1.1±1.2 (CI 0.6 to 1.5) vs 1.4±1.1 (CI 1.2 to 1.6); degrees of calcification 0.8±1.0 (CI 0.4 to 1.1) vs 1.2±1.1 (CI 1.2 to 1.6); p<0.05 each). This effect depended on the degree of proximal stenosis, but not on collaterals, and was most pronounced distal to stenoses of the common iliac, the superficial femoral and the popliteal artery. In regression models, stenoses of the pelvic arteries were shown to be an independent protective factor for the distal vascular territories. Conclusions Atherosclerotic stenoses seem to protect distal vascular territories from developing atherosclerosis. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of this phenomenon remains to be determined. It could be based on pulse pressure reduction. PMID:27256089

  6. Influence of teriparatide on the vascular calcification in aged ovariec-tomized rats%特立帕肽对老年去卵巢大鼠血管钙化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌花; 袁; 陈秋霞; 姜醒华

    2015-01-01

    was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).The content of arterial calcium was measured. Aterial calcification was evaluated by Von Kossa staining.Expression of uc-MGP was detected by immunochistochem-istry.Relative quantification of MGP mRNA expression in arterial was detected by fluorescent real-time quantitative re-verse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results The content of serum uc-MGP in ovariectomized group was higher than that in teriparatide treatment group and sham group respectively (P<0.05).The estrogen level in ovariec-tomized group and teriparatide treatment group was significantly decreased respectively (P<0.05).The content of arterial calcium in ovariectomized group was higher than that in sham group (P<0.01),the content of arterial calcium in teri-paratide treatment group was lower than that in ovariectomized group (P<0.01).Expression of vascular uncarboxylated MGP appeared in the area around the vascular calcification,calcification group expressed more serious.Teriparatide treatment group with less positive expression.The lowest expression of MGP mRNA in ovariectomized group,the expres-sion of MGP mRNA was highest in sham operation group,expression level of teriparatide treatment group between the two groups,with statistical difference (P<0.01). Conclusion Teriparatide can improve vascular calcification of post-menopause women possibly through the regulation of MGP carboxylation and gene expression.

  7. Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics and Coronary Artery Calcification in Northern Chinese Population:A Cross-sectional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Tai Yang; LIU Xiao Hui; DAI Tian Yi; LIU Xin Min; ZHANG Qian; DONG Jian Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a well-established risk predictor of coronary heart disease events and is recognized as an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods A cross-sectional study consisting of 2999 participants aged ≥40 years from the Jidong community of Tangshan City, an industrial and modern city of China, was conducted between 2013 and 2014 to examine the association between the ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and CAC. The ideal CVH metrics were determined based on the definition of the American Heart Association (AHA). The participants were then grouped into 4 categories according to the quartiles of their CVH metric scores as follows: first quartile (0-2), second quartile (3), third quartile (4), and fourth quartile (5-7). CAC was assessed by using high-pitch dual-source CT, and patients were identified based on thresholds of 0, 10, 100, or 400 Agatston units, as per common practice. Results The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was 15.92%, 13.85%, 6.76%, and 1.93%, determined by using the CAC scores at thresholds of 0, 10, 100, and 400 Agatston units, respectively. Compared with the group in the first quartile, the other three CVH groups had a lower odds ratio of CAC>0 after adjusting for age, sex, income level, education level, and alcohol use in the logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios in these groups were 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-1.17; P Conclusion The participants with more-ideal cardiovascular metrics had a lower prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis determined according to CAC score. Maintaining an ideal cardiovascular health may be valuable in the prevention of atherosclerosis in the general population.

  8. Association between Density of Coronary Artery Calcification and Serum Magnesium Levels among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Hamano, Takayuki; Nakano, Chikako; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Matsui, Isao; Kusunoki, Yasuo; Mori, Daisuke; Oka, Tatsufumi; Hashimoto, Nobuhiro; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Horio, Masaru; Sugimoto, Ken; Yamamoto, Koichi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Background The Agatston score, commonly used to quantify coronary artery calcification (CAC), is determined by the plaque area and density. Despite an excellent predictability of the Agatston score for cardiovascular events, the density of CAC has never been studied in patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to analyze the CAC density and its association with serum mineral levels in CKD. Methods We enrolled patients with pre-dialysis CKD who had diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular disease history, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, or smoking history. The average CAC density was calculated by dividing the Agatston score by the total area of CAC. Results The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 109 enrolled patients was 35.7 mL/min/1.73 m2. The correlation of the Agatston score with density was much weaker than that with the total area (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.001; and R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that serum magnesium level was inversely associated with the density, but not with the total area, after adjustment for demographics and clinical factors related to malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome and mineral and bone disorders including fibroblast growth factor 23 (P = 0.006). This inverse association was pronounced among patients with higher serum phosphate levels (P for interaction = 0.02). Conclusion CAC density was inversely associated with serum magnesium levels, particularly in patients with higher serum phosphate levels. PMID:27662624

  9. Cortisol responses to mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification in healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. The mechanisms are incompletely understood, although dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis might be involved. We examined the association between cortisol responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were 466 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.7±5.6 yrs, without history or objective signs of CHD, drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. At the baseline assessment salivary cortisol was measured in response to mental stressors, consisting of a 5-min Stroop task and a 5-min mirror tracing task. CAC was measured at baseline and at 3 years follow up using electron beam computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as an increase >10 Agatston units between baseline and follow up. 38.2% of the sample demonstrated CAC progression over the 3 years follow up. There was considerable variation in the cortisol stress response, with approximately 40% of the sample responding to the stress tasks with an increase in cortisol of at least 1 mmol/l. There was an association between cortisol stress reactivity (per SD and CAC progression (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.02-1.60 after adjustments for age, sex, pre-stress cortisol, employment grade, smoking, resting systolic BP, fibrinogen, body mass index, and use of statins. There was no association between systolic blood pressure reactivity and CAC progression (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.85-1.24. Other independent predictors of CAC progression included age, male sex, smoking, resting systolic blood pressure, and fibrinogen. CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate an association between heightened cortisol reactivity to stress and CAC progression. These data support the notion that cortisol reactivity, an index of HPA function, is one of the possible mechanisms through which

  10. Impaired renal function impacts negatively on vascular stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Sabrina H.; McQuarrie, Emily P.; Miller, William H.; Mackenzie, Ruth M; Dymott, Jane A.; Moreno, María U.; Taurino, Chiara; Miller, Ashley M.; Neisius, Ulf; Berg, Geoffrey A.; Valuckiene, Zivile; Hannay, Jonathan A; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Delles, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are independently associated with increased vascular stiffness. We examined whether renal function contributes to vascular stiffness independently of CAD status. Methods We studied 160 patients with CAD and 169 subjects without CAD. The 4-variable MDRD formula was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); impaired renal function was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ...

  11. Vascular complications following therapeutic and diagnostic cardiac catheterisation by the femoral artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, M; Liisberg-Larsen, Ole Christian; Schroeder, T V

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one of 6327 (0.33%) patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation via the femoral artery had an acute vascular complication requiring surgical intervention. The complication rate was 0.1% after coronary angiography, 2% after PTCA and 6% after aortic ballon dilatation. The size of the cathete...... and evaluation of vascular injuries following diagnostic and therapeutic invasive interventions could have a self limitating effect on the complication rate....

  12. Peripheral artery disease is associated with severe impairment of vascular function

    OpenAIRE

    Kiani, Soroosh; Aasen, Jonathan G; Holbrook, Monika; Khemka, Abhishek; Sharmeen, Farhana; LeLeiko, Rebecca M; Tabit, Corey E; Farber, Alik; Eberhardt, Robert T.; Gokce, Noyan; Vita, Joseph A.; Hamburg, Naomi M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have higher cardiovascular event rates than patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) and abnormal endothelial function predicts cardiovascular risk in PAD and CAD. We investigated the hypothesis that PAD is associated with a greater degree of impairment in vascular function than CAD. We used several non-invasive tests to evaluate endothelial function in 1320 men and women with combined PAD and CAD (n = 198), PAD alone (n = 179), CAD...

  13. Comparison of tomographic coronary artery calcification index (calcium score) and ultrasonographic measurement of intima-media complex thickness in diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, there is a number of diagnostic imaging procedures allowing for the evaluation of atherosclerosis. The earliest, subclinical stage of atherosclerosis can be visualized with the development of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) techniques. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the degree of coronary artery calcification and carotid intima-media thickness in diabetic subjects divided into different age groups. Fifty-six men, aged from 18 to 72 were included in the study. Participants were divided into 4 groups according to age (18–30, 31–45, 46–60 and more than 60 years). Two tests were performed: coronary calcium score (CS) determination and intima-media thickness (IMT) in ultrasound. CS was performed using a multi-slice scanner. Images were analyzed using the Agatson method. Ultrasound examinations were performed using a 9–12-MHz linear transducer. The correlation coefficient between calcium score index (CSI) and age of patients was 0.52 (p<0.001). The correlation between duration of diabetes and CSI was significantly lower (r=0.3; p<0.05). The increase of IMT is associated with age to a much greater extent and the correlation coefficient was 0.63 (p<0.001). IMT depended on the duration of diabetes, but the correlation was also weak (r=0.35; p<0.01). Comparison of the findings obtained in the presented study and in the group of healthy subjects proves that influence of diabetes on vascular deterioration may be observed, even among young individuals. Obtained results allow to make the following conclusions: 1. Calcium score index remains low in the group of male patients with diabetes before the age of 45. 2. Intima-media thickness correlates well with age (r=0.6; p<0.05) and weaker with the duration of diabetes (r=0.35; p<0.05). 3. IMT assessment may be a useful tool to identify the increased predisposition to atherosclerosis, also before the age of 30

  14. Vascular CaMKII: heart and brain in your arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Fanny; Charbel, Chimène; Allen, Bruce G; Ledoux, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    First characterized in neuronal tissues, the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key signaling component in several mammalian biological systems. Its unique capacity to integrate various Ca(2+) signals into different specific outcomes is a precious asset to excitable and nonexcitable cells. Numerous studies have reported roles and mechanisms involving CaMKII in brain and heart tissues. However, corresponding functions in vascular cell types (endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells) remained largely unexplored until recently. Investigation of the intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics, their impact on vascular cell function, the regulatory processes involved and more recently the spatially restricted oscillatory Ca(2+) signals and microdomains triggered significant interest towards proteins like CaMKII. Heteromultimerization of CaMKII isoforms (four isoforms and several splice variants) expands this kinase's peculiar capacity to decipher Ca(2+) signals and initiate specific signaling processes, and thus controlling cellular functions. The physiological functions that rely on CaMKII are unsurprisingly diverse, ranging from regulating contractile state and cellular proliferation to Ca(2+) homeostasis and cellular permeability. This review will focus on emerging evidence of CaMKII as an essential component of the vascular system, with a focus on the kinase isoform/splice variants and cellular system studied. PMID:27306369

  15. Vascular adaptation in athletes: is there an 'athlete's artery'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Spence, A.; Rowley, N.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Naylor, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst the existence of a specific phenotype characterized as 'athlete's heart' is generally acknowledged, the question of whether athletes exhibit characteristic vascular adaptations has not been specifically addressed. To do so in this symposium, studies which have assessed the size, wall thicknes

  16. Simulated annealing approach to vascular structure with application to the coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Jonathan; Chung, Emma M L; Hague, James P

    2016-02-01

    Do the complex processes of angiogenesis during organism development ultimately lead to a near optimal coronary vasculature in the organs of adult mammals? We examine this hypothesis using a powerful and universal method, built on physical and physiological principles, for the determination of globally energetically optimal arterial trees. The method is based on simulated annealing, and can be used to examine arteries in hollow organs with arbitrary tissue geometries. We demonstrate that the approach can generate in silico vasculatures which closely match porcine anatomical data for the coronary arteries on all length scales, and that the optimized arterial trees improve systematically as computational time increases. The method presented here is general, and could in principle be used to examine the arteries of other organs. Potential applications include improvement of medical imaging analysis and the design of vascular trees for artificial organs. PMID:26998317

  17. Vascular Pathology in the Extracranial Vertebral Arteries in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, L; Nygård, A; Ovesen, C;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular pathology in the extracranial vertebral arteries remains among the possible causes in cryptogenic stroke. However, the diagnosis is challenged by the great variety in the anatomy of the vertebral arteries, clinical symptoms and difficulties in the radiological assessments....... The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CT angiography (CTA)-detected pathological findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries in an acute stroke population and secondly to determine the frequency of posterior pathology as probable cause in patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke...... scans systematically, assessing the four segments of the extracranial vertebral arteries. First, the frequency of pathological findings including stenosis, plaques, dissection, kinked artery and coiling was assessed. Subsequently, we explored the extent of the pathological findings that were the most...

  18. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo...

  19. Relationship between dyslipidemia and vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary artery spasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向定成

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of dyslipidemia on vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary artery spasm. Methods Sixty-four patients with chest pain but without significant angiographic stenosis were divided into coronary spasm group (n=46 with coronary spasm) and control group (n=18 without coronary spasm) according to acetylcholine provoking test. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO) and lipids were

  20. The management of combined coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Cassar (Andrew); D. Poldermans (Don); C.S. Rihal (Charanjit); B.J. Gersh (Bernard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCoronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) remain highly prevalent in the population due to population ageing, smoking, diabetes, unhealthy lifestyles, and the epidemic of obesity, and frequently coexist. The management of combined CAD and PVD is a common challen

  1. Tyrosine Phosphorylation Modulates the Vascular Responses of Mesenteric Arteries from Human Colorectal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze whether tyrosine phosphorylation in tumoral arteries may modulate their vascular response. To do this, mesenteric arteries supplying blood flow to colorectal tumors or to normal intestine were obtained during surgery and prepared for isometric tension recording in an organ bath. Increasing tyrosine phosphorylation with the phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate produced arterial contraction which was lower in tumoral than in control arteries, whereas it reduced the contraction to noradrenaline in tumoral but not in control arteries and reduced the relaxation to bradykinin in control but not in tumoral arteries. Protein expression of VEGF-A and of the VEGF receptor FLT1 was similar in control and tumoral arteries, but expression of the VEGF receptor KDR was increased in tumoral compared with control arteries. This suggests that tyrosine phosphorylation may produce inhibition of the contraction in tumoral mesenteric arteries, which may increase blood flow to the tumor when tyrosine phosphorylation is increased by stimulation of VEGF receptors.

  2. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with severe peripheral vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Mirsharifi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS in the  eneral population is not high enough to justify screening programs. This study was done to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS among patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD.
    • METHODS: Between March 2005 and February 2006, 54 consecutive  atients with severe PVD admitted at a vascular surgery unit and underwent carotid duplex scanning in a prospective study. A  uestionnaire was used to collect data concerning known risk factors. Significant CAS was defined as a stenosis of 70% or greater.
    • RESULTS: The mean age was 62.5 years (51-72. Out of 54 patients, 2 (3.7% had an occluded internal carotid artery. Significant CAS was found in 9 (16.7% and its presence was correlated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary artery disease, severity of symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and carotid bruit. On multivariate analysis, only hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit seemed to have independent influence.
    • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of significant ACAS is higher among  atients with severe PVD. This patient population may indicate a  uitable subgroup for screening of ACAS, especially when hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit are present.
    • KEYWORDS: Carotid artery stenosis, duplex ultrasound scanning, peripheral vascular disease, carotid endarterectomy,
    • cerebrovascular accident.

  3. Vascular Surgery in World War II: The Shift to Repairing Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M

    2016-03-01

    Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances. PMID:25719811

  4. Vascular Surgery in World War II: The Shift to Repairing Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M

    2016-03-01

    Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances.

  5. Adipose tissue and vascular inflammation in coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enrica; Golia; Giuseppe; Limongelli; Francesco; Natale; Fabio; Fimiani; Valeria; Maddaloni; Pina; Elvira; Russo; Lucia; Riegler; Renatomaria; Bianchi; Mario; Crisci; Gaetano; Di; Palma; Paolo; Golino; Maria; Giovanna; Russo; Raffaele; Calabrò; Paolo; Calabrò

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become an important public health issue in Western and developing countries,with well known metabolic and cardiovascular complications.In the last decades,evidence have been growing about the active role of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ in determining these pathological consequences.As a consequence of the expansion of fat depots,in obese subjects,adipose tissue cells develope a phenotypic modification,which turns into a change of the secretory output.Adipocytokines produced by both adipocytes and adipose stromal cells are involved in the modulation of glucose and lipid handling,vascular biology and,moreover,participate to the systemic inflammatory response,which characterizes obesity and metabolic syndrome.This might represent an important pathophysiological link with atherosclerotic complications and cardiovascular events.A great number of adipocytokines have been described recently,linking inflammatory mileu and vascular pathology.The understanding of these pathways is crucial not only from a pathophysiological point of view,but also to a better cardiovascular disease risk stratification and to the identification of possible therapeutic targets.The aim of this paper is to review the role of Adipocytokines as a possible link between obesity and vascular disease.

  6. Vascular Pathology in the Extracranial Vertebral Arteries in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bentsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular pathology in the extracranial vertebral arteries remains among the possible causes in cryptogenic stroke. However, the diagnosis is challenged by the great variety in the anatomy of the vertebral arteries, clinical symptoms and difficulties in the radiological assessments. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CT angiography (CTA-detected pathological findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries in an acute stroke population and secondly to determine the frequency of posterior pathology as probable cause in patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke. Method: The analysis was based on 657 consecutive patients with symptoms of acute stroke and a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. On admission, a noncontrast CT cerebrum and CTA were performed. A senior consultant neuroradiologist, blinded to clinical data, reviewed all CTA scans systematically, assessing the four segments of the extracranial vertebral arteries. First, the frequency of pathological findings including stenosis, plaques, dissection, kinked artery and coiling was assessed. Subsequently, we explored the extent of the pathological findings that were the most plausible causes of stroke, namely either a possible dissection or a kinked artery. Results: Findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries included significant stenosis (0.8%, atherosclerotic plaque types (3.8%, possible dissections (2.6%, kinked arteries (2.6% and coiling (32.0%. Eighteen patients (2.8% with pathological findings had an unknown cause of stroke, likely posterior symptoms and no clinical stroke symptoms from the anterior circuit. Of these, 3 cases were kinked arteries (0.5% and 15 cases (2.3% were possible dissections. Conclusion: We found that in approximately 3% of the study population, the most plausible cause of the cryptogenic strokes was due to a pathological finding in the posterior extracranial vertebral arteries, being either a possible

  7. Quantification of Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Vascularization in Double-injury Restenotic Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Ye; Bai-Gen Zhang; Lan Zhang; Hui Xie; Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Accumulating evidence indicates a potential role of adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of restenosis.However,characterization ofVV vascularization in restenotic arteries with primary lesions is still missing.In this study,we quantitatively evaluated the response of adventitial VV to vascular injury resulting from balloon angioplasty in diseased arteries.Methods:Primary atherosclerotic-like lesions were induced by the placement of an absorbable thread surrounding the carotid artery of New Zealand rabbits.Four weeks following double-injury induced that was induced by secondary balloon dilation,three-dimensional patterns of adventitial VV were reconstructed;the number,density,and endothelial surface of VV were quantified using micro-computed tomography.Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed in order to examine the development of intimal hyperplasia.Results:Results from our study suggest that double injured arteries have a greater number of VV,increased luminal surface,and an elevation in the intima/media ratio (I/M),along with an accumulation ofmacrophages and smooth muscle cells in the intima,as compared to sham or single injury arteries.I/M and the number of VV were positively correlated (R2 =0.82,P < 0.001).Conclusions:Extensive adventitial VV neovascularization occurs in injured arteries after balloon angioplasty,which is associated with intimal hyperplasia.Quantitative assessment of adventitial VV response may provide insight into the basic biological process of postangioplasty restenosis.

  8. Hepatocellular calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claus; Frifelt, J J

    1987-01-01

    Autopsy of a twenty year old girl dying from complications of renal and cardiac failure demonstrated severe hepatocellular calcification, a rare finding. The pathogenesis is thought to be a combination of dystrophic calcification caused by severe centrilobular necrosis and metastatic calcification...

  9. The role of vitamin K in soft-tissue calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Smit, Egbert; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-03-01

    Seventeen vitamin K-dependent proteins have been identified to date of which several are involved in regulating soft-tissue calcification. Osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and possibly Gla-rich protein are all inhibitors of soft-tissue calcification and need vitamin K-dependent carboxylation for activity. A common characteristic is their low molecular weight, and it has been postulated that their small size is essential for calcification inhibition within tissues. MGP is synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells and is the most important inhibitor of arterial mineralization currently known. Remarkably, the extrahepatic Gla proteins mentioned are only partly carboxylated in the healthy adult population, suggesting vitamin K insufficiency. Because carboxylation of the most essential Gla proteins is localized in the liver and that of the less essential Gla proteins in the extrahepatic tissues, a transport system has evolved ensuring preferential distribution of dietary vitamin K to the liver when vitamin K is limiting. This is why the first signs of vitamin K insufficiency are seen as undercarboxylation of the extrahepatic Gla proteins. New conformation-specific assays for circulating uncarboxylated MGP were developed; an assay for desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein and another assay for total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was found to be predictive of cardiovascular risk and mortality, whereas circulating total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was associated with the extent of prevalent arterial calcification. Vitamin K intervention studies have shown that MGP carboxylation can be increased dose dependently, but thus far only 1 study with clinical endpoints has been completed. This study showed maintenance of vascular elasticity during a 3-y supplementation period, with a parallel 12% loss of elasticity in the placebo group. More studies, both in healthy subjects and in patients at risk

  10. High resolution MR angiography with rephasing and dephasing sequences for selective vascular imaging of arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rephasing and dephasing sequences the vascular system is imaged with high or low signal intensity whereas stationary tissue is imaged with identical signal intensity. With images recorded in systole and diastole followed by image subtraction separate imaging of arteries or veins without background superposition is possible. 13 patients with vascular lesions of the lower extremities and 7 volunteers were examined. Vascular stenosis, aneurysm, dilatation, occlusion and collateral vessels could be imaged similar to digital subtraction angiography. Vessels with a diameter down to 1 mm could be imaged. The large slice thickness up to 80 mm results in projection type images where the vascular tree is imaged over the whole field of view and without partial volume effects. (orig.)

  11. High resolution MR angiography with rephasing and dephasing sequences for selective vascular imaging of arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiderer, M.; Laub, G.; Staebler, A.; Yousry, P.; Lauterjung, L.

    1988-03-01

    With rephasing and dephasing sequences the vascular system is imaged with high or low signal intensity whereas stationary tissue is imaged with identical signal intensity. With images recorded in systole and diastole followed by image subtraction separate imaging of arteries or veins without background superposition is possible. 13 patients with vascular lesions of the lower extremities and 7 volunteers were examined. Vascular stenosis, aneurysm, dilatation, occlusion and collateral vessels could be imaged similar to digital subtraction angiography. Vessels with a diameter down to 1 mm could be imaged. The large slice thickness up to 80 mm results in projection type images where the vascular tree is imaged over the whole field of view and without partial volume effects.

  12. Changes in pulmonary arterial wall mechanical properties and lumenal architecture with induced vascular remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthen, Robert C.; Heinrich, Amy E.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2004-04-01

    To explore and quantify pulmonary arterial remodeling we used various methods including micro-CT, high-resolution 3-dimensional x-ray imaging, to examine the structure and function of intact pulmonary vessels in isolated rat lungs. The rat is commonly used as an animal model for studies of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the accompanying vascular remodeling, where vascular remodeling has been defined primarily by changes in the vessel wall composition in response to hypertension inducing stimuli such as chronic hypoxic exposure (CHE) or monocrotaline (MCT) injection. Little information has been provided as to how such changes affect the vessel wall mechanical properties or the lumenal architecture of the pulmonary arterial system that actually account for the hemodynamic consequences of the remodeling. In addition, although the link between primary forms of pulmonary hypertension and inherited genetics is well established, the role that genetic coding plays in hemodynamics and vascular remodeling is not. Therefore, we are utilizing Fawn-Hooded (FH), Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Brown Norway (BN)rat strains along with unique imaging methods to parameterize both vessel distensibility and lumenal morphometry using a principal pulmonary arterial pathway analysis based on self-consistency. We have found for the hypoxia model, in addition to decreased body weight, increased hematocrit, increased right ventricular hypertrophy, the distensibility of the pulmonary arteries is shown to decrease significantly in the presence of remodeling.

  13. [Vascular rehabilitation in patients with peripheral arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Ana; Aubourg, Marion; Dubus-Bausière, Valérie; Eveno, Dominique; Abraham, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Lower limb peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent debilitating disease associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. The benefit of rehabilitation in PAD patients has been largely demonstrated, both for patients that undergo amputation, and for patients with claudication. In these latter patients, rehabilitation programs rely on a variety of additional techniques or tools, among which: stretching, specific muscle proprioception, walking and a variety of other physical activities, exercise or situations adapted to community life, lower limb and respiratory physiotherapy, patient's education, support for smoking cessation and healthy nutrition, social support, etc. Whether rehabilitation is performed in specialised integrated structures or performed on a home-based basis, various clinicians are involved. Despite evidence-based proof of efficacy, rehabilitation of PAD patients with claudication is still under-used. PMID:23669319

  14. Effects of ginsenosides on vascular reactivity in rat cerebral and renal arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Wing-tak; LEUNG Fung-ping; YUNG Lai-hang; TIAN Xiao-yu; WONG Ricky Ngok Shun; HUANG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible mechanisms underlying the antioxidant property (1) and the in vitro vasodilator effects (2) of the two ginsenosides, Rb1 and Rg1, in isolated rat renal and cerebral arteries. Methods Arterial rings were mounted in a multi-channel myograph for recording of isometric tension. To examine the antioxidant activity, some rings were exposed to a free radical-generating reaction (hypoxan-thine and xanthine oxidase) with and without pre-treatment with ginsenosides. The calcium antagonistic effects were tested on rings contracted by membrane depolarization in elevated extracellular potassium ions, a condition that promoted Ca2+ influx in vascular smooth muscle cells. Results Ginsenosides protected endothelial function (endothelial nitric oxide-dependent relaxation) against oxidative stress; (2) ginsenoside Rb1 reduced the high K+ -induced contractions of both renal and cerebral arteries while ginsenoside Rgl relaxed the rat cerebral artery but not the renal artery. Conclusions Ginsenosides are vaso-protective via (1) the antioxidant activity which protects endothelial cell function and (2) the inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle. The vasodilator effects may suggest the potential preventive or therapeutic values of ginsenosides against stroke and renal hypertension.

  15. Tissue-Engineered Small Diameter Arterial Vascular Grafts from Cell-Free Nanofiber PCL/Chitosan Scaffolds in a Sheep Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Takuma; Best, Cameron A.; Sugiura, Tadahisa; Shoji, Toshihiro; Yi, Tai; Udelsman, Brooks; Ohst, Devan; Ong, Chin Siang; Zhang, Huaitao; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Breuer, Christopher K.; Johnson, Jed; Hibino, Narutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) have the potential to overcome the issues faced by existing small diameter prosthetic grafts by providing a biodegradable scaffold where the patient’s own cells can engraft and form functional neotissue. However, applying classical approaches to create arterial TEVGs using slow degrading materials with supraphysiological mechanical properties, typically results in limited host cell infiltration, poor remodeling, stenosis, and calcification. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of novel small diameter arterial TEVGs created using fast degrading material. A 1.0mm and 5.0mm diameter TEVGs were fabricated with electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) and chitosan (CS) blend nanofibers. The 1.0mm TEVGs were implanted in mice (n = 3) as an unseeded infrarenal abdominal aorta interposition conduit., The 5.0mm TEVGs were implanted in sheep (n = 6) as an unseeded carotid artery (CA) interposition conduit. Mice were followed with ultrasound and sacrificed at 6 months. All 1.0mm TEVGs remained patent without evidence of thrombosis or aneurysm formation. Based on small animal outcomes, sheep were followed with ultrasound and sacrificed at 6 months for histological and mechanical analysis. There was no aneurysm formation or calcification in the TEVGs. 4 out of 6 grafts (67%) were patent. After 6 months in vivo, 9.1 ± 5.4% remained of the original scaffold. Histological analysis of patent grafts demonstrated deposition of extracellular matrix constituents including elastin and collagen production, as well as endothelialization and organized contractile smooth muscle cells, similar to that of native CA. The mechanical properties of TEVGs were comparable to native CA. There was a significant positive correlation between TEVG wall thickness and CD68+ macrophage infiltration into the scaffold (R2 = 0.95, p = 0.001). The fast degradation of CS in our novel TEVG promoted excellent cellular infiltration and neotissue formation

  16. Tissue-Engineered Small Diameter Arterial Vascular Grafts from Cell-Free Nanofiber PCL/Chitosan Scaffolds in a Sheep Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Takuma; Best, Cameron A; Sugiura, Tadahisa; Shoji, Toshihiro; Yi, Tai; Udelsman, Brooks; Ohst, Devan; Ong, Chin Siang; Zhang, Huaitao; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Breuer, Christopher K; Johnson, Jed; Hibino, Narutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) have the potential to overcome the issues faced by existing small diameter prosthetic grafts by providing a biodegradable scaffold where the patient's own cells can engraft and form functional neotissue. However, applying classical approaches to create arterial TEVGs using slow degrading materials with supraphysiological mechanical properties, typically results in limited host cell infiltration, poor remodeling, stenosis, and calcification. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of novel small diameter arterial TEVGs created using fast degrading material. A 1.0mm and 5.0mm diameter TEVGs were fabricated with electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) and chitosan (CS) blend nanofibers. The 1.0mm TEVGs were implanted in mice (n = 3) as an unseeded infrarenal abdominal aorta interposition conduit., The 5.0mm TEVGs were implanted in sheep (n = 6) as an unseeded carotid artery (CA) interposition conduit. Mice were followed with ultrasound and sacrificed at 6 months. All 1.0mm TEVGs remained patent without evidence of thrombosis or aneurysm formation. Based on small animal outcomes, sheep were followed with ultrasound and sacrificed at 6 months for histological and mechanical analysis. There was no aneurysm formation or calcification in the TEVGs. 4 out of 6 grafts (67%) were patent. After 6 months in vivo, 9.1 ± 5.4% remained of the original scaffold. Histological analysis of patent grafts demonstrated deposition of extracellular matrix constituents including elastin and collagen production, as well as endothelialization and organized contractile smooth muscle cells, similar to that of native CA. The mechanical properties of TEVGs were comparable to native CA. There was a significant positive correlation between TEVG wall thickness and CD68+ macrophage infiltration into the scaffold (R2 = 0.95, p = 0.001). The fast degradation of CS in our novel TEVG promoted excellent cellular infiltration and neotissue formation

  17. Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergot Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiographic ratio of peak tricuspid regurgitant velocity to the right ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral (TRV/TVI rvot was presented as a reliable non-invasive method of estimating pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR. Studies using this technique in patients with moderate to high PVR are scarce. Left ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral (TVI lvot can be easier to measure than TVI rvot, especially in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH with significant anatomical modifications of the right structures. Aims We wanted to determine whether the TRV/TVI rvot and TRV/TVI lvot ratios would form a reliable non-invasive tool to estimate PVR in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe pulmonary vascular disease. Methods Doppler echocardiographic examination and right heart catheterisation were performed in 37 patients. Invasive PVR was compared with TRV/TVI rvot and TRV/TVI lvot ratios using regression analysis. Two equations were modelled and the results compared with invasive measurements using the Bland-Altman analysis. Using receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis, a cut-off value for the two ratios was generated. Results Correlation coefficients between invasive PVR and TRV/TVI rvot then TRV/TVI lvot were respectively 0.76 and 0.74. Two new equations were found but the Bland-Altman analysis showed wide standard deviations (respectively 3.8 and 3.9 Wood units. A TRV/TVI rvot then TRV/TVI lvot ratio cut-off value of 0.14 had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 57% for the first and a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 57% for the second to determine PVR > 2 Wood units. Conclusion Echocardiography is useful for the screening of patients with pulmonary hypertension and PVR > 2 WU. It remains disappointing for accurate assessment of high PVR. TVI lvot may be an alternative to TVI rvot for patients for whom accurate TVI rvot measurement is not possible.

  18. Spontaneous Dissection of the Renal Artery in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS is a rare heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (vEDS is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene predisposing to premature arterial, intestinal, or uterine rupture. We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of vEDS admitted in the Emergency Department with a suspicion of a pyelonephritis that evolved to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A fatal retroperitoneal hematoma related with a haemorrhagic dissection of the right renal artery was found after emergency surgery. This case highlights the need to be aware of the particular characteristics of vEDS, such as a severe vascular complication that can lead to a fatal outcome.

  19. Calcification of the intracranial carotid artery and its relation to the clinical and angiographic picture: an angiographic classification of asteriosclerosis cerebri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Seixas

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty six patients with arteriosclerosis cerebri confirmed by X-rays examinations were clinically and angiographically studied. Calcifications of the carotid artery were found predominantly in human beings between the ages of 55 and 65 and more often among men than among women, the proportion being 2.5 to 1. Nearly all arteriosclerotic patients with calcium deposits in the carotid artery showed several neurological and mental deficits, the most frequent initial symptoms being motor disturbances. Angiographic anormalities found in these patients can be classed into 3 groups: (a grade I— wavy course of the cerebral vessels, small number of peripheral brain vessels, formation of small knots, prolonged circulation time, arteria cerebri anterior with angular form, straight course and broad caliber; (b grade II— partial block, irregularities of wall and caliber, aneurysmal formations; (c grade III— total block of some vessels of the carotid system preventing a generalized or localized cerebral blood supply. Grades II and III angiographic abnormalities were most often seen at the syphon and at the carotid bifurcation in the neck (site of predilection. Most patients with a progressive clinical course belonged to the I group. The course of the disease did not differ in patients with grades II and III angiographic changes since usually the illness had an apoplectiform onset. Arteriosclerotic degenerative irregularities within the layers of the arteries (up to atheromatous patches may occur without reducing the arterial lumen. In such cases the patients may remain asymptomatic until there is a decompensation in the brain circulation due to many causes.Foram estudados, clínica e angiogràficamente, 56 pacientes com arte-riosclerose cerebral comprovada mediante visibilização radiológica de calcificações localizadas na porção intracraniana da artéria carótida interna. Calcificações da artéria carótida interna ocorrem com mais freq

  20. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI as an indicator of arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun CK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cheuk-Kwan Sun Department of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medical Education, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: Arterial stiffness has been identified as an independent predictor of prognostic outcomes for patients with cardiovascular disease. Although measurement of pulse wave velocity has been a widely accepted noninvasive approach to the assessment of arterial stiffness, its accuracy is hampered by changes in blood pressure. Taking the exponential relation between intravascular pressure and arterial diameter into consideration, a stiffness parameter can be obtained by plotting the natural logarithm of systolic–diastolic pressure ratio against the arterial wall extensibility. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, which is calculated based on the stiffness parameter thus obtained, is theoretically independent of changes in blood pressure. With this distinct advantage, CAVI has been widely applied clinically to assess arterial stiffness in subjects with known cardiovascular diseases including those with diagnosed atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke as well as those at risk, including those with hypertension, diabetes, the elderly, and the obese. Because of its enhanced sensitivity, not only has the index been used to discern subtle changes in the disease process, it has also been utilized in studying normal individuals to assess their potential risks of developing cardiovascular diseases. The primary aims of assessing arterial stiffness using CAVI are not only to aid in early detection of arteriosclerosis to allow timely treatment and change in lifestyle, but also to quantitatively evaluate the progression of disease and the effectiveness of treatment. Despite its merit of being unaffected by blood pressure, discretion in data interpretation is suggested because an elevated CAVI represents not just vascular stiffness caused by pathological changes in the arterial wall, but can also be attributed to

  1. Differential effects of formoterol on thrombin- and PDGF-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharova Elena A; Khavin Irene S; Goncharov Dmitry A; Krymskaya Vera P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (PAVSM) cell proliferation is a key pathophysiological component of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). The long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist formoterol, a racemate comprised of (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers, is commonly used as a vasodilator in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PH, a common complication of COPD, increases patients’ morbidity and reduces surviv...

  2. Differential effects of formoterol on thrombin- and PDGF-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharova, Elena A.; Khavin, Irene S; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Vera P Krymskaya

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (PAVSM) cell proliferation is a key pathophysiological component of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). The long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist formoterol, a racemate comprised of (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers, is commonly used as a vasodilator in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PH, a common complication of COPD, increases patients’ morbidity and reduces survival. Recen...

  3. Increased shear stress inhibits angiogenesis in veins and not arteries during vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard-Pelletier, Guillaume; Jahnsen, Espen D; Jones, Elizabeth A V

    2013-01-01

    Vascular development is believed to occur first by vasculogenesis followed by angiogenesis. Though angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels, we found that vascular density actually decreases during this second stage. The onset of the decrease coincided with the entry of erythroblasts into circulation. We therefore measured the level of shear stress at various developmental stages and found that it was inversely proportional to vascular density. To investigate whether shear stress was inhibitory to angiogenesis, we altered shear stress levels either by preventing erythroblasts from entering circulation ("low" shear stress) or by injection of a starch solution to increase the blood plasma viscosity ("high" shear stress). By time-lapse microscopy, we show that reverse intussusception (merging of two vessels) is inversely proportional to the level of shear stress. We also found that angiogenesis (both sprouting and splitting) was inversely proportional to shear stress levels. These effects were specific to the arterial or venous plexus however, such that the effect on reverse intussusception was present only in the arterial plexus and the effect on sprouting only in the venous plexus. We cultured embryos under altered shear stress in the presence of either DAPT, a Notch inhibitor, or DMH1, an inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. DAPT treatment phenocopied the inhibition of erythroblast circulation ("low" shear stress) and the effect of DAPT treatment could be partially rescued by injection of starch. Inhibition of the BMP signaling prevented the reduction in vascular density that was observed when starch was injected to increase shear stress levels.

  4. Precise renal artery segmentation for estimation of renal vascular dominant regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglong; Kagajo, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Oda, Masahiro; Yoshino, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel renal artery segmentation method combining graph-cut and template-based tracking methods and its application to estimation of renal vascular dominant region. For the purpose of giving a computer assisted diagnose for kidney surgery planning, it is important to obtain the correct topological structures of renal artery for estimation of renal vascular dominant regions. Renal artery has a low contrast, and its precise extraction is a difficult task. Previous method utilizing vesselness measure based on Hessian analysis, still cannot extract the tiny blood vessels in low-contrast area. Although model-based methods including superellipsoid model or cylindrical intensity model are low-contrast sensitive to the tiny blood vessels, problems including over-segmentation and poor bifurcations detection still remain. In this paper, we propose a novel blood vessel segmentation method combining a new Hessian-based graph-cut and template modeling tracking method. Firstly, graph-cut algorithm is utilized to obtain the rough segmentation result. Then template model tracking method is utilized to improve the accuracy of tiny blood vessel segmentation result. Rough segmentation utilizing graph-cut solves the bifurcations detection problem effectively. Precise segmentation utilizing template model tracking focuses on the segmentation of tiny blood vessels. By combining these two approaches, our proposed method segmented 70% of the renal artery of 1mm in diameter or larger. In addition, we demonstrate such precise segmentation can contribute to divide renal regions into a set of blood vessel dominant regions utilizing Voronoi diagram method.

  5. Prognostic value of intima calcification detection with CT angiography in carotid artery stenting%CT血管造影检测血管内膜斑块在颈内动脉支架成形术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 汤其强; 任明山; 王国平

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估CT血管造影(CTA)检测血管内膜斑块对颈内动脉支架成形术(CAS)效果的预测价值. 方法 选取安徽医科大学附属省立医院神经内科自2008年12月至2011年4月行支架成形术(CAS)治疗的前循环缺血性脑血管病患者49例,根据CTA检测的颈内动脉斑块CT值将患者分为钙化组(24例)、非钙化组(25例),采用Agatston法计算钙化积分并将钙化组分为轻度钙化组(4例)、中度钙化组(12例)、重度钙化组(8例).比较钙化组和非钙化组患者行CAS后的残留狭窄率并分析钙化组患者Agatston分数与CAS后残余狭窄率的相关性. 结果 49支狭窄的颈内动脉行CAS,术后47支血管残留狭窄.钙化组CAS后平均残留狭窄率高于非钙化组患者,差异有统计学意义(P=0.001).轻度、中度、重度钙化组之间CAS后平均残留狭窄率依次增高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).钙化组Agatston分数与CAS后残留狭窄率呈正相关关系(r=0.941,P=0.001). 结论 CTA诊断颈内动脉狭窄是可靠的,以Agatston钙化分数对颈内动脉钙化斑块进行评估,对CAS具有一定的指导意义.%Objective To evaluate the prognostic value of intima calcification detection with CT angiography (CTA) in carotid artery stenting (CAS).Methods Forty-five patients with anterior circulation stroke,admitted to our hospital from December 2008 to April 2011,were chosen in our study;the patients were divided into two groups,one without calcification (n=25) and the other with calcification (n=24) according to CT density.The calcium scores were calculated according to the method described by Agatston.Patients in the calcification group were subdivided into mild calcification group (n=4),medium calcification group (n=12) and severe calcification group (n=8).Remained percentage of stenosis after CAS in the none calcification group and calcification group were compared; correlation between Agatston scores of the calcification patients and

  6. What Is the Clinical Utility of the Ankle-Brachial Index in Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Radiographic Arterial Calcification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-Afonso, Francisco Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; García-Morales, Esther; García-Álvarez, Yolanda; Molines-Barroso, Raúl Juan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of radiographic arterial calcification (RAC) on the clinical interpretation of ankle-brachial index (ABI) values in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. We analyzed a retrospective clinical database of 60 patients with diabetic foot ulcers from the Diabetic Foot Unit (Complutense University, Madrid, Spain) between January 2012 and March 2014. For each patient, anteroposterior XR-plains were evaluated, and the ABI and toe-brachial index (TBI) were assessed by an experienced clinician. To analyze the correlation among quantitative variables, we applied the Pearson correlation coefficient. Fifty percent (n = 9/18) of our patients with a normal ABI and RAC had a TBI diabetic foot ulcers, or RAC.

  7. Application value of coronary artery calcification score with 16 slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease%16层螺旋 CT 冠状动脉钙化积分在冠心病诊断中的应用价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德胜

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of coronary artery calcification score with16 slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease .Methods A total of 35 cases patients with coronary heart disease admitted to our hospital from August 2013 to August 2015 were selected as the observation group ,and 35 patients with non-coronary heart disease were selected as con-trol group .Two groups of patients were performed of coronary artery calcification score with 16 slice spiral CT ,and coronary artery calcification score and total score of the two groups were compared .Results The scores of right coronary artery ,left anterior de-scending branch ,left anterior descending artery ,left anterior descending artery ,left main stem and total calcification score in the ob-servation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P< 0 .05) .Condition of vascular calcification was as fol-lowing :the rate of patients with severe calcification was the highest in the observation group (88 .57% ) ,and the rate of patients without calcification in control group was the highest (77 .14% ) .Meanwhile ,the rates of patients without calcification and patients with a little calcification of the observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group (P< 0 .05) .The rate of pa-tients with severe calcification in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P< 0 .05) .Conclu-sion Coronary artery calcification score with 16 slice spiral CT can help to clarify the degree of calcification in patients with coro-nary heart disease ,which has higher clinical value and could be used for screening and diagnosis of coronary heart disease .%目的:探讨16层螺旋 CT 冠状动脉钙化积分对于冠心病诊断的应用价值。方法选择2013年8月至2015年8月在该院收治的35例冠心病患者作为观察组,另选择同期收治的35例非冠心病患者作为对照组。两组患者均行16层螺旋 CT 冠状

  8. The Contribution of Osteoprogenitor Cells to Arterial Stiffness and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikilidou, Maria; Yavropoulou, Maria; Antoniou, Maria; Yovos, John

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, the major cause of cardiovascular disease, is bidirectionally linked to arterial stiffness. Evidence shows that vascular calcification, either medial or intimal, induces arterial stiffening further worsening hypertension parallel to substantially increasing cardiovascular risk. The disturbance in the bone-vascular axis that leads to the increase of calcium deposition in the arterial wall may be the result of a shift in the functionality of bone marrow-derived circulating stem cells with a calcifying potential, namely osteoprogenitor cells. These cells deposit bone matrix proteins in the vascular wall that can subsequently become mineralized. The current notion is that these cells derive from diverse cell lines. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of progenitor cells with a calcifying potential on arterial calcification, stiffness and hypertension.

  9. Study on the correlation between osteoporosis and arterial calcification in elderly patients%老年患者骨质疏松与动脉钙化相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋义燕; 高超; 王玲; 刘蕴玲

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨老年患者骨质疏松与动脉钙化之间的相关性.方法:对123例老年住院患者采用双能X线吸收法测定腰椎正位(L1~4)、股骨颈(左股骨、右股骨)骨密度T值,分析骨密度与冠状动脉钙化的关系;同时按AJ-130、Volume-130两种评分标准进行心脏冠状动脉钙化评分;将123例患者按年龄段分为A、B、C 三组各41例,观察比较各年龄段骨量减少、骨质疏松、动脉钙化情况.结果:骨量减少、骨质疏松者冠状动脉钙化严重程度显著高于骨量正常者(P<0.01),钙化评分与骨密度呈负相关;骨量减少、骨质疏松、动脉钙化严重程度随年龄增加呈显著上升趋势(P<0.01).结论:老年骨质疏松患者较非骨质疏松者更易发生动脉钙化病变,同时存在动脉钙化病变者也易致骨量丢失,提示骨质疏松与动脉钙化之间可能存在共同危险因素.%Objective: To explore the correlation between osteoporosis and arterial calcification in elderly patients. Methods: The dual energy X - ray absorption method was used for the determination of T value of bone mineral density of lumbar spine ( L1 _4 ), femoral neck ( the left and right femurs ) of 123 hospitalized elderly patients, the relationship between bone mineral density and coronary artery calcification was analyzed; meanwhile the coronary artery calcification was evaluated in the light of AJ - 130 and Volume - 130 scoring criteria. Then 123 patients were divided into group A, B and C according to age differences ( 41 patients in each group ). The osteopenia, osteoporosis and arterial calcification in different ages was observed and compared. Results: The severity of osteopenia, osteoporosis and coronary artery calcification was significantly higher in the patients than that of those who had normal bone mass ( P < 0. 01 ); the calcification score negatively correlated with BMD; the severity of osteopenia, osteoporosis and arterial calcification significantly

  10. Clinical imaging of vascular disease in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Alan A; Covic, Adrian; London, Gerard; Vervloet, Marc; Goldsmith, David; Gorriz, Jose Luis; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Arterial wall calcification, once considered an incidental finding, is now known to be a consistent and strong predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. It is also commonly encountered in radiologic examinations as an incidental finding. Forthcoming bench, translational, and clinical data seek to establish this and pre-calcification changes as surrogate imaging biomarkers for noninvasive prognostication and treatment follow-up. Emerging paradigms seek to establish vascular calcification as a surrogate marker of disease. Imaging of pre-calcification and decalcification events may prove more important than imaging of the calcification itself. Data-driven approaches to screening will be necessary to limit radiation exposure and prevent over-utilization of expensive imaging techniques. PMID:26898824

  11. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured pulmonary artery aneurysm in a patient with Behcet's disease using the amplatzer vascular plug 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulmonary artery aneurysm is a common manifestation and the leading cause of mortality in Behcet's disease. We describe a case of spontaneous rupture of a pulmonary artery aneurysm that, due to the inadequacy of medical therapy and the disadvantages of surgery, became the ideal candidate for endovascular management and was successfully performed by using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4.

  12. Direct comparison of regulators of calcification between bone and vessels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, N; Aigelsreiter, A; Trummer, O; Graf-Rechberger, M; Hacker, N; Kniepeiss, D; Wagner, D; Stiegler, P; Trummer, C; Pieber, T; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Müller, H

    2016-07-01

    Calcification is not only physiologically present in bone but is a main pathophysiological process in vasculature, favouring cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to investigate changes in the expression of calcification regulators during vascular calcification in bone and vasculature. Levels of gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteopontin (OPN), matrix gla protein (MGP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), SMAD6, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were determined in bone, aorta, and external iliac artery tissue samples of transplant donors. Histological stages of atherosclerosis (AS) in vessels are defined as "no changes", "intima thickening", or "intima calcification". Patients' bone samples were subgrouped accordingly. We demonstrate that in vessels BSP and OPN expression significantly increased during intima thickening and decreased during intima calcification, whereas the expression of regulators of calcification did not significantly change in bone during intima thickening and intima calcification. At the stage of intima thickening, MGP, OPG, and SMAD6 expression and at stage of intima calcification only MGP expression was lower in bone than in vessel. The expression of BSP and RANKL was regulated in opposite ways in bone and vessels, whereas the expression of MGP, OC, RUNX2, and OPN was regulated in a tissue-specific manner. Our study is the first direct comparison of gene expression changes during AS progression in bone and vessels. Our results indicate that changes in the expression of regulators of calcification in the vessel wall as well as in bone occur early in the calcification process, even prior to deposition of calcium/phosphate precipitation. PMID:27108945

  13. Circulating Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein Is Associated with Vitamin K Nutritional Status, but Not Coronary Artery Calcium, in Older Adults1234

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, M. Kyla; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Vermeer, Cees; Magdeleyns, Elke J. P.; Crosier, Michael D.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Ordovas, José M; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Sarah L. Booth

    2011-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a calcification inhibitor in vascular tissue that must be carboxylated by vitamin K to function. Evidence suggests circulating uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) is elevated in persons with disease characterized by vascular calcification. The primary purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma ucMGP, vitamin K status, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in older adults without coronary heart disease. Genetic determinant...

  14. Embolization of Life-Threatening Arterial Rupture in Patients with Vascular Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Takuya, E-mail: okabone@gmail.com [Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Frank, Michael, E-mail: michael.frank@egp.aphp.fr [Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Rare Vascular Diseases Reference Center (France); Pellerin, Olivier, E-mail: olivier@pellerin.as; Primio, Massimiliano Di, E-mail: massimiliano.di.primio@gmail.com; Angelopoulos, Georgios, E-mail: giorginos78@msn.com [Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Boughenou, Marie-Fazia, E-mail: marie-fazia.boughenou@egp.aphp.fr [Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care Unit (France); Pagny, Jean-Yves, E-mail: jean-yves.pagny@egp.aphp.fr [Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Messas, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.messas@egp.aphp.fr [Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Rare Vascular Diseases Reference Center (France); Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: marc.sapoval2@egp.aphp.fr [Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2013-05-09

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial embolization of life-threatening arterial rupture in patients with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) in a single tertiary referral center.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed transarterial embolization for vEDS performed at our institution from 2000 to 2012. The indication of embolization was spontaneous arterial rupture or pseudoaneurysm with acute bleeding. All interventions used a percutaneous approach through a 5F or less introducer sheath. Embolic agents were microcoils and glue in 3 procedures, glue alone in 2, and microcoils alone in 2.ResultsFive consecutive vEDS patients were treated by 7 embolization procedures (4 women, mean age 29.8 years). All procedures were successfully performed. Two patients required a second procedure for newly arterial lesions at a different site from the first procedure. Four of the five patients were still alive after a mean follow-up of 19.4 (range 1–74.7) months. One patient died of multiple organ failure 2 days after procedure. Minor procedural complications were observed in 3 procedures (43 %), all directly managed during the same session. Remote arterial lesions occurred after 3 procedures (43 %); one underwent a second embolization, and the other 2 were observed conservatively. Puncture site complication was observed in only one procedure (14 %).ConclusionEmbolization for vEDS is a safe and effective method to manage life-threatening arterial rupture.

  15. Vascular smooth muscle desensitization in rabbit epigastric and mesenteric arteries during hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, P H; Miner, A S; Huang, Y; Smith, C A; Barbee, R W

    2016-07-01

    The decompensatory phase of hemorrhage (shock) is caused by a poorly defined phenomenon termed vascular hyporeactivity (VHR). VHR may reflect an acute in vivo imbalance in levels of contractile and relaxant stimuli favoring net vascular smooth muscle (VSM) relaxation. Alternatively, VHR may be caused by intrinsic VSM desensitization of contraction resulting from prior exposure to high levels of stimuli that temporarily adjusts cell signaling systems. Net relaxation, but not desensitization, would be expected to resolve rapidly in an artery segment removed from the in vivo shock environment and examined in vitro in a fresh solution. Our aim was to 1) induce shock in rabbits and apply an in vitro mechanical analysis on muscular arteries isolated pre- and postshock to determine whether VHR involves intrinsic VSM desensitization, and 2) identify whether net VSM relaxation induced by nitric oxide and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase activation in vitro can be sustained for some time after relaxant stimulus washout. The potencies of phenylephrine- and histamine-induced contractions in in vitro epigastric artery removed from rabbits posthemorrhage were decreased by ∼0.3 log units compared with the control contralateral epigastric artery removed prehemorrhage. Moreover, a decrease in KCl-induced tonic, relative to phasic, tension of in vitro mesenteric artery correlated with the degree of shock severity as assessed by rates of lactate and K(+) accumulation. VSM desensitization was also caused by tyramine in vivo and PE in vitro, but not by relaxant agents in vitro. Together, these results support the hypothesis that VHR during hemorrhagic decompensation involves contractile stimulus-induced long-lasting, intrinsic VSM desensitization. PMID:27199133

  16. Vitamin K-antagonists accelerate atherosclerotic calcification and induce a vulnerable plaque phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon J Schurgers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA are treatment of choice and standard care for patients with venous thrombosis and thromboembolic risk. In experimental animal models as well as humans, VKA have been shown to promote medial elastocalcinosis. As vascular calcification is considered an independent risk factor for plaque instability, we here investigated the effect of VKA on coronary calcification in patients and on calcification of atherosclerotic plaques in the ApoE(-/- model of atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 266 patients (133 VKA users and 133 gender and Framingham Risk Score matched non-VKA users underwent 64-slice MDCT to assess the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD. VKA-users developed significantly more calcified coronary plaques as compared to non-VKA users. ApoE(-/- mice (10 weeks received a Western type diet (WTD for 12 weeks, after which mice were fed a WTD supplemented with vitamin K(1 (VK(1, 1.5 mg/g or vitamin K(1 and warfarin (VK(1&W; 1.5 mg/g & 3.0 mg/g for 1 or 4 weeks, after which mice were sacrificed. Warfarin significantly increased frequency and extent of vascular calcification. Also, plaque calcification comprised microcalcification of the intimal layer. Furthermore, warfarin treatment decreased plaque expression of calcification regulatory protein carboxylated matrix Gla-protein, increased apoptosis and, surprisingly outward plaque remodeling, without affecting overall plaque burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VKA use is associated with coronary artery plaque calcification in patients with suspected CAD and causes changes in plaque morphology with features of plaque vulnerability in ApoE(-/- mice. Our findings underscore the need for alternative anticoagulants that do not interfere with the vitamin K cycle.

  17. Prevalence of carotid artery calcifications detected on panoramic radiographs and confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography: Their relationship with systemic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Queiroz Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: CACs can be detected in PRJs, and are more frequent in common carotid arteries. No significant associations were detected between the presence of unilateral or bilateral CAC in PRJ and hypertension, diabetes, or obesity.

  18. Role of Na + -K + ATPase enzyme in vascular response of goat ruminal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathirvel K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the role of Na + , K + - ATPase enzyme in the vascular response of goat ruminal artery. Materials and Methods: Ruminal artery was obtained in chilled aerated modified Krebs-Henseleit solution (KHS from a local slaughterhouse and transported in ice for further processing. The endothelium intact arterial ring was mounted in a thermostatically controlled (37 ± 0.5°C organ bath containing 20 ml of modified KHS (pH 7.4 bubbled with oxygen (95% and CO 2 (5% under 2g tension. An equilibration of 90 min was allowed before addition of drugs into the bath. The responses were recorded isometrically in an automatic organ bath connected to PowerLab data acquisition system. In order to examine intact functional endothelium, ACh (10µM was added on the 5-HT (1.0µM - induced sustained contractile response. Similarly, functional characterization of Na + , K + -ATPase activity was done by K + -induced relaxation (10µM-10mM in the absence and presence of ouabain (0.1µM/ 0.1mM, digoxin (0.1µM and barium (30µM. Results: ACh (10-5 M did not produce any relaxing effect on 5-HT-induced sustained contractile response suggesting that vascular endothelium has no significant influence on the activation of sodium pump by extracellular K + in ruminal artery. Low concentration of Ba 2+ (30 µM (IC 50 : 0.479mM inhibited K + -induced relaxation suggesting K ir (inward rectifier channel in part had role in K + -induced vasodilatation in ruminal artery. Vasorelaxant effect of KCl (10µM-10mM in K + -free medium is also blocked by ouabain (0.1µM and 0.1mM (IC 50 :0.398mM and IC 35 : 1.36mM, but not by digoxin (0.1µM (IC 50 0.234mM suggesting that ouabain sensitive Na + , K + -ATPase isoform is present in the ruminal artery. Conclusion: In the goat ruminal artery functional regulation of sodium pump is partly mediated by K + channel and ouabain sensitive Na + , K + ATPase.

  19. Regulation of vascular tone in rabbit ophthalmic artery: cross talk of endogenous and exogenous gas mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Foresti, Roberta; Villari, Ambra; Giurdanella, Giovanni; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2014-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) modulate vascular tone. In view of their therapeutic potential for ocular diseases, we examined the effect of exogenous CO and H2S on tone of isolated rabbit ophthalmic artery and their interaction with endogenous and exogenous NO. Ophthalmic artery segments mounted on a wire myograph were challenged with cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE) in the presence or absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA) to inhibit production of NO, the CO-releasing molecules CORMs or the H2S-donor GYY4137. The maximal vasoconstriction elicited by PE reached 20-30% of that induced by KCl but was dramatically increased by incubation with LNNA. GYY4137 significantly raised PE-mediated vasoconstriction, but it did not change the response to PE in the presence of LNNA or the relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). CORMs concentration-dependently inhibited PE-induced constriction, an effect that was synergistic with endogenous NO (reduced by LNNA), but insensitive to blockade of guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In vascular tissues cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels seemed reduced by GYY4137 (not significantly), but were not changed by CORM. These data indicate that CO is able per se to relax isolated ophthalmic artery and to synergize with NO, while H2S counteracts the effect of endogenous NO. CO does not stimulate cGMP production in our system, while H2S may reduce cGMP production stimulated by endogenous NO. These findings provide new insights into the complexities of gas interactions in the control of ophthalmic vascular tone, highlighting potential pharmacological targets for ocular diseases. PMID:25451691

  20. Ansys Fluent versus Sim Vascular for 4-D patient-specific computational hemodynamics in renal arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumbaraddi, Avinash; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Sawchuk, Alan; Dalsing, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this clinical-need driven research is to investigate the effect of renal artery stenosis (RAS) on the blood flow and wall shear stress in renal arteries through 4-D patient-specific computational hemodynamics (PSCH) and search for possible critical RASs that significantly alter the pressure gradient across the stenosis by manually varying the size of RAS from 50% to 95%. The identification of the critical RAS is important to understand the contribution of RAS to the overall renal resistance thus appropriate clinical therapy can be determined in order to reduce the hypertension. Clinical CT angiographic data together with Doppler Ultra sound images of an anonymous patient are used serving as the required inputs of the PSCH. To validate the PSCH, we use both Ansys Fluent and Sim Vascular and compare velocity, pressure, and wall-shear stress under identical conditions. Renal Imaging Technology Development Program (RITDP) Grant.

  1. Detecting lower extremity vascular dynamics in patients with peripheral artery disease using diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Michael A.; Kim, Hyun-Keol K.; Kim, In-Kyong; Dayal, Rajeev; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2011-02-01

    Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) affects over 10 million Americans and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While in many cases the ankle-brachial index (ABI) can be used for diagnosing the disease, this parameter is not dependable in the diabetic and elderly population. These populations tend to have calcified arteries, which leads to elevated ABI values. Dynamic optical tomography (DDOT) promises to overcome the limitations of the current diagnostic techniques and has the potential to initiate a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of vascular disease. We have performed initial pilot studies involving 5 PAD patients and 3 healthy volunteers. The time traces and tomographic reconstruction obtained from measurements on the feet show significant differences between healthy and affected vasculatures. In addition, we found that DOT is capable of identifying PAD in diabetic patients, who are misdiagnosed by the traditional ABI screening.

  2. Lipogenesis in arterial wall and vascular smooth muscular cells: regulation and abnormalities in insulin-resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feugier Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular smooth muscular cells (VSMC express lipogenic genes. Therefore in situ lipogenesis could provide fatty acids for triglycerides synthesis and cholesterol esterification and contribute to lipid accumulation in arterial wall with aging and during atheroma. Methods We investigated expression of lipogenic genes in human and rat arterial walls, its regulation in cultured VSMC and determined if it is modified during insulin-resistance and diabetes, situations with increased risk for atheroma. Results Zucker obese (ZO and diabetic (ZDF rats accumulated more triglycerides in their aortas than their respective control rats, and this triglycerides content increased with age in ZDF and control rats. However the expression in aortas of lipogenic genes, or of genes involved in fatty acids uptake, was not higher in ZDF and ZO rats and did not increase with age. Expression of lipogenesis-related genes was not increased in human arterial wall (carotid endarterectomy of diabetic compared to non-diabetic patients. In vitro, glucose and adipogenic medium (ADM stimulated moderately the expression and activity of lipogenesis in VSMC from control rats. LXR agonists, but not PXR agonist, stimulated also lipogenesis in VSMC but not in arterial wall in vivo. Lipogenic genes expression was lower in VSMC from ZO rats and not stimulated by glucose or ADM. Conclusion Lipogenic genes are expressed in arterial wall and VSMC; this expression is stimulated (VSMC by glucose, ADM and LXR agonists. During insulin-resistance and diabetes, this expression is not increased and resists to the actions of glucose and ADM. It is unlikely that this metabolic pathway contribute to lipid accumulation of arterial wall during insulin-resistance and diabetes and thus to the increased risk of atheroma observed in these situations.

  3. Vascular reconstruction of a ruptured and infected aneurysm of extracranial carotid artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jin-qiu; ZHANG Jian; YIN Ming-di; SHAN Shao-yin; WU Bin; DUAN Zhi-quan; XIN Shi-jie

    2008-01-01

    @@ Extracranial carotid artery aneurysm represents an uncommon vascular condition with relatively higher incidence in China than in the West.1 The complication with infection and rupture is even rarer,but potentially lethal.Management of mis condition is challenging but urgent because of high risks for embolization,generalized sepsis,further expansion,rupture,and life threatening.1,2 We present an exceptional case of carotid aneurysm at bifurcation complicated with rupture and infection and discuss the Dathogenesis and vailOUS aspects of diagnosis and surgical management.

  4. Genes involved in systemic and arterial bed dependent atherosclerosis--Tampere Vascular study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Levula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a complex disease with hundreds of genes influencing its progression. In addition, the phenotype of the disease varies significantly depending on the arterial bed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized the genes generally involved in human advanced atherosclerotic (AHA type V-VI plaques in carotid and femoral arteries as well as aortas from 24 subjects of Tampere Vascular study and compared the results to non-atherosclerotic internal thoracic arteries (n=6 using genome-wide expression array and QRT-PCR. In addition we determined genes that were typical for each arterial plaque studied. To gain a comprehensive insight into the pathologic processes in the plaques we also analyzed pathways and gene sets dysregulated in this disease using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA. According to the selection criteria used (>3.0 fold change and p-value <0.05, 235 genes were up-regulated and 68 genes down-regulated in the carotid plaques, 242 genes up-regulated and 116 down-regulated in the femoral plaques and 256 genes up-regulated and 49 genes down-regulated in the aortic plaques. Nine genes were found to be specifically induced predominantly in aortic plaques, e.g., lactoferrin, and three genes in femoral plaques, e.g., chondroadherin, whereas no gene was found to be specific for carotid plaques. In pathway analysis, a total of 28 pathways or gene sets were found to be significantly dysregulated in atherosclerotic plaques (false discovery rate [FDR] <0.25. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes comprehensively the gene expression changes that generally prevail in human atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, site specific genes induced only in femoral or aortic plaques were found, reflecting that atherosclerotic process has unique features in different vascular beds.

  5. Genes Involved in Systemic and Arterial Bed Dependent Atherosclerosis - Tampere Vascular Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airla, Nina; Zeitlin, Rainer; Salenius, Juha-Pekka; Järvinen, Otso; Venermo, Maarit; Partio, Teemu; Saarinen, Jukka; Somppi, Taija; Suominen, VeliPekka; Virkkunen, Jyrki; Hautalahti, Juha; Laaksonen, Reijo; Kähönen, Mika; Mennander, Ari; Kytömäki, Leena; Soini, Juhani T.; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a complex disease with hundreds of genes influencing its progression. In addition, the phenotype of the disease varies significantly depending on the arterial bed. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the genes generally involved in human advanced atherosclerotic (AHA type V–VI) plaques in carotid and femoral arteries as well as aortas from 24 subjects of Tampere Vascular study and compared the results to non-atherosclerotic internal thoracic arteries (n=6) using genome-wide expression array and QRT-PCR. In addition we determined genes that were typical for each arterial plaque studied. To gain a comprehensive insight into the pathologic processes in the plaques we also analyzed pathways and gene sets dysregulated in this disease using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). According to the selection criteria used (>3.0 fold change and p-value <0.05), 235 genes were up-regulated and 68 genes down-regulated in the carotid plaques, 242 genes up-regulated and 116 down-regulated in the femoral plaques and 256 genes up-regulated and 49 genes down-regulated in the aortic plaques. Nine genes were found to be specifically induced predominantly in aortic plaques, e.g., lactoferrin, and three genes in femoral plaques, e.g., chondroadherin, whereas no gene was found to be specific for carotid plaques. In pathway analysis, a total of 28 pathways or gene sets were found to be significantly dysregulated in atherosclerotic plaques (false discovery rate [FDR] <0.25). Conclusions This study describes comprehensively the gene expression changes that generally prevail in human atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, site specific genes induced only in femoral or aortic plaques were found, reflecting that atherosclerotic process has unique features in different vascular beds. PMID:22509262

  6. Cocaine mediated apoptosis of vascular cells as a mechanism for carotid artery dissection leading to ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbouseh, Noura M; Ardelt, Agnieszka

    2011-08-01

    In arterial dissection, blood may enter the arterial wall through an intimal tear, splitting the arterial wall and activating the coagulation cascade at the site of endothelial damage. Dissection of extracranial and intracranial vessels may lead to ischemic stroke through thromboembolic or hemodynamic mechanisms. Major blunt trauma or rapid acceleration-deceleration may cause dissection, but in patients with inherent arterial wall weakness, dissection can occur spontaneously or as a result of minor neck movement. Cocaine use has been associated with dissection of the aortic arch and coronary and renal arteries through cocaine-mediated hypertension. Recent preclinical studies have suggested, however, that cocaine may cause apoptosis of cells in the vascular wall. In this article, we postulate that cocaine may cause apoptosis of vascular endothelial and/or smooth muscle cells, thus weakening the vascular wall and resulting in a dissection-prone state. We review the literature and propose a biological basis for vasculopathy, vascular dissection, and ischemic stroke in the setting of cocaine use. Further research studies on vascular cells, as well as focused analysis of human pathological material, will be important in providing evidence for or against our hypotheses. PMID:21546166

  7. Impaired autonomic regulation of resistance arteries in mice with low vascular endothelial growth factor or upon vascular endothelial growth factor trap delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkebaum, Erik; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Meens, Merlijn;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Control of peripheral resistance arteries by autonomic nerves is essential for the regulation of blood flow. The signals responsible for the maintenance of vascular neuroeffector mechanisms in the adult, however, remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report that VEGF( ...

  8. Abdominal aorta calcification score can be used to estimate the calcification degree of coronary artery in hemodialysis patients%腹主动脉钙化评分可预估血液透析患者的冠状动脉钙化程度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏; 严玉澄; 陆任华; 张敏芳; 颜佳毅; 庞慧华; 朱铭力; 张伟明; 倪兆慧

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察维持性血液透析患者腹主动脉钙化与冠状动脉钙化之间的关系,探讨应用腹主动脉钙化评分预估冠状动脉钙化情况的可能性. 方法 选择维持性血液透析患者,腹部侧位平片检测腹主动脉钙化情况,应用Kauppila半定量积分法计算腹主动脉钙化(AAC)积分.应用多层螺旋CT(MSCT)评估冠状动脉钙化情况,运用Agaston评分进行量化,Pearson相关性分析腹主动脉钙化和冠状动脉钙化之间的相关性,运用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)评价腹主动脉钙化评分预估冠状动脉钙化的准确性. 结果 共入选66例患者,平均年龄57.65±13.10岁,透析龄95.50(28.00~143.00)月,30.3%的患者合并糖尿病,透析的Kt/V 1.61(1.41~1.88).72.7%的患者存在腹主动脉钙化,中位AAC为8.5(0,15.00); 78.3%的患者存在冠状动脉钙化,中位冠状动脉钙化积分(CACs)为400.8(4.2,1476.23).相关性分析显示CACs与AAC呈显著正相关(r=0.664,P<0.001).AAC积分诊断各种程度冠状动脉钙化的曲线下面积在0.852~0.902.当AAC≥8时,其诊断冠状动脉重度钙化(CACs>400)的敏感性和特异性分别为84.4%和81.2%.Logistic回归分析显示随着腹主动脉钙化程度的升高,患者发生重度冠状动脉钙化的风险也显著升高.传统心血管危险因素和CKD相关危险因素联合AAC积分具有更强的预测维持性血液透析患者冠状动脉重度钙化的能力. 结论 维持性血液透析患者腹主动脉钙化和冠状动脉钙化之间存在显著相关性,应用腹部侧位平片对腹主动脉钙化情况进行评分可以较好地预估患者冠状动脉的钙化程度.%Objective To determine the relationship between abdominal aorta calcification and coronary artery calcification in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, and to explore the possibility of diagnosing coronary artery calcification (C AC) by using abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) score. Methods MHD patients were

  9. The effect of different amounts of calcium intake on bone metabolism and arterial calcification in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Umon; Park, Jong-Hoon; Hattori, Satoshi; Iimura, Yuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Akimoto, Takayuki; Omi, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Low calcium (Ca) intake is the one of risk factors for both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis in an estrogen deficiency state. To examine the effect of different amounts of Ca intake on the relationship between bone mass alteration and medial elastocalcinosis, 6-wk-old female SD rats were randomized into ovariectomized (OVX) control or OVX treated with vitamin D(3) plus nicotine injection (VDN) groups. The OVX treated with VDN group was then divided into 5 groups depending on the different Ca content in their diet, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 2.4% Ca intakes. After 8 wk of experimentation, the low Ca intake groups of 0.01% and 0.1% showed a low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone properties significantly different from those of the other groups, whereas the high Ca intake groups of 1.2% and 2.4% showed no difference compared with the OVX control. Only in the 0.01% Ca intake group, a significantly higher Ca content in the thoracic artery was found compared with that of the OVX control. Arterial tissues of the 0.01% Ca intake group showed an increase of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity, a marker of bone mineralization, associated with arterial Ca content. However, the high Ca intake did not affect arterial Ca content nor arterial BAP activity. These results suggested that a low Ca intake during periods of rapid bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency might be one possible cause for the complication of both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis.

  10. Arterial vascularization of the uropygial glands (Gl. uropygialis) in the rock partridge (Alectoris graeca) living in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, S; Aslan, K; Aksoy, G; Kürtül, I

    2004-06-01

    This study aims to observe the morphological characteristics of the uropygial gland (Glandula uropygialis), specifically the arterial vascularization, in rock partridges (Alectoris graeca) living in Turkey. Coloured-latex-injected animals were dissected and the gland and related arteries were observed. Mostly, the fourth paired caudal segmental arteries (Aa. segmentales caudales) arising from the median caudal artery (A. mediana caudae) were specified as the uropygial gland arteries. These arteries, in turn, gave the following rami: the muscular ramus (Ramus muscularis) to the levator coccygeus and lateral caudal muscles, the lateral ramus (Ramus lateralis) to the lateral coccygeus muscle and a small ventro-lateral division of the caudal component of the gland, and the medial rami (Ramus medialis) to the dorsal surface of the gland. PMID:15144283

  11. 维生素K2对老年去卵巢大鼠血管钙化的影响%Effect of Vitamin K2 on the Vascular Calcification of Old Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪英; 杨雅; 游志刚; 丁颖; 吴韦; 姜醒华

    2012-01-01

    Aim To explore the effect of Vitamin K2 on vascular calcifiction in old ovariectomized rats model. Methods Thirty-six ten months female SD rats were allocated into three groups randomly; sham operation group, ovariec-tomized (OVX) group and OVX + Vitamin K2 (OVX + VK2) group. Rats in OVX + VK2 group were administered orally with Vitamin K2 (30 mg( kg ? d) , 5 times a week) after three weeks of ovariectomy for 12 weeks. The urine and serum of all rats were kept every three weeks. All rats were sacrificed after 18 weeks, uterus and arteries were observed by his-tochemical method. The contents of MGP in serum and urine were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELJSA). Relative quantification of MGP mRNA expression in arterial was detected by Fluorescent real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression of ucMGP was detected by immunochistochemistry. Aterial calcification was evaluated by Von Kossa staining. The content of arterial calcium was measured. Results After 18 weeks of ovariectomized, the pathological section of uterus and aortic had differernt variation in different groups. The con-tent of estrogen in serum had no difference before ovariectomized. Before sacrifice, the content of estrogen of sham group had no change, the other groups reduced (P < 0. 05). The content of MGP in serum and urine had no difference before ovariectomized, the content of MGP in serum and urine decreased in OVX group, the content of MGP in serum and urine decreased and then increased in OVX + VK2 group. Relative quantification of MGP mRNA expression of aterial in OVX + VK2 group was significantly lower than sham group ( P < 0.01) , and was higher than that in OVX group (P < 0.01).The size of ucMGP localized in OVX + VK2 group was less than that in OVX group. The contents of arterial calcium in OVX + VK2 group were higher than that in sham group ( P < 0. 05) and lower than that in OVX group (P < 0. 01). Conclusions Vitamin K2 can improve

  12. [Therapy of arterial vascular occlusions of retinal and optic nerve (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchle, H J; Richard, G

    1979-01-01

    The authors report on 136 cases of arterial occlusion (80 patients suffering from occlusion of the retinal vessels and 56 patients with vascular occlusion in the optic nerve) who were treated with the vasoactive xanthic substance Pentoxifylline (Trental). A part from its positive effect on the vascular circulation, Trental also helps to improve microcirculation in the retinal and optic nerve tissue damaged by hypoxia. After a 2-week infusion therapy with additional digitalisation, treatment was continued for another 3-6 months with oral administration of Trental 400. In 50 cases therapy was combined with the systemic administration of corticosteroids. Under the mentioned therapy a definitely improved visual acuity (at least 3 lines on the eye charts) was achieved in 56% of the cases with occlusion of the retinal vessels and in 51% of the cases with vascular occlusion in the optic nerve, i.e., in 54% of the total number of patients. Whether or not the additional administration of corticosteroids helped to this effect was not proved. PMID:545196

  13. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  14. The persistent trigeminal artery: development, imaging anatomy, variants, and associated vascular pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Stephan; Spittau, Bjoern; McAuliffe, William

    2013-01-01

    The persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common and most cephalad-located embryological anastomosis between the developing carotid artery and vertebrobasilar system to persist into adulthood. As such, it is frequently reported as an incidental finding in computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography studies. Here, we review the embryology, anatomy, and angiographic imaging findings, including important variants of this commonly encountered cerebrovascular anomaly (reported incidence of PTA/PTA variants ranges from 0.1% to 0.76%). Further, the aim is to present the range of associated arterial anomalies or syndromes, as well as pathologies that are associated with a PTA: aneurysms, trigeminal cavernous fistulas, and trigeminal nerve compression. Besides summarizing the risks and clinical presentation of such pathologies, their management is discussed with endovascular strategies mostly being the primary choice for aneurysms and trigeminal cavernous fistulas. Symptomatic trigeminal nerve compression can be treated with microvascular decompression surgery. As an illustrative example, a case of a trigeminal cavernous fistula on a PTA variant is included, mainly to emphasize the importance of understanding the variant anatomy for treatment planning in such pathologies. Finally, recommendations on how to manage patients with PTA-associated vascular pathologies are advanced. PMID:22170080

  15. The vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator for reconstruction of the inferior alveolar nerve defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Hiroto, Saijo; Morooka, Shin; Kuwabara, Kaoru; Fujioka, Masaki

    2015-03-01

    The sural nerve has been described for nerve reconstruction of the maxillofacial region since it provides many advantages. We report a case of a vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator for immediate reconstruction after the removal of intraosseous neuroma originating in the inferior alveolar nerve. The patient had a neuroma caused by iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. A 4-cm long neuroma existed in the inferior alveolar nerve and was resected. A peroneal perforator was chosen as the pedicle of the vascularized sural nerve graft for the nerve gap. The graft including the skin paddle for monitoring the perfusion supplied by this perforator was transferred to the lesion. The nerve gap between the two stumps of the inferior alveolar nerve was repaired using the 6-cm long vascularized sural nerve. The perforator of the peroneal artery was anastomosed to the branch of the facial artery in a perforator-to-perforator fashion. There was no need to sacrifice any main arteries. The skin paddle with 1 cm × 3 cm in size was inset into the incised medial neck. Perceptual function tests with a Semmes-Weinstein pressure esthesiometer and two-point discrimination in the lower lip and chin at 10 months after surgery showed recovery almost to the level of the normal side. This free vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator may be a good alternative for reconstruction of inferior alveolar nerve defects. PMID:25346479

  16. Effect of L-Arginine on Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis in Rats with Hypoxic Pulmonary Vascular Structural Remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingrid Karmane SUMOU; Jun-Bao DU; Bing WEI; Chun-Yu ZHANG; Jian-Guang QI; Chao-Shu TANG

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) on the apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) in rats with hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling, and its mechanisms. Seventeen Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=5), a hypoxia group (n=7), and a hypoxia+L-Arg group (n=5). The morphologic changes of lung tissues were observed under optical microscope. Using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphatebiotin nick end labeling assay, the apoptosis of PASMC was examined. Fas expression in PASMC was examined using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the percentage of muscularized artery in small pulmonary vessels, and the relative medial thickness and relative medial area of the small and median pulmonary muscularized arteries in the hypoxic group were all significantly increased. Pulmonary vascular structural remodeling developed after hypoxia. Apoptotic smooth muscle cells of the small and median pulmonary arteries in the hypoxia group were significantly less than those in the control group. After 14 d of hypoxia, Fas expression by smooth muscle cells of median and small pulmonary arteries was significantly inhibited. L-Arg significantly inhibited hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling in association with an augmentation of apoptosis of smooth muscle cells as well as Fas expression in PASMC. These results showed that L-Arg could play an important role in attenuating hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling by upregulating Fas expression in PASMC, thus promoting the apoptosis of PASMC.

  17. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score (CACS was evaluated in 91 T2D patients using a multi-slice computed tomography. Patients were genotyped for ROS-scavenging enzymes, Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, Catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, as well as SNPs of NADPH oxidase as ROS-promoting elements, genes related to onset of T2D (CAPN10, ADRB3, PPAR gamma, FATP4. Age, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipid and duration of diabetes were evaluated for a multivariate regression analysis. Results CACS with Pro/Leu genotype of the GPx-1 gene was significantly higher than in those with Pro/Pro (744 ± 1,291 vs. 245 ± 399, respectively, p = 0.006. In addition, genotype frequency of Pro/Leu in those with CACS ≥ 1000 was significantly higher than in those with CACS OR = 3.61, CI = 0.97–13.42; p = 0.045 when tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that CACS significantly correlated with GPx-1 genotypes and age. Conclusion The presence of Pro197Leu substitution of the GPx-1 gene may play a crucial role in determining genetic susceptibility to coronary-arteriosclerosis in T2D. The mechanism may be associated with a decreased ability to scavenge ROS with the variant GPx-1.

  18. Spontaneous asj-2J mutant mouse as a model for generalized arterial calcification of infancy: a large deletion/insertion mutation in the Enpp1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Li

    Full Text Available Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, manifests with extensive mineralization of the cardiovascular system. The affected individuals in most cases die within the first year of life, and there is currently no effective treatment for this disorder. In this study, we characterized a spontaneous mutant mouse, asj-2J, as a model for GACI. These mice were identified as part of a phenotypic deviant search in a large-scale production colony of BALB/cJ mice at The Jackson Laboratory. They demonstrated a characteristic gait due to stiffening of the joints, with phenotypic similarity to a previously characterized asj ("ages with stiffened joints" mouse, caused by a missense mutation in the Enpp1 gene. Complementation testing indicated that asj-2J and asj were allelic. PCR-based mutation detection strategy revealed in asj-2J mice a large, 40,035 bp, deletion spanning from intron 1 to the 3'-untranslated region of the Enpp1 gene, coupled with a 74 bp insertion. This was accompanied with a significant reduction in the plasma PPi concentration and reduced PPi/Pi ratio. As a consequence, extensive aberrant mineralization affecting the arterial vasculature, a number of internal organs, and the dermal sheath of vibrissae, a progressive biomarker of the ectopic mineralization process, was demonstrated by a combination of micro computed tomography, histopathology with calcium-specific stains, and direct chemical assay of calcium. Comparison of the asj and asj-2J mice demonstrated that the latter ones, particularly when placed on an acceleration diet high in phosphate and low in magnesium, had more extensive mineralization. Thus, the asj-2J mouse serves as a novel model for GACI, a currently intractable disorder.

  19. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kinda eKhalaf; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Caroline eRobinson; Cornforth, David J.; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Hayder eAl-Aubaidy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated ...

  20. Combined vascular reconstruction and free flap transfer in diabetic arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermassen, F E; van Landuyt, K

    2000-01-01

    Gangrenous lesions of the foot or lower leg due to severe diabetic arterial disease resulting in extensive soft tissue defects with exposed bones or tendons often result, even after successful revascularisation, in staged or primary amputation. We present our experience with 45 such patients treated with combined arterial reconstruction and free tissue transfer for limb-salvage. All presented with peripheral vascular disease of diabetic origin, and extensive gangrenous lesions that could not be treated by simple wound closure or skin-grafting without major amputation. A total of 53 arterial reconstructions and 47 free-flap transfers were performed. In the majority of patients, the distal anastomosis was on a pedal or tibial vessel. These bypass grafts or a native revascularized artery served as the inflow tract for the free flap which was anastomosed using microsurgical techniques. Venous anastomoses were preferentially performed on the deep venous system. Donor muscles were Musculus rectus abdominis (n=37), Musculus latissimus dorsi (n=5), Musculus serratus anterior (n=3), and a perforator flap (n=2) tailored to the size of the defect and covered with a split thickness graft (STG). The operation was set up as a combined procedure in 39/45 patients, two teams working simultaneously, limiting the mean operative time to 6 h. Early reinterventions had to be performed in 14 patients resulting in five flap losses of which two could be treated with a new free flap transfer and three were amputated. Three other patients died in the postoperative period, leaving us with a total of 39/45 patients leaving the hospital with a full-length limb. Independent ambulation was achieved in 32 of these 39 patients. During late follow-up (mean 26 months) eight bypasses occluded resulting in two amputations and two new vascular reconstructions. Combined survival and limb-salvage rate was 84% after 1 year, 77% after 2 years and 65% after 3 years. The advantages of this combined technique

  1. Screening of differentially expressed genes related to artery calcification in rats by gene chip technology%利用基因芯片筛选动脉钙化大鼠差异表达基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢海林; 韦肖敏; 蒋汶洪; 胡明; 杨晗; 覃晓

    2016-01-01

    目的:利用基因芯片技术筛选正常大鼠和动脉钙化大鼠腹主动脉组织中差异表达基因及检测转化生长因子-β(TGF-β)、基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)和基质金属蛋白酶-9(MMP-9)的表达量,以探讨动脉钙化发病的可能机制。方法通过皮下注射大剂量维生素D3建立大鼠动脉钙化模型,采用Von Kossa染色观察动脉钙化程度,基因芯片技术筛选两组大鼠差异表达基因及检测TGF-β、MMP-2和MMP-9的表达量。结果与对照组相比,模型组差异表达的基因有710条,其中上调基因344条,下调基因366条。模型组TGF -β1、TGF-β3和MMP-2的表达均明显上调,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),而TGF-β2和MMP-9的表达则无明显差异(P>0.05)。结论动脉钙化的形成是多基因共同作用的结果,其中TGF-β、MMP-2和MMP-9对动脉钙化的发生发展起着至关重要的作用,其机制还有待进一步研究。%Objective To investigate the possible mechanism of arterial calcification by screening differentially expressed genes and detecting the expression levels of transforming growth factor beta ( TGF-β) , matrix metalloprotein-ase-2 ( MMP-2 ) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 ( MMP-9 ) between normal rats and rats with artery calcification through gene chip technology.Methods Arterial calcification in rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of large dose of vitamin D3 .The extent of artery calcification was determined by Von Kossa staining.Differentially expressed genes and the expression levels of TGF-β, MMP-2 and MMP-9 between normal rats and rats with arterial calcification were de-tected through gene chip technology.Results Compared with the control group, 710 genes were differentially expressed in the model group.344 were up-regulated and 366 were down-regulated.Expression levels of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, and MMP-2 in the model group were significantly up-regulated ( P

  2. Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula of an Adult-Type Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery with Multiple Vascular Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung-Chul; Park, Hyun; Choi, Choong-Gon

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous right carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a proximal segment of persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) and combined vascular anomalies such as left duplicated hypoplastic proximal posterior cerebral arteries and a variation of anterior choroidal artery supplying temporal and occipital lobe. A 45-year-old male presented with progressive right exophthalmos, diplopia, and ocular pain. With manual compression of the internal carotid artery, a cerebral angiography revealed a right CCF from a PPTA. Treatment involved the placement of detachable non-fibered and fibered coils, and use of a hyperglide balloon to protect against coil herniation into the internal carotid artery. A final angiograph revealed complete occlusion of PPTA resulted in no contrast filling of CCF. PMID:21607181

  3. Direct carotid cavernous fistula of an adult-type persistent primitive trigeminal artery with multiple vascular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung-Chul; Park, Hyun; Kwon, Do Hoon; Choi, Choong-Gon

    2011-04-01

    We report a case of spontaneous right carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a proximal segment of persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) and combined vascular anomalies such as left duplicated hypoplastic proximal posterior cerebral arteries and a variation of anterior choroidal artery supplying temporal and occipital lobe. A 45-year-old male presented with progressive right exophthalmos, diplopia, and ocular pain. With manual compression of the internal carotid artery, a cerebral angiography revealed a right CCF from a PPTA. Treatment involved the placement of detachable non-fibered and fibered coils, and use of a hyperglide balloon to protect against coil herniation into the internal carotid artery. A final angiograph revealed complete occlusion of PPTA resulted in no contrast filling of CCF. PMID:21607181

  4. Impaired sodium-dependent adaptation of arterial stiffness in formerly preeclamptic women : the RETAP-vascular study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Paauw, Nina D.; Toering, Tsjitske J.; Feelisch, Martin; Faas, Marijke M.; Sutton, Thomas R.; Minnion, Magdalena; Lefrandt, Joop. D.; Scherjon, Sicco A.; Franx, Arie; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A. Titia

    2016-01-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases later in life. Persistent vascular alterations in the postpartum period might contribute to this increased risk. The current study assessed arterial stiffness under low sodium (LS) and high sodium (HS) conditions

  5. Intra-arterial papaverine and leg vascular resistance during in situ bypass surgery with high or low epidural anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V;

    1993-01-01

    patients were operated during high epidural anaesthesia (> Th. 10). Flow increased and arterial pressure decreased after i.a. papaverine in all patients. When compared with patients operated during high epidural anaesthesia, flow increase and decrease in vascular resistance took place in patients operated...

  6. Phenylacetic acid and arterial vascular properties in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Jankowski, Vera; Henning, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is a recently described uremic toxin that inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and plasma membrane calcium ATPase and may therefore also be involved in remodeling of arteries. Such vascular effects have not been evaluated yet in patients with chronic kidney ...

  7. Effect of Heart Rate and Coronary Calcification on the Diagnostic Accuracy of the Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    MENG, LINGDONG; CUI, LIANQUN; Cheng, Yuntao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Tang, Yuansheng; Wang, Yong; Xu, Fayun

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography, with a particular focus on the effect of heart rate and calcifications. Materials and Methods One hundred and nine patients with suspected coronary disease were divided into 2 groups according to a mean heart rate ( 400). Next, the effect of heart rate and calcification on th...

  8. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuslein, Joshua L; Murrell, Kelsey P; Leiphart, Ryan J; Llewellyn, Ryan A; Meisner, Joshua K; Price, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase's (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6C(hi) and Ly6C(lo) blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK. PMID:27244251

  9. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuslein, Joshua L.; Murrell, Kelsey P.; Leiphart, Ryan J.; Llewellyn, Ryan A.; Meisner, Joshua K.; Price, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase’s (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by Thapsigargin in vascular smooth muscle cells of rat coronary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-yan; DENG Chun-yu; JIANG Li

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To establish the endoplasmic reticulum stress ( ERS) cell model in vascular smooth muscle cells ( VSMCs) of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.METHODS:Under sterile condition, the coronary arteries were isolated from SD rats .The primary VSMCs were cultured by tissue-sticking method , and observed the basic morphological characteristics under optical microscope .The marker proteins of VSMCs including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain ( SM-MHC) were identified by immuno-fluorescence technique .VSMCs were treated with thapsigargin (0.5, 1 and 2 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the expression levels of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) and C/EBP homologus protein (CHOP), the marker molecules of ERS, were detected using Western blotting.RESULTS:VSMCs climbed out from coronary artery tissues after about six days , and the cells had a nice state and formed the VSMC-like typical "peak valley".The results of immunofluorescence technique show that the marker proteins of VSMCs ,α-SMA and SM-MHC were expressed significantly .The results of Western blotting show that the protein expression levels of BiP and CHOP were increased by thapsigargin in a dose-dependent manner .CONCLUSION:VSMCs can be successfully cultured by tissue-sticking method and built the ERS model induced by thapsigargin .

  11. Flow Structures in a Healthy and Plaqued Artificial Artery using Fully Index Matched Vascular Flow Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Faraz; Jain, Akash; Sheng, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry measurements are made in a closed loop fully index matched flow facility to study the flow structures and flow wall interactions in healthy and diseased model arteries. The test section is 0.63 m long and the facility is capable of emulating both steady and pulsatile flows under physiologically relevant conditions. The model arteries are in-house developed compliant polymer (PDMS) tubes with 1 cm diameter and 1 mm wall thickness. The Reynolds numbers of flows vary up to 20,000. The plaque is simulated by introducing a radially asymmetric bump that can be varied in shape, size and compliancy. The overall compliancy of the model can be also controlled by varying ratio between the elastomer and the curing agent. The tubes are doped with particles allowing the simultaneous measurements of wall deformation and flows over it. The working fluid in the facility is NaI and is refractive index matched to the PDMS model. This allows flow measurement very close to the wall and measurement of wall shear stress. The aim of this study is to characterize the changes in flow as the compliancy and geometry of blood vessels change due to age or disease. These differences can be used to develop a diagnostic tool to detect early onset of vascular diseases.

  12. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Selda; Uslu, Fazil E; Kowalski, William J; Ermek, Erhan; Keller, Bradley B; Pekkan, Kerem

    2016-01-01

    The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD) and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for 3 consecutive early embryonic stages in the chick embryo. In conjunction with the in vivo growth and hemodynamics data, in vitro reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed to track changes in transcript expression relevant to histogenesis and remodeling of the embryonic arterial wall. Our non-invasive extended OCT imaging technique for the microstructural data showed continuous vessel growth. OCT data coupled with the PIV technique revealed significant but intermitted increases in wall shear stress (WSS) between first and second assigned stages and a noticeable decrease afterwards. Growth rate, however, did not vary significantly throughout the embryonic period. Among all the genes studied, only the MMP-2 and CASP-3 expression levels remained unchanged during the time course. Concurrent relationships were obtained among the transcriptional modulation of the genes, vascular growth and hemodynamics-related changes. Further studies are indicated to determine cause and effect relationships and reversibility between mechanical and molecular regulation of vasculogenesis. PMID:27552150

  13. NONINVASIVE EVALUATION OF VASCULAR WALL STIFFNESSIN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS, THE RISK FACTORS FOR ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Filippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the main indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in healthy ado-lescents with such risk factors (RF for arterial hypertension (AH as a family history on hypertension and smoking. Identify changes in the initial elastic-elastic properties of the arteries at the preclinical stage of development of hypertension.Material and methods. It was formed two groups of comparison. Age studied from 13 to 17 years (mean age (15.00 ± 0.31 years. The first group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents whose parents suffer from hypertension from a young age. The second group consisted of 30 healthy smokers teenager from healthy parents. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents from healthy parents. Determines the basic stiffness of the vascular wall: PWV, CAVI, SAI.Results. A significant in crease in the indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in the two comparison groups relative to the control. PWV: 6,89 ± 0,56 (first group, 7.13 ± 0.55 (second group and 5.5 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.L-CAVI: 5,46 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.84 ± 0.61 (second group and 4.32 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.R-CAVI: 5,63 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.89 ± 0.56 (second group and 4.49 ± 0.41(control, p < 0.05. R-AI: 0,89 ± 0,09 (first group, 0.95 ± 0.12 (second group and 0.62 ± 0.1 (control, p < 0.05.Smoking teenagers and adolescents with family history of hypertension, there are changes in the initial stiffness of the vessel wall, which requires the allocation of at-riskfor the development of hypertension and prevention activities at the preclinical stage of development ofthe disease.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography in a population unselected for degree of coronary artery calcification and without heart rate modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-J., E-mail: bcjlin@gmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, J.-C. [National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao City, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lai, Y.-J. [Department of Medical Imaging, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.-L. [Department of Medical Imaging, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, J.-Y. [Department of Medical Imaging, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, A.-H. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao City, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chu, S.-H. [Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao City, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: To assess the ability of coronary angiography performed using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) to evaluate coronary artery disease (CAD) in a population with unselected heart rates and extensive coronary calcification. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients at intermediate to high risk for CAD underwent both DSCT coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) within 30 days. No beta blockers were administered prior to imaging. Image quality and quantitatively stenosis of all coronary segments with a diameter >=1.5 mm were accessed. Patients were stratified according to mean heart rate (<70 versus >=70 bpm) and heart rate variability (<10 versus >=10 bpm). DSCT detection of coronary stenosis by segment, vessel, and patient characteristics were compared to the reference standard of ICA. Results: Diagnostic accuracy for all patients was high regarding sensitivity (97%), positive predictive value (PPV, 84.2%), and negative predictive value (NPV, 83.3%) but low regarding specificity (45.5%) with a moderate interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.50). The accuracy for vessel-based diagnosis was high regarding sensitivity (96.6%), specificity (80.8%), PPV (80.3%), and NPV (96.7%). The segment-based diagnostic results revealed a moderate interobserver agreement for image quality and sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for all segments of 66.9, 97.8, 90.8, and 89.9%, respectively. Conclusion: DSCT coronary angiography has high diagnostic accuracy in assessing CAD among patients at intermediate to high risk without using heart rate-modulating premedication. DSCT is not superior to ICA for diagnosis of calcified segments.

  15. Screening results for subclinical coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic individuals in relation to a detailed parental history of premature coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parental history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) is an established risk factor for CHD events in descendants. The study aim was to investigate whether subclinical coronary artery calcification (CAC) differs between asymptomatic individuals (a) without a parental CHD history, (b) with a parental history and (c) without knowledge of parental CHD history. The inclusion of individuals without knowledge of parental CHD history is a new approach. We also differentiated between CHD of mother and father to gain insight into their individual contributions. Data was obtained for 4,301 subjects aged 45–75 years free of overt CHD from the baseline screening of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. CAC, measured by electron-beam computed tomography, was modeled conducting logistic regressions. Model 1 included family history, Model 2 was adjusted for age (and gender) and Model 3 added common CHD risk factors. The CAC score was dichotomized using the age and sex-specific 75th percentile. The odds ratio (OR) for CAC ≥ age and sex-specific 75th percentile was 1.33 among individuals with parental premature CHD history (95 % confidence interval [95 %CI]: 1.08, 1.63), which did not change after full adjustment (OR 1.40, 95 %CI: 1.13, 1.74). Individuals with an unknown biological father or mother had a high chance of elevated CAC scores (fully adjusted; father: OR 1.38, 95 %CI: 1.01, 1.90, mother: OR 1.86, 95 %CI: 0.90, 3.84) compared to the reference group. The current study showed an association between parental CHD history and CAC independent of common CHD risk factors. This association affirms the use of parental CHD history in cardiovascular risk assessment among asymptomatic adults in routine practice. The observation that individuals who did not know their mother or father are prone to increased CAC scores needs further confirmation in large scale studies.

  16. Reliable categorisation of visual scoring of coronary artery calcification on low-dose CT for lung cancer screening: validation with the standard Agatston score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Fu-Zong; Wang, Yen-Chi [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung 813 (China); National Yang Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Ju, Yu-Jeng [National Taiwan University, Department of Psychology, Taipei (China); Mar, Guang-Yuan [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung 813 (China); Chuo, Chiung-Chen [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung 813 (China); Lin, Huey-Shyan [Fooyin University, School of Nursing, Kaohsiung (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung 813 (China); National Yang Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2013-05-15

    To validate the reliability of the visual coronary artery calcification score (VCACS) on low-dose CT (LDCT) for concurrent screening of CAC and lung cancer. We enrolled 401 subjects receiving LDCT for lung cancer screening and ECG-gated CT for the Agatston score (AS). LDCT was reconstructed with 3- and 5-mm slice thickness (LDCT-3mm and LDCT-5mm respectively) for VCACS to obtain VCACS-3mm and VCACS-5mm respectively. After a training session comprising 32 cases, two observers performed four-scale VCACS (absent, mild, moderate, severe) of 369 data sets independently, the results were compared with four-scale AS (0, 1-100, 101-400, >400). CACs were present in 39.6 % (146/369) of subjects. The sensitivity of VCACS-3mm was higher than for VCACS-5mm (83.6 % versus 74.0 %). The median of AS of the 24 false-negative cases in VCACS-3mm was 2.3 (range 1.1-21.1). The false-negative rate for detecting AS {>=} 10 on LDCT-3mm was 1.9 %. VCACS-3mm had higher concordance with AS than VCACS-5mm (k = 0.813 versus k = 0.685). An extended test of VCACS-3mm for four junior observers showed high inter-observer reliability (intra-class correlation = 0.90) and good concordance with AS (k = 0.662-0.747). This study validated the reliability of VCACS on LDCT for lung cancer screening and showed that LDCT-3mm was more feasible than LDCT-5mm for CAD risk stratification. (orig.)

  17. Morphological Atherosclerosis Calcification Distribution (MACD) Index is a Strong Predictor of Cardio-Vascular Death and Include Predictive Power of BMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten; Ganz, Melanie;

    followed for 8.3±0.3 years and CVD deaths were recorded. BMD and several aortic calcification markers were computed: number, morphology, distribution, from outlines of the calcified plaques in lumbar X-rays. These markers were compared to BMD, SCORE card, Framingham score, and the Aortic Calcification...... Severity score - AC24. AC24 adjusted by age, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels (ATW) predicted mortality in postmenopausal women (CVD p=0.03, All-cause p=0.006). The SCORE card and the Framingham score resulted in mortality odds ratios (MOR) of 5.0 and 5.2 - defining high risk as =6 and =18......, respectively. BMD and BMD adjusted for ATW was lower in the group of deceased than in survivors (pscores based on the calcification geometry provided highly significant predictions. The number of calcified deposits...

  18. Risk loci for coronary artery calcification replicated at 9p21 and 6q24 in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechlivanis Sonali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary heart disease (CHD, preceding the onset of cardiovascular disease by decades in most cases. Here we examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs integrated on Metabochip and coronary artery calcification (CAC, a valid risk factor for CHD, in an unselected, population-based German cohort. Methods The Metabochip is a custom iSELECT array containing >195,000 SNPs that was designed to support large-scale follow-up of putative associations for metabolic and cardiovascular-associated traits. We used generalized linear regression models to explore the impact of Metabochip SNPs on quantitative CAC in 4,329 participants. Results The 9p21 variant, rs1537373, was most strongly associated (Beta = 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.21-0.39; p = 4.05x10-11 with quantitative CAC. The second strongest association with CAC was with rs9349379 in the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene, PHACTR1, (Beta = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.22-0.40; p = 4.67x10-11. Both SNPs remained nominally significant in dichotomized analyses for the presence of any CAC (odds ratiors1537373 (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.07-1.31; p = 0.001 and ORrs9349379 = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.14-1.40; p = 1.5x10-5. Fine mapping of the 9p21 and PHACTR1 gene region revealed several other SNPs that were strongly associated with CAC. Conclusion We demonstrate that SNPs near 9p21 and in PHACTR1 that have previously been shown to be associated with CHD are strongly associated with CAC in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study cohort. Our findings suggest that the 9p21 and 6q24 loci might be involved in cardiac outcome via promoting development of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries.

  19. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on elevated arterial compliance and low systemic vascular resistance in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2001-01-01

    beta-blockers, but the effect of this treatment on arterial compliance has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the effects of propranolol on the arterial compliance of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty patients with cirrhosis underwent a haemodynamic......) of 17.8 mmHg, and responded to beta-blocker treatment with a significant reduction in the HVPG (-16%; P < 0.001). Arterial compliance was elevated (1.27 versus controls 1.01 ml/mmHg; P < 0.001), but remained almost unchanged during beta-adrenergic blockade (1.27 versus 1.29 ml/mmHg, +2%, ns), whereas...... beta-blockers increases small vessel (arteriolar) vascular tone towards the normal level, but does not affect the elevated compliance of the larger arteries in patients with cirrhosis....

  20. Composition of connective tissues and morphometry of vascular smooth muscle in arterial wall of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats - In relation with arterial remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kozaburo; Shimizu, Emiko

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension (HT) was induced in Wistar rats aged 16 and 48 weeks by a deoxycortico-sterone acetate (DOCA)-salt procedure. Common carotid arteries were resected 16 weeks after, and their histological specimens were selectively stained for observations of collagen, elastin, and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Then, the fractions of collagen and elastin and their radial distributions, and the size and number of VSM cells were determined with an image analyzer. These results were compared with the results from age-matched, non-treated, normotensive (NT) animals and also with those from our previous biomechanical studies. In both age groups, there were no significant differences in the fractions of collagen and elastin, and the ratio of collagen to elastin content between HT and NT arteries. These results correspond well with our previous biomechanical results, which showed no significant difference in wall elasticity between HT and NT vessels. Moreover, in the innermost layer out of 4 layers bordered with thick elastic lamellae, the fraction of collagen was significantly greater in HT arteries than in NT ones, which is attributable to HT-related stress concentration in the layer. VSM cells were significantly hypertrophied and their content was increased by HT, although their total number in the media remained unchanged. The increased size and content of cells correspond to the enhancement of vascular tone and contractility in HT arteries.

  1. Composition of connective tissues and morphometry of vascular smooth muscle in arterial wall of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats - In relation with arterial remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kozaburo; Shimizu, Emiko

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension (HT) was induced in Wistar rats aged 16 and 48 weeks by a deoxycortico-sterone acetate (DOCA)-salt procedure. Common carotid arteries were resected 16 weeks after, and their histological specimens were selectively stained for observations of collagen, elastin, and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Then, the fractions of collagen and elastin and their radial distributions, and the size and number of VSM cells were determined with an image analyzer. These results were compared with the results from age-matched, non-treated, normotensive (NT) animals and also with those from our previous biomechanical studies. In both age groups, there were no significant differences in the fractions of collagen and elastin, and the ratio of collagen to elastin content between HT and NT arteries. These results correspond well with our previous biomechanical results, which showed no significant difference in wall elasticity between HT and NT vessels. Moreover, in the innermost layer out of 4 layers bordered with thick elastic lamellae, the fraction of collagen was significantly greater in HT arteries than in NT ones, which is attributable to HT-related stress concentration in the layer. VSM cells were significantly hypertrophied and their content was increased by HT, although their total number in the media remained unchanged. The increased size and content of cells correspond to the enhancement of vascular tone and contractility in HT arteries. PMID:26987272

  2. Embolia arterial periférica por projétil de arma de fogo em civis: diagnóstico confirmado pelo ultrassom vascular Peripheral arterial emboli due to bullet projectile: diagnosis confirmed by vascular ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos de Morais Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de oclusão arterial aguda por projétil de arma de fogo. Devido à raridade do caso (23 relatos em 20 anos e a importância do diagnóstico diferencial precoce, uma revisão bibliográfica foi realizada. Foram abordados aspectos do quadro clínico, diagnóstico diferencial e tratamento. Neste caso, o diagnóstico por meio de ultrassom vascular da complicação foi publicado pela primeira vez.We describe a case of acute arterial occlusion caused by a firearm bullet. Since the case is rare (23 cases in 20 years, and due to the importance of early diagnosis, a bibliographic review was performed. Aspects of the clinical picture, differential diagnosis and treatment were approached. In this case, diagnosis by a vascular ultrasound was published for the first time.

  3. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on elevated arterial compliance and low systemic vascular resistance in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2001-01-01

    ) of 17.8 mmHg, and responded to beta-blocker treatment with a significant reduction in the HVPG (-16%; P controls 1.01 ml/mmHg; P ... systemic vascular resistance increased substantially (1083 versus 1378 dyn x s x cm-5, +27%; P blood pressure (-6%; P blood flow (-22%; P ... with beta-blockers increases small vessel (arteriolar) vascular tone towards the normal level, but does not affect the elevated compliance of the larger arteries in patients with cirrhosis....

  4. Cost-effectiveness of new cardiac and vascular rehabilitation strategies for patients with coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Spronk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD often hinders the cardiac rehabilitation program. The aim of this study was evaluating the relative cost-effectiveness of new rehabilitation strategies which include the diagnosis and treatment of PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. DATA SOURCES: Best-available evidence was retrieved from literature and combined with primary data from 231 patients. METHODS: We developed a markov decision model to compare the following treatment strategies: 1. cardiac rehabilitation only; 2. ankle-brachial index (ABI if cardiac rehabilitation fails followed by diagnostic work-up and revascularization for PAD if needed; 3. ABI prior to cardiac rehabilitation followed by diagnostic work-up and revascularization for PAD if needed. Quality-adjusted-life years (QALYs, life-time costs (US $, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER, and gain in net health benefits (NHB in QALY equivalents were calculated. A threshold willingness-to-pay of $75,000 was used. RESULTS: ABI if cardiac rehabilitation fails was the most favorable strategy with an ICER of $44,251 per QALY gained and an incremental NHB compared to cardiac rehabilitation only of 0.03 QALYs (95% CI: -0.17, 0.29 at a threshold willingness-to-pay of $75,000/QALY. After sensitivity analysis, a combined cardiac and vascular rehabilitation program increased the success rate and would dominate the other two strategies with total lifetime costs of $30,246 a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 3.84 years, and an incremental NHB of 0.06 QALYs (95%CI:-0.24, 0.46 compared to current practice. The results were robust for other different input parameters. CONCLUSION: ABI measurement if cardiac rehabilitation fails followed by a diagnostic work-up and revascularization for PAD if needed are potentially cost-effective compared to cardiac rehabilitation only.

  5. Deviation from optimal vascular caliber control at middle cerebral artery bifurcations harboring aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharoglu, Merih I; Lauric, Alexandra; Wu, Chengyuan; Hippelheuser, James; Malek, Adel M

    2014-10-17

    Cerebral aneurysms form preferentially at arterial bifurcations. The vascular optimality principle (VOP) decrees that minimal energy loss across bifurcations requires optimal caliber control between radii of parent (r₀) and daughter branches (r1 and r2): r₀(n)=r₁(n)+r₂(n), with n approximating three. VOP entails constant wall shear stress (WSS), an endothelial phenotype regulator. We sought to determine if caliber control is maintained in aneurysmal intracranial bifurcations. Three-dimensional rotational angiographic volumes of 159 middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcations (62 aneurysmal) were processed using 3D gradient edge-detection filtering, enabling threshold-insensitive radius measurement. Radius ratio (RR)=r₀(3)/(r₁(3)+r₂(3)) and estimated junction exponent (n) were compared between aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal bifurcations using Student t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. The results show that non-aneurysmal bifurcations display optimal caliber control with mean RR of 1.05 and median n of 2.84. In contrast, aneurysmal bifurcations had significantly lower RR (0.76, pbifurcations revealed a daughter branch larger than its parent vessel, an absolute violation of optimality, not witnessed in non-aneurysmal bifurcations. The aneurysms originated more often off the smaller daughter (52%) vs. larger daughter branch (16%). Aneurysm size was not statistically correlated to RR or n. Aneurysmal males showed higher deviation from VOP. Non-aneurysmal MCA bifurcations contralateral to aneurysmal ones showed optimal caliber control. Aneurysmal bifurcations, in contrast to non-aneurysmal counterparts, disobey the VOP and may exhibit dysregulation in WSS-mediated caliber control. The mechanism of this focal divergence from optimality may underlie aneurysm pathogenesis and requires further study.

  6. Cardioprotective effect of sevoflurane in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing vascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Bassuoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of sevoflurane compared with propofol in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD undergoing peripheral vascular surgery; and to address the question whether a volatile anesthetic might improve cardiac outcome in these patients. Methods: One hundred twenty-six patients scheduled for elective peripheral vascular surgery were prospectively randomized to receive either sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia or total intravenous anesthesia. ST-segment monitoring was performed continuously during intra- and post-operative 48 h periods. The number of ischemic events and the cumulative duration of ischemia in each patient were recorded. Blood was sampled in all patients for the determination of cTnI. Samples were obtained before the induction of anesthesia, on admission to the ICU, and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU. Patients were followed-up during their hospital stay for any adverse cardiac events. Results: The incidence of ischemia were comparable among the groups [16 (25% patients in sevoflurane group vs 24 (39% patients in propofol group; P=0.126]. Duration, cumulative duration, and magnitude of ST-segment depression of ischemic events in each patient were significantly less in sevoflurane group (P=0.008, 0.048, 0.038, respectively. cTnI levels of the overall population were significantly less in sevoflurane group vs propofol group (P values <0.0001 from 6 h postoperative and onward. Meanwhile, cTnI levels at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after admission to the ICU in patients who presented with ischemic electrocardiographic (ECG changes were significantly lower in sevoflurane group than in the propofol group (P<0.0001, <0.0001, <0.0001, 0.0003. None of the patients presented with unstable angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or serious arrhythmia either during ICU or hospital stay. Conclusion: Patients with CAD

  7. Infarctions in the vascular territory of the posterior cerebral artery: clinical features in 232 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Olga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemic stroke caused by infarction in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA has not been studied as extensively as infarctions in other vascular territories. This single centre, retrospective clinical study was conducted a to describe salient characteristics of stroke patients with PCA infarction, b to compare data of these patients with those with ischaemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA and anterior cerebral artery (ACA infarctions, and c to identify predictors of PCA stroke. Findings A total of 232 patients with PCA stroke were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 19 years (1986-2004. Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The characteristics of these 232 patients with PCA stroke were compared with those of the 1355 patients with MCA infarctions and 51 patients with ACA infarctions included in the registry. Infarctions of the PCA accounted for 6.8% of all cases of stroke (n = 3808 and 9.6% of cerebral infarctions (n = 2704. Lacunar infarction was the most frequent stroke subtype (34.5% followed by atherothrombotic infarction (29.3% and cardioembolic infarction (21.6%. In-hospital mortality was 3.9% (n = 9. Forty-five patients (19.4% were symptom-free at hospital discharge. Hemianopia (odds ratio [OR] = 6.43, lacunar stroke subtype (OR = 2.18, symptom-free at discharge (OR = 1.92, limb weakness (OR = 0.10, speech disorders (OR = 0.33 and cardioembolism (OR = 0.65 were independent variables of PCA stroke in comparison with MCA infarction, whereas sensory deficit (OR = 2.36, limb weakness (OR = 0.11 and cardioembolism as stroke mechanism (OR = 0.43 were independent variables associated with PCA stroke in comparison with ACA infarction. Conclusions Lacunar stroke is

  8. Release of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1) during coronary artery bypass surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Orsel Isabelle; Laskar Marc; Cornu Elisabeth; Leguyader Alexandre; Denizot Yves; Vincent Christelle; Nathan Nathalie

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was conducted to follow plasma concentrations of sFlt-1 and sKDR, two soluble forms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC). Methods Plasma samples were obtained before, during and after surgery in 15 patients scheduled to undergo CABG. Levels of sFlt-1 and KDR levels were investigated using specific ELISA. Results A 75-fold increase of sFlt...

  9. In situ replacement of infected vascular prosthesis with fresh arterial homograft: Early and long-term results in 18 patients

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    Pejkić Siniša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Graft infection is rightly considered one of the severest complications of vascular reconstruction. Treatment is non­standardized and associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. The choice of therapeutic modality depends upon variety of factors. One increasingly used option is in situ replacement of the infected prosthesis with the arterial allograft. Objective. The aim of this prospective nonrandomized study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of fresh arterial allograft as in situ substitute for the infected vascular prosthesis. Methods. During period of 2002-2005, 18 patients with the synthetic vascular graft infection underwent partial or complete prosthesis removal and secondary in situ reconstruction using the fresh arterial allograft, preserved under hypothermic conditions in buffered saline solution with an addition of antibiotics. Results. In 14 male and 4 female patients, meanaged 62 years, 8 aortic and 10 peripheral arterial infected prostheses were partially or completely replaced with the allograft. Operative mortality was 27.8% and amputation rate was 22.2%. Systemic sepsis at initial presentation and highly virulent nature of causative microorganisms were identified as significant negative prognostic factors (χ² test, p<0.05. During the long­term follow­up (mean 47 months, allograft aneurysm developed in three patients, requiring allograft explantation, followed in two cases by tertiary prosthetic reconstruction. Conclusion. Substitution of the infected prosthesis with the arterial allograft could be successful if used selectively - for less virulent and localized infections of extracavitary grafts. Close follow­up is mandatory for timely diagnosis of late homograft lesions and its eventual replacement with more durable prosthetic material.

  10. Impaired Arterial Elasticity Identified by Pulse Waveform Analysis as a Marker for Vascular Wall Damage in Humans With Aging and Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Tao Jun; Tu Chang; Yang Zhen; Xu Mingguo; Wang Jiemei; Jin Yafei; Ma Hong

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Cardiovascular risk factors lead to pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its clinical events by impairing vascular wall. Endothelial dysfunction is the earliest marker for vascular wall injuries. Development of new method to detect early vascular wall damage has an important clinical implication for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate effect of aging and hypertension, two independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, on arterial elasticity by using pulse waveform analysis and investigate whether the changes in arterial elasticity can be used as a risk marker for vascular structural and functional abnormalities. Methods Using modified Windkessel model of the circulation and pulse waveform analysis,C 1 large artery and C2 small artery elasticity indices of 204 Chinese normal healthy subjects ( age 15-80years) and 46 Chinese essential hypertensive patients (age 35-70 years) were measured. Age- and hypertension-related arterial elasticity changes were examined. Results C1 large artery and C2 small artery elasticity indices were reduced with advancing age in healthy subjects. C1 large artery and C2 small artery elasticity indices were negatively correlated with age (r=-0.628, P<0.001; r=-0.595, P<0.001). C1 large artery and C2 small artery elasticity indices in patients with essential hypertension compared with the agematched healthy subjects were (9.31±3.85 ml/mm Hg x 10 versus 15.13±4.14 ml/mmHg x 10, P<0.001) and (3.57± 1.62 ml/mm Hg x 100 versus 7.89±2.91 ml/mmHg ×100 P <0.001), respectively, and were significantly lower than the corresponding healthy subjects. There were negative association between C1large artery and C2 small artery elasticity indices and systolic blood pressure (r=-0.37, P<0.05; r=-0.39,P<0.05) and pulse pressure (r=-0.39, P<0.05; r=0.43,P<0.05) in patients with essential hypertension.Conclusions Advancing age and essential

  11. 冠状动脉钙化积分与血钙、血磷的关系探讨%Association of Coronary Artery Calcification Scores with Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春旺; 郭维军; 严士荣; 王连生

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨64排螺旋CT冠状动脉钙化积分(CACS)与血清钙、磷的关系.方法 入选可疑冠状动脉粥样硬化患者84例,所有患者均行64排螺旋CT测量CACS以及行相关血液生化检查.结果 CACS与血清钙、磷有明显的相关性,血清钙、磷水平越高,CACS值越大.结论 血清钙、磷水平的变化能较好的预测冠状动脉粥样钙化的发生、发展.%Objective To explore the relationship between the scrum calcium and phosphorus levels and coronary artery calcification scores(CACS) in coronary atherosclerosis patients,and to investigate its clinical value in the diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods Eighty- four patients with doubtful coronary atherosclerosis were enrolled in this study. All of them performed 64 slice spiral CT angiography and blood biochemical test. CACS were calculated using the computer. Results There was a significant correlation between CACS and the scrum calcium and phosphorus levels. As the scrum calcium and phosphorus levels increased , CACS tended to increase. Conclusion The scrum calcium and phosphorus levels could predict the occurrence and development of coronary artery calcification.

  12. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  13. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gutzeit@ksw.ch; Schie, Bram van, E-mail: Bram.vanschie@hotmail.com; Schoch, Eric, E-mail: eric.schoch@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Hergan, Klaus, E-mail: k.hergan@salk.at [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology (Austria); Graf, Nicole, E-mail: graf@biostatistics.ch; Binkert, Christoph A., E-mail: christoph.binkert@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  14. Obesidade e doença arterial coronariana: papel da inflamação vascular Obesidad y enfermedad arterial coronaria: papel de la inflamación vascular Obesity and coronary artery disease: role of vascular inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gomes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade vem se tornando uma epidemia global. Cerca de 1,1 bilhões de adultos e 10% das crianças do mundo são atualmente considerados portadores de sobrepeso ou obesos. Classicamente associada a fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, como diabete melito e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, a obesidade vem sendo cada vez mais encarada como fator de risco independente para doença arterial coronariana (DAC. A aterosclerose coronariana compreende uma série de respostas inflamatórias em nível celular e molecular, cujas reações se encontram mais exacerbadas em pacientes obesos. Antes considerado mero depósito de gordura, o tecido adiposo é visto hoje em dia como órgão endócrino e parácrino ativo, produtor de diversas citocinas inflamatórias, como as adipocinas. Este artigo visa alertar para o grave problema de saúde pública em que a obesidade se tornou nas últimas décadas e correlacionar o processo inflamatório exacerbado nos indivíduos obesos com a maior incidência de DAC nessa população.La obesidad se está tornando una epidemia global. Cerca de 1,1 billones de adultos y el 10% de los niños del mundo están considerados actualmente portadores de sobrepeso u obesos. Clásicamente asociada a factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular, como diabetes melitus e hipertensión arterial sistémica, la obesidad se está considerando cada vez más factor de riesgo independiente para enfermedad arterial coronaria (EAC. La aterosclerosis coronaria comprende una serie de respuestas inflamatorias a nivel celular y molecular, cuyas reacciones se encuentran más exacerbadas en pacientes obesos. Antes considerado mero depósito de grasa, el tejido adiposo está visto hoy en día como órgano endócrino y parácrino activo, productor de diversas citocinas inflamatorias, como las adipocinas. Este artículo apunta a alertar sobre el grave problema de salud pública en que se convirtió la obesidad en las últimas décadas y

  15. Use of bioresorbable vascular scaffold: a meta-analysis of patients with coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Spinthakis, Nikolaos; Gorog, Diana A; Prasad, Abhiram; Sullivan, Keith; Akhtar, Zaki; Kukreja, Neville; Srinivasan, Manivannan

    2016-01-01

    Background Differences in outcomes between bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) systems and drug-eluting metal stents (DES) have not been fully evaluated. We aimed to compare clinical and angiographic outcomes in randomised studies of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), with a secondary analysis performed among registry studies. Methods A meta-analysis comparing outcomes between BVS and DES in patients with CAD. Overall estimates of treatment effect were calculated with random-effects model and fixed-effects model. Results In 6 randomised trials (3818 patients), BVS increased the risk of subacute stent thrombosis (ST) over and above DES (OR 2.14; CI 1.01 to 4.53; p=0.05), with a trend towards an increase in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) (125 events in those assigned to BVS and 50 to DES; OR 1.36; CI 0.97 to 1.91; p=0.07). The risk of in-device late lumen loss (LLL) was higher with BVS than DES (mean difference 0.08 mm; CI 0.03 to 0.13; p=0.004). There was no difference in the risk of death or target vessel revascularisation (TVR) between the two devices. In 6 registry studies (1845 patients), there was no difference in the risk of death, MI, TVR or subacute ST between the two stents. Final BVS dilation pressures were higher in registry than in randomised studies (18.7±4.6 vs 15.2±3.3 atm; pimplantation techniques, in particular device underexpansion. PMID:27621831

  16. 维持性血液透析患者颈动脉钙化相关因素分析%Correlation Factors with Carotid Artery Calcification in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪滔; 何永成; 曾爱莲; 栾韶东; 万启军; 陈海波

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate prevalence and correlation factors of carotid calcification and in maintenance hemodialy-sis patients. Methods:The intima- media thickness (IMT) and calcification degree of bilateral carotid artery were detected by ultra-sonography in 35 maintenance hernodialysis (MHD) patients. Years on hernodialysis, systolic/pulse blood pressure, serum calcium/phosphorus and its product, serum lipid profile, C-reaction protein(CRP), intact- parathyroid hormone(i-PTH) were checked at the same time. Results: Carotid calcification was confirmed in 18 of 35 MHD patients (51.4%). 1MT( P< 0.01 ), years on hemodial-ysis, systolic/pulse blood pressure, serum calcium phosphorus product, CPR were significantly higher (P < 0.05) and serum albumin was significantly lower(P<0.05) in patients with carotid calcification than those in patients without carotid calcification. Conclu-sion: IMT, years on hemodialysis and serum calcium phosphorus product were main influential factors of carotid calcification 'in MIlD and systolic/pulse blood pressure, higher CRP level, lower serum albumin were closely correlated with carotid calcification. Carotid calcification was very prevalent in MHD patients.%目的:探讨慢性肾衰竭维持性血液透析(MHD)患者颈动脉钙化情况并分析相关因素.方法:对35例MHD患者应用彩色B型超声仪观测双侧颈动脉内膜-中膜厚度(IMT)及钙化情况,同时记录透析龄、收缩压、脉压差,抽血检测血钙、磷、血胆固醇、三酰甘油、白蛋白、C反应蛋白(CRP)、甲状旁腺素,并计算钙磷乘积.结果:35例终末期肾病(ESRD)患者18例(51.4%)存在颈动脉钙化.钙化组IMT值较无钙化组显著增高(P<0.01),透析龄、收缩压、脉压差、血磷、钙磷乘积、CRP较无钙化组明显增高(P<0.05),而钙化组血浆白蛋白较无钙化组显著降低(P<0.05).结论:IMT值、透析龄、血磷、钙磷乘积增高是颈动脉钙化的主要影响因素,收缩压、脉压差

  17. Hepatic arterial vascular anatomy. Normal supply and variants; Anatomia vascolare arteriosa epatica e sue varianti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, M.; Ariosi, P.; Calo' , G.F.; Romagnoli, R. [Modena e Reggio Emilia Univ., Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Mediche, Oncologiche e Radiologiche, Sez. di Scienze Radiologiche

    2000-09-01

    It was investigated the frequency of anatomical variants of the hepatic artery, which can influence interventional angiographic procedures. It was reviewed 150 consecutive angiograms performed for the treatment of primary (112) or metastatic (38) liver tumors and evaluated the frequency of anatomical variants of the hepatic artery based on the classification proposed by Michels in 1955, which describes 10 variants. The so-called typical anatomy which is in fact only found in 55% of cases, is indicated as type I. The typical anatomy (type I variant) was seen in 78 patients (52%) and variants were seen in the other 72 (48%). It was found that 15 type II variants (10%), 23 type III (15.5.%), 1 type IV and 1 type V (0.6%), 3 type VI (2%), 1 type VII (0.6%) and finally 6 type IX (4%). There were no type VIII or X variants, but in 22 patients (14.7%) vascular anatomy did not fit Michels' classification. In this series the typical hepatic artery anatomy was found in 52%, which is in agreement with Michels' findings, while the frequency of the individual anatomical variants differed. Not all of the variants reported by Michels were seen in our series and it was found 22 patients with different variants. Disagreement might be due to the fact that Michels' was an autoptic series while the patients were cancer patients only and thus variability could be at least partly accounted for by neoplastic neovascularization. It was believed that through knowledge of the anatomical variants of the hepatic artery is fundamental to angiographic practice, in particular for interventional procedures, because such variants can influence the choice of vascular technique and of materials. [Italian] Scopo di valutare l'incidenza delle varianti anatomiche del distretto arterioso epatico, la cui presenza puo' condizionare lo svolgimento delle tecniche di angiografia interventistica. E' stata eseguita la revisione degli studi angiografici di 150 pazienti consecutivi

  18. Erythropoietin attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension through interplay between endothelial progenitor cells and heme-oxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa L.E. Loon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO1.MethodsRats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO in the presence or absence of the selective HO-activity-inhibitor tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP. HO-activity, circulating EPCs and pulmonary vascular lesions were assessed after 3 weeks.ResultsIn PAH-rats, circulating EPCs were decreased and HO-activity was increased compared to control. EPO-treatment restored circulating EPCs and improved pulmonary vascular remodeling, as shown by a reduced wall thickness and occlusion rate of the intra-acinar vessels. Inhibition of HO-activity with SnMP aggravated PAH. Moreover, SnMP treatment abrogated EPO-induced amelioration of pulmonary vascular remodeling, while surprisingly further increasing circulating EPCs as compared with EPO alone.ConclusionsIn experimental PAH, EPO treatment restored the number of circulating EPC’s to control level, improved pulmonary vascular remodeling, and showed important interplay with HO-activity. Inhibition of increased HO-activity in PAH-rats exacerbated progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling, despite the presence of restored numbers of circulating EPC’s. We suggest that both EPO-induced HO1 and EPCs are promising targets to ameliorate the pulmonary vasculature in PAH.

  19. 老年人脑萎缩与颈内动脉虹吸部钙化积分的相关性研究%Study of correlation between the elder brain atrophy and calcification score at siphon segment of internal carotid artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志刚; 李丽新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between the elder brain atrophy and calcification score at siphon segment of internal carotid artery.Methods The brain CT examination was detected in 327 elders.The brain atrophy occurrence were observed, and the calcification score at siphon segment of internal carotid artery were determined and calculated.Accroding to the calcification score, all the cases were divided into calcification 0 score group, calcification 1-199 score group, calcification 200-399 score group, calcification 400-599 score group and calcification ≥600 score group.The situation of brain atrophy were compared among these groups.And the correlation between the brain atrophy and calcification score were analyzed.Results Accroding to the calcification score, there were 63 cases in calcification 0 score group, 133 cases in calcification 1-199 score group, 72 cases in calcification 200-399 score group, 28 cases in calcification 400-599 score group and 31 cases in calcification ≥600 score group.There were 13 cases ( 20.63%) of brain atrophy in calcification 0 score group, 64 cases (48.12%) in calcification 1 -199 score group, 51 cases (70.83%) in calcification 200 -399 score group, 23 cases (82.14%) in calcification 400-599 score group and 28 cases (90.32%) in calcification≥600 score group;the differences of the brain atrophy rate among these groups were statistical significant ( all P<0.05 ) .The brain atrophy was mainly mild-moderate in calcification 0 score group and calcification 1 -199 score group;which was mainly severe in calcification 200 -399 score group;and mainly moderate-severe in calcification 400 -599 score group and calcification≥600 score group (all P<0.05).Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the degree of brain atrophy were positive correlated with calcification score at siphon segment of internal carotid artery ( r=0.717, P<0.05) .Conclusions The elder brain atrophy is significantly correlated with calcification score at

  20. 腹膜透析患者钙磷代谢与颈动脉钙化相关性临床研究%Clinical analysis on correlation between the calcium-phosphorus metabolism and carotid artery calcification in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 贺晓; 高德; 吴琼

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the relevant factor of carotid artery calcification and calcium-phosphorus metabolism and investi-gate the prevention and treatment of calcium-phosphorus metabolism to carotid artery calcification in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis ( CAPD). Methods 68 patients with peritoneal dialysis were divided into different groups according the dose of peritoneal dialysate exchanged everyday and the different level of carotid artery calcification. Meanwhile the relationships between carotid artery calcification and calcium, phosphate, and so on were analyzed. Results In total 68 patients with CAPD, ca-rotid calcification was confirmed in 51 patients (73 % ). The longer peritoneal dialysis time, the more severer carotid artery calcifi-cation (P <0.01). Patients with carotid artery calcification had higher serum phosphate level, calcium-phosphorus product, CRP level and lower serum albumin than those patients without carotid calcification ( P < 0.05 or 0. 01). Conclusion Carotid artery calcification with different levels are existed in CAPD patients. The nutritional status and the peritoneal dialysis time correlate with carotid artery calcification closely. The higher serum phosphate level, calcium-phosphorus product, CRP level and lower serum al-bumin are main influential factors of carotid artery calcification. They are the important dangerous factors to carotid artery calcifica-tion.%目的 观察钙磷代谢紊乱与颈动脉钙化的关系,探讨持续性非卧床腹膜透析(CAPD)患者颈动脉钙化的危险因素及防治.方法 将68例CAPD患者根据透析剂量及颈动脉钙化程度分组,观察颈动脉钙化与血钙、血磷等各生化指标的关系.采用彩色多普勒超声诊断仪观察腹透患者颈动脉钙化程度.结果 68例CAPD患者中不同程度颈动脉钙化者51例(75.0%),随着透析时间的延长,腹膜透析患者颈动脉钙化程度增加(P<0.01);钙化组血磷、钙磷乘积

  1. [Intra-arterial thrombolysis of a basilar vascular accident during coronary angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battikh, K; Rihani, R; Lemahieu, J M; Mokahal, M; Houchaymi, Z; Cornaert, P; Dutoit, A

    2001-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 67 year old man with a previous history of aortobifemoral arterial graft who had unstable angina after carotid endarterectomy. Coronary angiography by the right brachial artery was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident with a reactive coma, convulsions and respiratory problems. Selective angiography of the right vertebral artery showed an image of occlusive thrombosis of the basilar artery. In view of the clinical state and angiographic appearances, the authors decided on immediate intra-arterial thrombolysis with Urokinase which dissolved the clot and reestablished flow in the basilar artery, the cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries. The outcome was favourable with immediate and good recovery of consciousness and hospital discharge on the sixth day without neurological or radiological sequellae. Cerebrovascular accident is a rare and potentially serious complication of left heart catheterisation which requires immediate cerebral angiography to determine the mechanism and propose an appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:11603067

  2. Organ culture of C57BL/6 mouse arteries with LPS as an in vitro model of vascular inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Emilie Middelbo; Mehryar, Rahila; Boonen, Harrie C.M.;

    was achieved at a normalisation factor of 0.9 (0.91 ± 0.06, mean ± SEM, n = 9) as observed (0.85 ± 0.06, mean ± SEM, n = 3) and previously described in rat MA (Mulvany and Halpern, 1977). Furthermore, preliminary findings show that organ culture with 100 ng/mL LPS decreases endothelium-dependent dilation of C......57BL/6 MA along with increased expression of inflammatory markers in aorta. Conclusions: In C57BL/6 MA, maximum active wall tension was achieved with a normalisation factor of 0.9. Furthermore, organ culture with LPS induces vascular inflammation and functional changes in C57BL/6 arteries...... an in vitro model for studying vascular inflammation and function in cultured arteries from C57BL/6 mice. Methods: Segments of abdominal aorta and mesenteric arteries (MA) were incubated for 24 hours at 37̊C and 95% O2/5% CO2 in DMEM ± 100 ng/mL LPS. Aorta segments were frozen for molecular studies...

  3. New treatment of iliac artery disease: focus on the Absolute Pro® Vascular Self-Expanding Stent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay Gates, Jeffrey Indes Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Management of iliac artery disease has evolved over the years, from a surgical-only approach to a primarily endovascular-only approach as the first line treatment option. This has been continuously improved upon with the advent of new devices and applied technologies. Most recently in particular, the literature has shown good, reliable outcomes with the use of self-expandable stents in iliac artery atherosclerotic lesions. Nevertheless, no device is without its limitations, and the Absolute Pro® Vascular Self-Expanding Stent System was designed with the intent of overcoming some of the shortcomings of other available stents while maintaining acceptable postprocedural outcomes. Based on preliminary industry-acquired data, it has achieved these goals and appears to be an emergent competitor for the treatment of both focal and complex iliac artery lesions. Keywords: Absolute-Pro®, iliac stent, self-expanding stents, atherosclerotic disease

  4. Successful Pancreaticoduodenectomy with Immediate Vascular Reconstruction in a Patient with Cancer of the Pancreatic Head and Celiac Artery Stenosis. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Peros

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Celiac artery stenosis is observed in a significant percentage of individuals in the general population. Although usually clinically silent and insignificant, due to the presence of extensive collaterals between the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery, celiac artery stenosis may be associated with potentially catastrophic ischemic complications in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, due to the abrupt interruption of the collateral pathways. Therefore, revascularization may be indicated in selected patients with celiac artery stenosis undergoing a PD. Case report We present a patient with celiac artery stenosis diagnosed intraoperatively during a PD, who underwent vascular reconstruction at the time of the PD. In the immediate postoperative period, he developed hepatic ischemia due to stenosis at the anastomosis of the stent with the hepatic artery. He was subsequently treated successfully with the endovascular placement of a stent. In retrospect, a careful reevaluation of the preoperative abdominal CT scan showed the stenosis at the origin of celiac artery. Conclusion A careful evaluation of abdominal CT scan is required to preoperatively identify this not uncommon vascular obstructive disease, especially in asymptomatic patients. Otherwise, the astute surgeon should suspect celiac artery stenosis based on intraoperative findings/changes immediately following ligation of the gastroduodenal artery during a PD.

  5. Looped and Tortuous Ulnar Artery – An Erratic Unilateral Vascular Presentation in the Proximal Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vincent; Rao, Mohandas KG; Nayak, Shivananda

    2016-01-01

    Precise and detailed knowledge of possible anatomical variations of the arterial pattern in the upper extremity is vital during reparative surgery in this region. Scientific literatures witnessed several reports on variant origin and branching pattern of ulnar artery. But report on looped and tortuous ulnar artery is lacking in the literature. We report here a unique case of ulnar artery having double loop at its commencement giving it an appearance of sigmoid shape and its undue tortuous course in the forearm. Such an unusual and unpredictable variation of ulnar artery is vulnerable for life threatening hemorrhage during clinical approaches. It could also lead to misinterpretation of CT scans as presence of tumours. Awareness on such exceptional anatomical discrepancy of ulnar artery is important to clinicians, neuroradiologists and radiologists in general. PMID:27504273

  6. Vascular-Leukocyte Interactions : Mechanisms of Human Decidual Spiral Artery Remodeling in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hazan, Aleah D.; Smith, Samantha D.; Jones, Rebecca L; Whittle, Wendy; Lye, Stephen J.; Dunk, Caroline E.

    2010-01-01

    Transformation of uterine spiral arteries is critical for healthy human pregnancy. We recently proposed a role for maternal leukocytes in decidual spiral artery remodeling and suggested that matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity contributed to the destruction of the arterial wall. In the current study we used our first trimester placental-decidual co-culture (PDC) model to define the temporal relationship and test the mechanistic aspects of this process. PDC experiments were assessed by image...

  7. Nicorandil attenuates monocrotaline-induced vascular endothelial damage and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An antianginal K(ATP channel opener nicorandil has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems; however, its effects on pulmonary vasculature under pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether nicorandil can attenuate monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT were randomized to receive either vehicle; nicorandil (5.0 mg·kg(-1·day(-1 alone; or nicorandil as well as either a K(ATP channel blocker glibenclamide or a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, from immediately or 21 days after MCT injection. Four or five weeks later, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was measured, and lung tissue was harvested. Also, we evaluated the nicorandil-induced anti-apoptotic effects and activation status of several molecules in cell survival signaling pathway in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Four weeks after MCT injection, RVSP was significantly increased in the vehicle-treated group (51.0±4.7 mm Hg, whereas it was attenuated by nicorandil treatment (33.2±3.9 mm Hg; P<0.01. Nicorandil protected pulmonary endothelium from the MCT-induced thromboemboli formation and induction of apoptosis, accompanied with both upregulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS expression and downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Late treatment with nicorandil for the established PAH was also effective in suppressing the additional progression of PAH. These beneficial effects of nicorandil were blocked similarly by glibenclamide and l-NAME. Next, HUVECs were incubated in serum-free medium and then exhibited apoptotic morphology, while these changes were significantly attenuated by nicorandil administration. Nicorandil activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  8. Determination of Vascular Reactivity of Middle Cerebral Arteries from Stroke and Spinal Cord Injury Animal Models Using Pressure Myography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mohammad A; Eid, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability. Moreover, the cerebro-vasculature (large vessels and arterioles) is involved in regulating blood flow by facilitating auto-regulatory processes. Moreover, the anterior (middle cerebral artery and the surrounding region) and posterior (basilar artery and its immediate locality) regions of the brain play a significant role in triggering the pathological progression of ischemic stroke particularly due to inflammatory activity and oxidative stress. Interestingly, modifiable and non-modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for driving ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and spinal cord injury. There are different stroke animal models to examine the pathophysiology of middle cerebral and basilar arteries. In this context, arterial myography offers an opportunity to determine the etiology of vascular dysfunction in these diseases. Herein, we describe the technique of pressure myography to examine the reactivity of cerebral vessels to contractile and vasodilator agents and a prelude to stroke and spinal cord injury. PMID:27604741

  9. A Combination of Drug-Eluting Stents and Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds in the Treatment of Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamary, Ahmed; Zilio, Filippo; Napodano, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Optimal management of multivessel coronary artery disease can be complex. We report a 67-year-old male patient who was admitted to the Padua University Hospital, Padua, Italy, in 2014 with a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed diffuse multiple sub-occlusive lesions of the proximal and distal left coronary vessels involving a long segment of the vessel. On intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS), the left main artery was moderately diseased with critically stenotic and calcified branch ostia. A successful percutaneous coronary intervention using the T-stenting and small protrusion technique with two drug-eluting stents (DES) was performed on the left main artery and its main branches. Two bioresorbable vascular scaffolds were also deployed in overlap at the mid to distal segments of the left anterior descending artery and overlapping a previous DES at the proximal segment. The full expansion and apposition of the struts and scaffolds to the vessel wall without residual stenosis was confirmed by IVUS. PMID:27606119

  10. A Combination of Drug-Eluting Stents and Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds in the Treatment of Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamary, Ahmed; Zilio, Filippo; Napodano, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Optimal management of multivessel coronary artery disease can be complex. We report a 67-year-old male patient who was admitted to the Padua University Hospital, Padua, Italy, in 2014 with a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed diffuse multiple sub-occlusive lesions of the proximal and distal left coronary vessels involving a long segment of the vessel. On intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS), the left main artery was moderately diseased with critically stenotic and calcified branch ostia. A successful percutaneous coronary intervention using the T-stenting and small protrusion technique with two drug-eluting stents (DES) was performed on the left main artery and its main branches. Two bioresorbable vascular scaffolds were also deployed in overlap at the mid to distal segments of the left anterior descending artery and overlapping a previous DES at the proximal segment. The full expansion and apposition of the struts and scaffolds to the vessel wall without residual stenosis was confirmed by IVUS. PMID:27606119

  11. Adipose inflammation initiates recruitment of leukocytes to mouse femoral artery: role of adipo-vascular axis in chronic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumihiko Hagita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although inflammation within adipose tissues is known to play a role in metabolic syndrome, the causative connection between inflamed adipose tissue and atherosclerosis is not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the direct effects of adipose tissue on macro-vascular inflammation using intravital microscopic analysis of the femoral artery after adipose tissue transplantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We obtained subcutaneous (SQ and visceral (VIS adipose tissues from C57BL/6 mice fed normal chow (NC or a high fat diet (HF, then transplanted the tissues into the perivascular area of the femoral artery of recipient C57/BL6 mice. Quantitative intravital microscopic analysis revealed an increase in adherent leukocytes after adipose tissue transplantation, with VIS found to induce significantly more leukocyte accumulation as compared to SQ. Moreover, adipose tissues from HF fed mice showed significantly more adhesion to the femoral artery. Simultaneous flow cytometry demonstrated upregulation of CD11b on peripheral granulocyte and monocytes after adipose tissue transplantation. We also observed dominant expressions of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, and chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-1β in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF of these adipose tissues as well as sera of recipient mice after transplantation. Finally, massive accumulations of pro-inflammatory and dendritic cells were detected in mice with VIS transplantation as compared to SQ, as well as in HF mice as compared to those fed NC. CONCLUSION: Our in vivo findings indicate that adipose tissue stimulates leukocyte accumulation in the femoral artery. The underlying mechanisms involve upregulation of CD11b in leukocytes, induction of cytokines and chemokines, and accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in the SVF.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se-Hee [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J. [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Holland, Melinda B. [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kim, Jun-Dae [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Jin, Suk-Won, E-mail: suk-won.jin@yale.edu [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of new cardiac and vascular rehabilitation strategies for patients with coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spronk (Sandra); J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud); C. Ryjewski (Connie); J. Rosenblum (Judy); G.C. Kaandorp (Guido); J.V. White (John); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often hinders the cardiac rehabilitation program. The aim of this study was evaluating the relative cost-effectiveness of new rehabilitation strategies which include the diagnosis and treatment of PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (

  15. The relationship of pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance to pulmonary artery wedge pressure during submaximal exercise in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P.; Granton, John T.; Esfandiari, Sam; Goodman, Jack M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points A consistent inverse hyperbolic relationship has been observed between pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance, although changes in pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) may modify this relationship.This relationship predicts that pulmonary artery systolic, diastolic and mean pressure maintain a consistent relationship relative to the PAWP.We show that, in healthy exercising human adults, both pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance decrease in relation to exercise‐associated increases in PAWP.Pulmonary artery systolic, diastolic and mean pressures maintain a consistent relationship with one another, increasing linearly with increasing PAWP.Increases in PAWP in the setting of exercise are directly related to a decrease in pulmonary vascular compliance, despite small decreases in pulmonary vascular resistance, thereby increasing the pulsatile afterload to the right ventricle. Abstract The resistive and pulsatile components of right ventricular afterload (pulmonary vascular resistance, Rp; compliance, Cp) are related by an inverse hyperbolic function, expressed as their product known as RpCp‐time. The RpCp‐time exhibits a narrow range, although it may be altered by the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP). Identifying the determinants of RpCp‐time should improve our understanding of the physiological behaviour of pulmonary arterial systolic (PASP), diastolic (PADP) and mean (mPAP) pressures in response to perturbations. We examined the effect of exercise in 28 healthy non‐athletic adults (55 ± 6 years) who underwent right heart catheterization to assess haemodynamics and calculate Rp and Cp. Measurements were made at rest and during two consecutive 8–10 min stages of cycle ergometry, at targeted heart‐rates of 100 beats min–1 (Light) and 120 beats min–1 (Moderate). Cardiac output increased progressively during exercise. PASP, PADP, mPAP and PAWP increased for Light exercise, without any further rise for Moderate

  16. Extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular calcification: expanding current paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Jona B; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification is a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries. New evidence on the mechanisms of mineralization identified calcification-competent extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from smooth muscle cells, valvular interstitial cells and macrophages as the mediators of calcification in diseased heart valves and atherosclerotic plaques. However, the regulation of EV release and the mechanisms of interaction between EVs and the extracellular matrix leading to the formation of destabilizing microcalcifications remain unclear. This review focuses on current limits in our understanding of EVs in cardiovascular disease and opens up new perspectives on calcific EV biogenesis, release and functions within and beyond vascular calcification. We propose that, unlike bone-derived matrix vesicles, a large population of EVs implicated in cardiovascular calcification are of exosomal origin. Moreover, the milieu-dependent loading of EVs with microRNA and calcification inhibitors fetuin-A and matrix Gla protein suggests a novel role for EVs in intercellular communication, adding a new mechanism to the pathogenesis of vascular mineralization. Similarly, the cell type-dependent enrichment of annexins 2, 5 or 6 in calcifying EVs posits one of several emerging factors implicated in the regulation of EV release and calcifying potential. This review aims to emphasize the role of EVs as essential mediators of calcification, a major determinant of cardiovascular mortality. Based on recent findings, we pinpoint potential targets for novel therapies to slow down the progression and promote the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26824781

  17. Role of Adenosine Receptor(s) in the Control of Vascular Tone in the Mouse Pudendal Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labazi, Hicham; Tilley, Stephen L; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2016-03-01

    Activation of adenosine receptors (ARs) has been implicated in the modulation of renal and cardiovascular systems, as well as erectile functions. Recent studies suggest that adenosine-mediated regulation of erectile function is mainly mediated through A2BAR activation. However, no studies have been conducted to determine the contribution of AR subtype in the regulation of the vascular tone of the pudendal artery (PA), the major artery supplying and controlling blood flow to the penis. Our aim was to characterize the contribution of AR subtypes and identify signaling mechanisms involved in adenosine-mediated vascular tone regulation in the PA. We used a DMT wire myograph for muscle tension measurements in isolated PAs from wild-type, A2AAR knockout, A2BAR knockout, and A2A/A2BAR double-knockout mice. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of the AR subtypes. Data from our pharmacologic and genetic approaches suggest that AR activation-mediated vasodilation in the PA is mediated by both the A2AAR and A2BAR, whereas neither the A1AR nor A3AR play a role in vascular tone regulation of the PA. In addition, we showed that A2AAR- and A2BAR-mediated vasorelaxation requires activation of nitric oxide and potassium channels; however, only the A2AAR-mediated response requires protein kinase A activation. Our data are complemented by mRNA expression showing the expression of all AR subtypes with the exception of the A3AR. AR signaling in the PA may play an important role in mediating erection and represent a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:26718241

  18. VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity in the porcine arteries of vascular subovarian plexus (VSP during the estrous cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andronowska

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an important angiogenic factor in the female reproductive tract. It binds to cell surface through ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase receptors, the most important being VEGFR-1 (flt-1 and VEGFR-2 (flk-1. The broad ligament of the uterus is a dynamic organ consisting of specialized complexes of blood vessels connected functionally to the uterus, oviduct and ovary. Endothelial cells form an inner coating of the vessel walls and thus they stay under the influence of various modulators circulating in blood including ovarian steriods involved in developmental changes in the female reproductive system. The aim of the present study was to immunolocalize VEGF and its two receptors: VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in the broad ligament of the uterus in the area of vascular subovarian plexus during different phases of the estrous cycle in pig and to determine the correlation between immunoreactivity of the investigated factors and phases of the estrous cycle. The study was performed on cryostat sections of vascular subovarian plexus stained immunohistochemically by ABC method. Specific polyclonal antibodies: anti-VEGF, anti-VEGFR-1 and anti-VEGFR-2 were used. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Our study revealed the presence of VEGF and its receptors in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of VSP arteries. All agents displayed phase-related differences in immunoreactivity suggesting the modulatory effect of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on the arteries of the VSP in the porcine broad ligament of the uterus.

  19. Simultaneous occlusion of left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries by very late stent thrombosis: vascular response to drug-eluting stents assessed by intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Masahiro; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Nakano, Masatsugu; Muramatsu, Takashi; Nakatani, Shimpei; Ishibashi, Yuki; Ishimori, Hiroshi; Hirano, Keisuke; Ito, Yoshiaki; Tsukahara, Reiko; Muramatsu, Toshiya

    2015-11-01

    Very late stent thrombosis (VLST) is a catastrophic complication after implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES). It has been reported that VLST is associated with pathological changes, which often include late acquired incomplete stent apposition (LAISA) with thrombus formation. In addition, the vascular response to the stent (evaginations, neointimal growth, and thrombosis) and the incidence of LAISA are reported to vary among the different types of DES. We experienced a patient with cardiogenic shock induced by simultaneous VLST of both the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCX) at 3 years after implantation of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) showed LAISA of both arteries. A paclitaxel-eluting stent, which had been implanted in the right coronary artery 3 years earlier, did not show such a finding. IVUS revealed "different vascular reactions" to "different types of DES" in this patient.

  20. Assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma vascularity before and after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization by using first pass perfusion weighted MR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Gong Zhao; Gan-Sheng Feng; Xiang-Quan Kong; Xin Li; Ming-Hua Li; Ying-Sheng Cheng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the vascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)before and after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with the quantitative parameters obtained by first pass perfusion weighted MR imaging (FP-MRI).METHODS: Seventeen consecutive patients with one to three lesions in liver underwent FP-MRI before treatment.FP-MRI was also performed one, three, six, nine months,and one year after TACE. The baseline signal intensity (SO)of pre-TACE and one month after TACE was analyzed, the vascularity of HCC assessed by steepest slope of the signal intensity versus time curves (SS) was blindly correlated with their DSA feature and clinical outcome.RESULT: No significant difference was found on baseline signal intensity (SO) between pre-TACE and one month after TACE (F=0.309, P=0.583), The SS (mean, 32% per second) of lesion one month after TACE was lower than that of pre-TACE (mean, 69% per second), but with no statistical significance (F=3.067, P=0.092). When local recurrence occurred, the time intensity curves became steeper. The vascularity of HCC before and after TACE graded by SS closely correlated with that by DSA (K=0.453, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: FP-MRI is a useful criterion for selecting effective interventional treatment for patients with HCC in their initial treatment and during follow up.

  1. Correlation between arterial vascularity by radiologic study and structural histopathologic type in resected hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jae Chun; Lee, Jin Wook; Lee, Yong Woo; Jang, Yoo Song; Lee, Sang Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Pyo [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Ho [College of Medicine, Sunchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To analyze the correlation between dynamic vascular pattern and structural histologic type of HCC. The materials consisted of 35 cases of HCC, which could be classified by structural histologic type and had available preoperative arterial dominant images. Excluding one case of pseudo glandular type, we compared structural histologic type of the tumors(trabecular group; 13 cases, mixed group; 10 cases, and non trabecular group; 11 cases) with dynamic vascular pattern such as degrees of tumor staining, severity of tumor vessels on hepatic angiography, and with enhancing degrees of early phase relative to late phase on two-phase incremental bolus dynamic CT. In hepatic angiogram, trabecular group showed stronger tumor staining and more prominent dilatation and irregularity of tumor vessels than those of non trabecular group, and In two-phase incremental bolus dynamic CT, and trabecular group showed more prominent tumor enhancement in early phase than those in late phase. The trabecular type(typical) and non-trabecular type of HCC showed radiologically different vascular patterns and therefore we believe that this maybe the basis with which diagnosis and treatment policy of radiologically atypical HCC could be made.

  2. Successful laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection preserving the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery for advanced gastric cancer with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hironobu; Yasuda, Takashi; Oshikiri, Taro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Hironori; Oyama, Masato; Kakinoki, Keitaro; Ohara, Tadayuki; Sendo, Hiroyoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tominaga, Masahiro; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of successful laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection preserving the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery for advanced gastric cancer with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly. A 76-year-old female patient was admitted with a diagnosis of advanced gastric cancer at the anterior wall to the lesser curvature of the antrum (cT3N0M0 cStage IIA). Dynamic computed tomography showed the ectopia of the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery. We made a diagnosis of an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly and performed the abovementioned operation. In this anomaly pattern, scrupulous attention is required to remove the suprapancreatic lymph nodes because the portal vein is located immediately dorsal to those lymph nodes and is at increased risk for the injury in this situation. The common hepatic artery is branched from the left gastric artery, and the hepatic perfusion from the superior mesenteric artery is not present in group 26. Planning to preserve the artery will improve safety when it is possible oncologically. There were no postoperative complications, and the patient was discharged 9 days after the operation. To our knowledge, the present case is the first reported case of a laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly. Preoperative diagnostic imaging is very important to prevent surgical complications because the reliable identification of vascular anomaly during an operation is very difficult. PMID:27259578

  3. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson χ2 were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  4. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Stephen J. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla [University of Louisville, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Louisville, KY (United States); Farman, Allan G. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-03-15

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson {chi}{sup 2} were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  5. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase-Mediated Redox Signaling and Vascular Remodeling by 16α-Hydroxyestrone in Human Pulmonary Artery Cells: Implications in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Katie Y; Montezano, Augusto C; Harvey, Adam P; Nilsen, Margaret; MacLean, Margaret R; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-09-01

    Estrogen and oxidative stress have been implicated in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Mechanisms linking these systems are elusive. We hypothesized that estrogen metabolite, 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αOHE1), stimulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and proliferative responses in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMCs) and that in PAH aberrant growth signaling promotes vascular remodeling. The pathophysiological significance of estrogen-Nox-dependent processes was studied in female Nox1(-/-) and Nox4(-/-) mice with PAH. PASMCs from control subjects (control hPASMCs) and PAH patients (PAH-hPASMCs) were exposed to estrogen and 16αOHE1 in the presence/absence of inhibitors of Nox, cytochrome P450 1B1, and estrogen receptors. Estrogen, through estrogen receptor-α, increased Nox-derived ROS and redox-sensitive growth in hPASMCs, with greater effects in PAH-hPASMCs versus control hPASMCs. Estrogen effects were inhibited by cytochrome P450 1B1 blockade. 16αOHE1 stimulated transient ROS production in hPASMCs, with sustained responses in PAH-hPASMCs. Basal expression of Nox1/Nox4 was potentiated in PAH-hPASMCs. In hPASMCs, 16αOHE1 increased Nox1 expression, stimulated irreversible oxidation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, decreased nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 activity and expression of nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2-regulated antioxidant genes, and promoted proliferation. This was further amplified in PAH-hPASMCs. Nox1(-/-) but not Nox4(-/-) mice were protected against PAH and vascular remodeling. Our findings demonstrate that in PAH-hPASMCs, 16αOHE1 stimulates redox-sensitive cell growth primarily through Nox1. Supporting this, in vivo studies exhibited protection against pulmonary hypertension and remodeling in Nox1(-/-) mice. This study provides new insights through Nox1/ROS and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 whereby 16αOHE1 influences

  6. Vascular relaxation of canine visceral arteries after ischemia by means of supraceliac aortic cross-clamping followed by reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalio Marcelo B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The supraceliac aortic cross-clamping can be an option to save patients with hipovolemic shock due to abdominal trauma. However, this maneuver is associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury strongly related to oxidative stress and reduction of nitric oxide bioavailability. Moreover, several studies demonstrated impairment in relaxation after I/R, but the time course of I/R necessary to induce vascular dysfunction is still controversial. We investigated whether 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion do not change the relaxation of visceral arteries nor the plasma and renal levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitrite plus nitrate (NOx. Methods Male mongrel dogs (n = 27 were randomly allocated in one of the three groups: sham (no clamping, n = 9, ischemia (supraceliac aortic cross-clamping for 60 minutes, n = 9, and I/R (60 minutes of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 30 minutes, n = 9. Relaxation of visceral arteries (celiac trunk, renal and superior mesenteric arteries was studied in organ chambers. MDA and NOx concentrations were determined using a commercially available kit and an ozone-based chemiluminescence assay, respectively. Results Both acetylcholine and calcium ionophore caused relaxation in endothelium-intact rings and no statistical differences were observed among the three groups. Sodium nitroprusside promoted relaxation in endothelium-denuded rings, and there were no inter-group statistical differences. Both plasma and renal concentrations of MDA and NOx showed no significant difference among the groups. Conclusion Supraceliac aortic cross-clamping for 60 minutes alone and followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion did not impair relaxation of canine visceral arteries nor evoke biochemical alterations in plasma or renal tissue.

  7. Peripheral and central arterial pressure and its relationship to vascular target organ damage in carotid artery, retina and arterial stiffness. Development and validation of a tool. The Vaso risk study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patino-Alonso Maria C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM shows a better correlation to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality than office blood pressure. A loss of arterial elasticity and an increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity-mortality. Tools have been developed that allow estimation of the retinal arteriovenous index but not all studies coincide and there are contradictory results in relation to the evolution of the arteriosclerotic lesions and the caliber of the retinal vessels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between peripheral and central arterial pressure (clinic and ambulatory and vascular structure and function as evaluated by the carotid artery intima-media thickness, retina arteriovenous index, pulse wave velocity (PWV and ankle-brachial index in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. In turn, software is developed and validated for measuring retinal vessel thickness and automatically estimating the arteriovenous index. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study involving a control group will be made, with a posterior 4-year follow-up period in primary care. The study patients will be type 2 diabetics, with a control group of non-diabetic individuals. Consecutive sampling will be used to include 300 patients between 34-75 years of age and no previous cardiovascular disease, one-half being assigned to each group. Main measurements: age, gender, height, weight and abdominal circumference. Lipids, creatinine, microalbuminuria, blood glucose, HbA1c, blood insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and endothelial dysfunction markers. Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Carotid ultrasound to evaluate IMT, and retinography to evaluate the arteriovenous index. ECG to assess left ventricle hypertrophy, ankle-brachial index, and pulse wave analysis (PWA and pulse wave velocity (PWV with the Sphigmocor

  8. A Prevalence Study on Ectopic Calcification in Digital Panoramic Radiographs in Shahid Sadoughi Dental School of Yazd in 2012-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kh Kheirollahi; H Kheirollahi; F Ezoddini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: soft tissue calcification is a relatively common issue in panoramic radiography. These opacities include calcification of lymph nodes, tonsilolith, sialolith, calcification of stylohyoid complex and carotid artery bifurcation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of soft tissue calcification in panoramic radiographs, their differential diagnosis, and their correlation with the underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseas...

  9. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mean...... age, 45.8 years; 63% male) to evaluate the systemic extent of atherosclerosis in the carotid, abdominal aortic, and iliofemoral territories by 2-/3-dimensional ultrasound and coronary artery calcification by computed tomography. The extent of subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as presence of plaque...... or coronary artery calcification ≥1, was classified as focal (1 site affected), intermediate (2-3 sites), or generalized (4-6 sites) after exploration of each vascular site (right/left carotids, aorta, right/left iliofemorals, and coronary arteries). Subclinical atherosclerosis was present in 63...

  10. Expression of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization therapy on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Gan-Sheng Feng; Chuan-Sheng Zheng; Chen-Kai Zhuo; Xi Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression level of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (P-VEGF) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its relationship with the clinicopathologic characteristics, and to examine the changes of P-VEGF in the course of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE).METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were taken from 45HCC patients before and 1, 3, 7 d, and 1 mo after TACE.Plasma VEGF level was measured with the quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Twenty patients with benign liver lesions and 17 healthy control subjects were also included in this study.RESULTS: Plasma VEGF levels in HCC patients were significantly elevated as compared to those in patients with benign liver lesions (P = 0.006) and in the normal controls(P = 0.003). Significant differences were observed when P-VEGF was categorized by tumor size (P = 0.006), portal vein thrombosis (P= 0.011), distant metastasis (P= 0.017),arterial-portal vein shunting (P = 0.026), and International Union Against Cancer (UICC) TNM stage (P = 0.044). There was no correlation between plasma level of VEGF and the level of alpha fetoprotein (α-FP) (r = 0.068, P = 0.658) and weakly correlated with the number of platelets (r = 0.312,P = 0.038). P-VEGF levels increased significantly and reached the peak value on the first day after TACE, and then decreased gradually. The change rate of P-VEGF concentration(one month post-TACE/pre-TACE×100%) was correlated with the retention rate of lipiodol oil (rs = 0.494, P = 0.001)and the tumor volume change (rs = 0.340, P = 0.034).The patients who achieved a partial or complete response to TACE therapy showed significantly less pre-treatment P-VEGF than those nonresponders (P = 0.025). A high pretherapeutic P-VEGF level was associated with poor response to treatment (P = 0.018).CONCLUSION: A high pre-treatment P-VEGF level is a useful marker for tumor progression, especially for vascular invasion. TACE increases the

  11. Carbon black nanoparticles and vascular dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells and artery segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Mikkelsen, Lone; Folkmann, Janne K;

    2012-01-01

    surface expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in HUVECs at 100µg/ml. CB exposure was also associated with increased reactive oxygen species production and damage to the cell membranes in the form of increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage...

  12. Vascular prosthesis implantation for treatment of isolated lilac artery aneurysm A 33-case report%人工血管移植治疗髂动脉瘤33例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春喜; 胡海地; 宋清彬; 段志泉; 陈刚; 梁发启

    2009-01-01

    A total of 33 patients with isolated lilac artery aneurysms, 19 males and 14 females, who received treatment between January 1997 and June 2007, were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 29 suffered from unilateral iliac artery aneurysm and 4 from bilateral iliac artery aneurysm. Under general anesthesia, all patients were subjected to aneurysmectomy, followed by vascular prosthesis implantation for vascular reconstruction. Results revealed that among 4 cases of bilateral iliac artery aneurysm, there was 1 case who was subjected to aorta-bilateral femoral artery vascular prosthesis implantation, and there were 3 cases who underwent aorta-bilateral lilac artery vascular prosthesis implantation; among 29 cases of unilateral lilac artery aneurysm, there was 1 case receiving aorta-common lilac artery vascular prosthesis implantation, 3 cases undergoing iliac-femoral artery vascular prosthesis implantation, 21 cases subjected to common-external iliac artery vascular prosthesis implantation, and 4 cases undertaking common -common lilac artery bypass. Color Doppler ultrasonic examination, spiral CT angiography, or digital subtraction arteriography was performed 3, 6 months, 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 years after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 5 years. Three cases died of acute cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, and traffic accident 3, 6, and 2 years after surgery, respectively. The remaining cases well survived as determined by no recurred Uiac artery aneurysm, anastomotic stoma stenosis or lower limb ischemia found. These results indicated that aneurysmectomy and subsequent vascular prosthesis implantation remained a good and primary means for treatment of isolated iliac artery aneurysm under the present medical condition.%回顾性分析1997-01/2007-06收治孤立性骼动脉瘤患者共33例,男19例,女14例,其中单侧髂动脉瘤29例,双侧4例.均在全身麻醉下行动脉瘤切除、人工血管移植血管重建.结果显示4

  13. Síndrome metabólica na doença arterial coronariana e vascular oclusiva: uma revisão sistemática Metabolic syndrome in coronary artery and occlusive vascular diseases: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reis Elbert Farias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a síndrome metabólica (SM se mostra altamente prevalente, sendo associada a fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, tais como diabetes mellitus tipo 2, doenças ateroscleróticas e coronarianas. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi descrever os resultados de estudos que investigaram a associação da SM com a doença arterial coronariana e doenças vasculares oclusivas. Foi realizada a revisão sistemática com dados de estudos originais publicados entre 1999 e 2008, escritos em inglês ou português, utilizando-se as bases de dados Medline, Pubmed, Highwire Press e Science Direct. Foram incluídos artigos que fizeram o diagnóstico da SM através do critério do National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III, 2001. Foram excluídos estudos realizados com animais, de suplementação e que realizaram administração oral ou endovenosa de qualquer substância, assim como aqueles de baixa qualidade metodológica e com amostra inicialmente heterogênea. Apesar da heterogeneidade entre os estudos, observou-se que indivíduos com SM apresentam maior probabilidade (risco = 2,13 de desenvolverem as doenças vasculares oclusivas, doença coronariana, diabetes mellitus e acidente vascular encefálico. Mudanças no estilo de vida, como práticas alimentares saudáveis, atividade física regular e a cessação do tabagismo devem ser incentivadas pelos profissionais da saúde a fim de minimizar as complicações e a morbimortalidade associada à SM.

  14. The role of arterial vascularity in pathogenesis of infected pseudoarthrosis of the lower leg; Rola zaburzen ukrwienia tetniczego w patogenezie zakazonych stawow rzekomych goleni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarski, K. [Szpital im. J. Jonstona, Lublin (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    A series of 250 femoral arteriographies performed in patients with leg pseudoarthrosis served to asses condition of arteries of the extremity. It was found that vascular injuries contribute significantly to pathogenesis of union disorders in lower leg fractures. (author). 14 refs, 11 figs.

  15. Correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Emarah, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Ahmed M Emarah1, Shawky M El-Haggar2, Ihab A Osman2, Abdel Wahab S Khafagy21Departments of Ophthalmology, 2Andrology and Sexology, Cairo University Hospital, EgyptObjectives: Arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) is a target organ disease of atherosclerosis, and therefore might be a predictor of systemic atherosclerosis. Being systemic, it might be possible to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis from retinal vascular findings. We investigated the possible correlation between penile cavern...

  16. Diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia exacerbates vascular reverse remodeling of balloon-injured arteries in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-hong; CHEN Feng-ying; WANG Gui-song; CHEN Li; GAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    Background While hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases,the effect of hyperhomocysteinemia on the vascular adventitia and vessel remodeling has not been clearly demonstrated.We investigated the effect of the hyperhomocysteinemia on adventitial hyperplasia and vascular remodeling following balloon injury in rats and the underlying mechanisms.Methods Rats were fed with diet containing methionine for 4 weeks to increase plasma homocysteine before balloon injury.Vascular geometrical changes were assessed at different time points following balloon injury.The collagen deposition was determined by picrosirius red staining and immunohistochemical staining.Results When compared with normal diet group,moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in methionine diet group significantly exacerbated adventitial hyperplasia at clay 7 and collagen deposition mainly in the adventitia at day 28 following balloon injury.The increased plasma homocysteine level significantly increased collagen deposition in the adventitia.There was a negative correlation (r=0.698;P <0.01) between the luminal area and the collagen content in the adventitia on day 28 following balloon injury.In cultured adventitial fibroblasts isolated from rat aorta,100 μmol/L L-homocysteine (L-Hcy) significantly down-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity by 43% as determined by in vitro gelatin zymography (P <0.05) and up-regulated the expression of collagen type 1 by 187% (P <0.05) assessed by Western blotting.Conclusions Hyperhomocysteinemia exacerbated vascular constrictive remodeling by accelerated neointima formation and collagen accumulation in the adventitia.Increased collagen deposition may be the underlying mechanism.

  17. Transduction of interleukin-10 through renal artery attenuates vascular neointimal proliferation and infiltration of immune cells in rat renal allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingxin; Li, Xueyi; Meng, Dan; Liang, Qiujuan; Wang, Xinhong; Wang, Li; Wang, Rui; Xiang, Meng; Chen, Sifeng

    2016-08-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal failure. Although acute rejection is not a major issue anymore, chronic rejection, especially vascular rejection, is still a major factor that might lead to allograft dysfunction on the long term. The role of the local immune-regulating cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in chronic renal allograft is unclear. Many clinical observations showed that local IL-10 level was negatively related to kidney allograft function. It is unknown this negative relationship was the result of immunostimulatory property or insufficient immunosuppression property of local IL-10. We performed ex vivo transduction before transplantation through artery of the renal allograft using adeno-associated viral vectors carrying IL-10 gene. Twelve weeks after transplantation, we found intrarenal IL-10 gene transduction significantly inhibited arterial neointimal proliferation, the number of occluded intrarenal artery, interstitial fibrosis, peritubular capillary congestion and glomerular inflammation in renal allografts compared to control allografts receiving PBS or vectors carrying YFP. IL-10 transduction increased serum IL-10 level at 4 weeks but not at 8 and 12 weeks. Renal IL-10 level increased while serum creatinine decreased significantly in IL-10 group at 12 weeks compared to PBS or YFP controls. Immunohistochemical staining showed unchanged total T cells (CD3) and B cells (CD45R/B220), decreased cytotoxic T cells (CD8), macrophages (CD68) and increased CD4+ and FoxP3+ cells in IL-10 group. In summary, intrarenal IL-10 inhibited the allograft rejection while modulated immune response.

  18. Relationship between Retinal Vascular Caliber and Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmor Alon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and cardiovascular disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD patients without diabetes and hypertension. Methods: Intention to treat study of individuals who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT during a two year period. Coronary artery disease (CAD was defined as stenosis of >50% in at least one major coronary artery. Liver and spleen density were measured by abdominal (CT; intima-media thickness (IMT by Doppler ultrasound; retinal artery and vein diameter by colored-retinal angiography; and metabolic syndrome by ATP III guidelines. Serum biomarkers of insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidant-antioxidant status were assessed. Results: Compared with 22 gender and age matched controls, the 29 NAFLD patients showed higher prevalence of coronary plaques (70% vs. 30%, p < 0.001, higher prevalence of coronary stenosis (30% vs. 15%, p < 0.001, lower retinal arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR (0.66 ± 0.06 vs. 0.71 ± 0.02, p < 0.01, higher IMT (0.98 ± 0.3 vs. 0.83 ± 0.1, p < 0.04, higher carotid plaques (60% vs. 40%, p < 0.001, higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA (4.0 ± 3.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0, p < 0.005, and higher triglyceride levels (200 ± 80 vs. 150 ± 60, p < 0.005 than controls. Multivariate analysis showed fatty liver (OR 2.5; p < 0.01, IMT (OR 2.3 p < 0.001, and retinal AVR ratio (OR 1.5, p < 0.01 to be strongly associated with CAD independent of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.2, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Patients with smaller retinal AVR (<0.7 are likely to be at increased risk for CAD and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD even without hypertension or diabetes.

  19. Effect of simvastatin on vascular tone in porcine coronary artery: Potential role of the mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhtar, H; Garle, M J; Smith, P A; Roberts, R E

    2016-08-15

    Statins induce acute vasorelaxation which may contribute to the overall benefits of statins in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying this relaxation is unknown. As statins have been shown to alter mitochondrial function, in this study we investigated the role of mitochondria in the relaxation to simvastatin. Relaxation of porcine coronary artery segments by statins was measured using isolated tissue baths. Mitochondrial activity was determined by measuring changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were determined in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells with Fluo-4 using standard epifluorescent imaging techniques. Simvastatin, but not pravastatin, produced a slow relaxation of the coronary artery, which was independent of the endothelium. The relaxation was attenuated by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone (10μM) and the complex III inhibitor myxothiazol (10μM), or a combination of the two. The complex III inhibitor antimycin A (10μM) produced a similar time-dependent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery, which was attenuated by rotenone. Changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence showed that simvastatin (10μM) depolarized the membrane potential of mitochondria in both isolated mitochondria and intact blood vessels. Simvastatin and antimycin A both inhibited calcium-induced contractions in isolated blood vessels and calcium influx in smooth muscle cells and this inhibition was prevented by rotenone. In conclusion, simvastatin produces an endothelium-independent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery which is dependent, in part, upon effects on the mitochondria. The effects on the mitochondria may lead to a reduction in calcium influx and hence relaxation of the blood vessel. PMID:27343404

  20. Pulmonary Vascular Capacitance as a Predictor of Vasoreactivity in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Tested by Adenosine

    OpenAIRE

    Shafie, Davood; Dohaei, Abolfazl; AMIN, Ahmad; Taghavi, Sepideh; Naderi, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute pulmonary vasoreactivity testing has been recommended in the diagnostic work-up of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Pulmonary arteriolar capacitance (Cp) approximated by stroke volume divided by pulmonary pulse pressure (SV/PP) is considered as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with IPAH. Objectives: We sought to evaluate any differences in baseline and adenosine Cp between vasoreactive and non-vasoreactive IPAH patients tested...

  1. Effects of rosiglitazone on contralateral iliac artery after vascular injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baroncini Liz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on iliac arteries of hypercholesterolemic rabbits undergoing balloon catheter injury in the contralateral iliac arteries. Methods White male rabbits were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 6 weeks and divided into two groups as follows: rosiglitazone group, 14 rabbits treated with rosiglitazone (3 mg/Kg body weight/day during 6 weeks; and control group, 18 rabbits without rosiglitazone treatment. All animals underwent balloon catheter injury of the right iliac artery on the fourteenth day of the experiment. Results There was no significant difference in intima/media layer area ratio between the control group and the rosiglitazone group. Rosiglitazone did not reduce the probability of lesions types I, II, or III (72.73% vs. 92.31%; p = 0.30 and types IV or V (27.27% vs. 7.69%; p = 0.30. There were no differences in the extent of collagen type I and III deposition or in the percentage of animals with macrophages in the intima layer. The percentage of rabbits with smooth muscle cells in the intima layer was higher in rosiglitazone group (p = 0.011. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that rosiglitazone given for 6 weeks did not prevent atherogenesis at a vessel distant from the injury site.

  2. The formation of labyrinths, spots and stripe patterns in a biochemical approach to cardiovascular calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochelis, A.; Tintut, Y.; Demer, L. L.; Garfinkel, A.

    2008-05-01

    Calcification and mineralization are fundamental physiological processes, yet the mechanisms of calcification, in trabecular bone and in calcified lesions in atherosclerotic calcification, are unclear. Recently, it was shown in in vitro experiments that vascular-derived mesenchymal stem cells can display self-organized calcified patterns. These patterns were attributed to activator/inhibitor dynamics in the style of Turing, with bone morphogenetic protein 2 acting as an activator, and matrix GLA protein acting as an inhibitor. Motivated by this qualitative activator-inhibitor dynamics, we employ a prototype Gierer-Meinhardt model used in the context of activator-inhibitor-based biological pattern formation. Through a detailed analysis in one and two spatial dimensions, we explore the pattern formation mechanisms of steady state patterns, including their dependence on initial conditions. These patterns range from localized holes to labyrinths and localized peaks, or in other words, from dense to sparse activator distributions (respectively). We believe that an understanding of the wide spectrum of activator-inhibitor patterns discussed here is prerequisite to their biochemical control. The mechanisms of pattern formation suggest therapeutic strategies applicable to bone formation in atherosclerotic lesions in arteries (where it is pathological) and to the regeneration of trabecular bone (recapitulating normal physiological development).

  3. [Choice of the extent and the terms of sanifying procedures after vascular reconstructive surgeries in patients with stage IV chronic arterial lower limb insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevakhin, I I; Chadaev, A P; Lisin, S V; latonov, V V; Markov, A V; Priamikov, A D; Poliaev, A Iu

    2005-01-01

    Results of vascular reconstructions with the following sanifying procedures performed in 82 patients with stage IV chronic arterial lower limb insufficiency are analyzed. Based on complex evaluation of microcirculation three types of tissues ischemic lesion are revealed: irreversible, severe and mild. Patients with irreversible lesion of the tissues of a distal part of the lower extremity require vascular reconstruction with simultaneous amputation at the upper third of the shank. In a severe reversible ischemic lesion of the tissues radical sanifying surgery with preservation of limb support function is better to perform not earlier than one month after vascular reconstruction. Mild ischemia of tissues permits performing minimal sanifying procedure with primary closure of the wound simultaneously with vascular surgery.

  4. Internal carotid artery dissection after anterior cervical disc replacement: first case report and literature review of vascular complications of the approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret, Jean-Edouard; Francois, Patrick; Papagiannaki, Chrysanthi; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Terrier, Louis-Marie; Zemmoura, Ilyess

    2013-07-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman who underwent cervical total disc replacement at C4C5 and C5C6 levels and fusion at C6C7 level through an anterior right-side approach. After anesthesia recovery, the patient presented left hemiparesia and facial palsy due to large right hemispheric stroke. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed as soon as the patient developed neurologic symptoms of stroke and revealed a right internal carotid artery dissection. Digital substraction angiography, endovascular stenting, angioplasty and thrombectomy were performed. Six months after treatment, clinical examination showed mild left-arm spasticity. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of internal carotid artery stroke without dissection or thrombosis are reported. In conclusion, although vascular complications are rare after anterior cervical spine procedure, internal carotid artery dissection can occur. Suspected risk factors are prolonged retraction of the carotid artery and neck extension.

  5. Calcifications in keloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, H.; Meissner, G.

    1985-06-01

    Ossification as a dystrophic alteration of scar tissue is not an unusual radiologic finding in patients who have had a laparotomy. Calcification or ossification in other than abdominal scars following injury, however, represent an extremely rare entity. A case of calcifications in posttraumatic keloid forming in the submandibular soft tissue is presented and the pathogenesis is discussed.

  6. Quantitative optical imaging of vascular response in vivo in a model of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kristin M; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M; Sit, Wesley W; Walsh, Alex J; Duvall, Craig L; Skala, Melissa C

    2013-10-15

    The mouse hind limb ischemia (HLI) model is well established for studying collateral vessel formation and testing therapies for peripheral arterial disease, but there is a lack of quantitative techniques for intravitally analyzing blood vessel structure and function. To address this need, non-invasive, quantitative optical imaging techniques were developed to assess the time-course of recovery in the mouse HLI model. Hyperspectral imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to non-invasively image hemoglobin oxygen saturation and microvessel morphology plus blood flow, respectively, in the anesthetized mouse after induction of HLI. Hyperspectral imaging detected significant increases in hemoglobin saturation in the ischemic paw as early as 3 days after femoral artery ligation (P corkscrew collateral vessels characteristic of the arteriogenic response to HLI. The hyperspectral imaging and OCT data significantly correlated with each other and with laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and tissue oxygenation sensor data (P < 0.01). However, OCT measurements acquired depth-resolved information and revealed more sustained flow deficits following surgery that may be masked by more superficial measurements (LDPI, hyperspectral imaging). Therefore, intravital OCT may provide a robust biomarker for the late stages of ischemic limb recovery. This work validates non-invasive acquisition of both functional and morphological data with hyperspectral imaging and OCT. Together, these techniques provide cardiovascular researchers an unprecedented and comprehensive view of the temporal dynamics of HLI recovery in living mice. PMID:23955718

  7. Effects of advanced glycation end-products on the expression of parathyroid hormone related peptide and vascular calcification on vascular smooth muscle cells%糖基化终产物对人血管平滑肌细胞表达及分泌甲状旁腺激素相关肽和血管钙化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 刘乃丰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of advanced glycation end-products(AGEs) on expression and secretion of parathyroid hormone related peptide(PTHrP)in vitro cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMCs), and explore the related mechanism of PTHrP influencing vascular smooth muscle cells calcification . Methods:HVSMCs were treated with AGE-BSA of indicated concentration or non-glycated BSA for same periods . The calcium contents and activity of alkaline phosphatase of cells were analyzed by microplate reader ;PTHrP levels in the supernatant were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent method .Real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) was performed to detect the expressive of PTHrP , core- binding factor α1(cbfα1) in human and bone morphogenetic protein-2(BMP-2) in vascular smooth muscle cells . Results:AGE-BSA increased calcium deposition and activity of alkaline phosphatase in HVSMCs in dose-independent manners( P<0.05) , but reduced the secretion of PTHrP.Futhermore, the elevated AGE-BSA treatment on HVSMCs significantly enhanced the expression of cbfα1, BMP-2 and PTHrP, compared with the controls( P <0.05 ) .Conclusion: The expression and secretion of PTHrP on human vascular smooth muscle cells can be effected by AGEs , and PTHrP may induce deposition of calcium on vascular smooth muscle cells, thereby contributing to the vascular calcification .However, the related mechanism will be further explored .%目的:观察糖基化终末产物(AGEs)对人血管平滑肌细胞表达及分泌甲状旁腺激素相关肽(PTHrP)功能的影响,探讨PTHrP影响血管平滑肌细胞钙化发生的相关机制。方法:不同浓度的AGE-BSA分别与人血管平滑肌细胞孵育相同时间后,检测各组细胞钙含量及碱性磷酸酶( ALP)活性判断钙化程度;酶联免疫吸附法检测各组细胞PTHrP的分泌量;实时荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链反应检

  8. Intestinal Infarction Through Arterial Vascular Obstruction - Case Series from 1st and 3rd Surgery Clinics Cluj-Napoca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Mocan, Mihaela; Gheban, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case series of intestinal infarction through obstruction of superior mesenteric artery - two cases of acute mesenteric artery embolism, two cases of acute mesenteric artery thrombosis and a case of volvulus.

  9. Hepatic artery embolization for treatment of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and symptomatic hepatic vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Ajay [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Klinikum Oldenburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oldenburg (Germany); Caselitz, Martin; Wagner, Siegfried; Manns, Michael [Hannover Medical School, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hannover (Germany); Gratz, Karl-Friedrich [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Lotz, Joachim; Kirchhoff, Timm; Galanski, Michael [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Piso, Plinio [Hannover Medical School, Department of Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    At present there is no established therapy for treating patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and symptomatic hepatic involvement. We present the results of a prospective study with 15 consecutive patients who were treated with staged hepatic artery embolization (HAE). Branches of the hepatic artery were selectively catheterized and embolized in stages using polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA) and platinum microcoils or steel macrocoils. Prophylactic antibiotics, analgesics and anti-emetics were administered after every embolization. Clinical symptomatology and cardiac output were assessed before and after therapy as well as at the end of follow-up (median 28 months; range 10-136 months). Five patients had abdominal pain and four patients had symptoms of portal hypertension. The cardiac output was raised in all patients, with cardiac failure being present in 11 patients. After treatment, pain resolved in all five patients, and portal hypertension improved in two of the four patients. The mean cardiac output decreased significantly (P<0.001) from 12.57{+-}3.27 l/min pre-treatment to 8.36{+-}2.60 l/min at the end of follow-up. Symptoms arising from cardiac failure resolved or improved markedly in all but one patient. Cholangitis and/or cholecystitis occurred in three patients of whom two required a cholecystectomy. One patient with pre-existent hepatic cirrhosis died as a complication of the procedure. Staged HAE yields long-term relief of clinical symptoms in patients with HHT and hepatic involvement. Patients with pre-existing hepatic cirrhosis may be poor candidates for HAE. (orig.)

  10. Hepatic artery embolization for treatment of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and symptomatic hepatic vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present there is no established therapy for treating patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and symptomatic hepatic involvement. We present the results of a prospective study with 15 consecutive patients who were treated with staged hepatic artery embolization (HAE). Branches of the hepatic artery were selectively catheterized and embolized in stages using polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA) and platinum microcoils or steel macrocoils. Prophylactic antibiotics, analgesics and anti-emetics were administered after every embolization. Clinical symptomatology and cardiac output were assessed before and after therapy as well as at the end of follow-up (median 28 months; range 10-136 months). Five patients had abdominal pain and four patients had symptoms of portal hypertension. The cardiac output was raised in all patients, with cardiac failure being present in 11 patients. After treatment, pain resolved in all five patients, and portal hypertension improved in two of the four patients. The mean cardiac output decreased significantly (P<0.001) from 12.57±3.27 l/min pre-treatment to 8.36±2.60 l/min at the end of follow-up. Symptoms arising from cardiac failure resolved or improved markedly in all but one patient. Cholangitis and/or cholecystitis occurred in three patients of whom two required a cholecystectomy. One patient with pre-existent hepatic cirrhosis died as a complication of the procedure. Staged HAE yields long-term relief of clinical symptoms in patients with HHT and hepatic involvement. Patients with pre-existing hepatic cirrhosis may be poor candidates for HAE. (orig.)

  11. Differential effects of formoterol on thrombin- and PDGF-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharova Elena A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (PAVSM cell proliferation is a key pathophysiological component of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH. The long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR agonist formoterol, a racemate comprised of (R,R- and (S,S-enantiomers, is commonly used as a vasodilator in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. PH, a common complication of COPD, increases patients’ morbidity and reduces survival. Recent studies demonstrate that formoterol has anti-proliferative effects on airway smooth muscle cells and bronchial fibroblasts. The effects of formoterol and its enantiomers on PAVSM cell proliferation are not determined. The goals of this study were to examine effects of racemic formoterol and its enantiomers on PAVSM cell proliferation as it relates to COPD-associated PH. Methods Basal, thrombin-, PDGF- and chronic hypoxia-induced proliferation of primary human PAVSM cells was examined by DNA synthesis analysis using BrdU incorporation assay. ERK1/2, mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation were determined by phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, ribosomal protein S6 and S473-Akt using immunoblot analysis. Results We found that (R,R and racemic formoterol inhibited basal, thrombin- and chronic hypoxia-induced proliferation of human PAVSM cells while (S,S formoterol had lesser inhibitory effect. The β2AR blocker propranolol abrogated the growth inhibitory effect of formoterol. (R,R, but not (S,S formoterol attenuated basal, thrombin- and chronic hypoxia-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but had little effect on Akt and S6 phosphorylation levels. Formoterol and its enantiomers did not significantly affect PDGF-induced DNA synthesis and PDGF-dependent ERK1/2, S473-Akt and S6 phosphorylation in human PAVSM cells. Conclusions Formoterol inhibits basal, thrombin-, and chronic hypoxia-, but not PDGF-induced human PAVSM cell proliferation and ERK1/2, but has little effect on

  12. Release of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1 during coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsel Isabelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to follow plasma concentrations of sFlt-1 and sKDR, two soluble forms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC. Methods Plasma samples were obtained before, during and after surgery in 15 patients scheduled to undergo CABG. Levels of sFlt-1 and KDR levels were investigated using specific ELISA. Results A 75-fold increase of sFlt-1 was found during cardiac surgery, sFlt-1 levels returning to pre-operative values at the 6th post-operative hour. In contrast sKDR levels did not change during surgery. The ECC-derived sFlt-1 was functional as judge by its inhibitory effect on the VEGF mitogenic response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Kinetic experiments revealed sFlt-1 release immediately after the beginning of ECC suggesting a proteolysis of its membrane form (mFlt-1 rather than an elevated transcription/translation process. Flow cytometry analysis highlighted no effect of ECC on the shedding of mFlt-1 on platelets and leukocytes suggesting vascular endothelial cell as a putative cell source for the ECC-derived sFlt-1. Conclusion sFlt-1 is released during CABG with ECC. It might be suggested that sFlt-1 production, by neutralizing VEGF and/or by inactivating membrane-bound Flt-1 and KDR receptors, might play a role in the occurrence of post-CABG complication.

  13. Permanent occlusion of feeding arteries and draining veins in solid mouse tumors by vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP with Tookad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Madar-Balakirski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiangiogenic and anti-vascular therapies present intriguing alternatives to cancer therapy. However, despite promising preclinical results and significant delays in tumor progression, none have demonstrated long-term curative features to date. Here, we show that a single treatment session of Tookad-based vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP promotes permanent arrest of tumor blood supply by rapid occlusion of the tumor feeding arteries (FA and draining veins (DV, leading to tumor necrosis and eradication within 24-48 h. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A mouse earlobe MADB106 tumor model was subjected to Tookad-VTP and monitored by three complementary, non-invasive online imaging techniques: Fluorescent intravital microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering Imaging and photosensitized MRI. Tookad-VTP led to prompt tumor FA vasodilatation (a mean volume increase of 70% with a transient increase (60% in blood-flow rate. Rapid vasoconstriction, simultaneous blood clotting, vessel permeabilization and a sharp decline in the flow rates then followed, culminating in FA occlusion at 63.2 sec+/-1.5SEM. This blockage was deemed irreversible after 10 minutes of VTP treatment. A decrease in DV blood flow was demonstrated, with a slight lag from FA response, accompanied by frequent changes in flow direction before reaching a complete standstill. In contrast, neighboring, healthy tissue vessels of similar sizes remained intact and functional after Tookad-VTP. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Tookad-VTP selectively targets the tumor feeding and draining vessels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mono-therapeutic modality that primarily aims at the larger tumor vessels and leads to high cure rates, both in the preclinical and clinical arenas.

  14. Tumour Calcification and Calciphylaxis in End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although soft tissue and vascular calcifications are common in CKD and progress as an independent risk factor of all-cause mortality, tumour calcification and calciphylaxis are uncommon in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Here, we discuss a rare case of a patient with tumour calcification complicated with calciphylaxis developed septic shock from infection. Our patient is a 57-year-old man in his late stage of renal disease who presented with a huge mass at the right hip and necrotic cutaneous ulcers on the lower legs followed by local and systemic infection and death due to septic shock.

  15. Emerging options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese patients: focus on arterial function and alogliptin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang H; Liu J; Zhao H.

    2015-01-01

    Hongyu Wang, Jinbo Liu, Hongwei Zhao Department of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Shougang Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a worldwide health problem, and the rate of it is growing greatly in the People's Republic of China every year. T2DM could cause macrovascular and microvascular complications that lead to an increase in arterial wall thickness, endothelial dysfunction, calcification, and – ...

  16. Increased arterial vascular tone during the night in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, A; Burkert, A; Mardanzai, K;

    2007-01-01

    and normotensive control subjects. Vascular tone was continuously quantified by the reflective index obtained by non-invasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investigator-independent, automatic analysis of digital volume pulse. During the first half of the night, the reflective index...... was significantly higher in 31 patients with essential hypertension compared to 30 normotensive control subjects (30.0+/-0.2 vs 28.8+/-0.2; P=0.001). In patients with essential hypertension, the reflective index significantly increased from 30.0+/-0.2 in the first half (from 2301 to 0230) to 30.......7+/-0.2 in the second half (from 0231 to 0600) of the night (n=31; P=0.027). In normotensive control subjects the reflective index also significantly increased from 28.8+/-0.2 in the first half of the night to 30.2+/-0.2 in the second half of the night (n=30; P=0.001). An increase of the reflective index tone indicated...

  17. Endothelial changes following irradiation. Pt. 1. Evaluation of vascular contraction and relaxation in irradiated artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fazhi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Sugihara, Tsuneki; Minagawa, Hidehiko; Hattori, Yuichi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-01-01

    New Zealand White rabbits were divided into groups in accordance with radiation doses and time intervals. Both ears of rabbits were locally radiated with a single 10 Gy, 20 Gy, or 45 Gy dose. Ear central artery was cleaned of loosely adhering connective tissue and cut into rings of 4 mm length. Each ring was suspended by a pair of hooks. Isometric force generation was registered using a polygraph recorder. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration-response curves were constructed by adding cumulative doses of NE to the baths. For relaxation studies, the vessels were precontacted with 10{sup -6}M NE. When the NE-induced contraction reached a plateau level, the relaxant responses to acetylcholine (ACh), calcium ionophore A23187, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) respectively were examined with respect to the cumulative concentration effect. There was no significant difference in contractive responses to NE between control and irradiated vessels despite differing doses and different intervals. Relaxation induced by ACh was significantly reduced by irradiation. Reduction was both dose-dependent and time-dependent. The effect of 45 Gy irradiation on relaxant response to A23187 was reduced at 1, 4, 6 and 10 weeks postirradiation. Relaxant responses to SNP, an endothelium-independent substance, were no significant immediate (1 hour) and 1, 4 and 6 week changes in the 45 Gy group as well as the 10 Gy and 20 Gy groups. Significant reduction was seen at 10 weeks after 45 Gy irradiation. (K.H.)

  18. Association of the Cardioankle Vascular Index and Ankle-Brachial Index with Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohito Gohda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are (1 to compare the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI, ankle-brachial index (ABI, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT between HD patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D or prevalence of cardiovascular (CV disease and (2 also to evaluate the relationship of these indices with CA-IMT in these patients according to ABI levels. This study consisted of 132 HD patients with T2D and the same number of patients without T2D. The patients with diabetes or prevalence of CV disease had significantly higher CA-IMT and lower ABI values than those without diabetes or prevalence of CV disease, respectively. Although diabetic patients had higher CAVI than those without diabetes, CAVI did not differ between patients with or without prevalence of CV disease. In univariate analysis, CA-IMT was more strongly correlated with ABI than CAVI. However, the opposite was true in patients with an ABI value of more than 0.95. Both indices were significantly correlated with CA-IMT although ABI was a powerful determinant than CAVI. It appears that both indices are associated with CA-IMT in HD patients, especially with an ABI value of more than 0.95.

  19. Chronic deficit in nitric oxide elicits oxidative stress and augments T-type calcium-channel contribution to vascular tone of rodent arteries and arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howitt, Lauren; Kuo, Ivana Y; Ellis, Anthie;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: As cardiovascular disease is characterized by reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, our aim was to determine the impact of this change on the mechanism underlying vascular tone of pressurized arteries in vitro and in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used pressurized cerebral and mesenteric......, by regulating the bioavailability of reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase. Our data provide evidence for a novel causal link between nitric oxide deficit, oxidative stress, and T-type calcium channel function....

  20. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Lung Vascular TNFSF15 (TL1 A) Expression: Differential Expression Patterns in Pulmonary Artery and Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Safaya, Surinder; Klings, Elizabeth S.; Odhiambo, Adam; Li, Guihua; Farber, Harrison W.; Martin H Steinberg

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor TNFSF15 (TL1 A), a ligand for TNFRSF25 (DR3) and decoy receptor TNFRSF6B (DcR3), is expressed in human pulmonary arterial (HPAEC) and lung microvascular (HMVEC) endothelial cells where it might modulate inflammation and sickle vasculopathy. Pulmonary disease, endothelial abnormalities and inflammation are prominent features of sickle cell disease (SCD). Butyrate has opposing effects on endogenous TNFSF15 expression in pulmonary endothelium, acting as an i...

  1. 血清骨钙素水平与老年骨质疏松及冠状动脉病变的相关性%Relations between serum levels of osteocalcin and the diseases of osteoporosis and coronary artery calcification in elderly men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢维晟; 张江蓉; 高艳虹; 袁惠敏; 王一尘

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨血清骨钙素水平与老年骨质疏松及冠状动脉病变的相关性.方法 选取183例年龄在60 ~ 85岁的患者,根据骨密度测定结果分为2组:非骨质疏松组86例,骨质疏松组97例;根据冠状动脉螺旋CT检查结果分为3组:轻度钙化组(积分<200)68例;中度钙化组(200≤积分<300)43例;重度钙化组(积分≥300)72例.比较各组患者的冠状动脉狭窄病变和钙化程度.应用酶联免疫吸附试验者测定各组患者血清骨钙素水平.结果 骨质疏松组患者合并肥胖、高血压、高血脂和糖尿病的比例分别为56.7%(55/97)、80.4%(78/97)、78.4%(76/97)、71.1% (69/97),高于非骨质疏松组的37.2% (32/86)、54.7%(47/86)、44.2%(38/86)、31.4%(27/86)(P<0.05);骨质疏松组患者血清骨钙素水平明显低于非骨质疏松组患者[(14±3)ng/L比(42±6)ng/L(P <0.05)];骨质疏松组患者任意冠状动脉分支的钙化程度均高于非骨质疏松组,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).骨质疏松组冠状动脉单支病变超过50%狭窄者比例明显高于非骨质疏松组,冠状动脉2支以上病变者占比更高[20.6% (20/97)比3.5% (3/86)],差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).冠状动脉血清骨钙素水平分别为(45.6±8.3)、(26.2±4.8)、(15.5±10.2) ng/L,任意两两比较差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 骨钙流失与钙质在冠状动脉的沉积存在共同的发病机制.该机制与血清骨钙素水平有关,血清骨钙素对老年男性骨质疏松与冠状动脉钙化有保护作用.%Objective To determine osteocalcin in serum in elderly man; to discuss the effects of abnormal calcium metabolism between osteoporosis and coronary artery calcification in elderly men.Methods According to the results of the bone density,183 patients with an age from 60 to 85 (72 ± 8.8),were divided into two groups:non-osteoporosis group(n =86) and osteoporosis group(n =97).According to the

  2. Long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride on abdominal aortic calcification in patients on hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Kazunori(Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan); Nakao, Kazushi; Takatori, Yuji; Inoue, Junko; Kojo, Shoichirou; Akagi, Shigeru; Fukushima, Masaki; Wada, Jun; Makino,Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the common complications in dialysis patients, and is associated with increased risk of vascular calcification. The effects of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on bone and mineral metabolism have been previously reported, but the benefit of cinacalcet on vascular calcification remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cinacalcet on abdominal aortic calcification in dialysis patients.Subjects and methods:...

  3. Long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride on abdominal aortic calcification in patients on hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Kazunori(Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan); Nakao, Kazushi; Takatori, Yuji; Inoue, Junko; Kojo, Shoichirou; Akagi, Shigeru; Fukushima, Masaki; Wada, Jun; Makino,Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the common complications in dialysis patients, and is associated with increased risk of vascular calcification. The effects of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on bone and mineral metabolism have been previously reported, but the benefit of cinacalcet on vascular calcification remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cinacalcet on abdominal aortic calcification in dialysis patients. Subjects and methods ...

  4. Growth Pattern of Atherosclerotic Calcifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lene Lillemark; Ganz, Melanie; Dam, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    of the calcifications are matched longitudinally using thin plate spline registration and area overlap calculations. The growth of the calcifications is measured by the distribution of the geometry statistics of the calcifications. The method was evaluated on 135 subjects with a total number of 611 calcifications. Our...... results show, for instance longitudinal growth of calcifications with a mean of 2.53 mm ($\\pm$ 1.95) in the blood flow direction and correlations with pathologically related biomarkers....

  5. Measurement of vascular water transport in human subjects using time-resolved pulsed arterial spin labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibic, Adnan; Knutsson, Linda; Schmidt, Anders; Henningsson, Erik; Månsson, Sven; Abul-Kasim, Kasim; Åkeson, Jonas; Gunther, Matthias; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Wirestam, Ronnie

    2015-08-01

    Most approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) data analysis aim to provide a quantitative measure of the cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study, however, focuses on the measurement of the transfer time of blood water through the capillaries to the parenchyma (referred to as the capillary transfer time, CTT) as an alternative parameter to characterise the haemodynamics of the system. The method employed is based on a non-compartmental model, and no measurements need to be added to a common time-resolved ASL experiment. Brownian motion of labelled spins in a potential was described by a one-dimensional general Langevin equation as the starting point, and as a Fokker-Planck differential equation for the averaged distribution of labelled spins at the end point, which takes into account the effects of flow and dispersion of labelled water by the pseudorandom nature of the microvasculature and the transcapillary permeability. Multi-inversion time (multi-TI) ASL data were acquired in 14 healthy subjects on two occasions in a test-retest design, using a pulsed ASL sequence and three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (3D-GRASE) readout. Based on an error analysis to predict the size of a region of interest (ROI) required to obtain reasonably precise parameter estimates, data were analysed in two relatively large ROIs, i.e. the occipital lobe (OC) and the insular cortex (IC). The average values of CTT in OC were 260 ± 60 ms in the first experiment and 270 ± 60 ms in the second experiment. The corresponding IC values were 460 ± 130 ms and 420 ± 139 ms, respectively. Information related to the water transfer time may be important for diagnostics and follow-up of cerebral conditions or diseases characterised by a disrupted blood-brain barrier or disturbed capillary blood flow. PMID:26147641

  6. Valores da pressão arterial em cães pelos métodos oscilométrico e Doppler vascular Arterial blood pressure in dogs by the oscilometric method and the Doppler ultrasonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados dois métodos não-invasivos de medida da pressão arterial, o Doppler vascular e o oscilométrico, com o objetivo de estabelecer parâmetros que possam auxiliar no diagnóstico seguro da hipertensão arterial. Para tal, foram utilizados 45 cães, machos e fêmeas, distribuídos em três grupos de acordo com o peso, pequeno, médio e grande porte. Em cada animal, procedeu-se a mensuração por meio do Doppler vascular e, em seguida, do oscilométrico. Na obtenção da pressão arterial sistólica, não houve diferença entre os métodos nos três grupos de animais, porém, na obtenção da pressão arterial diastólica, houve diferença estatística entre o Doppler vascular e o oscilométrico nos grupos de animais de pequeno e médio porte. Pôde-se concluir que valores confiáveis de pressão sistólica podem ser obtidos tanto por meio do Doppler vascular quanto do oscilométrico. Os valores da pressão arterial diastólica obtidos pelos dois métodos não se correlacionam, principalmente nos animais de pequeno e médio porte.Two noninvasive methods for blood pressure measurement, the oscilometric and the Doppler ultrasonic, were compaired aiming the establishment of parameters that can be helpful for the hypertension diagnosis. Forty-five dogs, males and females, were distributed in three groups, according to body weight: small, medium, and large sizes. In each animal, measurement of the blood pressure was performed, first by the Doppler ultrasonic, followed by the oscilometric method. No differences were observed in sistolic arterial pressure values obtained by both methods in none of the three animal groups. However, there was an important difference in diastolic arterial pressure values obtained by these methods, especially in small and medium size dogs. It was concluded that reliable results of sistolic blood pressure can be obtained both by the Doppler ultrasonic and the oscilometric method. Diastolic blood pressure

  7. Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy: Pathophysiology, Reactive Oxygen Species and Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt M. Sowers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA/calciphylaxis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement. Once thought to be rare, it is being increasingly recognized and reported on a global scale. The uremic milieu predisposes to multiple metabolic toxicities including increased levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation promote this arteriolopathy by adversely affecting endothelial function resulting in a prothrombotic milieu and significant remodeling effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. These arteriolar pathological effects include intimal hyperplasia, inflammation, endovascular fibrosis and vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis and differentiation into bone forming osteoblast-like cells resulting in medial calcification. Systemic factors promoting this vascular condition include elevated calcium, parathyroid hormone and hyperphosphatemia with consequent increases in the calcium × phosphate product. The uremic milieu contributes to a marked increased in upstream reactive oxygen species—oxidative stress and subsequent downstream increased inflammation, in part, via activation of the nuclear transcription factor NFκB and associated downstream cytokine pathways. Consitutive anti-calcification proteins such as Fetuin-A and matrix GLA proteins and their signaling pathways may be decreased, which further contributes to medial vascular calcification. The resulting clinical entity is painful, debilitating and contributes to the excess morbidity and mortality associated with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. These same histopathologic conditions also occur in patients without uremia and therefore, the term calcific obliterative arteriolopathy could be utilized in these conditions.

  8. MRI of intracranial calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jin Wha; Chang, Kee Hyun; Park, Jung Mi; Han, Moon Hee; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-12-15

    Recently computed tomography(CT) has been rapidly replaced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosis of majority of intracranial diseases. But MRI still has some limitation, one of which is its inferiority in detecting calcification. MRI of intracranial calcification has been known to be variable in signal intensity. We retrospectively analyzed the MRI of 26 patients with intracranial calcified lesions in order to evaluate the MR intensity of calcification and to assess the capability of MRI in detecting calcification in various intracranial lesions. All the MRI were obtained using routine T1-and T2-weighted spin eco pulse sequences on 2.0T superconducting system. The 26 patients consisted of 13 brain tumors (4 oligodendrogliomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, 2 astrocytomas, 1 gem cell tumor, 1 medulloblastoma, 1 ependympma, and pathologically unconfirmed 2 cases), 11 infectious diseases (1 paragonimiasis, 1 sparganosis, 2 cysticercosis, 3 tuberculosis, and 4 unknown cases), and 2 undetermined pathologies. Eighty-two percent (9/11) of infections disease, and 50% (1/2) of undetermined group showed signal diminution or signal void on both T1-and T2-weighted image (T1W1, T2W1). Twenty-four percent (3/13) of brain tumors showed signal diminution on both T1W1 and T2W1. In 46% (6/13) and 61% (8/13) of brain tumors the signal intensities were isointense on T1W1 and T1W1, respectively. Unexpectedly, 3 oligodendrogliomas showed high signal intensity on T1W1, two of which showed com plexed signal intensity mixed with high, iso, and low signal intensities on T2W1. In remained cases (18% (2/11) of infectious diseases and 50% (1/2) of undetermined group) the signal intensities were mixed. With simultaneous review of CT and MRI in each case, the calcification (at least one in cases showing multiple ones) was identifiable on MRI in 62% (8/13) of rumors, 82% (9/11) of infectious diseases, and 100% (2/2) in undetermined group. In 36% (4/11) of infectious diseases, fewer number of

  9. The X-ray vascular anatomy of hepatogastric arteries and their significance in transcatheter arterial chemo-embolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the characteristics of hepatogastric artery (HGA) with DSA and its clinical significance in transcatheter arterial chemo-embolization (TACE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: One thousand cases of hepatic DSA arteriograms had been retrospectively reviewed. The aberrant gastrointestinal arteries that originated from proper hepatic artery (PHA) or distal intrahepatic arteries to PHA were named HGA. Furthermore, according to their different courses and distributions, HGAs were subdivided into right gastric artery (RGA), aberrant left gastric artery (AbLGA), aberrant gastroduodenal artery (AbGDA), aberrant right gastroepiploic artery (AbRGEA), superior duodenal artery (SDA) and other difficult-to-named HGA. The incidence of each of them had been summed up and their anatomic characteristics such as origin, course, branches, and distribution had been described. Results: Of the 1000 cases, at least one branch of HGA was found in 740 cases (74%), and altogether there were 839 branches of HGA in them. The composition of 839 branches of HGA was as follows: 682 branches of RGA (81.29%, 682/839), 84 branches of AbLGA (10.01%, 84/839), 45 branches of SDA (5.36%, 45/839), 21 branches of AbGDA (2.50%, 21/839), 1 branch of AbRGEA (0.12%, 1/839) and 6 branches of difficult-to-named HGA (0.72%, 6/839). Of the 839 branches of HGA, 412 branches originated from PHA (49.11%, 412/839), 314 branches from left hepatic artery (LHA) (37.43%, 314/839), 98 branches from right hepatic artery (RHA) (11.68%, 98/839), and 15 branches from middle hepatic artery (MHA) (1.79%, 15/839). Conclusion: HGA is a common gastrointestinal arterial variation and it is very important to be familiar with it so as to prevent the gastrointestinal complications after TACE in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

  10. Frequency of coronary artery stenosis in patients with asymptomatic familial hypercholesterolemia and its association with carotid intimal thickness and cardio-ankle vascular index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Masayo Suzuki,1 Mao Takahashi,1 Takuo Iizuka,1 Hitoshi Terada,2 Hirohumi Noike,1 Kohji Shirai3 1Cardiovascular Center, Internal Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Vascular Function, Sakura Hospital, Medical Center, Toho University, Sakura City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is associated with premature coronary arterial disease. We aimed to determine the incidence of coronary artery stenosis (CAS in asymptomatic FH patients using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA. To investigate the association between CAS and atherosclerosis of carotid arteries, we performed ultrasonography to measure the mean intima-media thickness (IMT, maximum IMT, and plaque score. We also aimed to examine the significance of the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and its association with the incidence of CAS in asymptomatic FH patients. Patients and methods: We enrolled consecutively, 31 FH patients without symptoms of coronary artery disease. Based on the CCTA findings, we divided the patients into two groups, those with and without CAS, and compared various parameters and risk factors of the two groups. Results: Of 31 FH patients, seven patients (22.6% had CAS. The proportion of male patients and mean low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level were higher in patients with CAS than in those without CAS (P<0.05. All carotid ultrasonography parameters (ie, mean IMT, maximum IMT, and plaque score were significantly higher in patients with CAS than in those without CAS (P<0.01, whereas no significant difference was found in CAVI between the two groups. Conclusion: CAS was identified in >22.6% of the asymptomatic FH patients. Patients with CAS tended to have enhanced levels of carotid plaque markers, but no increase was noted in CAVI. FH patients should be continuously monitored using CCTA and ultrasonography. Keywords: CAVI, coronary artery stenosis, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, CCTA, ultrasound

  11. 256层ICT探测冠状动脉钙化在不稳定心绞痛与稳定心绞痛患者中的对比%Detection of Coronary Artery Calcification Score and Compare it in Patients Diagnosed Clinically as Stable and Unstable Angina by 256 ICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大光

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨256层ICT在探测冠状动脉钙化积分中的意义。方法:采用256层ICT对2组患者进行冠状动脉钙化积分扫描,钙化积分由工作站软件自动获得,132例患者分为2组,55例稳定心绞痛,77不例稳定心绞痛。结果:不稳定心绞痛患者的钙化积分要显著大于稳定心绞痛患者(p<0.05),不稳定心绞痛患者的血管钙化数目要明显多于稳定心绞痛组。结论:不稳定心绞痛患者的钙化更明显,因此预测冠状动脉情况冠状动脉钙化积分可以作为重要指标。%Objective:To detect Coronary calcification score and compare it in patients diagnosed clinically of having stable and unsta -ble angina and they being more prone for cardiovascular risk .Methods:Coronary artery calcification was scanned and its scores ( CACS) were measured through 256-slice ICT in 132 patients diagnosed of having stable and unstable angina .(55 stable and 77 unstable angi-na).the result were analyzed statistically by 2-grouped test.Also some associated risk factors were also taken into concideraton (HTN, total cholesterol ,Triglycerides etc ) .Results:The calcification scores in patients with unstable angina were comparatively more than those with patients having stable angina (p<0.05).Also it found that 3-vesssel calcification was more significant with unstable angina ,where as 1-vesssel calcification was more significant with stable angina cases .Conclusion:Coronary artery calcification scores is of great value in predicting cardiovascular enets .

  12. Arterial Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  13. Intracranial Carotid Calcification on Cranial Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Deepak; Zishan, Umme Sara; Chappell, Francesca; Gregoriades, Maria-Lena; Sudlow, Cathie; Sellar, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Intracranial internal carotid artery calcification is associated with cerebrovascular risk factors and stroke, but few quantification methods are available. We tested the reliability of visual scoring, semiautomated Agatston score, and calcium volume measurement in patients with recent stroke. Methods— We used scans from a prospective hospital stroke registry and included patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke or transient ischemic stroke whose noncontrast cranial computed tomographic scans were available electronically. Two raters measured semiautomatic quantitative Agatston score, and calcium volume, and performed qualitative visual scoring using the original 4-point Woodcock score and a modified Woodcock score, where each image on which the internal carotid arteries appeared was scored and the slice scores summed. Results— Intra- and interobserver coefficient of variations were 8.8% and 16.5% for Agatston, 8.8% and 15.5% for calcium volume, and 5.7% and 5.4% for the modified Woodcock visual score, respectively. The modified Woodcock visual score correlated strongly with both Agatston and calcium volume quantitative measures (both R2=0.84; P<0.0001); calcium volume increased by 0.47-mm/point increase in modified Woodcock visual score. Intracranial internal carotid artery calcification increased with age by all measures (eg, visual score, Spearman ρ=0.4; P=0.005). Conclusions— Visual scores correlate highly with quantitative intracranial internal carotid artery calcification measures, with excellent observer agreements. Visual intracranial internal carotid artery scores could be a rapid and practical method for epidemiological studies. PMID:26251250

  14. Dual-energy CT based vascular iodine analysis improves sensitivity for peripheral pulmonary artery thrombus detection: An experimental study in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhlj@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Han, Zong Hong; Zhou, Chang Sheng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin R. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) based vascular iodine analysis for the detection of acute peripheral pulmonary thrombus (PE) in a canine model with histopathological findings as the reference standard. Materials and methods: The study protocol was approved by our institutional animal committee. Thrombi (n = 12) or saline (n = 4) were intravenously injected via right femoral vein in sixteen dogs, respectively. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in DECT mode was performed and conventional CTPA images and DECT based vascular iodine studies using Lung Vessels application were reconstructed. Two radiologists visually evaluated the number and location of PEs using conventional CTPA and DECT series on a per-animal and a per-clot basis. Detailed histopathological examination of lung specimens and catheter angiography served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of DECT and CTPA were calculated on a segmental and subsegmental or more distal pulmonary artery basis. Weighted κ values were computed to evaluate inter-modality and inter-reader agreement. Results: Thirteen dogs were enrolled for final image analysis (experimental group = 9, control group = 4). Histopathological results revealed 237 emboli in 45 lung lobes in 9 experimental dogs, 11 emboli in segmental pulmonary arteries, 49 in subsegmental pulmonary arteries, 177 in fifth-order or more distal pulmonary arteries. Overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for CTPA plus DECT were 93.1%, 76.9%, 87.8%, 89.4%, and 84.2% for the detection of pulmonary emboli. With CTPA versus DECT, sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, PPVs, and NPVs are all 100% for the detection of pulmonary emboli on a segmental pulmonary artery basis, 88.9%, 100%, 96.0%, 100%, and 94.1% for CTPA and 90.4%, 93.0%, 92.0%, 88.7%, and 94.1% for DECT on a subsegmental pulmonary artery basis; 23.8%, 96.4%, 50.4%, 93

  15. Dual-energy CT based vascular iodine analysis improves sensitivity for peripheral pulmonary artery thrombus detection: An experimental study in canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) based vascular iodine analysis for the detection of acute peripheral pulmonary thrombus (PE) in a canine model with histopathological findings as the reference standard. Materials and methods: The study protocol was approved by our institutional animal committee. Thrombi (n = 12) or saline (n = 4) were intravenously injected via right femoral vein in sixteen dogs, respectively. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in DECT mode was performed and conventional CTPA images and DECT based vascular iodine studies using Lung Vessels application were reconstructed. Two radiologists visually evaluated the number and location of PEs using conventional CTPA and DECT series on a per-animal and a per-clot basis. Detailed histopathological examination of lung specimens and catheter angiography served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of DECT and CTPA were calculated on a segmental and subsegmental or more distal pulmonary artery basis. Weighted κ values were computed to evaluate inter-modality and inter-reader agreement. Results: Thirteen dogs were enrolled for final image analysis (experimental group = 9, control group = 4). Histopathological results revealed 237 emboli in 45 lung lobes in 9 experimental dogs, 11 emboli in segmental pulmonary arteries, 49 in subsegmental pulmonary arteries, 177 in fifth-order or more distal pulmonary arteries. Overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for CTPA plus DECT were 93.1%, 76.9%, 87.8%, 89.4%, and 84.2% for the detection of pulmonary emboli. With CTPA versus DECT, sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, PPVs, and NPVs are all 100% for the detection of pulmonary emboli on a segmental pulmonary artery basis, 88.9%, 100%, 96.0%, 100%, and 94.1% for CTPA and 90.4%, 93.0%, 92.0%, 88.7%, and 94.1% for DECT on a subsegmental pulmonary artery basis; 23.8%, 96.4%, 50.4%, 93

  16. Multiple Intracranial Calcifications as a Complication of External Ventricular Drain Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Cheol; Ahn, Jae-Gun

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a case of multiple intracranial calcifications after the procedure of external ventricular drain placement in a 50-year-old man with pericallosal artery aneurysm. We believe that calcifications formed dust that had fallen into the track during the external ventricular drain procedure. The clinical features and radiological findings are presented with review of literature.

  17. Spontaneous Bilateral Cervical Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Dissection in a Japanese Patient without Collagen Vascular Disease with Special Reference to Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Arata; Nito, Chikako; Sakamoto, Yuki; Nogami, Akane; Hokama, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shiro; Kirita, Kumiko; Ueda, Masayuki; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Kimura, Kazumi

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Frequently, sCAD involves multiple neck arteries, accounting for 13%-28% of the total sCAD cases. However, little is known about factors related to multiple sCAD. In this case, a 52-year-old man was admitted due to headache without aura. There was a personal history of migraine with aura and a family history of similar symptoms. The patient's younger brother had a left vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysm and underwent endovascular occlusion of his parent artery at the age of 48. Magnetic resonance imaging of our admitted patient showed hyperintensities in the right internal carotid artery (ICA) without acute infarction, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed a narrowing of the right ICA. Angiography was then performed, which showed a trace of dissection of the left ICA and both VAs as well as the right ICA. The patient did not fulfill any major criteria of collagen vascular disease such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV or Loeys-Dietz syndrome. The data in our patient are quite similar to those reported in patients with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of PHACTR1. Obtaining the patient's informed consent, we analyzed a common SNP variation in the rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1), which has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of sCAD. PMID:27216377

  18. [Disk calcifications in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P; Fauré, C; Denarnaud, L

    1985-05-01

    It is not unusual for intervertebral disk calcifications to be detected in pediatric practice, the 150 or so cases reported in the literature probably representing only a small proportion of lesions actually diagnosed. Case reports of 33 children with intervertebral disk calcifications were analyzed. In the majority of these patients (31 of 33) a diagnosis of "idiopathic" calcifications had been made, the cervical localization of the lesions being related to repeated ORL infections and/or trauma. A pre-existing pathologic factor was found in two cases (one child with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis treated by corticoids and one child with Williams and Van Beuren's syndrome). An uncomplicated course was noted in 31 cases, the symptomatology (pain, spinal stiffness and febricula) improving after several days. Complications developed in two cases: one child had very disabling dysphagia due to an anteriorly protruding cervical herniated disc and surgery was necessary; the other child developed cervicobrachial neuralgia due to herniated disc protrusion into the cervical spinal canal, but symptoms regressed within several days although calcifications persisted unaltered. These findings and the course of the rare complications documented in the literature suggest the need for the most conservative treatment possible in cases of disc calcifications in children. PMID:4032343

  19. A bypass case due to an acute inferior myocardial infarction caused by vascular occlusion of the left subclavian artery and left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altas Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yakup Altas, Ali Veysel Ulugg Department of Cardiology, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, Turkey Abstract: ST segment elevation is the most common electrocardiographic finding in acute myocardial infarction. ST elevation in chest leads generally represents left anterior descending artery occlusion, while elevation in DII and III, and aVF represents right coronary and circumflex artery occlusion. A female patient aged 66 years was admitted to our emergency service with ST elevation in leads DIII and aVF. A diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction was made. The patient’s history included coronary artery bypass graft involving the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta to the right coronary artery. The patient was taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a lesion in the left anterior descending artery was identified. Additionally, the left subclavian artery was totally occluded. Following intervention to the lesion, the patient was discharged on day 4 of admission. Keywords: electrocardiography, myocardial infarction, coronary circulation

  20. Association of Ankle-Brachial Index and Aortic Arch Calcification with Overall and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Shih, Ming-Chen Paul; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral artery occlusive disease and vascular calcification are highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients, however the association of the combination of ankle-brachial index (ABI) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing HD is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of ABI and AoAC is independently associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in HD patients. The median follow-up period was 5.7 years. Calcification of the aortic arch was assessed by chest X-ray. Forty-seven patients died including 24 due to cardiovascular causes during the follow-up period. The study patients were stratified into four groups according to an ABI 4 or ≤4 according to receiver operating characteristic curve. Those with an ABI  4 (vs. ABI ≥ 0.95 and AoAC score ≤ 4) were associated with overall (hazard ratio [HR], 4.913; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.932 to 12.497; p = 0.001) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.531; 95% CI, 1.070 to 11.652; p = 0.038) mortality in multivariable analysis. The combination of a low ABI and increased AoAC was associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing HD. PMID:27608939

  1. 终末期肾病患者心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉钙化进展的关系研究%The correction of cardiac valve calcification and the progression of coronary artery calcium in end stage re-nal disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓春; 王泓; 戴云; 孙晖; 李娟; 杨斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between cardiac valve calcification and the progression of coronary ar-tery calcium scores( CACS) in end stage renal disease patients.Methods We collected 127 end stage renal disease patients.Statisti-cal methods were used to analyze the relation between cardiac valve calcification and the progression of coronary calcium.Results In-cidence of the CACS progression in no valve calcification, aortic valve or mitral valve calcification and both valve calcification were 43.1%, 71.4%and 76.5%(P<0.05).Cardiac valve calcification was independent risk factor for CAC progression.Patients with aortic valve or mitral valve calcification and both valve calcification had a significantly greater likelihood of increase of CACS ( relative ratios were 1.30,1.35;P<0.01).Conclusion The cardiac valve calcification in end stage renal disease patients was strongly asso-ciated with the progression of CACS.CACS progressed rapidly in patients with cardiac valve calcification.%目的:探讨终末期肾病患者心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉钙化进展之间的关系。方法选取127例终末期肾病患者,分析心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉钙化进展的关系。结果终末期肾病患者冠脉钙化在无瓣膜钙化组、主动脉瓣或二尖瓣钙化组、主动脉瓣和二尖瓣同时钙化组中进展的发生率分别为43.1%、71.4%、76.5%(P<0.05)。心脏瓣膜钙化是冠脉钙化进展的独立危险因子。与无瓣膜钙化患者相比,主动脉瓣或二尖瓣钙化患者与主动脉瓣和二尖瓣钙化的终末期肾病患者冠脉钙化积分进展的危险比分别为1.30、1.35( P<0.01)。结论终末期肾病患者心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉的钙化进程密切相关,瓣膜钙化患者冠状动脉钙化的进展更快。

  2. Coronary calcification among 3477 asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvrehus, Kristian A; Jasinskiene, Jurgita; Sand, Niels P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be detected by cardiac computed tomography (CT), is associated to cardiovascular risk, and common in asymptomatic individuals and patients referred for cardiac CT. DESIGN: CAC was evaluated in asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients.......001), hyperlipidaemia (42% vs. 12%, p  0; 45% vs. 45%, p = 0.94) or severe calcifications (Agatston > 400; 6% vs. 5%, p = 0.36). In multivariate analyses age (odds ratio (OR) 1.......71-1.02)), moderate (Agatston ≥ 100; OR 0.99 (0.79-1.24)) or severe calcifications (Agatston ≥ 400; OR 0.93 (0.65-1.33)). CONCLUSION: No difference in the presence or severity of coronary calcifications was observed between asymptomatic and symptomatic middle-aged individuals. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk...

  3. Multimodal cardiovascular magnetic resonance quantifies regional variation in vascular structure and function in patients with coronary artery disease: Relationships with coronary disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylintireas Ilias

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the vessel wall is highly reproducible and can evaluate both changes in plaque burden and composition. It can also measure aortic compliance and endothelial function in a single integrated examination. Previous studies have focused on patients with pre-identified carotid atheroma. We define these vascular parameters in patients presenting with coronary artery disease and test their relations to its extent and severity. Methods and Results 100 patients with CAD [single-vessel (16%; two-vessel (39%; and three-vessel (42% non-obstructed coronary arteries (3%] were studied. CAD severity and extent was expressed as modified Gensini score (mean modified score 12.38 ± 5.3. A majority of carotid plaque was located in the carotid bulb (CB. Atherosclerosis in this most diseased segment correlated modestly with the severity and extent of CAD, as expressed by the modified Gensini score (R = 0.251, P Conclusions Multimodal vascular CMR shows regional abnormalities of vascular structure and function that correlate modestly with the degree and extent of CAD.

  4. Involvement of calcium-sensing receptors in hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension by promoting phenotypic modulation of small pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue; Li, Hong-Xia; Shao, Hong-Jiang; Li, Guang-Wei; Sun, Jian; Xi, Yu-Hui; Li, Hong-Zhu; Wang, Xin-Yan; Wang, Li-Na; Bai, Shu-Zhi; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Li; Yang, Guang-Dong; Wu, Ling-Yun; Wang, Rui; Xu, Chang-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Phenotype modulation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) plays an important role during hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension (PAH). We had previously shown that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in rat PASMCs. However, little is known about the role of CaSR in phenotypic modulation of PASMCs in hypoxia-induced PAH as well as the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we investigated whether CaSR induces the proliferation of PASMCs in small pulmonary arteries from both rats and human with PAH. PAH was induced by exposing rats to hypoxia for 7-21 days. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVI), the percentage of medial wall thickness to the external diameter (WT %), and cross-sectional total vessel wall area to the total area (WA %) of small pulmonary arteries were determined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE), masson trichrome and Weigert's staining. The protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3, CaSR, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), and smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype marker proteins in rat small pulmonary arteries, including calponin, SMα-actin (SMAα), and osteopontin (OPN), were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry was applied to paraffin-embedded human tissues from lungs of normal human and PAH patients with chronic heart failure (PAH/CHF). Compared with the control group, mPAP, RVI, WT % and WA % in PAH rats were gradually increased with the prolonged hypoxia. At the same time, the expressions of CaSR, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-3, PCNA, OPN, and p-ERK were markedly increased, while the expressions of SMAα and calponin were significantly reduced in lung tissues or small pulmonary arteries of PAH rats. Neomycin (an agonist of CaSR) enhanced but NPS2390 (an

  5. Anatomia vascular das artérias renais natomia e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae = Vascular anatomy of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines-Pelomedusidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líria Queiroz Luz Hirano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de enriquecer o conhecimento sobre a morfologia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis, facilitando o entendimento da fisiologia clínica e cirúrgica destes animais. Foram utilizados cincoexemplares machos de Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá, coletados segundo a Licença nº 066/2004- Ibama/RAM. A artéria carótida esquerda e a veia femoral direita foram canuladas e, pelas mesmas, foi introduzida solução fisiológica para lavagem do sistema vascular; em seguida,aplicou-se solução de Neoprene Látex “450” corada com pigmento específico (Globo S/A Tintas e Pigmentos. O material foi fixado em solução de Formol tamponado a 10% por um período mínimo de 96h. Uma abertura central e de formato quadrangular foi feita na metade caudal do plastrão e casco, de forma a expor os ramos da artéria aorta que irrigam os rins e as gônadas. Observou-se que as artérias renais se originam da face ventral da artéria aorta dorsal, em número de dois pares para cada rim e, em um único exemplar, elas originaram uma artéria renal direita e duas esquerdas. A artéria gonadal surgiu a partir da artéria renal, e apenas um par penetrou pela face dorsal de cada gônada.This work was developed with the aim of enriching knowledge on the vascular morphology of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemisunifilis, thus increasing the understanding of the clinical and surgical physiology of these animals. Five Podocnemis unifilis males were used, collected according to license no. 066/2004-Ibama/RAM.The left carotid artery and right femoral vein were cannulated, and a serum solution was introduced to remove obstructions from the vascular system. A solution of Neoprene Latex “450” dye was injected. The material was fixed in a solution of 10% formaldehyde for a period of 96 hours. Next, a square-shaped central opening was made in the caudal end of the plastron and bridge, exposing the branches

  6. Assays for in vitro monitoring of proliferation of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Elena A; Lim, Poay; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Eszterhas, Andrew; Panettieri, Reynold A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Vascular and airway remodeling, which are characterized by airway smooth muscle (ASM) and pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation, contribute to the pathology of asthma, pulmonary hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. To evaluate the proliferation of VSM and ASM cells in response to mitogens, we perform a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. The proliferation protocol takes approximately 48 h and includes stimulating cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with agonists, labeling cells with [3H]thymidine and examining levels of [3H]thymidine incorporation by scintillation counting. Although using radiolabeled [3H]thymidine incorporation is a limitation, the greatest benefit of the assay is providing reliable and statistically significant data. PMID:17406550

  7. Evaluation of batroxobin in preventing vascular restenosis in diabetic patients after infrapopliteal arterial angioplasty: a randomized comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate batroxobin in preventing vascular restenosis in diabetic patients after infrapopliteal arterial angioplasty through comparing the clinical results of the combination use of batroxobin and aspirin with that of simple use of aspirin. Methods: After a successful angioplasty, fifty-two diabetic patients with symptomatic infrapopliteal obstructions were randomly divided into the study group (n=26) and the control group (n=26). Patients in both groups received 100 aspirin everyday, but the patients in study group additionally received 5 IU batroxobin intravenous drip every day for six times. At the end of the follow-up period lasting for 12 months, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or Doppler ultrasonic angiography was performed to check the vessels to see if there was any restenosis or reocclusion. The relief degree of clinical symptoms were observed, and both preoperative and postoperative ankle-brachial index (ABI) were regularly determined and compared. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to evaluate restenosis/reocclusion-free rate, limb salvage rate and amputation-free rate. Results: During the follow-up period the occurrence of restenosis/reocclusion in study group and control group was 22.0% and 34.5% respectively (P=0.0307). Statistically significant difference in ABI existed between two groups both after the procedure (P<0.05) and at 12 months after the treatment (P=0.0094). Clinical improvement and tissue healing in study group and control group were observed in 23 and 19 patients respectively (P=0.0544). Twelve months after angioplasty, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the restenosis/reocclusion-free rate, the limb salvage rate and the amputation-free rate for study group were 74.0%, 96.2% and 84.6% respectively, while they was 54.8%, 92.3% and 84.6% respectively for control group. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the use of the clinical therapeutic efficacy and markedly relieve the symptoms, although this

  8. Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Vascular Closure Device (Glubran 2 Seal) After Diagnostic and Interventional Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Corso, Andrea [University of Pisa, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Bargellini, Irene, E-mail: irenebargellini@hotmail.com; Cicorelli, Antonio; Perrone, Orsola [University of Pisa, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Leo, Michele [University of Pisa, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Lunardi, Alessandro [University of Pisa, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Alberti, Aldo; Tomei, Francesca [University of Pisa, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Cioni, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Ferrari, Mauro [University of Pisa, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Bartolozzi, Carlo [University of Pisa, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate safety and efficacy of a novel vascular closure device (Glubran 2 Seal) after peripheral angiography in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). From December 2010 to June 2011, all consecutive patients with PAOD undergoing peripheral angiography were prospectively enrolled onto the study after percutaneous antegrade or retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery. After angiography, the Glubran 2 Seal device was used to achieve hemostasis. The following data were registered: technical success and manual compression duration, patients' discomfort (scale 0-5), operators' technical difficulty (scale 0-5), and vascular complications. The site of hemostasis was evaluated by clinical inspection and color-coded Duplex ultrasound performed 1 day and 1 month after the procedure. One hundred seventy-eight patients were enrolled (112 male, mean age 70.8 years) with a total of 206 puncture sites, including 104 (50.5 %) antegrade accesses. The device was successful in 198(96.1 %) of 206 procedures, with 8 cases of manual compression lasting longer than 5 min (maximum 20 min). No major vascular complications were observed, resulting in 100 % procedural success. Minor complications occurred in seven procedures (3.4 %), including two cases of pseudoaneurysms, successfully treated by ultrasound-guided glue injection. The mean {+-} standard deviation score for patients' discomfort was 0.9 {+-} 0.7, whereas the mean score for operators' difficulty was 1.2 {+-} 0.9. In patients with PAOD, the Glubran 2 Seal represents a simple, painless, and efficient vascular closure device, able to achieve hemostasis both in antegrade and retrograde accesses.

  9. Coronary calcification and risk of cardiovascular disease : an epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAlready in the eighteenth century, calcification of the coronary artery wall was recognized as being part of the atherosclerotic process.1 However, only after the recent development of electron-beam tomography (EBT), an ultrafast CT technique, it became possible to accurately quantify th

  10. The realm of vitamin K dependent proteins: shifting from coagulation toward calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Brecht A G; Vermeer, Cees; Reutelingsperger, Chris P M; Schurgers, Leon J

    2014-08-01

    In the past few decades vitamin K has emerged from a single-function "haemostasis vitamin" to a "multi-function vitamin." The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) inevitably showed that the inhibition was not restricted to vitamin K dependent coagulation factors but also synthesis of functional extrahepatic vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDPs), thereby eliciting undesired side effects. Vascular calcification is one of the recently revealed detrimental effects of VKA. The discovery that VKDPs are involved in vascular calcification has propelled our mechanistic understanding of this process and has opened novel avenues for diagnosis and treatment. This review addresses mechanisms of VKDPs and their significance for physiological and pathological calcification.

  11. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  12. O papel da ultra-sonografia vascular com Doppler colorido na avaliação da hipertensão reno-vascular: acurácia da técnica direta de avaliação das artérias renais Vascular color Doppler ultrasound for assessing renovascular hypertension: accuracy of the direct technique for assessing the renal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Engelhorn

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia da ultra-sonografia vascular com Doppler colorido em relação à arteriografia digital por subtração de imagens, na identificação das estenoses hemodinamicamente significativas, nas artérias renais. MÉTODOS: Estudados, prospectivamente, pelo exame ultra-sonográfico, 137 artérias renais de 69 pacientes adultos, com suspeita de hipertensão arterial reno-vascular. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados, de maneira duplo-cega, ao estudo arteriográfico digital por subtração de imagens, e calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e acurácia geral do exame para critérios previamente definidos. RESULTADOS: Na comparação entre os métodos, excluindo-se os laudos inconclusivos (7 artérias, das 130 artérias restantes, 116 (89,2% artérias tiveram laudos concordantes e 14 (10,8% discordantes. Os valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e acurácia geral da ultra-sonografia vascular com Doppler colorido foram respectivamente 95,33%, 88,14%, 89,86%, 94,55% e 91,94%. CONCLUSÃO: Existiu boa correlação entre os dois exames na avaliação das estenoses hemodinamicamente significativas das artérias renais, tornando-se a ultra-sonografia vascular com Doppler colorido método não invasivo útil na seleção de pacientes com suspeita de hipertensão reno-vascular.OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of vascular color Doppler ultrasound as compared with digital subtraction arteriography for identifying hemodynamically significant renal artery stenoses. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven renal arteries from 69 adult patients suspected of having renovascular arterial hypertension were prospectively studied with ultrasound. The results obtained were compared in a double-blind manner with those obtained on digital subtraction arteriography, and the following parameters were calculated according to previously defined

  13. [Vascular graft prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakfé, N; Dieval, F; Thaveau, F; Rinckenbach, S; Hassani, O; Camelot, G; Durand, B; Kretz, J-G

    2004-06-01

    Performed since the 1950s, vascular grafting has opened modern era of vascular surgery. Autologous venous grafts are of first choice for revascularisation of small arteries. Synthetic grafts are mainly modelled using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene or terephtalate polyethylene. These prosthesis are mainly used for revascularization of medium and large size arteries. PMID:15220107

  14. Comparative characterization of stromal vascular cells derived from three types of vascular wall and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Santsun; Eto, Hitomi; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kuno, Shinichiro; Kinoshita, Kahori; Ma, Hsu; Tsai, Chi-Han; Chou, Wan-Ting; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2013-12-01

    Multipotent stem/progenitor cells localize perivascularly in many organs and vessel walls. These tissue-resident stem/progenitor cells differentiate into vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and other mesenchymal lineages, and participate in physiological maintenance and repair of vasculatures. In this study, we characterized stromal vascular cells obtained through the explant culture method from three different vessel walls in humans: arterial wall (ART; >500 μm in diameter), venous wall (VN; >500 μm in diameter), and small vessels in adipose tissue (SV; arterioles and venules, adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs). All stromal vascular cells of different origins presented fibroblast-like morphology and we could not visually discriminate one population from another. Flow cytometry showed that the cultured population heterogeneously expressed a variety of surface antigens associated with stem/progenitor cells, but CD105 was expressed by most cells in all groups, suggesting that the cells generally shared the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Our histological and flow cytometric data suggested that the main population of vessel wall-derived stromal vascular cells were CD34(+)/CD31(-) and came from the tunica adventitia and areola tissue surrounding the adventitia. CD271 (p75NTR) was expressed by the vasa vasorum in the VN adventitia and by a limited population in the adventitia of SV. All three populations differentiated into multiple lineages as did ASCs. ART cells induced the largest quantity of calcium formation in the osteogenic medium, whereas ASCs showed the greatest adipogenic differentiation. SV and VN stromal cells had greater potency for network formation than did ART stromal cells. In conclusion, the three stromal vascular populations exhibited differential functional properties. Our results have clinical implications for vascular diseases such as arterial wall calcification and possible applications to regenerative therapies

  15. Pineal calcification among black patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K J

    1983-08-01

    A postmortem histopathological study was done in 233 pineal glands of black patients. Among them, 70 percent showed microscopic evidence of calcification in the pineal parenchyma. The frequency of calcification increased with age. However, the severity of calcification reached the peak in the 60 to 69 year old age group and then gradually declined. As compared to males, females had slightly higher frequency and reached the peak of severity in younger age groups. When pineal calcification was compared among patients with various malignancies, a higher frequency and more severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the prostate and the pancreas. A lower frequency and less severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the breast and the cervix. The results of this study emphasize the important role of sex hormone in genesis of pineal calcification.

  16. Vascular emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semashko, D C

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the initial assessment and emergent management of several common as well as uncommon vascular emergencies. Aortic dissection, aneurysms, and arterial occlusive disease are familiar but challenging clinical entities. Less frequently encountered conditions are also discussed including an aortic enteric fistula, mesenteric venous thrombosis, phlegmasia alba dolens, and subclavian vein thrombosis.

  17. Inflammation in coronary artery diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-jun

    2011-01-01

    The concept that atherosclerosis is an inflammation has been increasingly recognized,and subsequently resulted in great interest in revealing the inflammatory nature of the atherosclerotic process.More recently,a large body of evidence has supported the idea that inflammatory mechanisms play a pivotal role throughout all phases of atherogenesis,from endothelial dysfunction and the formation of fatty streaks to plaque destabilization and the acute coronary events due to vulnerable plaque rupture.Indeed,although triggers and pathways of inflammation are probably multiple and vary in different clinical entities of atherosclerotic disorders,an imbalance between anti-inflammatory mechanisms and pro-inflammatory factors will result in an atherosclerotic progression.Vascular endothelial dysfunction and lipoprotein retention into the arterial intima have been reported as the earliest events in atherogenesis with which inflammation is linked.Inflammatory has also been extended to the disorders of coronary microvasculature,and associated with special subsets of coronary artery disease such as silent myocardial ischemia,myocardial ischemia-reperfusion,cardiac syndrome X,variant angina,coronary artery ectasia,coronary calcification and in-stent restenosis.Inflammatory biomarkers,originally studied to better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis,have generated increasing interest among researches and clinicians.The identification of inflammatory biomarkers and cellular/molecular pathways in atherosclerotic disease represent important goals in cardiovascular disease research,in particular with respect of the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse atherosclerotic diseases.

  18. [Soft tissue calcifications in panoramic radiography. A risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariayi, Ayesha Shekeba; Berndt, Dorothea; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a basic diagnostic tool in the dental field where calcifications are seen occasionally in the lateral parts of the x-ray. The differential diagnosis are carotid artery atheromas, calcified submandibular lymphnodes and sialoliths of the submandibular gland. 4007 panoramic radiographs (100%) from patients >40 years were scanned retrospectively. Special emphasis was given to the carotid artery territory (CAT). 225 soft tissue calcifications were found (5.6%). 144 patients had calcifications in the CAT (3.6%), 73 showed calcified submandibular lymphnodes (1.8%), and 8 (0.2%) sialoliths. The female to male ratio was 54.7%:45.3%. Pneumatic diseases were beside hypertension and smoking a risk factor for CAT calcification. Carotid artery atheromas are the main risk for cerebrovascular insults. Dentists can help to detect patients at risk for stroke. Their patients can be referred for further diagnostics (ultrasound). PMID:19954131

  19. 血液透析患者血清软骨寡聚基质蛋白浓度与血管钙化及心血管事件关系的探讨%The correlation of plasma cartilage oligomeric matrix protein with vascular calcification and cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟; 戈艳蕾; 王田力; 孔炜; 王悦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血液透析患者血清软骨寡聚基质蛋白(cartilage oligomeric matrix protein,COMP)浓度与血管钙化及心血管事件的关系.方法 比较血液透析患者与正常对照组血清COMP浓度的差异,且根据患者血清COMP水平,将北京大学第三医院血液净化中心54例维持性血液透析患者分成高、低浓度2组,胸片法评估2组间基线血管钙化情况,并随访20个月,观察2组间心血管事件的发生情况.结果 低浓度组和高浓度组的基线血管钙化发生率分别是64.5%(20/31)和91.3%(21/23),差异有统计学意义(x2=5.184,P=0.023),相应的随访过程中心血管事件的发生率分别是10.4%(3/29)和40.9%(9/22),差异有统计学意义(x2=6.495,P=0.011).回归分析提示高浓度血清COMP是维持性血液透析患者发生严重心血管事件的预测因素之一.结论 血液透析患者血清COMP浓度可能是血管钙化及心血管事件的危险因素.%Objective To investigate the correlation of plasma cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)with vascular calcification and cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients. Methods Plasma COMP levels in hemodialysis patients and normal controls were determined and analyzed. Fifty-four hemodialysis patients were divided into two groups based on plasma COMP level, and they were followed up for 20 months. Vascular calcification of thoracic aorta was evaluated by chest X-ray examination at the beginning. Cardiovascular events were analyzed at the end of the follow-up period. Results At the beginning of the follow-up period, vascular calcification was detected in 20/31 and 21/23 patients in the low COMP group and the high COMP group, respectively (64.5% vs. 91.3%, P =0.023). During the follow-up period, cardiovascular events were found in 3/29 and 9/22 patients in the low COMP group and the high COMP group, respectively (10.4% vs. 40.9%, p=0.011). Regression analysis showed that higher plasma COMP level was one of risk

  20. Bilateral acute corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, T F; Leibowitz, H M

    1985-04-01

    A 38-year-old man with brittle, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral severe dry eyes with recurrent corneal ulcers developed atypical band-shaped calcifications of both corneas during a 24-hour period. Serum calcium, phosphate, and carbon dioxide levels all were within normal limits. The patient was mildly uremic but was not in renal failure. When EDTA chelation failed to clear the deposits, partial keratectomies were performed in both eyes and the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, including energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Microscopic studies revealed an atypical calcific keratopathy which involved neither Bowman's layer nor the most superficial stromal lamellae. The deposits were confined to deeper lamellae in the anterior stroma and by electron microscopy were composed of extracellular crystalline aggregates. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of these aggregates confirmed the presence of calcium and phosphate. Corneal dessication appeared to be a major contributing factor in the rapid formation of these deposits.

  1. Pulmonary arterial wall distensibility assessed by intravascular ultrasound in children with congenital heart disease : an indicator for pulmonary vascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Rolf M F; Cromme-Dijkhuis, Adri H; Hop, Wim C J; Kruit, Marco N; Hess, John; Berger, Rudolphus

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary overflow are associated with functional and structural changes of the pulmonary arterial wall. Current techniques to evaluate the pulmonary vasculature neglect the pulsatile nature of pulmonary flow. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the dyn

  2. Relations of Digital Vascular Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Arterial Stiffness: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil) Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Luisa C. C.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ribeiro, Antonio L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction is an early expression of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates basal pulse amplitude (BPA), endothelial function (PAT ratio), and wave reflection (PAT‐AIx) in the digital microvessels. In Brazilian adults, we investigated the correlations of PAT responses to CV risk factors and to carotid‐femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness. Methods and Results In a cross‐sectional study, 1535 participants of the ELSA‐Brasil cohort underwent PAT testing (52±9 years; 44% women). In multivariable analyses, more‐impaired BPA and PAT ratios were associated with male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein. Higher age and triglycerides were related to higher BPA, whereas lower systolic blood pressure, hypertension (HTN) treatment, and prevalent CV disease (CVD) were associated with lower PAT ratio. PAT‐AIx correlated positively with female sex, advancing age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and smoking and inversely to heart rate, height, BMI, and prevalent CVD. Black race was associated with lower BPA, higher PAT ratio, and PAT‐AIx. Microvessel vasodilator function was not associated with PWV. Higher PAT‐AIx was modestly correlated to higher PWV and PAT ratio and inversely correlated to BPA. Conclusion Metabolic risk factors are related to impaired microvessel vasodilator function in Brazil. However, in contrast to studies from the United States, black race was not associated with an impaired microvessel vasodilator response, implying that vascular function may vary by race across populations. PAT‐AIx relates to HTN, may be a valid measure of wave reflection, and provides distinct information from arterial stiffness. PMID:25510401

  3. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Effects on Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Arteries: A Novel Strategy to Accelerate Vascular Ulcer Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Valente

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular ulcers are a serious complication of peripheral vascular disease, especially in diabetics. Several approaches to treat the wounds are proposed but they show poor outcomes and require long healing times. Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor (HGF/SF is a pleiotropic cytokine exerting many biological activities through the c-Met receptor. This study was aimed at verifying whether HGF/SF influences proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis on mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human arteries (hVW-MSCs. hVW-MSCs were exposed to NIBSC HGF/SF (2.5, 5, 10, and 70 ng/mL from 6 hrs to 7 days. HGF and c-MET mRNA and protein expression, cell proliferation (Alamar Blue and Ki–67 assay, migration (scratch and transwell assays, and angiogenesis (Matrigel were investigated. hVW-MSCs displayed stemness features and expressed HGF and c-MET. HGF/SF did not increase hVW-MSC proliferation, whereas it enhanced the cell migration, the formation of capillary-like structures, and the expression of angiogenic markers (vWF, CD31, and KDR. The HGF/SF effects on hVW-MSC migration and angiogenic potential are of great interest to accelerate wound healing process. Local delivery of HGF/SF could therefore improve the healing of unresponsive vascular ulcers.

  4. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Effects on Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Arteries: A Novel Strategy to Accelerate Vascular Ulcer Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sabrina; Ciavarella, Carmen; Pasanisi, Emanuela; Ricci, Francesca; Stella, Andrea; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2016-01-01

    Vascular ulcers are a serious complication of peripheral vascular disease, especially in diabetics. Several approaches to treat the wounds are proposed but they show poor outcomes and require long healing times. Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor (HGF/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine exerting many biological activities through the c-Met receptor. This study was aimed at verifying whether HGF/SF influences proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis on mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human arteries (hVW-MSCs). hVW-MSCs were exposed to NIBSC HGF/SF (2.5, 5, 10, and 70 ng/mL) from 6 hrs to 7 days. HGF and c-MET mRNA and protein expression, cell proliferation (Alamar Blue and Ki-67 assay), migration (scratch and transwell assays), and angiogenesis (Matrigel) were investigated. hVW-MSCs displayed stemness features and expressed HGF and c-MET. HGF/SF did not increase hVW-MSC proliferation, whereas it enhanced the cell migration, the formation of capillary-like structures, and the expression of angiogenic markers (vWF, CD31, and KDR). The HGF/SF effects on hVW-MSC migration and angiogenic potential are of great interest to accelerate wound healing process. Local delivery of HGF/SF could therefore improve the healing of unresponsive vascular ulcers.

  5. Vascular quality of care pilot study: how admission to a vascular surgery service affects evidence-based pharmacologic risk factor modification in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhof N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Steenhof,1,2 Francesca Le Piane,1 Kori Leblanc,1–3 Naomi R Eisenberg,4 Yvonne Kwan,1 Christine Malmberg,1,6 Alexandra Papadopoulos,5,7 Graham Roche-Nagle4,7,8 1Department of Pharmacy, University Health Network, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, 4Division of Vascular Surgery, University Health Network, 5Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 6Victoria General Hospital, Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, 7Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, University Health Network, 8Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD guidelines recommend aggressive risk factor modification to impr