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Sample records for artemisia annua glandular

  1. Global characterization of Artemisia annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing

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    Qi Yan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of commercially important secondary metabolites in many plant species. The most prominent anti-malarial drug artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, only limited genomic information is currently available in this non-model plant species. Results We present a global characterization of A. annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. Sequencing runs using two normalized cDNA collections from glandular trichomes yielded 406,044 expressed sequence tags (average length = 210 nucleotides, which assembled into 42,678 contigs and 147,699 singletons. Performing a second sequencing run only increased the number of genes identified by ~30%, indicating that massively parallel pyrosequencing provides deep coverage of the A. annua trichome transcriptome. By BLAST search against the NCBI non-redundant protein database, putative functions were assigned to over 28,573 unigenes, including previously undescribed enzymes likely involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Comparison with ESTs derived from trichome collections of other plant species revealed expressed genes in common functional categories across different plant species. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of selected unigenes and novel transcripts in A. annua glandular trichomes. Conclusion The presence of contigs corresponding to enzymes for terpenoids and flavonoids biosynthesis suggests important metabolic activity in A. annua glandular trichomes. Our comprehensive survey of genes expressed in glandular trichome will facilitate new gene discovery and shed light on the regulatory mechanism of artemisinin metabolism and trichome function in A. annua.

  2. Investigation of glandular trichome proteins in Artemisia annua L. using comparative proteomics.

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    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs are called biofactories because they are active in synthesizing, storing and secreting various types of plant secondary metabolites. As the most effective drug against malaria, artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone is derived from GSTs of Artemisia annua. However, low artemisinin content (0.001%~1.54% of dry weight has hindered its wide application. We investigate the GST-expressed proteins in Artemisia annua using a comparative proteomics approach, aiming for a better understanding of the trichome proteome and arteminisin metabolism. 2D-electrophoresis was employed to compare the protein profiles of GSTs and leaves. More than 700 spots were resolved for GSTs, of which ∼93 non-redundant proteins were confidently identified by searching NCBI and Artemisia EST databases. Over 70% of these proteins were highly expressed in GTSs. Functional classification of these GSTs enriched proteins revealed that many of them participate in major plant metabolic processes such as electron transport, transcription and translation.

  3. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes.

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    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants.

  4. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes.

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    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants. PMID:26340695

  5. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth

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    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Lilian A.; Korndörfer, Gaspar H.; Lana, Regina M. Q.; Rossi, Monica L.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Silva, Deise A.O.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  6. Treatment of Iron-Loaded Veterinary Sarcoma by Artemisia annua

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    Breuer, Elmar; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin, a constituent of Artemisia annua L., is a well-known antimalarial drug. Artemisinin-type drugs also inhibit cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Herbal extracts of A. annua inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the use of capsules containing powder of Herba Artemisiae annuae to treat pet sarcoma. The surgical tumor removal as standard treatment was supplemented by adjuvant therapy with A. annua. One cat and one dog with fibrosarcoma survived 40 and 37 months,...

  7. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

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    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  8. Treatment of Iron-Loaded Veterinary Sarcoma by Artemisia annua.

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    Breuer, Elmar; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Artemisinin, a constituent of Artemisia annua L., is a well-known antimalarial drug. Artemisinin-type drugs also inhibit cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Herbal extracts of A. annua inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the use of capsules containing powder of Herba Artemisiae annuae to treat pet sarcoma. The surgical tumor removal as standard treatment was supplemented by adjuvant therapy with A. annua. One cat and one dog with fibrosarcoma survived 40 and 37 months, respectively, without tumor relapse. Two other dogs suffering from fibrosarcoma and hemangioendothelial sarcoma also showed complete remission and are still alive after 39 and 26 months, respectively. A. annua was well tolerated without noticeable side effects. These four cases indicate that A. annua may be a promising herbal drug for cancer therapy. PMID:24859473

  9. New Sesquiterpene and Polymethoxy-Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L

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    Chu, Yang; WANG, HONGBO; Chen, Jing; Hou, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the polymethoxy-flavonoids, as main components of Artemisia annua, could improve the antimalarial activity of Artemisinin. Here, we described the isolation, elucidation, constituent analysis, flavonoids enrichment of the extracts of A. annua. A total of 20 compounds were isolated including a new sesquiterpene (compound 12) and five (1, 5, 6, 7, 15) afforded for the first time from A. annua. The elucidation of eight flavonoids may be a useful phytochemical data...

  10. Heteroduplex mapping in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Chinese herb, Artemisia annua (huang hua hao), is currently the sole source of the leading anti-malarial drug, artemisinin (qinghaosu). In the face of increasing resistance to anti-malarial drugs such as chloroquine, 69 countries have adopted the WHO recommendation to use artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) instead. However, there are considerable price barriers to widespread use as artemisinin yields from Artemisia plants are low, making artemisinin expensive to produce. Also, the rapid adoption of ACTs has created shortages, keeping the prices at high and sometimes volatile levels despite increased agricultural production. The aim of our project is to produce new, non-GM, varieties of Artemisia with increased artemisinin yields. These new varieties should help to secure a stable supply of artemisinin and reduce its cost of production, making treatment with ACTs cheaper and more accessible to malaria victims in developing countries. Artemisinin synthesis and storage occurs in specialised groups of cells, known as glandular trichomes, which are found on the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant. Artemisinin yields are typically less than 1% of leaf dry weight, whilst other species produce similar compounds in similar trichomes at 13% dry weight, so there is considerable scope for improvement. A seed treatment with chemical mutagens, widely used in plant breeding has been applied to an existing Artemisia cultivar (Artemis) in order to boost its genetic diversity. Around 10,000 M2 plants from this treatment are currently being screened using heteroduplex mapping technique on a set of target genes with the potential to impact on artemisinin yields. Mutations which might impact on the function of the selected gene targets have been identified. Selected mutants will be fed into a fast track breeding program to bring the mutations to homozygosity in the most appropriate genetic background. This route should result in at least a doubling of artemisinin content

  11. [STUDIES ON THE CONSTITUENTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L].

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    Youyou, Tu; Muyun, Ni; Yurong, Zhong; Lanna, Li; Shulian, Gui; Muqun, Zhang; Xiuzhen, Wang; Xiaotian, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Six crystalline components were isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Artemisia annua L. They have been identified as four sesquiterpenes, one flavonol and one coumarin. Qinghaosu I and III are new sesquiterpenes. Five main constituents, camphene, iso-artemisia ketone, 1-camphor, β-carophyllene, and β-pinene were identified from the volatile oil of this herb. PMID:26837162

  12. Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua tissue cultures

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    Martinez Isaza, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    Production of artemisinin was studied in both plants and tissue cultures of Artemisia annua L. Incorporation of (3{prime}-{sup 14}C) mevalonic acid sodium salt into artemisinin or arteannuin B was not found when field-grown plants were fed once with 10 or 50 {mu}Ci and harvested after 44, 144 or 288 hr. Artemisinin was not present in root organ cultures, but was present in the shoot cultures in a concentration of less than 5 mg/100 g dry weight. The content of artemisinin in a shoot culture line with elongated and indented shoots was significantly higher at p value of 0.01 from that with short and compact shoots. Induction of roots on shoot cultures was associated with increased artemisinin production. Shoot cultures that developed into plants with roots had higher artemisinin content than those shoots cultures with aerial roots, or shoots cultures with basal roots. The artemisinin content in shoot cultures apparently increased with age. Preliminary studies on the metabolism of arteannuin B demonstrated that shoot cultures absorbed the exogenous arteannuin B from the medium without an increase in artemisinin content.

  13. New Sesquiterpene and Polymethoxy-Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L.

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    Chu, Yang; Wang, Hongbo; Chen, Jing; Hou, Yue

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study revealed that the polymethoxy-flavonoids, as main components of Artemisia annua, could improve the antimalarial activity of Artemisinin. Here, we described the isolation, elucidation, constituent analysis, flavonoids enrichment of the extracts of A. annua. A total of 20 compounds were isolated including a new sesquiterpene (compound 12) and five (1, 5, 6, 7, 15) afforded for the first time from A. annua. The elucidation of eight flavonoids may be a useful phytochemical data and chemical foundation for further mechanism studies on improving the anti-malarial action of artemisinin. Furthermore, the antitumor activities of the compounds were assayed using four different kinds of human cancer cell lines. PMID:25210306

  14. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect of Artemisia annua extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, E.; Fretté, X. C.; Engberg, R. M.;

    2012-01-01

    be banned in the EU. Extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (AA) showed antimicrobial activity in overnight cultures of CP strains isolated from diseased broilers. The hexane extract (HEX) gave the strongest inhibition (MIC=185ppm) while the dichloromethane extract (DCM) gave a weaker inhibition (MIC...

  15. Artemisinin concentration and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua distillation byproduct

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    Artemisia annua is mostly known as the source of artemisinin, the raw material for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy, used against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum where malaria is endemic. Artemisinin drugs are also effective against helminthic and protozoan parasites tha...

  16. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA KUMARIN DARI TANAMAN ARTEMISIA ANNUA (L).

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    Ani Isnawati; Harfia Mudahar; Kamilatunisah Kamilatunisah

    2012-01-01

    The invention of new entity from plant was the basic step for chemistry and another sciences development, such as: pharmacy, biology, and medical. Besides that, it is needed to fulfill people needs on food, medicine, cosmetics, etc. Coumarine is fenilpropanoid that has biological activity to stimulate skin pigmentation, influence enzyme activity, anti coagulant, anti microbial and inhibition of carcinogenic effect. One of the plants that contain coumarine is Artemisia annuaL, because ofthat w...

  17. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

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    Monika Skowyra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  18. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA KUMARIN DARI TANAMAN ARTEMISIA ANNUA (L.

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    Ani Isnawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The invention of new entity from plant was the basic step for chemistry and another sciences development, such as: pharmacy, biology, and medical. Besides that, it is needed to fulfill people needs on food, medicine, cosmetics, etc. Coumarine is fenilpropanoid that has biological activity to stimulate skin pigmentation, influence enzyme activity, anti coagulant, anti microbial and inhibition of carcinogenic effect. One of the plants that contain coumarine is Artemisia annuaL, because ofthat we interested in isolating coumarine and it's derivate in Artemisia annua L with expectation that study resulted in discovering anti cancer agent. The method that we use is extraction and soxhletation using methanol and fractionation using dichloromethane. The separation was done by column Chromatography with silica gel and eluent n-hexane:etil acetate. Purification was done by recrystalization. Isolate is identified using KLT, GC-MS. Spectrophotometer UV, IR and NMR. This study shows that isolate was coumarine named 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy or Scopoletin with molecular weight 192   Keywords: Coumarine, Artemisia annuaL, TLC, FTIR, GC-MS, NMR

  19. Impact of Exogenous Elicitors on Artemisinin Production and Trichome Density in Artemisia annua L. under Subtropical Conditions

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    Alka Jagdish DANGASH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone found in Artemisia annua having many medicinal properties. Therefore the factors affecting trichome initiation are important. In the present study, several strategies have been adapted to increase artemisinin production by treating them with nutrients, hormones and elicitors. Abscisic acid, Gibberellic acid (GA3, a combination of GA3+IAA (Gibberellic acid+indole acetic acid, Chitosan, Methyl jasmonate, Acetyl salicylic acid, Lead acetate, sodium chloride, and Nanozime were sprayed on plant at regular intervals. The glandular trichomes of leaves from Artemisia annua (Asteraceae were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and the percentage artemisnin content was analyzed by HPTLC. Maximum artemisinin content % and trichome index (0.128 was found when methy jasmonate was applied and minimum artemisinin content % and trichome index was reported in NaCl & acetyl salicylic acid.

  20. Dried whole plant Artemisia annua as an antimalarial therapy.

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    Mostafa A Elfawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drugs are primary weapons for reducing malaria in human populations. However emergence of resistant parasites has repeatedly curtailed the lifespan of each drug that is developed and deployed. Currently the most effective anti-malarial is artemisinin, which is extracted from the leaves of Artemisia annua. Due to poor pharmacokinetic properties and prudent efforts to curtail resistance to monotherapies, artemisinin is prescribed only in combination with other anti-malarials composing an Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT. Low yield in the plant, and the added cost of secondary anti-malarials in the ACT, make artemisinin costly for the developing world. As an alternative, we compared the efficacy of oral delivery of the dried leaves of whole plant (WP A. annua to a comparable dose of pure artemisinin in a rodent malaria model (Plasmodium chabaudi. We found that a single dose of WP (containing 24 mg/kg artemisinin reduces parasitemia more effectively than a comparable dose of purified drug. This increased efficacy may result from a documented 40-fold increase in the bioavailability of artemisinin in the blood of mice fed the whole plant, in comparison to those administered synthetic drug. Synergistic benefits may derive from the presence of other anti-malarial compounds in A. annua. If shown to be clinically efficacious, well-tolerated, and compatible with the public health imperative of forestalling evolution of drug resistance, inexpensive, locally grown and processed A. annua might prove to be an effective addition to the global effort to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Three New Monoterpene Synthases from Artemisia annua.

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    Ruan, Ju-Xin; Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Jian; Hu, Wen-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5, and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn(2+) for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and gibberellin, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant. PMID:27242840

  2. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

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    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  3. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of surface flavonoid aglycones in Artemisia annua L. and Artemisia vulgaris L.

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    STEPHANKA IVANCHEVA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available External flavonoid aglycones from Artemisia annua L. and Artemisia vulgaris L. were analyzed by the HPLC method. The mobile phase was composed of t-butanol-methanol-20 mmol l-1 phosphate buffer, pH 3.22. The linear gradient elution method within 22 min was applied. The main aglycones in A. annua and A. vulgaris are methyl ethers of quercetagetin and quercetin. Quercetagetin 3,6,7-trimethyl ether in A. annua and quercetin 3,7,3’-trimethyl ether in A. vulgaris are the most abundant compounds.

  4. An Improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens Mediated Transformation of Artemisia annua L. by Using Stem Internodes as Explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, N.A.; Liu, S.; Huang, J.; Krol, van der A.R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Transformation of Artemisia annua, which produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin widely used for the treatment of malaria, has been hampered by the low efficiency of adventitious shoot and root formation on a selective medium containing additional compounds for Agrobacterium decontamin

  5. Flower morphology and development in Artemisia annua, a medicinal plant used as a treatment against malaria

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    Artemisia annua produces a wide spectrum of bioactive phytochemicals that possess pharmacological properties including antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against multi-drug resistant Plasmodium fal...

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Plant Extracts of Artemisia (Artemisia annua L. In Vitro

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    Alireza Massiha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the plants used to treat certain diseases, because they have showed antimicrobial activity. In this case, many studies have conducted on antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Artemisia annua. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study is to determine the antibacterial effects of aqueous, chloroform, methanol and ethanol extracts of A. annua against eight bacterial species. Antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal activity of the essential oil and extract was performed by agar disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods.Results: The obtained results showed antibacterial activity of the organic and chloroformic extracts of Artemisia annua against the tested microorganisms. Presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, amino acids, phenolic compounds, quinines and terpenoids were identified in the composition of the obtained extract using mass gas-chromatograph. The best result for the minimum inhibitory Concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration was reported for the 32 mg/ml of chloroformic extract.Conclusion: The results indicate the fact that the extracts and essential oils of the plants can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition.

  7. A non-pharmaceutical form of Artemisia annua is not effective in preventing Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

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    Lagarce, Laurence; Lerolle, Nicolas; Asfar, Pierre; Le Govic, Yohann; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; de Gentile, Ludovic

    2016-05-01

    Non-pharmaceutical forms of Artemisia annua (a Chinese plant containing artemisinin) are used by some travellers who believe these products are safer than anti-malarial drugs. We report two cases of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria requiring hospitalization in an Intensive Care Unit following prophylaxis with non-pharmaceutical A. annua in French travellers. PMID:27432906

  8. Loss of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L. to the soil environment

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    Artemisia annua L. synthesizes and accumulates the secondary metabolite artemisinin, a compound with antimalarial properties. As cultivation of the plant is still the only cost effective source of artemisinin, the production takes place in monocultures of A. annua. Artemisinin is known to have inse...

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisinin and Precursor Derived from In Vitro Plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positiv...

  10. Purification of artemisinin excerpt from Artemisia annua L

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    Chemat-Djenni Z.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The active pharmaceutical substance artemisinin found in Artemisia annua L. remains the most effective remedy against malaria. The objective of this work is the purification of the active ingredient through a natural matrix composed of clay sandwiched by aluminum. The purification process is carried by adsorption of the extracts on sodium type and bridged clay type. The XRD characterization of this material shows an increase in the basal distance of 10 Å to 17 Å. This shows the success of the intercalation of aluminum polycation. We find a better purification of the extract when using aluminum bridged clay compared to sodium clay. The best performance of 80.64% adsorption is obtained at 40 ° C for the clay matrix bridged with aluminum complex.

  11. Examining the extraction of artemisinin from artemisia annua using ultrasound

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    Briars, Rhianna; Paniwnyk, Larysa

    2012-05-01

    Artemisinin suppresses the life-cycle of the plasmodium parasite which causes malaria. It is found naturally occurring within the trichome glands of the Artemisia annua plant. Traditional methods for extracting artemisinin are time-consuming and have high environmental impact due to the temperatures and organic solvents which must be employed. Ultrasound decreases these through acoustic streaming and micro-jets. But to fully utilise this technology parameters, such as frequency, temperature and the properties of leaf and solvent, must be explored. As with the extraction process there is also no set analysis method for identification of artemisinin. Therefore several methods of analysing these extracts are employed. Initial results indicate that sonication is able to enhance levels of artemisinin extracted when compared to the conventional/traditional extraction process. In addition Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) have been shown to have a high level of reproducible calibration.

  12. Cloning and characterization of DELLA genes in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Q; Cui, J; Fu, X Q; Yan, T X; Tang, K X

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GA) are some of the most important phytohormones involved in plant development. DELLA proteins are negative regulators of GA signaling in many plants. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of three DELLA genes were cloned from Artemisia annua. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AaDELLA1 and AaDELLA2 were located in the same cluster, but AaDELLA3 was not. Subcellular localization analysis suggested that AaDELLAs can be targeted to the nucleus and/or cytoplasm. Real-time PCR indicated that all three AaDELLA genes exhibited the highest expression in seeds. Expression of all AaDELLA genes was enhanced by exogenous MeJA treatment but inhibited by GA3 treatment. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that AaDELLAs could interact with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AaMYC2, suggesting that GA and JA signaling may be involved in cross-talk via DELLA and MYC2 interaction in A. annua. PMID:26345940

  13. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications.

  14. Isolation and characterization of three new monoterpene synthases from Artemisia annua

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    Ju-Xin eRuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5 and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and gibberellin (GA, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant.

  15. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  16. Artemisia annua increases resistance to heat and oxidative stresses, but has no effect on lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Seung-Il OH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is suggested that oxidative stress induced by cellular reactive oxygen species is one of the major causal factors of aging. The effect of dietary supplementation of anti-oxidants on response to environmental stressors and lifespan has been studied in various model organisms. In the present study, we examine the effect of Artemisia annua extract on resistance to oxidative, heat, and ultraviolet stresses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Artemisia annua significantly increases survival under oxidative and heat stresses, however has no effects in response to ultraviolet stress. Then, we measured the in vivo changes in expression of stress-responsive genes by Artemisia annua using green fluorescence protein. The expression of hsp-16.2, known to be involved in response to heat stress, is significantly increased by Artemisia annua supplementation. An anti-oxidant gene, sod-3, was also up-regulated by Artemisia annua. However, both mean and maximum lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans was not altered by dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua. These findings indicate that Artemisia annua confers health-promoting effects through increasing the resistance to environmental stressors and has no effect on lifespan in C. elegans. Our study suggests that Artemisia annua can be used for the development of novel natural therapeutics for diseases caused by environmental stressors.

  17. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract(CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control(no addition)

  18. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  19. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Misra; Darshana Mehta; B.K. Mehta; Jain, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimi...

  20. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  1. PENETAPAN KADAR ARTEMISININ DALAM EKSTRAK HEKSAN TANAMAN Artemisia annua L. MENGGUNAKAN METODE DENSITOMETRI

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    Ani Isnawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penyakit malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di Indonesia karena angka kesakitan penyakit ini masih cukup tinggi. Kinin dan klorokuin masih merupakan obat malaria yang banyak digunakan masyarakat di dunia, namun telah mengalami resisten. Artemisinin dan derivatnya merupakan obat yang digunakan terhadap plasmodium yang resisten terhadap klorokuin. Artemisinin diperoleh dari ekstrak tanaman Artemisia Annua L. Tanaman ini berasal dari daratan China namun dapat dibudidayakan di BPTO Tawangmangu. Penetapan kadar artemisinin menggunakan metode densitometri yang telah divalidasi. Ekstraksi heksan Artemisia annua L dilakukan fraksinasi dengan menggunakan acetonitril. Fraksi acetonitril  di uji dengan menggunakan KLT dengan fasa diam silica gel 60 GF254 dan eluen hexan: etil asetat (4:1 guna mengidentifikasi artemisinin. Pemisahan lebih lanjut dilakukan dengan kromatografi kolom dengan fase diam silika gel dan fase geraknya yaitu n-heksan: etil asetat (4:1. Eluat yang diperoleh diujikan pada plat KLT silica gel 60 GF254 menggunakan eluen yang sama dengan sebelumnya. Eluat yang mempunyai Rf sama digabung menjadi satu fraksi dan ditetapkan kadar artemisinin menggunakan densitometri beserta validasi metodenya. Hasil validasi metode menunjukkan bahwa linearitas dengan koefisien korelasi 0,998, batas deteksi 0,028mg/mL dan batas kuantitasi 0,094mg/mL dan nilai simpangan baku relatif artemisinin memenuhi persyaratan untuk presisi yaitu lebih kecil dari 2%. Hasil perolehan kembali untuk artemisinin adalah 100,08%. Kadar artemisinin dalam ekstrak heksan herba Artemisia annua L dengan metode densitometri sebesar 0,46% dan kadar artemisinin dalam herba Artemisia annua L. 0,02% Kata Kunci: Artemisinin, Artemisia annua L, ekstrak heksan daun Artemisia annua L, Densitometri. Abstract Malaria desease is still problem health people in Indonesia, because morbiditas rate is high. Kinin and Klorokuin are used by most of people in the world, but

  2. Evaluation and Selection of Mutative Artemisia (Artemisia annua L. According to the Altitude Variants

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    ENDANG GATI LESTARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction of genetic variant of Artemisia annua L. was conducted through the application of gamma ray irradiation in 2007-2008. The aim was to obtain a plant with high artemisine content > 0.5% and late flowering period of about > 7 month after planting. Tweleve selected genotypes were subsequently examined to gain genetic stability on altitude of 1500, 950, and 540 m asl. The results showed that the plants had shorter flowering age in Cicurug (540 m asl than that of in Pacet (950 m asl and Gunung Putri (1540 m asl. Genotype 8 had the latest age of flowering in the three locations than the other genotypes, however, the growth and biomass were the lowest. Vegetative growth of Artemisia in Pacet and Gunung Putri was better than those in Cicurug. Genotype of 15 in Cicurug and 5A genotype in Gunung Putri and Pacet had higher wet and dry weight than that of two other associates. Based on plant biomass, 5 genotypes from Gunung Putri and Pacet i.e. 1D, 3, 5A, 14, and 15 genotypes were selected, as well as 5 genotypes i.e. 1D, 3, 4, 5A, and 15 genotypes from Cicurug. Analisys on artemisin content successfully obtained 5 selected somaclone lines i.e. 1B, 2, 4, 14, and 3 somaclones.

  3. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite of small ruminants that is responsible for major losses to producers worldwide. Resistance of this nematode to commercial anthelmintics has produced a demand for alternative control methods. Artemisia annua is the sole commercial source of ...

  4. Water deficit on the accumulation of biomass and artemisinin in annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L., Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the importance of Artemisia annua as the only source of the anti-parasitic drug artemisinin, little can be found on the role of biotic and abiotic stress on artemisinin. Water stress is the most limiting factor on plant growth, but can trigger secondary metabolite accumulation, depending on...

  5. Isolation and identification of dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide from Artemisia annua : A novel biosynthetic precursor of artemisinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, TE; Pras, N; Quax, WJ

    1999-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide (2) was isolated for the first time as a natural product from the plant Artemisia annua in a 29% yield. Its structure was identified by H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Compound 2 is known as an intermediate of the photochemical oxidation of dihydroartemisinic aci

  6. DRYING AFFECTS ARTEMISININ, DIHYDROARTEMISINIC ACID, ARTEMISINIC ACID, AND THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. LEAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anti-parasitic, anti-cancer, and anti-viral sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, commercially extracted from Artemisia annua, is in high demand worldwide. However, limited information is available on how post-harvest drying procedures affect plant biochemistry leading to the biosynthesis of artem...

  7. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States, and current treatment is expensive and kills also healthy cells. Affordable alternatives that kill only cancer cells are needed. Artemisinin, extracted from the Artemisia annua, has potent anticancer activity and low toxicity to normal cell...

  8. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as antioxidants and their potential synergism with Artemisinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since artemisinin was discovered as the active antimalarial component in a diethyl ether extract of Artemisia annua in early 1970’s, hundreds of papers have focused on the antimalarial effects of the artemisinin semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artem...

  9. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids, a

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  11. ARTEMISININ, RELATED SESQUITERPENES, AND ESSENTIAL OIL IN ARTEMISIA-ANNUA DURING A VEGETATION PERIOD IN VIETNAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; BOS, R; VANUDEN, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; BATTERMAN, S; LUGT, CB

    1994-01-01

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related sesquiterp

  12. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

    OpenAIRE

    Sukmayati Alegantina; Ani Isnawati

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. T...

  13. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. The analysis methods include the extraction and fractionation. Identification and determination of level with Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC using a Densitometer CS-9301 PC. From the result of TLC identification of kumarin standard known that Artemisia annua L extract contain kumarin compound which marked by a blue spot flouresense on standards and methanol extract of artemisia annua L. seeing under UV light at a wavelength of 366 nm with Rf value of standard and sample is 0.31, the measurement of kumarin spot with Densitometer known that kumarin concentration in the extract of Artemisia annua L. is 10.5 ul/ ml with 105% RecoveryKeywords: Artemisia annua L, kumarin, TLC-Densitometry

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia annua L. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Verdian-rizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowering aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. (Compositae was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-two components were identified in the essential oil of A. annua L. with campher (48.00%, 1,8-cineole (9.39%, camphene (6.98% and spathulenol (4.89% as major components. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities . The activity was more pronounced against fungal organisms than against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  15. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a sustainable approach to improve anti-malarial drug production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe ePulice

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progresses in prevention and treatment have been developed, 198 million cases of malaria occurred in 2013, resulting in 584000 estimated deaths. 90% of all malaria deaths occurred in Africa, mostly among children under the age of five. This article aims to review malaria’s history, epidemiology and current treatments, with a particular focus on the potential of molecular farming that use metabolic engineering in plants as effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria indeed represents an example of how a health problem on one hand, may eventually influence the proper development of a country due to the burden of the disease, and on the other hand, constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is here proposed as a sustainable alternative for the production not only of natural herbal repellents used for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs like artemisinin used for primary parasite infection treatments.Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua plant. However, the low concentration of artemisinin in plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to meet the worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies, especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, a process that only takes place in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated, and significant efforts using plant genetic engineering have been made to increase the production of this compound. These include studies on diverse transcription factors, which all have been shown to regulate artemisinin genetic pathway and other biological processes. Therefore, genetic manipulation of these genes may be used as a cost-effective potential

  16. An endophytic Pseudonocardia species induces the production of artemisinin in Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinobacteria colonize internal tissues of their host plants and are considered as a rich and reliable source of diverse species and functional microorganisms. In this study, endophytic actinobacterial strain YIM 63111 was isolated from surface-sterilized tissue of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua. We identified strain YIM 63111 as a member of the genus Pseudonocardia. A. annua seedlings grown under both sterile and greenhouse conditions were inoculated with strain YIM 63111. The growth of A. annua seedlings was strongly reduced when YIM 63111 was inoculated at higher concentrations under sterile conditions. However, no growth inhibition was observed when A. annua was grown under greenhouse conditions. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP expressing YIM 63111 strain, we also observed the endophytic colonization of A. annua seedling using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were investigated using real time RT-PCR, revealing that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1 and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR expression were up-regulated in A. annua upon inoculation with strain YIM 63111 under certain conditions. The up-regulation of these genes was associated with the increased accumulation of artemisinin. These results suggest that endophytic actinobacteria effectively stimulate certain plant defense responses. Our data also demonstrate the use of Pseudonocardia sp. strain YIM 63111 as a promising means to enhance artemisinin production in plants.

  17. Studies on the expression of sesquiterpene synthases using promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions in transgenic Artemisia annua L.

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    Hongzhen Wang

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS, epi-cedrol (ECS and β-farnesene (FS synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expression. Transgenic A. annua plants carrying promoter-GUS fusions were studied to elucidate the expression pattern of the three sesquiterpene synthases and compared to the previously studied promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS, a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis. The CPS and ECS promoters were active in T-shaped trichomes of leaves and stems, basal bracts of flower buds and also in some florets cells but not in glandular secretory trichome while FS promoter activity was only observed in leaf cells and trichomes of transgenic shoots. ADS, CPS, ECS and FS transcripts were induced by wounding in a time depended manner. The four sesquiterpene synthases may be involved in responsiveness of A. annua to herbivory. Methyl jasmonate treatment triggered activation of the promoters of all four sesquiterpene synthases in a time depended manner. Southern blot result showed that the GUS gene was inserted into genomic DNA of transgenic lines as a single copy or two copies. The relative amounts of CPS and ECS as well as germacrene A synthase (GAS transcripts are much lower than that of ADS transcript. Consequently, down-regulation of the expression of the CPS, ECS or GAS gene may not improve artemsinin yield. However, blocking the expression of FS may have effects on artemisinin production.

  18. Studies on the expression of linalool synthase using a promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Han, Junli; Hao, Mengshu; Yang, Yiyi; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2014-01-15

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial endoperoxide sesquiterpene, is synthesized in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. A number of other enzymes of terpene metabolism utilize intermediates of artemisinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl and farnesyl diphosphate, and may thereby influence the yield of artemisinin. In order to study the expression of such enzymes, we have cloned the promoter regions of some enzymes and fused them to β-glucuronidase (GUS). In this study, we have investigated the expression of the monoterpene synthase linalool synthase (LIS) using transgenic A. annua carrying the GUS gene under the control of the LIS promoter. The 652bp promoter region was cloned by the genome walker method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted indicating that the LIS is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. Transgenic plants carrying the promoter-GUS fusion showed specific expression of GUS in T-shaped trichomes (TSTs) but not in glandular secretory trichomes, which is the site for artemisinin biosynthesis. GUS expression was observed at late stage of flower development in styles of florets and in TSTs and guard cells of basal bracts. GUS expression after wounding showed that LIS is involved in plant responsiveness to wounding. Furthermore, the LIS promoter responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). These results indicate that the promoter carries a number of cis-acting regulatory elements involved in the tissue-specific expression of LIS and in the response of the plant to wounding and MeJA treatment. Southern blot analysis indicated that the GUS gene was integrated in the A. annua genome as single or multi copies in different transgenic lines. Promoter activity analysis by qPCR showed that both the wild-type and the recombinant promoter are active in the aerial parts of the plant while only the recombinant promoter was active in roots. Due to the expression in TSTs but not in glandular trichomes, it may be concluded that LIS expression will most

  19. Proteomic analysis of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua: Data from leaf and trichome extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Laura; Patole, Chhaya; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published by Bryant et al.[1]. Data was obtained by MS-based proteomics, analysing trichome-enriched, trichome-depleted and whole leaf samples taken from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua and searching the acquired MS/MS data against a recently published contig database [2] and other genomic and proteomic sequence databases for comparison. The processed data shows that an order-of-magnitude more proteins have been identified from trichome-enriched Artemisia annua samples in comparison to previously published data. Proteins known to have a role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other highly abundant proteins were found which imply additional enzymatically driven processes occurring within the trichomes that are significant for the biosynthesis of artemisinin. PMID:26977431

  20. [Optimal measure for cultivation of Artemisia annua with high seeds yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yekuan; Li, Longyun; Hu, Yingi

    2009-09-01

    The relationship of Artemisia annua seed yield with density, N, P and K fertilizer applied amount was studied, and a mathematical model involving the 4 factors affecting seed yield was established using the orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression. The seed yield function model was established according to parameters through field tests and data treated by computer techniques. The best agronomic measures complex project was selected and developed by computer imitation. The effects on seed yield of A. annua are density > N > P > K in turn. To obtain the highest yield density should be 13 000-15 000 plants x hm(-2), Ureal 186-242 kg x hm(-2), calcium superphosphate 874-1 023 kg x hm(-2), potassium chloride 135-165 kg x hm(-2) in the experiment. Reasonable planting density and fertilizer application could improve the seed yield of A. annua. PMID:19943472

  1. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra P; Ferreira, Jorge F; Park, Ji Sun; Lai, Henry C

    2011-11-01

    Although dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and other artemisinin derivatives have selective toxicity towards cancer cells, Artemisia annua (A. annua) extracts containing artemisinin have not been evaluated for their anticancer potential. Our main goal was to assess the anticancer effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of A. annua from Brazilian and Chinese origins (with DHA as a comparison) on normal and cancer cells. Leukocytes and leukemia (Molt-4) cells were counted at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hr after treatment with extracts having artemisinin concentrations of 0, 3.48, 6.96, and 13.92 µg/mL. Also, we assessed the antioxidant capacity of these extracts using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test. Both extracts had high antioxidant capacity and toxicity towards Molt-4 cells. DHA was significantly more potent (p cancer treatment. PMID:21674435

  2. Yield enhancement strategies for artemisinin production by suspension cultures of Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Ashish; Dixit, V K

    2008-07-01

    Artemisinin, isolated from the shrub-Artemisia annua, is a sesquiterpene lactone used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. It is also effective against a wide variety of cancers such as leukemia and colon cancer. To counter the present low content in leaves and uneconomical chemical synthesis, alternate ways to produce artemisinin have been sought. But this compound remains elusive in cell cultures of A. annua despite the extensive studies undertaken. This work reports the first successful approach for production of artemisinin by cell cultures of Indian variety of A. annua. In the present study, an integrated yield enhancement strategy, developed by addition of selected precursor (mevalonic acid lactone) and elicitor (methyl jasmonate) at optimized concentrations, resulted in 15.2g/l biomass and 110.2mg/l artemisinin, which was 5.93 times higher in productivity in comparison to control cultures. PMID:17804216

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone 3-Hydroxylase gene from Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuo; Tian, Na; Long, Jinhua; Chen, Yuhong; Qin, Yu; Feng, Jinyu; Xiao, Wenjun; Liu, Shuoqian

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids were found to synergize anti-malaria and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, a very important economic crop in China. In order to discover the regulation mechanism of flavonoids in Artemisia annua, the full length cDNA of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were isolated from Artemisia annua for the first time by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The completed open read frame of AaF3H was 1095 bp and it encoded a 364-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.18 kDa and a pI of 5.67. The recombinant protein of AaF3H was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein, purified by Ni-NTA agrose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The results showed that the His-tagged protein (AaF3H) catalyzed naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in the present of Fe(2+). The Km for naringenin was 218.03 μM. The optimum pH for AaF3H reaction was determined to be pH 8.5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 35 °C. The AaF3H transcripts were found to be accumulated in the cultivar with higher level of flavonoids than that with lower level of flavonoids, which implied that AaF3H was a potential target for regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis in Artemisia annua through metabolic engineering. PMID:27070290

  4. Studies on Acaricidal Bioactivities of Artemisia annua L. Extracts Against Tetranychus cinnabarinus Bois. (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-qiang; DING Wei; ZHAO Zhi-mo; WU Jing; FAN Yu-hu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction technique, the most suitable solvent, the optimal plant parts,and the acaricidal activities of Artemisia annua L. The petroleum ether (30-60℃), petroleum ether (60-90℃), ethanol,acetone, and water parallel and sequenced extracts were obtained from the leaves, stems and roots of different period of A. annua L. in April, May, June, July and September respectively. And then the acaricidal bioactivities against Tetranychus cinnabarinus of all extracts were determined by the slide-capillary method in the laboratory. The results indicated that the acaricidal bioactivities elevated as the development of A. annua plant at the concentration of 5 mg mL-1. The general tendency exhibited the sequence of July > June > May > April, but September decreased comparing to July. However, the most effective extracts in five months were all acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf, and the corrected mortalities treated after 48 h ranged from 74 to 100%. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) against T. cinnabarinus of acetone parallel extracts of A. annua leaves in September, July, June, May and April were 0.5986, 0.4341, 0.8376, 0.9443 and 1.3817 mg mL-1, respectively, treated after 48 h. The 13 groups were isolated from acetone extracts of A. annua leaves in July by column chromatography, both the 11th and 12th groups exhibited strong bioactivities. The median lethal concentrations of the 11th and 12th groups against T. cinnabarinus were 0.3683 and 0.1586 mg mL-1, respectively. The acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf in July was the most toxic to T. cinnabarinus and the corrected mortality was 100% after 48 h. The acetone parallel extract of the 11th and 12th groupswere the most active components, acted as the emphases in further study.

  5. Mapping the potential distribution of high artemisinin-yielding Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao in China with a geographic information system

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    Duan Baozhong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisia annua L. is an important source for artemisinin, a potent drug for treating malaria. This study aims to map and predict the potential geographic distribution of A. annua L. in China. Methods The Geographic Information System for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM-GIS was developed and used to map the potential geographic distribution of A. annua L. Results Climatic, edaphic and topographic characteristics of A. annua L. microhabitats in Youyang County were mapped to find distribution patterns. The maps identified that certain habitats in the Chongqing region and some potential regions, especially in Guizhou Province, possess similarity indices of ≥98%. In particular, high quality microhabitats A. annua L. were found in the Wuling mountains region. Conclusion The present study demonstrates a GIS approach to predict potential habitats for A. annua L. TCM-GIS is a powerful tool for assessing bioclimatic suitability for medicinal plants.

  6. Effects of Overexpression of the Endogenous Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase on the Artemisinin Content in Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Artemisinin Is a novel effective antimalarial drug extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Owing to the tight market and low yield of artemislnin, there is great interest in enhancing the production of artemisinin.In the present study, farnesyl dlphosphate synthase (FPS) was overexpressed in high-yield A. annua to increase the artemislnin content. The FPS activity in transgenic A. annua was two- to threefold greater than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The highest artemisinin content in transgenic A. annua was approximately 0.9% (dry weight), which was 34.4% higher than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The results demonstrate the regulatory role of FPS in artemisinin biosynthesis.

  7. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  8. Engineering isoprenoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene: a key intermediate of taxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiya; Jiang, Fusheng; Yu, Xiangli; Miao, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01

    Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase) gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible. PMID:25705665

  9. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

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    Himanshu Misra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimized for fast sample preparation for the faster quantitative determination of artemisinin, potential new generation antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of Artemisia annua L. A simple experiment was designed for the optimization of the appropriate solvent under same extraction conditions. The selected appropriate solvent was then standardized for various different extraction variables. The major parameters studied showed effects on extraction efficiency including processing time, strength of microwave, moisture content, volume and nature of the solvent. The most favorable conditions were obtained by using plant material of 25 mesh (particle size extracted with acetone for 120 seconds at 160 W (i.e., 20% of total power. Quantitative analysis was performed using thin-layer chromatography coupled with a densitometer (TLC densitometry. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors. PMID:26460560

  11. Does any Artemisia species other than A. annua have potential to produce artemisinin?

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    N. Yazdani

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicines against malaria. This medicine is naturally produced only by Artemisia annua plants, but its production is low in its natural state. The introduction of related species with higher artemisinin contents has been suggested as an alternative. In this regard, 10 Artemisia species grown in Iran, were investigated. The experiments were carried out using PCR technique and specific primers based on the published am1 gene sequence from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527. This gene encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS, a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The amplification of this gene by specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, encoding a pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b aspartate rich motif (DDXXD, c active site final lid and d active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP ionisation site and catalytic site, were investigated. The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chammelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alterations, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chammelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene with the aim of enhanced artemisinin production.

  12. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

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    Lundgren Anneli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13 reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures. Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes. The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a

  13. Evaluation and pharmacovigilance of projects promoting cultivation and local use of Artemisia annua for malaria

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    Oyweka Rosalia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several non-governmental organisations (NGOs are promoting the use of Artemisia annua teas as a home-based treatment for malaria in situations where conventional treatments are not available. There has been controversy about the effectiveness and safety of this approach, but no pharmacovigilance studies or evaluations have been published to date. Method A questionnaire about the cultivation of A. annua, treatment of patients, and side-effects observed, was sent to partners of the NGO Anamed in Kenya and Uganda. Some of the respondents were then selected purposively for more in-depth semi-structured interviews. Results Eighteen partners in Kenya and 21 in Uganda responded. 49% reported difficulties in growing the plant, mainly due to drought. Overall about 3,000 cases of presumed malaria had been treated with A. annua teas in the previous year, of which about 250 were in children and 54 were in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. The commonest problem observed in children was poor compliance due to the bitter taste, which was improved by the addition of sugar or honey. Two miscarriages were reported in pregnant patients. Only four respondents reported side-effects in other patients, the commonest of which was vomiting. 51% of respondents had started using A. annua tea to treat illnesses other than malaria. Conclusions Local cultivation and preparation of A. annua are feasible where growing conditions are appropriate. Few adverse events were reported even in children and pregnant women. Where ACT is in short supply, it would make sense to save it for young children, while using A. annua infusions to treat older patients who are at lower risk. An ongoing pharmacovigilance system is needed to facilitate reporting of any adverse events.

  14. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge F. S. Ferreira; Luthria, Devanand L.; Tomikazu Sasaki; Arne Heyerick

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decad...

  15. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, et...

  16. Efecto microbicida de la radiación solar (SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua

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    Mariana Muñoz-Restrepo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el método SODIS y SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua como una alternativa para la desinfección del agua en comunidades sin acceso a agua segura. Se determinó la eficiencia del método en la remoción de Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis y Salmonella typhimurium usando botellas tipo PET con agua destilada estéril y una concentración inicial de 1x106 UFC/ml de cada microorganismo. Para la combinación SODIS-A. annua se adicionó a las botellas una infusión de A. annua al 10% (v/v; las botellas fueron expuestas al sol durante mínimo 6 horas y se determinaron las variables temperatura del agua, radiación solar y turbidez. Se encontró que el tratamiento SODIS fue más eficiente en la remoción de los cuatro microorganismos que el tratamiento SODIS + A. annua. Las remociones más altas se encontraron a partir de las cuatro horas de exposición para las especies bacterianas en estado vegetativo.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisinin and Precursor Derived from In Vitro Plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

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    Suganthi Appalasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities.

  18. [Bioaccessibility of heavy metal in wild Artemisia annua and its health risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang-yun; Yue, Hong; Li, Xuan; Mo, Ge; Kang, Li-ping; Guo, Lan-ping

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the bioaccessibility of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg) in wild Artemisia annua and use target hazard quotients (THQ) proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the health risk under the heavy metal exposure. The results showed that the bioaccessibility of Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg in A. annua are 0.77, 0.66, 0.46, 0.68 and 0, respectively, and that the value of THQ for adults and children were 0.030 and 0.025 calculated by risk assessment model. The results indicated that the heavy metals in A. annua were not able to be completely absorbed by human body and that their contents were in a safe range. In this study, by combining the bioavailability of heavy metal and health risk assessment, we assessed the security of heavy metals of wild A. annua, which will provide reference for the standard of heavy metals for medicinal materials. PMID:26390645

  19. Dual symbiosis between Piriformospora indica and Azotobacter chroococcum enhances the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Monika; Saxena, Parul; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Varma, Ajit

    2016-02-01

    At present, Artemisia annua L. is the major source of artemisinin production. To control the outbreaks of malaria, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended, and hence an ample amount of artemisinin is required for ACTs manufacture to save millions of lives. The low yield of this antimalarial drug in A. annua L. plants (0.01-1.1%) ensues its short supply and high cost, thus making it a topic of scrutiny worldwide. In this study, the effects of root endophyte, Piriformospora indica strain DSM 11827 and nitrogen fixing bacterium, Azotobacter chroococcum strain W-5, either singly and/or in combination for artemisinin production in A. annua L. plants have been studied under poly house conditions. The plant growth was monitored by measuring parameters like height of plant, total dry weight and leaf yield with an increase of 63.51, 52.61 and 79.70% respectively, for treatment with dual biological consortium, as compared to that of control plants. This significant improvement in biomass was associated with higher total chlorophyll content (59.29%) and enhanced nutrition (especially nitrogen and phosphorus, 55.75 and 86.21% respectively). The concentration of artemisinin along with expression patterns of artemisinin biosynthesis genes were appreciably higher in dual treatment, which showed positive correlation. The study suggested the potential use of the consortium P. indica strain DSM 11827 and A. chroococcum strain W-5 in A. annua L. plants for increased overall productivity and sustainable agriculture. PMID:26745979

  20. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

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    Fabio F. Perazzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  1. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract (CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control (no addition),3,30,300 and 3 000 mg/L mixed culture fluid,respectively.Rumen fluid was taken from 3ruminally fistulated dairy goats fed a 50% forage to 50% mixed concentrate ratio diet.The rumen contents were thoroughly mixed and strained through 4 layers of cheese-cloth.

  2. Artemisia annua L. as a plant with potential use in the treatment of acanthamoebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Cholewiński, Marcin; Skrzypczak, Łukasz; Grzondziel, Anna; Wojtkowiak-Giera, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of acanthamoebiasis is a great problem. Most cerebral invasions end with death, and the treatment of ocular invasions is usually long-lasting and not very effective. Numerous plant extracts and substances isolated from plants, which are effective against trophozoites or cysts, have been studied in the treatment of acanthamoebiasis. However, no agents that are simultaneously effective against both developing forms of amoebae have been discovered yet. It seems that such a plant which fulfils both tasks is Artemisia annua L. Our studies showed that water, alcohol and chloroform extracts from the herb A. annua L. can be applied in general and local treatment or in combined therapy with antibiotics in the treatment of acanthamoebiasis. Extracts from this plant show not only in vitro but also in vivo effects. Studies carried out on experimental animals infected with amoebae show that the application of these extracts significantly prolongs the survival of the animals. PMID:26782959

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  4. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  5. [A new indole derivative from endophyte Myrothecium roridum IFB-E091 in Artemisia annua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Li, Ling-yu; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Li, Ming; Song, Yong-chun

    2015-10-01

    Three compounds were isolated from solid culture of endophyte Myrothecium roridum IFB-E091 in Artemisia annua. Their structures were determined as (S)-(-)-N-[2-(3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethyl]-acetamide (1), N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)acetamide (2) and asperfumoid (3), in which compound 1 was a new indole derivative. In cytotoxicity assay, the compound 1 had no obvious inhibition activity in human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa. PMID:26837178

  6. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

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    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  7. Vapour and Liquid-Phase Artemisia annua Essential Oil Activities against Several Clinical Strains of Candida.

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    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Sacco, Cristiana; Pini, Gabriella; Flamini, Guido; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca. 19 %) and camphor (ca. 17 %). Other representative constituents were artemisia alcohol (5.9 %), α-pinene (5.7 %), and pinocarvone (3.0 %). Thujone, a typical toxic constituent of the Artemisia species, was not detected. The results are reported as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and diameter of inhibition zone obtained by the vapour diffusion assay. We tested 10 clinical Candida strains, coming from both clinical samples and international collections. The results show that the antifungal activity of A. annua is influenced by the type of method adopted. The inhibitory action of the essential oil was, in fact, higher in the vapour than in the liquid phase. Our results show an average minimum inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase of 11.88 µL/mL, while in the vapour phase, the growth of all Candida strains tested at a concentration of 2.13 µL/cm(3) was inhibited. A strain of Candida glabrata was found to be less susceptible to the liquid medium than the vapour assay (50 µL/mL vs. 0.64 µL/cm(3), respectively). Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were the most susceptible to the vapour test, while Candida parapsilosis was the most resistant. PMID:27286334

  8. Optimization of genetic transformation of Artemisia annua L. Using Agrobacterium for Artemisinin production

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    Elfahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a choice and effective drug for malaria treatment. Due to the low yield of artemisinin in plants, there is a need to enhance the production of artemisinin from A. annua and biotechnological technique may be one of the methods that can be used for the purpose. Aim: To study the transformation efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in A. annua that could be applied to enhance the production of artemisinin by means of transgenic plants. Setting and Designs: The factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. annua were explored to optimize the transformation system, which included A. tumefaciens strain and effect of organosilicone surfactants. Three strains of A. tumefaciens, that is, LBA4404, GV1301, and AGL1 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1303 have been used for transformation. The evaluation was based on transient β-glucuronidase (GUS. Materials and Methods: Plant cell cultures were inniatiated from the seeds of A. annua using the germination Murashige and Skoog medium. A. tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA were tranformed into the leaves of A.annua cultures from 2-week-old-seedling and 2-month-old-seedling for 15 min by vacuum infiltration. Transformation efficiency was determinated by measuring of blue area (GUS expression on the whole leaves explant using ImageJ 1.43 software. Two organosilicon surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were used to improve the transformation efficiency. Results: The transformation frequency with AGL1 strain was higher than GV3101 and LBA4404 which were 70.91, 49.25, and 45.45%, respectively. Effect of organosilicone surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were tested on A. tumefaciens AGL1 and GV3101 for their level of transient expression, and on A. rhizogenes R1000 for its hairy root induction frequency. For AGL1, Silwet S-408 produced higher level of

  9. Isolation and identification of dihydroartemisinic acid from Artemisia annua and its possible role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, T.E.; van Uden, W; Lubberink, H.G M; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    1999-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinic acid (2) was isolated as a natural product from Artemisia annua in a 66% yield, and its structure was confirmed by H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Compound 2 could be chemically converted to artemisinin (4) under conditions that may also be present in the living plant. The results

  10. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

  11. Seasonal variations of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants compared with the diploid wild-type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, T.E.; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    1999-01-01

    Using colchicine we induced tetraploidy in Artemisia annua L. plants. During a vegetation period we monitored the time course of the levels of artemisinin, its direct precursors, the biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes and the essential oil content in the diploid (wild-type) and tetraploid A. an

  12. ANALYSIS OF ARTEMISININ AND RELATED SESQUITERPENOIDS FROM ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L BY COMBINED GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS-SPECTROMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; BOS, R; VISSER, JF; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1991-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoid artemisinin (3) and its biosynthetic precursors arteannuic acid (1), arteannuin B (2) and artemisitene (4) can be separated and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry both as a mixture of reference standards as well as in extracts of Artemisia annua L. From t

  13. Laboratory evaluation of Artemisia annua L. extract and artemisinin activity against Epilachna paenulata and Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, María E; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Carpinella, María C; Ferrayoli, Carlos G; Valladares, Graciela R; Palacios, Sara M

    2005-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin were evaluated as anti-insect products. In a feeding deterrence assay on Epilachna paenulata Germ (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae, complete feeding rejection was observed at an extract concentration of 1.5 mg/cm2 on pumpkin leaf tissue. The same concentration produced a feeding inhibition of 87% in Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a no-choice assay, both species ate less and gained less weight when fed on leaves treated with the extract. Complete mortality in E. paenulata and 50% mortality in S. eridania were observed with extract at 1.5 mg/cm2. Artemisinin exhibited a moderate antifeedant effect on E. paenulata and S. eridania at 0.03-0.375 mg/cm2. However, a strong effect on survival and body weight was observed when E. paenulata larvae were forced to feed on leaves treated at 0.03 and 0.075 mg/cm2. Artemisia annua ethanolic extract of aerial parts at 1.5 mg/cm2 showed no phytotoxic effect on pumpkin seedlings. PMID:16222790

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of Artemisia annua Linn. growing in India

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    Gupta Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia annua Linn. (Asteraceae were investigated for their antibacterial activity by using agar well diffusion assays against five Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus, and Micrococcus luteus and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the various extracts, the methanol extract showed the strongest activity against most bacteria used in this study. The most sensitive organism to the extracts was M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined by the tube dilution method. The results showed that S. aureus required ~0.25 mg/mL of the methanol extract for inhibition. The HPTLC fingerprint of the methanol extract after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent showed a maximum number of separated components. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract showed that the area of inhibition around compounds differentiated at R f = 0.32, R f = 0.42, R f = 0.46, R f = 0.77, and R f = 0.87 against S. aureus. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of A. annua against food-borne bacteria. The results indicated that aerial parts of A. annua might be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  15. Type 2C Phosphatase 1 of Artemisia annua L. Is a Negative Regulator of ABA Signaling

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    Fangyuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. Additionally, ABA also regulates secondary metabolism such as artemisinin in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Although an earlier study showed that ABA receptor, AaPYL9, plays a positive role in ABA-induced artemisinin content improvement, many components in the ABA signaling pathway remain to be elucidated in Artemisia annua L. To get insight of the function of AaPYL9, we isolated and characterized an AaPYL9-interacting partner, AaPP2C1. The coding sequence of AaPP2C1 encodes a deduced protein of 464 amino acids, with all the features of plant type clade A PP2C. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression level of AaPP2C1 is increased after ABA, salt, and drought treatments. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays (BiFC showed that AaPYL9 interacted with AaPP2C1. The P89S, H116A substitution in AaPYL9 as well as G199D substitution or deletion of the third phosphorylation site-like motif in AaPP2C1 abolished this interaction. Furthermore, constitutive expression of AaPP2C1 conferred ABA insensitivity compared with the wild type. In summary, our data reveals that AaPP2C1 is an AaPYL9-interacting partner and involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway in A. annua L.

  16. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  17. Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Amorpha-4,11-diene Synthase, a Key Enzyme of Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercke, P.; Bengtsson, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Brodelius, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    In plants, sesquiterpenes of different structural types are biosynthesized from the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate. The initial reaction of the biosynthesis is catalyzed by sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases). In Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood), a number of such sesquiterpene cycla

  18. Seasonal variation of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in plants of Artemisia annua of different geographical origin : Proof for the existence of chemotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, TE; Pras, N; Beekman, AC; Quax, WJ

    2000-01-01

    The time course of the levels of artemisinin, its biosynthetic precursors and the biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes was monitored during a vegetation period of Artemisia annua plants of different geographical origin. Considerable differences in contents of artemisinin and its direct precursors

  19. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and +/- supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a...

  20. The Biosynthesis of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu and the Phytochemistry of Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao

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    Geoffrey D. Brown

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao is the only known source of the sesquiterpene artemisinin (Qinghaosu, which is used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin is a highly oxygenated sesquiterpene, containing a unique 1,2,4-trioxane ring structure, which is responsible for the antimalarial activity of this natural product. The phytochemistry of A. annua is dominated by both sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids, as is the case for many other plants in the Asteraceae family. However, A. annua is distinguished from the other members of the family both by the very large number of natural products which have been characterised to date (almost six hundred in total, including around fifty amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes, and by the highly oxygenated nature of many of the terpenoidal secondary metabolites. In addition, this species also contains an unusually large number of terpene allylic hydroperoxides and endoperoxides. This observation forms the basis of a proposal that the biogenesis of many of the highly oxygenated terpene metabolites from A. annua – including artemisinin itself – may proceed by spontaneous oxidation reactions of terpene precursors, which involve these highly reactive allyllic hydroperoxides as intermediates. Although several studies of the biosynthesis of artemisinin have been reported in the literature from the 1980s and early 1990s, the collective results from these studies were rather confusing because they implied that an unfeasibly large number of different sesquiterpenes could all function as direct precursors to artemisinin (and some of the experiments also appeared to contradict one another. As a result, the complete biosynthetic pathway to artemisinin could not be stated conclusively at the time. Fortunately, studies which have been published in the last decade are now providing a clearer picture of the biosynthetic pathways in A. annua. By synthesising some of the sesquiterpene natural products

  1. Protective effect of Artemisia annua L. extract against galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice.

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    Mi Hye Kim

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. (also called qinghao has been well known as a source of antimalarial drug artemisinins. In addition, the herb was reported to have in vitro antioxidative activity. The present study investigated the protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Qinghao (AA extract against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice. Feeding AA extract-containing diet lowered serum levels of malondialdehyde and 8-OH-dG that are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, respectively. Furthermore, AA extract feeding enhanced the activity of NQO1, a typical antioxidant marker enzyme, in tissues such as kidney, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. In conclusion, AA extract was found to have antioxidative activity in mouse model.

  2. Identification and purification of novel chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L

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    Wenwen Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present work has been carried out to study the identification and purification of chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L. Thirty-six chlorogenic acids were identified from this plant. Among these fifteen viz. two monocaffeoylquinic acids (Mr354, five dicaffeoylquinic acids (Mr516, one feruloylquinic acid (Mr368, three caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (Mr530, two ferulylquinic acids (Mr544, one dimethoxy-cinnamoylquinic acid (Mr382 and one p-coumaroylquinic acid (Mr338 were reported first time in present study by LC/MSn . Cis-isomers of these chlorogenic acids were also identified. Furthermore, column chromatography was used for the separation and purification of these chlorogenic acid; by the use of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate decolorization methods as mentioned in the literature, thus separation and purification process carried out at the same time. Polyamide and dextran were also used to purify Dicaffeoylquinic acid and purity level reached 85.7% with a yield of 53.4% after the secondary purification by Sephadex LH-20. Result of study revealed that A. annua can not only used for the production of artemisinin, but also yielding different kinds of chlorogenic acids, thus making comprehensive utilization of this plant.

  3. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

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    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  4. The jasmonate-responsive AaMYC2 transcription factor positively regulates artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Lu, Xu; Yan, Tingxiang; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Zhang, Fangyuan; Pan, Qifang; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-06-01

    The plant Artemisia annua is well known due to the production of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone that is widely used in malaria treatment. Phytohormones play important roles in plant secondary metabolism, such as jasmonic acid (JA), which can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Nevertheless, the JA-inducing mechanism remains poorly understood. The expression of gene AaMYC2 was rapidly induced by JA and AaMYC2 binds the G-box-like motifs within the promoters of gene CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which are key structural genes in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Overexpression of AaMYC2 in A. annua significantly activated the transcript levels of CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which resulted in an increased artemisinin content. By contrast, artemisinin content was reduced in the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants in which the expression of AaMYC2 was suppressed. Meanwhile, the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants showed lower sensitivity to methyl jasmonate treatment than the wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that AaMYC2 is a positive regulator of artemisinin biosynthesis and is of great value in genetic engineering of A. annua for increased artemisinin production. PMID:26864531

  5. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Zhu, Xiao-Xin, E-mail: zhuxx59@163.com [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Kmoníèková, Eva [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Zídek, Zdenìk [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeòská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  6. Research status of Artemisia annua in Guangxi%广西青蒿资源研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐其展; 周嘉运; 何铁光; 庾韦花

    2006-01-01

    Artemisia annua is a Chinese traditional medicine and usually used for removing summer-heat,improving acuity of sight and relieving night sweat and so on,and its extraction artemisinin can effectively cure the anti-malaria. Artemisia annua is an annual chrysanthemum-type herb with heliophilous,and wildly distributes below 400 meters elevation areas in China. Artemisia annua resources are abundant and it distributes in more than 40 counties in Guangxi,so Guangxi has become a main Artemisia annua production province in China. About 670 ha Artimisia annua was planted in 2005 in this region,of which 340 ha is in Jingxi County with 1.2% artemisinin of Artimisia annua. In recent years,through the researches on collection of Artemisia annua wild resources,screening,bio-characteristics,tissue culture,propagation and cultivation techniques,scientific technologies on stable and high yielding A. annua production have been developed which have promoted the development of Artimisia annua industry in Guangxi. Carrying out the good agricultural practice,protecting the biological resource diversity and applying modern biological techniques can secure high-yield,high quality,safety and standardization in the process of Artimisia annua production,obtain more high quality Artimisia annua and meet the market need of artemisinin in the future.%青蒿是我国传统中药,常用于消暑、明目、止汗等,其提取物青蒿素还可有效地治疗脑型疟疾.青蒿是一年生菊花科草本喜光植物,主要分布在海拔400m以下地区.广西青蒿资源丰富,全区40余个县市均有分布,为中国青蒿生产地的主要省份;2005年广西种植青蒿约670公顷,靖西县就达340公顷,且该地的青蒿提取物青蒿素含量可达1.2%.近年来,通过对青蒿野生资源的收集、筛选、生物学特性、组织培养、繁殖及栽培技术的深入研究,为建立稳定高产的青蒿生产提供了科学依据,促进了广西青蒿产业的发展.今后在青

  7. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Asteraceae or compositae known as the ester, daisy or sunflower family is the largest family of flowering plants. Artemisia is a large diverse genus of plants with between 100 to 150 species belonging to the family asteraceae (compositae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climate of the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere usually in dry or, semidry habitats. The collected herbs were authenticated, dried and extracted to calculate the percentage of yield. Phytochemical studies of the Hexane and alcoholic extracts showed the presence of various phytoconstituents i.e. carbohydrate, saponins, phytosterol, proteins and amino acid, tannin, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. It was observed that all the extracts show more important chemical constituents for various pharmacological activities. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analysis of this species.

  8. DMSO triggers the generation of ROS leading to an increase in artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid in Artemisia annua shoot cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Mannan, Abdul; Liu, Chunzhao; Arsenault, Patrick R.; Towler, Melissa J.; Vail, Dan R.; Lorence, Argelia; Weathers, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The antimalarial sesquiterpene, artemisinin, is in short supply; demand is not being met, and the role of artemisinin in the plant is not well established. Prior work showed that addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to seedlings increased artemisinin in their shoots and this study further investigated that serendipitous observation. When in vitro-cultured Artemisia annua rooted shoots were fed different amounts of DMSO (0–2.0% v/v), artemisinin levels doubled and showed biphasic optima at 0....

  9. 青蒿栽培技术研究%Study on the Planting Technology ofArtemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦中强; 李成东; 肖杰易; 杨成前; 韩凤

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过青蒿不同种源,生育期的不同处理栽培比较,寻找青蒿的栽培技术措施.方法 开展野生青蒿与家种青蒿栽培,青蒿播种量,移栽期,青蒿不同苗龄移栽,青蒿摘尖等试验.结果 青蒿应野生驯化栽培,育苗亩用种150 g较为合适,移栽期为6月下旬,生育期生长至1 m时摘尖,可提高产量.结论 青蒿应野生驯化栽培,加强管理.采用有性繁殖育苗移栽,应育苗亩用种控制在150 g以内较为经济,移栽期应在6月下旬,青蒿生长至1 m高时打顶摘尖,可促进青蒿经济生物产量的积累.%Objective Comparing the different cultivation treatment of Artemisia annua L. from different provenance and growth period to find planting technology measure. Methods Study on the cultivation of wild and cultivated Artemisia annua L. by developing the seeding rate test, transplanting period test, seedling age test, picking point test, etc. Results The yield of Artemisia annua L. will be increased by wild acclimatization cultivation. Seeding with 150g per acreage, transplanting at June and picking point when it grow to 1m.Conclusion It can promote the accumulation of conventional economic biological yield of Artemisia annua L.through the wild acclimatization cultivation.

  10. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    OpenAIRE

    Meiya Li; Fusheng Jiang; Xiangli Yu; Zhiqi Miao

    2015-01-01

    Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The T...

  11. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities.

  12. Cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites derived from Artemisia annua L. towards cancer cells in comparison to its designated active constituent artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferth, Thomas; Herrmann, Florian; Tahrani, Ahmed; Wink, Michael

    2011-08-15

    Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood, qinhao) has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine. The isolation of artemisinin from Artemisia annua and its worldwide accepted application in malaria therapy is one of the showcase success stories of phytomedicine during the past decades. Artemisinin-type compounds are also active towards other protozoal or viral diseases as well as cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Nowadays, Artemisia annua tea is used as a self-reliant treatment in developing countries. The unsupervised use of Artemisia annua tea has been criticized to foster the development of artemisinin resistance in malaria and cancer due to insufficient artemisinin amounts in the plant as compared to standardized tablets with isolated artemisinin or semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives. However, artemisinin is not the only bioactive compound in Artemisia annua. In the present investigation, we analyzed different Artemisia annua extracts. Dichloromethane extracts were more cytotoxic (range of IC₅₀: 1.8-14.4 μg/ml) than methanol extracts towards Trypanosoma b. brucei (TC221 cells). The range of IC₅₀ values for HeLa cancer cells was 54.1-275.5 μg/ml for dichloromethane extracts and 276.3-1540.8 μg/ml for methanol extracts. Cancer and trypanosomal cells did not reveal cross-resistance among other compounds of Artemisia annua, namely the artemisinin-related artemisitene and arteanuine B as well as the unrelated compounds, scopoletin and 1,8-cineole. This indicates that cells resistant to one compound retained sensitivity to another one. These results were also supported by microarray-based mRNA expression profiling showing that molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance were different between artemisinin and the other phytochemicals investigated. PMID:21831619

  13. Nitric Oxide Potentiates Oligosaccharide-induced Artemisinin Production in Artemisia annua Hairy Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in Artemisia annua roots induced by an oligosaccharide elicitor (OE) from Fusarium oxysporum mycelium and the potentiation role of NO in the elicitation of artemisinin accumulation. The OE (0.3 mg total sugar/mL) induced a rapid production of NO in cultures, which exhibited a biphasic time course, reaching the first plateau within 1.5 h and the second within 8 h of OE treatment. Artemisinin content in 20-day-old hairy roots was increased from 0.7 mg/g dry wt to 1.3 mg/g dry wt by using the OE treatment for 4d. In the absence of OE, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 10, 50 μM and 100 μM enhanced the growth of hairy roots, but had no effect on artemisinin synthesis. The combination of SNP with OE increased artemisinin content from 1.2 mg/g dry wt to 2.2 mg/g dry wt, whereas the maximum production of artemisinin in cultures was 28.5 mg/L, a twofold increase over the OE treatment alone. The effects of SNP on the OE-induced artemisinin were suppressed strongly by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO). The results suggest that NO can strongly potentiate elicitor-induced artemisinin synthesis in A. annua hairy roots.

  14. Branch Pathway Blocking in Artemisia annua is a Useful Method for Obtaining High Yield Artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zongyou; Zhang, Fangyuan; Pan, Qifang; Fu, Xueqing; Jiang, Weimin; Shen, Qian; Yan, Tingxiang; Shi, Pu; Lu, Xu; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-03-01

    There are many biosynthetic pathways competing for the metabolic flux with the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. To study the relationship between genes encoding enzymes at branching points and the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, β-caryophyllene, β-farnesene and squalene were sprayed on young seedlings of A. annua. Transient expression assays indicated that the transcription levels of β-caryophyllene synthase (CPS), β-farnesene synthase (BFS) and squalene synthase (SQS) were inhibited by β-caryophyllene, β-farnesene and squalene, respectively, while expression of some artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes increased. Thus, inhibition of these genes encoding enzymes at branching points may be helpful to improve the artemisinin content. For further study, the expression levels of four branch pathway genes CPS, BFS, germacrene A synthase (GAS) and SQS were down-regulated by the antisense method in A. annua. In anti-CPS transgenic plants, mRNA levels of BFS and ADS were increased, and the contents of β-farnesene, artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) were increased by 212, 77 and 132%, respectively. The expression levels of CPS, SQS, GAS, amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), amorphadiene 12-hydroxylase (CYP71AV1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) were increased in anti-BFS transgenic plants and, at the same time, the contents of artemisinin and DHAA were increased by 77% and 54%, respectively, and the content of squalene was increased by 235%. In anti-GAS transgenic plants, mRNA levels of CPS, BFS, ADS and ALDH1 were increased. The contents of artemisinin and DHAA were enhanced by 103% and 130%, respectively. In anti-SQS transgenic plants, the transcription levels of BFS, GAS, CPS, ADS, CYP71AV1 and ALDH1 were all increased. Contents of artemisinin and DHAA were enhanced by 71% and 223%, respectively, while β-farnesene was raised to 123%. The mRNA level of artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase (DBR2) had changed little in

  15. Review of the allelopathic effects of Artemisia annua%黄花蒿的化感效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建国

    2015-01-01

    China is ranked as No. 1 in the world for the areas used for cultivation of Artemisia annua L. Dur-ing the growth period, this medicinal plant releases allelopathic chemicals such as artemisinin into environ-ments which influence the reproduction and growth of other plants, microbes and animals. It is necessary to pay attention to the ecological problems of soils, waters and plants caused by A. annua cultivation. The au-thor thus summarized the groups of allelopathic chemicals released from A. annua, their releasing pathways, their existing status in soils, allelopathic effect on other living organisms, and toxicity mechanisms. The re-view will be beneficial in evaluating the ecological risks from intensive cultivation of A. annua in large scale.%我国黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.)的种植面积居全球之首.在黄花蒿生长过程中,向环境大量释放青蒿素等化感物质,影响植物、微生物和动物的繁殖生长,种植黄花蒿对土壤、水体和其它植物产生的生态问题值得重视.本文综述了黄花蒿产生的化感物质种类、释放途径、土壤存在状况,以及青蒿素对生物的化感作用及其毒性机理等,有益于评估大规模集约化种植黄花蒿带来的生态风险.

  16. Anti-adipogenic effect of Artemisia annua in diet-induced-obesity mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hye Kyung; Shim, Hyeji; Lim, Hyunmook; Shim, Minju; Kim, Chul-Kyu; Park, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yong Seok; Song, Ki-Duk; Kim, Sung-Jo; Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has increased continuously in western countries during the last several decades and recently become a problem in developing countries. Currently, anti-obesity drugs originating from natural products are being investigated for their potential to overcome adverse effects associated with chemical drugs. Artemisinic acid, which was isolated from the well-known anti-malaria herb Artemisia annua (AA) L., was recently shown to possess anti-adipogenic effects in vitro. However, the anti-adipogenic effects of AA in animal models have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we conducted daily oral administration with AA water extract in a diet-induced obesity animal model and treated 3T3-L1 cells with AA to confirm the anti-adipogenic effects in the related protein expressions. We then evaluated the physiology, adipose tissue histology and mRNA expressions of many related genes. Inhibition of adipogenesis by the AA water extract was observed in vitro. In the animal model, weight gain was significantly lower in the AA treated group, but there were no changes in food intake volume or calories. Reductions in lipid droplet size and mRNA expression associated with adipogenesis were also observed in animal epididymal fat. This study is the first to report that AA has an anti-obese effects in vivo. PMID:26243598

  17. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem; Varshney, Lalit

    2011-07-01

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by 60Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L -1, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L -1 increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H 2O 2 content in the leaves.

  18. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, Tariq, E-mail: tarik.alig@gmail.co [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin,; Hashmi, Nadeem [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by {sup 60}Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L{sup -1}, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L{sup -1} increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in the leaves. -- Highlights: {yields} Application of ionizing radiation to degrade natural bioactive agents is a novel emerging technology. {yields} Sodium alginate has been used as the growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form for various plants. {yields} The study revealed that irradiated sodium algiante at 20-120 ppm concentration improved the plant growth. {yields} The enhancement of artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in leaves.

  19. Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant effects of various parts of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Desta, Kebede Taye; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yun-Hi; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2016-04-01

    An annual Korean weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of a number of diseases. Remarkably, among the 32 polyphenols characterized in various parts of plant tissue, including flowers, leafs, stems and roots, 10 compounds were detected for the first time using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The quantification method was validated using structurally related external standards with determination coefficients (R(2) ) ≥0.9995. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.068-3.932 and 0.226-13.108 mg/L, respectively. The recoveries estimated at 50 and 100 mg/L ranged between 60.6-92.2 and 61.3-111%, respectively, with relative standard deviations <12%. The roots contained the largest concentration of identified components, while the flowers contained the least. The antioxidant capacity evaluated in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation-scavenging activities and reducing power was highest in the roots and lowest in the flowers. The findings are well correlated and suggest that the antioxidant capacities principally depend upon the polyphenol concentrations in each part of the plant. PMID:26285146

  20. A Genome-Wide Scenario of Terpene Pathways in Self-pollinated Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dong-Ming; Wang, Zhilong; Wang, Liangjiang; Alejos-Gonzales, Fatima; Sun, Ming-An; Xie, De-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Scenarios of genes to metabolites in Artemisia annua remain uninvestigated. Here, we report the use of an integrated approach combining metabolomics, transcriptomics, and gene function analyses to characterize gene-to-terpene and terpene pathway scenarios in a self-pollinating variety of this species. Eighty-eight metabolites including 22 sesquiterpenes (e.g., artemisinin), 26 monoterpenes, two triterpenes, one diterpene and 38 other non-polar metabolites were identified from 14 tissues. These metabolites were differentially produced by leaves and flowers at lower to higher positions. Sequences from cDNA libraries of six tissues were assembled into 18 871 contigs and genome-wide gene expression profiles in tissues were strongly associated with developmental stages and spatial specificities. Sequence mining identified 47 genes that mapped to the artemisinin, non-amorphadiene sesquiterpene, monoterpene, triterpene, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate and mevalonate pathways. Pearson correlation analysis resulted in network integration that characterized significant correlations of gene-to-gene expression patterns and gene expression-to-metabolite levels in six tissues simultaneously. More importantly, manipulations of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene expression not only affected the activity of this pathway toward artemisinin, artemisinic acid, and arteannuin b but also altered non-amorphadiene sesquiterpene and genome-wide volatile profiles. Such gene-to-terpene landscapes associated with different tissues are fundamental to the metabolic engineering of artemisinin. PMID:26192869

  1. Studies on ti-mediated transformed cultures of Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Tripti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformed dedifferentiated cultures of Artemisia annua L. were established using four wild type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens . From the Ti-transformed in vitro gall calli so obtained cell suspension cultures were developed. Growth kinetics of Ti-transformed cell suspension cultures were studied and compared with untransformed (control cultures. Ti transformed cell suspension cultures were found to exhibit faster growth rate than the control. Gall callus synthesized 0.2011 g/100 g DW of artemisinin while only 0.0178 g/100 g DW was detected in untransformed callus cultures Likewise. 38.6 µg/ml was found in spent medium of cell suspension culture at day 21, which shows a five fold increase in artemisinin over control (7.5 µg/ml.Cell suspension cultures are found to be practically more feasible than static cultures, hence an empirical approach is taken to scale up the Ti-transformed cell suspension culture in laboratory scale bioreactor (Batch process. The bioreactor cultivation yielded 45.56 µg/ml of artemisinin at day 21.The result suggests that the Erlenmeyer flasks results could be successfully scaled-up into the bioreactor and condition can be further optimized to have best artemisinin yield.

  2. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Ismail; Shahid Iqbal; Umer Younas; Kim Wei Chan; Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of differen...

  3. Cumulative role of bioinoculants on growth, antioxidant potential and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. under organic field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia annua L. is mostly known for a bioactive metabolite, artemisinin, an effective sesquiterpene lactone used against malaria without any reputed cases of resistance. In this experiment, bioinoculants viz., Streptomyces sp. MTN14, Bacillus megaterium MTN2RP and Trichoderma harzianum Thu were applied as growth promoting substances to exploit full genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield, nutrient uptake and particularly artemisinin content. Further, multi-use of the bioinoculants singly and in combinations for the enhancement of antioxidant potential and therapeutic value was also undertaken which to our knowledge has never been investigated in context with microbial application. The results demonstrated that a significant (P < 0.05) increase in growth, nutrient uptake, total phenolic, flavonoid, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were observed in the A. annua treated with a combination of bioinoculants in comparison to control. Most importantly, an increase in artemisinin content and yield by 34 and 72 % respectively in the treatment having all the three microbes was observed. These results were further authenticated by the PCA analysis which showed positive correlation between plant macronutrients and antioxidant content with plant growth and artemisinin yield of A. annua. The present study thus highlights a possible new application of compatible bioinoculants for enhancing the growth along with antioxidant and therapeutic value of A. annua. PMID:27565777

  4. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro. PMID:27065604

  5. Insect feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of scopoletin isolated from Artemisia annua against Spilarctia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar Tripathi; Rajendra Singh Bhakuni; Shikha Upadhyay; Rashmi Gaur

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) is well known for its antimalarial activities due to presence of the compound artemisinin. We isolated a methoxy coumarin from the stem part of A. annua and confirmed its identity as scopoletin through mass spectral data.The structure was established from 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR.The compound scopoletin was evaluated for its feeding deterrence and growth inhibitory potential against a noxious lepidopteran insect, Spilartctia obliqua Walker. Scopoletin gave FD50 (feeding deterrence of 50%) value of 96.7 μg/g diet when mixed into artificial diet. S. obliqua larvae (12-day-old) exposed to the highest concentration (250 μg/g diet)of scopoletin showed 77.1% feeding-deterrence. In a growth inhibitory assay, scopoletin provided 116.9% growth inhibition at the highest dose of 250 μg/g diet with a GI50 (growth inhibition of 50%) value of 20.9μg/g diet. Statistical analysis showed a concentrationdependent dose response relationship toward both feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities. Artemisinin is found mainly in the leaves of A. annua and not in the stems,which are typically discarded as waste. Therefore identification of scopoletin in stems of A. annua may be important as a source of this material for pest control.

  6. Stereo and region-selective biosynthesis of two new dihydroartemisinic acid glycosides by suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The system of plant-cultured cells is one of the optimal systems to investigate biosynthesis pathway and their bioactive intermediates. Objective: To study the biosynthesis of dihydroartemisinic acid (1 by suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua. Materials and Methods: Substrate (compound 1 was administered into the suspension-cultured cells of A. annua and co-cultured for 2 days. The methanol extract was separated on various column chromatography methods and the structures of two biosynthesis products were elucidated based on the analysis of 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, 2D NMR, and ESI-MS. Time-course curve was also established. Furthermore, in vitro antitumor activities of compounds 1-3 against HepG2, K562, and A549 cell lines were evaluated by MTT assay. Results: Two new compounds were obtained, namely 3α-hydroxy-dihydroartemisinic acid-α-D - glucopyranosyl ester (2 and 15-hydroxy-cadin-4-en-12-oic acid-β-d - glucopyranosyl ester (3. The results demonstrated that the cultured cells of A. annua possessed the abilities to stereo-selective hydroxylate and region-selective glycosylate sesquiterpene compounds in a highly efficient manner. Inhibitory effects of compounds 1-3 on proliferation of HepG2, K562, and A549 cell lines in vitro were also investigated. Conclusion: Two new dihydroartemisinic acid glycosides were obtained by stereo- and region-selective biosynthesis with cultured cells of A. annua.

  7. Efficacy of Artemisia annua polysaccharides as an adjuvant to hepatitis C vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L D; Ren, X H; Ma, R L; Wang, Y; Yuan, H W; Lv, H J

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Artemisia annua can prevent and treat hepatitis following an unclear mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. annua polysaccharides (AAP) on hepatitis C virus (HCV). A pcDNA3.1/NS3 expression vector was constructed. Ninety female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups: high-dose AAP (1 mg/mL) + HCV/NS3 plasmid; middle-dose AAP (0.5 mg/mL) + HCV/NS3 plasmid; low-dose AAP (0.1 mg/mL) + HCV/NS3 plasmid; HCV/NS3 plasmid; high-dose AAP (1 mg/mL); normal saline control (N = 15). Except the control group and the high-dose AAP group, other groups were inoculated with 50 μg pcDNA3.1-HCV/NS3 plasmid. Serum antigenic-specific antibody was detected after the last immunization, and the levels of secreted IFN-γ and IL-4 were measured. pcDNA3.1/NS3 plasmid was successfully constructed, and the extracted product contained HCV/NS3 sequence. Compared with single inoculation with HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine, the specific antibody levels induced by middle-dose AAP plus HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine were significantly different in weeks 1, 3 and 5 (P 0.05). The level of serum IFN-γ secretion was significantly higher than that of IL-4 secretion. Compared with the single HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine group, AAP plus HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine groups had significant increased IFN-γ levels (P 0.05). AAP, as the adjuvant of HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine, can widely regulate the humoral immunity and cellular immune function of normal and cyclophosphamide-induced immunocompromised mice. AAP can promote IFN-γ secretion probably by inducing Th1-type cellular immune response. PMID:25966271

  8. Inhibitory Action of Artemisia annua Extracts and Artemisinin on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Okafor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of ethanol (EEAA, acid (AEAA, and toluene (TEAA extracts from Artemisia annua and Artemisinin (ATS on mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions was investigated using gravimetric and gasometric techniques. The extracts and ATS functioned as good inhibitors, and their inhibition efficiencies (%IE followed the trend: EEAA > AEAA > TEAA > ATS. %IE increased with increase in inhibitors concentration and decreased with increase in temperature. The enhanced %IE values of the extracts were attributed to synergistic effect of the components of the plant extracts with ATS. The adsorption of the inhibitors was consistent with Langmuir isotherm. Physisorption is proposed as the mechanism of inhibition.

  9. Relationship between morphological traits and secondary metabolites in Artemisia annua L. by using correlation and path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Paul, A A Naqvi, Madan M Gupta, Suman P S Khanuja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis were performed for fifteen morphological and chemical (monoterpenes and sequeterpenes traits in Artemisia annua. Significant positive relationship and direct effect was observed of artemisinin yield with plant height, branching pattern (number of primary, secondary and tertiary branches, petiole length, ketone and 1, 8 cineol while negative association was observed with artemisinic acid, α-pinene and camphor. Oil content was negatively associated with leaf characters namely lamina length, lamina width and petiole length. Oil has negative effect on artemisinin content. The information can be used as a useful reference for elucidating relationship of Artemisinin (sesquiterpene, essential oil (monoterpene with m

  10. Overexpression of the Artemisia orthologue of ABA receptor, AaPYL9, enhances ABA sensitivity and improves artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. In this study, we cloned an ABA receptor orthologue, AaPYL9, from Artemisia annua L. AaPYL9 is expressed highly in leaf and flower. AaPYL9 protein can be localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid assay shows AaPYL9 can specifically interact with AtABI1 but not with AtABI2, AtHAB1 or AtHAB2. ABA can enhance the interaction between AaPYL9 and AtABI1 while AaPYL9-89 Pro→Ser and AaPYL9-116 His→Ala point mutations abolishes the interaction. BiFC assay shows that AaPYL9 interacts with AtABI1 in nucleus in planta. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing AaPYL9 are more sensitive to ABA in the seed germination and primary root growth than wild type. Consistent with this, ABA report genes have higher expression in AaPYL9 overexpressing plants compared to wild type after ABA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of AaPYL9 in A. annua increases not only drought tolerance, but also artemisinin content after ABA treatment, with significant enhancement of the expression of key genes in artemisinin biosynthesis. This study provides a way to develop A. annua with high-yielding artemisinin and high drought resistance.

  11. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml(-1) and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml(-1), respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml(-1). Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  12. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    Mohammad eIslamuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 % followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %. AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 µg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 µg ml─1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide (NO generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 µg ml─1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w. to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90 % in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  13. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  14. Antihistomonal effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts in vitro could not be confirmed by in vivo experiments in turkeys and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Liebhart, D.; Hess, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Five different Artemisia annua-derived materials (i.e. dry leaves, pure artemisinin, and hexane, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of leaves) were screened for their in vitro activities against six clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis. Except for the methanol extract, all tested materials...

  15. Development of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Quantification of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua and Rat Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suqin; Cui, Yongliang; Wang, Kunbi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Guiyu; Wang, Baomin; Cui, Liwang

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin, extracted from Artemisia annua, and its derivatives are important frontline antimalarials. To produce specific antibodies for the detection and quantification of artemisinin, artemisinin was transformed to 9-hydroxyartemisinin by microbial fermentation, which was used to prepare a 9-succinate artemisinin hapten for conjugation with ovalbumin. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as 3H7A10, was selected from hybridoma cell lines which showed high specificity to artemisinin. No competitive inhibition was observed with artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether for up to 20,000 ng mL(-1). An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed, which showed a concentration causing 50% of inhibition (IC50) for artemisinin as 2.6 ng mL(-1) and a working range of 0.6-11.5 ng mL(-1). The icELISA was applied for the quantification of artemisinin in crude extracts of wild A. annua and the study of pharmacokinetics of artemisinin in rat serum after intraperitoneal injection. The results were highly correlated with those determined by HPLC-UV analysis (R(2) = 0.9919). In comparison with reported antiartemisinin mAbs which have broad cross-reactivity with other artemisinin derivatives, the high specificity of 3H7A10 for artemisinin will enable development of methods for quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia plants and antimalarial drugs such as Arco and for pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26822789

  16. The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production.

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    Theresa Townsend

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach.

  17. Th1-biased immunomodulation and therapeutic potential of Artemisia annua in murine visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Mohammad Islamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of vaccines and limitations of currently available chemotherapy, development of safe and efficacious drugs is urgently needed for visceral leishmaniasis (VL that is fatal, if left untreated. Earlier we reported in vitro apoptotic antileishmanial activity of n-hexane fractions of Artemisia annua leaves (AAL and seeds (AAS against Leishmania donovani. In the present study, we investigated the immunostimulatory and therapeutic efficacy of AAL and AAS.Ten-weeks post infection, BALB/c mice were orally administered AAL and AAS for ten consecutive days. Significant reduction in hepatic (86.67% and 89.12% and splenic (95.45% and 95.84% parasite burden with decrease in spleen weight was observed. AAL and AAS treated mice induced the strongest DTH response, as well as three-fold decrease in IgG1 and two-fold increase in IgG2a levels, as compared to infected controls. Cytometric bead array further affirmed the elicitation of Th1 immune response as indicated by increased levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10 in serum as well as in culture supernatant of lymphocytes from treated mice. Lymphoproliferative response, IFN-γ producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and nitrite levels were significantly enhanced upon antigen recall in vitro. The co-expression of CD80 and CD86 on macrophages was significantly augmented. CD8+ T cells exhibited CD62Llow and CD44hi phenotype, signifying induction of immunological memory in AAL and AAS treated groups. Serum enzyme markers were in the normal range indicating inertness against nephro- and hepato-toxicity.Our results establish the two-prong antileishmanial efficacy of AAL and AAS for cure against L. donovani that is dependent on both the direct leishmanicidal action as well as switching-on of Th1-biased protective cell-mediated immunity with generation of memory. AAL and AAS could represent adjunct therapies for the treatment of leishmaniasis, either alone or in combination with

  18. 中草药青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)的实时荧光PCR检测%Detection of Sweet Wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) with Real-Time Fluorescent PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玥; 赵文军; 吕国忠; 朱水芳

    2006-01-01

    中草药青蒿,学名黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.),属于中国独有的抗疟药用植物资源之一.根据蒿属植物 rDNA ITS序列多态性设计TaqMan探针及引物,通过实时荧光PCR方法对黄花蒿进行检测.结果表明:该组探针-引物对黄花蒿有很强的特异性,除黄花蒿外,其余8种对照蒿属材料均未检测到荧光信号.该方法快速、简便、安全、准确,适用于黄花蒿的出入境检验.

  19. Correlation among agronomic, physiological and phytochemical traits in Artemisia annua L. varieties Correlação entre caracteres agronômicos, fisiológicos e fitoquímicos em variedades de Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Bolina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the correlations among agronomic, physiological and phytochemical traits of two varieties of Artemisia annua and to identify correlations that can be used in selection and breeding processes for this species. The design was completely randomized and the treatments were for Artemisia annua varieties 2/39x5x3M and 2/39x1V, which were subjected to agronomic, physiological and phytochemical evaluations. The relationship among the studied traits was estimated with Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the significance level of correlations was established by the t-test using Genes software. A significant positive correlation was found between the traits canopy volume and essential oil yield for 2/39x5x3M variety, showing that the selection of plants with a larger canopy volume would facilitate indirect selection of the trait essential oil yield. This correlation was not found for the 2/39x1V variety. In both varieties, there was a significant negative correlation between canopy volume and artemisinin content, which suggested that the selection of plants with a large canopy volume and a large number of branches should be avoided if the goal is to increase artemisinin content.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações existentes entre caracteres agronômicos, fisiológicos e fitoquímicos em duas variedades de Artemisia annua e identificar correlações que possam ser utilizadas em processos de seleção e melhoramento da espécie. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e os tratamentos foram às variedades 2/39x5x3M e 2/39x1V de Artemisia annua, submetidas a avaliações agronômicas, fisiológicas e fitoquímicas. A relação existente entre os caracteres estudados foi estimada através do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e o nível de significância das correlações pelo teste t, realizadas no programa Genes. Encontrou-se correlação positiva e significativa entre os caracteres volume

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Francisco Rocha e Silva; Pedro Melillo de Magalhães; Mônica Regina Farias Costa; Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim; Francisco Célio Maia Chaves; Ari de Freitas Hidalgo; Adrian Martin Pohlit; Pedro Paulo Ribeiro Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and ar...

  1. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40...... animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology...

  2. The effect of Artemisia annua on broiler performance, on intestinal microbiota and on the course of a Clostridium perfringens infection applying a necrotic enteritis disease model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Grevsen, Kai; Ivarsen, Elise;

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of the plant Artemisia annua contain essential oils having antimicrobial properties against Clostridium perfringens Type A, the causal agent for necrotic enteritis in broilers. In two experiments, the influence of increasing dietary concentrations of dried A. annua leaves (0, 5, 10......-hexane extract also reduced feed intake, but broiler weight tended to decrease only at the highest dietary concentration. The feed conversion ratio tended to improve when birds received 250 and 500 mg/kg n-hexane extract. In a third experiment, a necrotic enteritis disease model was applied to investigate...... enteritis and compensate to a certain extent for the disease-associated weight losses....

  3. State of the study on Artemisia annua resources%黄花蒿资源的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周英平; 赵敏; 周志强

    2006-01-01

    黄花蒿(Artemisia annua)是我国的传统中药,其有效成分青蒿素是治疗疟疾的特效药.随着市场对青蒿素需求量的日益增加,如何获得高产量的黄花蒿品系以及如何提高黄花蒿中青蒿素的含量就成了人们研究的焦点;就近年来国内外对黄花蒿资源的研究进展作一综述,以期对该领域的研究起到积极的促进作用;分析了当前国内外研究中存在的不足;对未来研究的重点领域进行了展望.

  4. Study on Genetic Transformation of Artemisia annua L.%青蒿植物的遗传转化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃华; 代勇; 孙雁霞; 徐世军; 王晓蓉

    2010-01-01

    为了建立利用发根农杆菌诱导青蒿植物Artemisia annua L.毛状根的培养系统,分别用发根农杆菌Ri1601、ATCC15834感染青蒿无菌苗的子叶、下胚轴、叶片、叶柄等外植体获得毛状根,并比较不同因素对毛状根诱导和生长的影响.发根农杆菌诱导青蒿毛状根的有效方法被建立,借此为青蒿大规模遗传转化提供了理论基础.

  5. Cloning and enzymology analysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from a superior strain of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA(af1) encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase AaFPS1 (FPS, EC2.5.1.1/EC2.5.1.10) from a high yield Artemisia annua strain 025 has been cloned from its cDNA library. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 343 amino acid (aa) residues with molecular weight of 39 kD. Deduced aa sequence of the cDNA was similar to FPS from other plants, yeast and mammals, containing 5 conserved domains found in both prenyl transferase and polyprenyl synthase. The expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli showed measurable specific activity of FPS in vitro. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography and its kinetics was measured. These results would further promote the molecular regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis.

  6. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzello

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold, Q9 (3-fold and Q10 (2.5-fold. Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules.

  7. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

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    Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones

    Full Text Available Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP, a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  8. Effect of cadmium on photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation,antioxidants, and artemisinin in hydroponically grown Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Li; Manxi Zhao; Lanping Guo; Luqi Huang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different cadmium(Cd)concentrations(0,20,60,and 100 μmol/L)on hydroponically grown Artemisia annua L.were investigated.Cd treatments applied for 0,4,12,24,72,144,216,and 336 hr were assessed by measuring the changes in photosynthetic pigments,electrolyte leakage,malondialdehyde(MDA)and antioxidants(ascorbic acid and glutathione),while the artemisinin content was tested after 0,12,144,216,and 336 hr.A significant decrease was observed in photosynthetic pigment levels over time with increasing Cd concentration.Chlorophyll b levels were more affected by Cd than were chlorophyll a or carotenoid levels.The cell membrane was sensitive to Cd stress,as MDA content in all treatment groups showed insignificant differences from the control group,except at 12 hr treatment time.Ascorbic acid(AsA)content changed slightly over time,while glutathione(GSH)content took less time to reach a maximum as Cd concentration increased.Cd was found to promote synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin,especially at concentrations of 20 and 100 μmol/L.In conclusion,Cd stress can damage to photosynthetic pigments,and vigorously growing A.annua showed a strong tolerance for Cd stress.Appropriate amounts of added Cd aided synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin.

  9. Polyphenols from Artemisia annua L Inhibit Adhesion and EMT of Highly Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Shin; Lee, Won Sup; Panchanathan, Radha; Joo, Young Nak; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Hye Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that polyphenolic compounds from plants have anti-invasion and anti-metastasis capabilities. The Korean annual weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Here, we isolated and characterized polyphenols from Korean A. annua L (pKAL). We investigated anti-metastatic effects of pKAL on the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells especially focusing on cancer cell adhesion to the endothelial cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Firstly, pKAL inhibited cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Polyphenols from Korean A. annua L inhibited the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to ECs through reducing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression of MDA-MB-231 and ECs, but not intracellular adhesion molecule-1 at the concentrations where pKAL did not influence the cell viability of either MDA-MB-231 cells nor EC. Further, pKAL inhibited tumor necrosis factor-activated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and EMT. Moreover, pKAL inhibited phosphorylation of Akt, but not that of protein kinase C. These results suggest that pKAL may serve as a therapeutic agent against cancer metastasis at least in part by inhibiting the cancer cell adhesion to ECs through suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and invasion through suppression of EMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27151203

  10. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F.S. Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decade, the work with artemisinin-based compounds has expanded to their anti-cancer properties. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations (tea, leaf flavonoids, also present in the tea, have shown a variety of biological activities and may synergize the effects of artemisinin against malaria and cancer. However, only a few studies have focused on the potential synergistic effects between flavonoids and artemisinin. The resurgent idea that multi-component drug therapy might be better than monotherapy is illustrated by the recent resolution of the World Health Organization to support artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT, instead of the previously used monotherapy with artemisinins. In this critical review we will discuss the possibility that artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs might become more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria and cancer if simultaneously delivered with flavonoids. The flavonoids present in A. annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of artemisinin in the body, but also have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases.

  11. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as antioxidants and their potential synergism with artemisinin against malaria and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Luthria, Devanand L; Sasaki, Tomikazu; Heyerick, Arne

    2010-05-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decade, the work with artemisinin-based compounds has expanded to their anti-cancer properties. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations (tea), leaf flavonoids, also present in the tea, have shown a variety of biological activities and may synergize the effects of artemisinin against malaria and cancer. However, only a few studies have focused on the potential synergistic effects between flavonoids and artemisinin. The resurgent idea that multi-component drug therapy might be better than monotherapy is illustrated by the recent resolution of the World Health Organization to support artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT), instead of the previously used monotherapy with artemisinins. In this critical review we will discuss the possibility that artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs might become more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria) and cancer if simultaneously delivered with flavonoids. The flavonoids present in A. annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of artemisinin in the body, but also have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases. PMID:20657468

  12. Research Progress on the Essential Oil of Artemisia Annua L.%青蒿挥发油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 胡浩斌; 郑旭东; 王春林

    2011-01-01

    From the aspects of extraction method, harvesting time, storage time, producing area, collection position and planting season, the influence factors of essential oil yield of Artenisia annua L. were analyzed, and essential oil components were collected from different places.The results showed that there was great difference in the chemical composition of essential oils, and the major chemical composition of essential oil are sesquiterpene and monoterpene, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, caryophyllene oside, caryophyllene, seltnene, camphene, pinene and germacrene D.%从提取方法、采收期、贮存期、产地、采集部位和种植季节6个方面分析青蒿挥发油收率的影响因素.并收集整理了不同产些的挥发油组分,总结出青蒿挥发油化学成分差异较大,以倍半萜和单萜为主,主要成分是樟脑(Camphor)、1,8-按叶素(1,8-cineole)、蒿酮(Artemisia ketone)、石竹烯氧化物(Caryophyllene oside)、石竹烯(Caryophyllene)、芹予烯(Seltnene)、莰烯(Camphene)、蒎烯(Pinene)和大根香叶烯D(Germacrene D)等化合物.

  13. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Madeira, Alda M. B. N.;

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative...... strategy of the herbal extracts is easy to implement at farm level, but further studies on dose levels and modes of action are needed....

  14. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Netsanet Worku; Andualem Mossie; August Stich; Arwid Daugschies; Susanne Trettner; Hemdan, Nasr Y. A.; Gerd Birkenmeier

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behav...

  15. Discussion Over Origination,Clinical Effectiveness and Labeling of Traditional Chinese Herb Artemisia annua and Its Abstract Artermisinin%本末源流论青蒿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2011-01-01

    针对时下青蒿与青蒿素再次成为学术界讨论的焦点,主要从以下几方面展开阐述:从本草学角度分析了中药青蒿的种质来源,介绍了中药青蒿及其提取物青蒿素的临床药效和应用,围绕青蒿素是否仍属于中药及其结构容易被高温破坏的情况提出了作者的观点。%This article discusses several academic arguments on traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua and its extract artemisinin. The author talks about the authentic resource of traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua in botanic view, introduces the clinical applications of both Artemisia annua and its Abstract artemisinin, and in the meanwhile, the author gives her own point of view on the argument about the labeling of the medicine artemisinin and the protection method when it is applied in clinical practice.

  16. Nutritional characterization and antioxidant capacity of different tissues of Artemisia Annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of different tissues of A. annua for their nutritional contents and antioxidant potential demonstrated that the leaves and inflorescence had the highest percentage of protein, crude fat and in vitro digestible fractions but the lowest levels of detergent fibers. These tissues also had th...

  17. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Rocha e Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species. The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m. The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions.

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães, Pedro Melillo de; Costa, Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Vieira, Pedro Paulo Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions. PMID:23147140

  19. Cloning and functional characterization of a beta-pinene synthase from Artemisia annua that shows a circadian pattern of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Xu, Ran; Jia, Jun-Wei; Pang, Jihai; Matsuda, Seiichi P T; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2002-09-01

    Artemisia annua plants produce a broad range of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, which contribute to the characteristic fragrance of this medicinal species. A cDNA clone, QH6, contained an open reading frame encoding a 582-amino acid protein that showed high sequence identity to plant monoterpene synthases. The prokaryotically expressed QH6 fusion protein converted geranyl diphosphate to (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-alpha-pinene in a 94:6 ratio. QH6 was predominantly expressed in juvenile leaves 2 weeks postsprouting. QH6 transcript levels were transiently reduced following mechanical wounding or fungal elicitor treatment, suggesting that this gene is not directly involved in defense reaction induced by either of these treatments. Under a photoperiod of 12 h/12 h (light/dark), the abundance of QH6 transcripts fluctuated in a diurnal pattern that ebbed around 3 h before daybreak (9th h in the dark phase) and peaked after 9 h in light (9th h in the light phase). The contents of (-)-beta-pinene in juvenile leaves and in emitted volatiles also varied in a diurnal rhythm, correlating strongly with mRNA accumulation. When A. annua was entrained by constant light or constant dark conditions, QH6 transcript accumulation continued to fluctuate with circadian rhythms. Under constant light, advanced cycles of fluctuation of QH6 transcript levels were observed, and under constant dark, the cycle was delayed. However, the original diurnal pattern could be regained when the plants were returned to the normal light/dark (12 h/12 h) photoperiod. This is the first report that monoterpene biosynthesis is transcriptionally regulated in a circadian pattern.

  20. Bioassay-Guided Chromatographic Isolation and Identification of Antibacterial Compounds from Artemisia annua L. That Inhibit Clostridium perfringens Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsen, Elise; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Engberg, Ricarda M; Grevsen, Kai; Kjaer, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent of necrotic enteritis leading to significant losses in the poultry industry. Dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) exhibited activity against C. perfringens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 185 and 270 μg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts gave several active fractions (MIC between 75 and 600 μg/mL). Investigations of the most active fractions resulted in the isolation and characterization of the polyacetylene ponticaepoxide (MIC between 100 and 200 μg/mL) and (+)-threo-(5E)-trideca-1,5-dien-7,9,11-triyne-3,4-diol (MIC between 400 and 800 μg/mL), the flavonols chrysosplenol D (MIC between 200 and 400 μg/mL) and casticin (slight inhibition at 800 μg/mL), and 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone (slight inhibition at 800 μg/mL). Also, the coumarin scopoletin and the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin were isolated from active fractions but showed no inhibition of C. perfringens growth at 800 and 2000 μg/mL, respectively. Fractions containing essential oil components with camphor constituting >60% did not show inhibition of C. perfringens up to 1600 μg/mL. Extracts and some active fractions showed higher antibacterial effect than individual bioactive compounds, suggesting that synergistic effects may underlie the observed antibacterial effect. The present study adds new valuable information on the antibacterial effect of A. annua against C. perfringens. PMID:25902977

  1. Anti-plasmodial polyvalent interactions in Artemisia annua L. aqueous extract--possible synergistic and resistance mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O Suberu

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua hot water infusion (tea has been used in in vitro experiments against P. falciparum malaria parasites to test potency relative to equivalent pure artemisinin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometric analyses were employed to determine the metabolite profile of tea including the concentrations of artemisinin (47.5±0.8 mg L(-1, dihydroartemisinic acid (70.0±0.3 mg L(-1, arteannuin B (1.3±0.0 mg L(-1, isovitexin (105.0±7.2 mg L(-1 and a range of polyphenolic acids. The tea extract, purified compounds from the extract, and the combination of artemisinin with the purified compounds were tested against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant strains of P. falciparum using the DNA-intercalative SYBR Green I assay. The results of these in vitro tests and of isobologram analyses of combination effects showed mild to strong antagonistic interactions between artemisinin and the compounds (9-epi-artemisinin and artemisitene extracted from A. annua with significant (IC50 <1 μM anti-plasmodial activities for the combination range evaluated. Mono-caffeoylquinic acids, tri-caffeoylquinic acid, artemisinic acid and arteannuin B showed additive interaction while rosmarinic acid showed synergistic interaction with artemisinin in the chloroquine sensitive strain at a combination ratio of 1:3 (artemisinin to purified compound. In the chloroquine resistant parasite, using the same ratio, these compounds strongly antagonised artemisinin anti-plasmodial activity with the exception of arteannuin B, which was synergistic. This result would suggest a mechanism targeting parasite resistance defenses for arteannuin B's potentiation of artemisinin.

  2. Atividade ovicida e larvicida do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua sobre parasitas gastrintestinais de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Sprenger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitas gastrintestinais causam enorme prejuízo econômico na bovinocultura, tanto nacional como mundial, ocasionado principalmente por Bunostumom sp., Cooperia sp. e Trichostrongylus sp. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a eficácia in vitro do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua (H.7 frente a esses endoparasitas. O H.7 foi produzido com sete dias de percolação a 4ºC e posteriormente liofilizado. Com esse fitoterápico, realizaram-se testes de eclodibilidade de ovos (TEO e de migração larvar em ágar (TMLA, com seis repetições, com concentrações crescentes (0,78 a 50mg/mL. Para analisar a composição química do fitoterápico, procedeu-se à marcha fitoquímica completa. No TEO, a eficácia variou de 94,08±2,58% na maior concentração a 15,67±0,97% na menor concentração. Já no TMLA os valores encontrados variaram de 90,05±0,55% a 4,12±0,46%. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram encontrados diversos compostos com propriedades de combater os nematódeos, tanto direta como indiretamente. Os resultados obtidos nos testes in vitro evidenciam que o extrato produzido possui potencial de combater nematódeos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Novos estudos devem ser realizados buscando maximizar a eficácia do H.7 e de outras extrações obtidas a partir de A. annua, uma vez que foram demonstrados excelentes resultados em ambos os experimentos.

  3. 黄花蒿内生菌的分离与初步鉴定%Isolation and Preliminary Identification of Endophytes from Artemisia Annua Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金花; 吴玲芳; 章华伟

    2011-01-01

    利用平板分离法从药用植物黄花蒿(Artemisia annua Linn.)的根、茎和叶中共分离内生菌80株,其中内生真菌37株、细菌40株、放线菌3株.经菌种形态观察和染色等,初步鉴定了黄花蒿内生真菌具有5个属,包括囊孢菌(Capsule)、头孢霉(Cephalosporium)、弯孢霉(Curvularia)、曲霉(Aspergillus)和毛霉(Mucor),内生细菌有7个属,包括泛菌(Pantoea)、土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium)、假单胞菌(Pesudomonas)、芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)、巴斯德氏菌(Pasteurella)、葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus)、黄杆菌(Flavobacterium),内生放线菌有2个属,包括诺卡氏菌(Nocardia)和链霉菌(Streptomyces).黄花蒿内生菌具有丰富多样性,但不同部位内生菌的数量、种类及分布存在差异.%Eighty strains were isolated from roots,stems and leaves of Artemisia annua using solidified plates,including 37 fungi,40 bacteria and 3 actinomycetes. The endophytic fungi belonged to 5 genera through morphological observation and staining,which were Capsule,Cephalosporium,Curvularia,Aspergillus and Mucor. The bacterial endophytes had 7 genera,including Pantoea,Agrobacterium,Pesudomonas,Bacillus, Pasteurella, Staphylococcus and Flavobacterium. The endophytic actinomycetes belonged to 2 genera, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Endophytes associated with Artemisia annua. Had abundant biodiversity. However,different quantity and species of endophytes existed in roots,stems and leaves of A. annua Linn.

  4. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  5. In-Vitro Assessment of the Acaricidal Properties of Artemisia Annua and Zataria Multiflora Essential Oils to Control Cattle Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the ‘acaricidal effect' of Zataria multiflora and Ar­temisia annua essential oils on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus.Methods: This study was carried out in 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Veteri­nary Medicine of Shahrekord University, west central Iran. Six dilutions (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µL/cm3 of both essential oils were used against engorged female R. (Boophilus annula­tus ticks using an in vitro immersion method. The mortality rates for each treatment were re­corded 6, 15 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi. Mortality rate was analyzed using Repeated Meas­ures Analysis of Variance, and compari­son of means was carried out using General Linear Models Procedure.Results: The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of Z. multiflora essential oil ranged from 26.6% (using 10 µL/cm3 to 100% (using 40 µL/cm3 and for A. annua essential oil it was 33.2 to 100% (using 20 and 80 µL/cm3, respectively by the end of the experiment (36 hpi. No mortality was recorded for the non-treated control group or for dilutions less than 5 and 10 µL/cm3 using Zataria and Artemisia essential oils, respectively. For Z. multiflora mortality peaked at 15 hpi for all concentrations other than 20 µL/cm3 and took 24 h to achieve its maximum effect while for A. an­nua the two highest concentrations needed 24 hpi to reach their full effect. In addition, essen­tial oils applied at more than 20 and 60 µL/cm3 caused 100% egg-laying failure in engorged fe­male ticks by Zataria and Artemisia, respectively while no failure was observed for the non-treated control group. The mortality rate in both botanical acaricides was dose-dependent.Conclusion: Both these medicinal plants have high potential acaricidal effects on the engorged stage of R. (Boophilus annulatus in vitro.

  6. Protective capacity of Artemisia annua as a potent antioxidant remedy against free radical damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Nkachukwu Chukwurah; Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe; Aniefiok Ndubuisi Osuagwu; Tebekeme Okoko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of four leaf-derived solvent extracts of Artemisiaannua Methods: A. annua leaves were extracted with four solvents (absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, 70% ethanol and 70% methanol), and extracts obtained studied by five complementaryin vitro antioxidant test systems using ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and rutin as standard references. Results: The extracts remarkably inhibited lipid peroxidation (79.81%-86.70%), and erythrocyte haemolysis (40.02%-49.91%). Their IC50 values for hydroxyl, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities ranged from 2.39-3.81 mg/mL (superior to the standards), 107.24-144.49 µg/mL and 28.53-53.20 µg/mL, respectively. 70% alcohol extracts generally showed better antioxidant activity than absolute alcohol extracts. (A. annua), a medicinal plant widely touted for its vast phyto-therapeutic potential. Conclusions: The results indicate that A. annua leaf extracts have potent antioxidant activities that would have beneficial effect on human health, and aqueous organic solvents are superior to the absolute counterparts in yielding extracts with better antioxidant potential.

  7. Overexpression of allene oxide cyclase improves the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Jasmonates (JAs are important signaling molecules in plants and play crucial roles in stress responses, secondary metabolites' regulation, plant growth and development. In this study, the promoter of AaAOC, which was the key gene of jasmonate biosynthetic pathway, had been cloned. GUS staining showed that AaAOC was expressed ubiquitiously in A. annua. AaAOC gene was overexpressed under control of 35S promoter. RT-Q-PCR showed that the expression levels of AaAOC were increased from 1.6- to 5.2-fold in AaAOC-overexpression transgenic A. annua. The results of GC-MS showed that the content of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA was 2- to 4.7-fold of the control level in AaAOC-overexpression plants. HPLC showed that the contents of artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid and artemisinic acid were increased significantly in AaAOC-overexpression plants. RT-Q-PCR showed that the expression levels of FPS (farnesyl diphosphate synthase, CYP71AV1 (cytochrome P450 dependent hydroxylase and DBR2 (double bond reductase 2 were increased significantly in AaAOC-overexpression plants. All data demonstrated that increased endogenous JA could significantly promote the biosynthesis of artemisinin in AaAOC-overexpression transgenic A. annua.

  8. Artemisia annua Leaf Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Ko, Keon-Hee; Heo, Rok Won; Yi, Chin-ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Jae-Ho; Nam, Sanghae; Kim, Hwajin; Roh, Gu Seob

    2016-03-01

    Artemisia annua L. (AA) is a well-known source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. AA also has an antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, the effect of AA extract on hepatic steatosis induced by obesity is unclear. We investigated whether AA extract prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a normal chow diet or HFD with or without AA for 12 weeks. We found that AA extract reduced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that HFD-induced expression of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in the livers was decreased by AA extract. In particular, dietary administration of AA extract decreased hepatic high-mobility group box 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HFD-fed mice. AA extract also attenuated HFD-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. These data indicate that dietary AA extract has beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26741655

  9. Overexpression of AaWRKY1 Leads to an Enhanced Content of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weimin; Fu, Xueqing; Pan, Qifang; Tang, Yueli; Shen, Qian; Lv, Zongyou; Yan, Tingxiang; Shi, Pu; Li, Ling; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin is an effective component of drugs against malaria. The regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis is at the forefront of artemisinin research. Previous studies showed that AaWRKY1 can regulate the expression of ADS, which is the first key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, AaWRKY1 was cloned, and it activated ADSpro and CYPpro in tobacco using dual-LUC assay. To further study the function of AaWRKY1, pCAMBIA2300-AaWRKY1 construct under 35S promoter was generated. Transgenic plants containing AaWRKY1 were obtained, and four independent lines with high expression of AaWRKY1 were analyzed. The expression of ADS and CYP, the key enzymes in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, was dramatically increased in AaWRKY1-overexpressing A. annua plants. Furthermore, the artemisinin yield increased significantly in AaWRKY1-overexpressing A. annua plants. These results showed that AaWRKY1 increased the content of artemisinin by regulating the expression of both ADS and CYP. It provides a new insight into the mechanism of regulation on artemisinin biosynthesis via transcription factors in the future. PMID:27064403

  10. Anti-adipocyte Differentiation Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do-yoon; Yoon, Seok Won; Park, Joo-Hoon; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2016-04-01

    Arteinisia annua L. essential oil (AAEO) has diverse properties including antibacterial, antioxidant, antinociceptive, and antimicrobial activities. However, the effect of AAEO on obesity remains to be investigated. In this study, we analyzed the compounds of AAEO and explored the effect of AAEO on the differentiation of preadipocyte into adipocyte using preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1. Total yield of AAEO from 20 kg A. annua leaf and flower was 0.5%, v/w. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that AAEO contained 34 compounds. 3T3-LI cells incubated in 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine / dexamethasone / insulin (MDI)-containing medium showed increased accumulation of lipid droplets. This increased response was suppressed by treatment with AAEO. Expressions of obesity-related proteins (PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC) were increased in 3T3-LI cells cultured in MDI medium and these responses were decreased by treatment with AAEO. These findings demonstrate that AAEO may suppress 3T3-LI cell differentiation by inhibiting adipogenesis and activation of lipid metabolism-related proteins. PMID:27396213

  11. The Ecological and Physiological Character of Artemisia annua and Its Comprehensive Utilization%中药青蒿的生态生理及其综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王三根; 梁颖

    2003-01-01

    中药青蒿即黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.)是抗疟药的原料,青蒿素是其有效抗疟成分.本文对青蒿的生物学特性、资源分布、生长栽培和生理生态进行了分析,指出了提高青蒿素含量的可能途径及其综合利用的前景.

  12. Effects of Crop Rotation of Artemisia annua and Autumn Species such as Potatoes and Other%黄花蒿与马铃薯等秋种作物轮作的效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯世鑫; 马小军; 闫志刚; 韦树根

    2013-01-01

    Due to the physical and chemical properties of soil, four kinds of autumn crops, including potatoes, autumn soybeans, green beans, and carrots, were selected to crop rotate with Artemisia annua, then the growth time, productivity, and economic benefits of Artemisia annua were investigated in order to explore excellent crop rotation patterns for Artemisia annua cultivation. The results were as follows: after Artemisia annua was rotated with the four kinds of crops, the growth convergence during the growth period was excellent; the soil organic matter and available phosphorus levels also increased, thus improving the soil pH, reducing soil bulk density, and increasing soil porosity. Amongst the rotating crops, potato rotation produced the best results, followed by autumn soybean. Soil potassium and nitrogen content improved significantly after rotating Artemisia annua with potato. Furthermore, Artemisia annua rotated with autumn soybean and potato could significantly improve the Artemisia annua production and the artemisinin content in the next crop production, which reduced the incidence of powdery mildew and stem rot. After rotation, the sales revenue increased for all four crops and Artemisia annua. The investment varied by different varieties, and net income was the highest for potato. In conclusion, Artemisia annua-potalo-Artemisia annua crop rotation model could effectively advance the soil physical and chemical properties, reduce the occurrence of powdery mildew and stem rot, improve the production of Artemisia annua herbs and overall benefits, which all contributed to the accumulation of artemidinin content.%因地制宜选择马铃薯、秋黄豆、四季豆和胡萝卜 4种秋作物与黄花蒿轮作,考察其生长时间、土壤理化性质、黄花蒿发病率、产量及经济效益,探索黄花蒿轮作的良好模式.结果表明:黄花蒿与马铃薯等4种作物轮作,生长期衔接良好,均能提高土壤有机质和有效磷含量,起到改善

  13. 青蒿抗鸡球虫研究进展%Research Progress on Preventing and Controlling Chicken Coccidiosis by Using Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永生; 罗佳杰; 贺建华

    2011-01-01

    近年来,青蒿及其提取物在鸡球虫病的防治上取得了良好的效果。文章主要从青蒿的抗球虫效果、作用机理以及存在的问题等方面综述了青蒿在抗鸡球虫方面的研究进展。%In recent years, Artemisia annual L and its extract got good results in preventing and controlling chicken coccidiosis. Research progress of Artemisia annua L was reviewed in this paper from some aspects, such as preventing and controlling chicken coccidiosis, its mechanism and disadvantage.

  14. Efeito anticoccidiano de extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua em camas de aves contaminadas com Eimeria sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Kan Sprenger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua frente a oocistos de Eimeria sp. em camas contaminadas. O extrato foi produzido com 7 dias de percolação a 4°C, sendo posteriormente realizada a marcha fitoquímica; dosagem de fenóis totais, quantificação de artemisinina, ensaio antioxidante e teste de toxicidade. Para testar a atividade anticoccidiana, camas de aves compostas de cepilho de árvores foram contaminadas com 5000 oocistos. Foram formados quatro tratamentos, em triplicata, nos quais foram usadas diferentes concentrações, sendo G1: 12mg/mL, G2: 8mg/mL, G3: 4mg/mL e C-: água. Após a contaminação, foram aspergidos, 800 mL dos extratos nas diferentes concentrações sobre as camas e coletadas, em triplicatas, 10 cm2 de cada local, aleatoriamente, nos tempos: 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, e 72 horas após a aplicação. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram evidenciados diversos compostos com propriedades antiparasitárias, como flavonoides e taninos. O fitoterápico continha 59,409±1,47μg/dL de artemisinina. O produto na concentração de 12mg.mL-1 apresentou eficácia entre 45,5 e 42,1%. Os resultados dos testes bioquímicos, juntamente com os encontrados no teste anticoccidiano, evidenciaram que o extrato produzido possui alto potencial para combater Eimeria sp.

  15. Seasonal variation of artemisinin, artemisinic acid, and dihydroartemisinic acid in Brazilian, Chinese, and Swiss cultivars of Artemisia annua in WV, and effect of drying procedures on artemisinin and its precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased demand for artemisinin worldwide has led to the increased worldwide cultivation of Artemisia annua for the production of artemisinin. Artemisinin is a safe and effective sesquiterpene lactone effective against a range of diseases caused by protozoa (e.g., malaria, coccidiosis, leishma...

  16. 黄花蒿地膜栽培技术初步研究%Study on Cultivated Technology by Covered Plastic Film of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍平; 杨丽英; 董志渊; 李林玉; 王馨; 杨斌; 严世武

    2009-01-01

    用黄花蒿"元阳种源"进行露地和地膜栽培试验.结果表明,地膜栽培株高、基茎粗、分枝数、冠幅、单株生物量、青蒿素含量等性状均优于露地栽培,且叶蕾产量差异达显著水平.目前,黄花蒿地膜栽培技术已在云南主要产区曲靖大面积推广.%The trial was carried out with the type 'Yuanyang' of Artemisia annua L. by the cultivated technology of covered and uncovered plastic film.The results suggested that there were good superiorities in term of plant height,stem thick,branches per plant,tree-crown range,yield per plant,the content of arteannuin and etc.by the cultivated technology of covered plastic film,and the fresh weight of leaf and bud had significant difference.Now,the cultivated technology of Artemisia annua L.by covered plastic film was used in major production area,such as Qujing in Yunnan province.

  17. Use of Model-Based Nutrient Feeding for Improved Production of Artemisinin by Hairy Roots of Artemisia Annua in a Modified Stirred Tank Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Nivedita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin has been indicated to be a potent drug for the cure of malaria. Batch growth and artemisinin production kinetics of hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua were studied under shake flask conditions which resulted in accumulation of 12.49 g/L biomass and 0.27 mg/g artemisinin. Using the kinetic data, a mathematical model was identified to understand and optimize the system behavior. The developed model was then extrapolated to design nutrient feeding strategies during fed-batch cultivation for enhanced production of artemisinin. In one of the fed-batch cultivation, sucrose (37 g/L) feeding was done at a constant feed rate of 0.1 L/day during 10-15 days, which led to improved artemisinin accumulation of 0.77 mg/g. The second strategy of fed-batch hairy root cultivation involved maintenance of pseudo-steady state sucrose concentration (20.8 g/L) during 10-15 days which resulted in artemisinin accumulation of 0.99 mg/g. Fed-batch cultivation (with the maintenance of pseudo-steady state of substrate) of Artemisia annua hairy roots was, thereafter, implemented in bioreactor cultivation, which featured artemisinin accumulation of 1.0 mg/g artemisinin in 16 days of cultivation. This is the highest reported artemisinin yield by hairy root cultivation in a bioreactor. PMID:26206459

  18. Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua: studies in planta and results of a novel delivery method for treating malaria and other neglected diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Patrick R.; Covello, Patrick S.; McMickle, Anthony; Teoh, Keat H.; Reed, Darwin W.

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. produces the sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug that is also effective in treating other parasitic diseases, some viral infections and various neoplasms. Artemisinin is also an allelopathic herbicide that can inhibit the growth of other plants. Unfortunately, the compound is in short supply and thus, studies on its production in the plant are of interest as are low cost methods for drug delivery. Here we review our recent studies on artemisinin production in A. annua during development of the plant as it moves from the vegetative to reproductive stage (flower budding and full flower formation), in response to sugars, and in concert with the production of the ROS, hydrogen peroxide. We also provide new data from animal experiments that measured the potential of using the dried plant directly as a therapeutic. Together these results provide a synopsis of a more global view of regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua than previously available. We further suggest an alternative low cost method of drug delivery to treat malaria and other neglected tropical diseases. PMID:21643453

  19. Analysis of composition of essential oil of Artemisia annua in Yanchiwan Natural Reserve%盐池湾自然保护区黄蒿(Artemisia annua)挥发油成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毕阳; 李莹; 肖雯

    2013-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法从盐池湾黄蒿(Artemisia annua)中提取挥发油,分析盐池湾地区不同生长阶段6月(A样品)和7月(B样品)黄蒿挥发油的主要化学成分,利用气相色谱-质谱联用法对其化学成分进行测定,采用归一法计算各组分的含量.从两个不同生长期黄蒿的挥发油中分别鉴定出了21和23种成分,其中相同成分8种.分子式为C15 H24的1H-Cycloprop[e] azulene,1a,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7b-octahydro-1,1,4,7-tetramethyl-,1aR-(1a.alpha.,4.alpha.,4a.beta.,7b.alpha.)为样品A化学成分中含量最高的单一成分,匹配度达到98%,含量达到11.502%.桉油精(C10H18O)为样品B化学成分中含量最高的单一成分,匹配度达到96%,含量达到7.913%.两个生长阶段的黄蒿虽然其挥发油主要组成部分的种类及含量很相近,但化学成分种类及数量方面存在明显差异.盐池湾地区的黄蒿所检测出的化合物中只有3种与其他产地黄蒿相同,其他化合物均属首次检测到.

  20. Otimização do processo de extração e isolamento do antimalárico artemisinina a partir de Artemisia annua L. Optimization of the extraction and isolation of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still one of the major diseases in the world, causing physical and economic problems in tropical regions. Artemisinin (Qinghaosu, a natural compound identified in Artemisia annua L. , is an effective drug mainly against cerebral malaria. The action of this drug is immediate and parasitaemia in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria is rapidily reduced, justifying the industrial production of artemisinin. This article focuses on the industrial production of this potent antimalarial drug, including strategies for enhancing yield using inexpensive and easy steps.

  1. Validation, transfer and measurement uncertainty estimation of an HPLC-UV method for the quantification of artemisinin in hydro alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Hermine Zime; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Evrard, Brigitte; Leclercq, Joëlle Quetin; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Debrus, Benjamin; Hubert, Philippe; Rozet, Eric

    2011-08-25

    Malaria is the world's most important parasitic infection with 500 millions cases annually and almost 2 millions death per year. This disease is more present in Sub-Saharan Africa where 90% of the infections are found. Artemisinin and its semi synthetic derivatives (artemether, artesunate) have actually the most powerful activity on malaria, even in its complicated forms and resistance cases. Various methods have been proposed for detection and quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. by HPLC-UV, but the plant extracts used for this quantification were extracts obtained with organic solvents (toluene, petroleum ether, hexane). To be able to use crude A. annua extracts prepared at low cost to formulate antipaludic drugs, we chose the use of a mixture of water and ethanol as solvent of extraction, but no adequate analytical method for this kind of extracts is published. The main objectives of this work were first to develop an analytical method for artemisinin quantification in hydro alcoholic extracts of A. annua. Second, this method had to be thoroughly validated by the research and development laboratory and, third, the transfer of this method to the routine laboratory had to be demonstrated. The final aim was to compare the estimation of measurement uncertainty obtained during the method validation with validation standards to measurement uncertainty estimates obtained during the method transfer study with real samples. The method was validated following the accuracy profile methodology and was found to be accurate in the concentration range of 10.0-54.0 μg/ml with CVmeasurement uncertainty of the method was estimated from the validation experiments as well as from the transfer study with authentic unspiked samples of A. annua. The comparison of these measurement uncertainty estimations showed that they were coherent. It confirmed thus that the estimation of measurement uncertainty from validation experiments predicts well the measurement uncertainty

  2. Factors affecting induction of shoot cluster of Artemisia annua%青蒿丛生芽诱导影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿飒; 姬生栋; 袁金云; 卢龙斗; 叶和春; 李国凤

    2004-01-01

    目的对影响青蒿丛生芽诱导因素进行基础性研究.方法把常规的植物组织培养技术应用于调控青蒿中次生代谢产物青蒿素的生物合成代谢.结果青蒿的基因型,激素和基本培养基对丛生芽的发生有显著影响,而光强在1000~6000lx和温度在20℃~30℃对丛生芽的发生影响不大;在5种基因型的青蒿中,025丛生芽的诱导率最高;诱导丛生芽的激素组合是6-BA 2.0mg/L和NAA 0.15mg/L;另外,离子在青蒿丛生芽的诱导和青蒿素的生物合成过程中起着非常重要的作用.结论组织培养条件下,青蒿丛生芽的诱导及青蒿素的生物合成可以通过理化因子有效地进行调控.%Object To study the factors affecting the induction of shoot cluster of Artemisia annua.Methods Conventional plant tissue culture technology was applied to regulate the biosynthetic metabolism of secondary metabolism product,artemisinin of A.annua.Results Effects of genotype,hormones,basal medium on the induction of A.annua shoot cluster were notable,while that of light intensity ranging between 1000-6000 lx and temperature ranging between 20 ℃-30 ℃ were not.Among the five A.annua strains used,the induction ratio of strain 025 was the best.The optimal concentration for induction of shoot cluster was 6-BA 2.0 mg/L and NAA 0.15 mg/L.Ions were also found to be very important in the shoot cluster induction and the biosynthesis of artemisnin.Conclusion Effective regulation of induction of A.annua shoot cluster and artemisinin biosynthesis can be carried out via the regulation of physical and chemical factors.

  3. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  4. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  5. 泉州地区黄花蒿引种研究%Research of Importing Artemisia annua L.in Quanzhou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志福; 廖健林; 孔得福; 革盼盼

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究泉州地区黄花蒿生长的动态变化。方法黄花蒿种子大田播种,记录种子发芽情况、植株枯死前不同月份植株的高度及冠幅。结果泉州地区气候适宜种植黄花蒿,植株高大,青蒿素含量高。黄花蒿种子分别于11月及次年3月发芽,9月后植株几乎不再生长,高度1.6~2.8m,冠幅82×73~136×98cm。9月中旬出现花苞,11月结籽,12月中旬植株枯死。结论泉州地区黄花蒿最佳种植条件为:10月或2月底密集播种,4月中旬株间距1.5 m “W”型移种,8月中旬采收。%ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the growth rule of Artemisia annua L.which was planted in Quanzhou re-gion.METHODS Study the wild sowed Artemisia annua′s germination was studied and its growth height and crown width in different months before death were recorded.RESULTS Quanzhou region′s climate was suitable for the cultivation of Artemisia annua,because the plant was tall and strong and a high content of artemisinin.The seed ger-minated in November and March,and the biggest size would reach about 1.6~2.8m in height and 82 ×73~136 × 98cm in crown width in late August.The bud would appear in mid-September and the seed would appear in Novem-ber,then it would die in mid-December.CONCLUSION The best condition of Artemisia annua′s plantation in Quanzhou region is as follows:sow intensively in late October or February,keep the space of“W” type′s transplant of 1.5m in mid-April,and harvest in mid-August.

  6. 黄花蒿内生真菌的抑菌活性筛选%Antibacterial activities screening of endophytic fungi isolated from Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宝阳; 黄红英; 李顺祥; 饶力群; 高国赋

    2008-01-01

    以金黄色葡萄球菌,枯草芽孢杆菌,大肠杆菌为测试菌种,对黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.)茎中分离出的13株内生真菌的次生代谢产物进行抗菌活性筛选.结果表明,12株的代谢产物至少对1种实验细菌具有抑菌活性,其中有2株内生真菌的次生代谢产物对测试病原细菌均有较强抑制作用.

  7. Bio-raffinage de plantes aromatiques et médicinales appliqué à l'Hibiscus sabdariffa L. et à l'Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Endrias, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    L'objectif de l'étude était d'évaluer les potentialités aromatiques et médicinales de deux plantes (Hibiscus sabdariffa et Artemisia annua). Les performances et rendement de plusieurs méthodes d'extraction et de solvants sur des calices et des graines d'hibiscus, issus de trois pays (Vietnam, Sénégal et Mexique) ont été comparés. Les profils en composés volatifs diffèrent selon les extraits. La teneur en acide gras, stérols et tocophérols des huiles des graines d'hibiscus est comparable à cel...

  8. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  9. Progress of the Study about Essential Oil of the Artemisia annua L%青蒿精油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康振国

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the worldwide research progress of Essential Oil of the Artemisia annua L both on phytochemi-cal and pharmacology work in the past fifteen years. The main constitutes of this Essential Oil are proved to be tepenoids. Pharmaco-logical investigations revealed that the oil possess significant bioactivities on antitumor, antibacterial, antivirus, antioxidant activities, insecticidal activity, poison activity to mosquito and a strong depressant activity on the CNS. This review afforded the comprehensive description of the active components as to provide useful references to elucidate their historical clinical application on anticonvulsant drugs, heat-clearing and detoxifying, anti-inflammation and heat-stroke-lifting. At the same time, this paper also provided references for the further studied about Artemisia annua L oil.%本文对近十五年来国内外关于蒿属药用植物青蒿中精油的研究现状进行了综述。青蒿精油的主要成分是萜类化合物;药理试验表明其具有抗癌,抗菌,抗病毒,抗氧化,杀虫,驱蚊和对中枢神经系统的镇静作用等多种生物活性。本文有助于阐明青蒿精油作为抗惊厥,清热,解毒,抗炎,消暑等临床应用的物质基础,对青蒿精油的深度研发也具有一定的参考价值。

  10. Strong larvicidal potential of Artemisia annua leaf extract against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti L.) vectors and bioassay-driven isolation of the marker compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kapoor, Himanshi; Chopra, Madhu; Kumar, Kaushal; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and dengue are the two most important vector-borne human diseases caused by mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Of the various strategies adopted for eliminating these diseases, controlling of vectors through herbs has been reckoned as one of the important measures for preventing their resurgence. Artemisia annua leaf chloroform extract when tried against larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti has shown a strong larvicidal activity against both of these vectors, their respective LC50 and LC90 values being 0.84 and 4.91 ppm for A. stephensi and 0.67 and 5.84 ppm for A. aegypti. The crude extract when separated through column chromatography using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate gradient (0-100%) yielded 76 fractions which were pooled into three different active fractions A, B and C on the basis of same or nearly similar R f values. The aforesaid pooled fractions when assayed against the larvae of A. stephensi too reported a strong larvicidal activity. The respective marker compound purified from the individual fractions A, B and C, were Artemisinin, Arteannuin B and Artemisinic acid, as confirmed and characterized through FT-IR and NMR. This is our first report of strong mortality of A. annua leaf chloroform extract against vectors of two deadly diseases. This technology can be scaled up for commercial exploitation. PMID:24158647

  11. Effect of Artemisia annua L. essential oil on toxicity, enzyme activities, and energy reserves of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojarab-Mahboubkar Malahat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Artemisia annua L., a weed collected from northern Iran, was studied for its toxicity and physiological aspects on 4th instar larva of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hübner in controlled conditions (26±1°C, 65±10% RH and 16 L : : 8 D h. The artificial diet was used as a medium for investigating the toxicity and the effect of LC10, LC30, LC50, and LC90 on the feeding efficiency of 4th instar larva. The essential oil in doses of LC10, LC30, LC50, and LC90 were estimated to be 2.01%, 3.86%, 6.07%, and 18.34%, respectively. The activity of α-amylase, protease, lipase, general esterases, and glutathione S-transferase and protein, triglyceride, glucose for treated larva were measured. The results showed that all of these parameters were decreased compared with the control. Hence, A. annua essential oil is suggested as a botanical for controlling this important pest of field crops.

  12. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway. PMID:26040426

  13. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  14. Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma 95-D cells by a new sesquiterpene from hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, D-D; Supaibulwatana, K; Zhong, J-J

    2010-09-01

    Artemisia annua is a rich source of many bioactive substances, and in our recent work, a new sesquiterpene, (Z)-7-acetoxy-methyl-11-methyl-3-methylene-dodeca-1,6,10-triene (AMDT), was isolated and identified from hairy roots culture of A. annua, and its bioactivity was characterized in this work. AMDT showed moderate cytotoxic activities against the human tumor cell lines of HO8910 (ovary), 95-D (lung), QGY (liver) and HeLa (cervix) by MTT assay, whose IC(50) values were ranged within 52.44-73.3 microM. As lung cancer is the No. 1 killer of global cancer patients, our interest is to investigate the ability of AMDT in inducing apoptosis of 95-D tumor cells. The 95-D cell growth was inhibited by AMDT, and the flow cytometry analysis showed its cell cycle was arrested in the G1 phase. The apoptotic rate of the cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. AMDT lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the expression of caspase-9 and -3. These results revealed that AMDT could efficiently induce 95-D cell apoptosis through mitochondrial dependent pathway, and it may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:20362422

  15. Cloning, E. coli Expression and Molecular Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase from a High-Yield Strain of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Qiu Li; Yan Liu; Ben-Ye Liu; Hong Wang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demand of artemisinin in the treatment of malaria has placed substantial stress on the total artemisinin supplies world-wide, so more attention has been paid to increasing the content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua L. plant. In this study, amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) cDNA (ads1) and genomics gene (gads1) were cloned from a high-yield A. annua strain 001. The activity of ADS1 was confirmed by heterogeneous overexpression of ads1 and in vitro enzymatic incubation. Reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that ads1 expressed in leaves, flowers and young stems, but not in roots. This organ-specific expression pattern of ads1 is consistent with that of artemisinin accumulation in the plant. The gads1 has a complex organization including seven exons and six introns, and belongs to class Ⅲ terpene synthase. DNA gel blotting revealed that the ADS gene has at least four copies in the genome of strain 001. The higher copy numbers might be one of the reasons for its high artemisinin content.

  16. The Jasmonate-Responsive AP2/ERF Transcription Factors AaERF1 and AaERF2 Positively Regulate Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Xia YU; Jian-Xu Li; Chang-Qing Yang; Wen-Li Hu; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Artemisia annua produce artemisinin,a sesquiterpene lactone widely used in malaria treatment.Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS),a sesquiterpene synthase,and CYP71AV1,a P450 monooxygenase,are two key enzymes of the artemisinin biosynthesis pathway.Accumulation of artemisinin can be induced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA).Here,we report the characterization of two JA-responsive AP2 family transcription factors-AaERF1 and AaERF2-from A.annua L.Both genes were highly expressed in inflorescences and strongly induced by JA.Yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that they were able to bind to the CRTDREHVCBF2 (CBF2) and RAV1AAT (RAA) motifs present in both ADS and CYP71AV1 promoters.Transient expression of either AaERF1 or AaERF2 in tobacco induced the promoter activities of ADS or CYP71AV1,and the transgenic A.annua plants overexpressing either transcription factor showed elevated transcript levels of both ADS and CYP71AV1,resulting in increased accumulation of artemisinin and artemisinic acid.By contrast,the contents of these two metabolites were reduced in the RNAi transgenic lines in which expression of AaERF1 or AaERF2 was suppressed.These results demonstrate that AaERF1 and AaERF2 are two positive regulators of artemisinin biosynthesis and are of great value in genetic engineering of artemisinin production.

  17. Research on the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth condition of artemisia annua l%菌根真菌对青蒿生长状况影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦艺; 赵君; 韩颂; 赵敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:青蒿又名黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L),是一年生菊科草本植物。从中提取的有效成分青蒿素,对抗氯喹的恶性疟及脑内虐有特效,其作用机理与传统的奎宁类抗疟药物不同。菌根是自然界中一种普遍存在的植物共生现象。它是土壤中的菌根真菌与高等植物营养根系形成的一种互惠共生体。作为自然界中的一种普遍现象,菌根真菌的存在对青蒿的生长状况必然有一定的影响。%Objective:Artemisia annua L is a kind of herbaceous compositae which grows in one year. Artemisinin ,the effective constituent extract from the Artemisia annua L , have an special effect to fight against the chloroquine of malignant malaria and the malaria in the cerebrum .Its mechanism of action is different from the traditional of the quinine medicine.Mycorrhiza is a kind of widespread phenomenon of plants mutualism.It is a kind of To be a widespread phenomenon in the nature, The existence of mycorrhizal fungi have a significant effection on the grown condition of the Artemisia annua L.

  18. Investigation of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Artemisia annua L.in Guizhou%贵州青蒿精油成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占南; 余正文; 罗世琼; 彭全材

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze chemical constituents of the essential oil from three Artemisia annua L.grown in Jinsha county,Guizhou province,China.Methods GC-MS analytical method was adopted.Results 29 compounds were identified,in which Monoterpenes [monoterpene (52.45%~75.32%) and Sesquiterpene (24.68%~47.55%)] were predominant,Camphor,Lborneol,Copaene,Caryophyllene,beta.-Bisabelene,Germacrene D,Germacrene B,(-)-Neoclovene-(Ⅱ),Isoaromadendrene epoxide and Lanceol,cis.Conclusion The chemical composition of the essential oil from three Artemisia annua L.is consistent,although the content of each compound is different,these informations can help to study the relationship of biosynthesis path of terpenes and Artemisinin in the future.%利用GC-MS分析方法,对生长在贵州金沙县3个产地的青蒿叶中青蒿精油化学成分进行分析,共鉴定了29个化合物,其中,萜类化合物[单萜(52.45%~75.32%)和倍半萜(24.68%~47.55%)]是青蒿精油的主要成分,它们分别是樟脑,L-龙脑,古杷烯,β-石竹烯,红没药烯,大根香叶烯D,大根香叶烯B,(-)-新丁子香烯-(Ⅱ),异香树烯过氧化物和顺式-澳白檩醇等.3个青蒿精油样品的化学成分相一致,但是各个化学成分的含量有不同,这些信息有助于进一步研究青蒿中青蒿素与其他萜类物质之间生物合成途径的相关性.

  19. 新疆一枝蒿与黄花蒿粗提物抗棉铃虫与棉蚜的特性研究%The Study on Resistance of Artemisia rupestris and Artemisia annua to Cotton Bollworm ( Helicoverpa armigera ) and Cotton Aphid ( Aphis gossypii )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海; 黄丽; 张学涛; 张雷; 李芬; 刘小宁

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] This research can be a foundation for the development of new pollution - free botanical insecticides. [Method] Two types of coarse solutions from Artemisia rupestris and Artemisia annua were extracted with 97% ethanol, and toxicities of the two extracts to cotton bollworm and cotton aphid were determined, and expellent effect of Artemisia rupestris to laying eggs of cotton bollworms in both the laboratory and the field were also studied. [Result] The results showed: (1) The LC50 of extracts from Artemisia rupestris and Artemisia annua to cotton bollworm are 0 .956 and 2.047 4 g/1OOmL; (2) The LC50 of extracts from Artemisia rupestris and Artemisia annua to cotton aphid are 0.956 and 2.047 4 g/1OOmL; (3) The repellency of extracts of Artemisia rupestris on laying eggs of cotton bollworm in the laboratory and in the field are 28.39% and 80. 68% . [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that the extracting coarse solutions from Artemisia rupestris are better than that from Artemisia annua as to the killing effect on cotton bollworm and cotton aphid, and it had an expellent effect on laying eggs of cotton bollworms in both the laboratory and the field .%[目的]为利用新疆一枝蒿研制新型无公害植物杀虫药剂奠定基础.[方法]采用97%乙醇对新疆一枝蒿(Artemisia rupestris)和黄花蒿(Artemisia annua)进行了总提,将所得粗提物对棉花重要害虫-棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera)与棉蚜(Aphis gossypii)进行了生物活性测定,同时还使用新疆一枝蒿粗提物对棉铃虫开展了室内、室外的驱避实验.[结果](1)新疆一枝蒿与黄花蒿粗提物对棉铃虫半致死浓度LC50分别为3.515 7与4.781 1 mL/100g;(2)新疆一枝蒿与黄花蒿粗提物对棉蚜半致死浓度LC50分别为0.956与2.047 4g/100mL;(3)新疆一枝蒿粗提物对棉铃虫室内室外趋避率分别为28.39%与80.68%.[结论]新疆一枝蒿粗提物对棉铃虫与棉蚜的毒杀作用较好并高于黄花蒿粗提物,且新

  20. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Na Rae; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure. PMID:27152297

  1. Inducing Effect of Dihydroartemisinic Acid in the Biosynthesis of Artemisinins with Cultured Cells of Artemisia annua by Enhancing the Expression of Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin has been used in the production of “artemisinin combination therapies” for the treatment of malaria. Feeding of precursors has been proven to be one of the most effective methods to enhance artemisinin production in plant cultured cells. At the current paper, the biosynthesis of artemisinin (ART and its four analogs from dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA in suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua were investigated. ARTs were detected by HPLC/GC-MS and isolated by various chromatography methods. The structures of four DHAA metabolites, namely, dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B, arteannuin I, arteannuin K, and 3-β-hydroxy-dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B, were elucidated by physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. The correlation between gene expression and ART content was investigated. The results of RT-PCR showed that DHAA could up-regulate expression of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene (ADS, amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase gene (CYP71AV1, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene (FPS (3.19-, 7.21-, and 2.04-fold higher than those of control group, resp., which indicated that biosynthesis processes from DHAA to ART were enzyme-mediated.

  2. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Netsanet; Mossie, Andualem; Stich, August; Daugschies, Arwid; Trettner, Susanne; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behaviour of T. brucei by cell counting and light microscopy. CEF was the most efficient growth inhibitor in comparison to AMR and RMA. Nevertheless, in LNCaP and THP-1 cells, all extracts significantly inhibited tumor growth at 3 μg/mL. All extracts inhibited proliferation of T. brucei cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Microscopic analysis revealed that 95% of the T. brucei cells died when exposed to 33 μg/mL CEF for 3 hrs. Similar results were obtained using 33 μg/mL AMR for 6 hrs. In case of RMA, however, higher concentrations were necessary to obtain similar effects on T. brucei. This demonstrates the antitumor efficacy of these extracts as well as their ability to dampen viability and proliferation of T. brucei, suggesting a common mechanism of action on highly proliferative cells, most probably by targeting cell metabolism. PMID:25937964

  3. Artemisinin production and precursor ratio in full grown Artemisia annua L. plants subjected to external stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro;

    2013-01-01

    was examined on the concentrations of AN and its immediate precursors in leaves, and these concentrations were related to densities and sizes of the glandular trichomes (GT). Plants were stress treated weekly five times by sandblasting or spraying with salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide, H2O2, and Na...

  4. Extraction of Artemisinin, an Active Antimalarial Phytopharmaceutical from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L., Using Microwaves and a Validated HPTLC-Visible Method for Its Quantitative Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, precise, and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method coupled with visible densitometric detection of artemisinin is developed and validated. Samples of the dried Artemisia annua leaves were extracted via microwaves using different solvents. This method shows the advantage of shorter extraction time of artemisinin from leaves under the influence of electromagnetic radiations. Results obtained from microwave-assisted extraction (MAE were compared with hot soxhlet extraction. Chromatographic separation of artemisinin from plant extract was performed over silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate as mobile phase in the ratio of 75 : 25, v/v. The plate was developed at room temperature 25 ± 2.0°C. Artemisinin separation over thin-layer plate was visualized after postchromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent. HPTLC plate was scanned in a CAMAG’s TLC scanner 3 at 540 nm. Artemisinin responses were found to be linear over a range of 400–2800 ng spot−1 with a correlation coefficient 0.99754. Limits of detection and quantification were 40 and 80 ng spot−1, respectively. The HPTLC method was validated in terms of system suitability, precision, accuracy, sensitivity (LOD and LOQ, and robustness. Additionally, calculation of plate efficiency and flow constant were included as components of validation. Extracts prepared from different parts of the plant (leaves, branches, main stem, and roots were analyzed for artemisinin content, in which, artemisinin content was found higher in the leaf extract with respect to branches and main stem extracts; however, no artemisinin was detected in root extract. The developed HPTLC-visible method of artemisinin determination will be very useful for pharmaceutical industries, which are involved in monitoring of artemisinin content during different growth stages (in vitro and in vivo of A. annua for qualitative

  5. Overexpression of a Novel NAC Domain-Containing Transcription Factor Gene (AaNAC1) Enhances the Content of Artemisinin and Increases Tolerance to Drought and Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zongyou; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Chen, Lingxian; Hao, Xiaolong; Pan, Qifang; Fu, Xueqing; Li, Ling; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-09-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) superfamily is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor families. NAC transcription factors always play important roles in response to various abiotic stresses. A NAC transcription factor gene AaNAC1 containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 864 bp was cloned from Artemisia annua. The expression of AaNAC1 could be induced by dehydration, cold, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), suggesting that it might be a key regulator of stress signaling pathways in A. annua. AaNAC1 was shown to be localized to the nuclei by transforming tobacco leaf epidermal cells. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in A. annua, the content of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid was increased by 79% and 150%, respectively. The expression levels of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes, i.e. amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase (DBR2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), were increased. Dual luciferase (dual-LUC) assays showed that AaNAC1 could activate the transcription of ADS in vivo. The transgenic A. annua exhibited increased tolerance to drought and resistance to Botrytis cinerea. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis were markedly more tolerant to drought. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed increased resistance to B. cinerea. These results indicate that AaNAC1 can potentially be used in transgenic breeding for improving the content of artemisinin and drought tolerance in A. annua. PMID:27388340

  6. 青蒿种子萌发过程中生理生化变化的研究%Study on the Change of Physiology and Biochemistry During Process of Artemisia annua Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 李隆云; 孙年喜

    2011-01-01

    Studied the dynamic changes of physiological index of Artemisia annua seed during germination. The result showed that in the seed budding of Artemisia annua,the content of soluble sugar increased rapidly at the beginning, forty hours later, it decreased step by step. The content of starch fell down at first, then rose, interrelated with the change of soluble sugar. The content of MDA rose at first, then fell down. The content of soluble protein, dissociated amino acid, SOD, POD and CAT all increased.%以青蒿种子为材料,研究了青蒿种子萌发过程中营养物质的动态变化.结果表明:种子萌发期间,可溶性糖含量从第24小时开始迅速升高,第72小时达到最高值,此后缓慢降低;淀粉含量先降低后升高,与可溶性糖含量变化相对应;可溶性蛋白质、游离氨基酸总量呈上升趋势;MDA含量开始小幅上升后逐渐降低;SOD、POD、CAT均呈上升趋势.

  7. The Effects of Culture Medium Component on Artemisinin Synthesizing in Cluster Shoots of Artemisia annua L.%培养基成分对黄花蒿丛生芽合成青蒿素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春朝; 尚富德

    2011-01-01

    The effects of culture medium component on artemisinin synthesizing in cluster shoots of Artemisia annua L. were investigated. The treatments were designed based on MS medium and the suitable cultivating conditions were confirmed. The results was follows: the suitable condition for artemisinin synthesizing in cluster shoots of Artemisia annua L. was 30g/L sucrose,NH4+ - N:NO3- -N= 1: 3,45 mmol/L nitrogen source,and 200mg/L inorganic phosphate.%以MS为基本培养基,研究了MS培养基中大量元素浓度对黄花蒿丛生芽合成青蒿素的影响,确定了最适的培养条件.结果表明,青蒿素丛生芽合成青蒿素的最适条件为:蔗糖质量浓度为30g/L,铵盐和硝酸盐比值为1:3,氮源浓度为45mmol/L,无机磷酸盐质量浓度为200mg/L.

  8. 一个新高产青蒿倍半萜合酶基因的克隆、表达和分析%Cloning, E. coli Expression and Molecular Analysis of a Novel Sesquiterpene Synthase Gene from Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 叶和春; 李国凤

    2002-01-01

    A 1 886 bp full-length sesquiterpene synthase (AaSES) cDNA was cloned from a high-yield Artemisia annua L. strain 001 by a rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) strategy. AaSES is 59% identical to Artemisia cyclase cDNA clone cASC125, 50% identical to epi-cedrol synthase from A. annua, 48% identical to amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase from A. annua, 39% identical to the 5-epi-aristolechene synthase from tabacco, 38% identical to vetispiradiene synthase from H. muticus, 41% identical to the δ-cadinene synthase from cotton. The coding region of the cDNA was inserted into a procaryotic expression vector pET-30a and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The cyclase proteins extracted from bacterial culture were found largely in an insoluble protein fraction. AaSES expresses in leaves, stems and flowers, not in roots as indicated by Northern blotting analysis.%用RACE方法从青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)高产株系001中克隆了一个新的1 886 bp的全长倍半萜合酶cDNA.克隆的倍半萜合酶氨基酸序列与烟草马兜铃烯合酶、莨菪岩兰螺旋二烯合酶、棉花杜松烯合酶的一致性分别为39%、38%和41%;与青蒿柏木脑合酶、紫穗槐二烯合酶和一个推测的倍半萜合酶克隆cASC125的一致性为50%、48%和59%.cDNA编码区序列被克隆进原核表达载体pET-30a,并在大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)BL21(DE3)中诱导表达,但过量表达的蛋白主要是以不溶性蛋白形式存在.Northern blotting分析表明此基因在茎、叶和花中表达,在根中没有表达.

  9. 海拔与保存时间对重庆产青蒿中青蒿素质量分数的影响%Effect of Elevation and Preservation on Artemisinin of Chongqing Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢光武; 范媛; 黎晓敏

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different elevations and preservation on contents of Chongqing Artemisia annua L by HPLC has been studied. We can provide the references to the planting location and quality research of Chongqing authentic Artemisia annua L. The result shows that the 12 samples from Chongqing Artemisia annua L average contents Artemisinin is 0. 4348% and all the samples Artemisinin between 0. 254 3%-0. 562 0%. The different elevations have a significant effect on determination of Artemisinin in the extacts of Chongqing Artemisia annua L (p<0. 05), and the best elevation is 900m. The different holding period have a significant influence (P<0. 05), the longer holding period, the lower contents. The conclusion is that the optimal planting location of Chongqing Artemisia annua L is ascertained at altitude 900 meters; and used as medicine immediately.%该文采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定不同海拔与不同保存时间下重庆产青蒿中青蒿素的质量分数,通过生物学统计法分析其质量分数与药材保存时间或种植海拔之间可能存在的相关性,从而探讨其有关的质量变化规律,为选取重庆产青蒿最佳的种植海拔和保存时间提供科学依据.结果显示,采集的12个重庆产青蒿样品中青蒿素平均质量分数为0.434 8%,质量分数范围在0.254 3%~0.562 0%之间;其中不同海拔下的青蒿中青蒿素质量分数差异显著(p<0.05),以种植在海拔900 m左右青蒿的青蒿素质量分数最高,为0.444 3%;不同保存时间下青蒿中青蒿素质量分数差异显著(p<0.05),以采收后立即入药的青蒿中青蒿素质量分数最高,同时随其保存时间的延长青蒿素质量分数呈下降趋势.重庆产青蒿最适种植高度在海拔900 m左右;采收后不宜长时间保存,应当及时入药.

  10. Determination of Metal Elements in Artemisia annua L.by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%原子吸收光谱法测定青蒿中金属元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云龙; 胡久梅; 杨书俊; 次仁吉拉; 江南屏

    2013-01-01

    The samples were digested with the HNO3-HClO4 system and then the flame atomic absorption spectrometry was adopted to determine the contents of 5 mental elements (Fe,Mg,Mn,Cu,Zn) in Artemisia annua L.with 5 different resources.The result showed the content of 5 mental elements in A.annua L.from high to low were Mg,Fe,Mn,Zn and Cu.The additional standard recoveries of sample was 98.00%~104.00% with RSD (n=3) of 0.51%~2.86%.The established method was fast,simple,sensitive,precise and accuract.%使用HNO3-HClO4体系消解样品,采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定5种不同来源青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)中的Mg、Fe、Mn、Cu和Zn含量.结果表明,青蒿中5种金属元素的含量大小依次为Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu,该法加标回收率在98.00%~104.00%,相对标准偏差(n=3)为0.51%~2.86%.该法快速、简便、灵敏、准确,可用于青蒿中金属元素的分析.

  11. Affordable and rapid HPTLC method for the simultaneous analysis of artemisinin and its metabolite artemisinic acid in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shazia; Ali, Athar; Ahmad, Shahzad; Abdin, Malik Zainul

    2015-10-01

    Artemisinin (AN) and artemisinic acid (AA), valuable phyto-pharmaceutical molecules, are well known anti-malarials, but their activities against diseases like cancer, schistosomiasis, HIV, hepatitis-B and leishmaniasis are also being reported. For the simultaneous estimation of AN and AA in the callus and leaf extracts of A. annua L. plants, we embarked upon a simple, rapid, selective, reliable and fairly economical high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. Experimental conditions such as band size, chamber saturation time, migration of solvent front and slit width were critically studied and the optimum conditions were selected. The separations were achieved using toluene-ethyl acetate, 9:1 (v/v) as mobile phase on pre-coated silica gel plates, G 60F254 . Good resolution was achieved with Rf values of 0.35 ± 0.02 and 0.26 ± 0.02 at 536 nm for AN and 626 nm for AA, respectively, in absorption-reflectance mode. The method displayed a linear relationship with r(2) value 0.992 and 0.994 for AN and AA, respectively, in the concentration range of 300-1500 ng for AN and 200-1000 ng for AA. The method was validated for specificity by obtaining in-situ UV overlay spectra and sensitivity by estimating limit of detection (30 ng for AN and 15 ng for AA) and limit of quantitation (80 ng for AN and 45 ng for AA) values. The accuracy was checked by the recovery studies conducted at three different levels with the known concentrations and the average percentage recovery was 101.99% for AN and 103.84% for AA. The precision was analyzed by interday and intraday precision and was 1.09 and 1.00% RSD for AN and 1.22 and 6.05% RSD for AA. The analysis of statistical data substantiates that this HPTLC method can be used for the simultaneous estimation of AN and AA in biological samples. PMID:25829259

  12. Biotechnology approaches for production of antiulcerogenic dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B isolated from Artemisia annua L. Ferramentas biotecnológicas para a produção de dihidro-epideoxiarteanuina B, um antiulcerogênico isolado de Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Marques

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies were developed for the establishment and cultivation of Artemisia annua L (CPQBA 2/39 x PL5 hybrid roots submitted to light conditions and genetic transformation performed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes (15834 and 8196 strains. The transgenic and non-transgenic (normal roots were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (1962 medium, kept under different photoperiodic conditions and analyzed for evaluation of the antiulcerogenic dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B (compound A contents. The Dot Blot technique was used to confirm the transgenic nature of the roots. The plants¢s crude extracts were analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrum (CG/MS. The chromatograms of the extracts taken from normal roots revealed the presence of dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B and other compound (compound B. Photoperiods during cultivation influenced the production of these two compounds: under continuous darkness dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B was intensely produced and the compound B present in small amounts, while on 16 h photoperiod, the inverse occurred. The quantification of dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B by Gas Chromatography coupled to Flame Detector Ionization (CG/FID revealed an approximately fivefold increase in the production of this compound by normal roots kept under continuous darkness compared to roots kept under 16 h light period. The terpene dihydro-epideoxiarteannuin B was not present in transgenic hairy roots.Foram desenvolvidas metodologias para o estabelecimento e cultivo de raízes de Artemisia annua L. (híbrido CPQBA 2/39 x PL5. Estas raízes foram submetidas a diferentes condições de luz e a transformação genética com Agrobacterium rhizogenes (cepas 8196 e 15834. As raízes transgênicas e não-transgênicas (normais foram cultivadas em meios de Murashige e Skoog (1962, mantidas sobre diferentes condições de fotoperíodo e analisadas para avaliação do conteúdo do composto antiulcerogênico dehidro-epideoxiarteanuína B

  13. 青蒿粗提物对朱砂叶螨生物活性的初步研究%ACARICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. AGAINST TETRANYCHUS CINNABARINUS ( ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇杰; 丁伟; 王春升

    2006-01-01

    用青蒿Artemisia annua L.的石油醚、苯、乙醚、丙酮和水的平行提取物和顺序提取物对朱砂叶螨进行了系统的触杀活性研究.结果表明青蒿石油醚、苯、乙醚、丙酮和水提取物有一定的杀螨活性,其中10g/L丙酮顺序粗提物活性最强,对朱砂叶螨48,72 h的校正死亡率分别为90.64%和100%,对该螨的致死中浓度为0.206 6g/L.

  14. A Study on the Purification of Flavonoids from Artemisia Annua L.by Macroporous Resins and Their Antioxidant Activity%大孔吸附树脂纯化黄花蒿黄酮及其抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊利芝; 欧阳文; 李春; 张晓蓉; 何则强

    2013-01-01

    该文对大孔吸附树脂纯化黄花蒿黄酮的工艺条件进行了研究与优化,并对纯化后的黄酮进行了抗氧化活性的研究.比较了AB-8,DM-101,DA-201,D-101及SD-401对黄花蒿中黄酮类物质的吸附及解吸附性能,结果显示,D-101的综合效果最佳.通过D-101大孔吸附树脂动态吸附解吸实验,获得较佳的纯化工艺:上样液黄酮质量浓度为1.55 g/L,流速为2 mL/min,上样100 mL后,用蒸馏水洗脱至溶液无色,再用250 mL体积分数70%乙醇以1 mL/min洗脱.在该条件下,黄酮质量分数从20.10%提高到80.32%,洗脱率达91.08%,黄酮回收率为68.25%.黄花蒿黄酮对油脂有明显的抗氧化性作用;黄花蒿黄酮对植物油的抗氧化能力强于柠檬酸和抗坏血酸,对动物油脂的抗氧化能力稍弱于抗坏血酸而略强于柠檬酸.%The purification of flavonoids from Artemisia Annua L. by macroporous adsorption resins was studied and the antioxidant activity of the flavonoids was investigated. The adsorption and desorption effects of AB -8 ,DM - 101 ,DA -201 ,D - 101 ,SD -401 on flavonoids from Artemisia Annua L. were compared. The results show that the D - 101 macroporous resin has the best adsorption and desorption effect. Through the investigation into the dynamic parameters of adsorption and desorption of D - 101 macroporous resin, the optimal purification conditions were ascertained. For adsorption, the optimal conditions were;the sample mass concentration of flavonoids 1. 55 g/L,flow velocity 2 mL/min,sample volume 100 mL,then a wash-out by distilled water till the solution became colorless. For desorption,the optimal conditions were:eluant concentration 70% ethanol, eluant volume 250 mL, flow velocity of eluant 1 mL/min. Under the optimal conditions, the content of flavonoids is raised from 20. 10% to 80. 32% , the ratio of desorption reaches 91. 08% , and the yield of total flavones is 68. 25%. The flavonoids from Artemisia Annua L. exhibit obvious

  15. 湖南省常德地区青蒿中青蒿素的含量分析%Determination of artemisinin in Artemisia annua from different habitats in Changde region, Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉亮; 张磊; 张汉明

    2007-01-01

    青蒿为菊科植物黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L,)的干燥地上部分,是唯一含青蒿素的蒿属植物,具有清热解毒、抗疟疾等功效。青蒿素是从青蒿中提取出来的有效成分,对恶性疟疾、脑型疟疾有特效,是WHO推荐的治疗疟疾的首选药物。青蒿素及其衍生物还具有诱导多种细胞凋亡的作用。多年来,商用青蒿素主要依靠野生青蒿资源。青蒿的品质与环境、气候、

  16. 青蒿精油化学组成及其生态类型相关性研究%Studies on the relationship between constituents of essential oil and the ecotype of Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余正文; 王伯初; 杨占南; 隋婧; 祝连彩

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To explore the relationship between the essential oil constituents and the ecotype of Artemisia annua L. , and investigate the essential oil of wild - growing A. annua collected from Yongchuan county in Chongqing, Xiangtan city in Hunan and Zhaoyuan city in Shandong of China. Methods :The essential oil of A. annua from three habitat was extracted with steam distillation method. The chemical compositions of essential oil were analyzed by GC - MS technique. Results : Forty - four, fifty and thirty - nine compounds in oils of A. annua from three habitat were identified , they were added to 85. 58% , 82. 33% and 94. 83% of total oils, respectively. There were nineteen same compounds in oils of A. annna from three habitat. The content of artemisia ketone( 11. 32% ,0.10% , 57. 48% ) , camphor( 10. 05% , 8. 20% , 2. 43% ) , caryophyllene( 14. 83% , 6. 26% , 3. 55 % ) and germacrene D( 13. 44% , 6. 14% , 2. 07% ) had greatly difference among these compounds. Conclusion : The present work indicated that A. annua collected Zhaoyuan city in Shandong and Xiangtan city in Hunan of China belongs to omamental types and hybrid types, respectively. That A. annua from Yongchuan county in Chongqing of China shares hybrid types and artemisinin - rich types, but it is more close to the later.%目的:研究重庆永川、湖南湘潭、山东招远3个不同产地野生青蒿精油的化学组成;探讨青蒿精油化学组成及其生态类型的关系.方法:水蒸气蒸馏法提取精油,GC-MS法分析精油的化学组成.结果:从3个产地的青蒿精油中分别鉴定出44,50,39个化合物,占精油总量的85.58%,82.33%,94.83%;3个产地的青篙精油含有19化合物相同,其中蒿酮(11.32%,0.10%,57.48%)、樟脑(10.05%,8.20%,2.43%)、石竹烯(14.83%,6.26%,3.55%)和大根香叶烯-D(13.44%,6.14%,2.07%)的相对含量差别明显.结论:实验结果证实山东招远青蒿属于观赏类型,湖南湘潭青蒿属于混合类型;

  17. Multivariate data analysis and metabolic profiling of artemisinin and related compounds in high yielding varieties of Artemisia annua field-grown in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suberu, John; Gromski, Piotr S; Nordon, Alison; Lapkin, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    An improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol for rapid analysis of co-metabolites of A. annua in raw extracts was developed and extensively characterized. The new method was used to analyse metabolic profiles of 13 varieties of A. annua from an in-field growth programme in Madagascar. Several multivariate data analysis techniques consistently show the association of artemisinin with dihydroartemisinic acid. These data support the hypothesis of dihydroartemisinic acid being the late stage precursor to artemisinin in its biosynthetic pathway. PMID:26476297

  18. 黄花蒿提取物生产工艺条件及其对乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)生成的调控作用%Processing Condition of Artemisia annua L. Extracts and Its Regulative Effect on Production of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA)in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 姚一萍

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. contains many kinds of nutritional and biologically active components, including terpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, aromatics, fatty acids, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, etc. Supplementation of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. in ruminant diet is able to increase the CLA content in their milk. Here, we reviewed the nutritional and biologically active components, extraction conditions, detection methods and proper supplementation level in animal diet of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L, so as to provide references for the large scale production of CLA-enriched milk.%黄花蒿乙醇提取物含有多种营养活性物质,主要包括萜类、倍半萜类、芳香族类、脂肪酸类、甾体类、黄酮类、生物碱类等化合物。反刍动物日粮中添加黄花蒿乙醇提取物能够增加其乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)含量。综述了黄花蒿乙醇提取物的主要营养活性物质、提取工艺条件、营养活性物质的检测方法及黄花蒿提取物在动物日粮中的适宜添加量,旨在为生产CLA乳提供参考。

  19. Study on the dynamics trends of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids from Artemisia annua L.in different harvesting time%不同采收期青蒿黄酮和酚酸含量的动态变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 秦绪文; 李晋; 萧伟; 王振中; 成志东; 常艳旭

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the dynamics trends of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids from Artemisia annua L. in different harvesting time and decide the best harvesting times. Methods The optimum extraction condition of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids was investigated by orthogonal design, and the dynamics content changes of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids from Artemisia annua L. were determined. Results The contents of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids from Artemisia annua L. changed regularly in different harvesting time. The contents of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids at vegetative period was higher than that in initial flowering stage. That in initial flowering stage was higher than that in fruits developing stage. In fruits developing stage was higher than in the full-bloom stage. Conclusion If total flavonoids and total phenolic acids were sleeted as active constituents, the vegetative period may be the best harvesting times for Artemisia annua L.. The research provides a scientific foundation for the right collecting-time and the quality evaluation of herbal Artemisia annua L.%目的 研究不同采收期青蒿中黄酮和酚酸类含量的动态变化规律,确定青蒿最佳采收期.方法 通过正交试验设计,确定青蒿黄酮和酚酸类化合物的最佳提取条件,采用UV法,测定不同采收期青蒿中黄酮和酚酸类动态含量变化.结果 不同采收期青蒿黄酮和酚酸类含量呈现规律性变化,即营养期>初花期>结实期>盛花期.结论 如以黄酮和酚酸类化合物作为青蒿药材质量的指标性成分,则青蒿药材最佳采收期应为营养期,该结果 为青蒿药材采收期的确定和质量评价提供一定的科学依据.

  20. 不同氮素水平下入侵种豚草与本地种黄花蒿、蒙古蒿的竞争关系%Effects of different nitrogen regimes on competition between Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive species, and two native species, Artemisia annua and Artemisia mongolica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋萍; 董丽佳; 桑卫国

    2012-01-01

    已有研究表明,土壤氮素增加可提高外来植物的入侵性,降低本地植物的竞争力.为揭示全球氮沉降对入侵种与本地种之间竞争关系的影响,我们于2010年5-8月在中国科学院北京森林生态系统定位研究站温室内,采用取代系列实验方法(standard replacement experiment),研究了3个氮素水平下入侵种豚草(Ambrosia artemisiifolia)与本地种黄花蒿(Artemisia annua)、蒙古蒿(Artemisia mongolica)的生长特征及种内、种间竞争关系的变化.实验采用双因素-随机区组设计,设置了低氮、中氮和高氮3个氮素水平,每一氮素水平分别设置豚草和黄花蒿、豚草和蒙古蒿组成的竞争实验,生长90 d后测量株高和生物量.结果表明:单栽情况下,随氮素水平的增加3个物种的株高均增加,而生物量均无显著变化;混栽情况下,3个物种株高和生物量随氮素水平的增加变化各异,豚草呈极显著增加趋势,而黄花蒿无明显变化,蒙古蒿则先增加后减少.豚草的快速生长使其在竞争中处于优势地位,对本地种黄花蒿和蒙古蒿产生明显的竞争效应.但不同氮素水平下,豚草对本地种的竞争力不同:低氮素水平下,豚草<两个本地种;中氮素水平下,黄花蒿<豚草<蒙古蒿;高氮素水平下,豚草>两个本地种.氮素添加显著提高了豚草的种间竞争力,改变了豚草与本地种之间的竞争关系,使竞争有利于入侵种.据此推测,在全球变化的背景下,氮沉降的增加将会促进外来种豚草的入侵,增加本地群落的可入侵性.%Evidence suggests that increased nitrogen levels heighten exotic species' invasiveness and reduce the competitive potential of native species. To reveal the impact of nitrogen deposition on competition between invasive and native species, we compared the growth of Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive species, and two native species, Artemisia annua and Artemisia mongolica under three

  1. Dissimilaridade genética em variedades de Artemisia annua L. embasada em caracteres agronômicos, fisiológicos e fitoquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Bolina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou estimar a variabilidade genética existente entre caracteres agronômicos, fisiológicos e fitoquímicos em variedades de A. annua. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado e os tratamentos foram as variedades Artemis, 2/39x5x3M, e 2/39x1V de A. annua, submetidas a avaliações agronômicas, fisiológicas e fitoquímicas. Para a realização das estimativas de distância genética foram geradas matrizes de dissimilaridade utilizando a distância Euclidiana e os métodos de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA. Além disso, avaliou-se a importância relativa dos caracteres para divergência genética pelo método de Singh. As análises foram realizadas pelo software Genes e os dendrogramas obtidos pelo NTSYS. A presença de variabilidade genética dentro das variedades permitiu a identificação de acessos dissimilares e com média elevada para as características estudadas. O número de ramificações, concentração intracelular de CO2, e o rendimento de óleo essencial foram os caracteres que mais contribuíram para a dissimilaridade genética de A. annua. Os acessos B24, C5 e C32 foram os mais promissores dentro das variedades e devem ser conservados para futuras hibridações, sendo que as hibridações mais promissoras na obtenção de populações segregantes desejadas são B24 x C5, B24 x C32 e C5 x C32.

  2. 青蒿种子带菌检测及药剂消毒处理%Testing of Seed Borne Fungi of Artemisia annua L. And Disinfection Effect of 3 Fungicides to Seed Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 伍晓丽; 李隆云

    2008-01-01

    采用平皿法对Q9等18个青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)种子样品进行了带菌检测,并研究了3种杀菌剂对青蒿带菌种子样品的消毒处理效果.结果表明,青蒿种子外部和内部携带的主要真菌类群为青霉属(Penicillium)、曲霉属(Aspergillus)和根霉属(Rhizopus)真菌,其中又以青霉属真菌占优势.在种子外部携带的真菌中,青霉属真菌的携带量在70%以上;在种子内部携带的真菌中,青霉属真菌的携带量在50%以上.白方甲托对各青蒿种子样品所携带的真菌均具有较好的消毒效果.

  3. Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in 95-D lung cancer cells by drimartol A from hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Dan-Dan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Drimartol A (DA), a sesquiterpene courmarin ether, was isolated from the cultured hairy roots of A. annua for the first time, and no biological activity of DA has ever been reported. In this work, DA was shown to possess interesting cytotoxic activities against the human tumor cell lines of HO8910 (ovary), 95-D (lung), QGY (liver) and HeLa (cervix) by MTT assay, whose IC50 values were ranged within 17.94-22.3 μM for 24h. Given that treatment of lung cancer is a priority of our interest, induc...

  4. Construction,E.coli expression and function identification of bifunctional enzymes fused by FPS and ADS from Artemisia annua L.%黄花蒿法呢基焦磷酸合酶、紫穗槐二烯合酶双功能酶基因的构建、原核表达与功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振秋; 王波; 高瑞平

    2012-01-01

    试验将青蒿素生物合成途径中催化两步连续反应的酶(法呢基焦磷酸合酶和紫穗槐二烯合酶)的基因进行融合,经大肠杆菌表达后鉴定其融合蛋白的功能.结果表明:融合蛋白具有了双功能酶活性.双功能酶基因的构建,为进一步将双功能酶基因转入黄花蒿,提高青蒿素含量奠定了基础.%As the increasing demand of artemisinin has placed tremendous stress on artemisinin supplies worldwide in the treatment of malaria, more and more attention has been paid to increasing the content of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L.. Fusion of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase genes, which catalyze two sequential reactions in biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin, was constructed and expressed in E. coli. Function analysis showed that the fused protein could catalyze the formation of amorpha-4,11-diene from GPP. The construction of bifunctional enzyme gene lays a foundation for further gene transformation into Artemisia annua L. to increase the content of artemisinin in the plant.

  5. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil Extracted by Hydro-Distillation from Artemisia annua Grown in West-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chougouo Kengne Rosine Désirée

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential of the Essential Oil (EO extracted by hydro-distillation from the variety of A. annua grown in West Cameroon. This evaluation was conducted by testing the microbial growth inhibition through agar diffusion, minimal inhibitory and minimal lethal concentrations. Tested microorganisms included bacteria isolates belonging to the following categories: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae. This activity was also tested on a dimorphic fungal species, Candida albicans. Data analysis revealed that the EO possessed an intrinsic antimicrobial activity that was potentiated by the solvent (DMSO. Inhibition zone diameters varied from 6 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri to 45 mm (Vibrio cholerae. It was also observed that Vibrio cholerae was susceptible to the lowest concentration of the essential oil used (0.3 mg/mL, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to tolerate the highest (80 mg/mL. Also, the minimal inhibitory and lethal concentrations were equal (MLC/MIC = 1, implying the absolute lethal property of the oil. This lethal potential on fungi, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria makes of this plant an appropriate candidate for new conventional antimicrobial drug production and infectious disease prevention. Well exploited, it might be used to control the current epidemics of Vibrio cholerae-associated cholera in Cameroon. Additional studies should also be conducted to lay down reliable basis for comprehensive test interpretations that take into account correlations between these in vitro test results and the ones that would be obtained with conventional antimicrobials.

  6. 黄花蒿SRAP-PCR反应体系的建立与优化%Establishment and optimization of SRAP-PCR in Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓婧; 陈新; 宣朴

    2007-01-01

    目的 用序列相关扩增多态性(SRAP)这一新的分子标记技术建立稳定可重复的黄花蒿Artemisia annua的SRAP最佳反应体系.方法 以黄花蒿DNA为模板,分析了SRAP反应体系中的一些重要参数对PCR扩增的影响.结果 建立了稳定可重复的SRAP反应体系;25 μL反应体系中,模板DNA为30~105 ng,MgCl2为2.0mmol/L,dNTPs为0.25 mmol/L,Taq酶为1.0 U,引物为2.0μmol/L;扩增程序:94℃预变性3 min,94℃变性1min,35℃复性1 min,72℃延伸1 min,5个循环;94 ℃变性1 min,50℃复性1 min,72℃延伸1 min,35个循环,72℃延伸7 min.结论 本研究建立的黄花蒿SRAP体系重复性好,稳定性强.

  7. 引种青蒿的青蒿素含量及生物量%Artemisinin Content and Biomass Yield of Introduced Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣沭; 赵敏; 周亚丹; 韩颂

    2009-01-01

    青蒿(Artemisia annua)为菊科蒿属1年生草本植物(张萍等,2001;董岩等,2004;Tang et al.,2006),是我国传统中药,其提取物青蒿素(artemisinin,QHS)是含有过氧桥结构的倍半萜内脂类化合物(Patrick et al.,2007;Liu et al.,2007)。青蒿素衍生物毒性低,抗疟作用强,已替代传统抗疟药喹啉治疗疟疾的地位,被WTO批准为在世界范围内治疗脑型疟疾和恶性疟疾的首选药物(青蒿素结构研究协作组,1977;郭燕等,2006)。

  8. Preliminary Studies on the Allelopathic Effects of Artemisia annua%青蒿化感作用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志梅; 李拥军; 谷文祥

    2007-01-01

    对青蒿Artemisia annua地上部分乙醇提取物的化感作用进行了初步研究.结果表明,乙醇提取物对萝卜Raphanus sativa、菜心Brassica parachinensis L. cv. Apr.-Sep. Oil Green、大白菜Brassica perkinensis (Lour.) Rupr. cv. Maye和水稻Oryza sativa具有不同程度的抑制作用,随着溶液浓度增大抑制作用增强,且对种子萌发和根长生长的抑制作用大于对苗长生长的抑制作用.其中干物质质量浓度为0.100 g·mL-1的青蒿乙醇提取物溶液对菜心、大白菜的种子萌发、幼苗生长和根长生长抑制作用最为明显.

  9. Effect of Development Stage on the Artemisinin Content and the Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) Marker of High-Artemisinin Yielding Strains of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    The effects of development states on the artemisinin content of clone S1 of Artemisia anuua L. grown in a greenhouse were investigated in the present study. The artemisinin content increased gradually during the phase of vegetative growth and reached its highest level at 8-9 mg/g dry weight (DW) when the S1 was 6 months old on a long day (LD) photoperiod. Treatment with 9-18 d of short day (SD) photoperiod resulted in the artemisinin content reaching and being maintained at a higher level (2.059-2.289 mg/g DW), twofold that of control plants and plants of S1 presented at the pro-flower budding and flower-budding stages. The artemisinin content varied in different parts of the plant. The artemisinin content of leaves was higher than that of florets and branches. The artemisinin content in middle leaves was higher than that of bottom leaves, and then top leaves. Different densities of capitate glands (the storage organ of artemisinin) located on the surface of leaves, florets, and branches explained the variations in artemisinin content in these parts of the plant. The correlation coefficient between artemisinin content and density of capitate glands on the surface of different organs was 0.987. The genetic marker for artemisinin content was screened using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) techniques.The random primer OPA15 (5'-TTCCGAACCC-3') could amplify a specific band of approximately 1 000 bp that was present in all high-artemisinin yielding strains, but absent in all low-yielding strains in three independent replications. This specific band was cloned and its sequence was analyzed. This RAPD marker was converted into a SCAR marker to obtain a more stable marker.

  10. Effect of artemisia annua on expression of interleukin-8 in rats with acute cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury%青蒿素对脑缺血/再灌注损伤大鼠白细胞介素-8表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商崇智; 董化江; 单娜娜; 杨德慧; 李伯森; 单云官

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨青蒿素对脑缺血/再灌注损伤大鼠白细胞介素-8(IL-8)表达的影响.方法 将50只Wistar 大鼠按随机数字表法分为假手术组、模型组、青蒿素低、中、高浓度组,每组10只.采用大脑中动脉闭塞法复制局灶性脑缺血/再灌注损伤大鼠模型.假手术组和模型组均用30 mL生理盐水灌胃,青蒿素低、中、高浓度组分别溶于生理盐水中共计30 mL,剂量为400、300、200 mg·kg-1,灌胃,每日1次,连续60 d.采用放射免疫法检测血清IL-8水平,反转录-聚合酶链反应和蛋白质免疫印迹法检测组织IL-8 mRNA和蛋白表达.结果 与假手术组比较,模型组及青蒿素各浓度组血清IL-8水平和组织IL-8 mRNA、蛋白表达均明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与模型组比较,青蒿素各浓度组血清IL-8水平和组织IL-8 mRNA及蛋白表达均明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且以青蒿素高浓度组下降更为明显(P<0.05).结论 青蒿素可降低脑缺血/再灌注损伤大鼠IL-8的表达,可有效控制炎症反应进程.%Objective To investigate the effect of artemisia annua on the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8 ) in rats with a-cute cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury(ACIRI). Methods A total of 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation group,model group,artemisia annua high-,media- and low-dose groups,with 10 rats in each group. The model of ACIRI was reproduced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Thirty millilitre physiological saline was administered intra-gastrically in sham operation group and model group,while 400,300,200 mg·kg-1 artemisia annua were administered intra-gastrically in artemisia annua high-,media- and low-dose groups,respectively. The intragastric administration was once a day for 60 days in all groups. The IL-8 level in serum was determinated by radioimmunoassay and the IL-8 mRNA and protein in tissues were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain

  11. The effect of Artemisia annua on expression of tumor necrosis factor-αin rats with acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury%青蒿素对脑缺血/再灌注损伤大鼠肿瘤坏死因子-α表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗悦晨; 梁林; 臧照辉; 董化江; 杨徳慧; 李伯森; 单云官

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨青蒿素对脑缺血/再灌注(I/R)损伤大鼠肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)的影响.方法将40只Wistar大鼠按随机数字表法分为假手术组、模型组及青蒿素低、中、高浓度组,每组8只.采用大脑中动脉闭塞法(MCAO)复制局灶性脑I/R损伤大鼠模型.制模成功后,假手术组和模型组均灌胃30 ml生理盐水,青蒿素低、中、高浓度组分别由腹腔注射青蒿素200、300、400 mg/kg,均每日1次,连续60 d.采用放射免疫法(RIA)检测血清TNF-α含量,逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和蛋白质免疫印迹法(Western blotting)检测关节软骨组织TNF-αmRNA和蛋白表达.结果与假手术组比较,模型组和青蒿素各浓度组血清TNF-α含量和组织TNF-αmRNA及蛋白表达均明显升高;与模型组比较,青蒿素各浓度组血清TNF-α含量及组织TNF-αmRNA和蛋白表达均明显下降(均P<0.05),以青蒿素高浓度组下降更显著〔血清TNF-α(μg/L):51.9±9.4比88.3±9.7,TNF-αmRNA:0.20±0.14比0.77±0.31,TNF-α蛋白:0.19±0.08比0.76±0.09,均P<0.05〕.结论青蒿素可降低脑I/R损伤大鼠TNF-α的表达,有效控制炎症反应进程.%Objective To detect the effect of Artemisia annua on tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)in rats with acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R)injury. Methods Forty Wistar rats were randomized into sham operation group,model group,Artemisia annua high-,middle-and low-dose groups,each n=8. The model of focal cerebral I/R injury was reproduced by middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO). In the sham operation group and model group,30 ml normal saline was administered intra-gastrically,while in Artemisia annua low-,middle-and high-dose groups,200,300 and 400 mg/kg Artemisia annua were intra-peritoneally injected,respectively,once a day for consecutive 60 days in all the groups. The serum content of TNF-αwas detected by radioimmunoassay,and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)and Western blotting

  12. Potential ecological roles of Artemisinin produced by Artemisis annua L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin is a complex structure that is requires a significant amount of energy for ...

  13. A pilot randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of an extract of Artemisia annua administered over 12 weeks, for managing pain, stiffness, and functional limitation associated with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Simon; Beattie, Elizabeth; McNamara, Debra; Hunt, Sheena

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement, Arthrem, containing an extract from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua, on pain, stiffness, and functional limitation in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Forty-two patients were randomized to one of three groups (n = 14 in each group): 150-mg Artemisia annua extract (ART) twice daily (BD) (ART low dose), 300-mg ART BD (ART high dose), or placebo BD administered over 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC®) and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Participants treated with ART low dose demonstrated significant improvement in WOMAC total scores from baseline to 12 weeks (mean change, -12.2; standard deviation, [SD] 13.84; p = 0.0159); improvement was not shown in the placebo group (mean change, -7.8; SD, 19.80; p = 0.1029). Statistically significant reductions were seen from baseline in the ART low-dose group for individual WOMAC components stiffness and physical function. VAS pain scores were statistically significantly reduced from baseline to 12 weeks in the ART low-dose group (mean change, -21.4 mm; SD, 23.48 mm; p = 0.0082) but not the placebo group (mean change, -11.5 mm; SD, 28.97 mm, p = 0.1757). No statistically significant changes occurred from baseline in the placebo or ART high-dose groups for any parameter. ART low dose was well tolerated. ART has potential as an anti-inflammatory/analgesic in OA. Treatment with ART 150 mg BD is associated with clinically relevant reductions in pain over 12 weeks. Further studies are warranted. PMID:26631103

  14. Fumigation Activity and Several Enzymes Activities of Essential Oil from Artemisia annua L.against Monolepta hieroglyphica (Motschulsky)%黄花蒿精油对双斑萤叶甲的熏蒸活性及体内几种酶活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海滨; 杨洁; 陈骧; 丁玉骁

    2013-01-01

    We tested the fumigation activity and several enzymes activities of essential oil from Artemisia annua L. against Monolepta hieroglyphica (Motschulsky) adult in the body. The result showed that the oil had obvious fumigation activity against insects. At dosage of 25.00 μL/L, and 8 h fumigating period, the corrected mortality rate reached 83.33 % . Essential oil of Artemisia annua L. significantly inhibited the AchE; The activity of GSTs was obviously induced; The activity of ACP and ALP were inhibited to some extent; The activity of POD was not obviously affected.%测定了黄花蒿精油对双斑萤叶甲的熏蒸活性及体内几种酶活力的影响.结果表明:双斑萤叶甲在熏蒸处理8h后,25.00μL/L处理组的校正死亡率达到83.33%,表现出明显的熏蒸作用.黄花蒿精油对双斑萤叶甲体内乙酰胆碱酯酶活力表现出明显的抑制作用,对谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶表现出明显的诱导作用,对酸性磷酸酯酶、碱性磷酸酯酶活力表现出一定的抑制作用,对过氧化物酶影响不明显.

  15. Dosagem de artemisinina em Artemisia annua L. por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por índice de refração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Garcia Rehder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone used in treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. This paper presents high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for artemisinin in leaves of A. annua using differential refractometer detector and a single step of clean-up in a silica cartridge. The average of recoveries were 95% and the limit of quantification was 0,21% p/p using 200 mg of the leaves. This method was found to be simple, robust and relatively rapid.

  16. 内生青霉菌对黄花蒿组培苗生长和青蒿素合成的影响%Effect of Endophytic Penicillium sp.Y2 on Growth and Artemisinin Biosynthesis of Plantlets in Tissue Cultures of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚菲; 董婷; 王剑文

    2011-01-01

    17 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from the stems of Artemisia annua L. Penicillium sp. Y2 could effectively promote the growth and artemisinin accumulation in the plantlets in tissue cultures of A. annua. After 5 days of broth culture,the fungal mycelium and culture medium were prepared for elicitors,including elicitor A(autoclaved conditioned homogenates of mycelia filtrates and medium) ,elicitor B(autoclaved conditioned medium) and elicitor C(filtrated conditioned medium). The results showed that all of the three fungal elicitors could promote the growth,induce activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase( SOD) , catalase( CAT) and peroxidase( POD) , and the accumulation of artemisinin. Elicitor C had the best effect on artemisinin induction among them. The dry weight and the content of soluble sugar of the tissue cultures of A. annua were increased by 44. 44 % and 38. 24% ,respectively. The content of artemisinin reached to 4. 701 mg·g-1 DW,a 58. 86 % increase over the control.%从黄花蒿茎中分离得到了17株内生真菌,其中内生青霉菌(Penicillium sp.Y2)能有效促进黄花蒿组培苗生长及青蒿素合成.内生青霉菌悬浮培养5d后,分别将培养液与菌丝匀浆后经过高压灭菌处理,或将培养液经过高压灭菌、过滤除菌处理获得3种内生菌诱导子(A、B和C).结果表明,3种内生菌诱导子对植株生长、抗氧化酶活性及青蒿素合成都有促进作用,诱导子C青蒿素合成诱导效果最好,可促进黄花蒿组培苗的干重增长44.44%、可溶性糖含量提高38.24%,诱导超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性,从而提高青蒿素合成达58.86%,黄花蒿组培苗青蒿素含量达4.701 mg·g-1(干重).

  17. 促进黄花蒿发根青蒿素合成的内生真菌诱导子的制备%The Preparation of an Elicitor from a Fungal Endophyte to Enhance Artemisinin Production in Hairy Root Cultures of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑文; 郑丽屏; 谭仁祥

    2006-01-01

    应用酸解法对黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.)内生胶孢炭疽菌(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)菌丝体进行提取,在黄花蒿发根培养系统中比较了各制备提取物的青蒿素诱导活性.活性提取物经过Sephadex G25层析后,部分纯化的内生菌寡糖提取物(MW<2500)可显著促进发根青蒿素的合成,培养23d的发根经诱导子(0.4mg/mL)处理4d后,青蒿素产量可达13.51mg/L,比同期对照产量提高51.63%,诱导作用与诱导子浓度、作用时间相关.内生菌寡糖诱导子的制备和使用,在青蒿素生物技术生产研究中为首次应用.

  18. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Paek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Guemsan; Lee, Mi-Young; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as "Injinho" in Korean medicinal terminology and "Yin Chen Hao" in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ between the species, we designed primers to amplify a DNA marker for A. capillaris. In addition, to detect other Artemisia species that are contaminants of A. capillaris, we designed primers to amplify DNA markers of A. japonica, A. annua, A. apiacea, and A. anomala. Moreover, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, we confirmed that primers developed in a previous study could be used to identify Artemisia species that are sources of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. By using these primers, we found that multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a reliable tool to distinguish between A. capillaris and other Artemisia species and to identify other Artemisia species as contaminants of A. capillaris in a single PCR. PMID:27313651

  19. 蒿属植物的农药活性及其有效成分%Pesticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Artemisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利娟; 桑晓清; 孙永艳; 杨文杰

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on pesticidal activities and the corresponding active ingredients of Artemisia are presented. Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia selengensis, Artemisia vestita, Artemisia parvijlora, Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia capillarie, Artemisia mongoli-ca, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia monosperma and Artemisia judaica possess insecticidal activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, borneol, camphor, caryophyllene, isoaryophyllene and farnesene. Artemisia annua, Artemisia ludoviciana, Artemisia tournefortiana, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia herba alba, Artemisia taurica, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia molinieri, Artemisia stolonifera show fungicidal activities and the main active ingredients are camphor, cineole, borneol, flavonoids, olefins, terpene hydrocarbons, alkanes and organic acids. Artemisia caerulescens subsp. gallica, Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia roxburghiana,Artenisia annua, Artemisia tridentate, Artemisia scoparia and Artemisia taurica exhibit herbicide activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, camphor, arteether, monoterpenes and ses-quiterpenes. Artemisia absinthium shows nematicidal activity. Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia dracunculus have mollusicidal activities. In all, Artemisia annua, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia borealis and Artemisia judaica show multiple activities and may be used as botanical pesticides.%综述了蒿属植物的杀虫、杀螨、杀菌、除草、杀线虫和杀软体动物活性及相应的有效成分.该属中具有杀虫杀螨活性的主要有黄花蒿、野艾蒿、苦艾、蒌蒿、毛莲蒿、西南牡蒿、大籽蒿、猪毛蒿、茵陈蒿、蒙古蒿、巴儿古津蒿、南亚蒿、犹地蒿和Artemisia monsperma等,其主要有效成分是桉树脑、龙脑、樟脑、石竹烯、异石竹烯和β-法呢烯等.该属中具有杀菌活性的主要有黄花蒿、银叶艾蒿

  20. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. PMID:26157064

  1. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land.

  2. Survey of artemisinin production by diverse Artemisia species in northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Muhammad F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin is the current drug of choice for treatment of malaria and a number of other diseases. It is obtained from the annual herb, Artemisia annua and some microbial sources by genetic engineering. There is a great concern that the artemisinin production at current rate will not meet the increasing demand by the pharmaceutical industry, so looking for additional sources is imperative. Methods In current study, artemisinin concentration was analysed and compared in the flowers, leaves, roots and stems of Artemisia annua and 14 other Artemisia species including two varieties each for Artemisia roxburghiana and Artemisia dracunculus using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The highest artemisinin concentration was detected in the leaves (0.44 ± 0.03% and flowers (0.42 ± 0.03% of A. annua, followed by the flowers (0.34 ± .02% of A. bushriences and leaves (0.27 ± 0% of A. dracunculus var dracunculus. The average concentration of artemisinin varied in the order of flowers > leaves > stems > roots. Conclusion This study identifies twelve novel plant sources of artemisinin, which may be helpful for pharmaceutical production of artemisinin. This is the first report of quantitative comparison of artemisinin among a large number of Artemisia species.

  3. 野生黄花蒿植株和土壤中的青蒿素、黄酮含量变化及其对土壤微生物的影响%Artemisinin and flavonoids in wild Artemisia annua and surrounding soil and the in-fluence on soil microbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 袁玲; 罗世琼; 黄建国

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua releases various kinds of allelochemicals into soils via rain leaching,root exudation and dead tissue decomposition during the growing season,with resulting inhibition of the growth and develop-ment of adjacent plants and succeeding crops.The present experiments were thus conducted to detect artemisi-nin derivatives,flavonoids and effects on soil microbes in wild A.annua and surrounding soil.The allelochemi-cal concentrations ranked:bud break period>early flowering period>full bloom period>vegetative growth pe-riod (artemisinin in leaves and root zone soil)and stem>leaf>root>flower (flavonoids in plants).In sampled soils,the mean concentration of deoxyartemisinin was highest,followed by artemisic acid and artemisinin in soil and the sum of these artemisinin derivatives was 516.93 μg/kg dry soil.Concentrations of all three com-pounds tested were highest in root surface soil and much higher in the root surface soil and rhizosphere soil than in non-rhizosphere soil.Soil flavonoid concentrations increased steadily during the growing season of A.annua and reached their highest levels at full-bloom stage (434.77 μg/kg dry soil).Hence it is concluded that fla-vonoids are released into soils through root exudation.The numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes showed sig-nificant negative correlations with artemisinin concentration (r=-0.508 * and -0.478 * ,n=24).There was also a negative correlation between deoxyartemsinin contents and actinomycete numbers (r =-0.528 ** ,n =24).In summary,artemisinin and its derivatives released from A.annua appear to inhibit microbial growth and reproduction,and are therefore likely to influence biochemical reactions in soils.%黄花蒿在生长过程中,主要通过植株残体腐解、淋溶、根系分泌等途径向土壤中释放多种化感物质,影响邻近和后续植物的生长发育。本试验研究了野生黄花蒿植株及土壤中的青蒿素类物质和黄酮含量,以及土壤可培养微生物数

  4. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land. PMID:27398271

  5. Comparative analysis of ADS gene promoter in seven Artemisia species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mojtaba Ranjbar; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Hoshang Alizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin is the most effective antimalarial drug that is derived from Artemisia annua. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) controls the first committed step in artemisinin biosynthesis. The ADS gene expression is regulated by transcription factors which bind to the cis-acting elements on the ADS promoter and are probably responsible for the ADS gene expression difference in the Artemisia species. To identify the elements that are significantly involved in ADS gene expression, the ADS gene promoter of the seven Artemisia species was isolated and comparative analysis was performed on the ADS promoter sequences of these species. Results revealed that some of the cis-elements were unique or in terms of number were more in the high artemisinin producer species, A. annua, than the other species. We have reported that the light-responsive elements, W-box, CAAT-box, 5′-UTR py-rich stretch, TATA-box sequence and tandem repeat sequences have been identified as important factors in the increased expression of ADS gene.

  6. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Hexia; Liang, Junsong

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. The melting profiles of the ITS2 amplicons of the five closely related herbal species are clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The method was further applied to authenticate commercial products in powdered. HRM curves of all the commercial samples tested are similar to the botanical species as labeled. These congeneric medicinal products were also clearly separated using the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Therefore, HRM method could provide an efficient and reliable authentication system to distinguish these commonly used Artemisia herbal products on the markets and offer a technical reference for medicines quality control in the drug supply chain. PMID:27698485

  7. Sequence characterized amplified region marker as a tool for selection of high-artemisinin containing species of Artemisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Matin; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Abdol Hadi; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Poorebrahim, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most important causes of mortality in developing countries. High resistance to available antimalarial drugs has been reported frequently, thus it is crucial to focus on the discovery of new antimalarial drugs. Artemisinin, an effective antimalarial medication, is isolated from various Artemisia species. To identify the Artemisia species producing high quantity of artemisinin, eight species of Artemisia were screened with the genetic sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for higher quantity of artemisinin. The DNA band corresponding to SCAR marker was cloned into pGEM®-T Easy vector and sequenced. The content of artemisinin in tested species was also measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. The primers designed for high-artemisinin SCAR marker could amplify a specific band of approximately 1000 bp which was present in two Artemisia annua and Artemisia absinthium species. These SCAR marker sequences for two selected species were submitted into the GenBank databases under KC337116 and KC465952 accession numbers. HPLC analysis indicated that two selected Artemisia species, genetically recognized as high-artemisinin yielding plants, had higher artemisinin content in comparison to other examined species. Therefore, in this study, we propose developed SCAR marker as a complementary tool for confidently detection of high-artemisinin content in Artemisia species. PMID:26752994

  8. Functional Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase (ADS) Homologs from Non-Artemisinin-Producing Artemisia Species: The Discovery of Novel Koidzumiol and (+)-α-Bisabolol Synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangphrom, Paskorn; Seki, Hikaru; Suzuki, Munenori; Komori, Aya; Nishiwaki, Mika; Mikawa, Ryota; Fukushima, Ery Odette; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2016-08-01

    The production of artemisinin, the most effective antimalarial compound, is limited to Artemisia annua. Enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis include amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), amorpha-4,11-diene 12-monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) and artemisinic aldehyde Δ(11)13 reductase (DBR2). Although artemisinin and its specific intermediates are not detected in other Artemisia species, we reported previously that CYP71AV1 and DBR2 homologs were expressed in some non-artemisinin-producing Artemisia plants. These homologous enzymes showed similar functions to their counterparts in A. annua and can convert fed intermediates into the following products along the artemisinin biosynthesis in planta These findings suggested a partial artemisinin-producing ability in those species. In this study, we examined genes highly homologous to ADS, the first committed gene in the pathway, in 13 Artemisia species. We detected ADS homologs in A. absinthium, A. kurramensis and A. maritima. We analyzed the enzymatic functions of all of the ADS homologs after obtaining their cDNA. We found that the ADS homolog from A. absinthium exhibited novel activity in the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to koidzumiol, a rare natural sesquiterpenoid. Those from A. kurramensis and A. maritima showed similar, but novel, activities in the cyclization of FPP to (+)-α-bisabolol. The unique functions of the novel sesquiterpene synthases highly homologous to ADS found in this study could provide insight into the molecular basis of the exceptional artemisinin-producing ability in A. annua. PMID:27273626

  9. СРАВНИТЕЛЬНЫЙ АНАЛИЗ СОСТАВА ЭФИРНЫХ МАСЕЛ, ПОЛУЧЕННЫХ ГИДРОДИСТИЛЛЯЦИЕЙ, И ЭФИРНОМАСЛИЧНОЙ ФРАКЦИИ СО2-ЭКСТРАКТА ARTEMISIA SIEVERSIANA WILLD. И ARTEMISIA ANNUA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Туяна Эрдэмовна Рандалова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available В работе рассмотрен состав эфирных масел, полученных гидродистилляцией и СО2-экстракцией из двух видов полыней: Artemisia annua L. и Artemisia sieversiana Willd. Компонентный состав эфирных масел полыней изучен с помощью хромато-масс-спектрометрии. Состав эфирных масел растений, выделенных разными способами, существенно отличается, при этом более разнообразен состав биологически активных веществ в СО2-экстракте.

  10. DNA Barcode for Identifying Folium Artemisiae Argyi from Counterfeits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Quanxi; Chen, Xiaolu; Xiang, Li; Liu, Yue; Su, Yanyan; Gao, Yuqiao; Dai, Weibo; Dong, Pengpeng; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Folium Artemisiae Argyi is an important herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It is commonly used in moxibustion, medicine, etc. However, identifying Artemisia argyi is difficult because this herb exhibits similar morphological characteristics to closely related species and counterfeits. To verify the applicability of DNA barcoding, ITS2 and psbA-trnH were used to identify A. argyi from 15 closely related species and counterfeits. Results indicated that total DNA was easily extracted from all the samples and that both ITS2 and psbA-trnH fragments can be easily amplified. ITS2 was a more ideal barcode than psbA-trnH and ITS2+psbA-trnH to identify A. argyi from closely related species and counterfeits on the basis of sequence character, genetic distance, and tree methods. The sequence length was 225 bp for the 56 ITS2 sequences of A. argyi, and no variable site was detected. For the ITS2 sequences, A. capillaris, A. anomala, A. annua, A. igniaria, A. maximowicziana, A. princeps, Dendranthema vestitum, and D. indicum had single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The intraspecific Kimura 2-Parameter distance was zero, which is lower than the minimum interspecific distance (0.005). A. argyi, the closely related species, and counterfeits, except for Artemisia maximowicziana and Artemisia sieversiana, were separated into pairs of divergent clusters by using the neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood tree methods. Thus, the ITS2 sequence was an ideal barcode to identify A. argyi from closely related species and counterfeits to ensure the safe use of this plant. PMID:27582332

  11. Media glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to determine the media glandular dose of the patients group who most frequently are exposed at mammographic studies in the General Hospital of Zone No. 1 of IMSS in Zacatecas, later to compare this dose with the value that establishes the Mexican Official Standard and to know risk-benefit that a patient is exposed when it is realized studies of this nature. This with the purpose of to know if the patients who are realized this type of studies are exhibited to irradiations of unnecessary way. In order to obtain the media glandular dose, first it was choose the age group of feminine population that is predominant to this suffering. Of the classification of the age group it was determine the frequency of each thickness of mamma, and on the basis of the thickness of the compressed mamma the conditions were registered with it radiates the patient. When having the age and compressed mamma thickness of patient and the voltage, current, anode/filter that uses the mammography equipment for to radiate it was calculated the media glandular dose. The media glandular dose was calculated using two algorithms proposed in literature and thermoluminescent dosemeters. For the case of the thermoluminescent dosemeters were used two phantoms. In this study was detected that the limits, with that they radiate the patients who are exposed at mammographic studies it is by underneath of 3 mGy. Finally, it was detected that the Mexican Official Standard lacks of elements to offer radiological limits for the mammography area, because in this standard they are excluded the radiological limits for anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. To know the dose applying these anodes and filters is of extreme importance because 85% of the population that is exposed to this studies type was radiated with anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. (Author)

  12. Study on the Accumulation Property of Zn in Different Artemisia Plants%不同蒿类植物对重金属锌的积累特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚飞; 卢爱刚

    2012-01-01

    为建立人工湿地生态系统修复土壤重金属污染的植物种类提供参考,以潼关县黄金生产区及附近不同地区生长的6种蒿类植物(叉枝蒿、青蒿、水蒿、茵陈蒿、莳萝蒿和艾蒿)为研究对象,测定并分析蒿类植物体内的锌(Zn)含量.结果表明:同种植物对Zn的吸收能力随着根际土壤中Zn含量的增加而增加.9个样地6种植物中,莳萝蒿对Zn的富集能力最强,富集系数为2.44,转移系数为1.97,Zn主要富集在植物叶片中;叉枝蒿和青蒿的转移系数和富集系数均大于1,艾蒿和茵陈蒿的富集系数分别为0.35和0.34,富集能力较弱.莳萝蒿是建立人工生态系统富集重金属Zn的首选植物,其次是叉枝蒿和青蒿.%In order to provide reference for the establishment of artificial wetland ecosystem repairing the plant species of heavy metal contaminated soil, six kinds of Artemisia plants was chosen as subject investigated around the golden mineral at Tongguan county, including Artemisia divaricata, Artemisia annua L. , Artemisia selengensis , Artemisia capillaries , Artemisia anethoides and Artemisia argyi, to determine the content of heavy metal Zn in different artemisia plants. The results were as following: the absorbing capacity for the same plant increased with the increasing of Zn content. Among six kinds of plants in nine different places,the Artemisia anethoides Mattf. had the best absorbing capacity to Zn,the concentration coefficients was 2. 44 and transfer coefficients was 1. 97, and Zn was mostly stored in plant leaves. The concentration coefficients and transfer coefficients of Artemisia divaricata and Artemisia annua were all greater than 1. The concentration coefficient of Artemisia argyi was 0. 35 and Artemisia capillaries was 0. 34 and they had the weaker absorbing capacity to Zn than others. So to establish the artificial eco-system, the Artemisia anethoides was the first choice to enrich the heavy metal Zn, and then was the

  13. Determination of Camphor in Herba Artemisiae Annuae and Herba Artemisiae Annuae Oil%青蒿及青蒿油的樟脑含量检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田吉; 冯文宇; 邱华荣; 何兵

    2004-01-01

    目的:建立气相色谱法测定青蒿及青蒿油中樟脑的含量.方法:以聚乙二醇-20M为固定相,涂布浓度为10%,柱温为130℃,氢火焰离子化检测器,检测器温度为170℃.结果:樟脑与其他色谱峰的分离度和线性关系良好,回收率100.1%,RSD=0.56%.结论:该方法灵敏、快速、准确,可作为青蒿及青蒿油的质量控制标准.

  14. 青蒿组织中快速有效DNA提取方法的研究%An Improved Method of Extracting Artemisia abrotanum Genomic DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石开明; 周毅峰

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to explore a rapid and efficient method of extracting gonomic DNA from Artemisia abrotanum. [Method] Three methods of Cutting Method, Liquid Nitrogen Method and Quartz Sand Method based on SDS method were employed to extract Artemisia abrotanum genomic DNA from tender leaf at seedling stage, tender spike and old leaf at heading stage. The obtained DNAs were detected by ahsorbance de-tection, agarose gel and PCR amplification. [Result] Cutting Method performed better than the other two methods compared in purity, extracting cycle and cost, accordingly more suitable for PCR amplification. The results also show that young spike is the best material for extracting genomic DNA flora Artemis-ia Annua.

  15. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shots were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There were distinguished 3 types of non-glandular trichomes, 3 types of glandular trichomes and papillae of the osmophore in the epidermis of the corolla. The highest density of non-glandular and glandular trichomes was found on the abaxial surface of the calyx, on bracts and in the upper part of the stem. Structural variations in the head and stalk of long glandular trichomes were demonstrated. The dimensions of particular types of trichomes are given in the present paper. Differences in the structure of the trichomes of this species are presented, compared to literature data. The micromorphology of particular trichome types is documented in numerous photographs showing the rich ornamentation of the cuticle of non-glandular trichomes.

  16. Antimalarial properties of Artemisia vulgaris L. ethanolic leaf extract in a Plasmodium berghei murine malaria model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayan S. Bamunuarachchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua is the most potent antimalarial drug against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artemisia vulgaris, an invasive weed, is the only Artemisia species available in Sri Lanka. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of an A. vulgaris ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE in a P. berghei ANKA murine malaria model that elicits pathogenesis similar to falciparum malaria. Methods: A 4-day suppressive and the curative assays determined the antiparasitic activity of AVELE using four doses (250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg, Coartem® as the positive control and 5% ethanol as the negative control in male ICR mice infected with P. berghei. Results: The 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg doses of AVELE significantly (p ≤0.01 inhibited parasitaemia by 79.3, 79.6 and 87.3% respectively, in the 4-day suppressive assay, but not in the curative assay. Chronic administration of the high dose of AVELE ruled out overt signs of toxicity and stress as well as hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity and haematotoxicity. Interpretation & conclusion: The oral administration of a crude ethonolic leaf extract of A. vulgaris is non-toxic and possesses potent antimalarial properties in terms of antiparasitic activity.

  17. The Presence of Amorpha-4, 11-Diene Synthase, a Key Enzyme in Artemisinin Production in Ten Artemisia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GA. Garoosi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicine against malaria, which is produced naturally by Artemisia annua in low yield. It is produced in a metabolic pathway, in which several genes and gene products are involved. One of the key genes in this pathway is am1, which encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS, a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of this gene in ten Artemisia species in order to increase the yield of production of Artemisinin. Methods : The experiments were carried out using PCR. Specific primers were designed based on the published am1 gene sequence obtained from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527. Results: The amplification of this gene by the specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, corresponding to a pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b aspartate rich motif (DDXXD, c active site final lid and d active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP ionization sites and catalytic site in the ADS enzyme, were investigated. Major conclusion: The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alteration, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene for artemisinin overproduction.

  18. Artemisinin content of sc-C0₂ derived extracts from Artemisia annua / Surisha Padayatchi.

    OpenAIRE

    Padayatchi, Surisha

    2004-01-01

    One of the principal research themes of the supercritical fluid research group within the Centre of Separation Science and Technology (SST) at the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) is botanical extraction. The group produces botanical extracts from locally cultivated plants which contain substances (essential oils, natural waxes) relevant to the food, flavour, pharmaceutical, medical and cosmetic industries while utilising the advantages of sc-C& extraction over traditi...

  19. Study on the Accumulation Property of Cu in the Different Artemisia Plants%不同蒿类植物对重金属铜的积累特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚飞

    2012-01-01

    以潼关县黄金生产区及附近不同地区生长的6种蒿类植物:叉枝蒿(Artemisia divaricata (Pamp.) Pamp)、青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)、水蒿(Artemisia selengensis)、茵陈蒿(Artemisia capillaries)、莳萝蒿(Artemisia anethoides Mattf.)、艾蒿(Artemisia arg yi)为试材,测定并分析蒿类植物中的铜含量,以便确定建立人工生态系统的植物种类.结果表明:同种植物对铜的吸收能力会随着根际土壤中铜含量的增加而增加;9个样地中青蒿-Ⅺ对铜的吸收效果最好,富集系数为0.92,铜主要储存在叶片中;艾蒿①对铜的富集能力也相对较高,富集系数为0.87;2个样地中的水蒿叶片中富集铜的能力均较强,水蒿-13为78.32 mg/kg和水蒿①为69.21 mg/kg.

  20. Inflammatory and glandular skin disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Catherine S; Teeple, Mary; Muglia, Jennie; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    A switch from cell-mediated to humoral immunity (helper T 1 [Th1] to helper T 2 [Th2] shift) during gestation plays a key role in placental immune tolerance. As a result, skin diseases that are Th2 mediated often worsen, whereas skin diseases that are Th1 mediated often improve during gestation. Also, due to fluctuations in glandular activity, skin diseases involving sebaceous and eccrine glands may flare, whereas those involving apocrine glands may improve during pregnancy. Despite these trends, inflammatory and glandular skin diseases do not always follow the predicted pattern, and courses are often diverse. We review the gestational course of inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (atopic eruption of pregnancy), psoriasis, impetigo herpetiformis, urticaria, erythema annulare centrifugum, pityriasis rosea, sarcoidosis, Sweet syndrome, and erythema nodosum, as well as glandular skin diseases, including acne vulgaris, acne rosacea, perioral dermatitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, Fox-Fordyce disease, hyperhidrosis, and miliaria. For each of these diseases, we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management with special consideration for maternal and fetal safety. PMID:27265071

  1. A new antimalarial agent; effect of extracts of Artemisia diffusa against Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Rustaiyan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most serious health problems in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa and Latin America with a high mortality rate. The situation is further complicated by the spread of drug-resistant parasites in many parts where plasmodium falciparum is endemic. A few alternative drugs are under development, necessitating urgent efforts to identify new classes of antimalarial agents. There is therefore a need to find new, effective and affordable remedies for malaria, including those derived from plants. The clinical utility of the Chinese discovery of artemisinin from the herb Artemisia annua has stimulated much interest in traditional plants as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. In this study, the antimalarial activity of Artemisia diffusa extracts and the fraction which contains sesquiterpene lactones including Tehranolide, on Plasmodium berghei in vivo on the mice model of malaria was investigated. We did our best to carry out the biological tests as well as the phytochemical investigations from the same collection. It demonstrates that crude extracts of Artemisia diffusa inhibit the growth of Plasmodium berghei in vivo in NMRI mice. The microscopic examination of Giemsa stained slides showed a virtual absence of all blood-stage of murine malaria treated with three concentrations of herbal extracts including 27, 2.7 and 0.27 mg/ml. These observations suggest that the active constituents in the extract may be cytotoxic for P. berghei, thereby inhibiting their development to the erythrocytic stage. The results specifically indicated the inhibitory effects of the A.diffusa crude extracts and the fraction which contains sesquiterpene lactones including Tehranolide, on the developmental stages of P. berghei by decreasing parasitaemia.

  2. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  3. 青蒿离体快繁技术研究%Reserch on Artesunate annua L. with vitro Rapid Propagation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞飞; 廖宇静; 贾秀山

    2008-01-01

    为建立青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)快速繁殖技术体系,以青蒿带腋芽茎段作为外植体,以MS、1/2MS为基本培养基,附加不同种类、不同浓度的植物激素进行青蒿离体快繁培养研究.结果表明:外植体在MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L培养基上诱导丛生芽效果最好;1/2MS+NAA 0.5 mg/L诱导生根效果最佳,可达90%.

  4. Sexual Dimorphism in the Response of Mercurialis annua to Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra M. Orlofsky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed in a comprehensive way, by comparing morphological, biochemical and metabolomics changes in female and male plants during their development and under salinity. There were practically no differences between the genders in vegetative development and physiological parameters. However, under salinity conditions, female plants produced significantly more new reproductive nodes. Gender-linked differences in peroxidase (POD and glutathione transferases (GSTs were involved in anti-oxidation, detoxification and developmental processes in M. annua. 1H NMR metabolite profiling of female and male M. annua plants showed that under salinity the activity of the TCA cycle increased. There was also an increase in betaine in both genders, which may be explainable by its osmo-compatible function under salinity. The concentration of ten metabolites changed in both genders, while ‘Female-only-response’ to salinity was detected for five metabolites. In conclusion, dimorphic responses of M. annua plant genders to stress may be attributed to female plants’ capacity to survive and complete the reproductive life cycle.

  5. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  6. Media glandular dose in mammography;Dosis glandular media en mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran M, H. A.; Hernandez O, M.; Pinedo S, A.; Guerra M, J. A.; Gonzalez G, R.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada en Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J., E-mail: hduran20_1@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the media glandular dose of the patients group who most frequently are exposed at mammographic studies in the General Hospital of Zone No. 1 of IMSS in Zacatecas, later to compare this dose with the value that establishes the Mexican Official Standard and to know risk-benefit that a patient is exposed when it is realized studies of this nature. This with the purpose of to know if the patients who are realized this type of studies are exhibited to irradiations of unnecessary way. In order to obtain the media glandular dose, first it was choose the age group of feminine population that is predominant to this suffering. Of the classification of the age group it was determine the frequency of each thickness of mamma, and on the basis of the thickness of the compressed mamma the conditions were registered with it radiates the patient. When having the age and compressed mamma thickness of patient and the voltage, current, anode/filter that uses the mammography equipment for to radiate it was calculated the media glandular dose. The media glandular dose was calculated using two algorithms proposed in literature and thermoluminescent dosemeters. For the case of the thermoluminescent dosemeters were used two phantoms. In this study was detected that the limits, with that they radiate the patients who are exposed at mammographic studies it is by underneath of 3 mGy. Finally, it was detected that the Mexican Official Standard lacks of elements to offer radiological limits for the mammography area, because in this standard they are excluded the radiological limits for anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. To know the dose applying these anodes and filters is of extreme importance because 85% of the population that is exposed to this studies type was radiated with anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. (Author)

  7. Phytochemical Contents of Five Artemisia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KURSAT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the fatty acid compositions, vitamin, sterol contents and flavonoid constituents of five Turkish Artemisia species (A. armeniaca, A. incana , A. tournefortiana, A. haussknechtii and A. scoparia were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. The results of the fatty acid analysis showed that Artemisia species possess high saturated fatty acid compositions. On the other hand, the studied Artemisia species were found to have low vitamin and sterol contents. Eight flavononids (catechin, naringin, rutin, myricetin, morin, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol were determined in the present study. It was found that Artemisia species contained high levels of flavonoids. Morin (45.35 ± 0.65 – 1406.79 ± 4.12 μg/g and naringenin (15.32 ± 0.46 – 191.18 ± 1.22 μg/g were identified in all five species. Naringin (268.13 ± 1.52 – 226.43 ± 1.17 μg/g and kaempferol (21.74 ± 0.65 – 262.19 ± 1.38 μg/g contents were noted in the present study. Present research showed that the studied Artemisia taxa have high saturated fatty acids and also rich flavonoid content.

  8. Prevalence of sensitization to weed pollens of Humulus scandens,Artemisia vulgaris, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-dong HAO; Yi-wu ZHENG; Birgitte GJESING; Xing-ai KONG; Jing-yuan WANG; Zhi-jing SONG; Xu-xin LAI

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Weed pollens are common sources of allergens worldwide.The prevalence of weed pollen sensitization is not yet fully known in China.The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to weed allergens from Artemisia,Ambrosia,and Humulus in northern China.Methods:A total of 1144 subjects (aged from 5 to 68 years) visiting our clinic from June to October 2011 underwent intradermal testing using a panel of 25 allergen sources.Subjects with positive skin responses to any pollen were further tested for their serum concentrations of IgE antibodies against Artemisia vulgaris,Ambrosia artemisiifolia,and Humulus scandens,and against the purified allergens,Art v 1 and Amb a 1.Results:Of 1 144 subjects,170 had positive intradermal reactions to pollen and 144 donated serum for IgE testing.The prevalence of positive intradermal responses to pollens of Artemisia sieversiana,Artemisia annua,A.artemisiifolia,and H.scandens was 11.0%,10.2%,3.7%,and 6.6%,respectively.Among the intradermal positive subjects,the prevalence of specific IgE antigens to A.vulgaris was 58.3%,to A.artemisiifolia 14.7%,and to H.scandens 41.0%.The prevalence of specific IgE antigens to the allergen Art v 1 was 46.9%,and to Amb a 1 was 11.2%.The correlation between the presence of IgE antibodies specific to A.vulgaris and to the Art v 1 antigen was very high.Subjects with A.artemisiifolia specific IgE also had A.vulgaris specific IgE,but with relatively high levels of A.vulgaris IgE antibodies.There were no correlations between the presence of IgE antibodies to H.scandens and A.vulgaris or to H.scandens and A.artemisiifolia.Conclusions:The intradermal prevalence of weed pollen sensitization among allergic subjects in northern China is about 13.5%.Correlations of specific IgE antibodies suggest that pollen allergens from Artemisia and Humulus are independent sources for primary sensitization.

  9. Methylated Flavonoids From Artemisia Monosperma

    OpenAIRE

    S. I. Ismail; Hammouda, F. M. [فايزة محمود حمودة; Rizk, A. M.; Hassan, N. M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of the flavonoid constituents of Artemisia monosperma resulted in the isolation and identification of four methylated flavonoids: quercetin 3,3',4'-trimethylether, diosmetin (luteolin 4'-methylether), 2',3,5'-trimethoxy-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone and 2',5'-dimethoxy-3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone. أسفرت دراسة الفلافونيدات لنبات العادر عن فصل وتعريف أربعة مركبات هي : كيرستين 3،13،14 - تراي ميثيل إثير ، دايزموتين ( ليتيولين 14 - ميثيل أثير ) ، 12،3،15 - تراي ميثوكس - 14 ،5 ،7 - ترا...

  10. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  11. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%.

  12. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  13. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone

    OpenAIRE

    S Z Haider0; H C Andola; Mohan, M

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.3...

  14. 黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.)提取物对两种病原真菌的生物活性%Antifungal Activities of Primary Extracts of Artemisia annua L.against Two Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 丁伟; 张永强; 郭文明

    2007-01-01

    以石油醚Ⅰ(30℃~60℃)、石油醚Ⅱ(60℃~90℃)、乙醇和丙酮等4种溶剂对黄花蒿的根、茎、叶进行初步提取,采用生长速率法测定不同提取物对玉米小斑病菌、棉花枯萎病菌的抑菌活性.结果表明,黄花蒿提取物对玉米小斑病菌的生物活性好于棉花枯萎病菌;黄花蒿叶的提取物抑菌效果最好,根的抑菌效果最差;叶的石油醚(60℃~90℃)提取物对玉米小斑病菌EC50为1 56.32 mg/L;而叶的丙酮提取物对玉米小斑病菌的EC50为82.37 mg/L.

  15. Two new phenolic compounds from Artemisia sphaerocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Bao Zhao; Lin Xi Li; Xiu Hua Liu; Ming Jing Li; Wen Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds were isolated from whole plant of Artemisia sphaerocephala. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods as 4-(1-hydroxylethyl)-phenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 4-O-acetophenone-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES OF MARTYNIA ANNUA PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katare Vivekanand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Martynia annua (Martyniaceae is commonly known as “bichu”. In Ayurveda the leaves of the plant is useful in treatment of gargle, treat epilepsy, tuberculous, sore throat and also given local sedative effect. The whole plant is also used by Santal tribals (India for fever, hair loss, scabies, sores and carbuncles on the back In order to ensure the use of genuine and authentic material in the preparation of herbal formulations, pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods of standardization of the plant has been carried out in the present work. Macroscopic, microscopic and physico-chemical characters of the Martynia annuahas plant been carried out. Preliminary phytochemical analysis studies have been performed on the various extracts of Martynia annua plant. All these pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies can be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the plant and also to test adulteration if any.

  17. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  18. Dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua to free range broilers and its effects on gastro-intestinal parasite infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2012-01-01

    of oocysts than males (45% more; pforaging activity. No eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes were observed during routine EPG. However, during necropsy, juvenile larvae of Ascaridia galli were found in 73% of the broilers with no differences in respect...

  19. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni,...

  20. Effect of mineral nutrition, growth regulators, and environmental stresses on biomass production and artemisinin concentration of Artemisia annua (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by different species of Plasmodium. It is the world’s most severe parasitic infection and kills almost two million people a year, afflicting more than one-third of the global population. The burden of malaria has increased by the worldwide spread of multi-d...

  1. Evaluation of exposure in mammography: limitations of average glandular dose and proposal of a new quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation risk in mammography is traditionally evaluated using the average glandular dose. This quantity for the average breast has proven to be useful for population statistics and to compare exposure techniques and systems. However it is not indicating the individual radiation risk based on the individual glandular amount and distribution. Simulations of exposures were performed for six appropriate virtual phantoms with varying glandular amount and distribution. The individualised average glandular dose (iAGD), i.e. the individual glandular absorbed energy divided by the mass of the gland, and the glandular imparted energy (GIE), i.e. the glandular absorbed energy, were computed. Both quantities were evaluated for their capability to take into account the glandular amount and distribution. As expected, the results have demonstrated that iAGD reflects only the distribution, while GIE reflects both the glandular amount and distribution. Therefore GIE is a good candidate for individual radiation risk assessment. (authors)

  2. Average glandular dose in patients submitted to mammographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses in mammography should be maintained as low as possible without reducing the high image quality needed to the early detection of the breast cancer. As the breast is composed of tissues with very soft composition and densities, it increases the difficulty to detect small changes in the normal anatomical structures that may be associated with breast cancer. To achieve the standards of resolution and contrast for mammography, the quality and intensity of the X-ray beam, the breast positioning and compression, the film screen system, and the film processing must be in optimal operational conditions. This study intended to evaluate the mean glandular dose of patients undergoing routine exams in one mammography unit. Patient image analyses were done by a radiologist doctor who took into account 10 evaluation criteria for each CC and MLO incidences. For estimating each patient glandular dose the radiographic technique parameters (kV and mAs) and the thickness of the compressed breast were recorded. European image quality criteria were adopted by the radiologist doctor to accept the image for diagnostic purpose. For breast densities of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues the incident air-kerma was measured and the glandular dose calculated considering the x-ray output during the exam. In the study of 50 patients the mean glandular dose varied from 0.90 to 3.27 mGy with a mean value of 1.98 mGy for CC incidences. For MLO incidences the mean glandular doses ranged from 0.97 to 3.98 mGy and a mean value of 2.60 mGy. (author)

  3. The nonvolatile metabolome of sunflower linear glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Otmar; Pfannstiel, Jens; Klaiber, Iris; Conrad, Jürgen; Beifuß, Uwe; Apel, Lysanne; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Zipper, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    Uniseriate linear glandular trichomes occur on stems, leaves and flowering parts of Helianthus species and related taxa. Their metabolic activity and biological function are still poorly understood. A phytochemical study documented the accumulation of bisabolene type sesquiterpenes and flavonoids as the major constituents of the non-volatile metabolome of linear glandular trichomes in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Besides known sesquiterpenes of the glandulone, helibisabonol and heliannuol type, four previously undescribed sesquiterpenes named glandulone D, E, F and helibisabonol C were identified by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, four known nevadensin type flavonoids varying in O-methoxy substitutions were found. None of them has previously been reported from Helianthus annuus. PMID:26412774

  4. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  5. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7]. PMID:17396957

  6. Phytochemical Contents of Five Artemisia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Murat KURSAT; Irfan EMRE; Okkeş YILMAZ; Semsettin CIVELEK; Ersin DEMIR; Ismail TURKOGLU

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the fatty acid compositions, vitamin, sterol contents and flavonoid constituents of five Turkish Artemisia species (A. armeniaca, A. incana , A. tournefortiana, A. haussknechtii and A. scoparia) were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. The results of the fatty acid analysis showed that Artemisia species possess high saturated fatty acid compositions. On the other hand, the studied Artemisia species were found to have low vitamin and sterol contents. Eight flavononids ...

  7. FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES OF ARTEMISIA AROMATIC PLANTS TOWARDS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    OpenAIRE

    Ivashchenko Iryna Vіctorovna

    2015-01-01

    The article establishes the fungicidal activity of water extracts of Artemisia maritimа L., Artemisia austriaca Jacq., under the concentration of 100, 50 and 25 mg/ml on dry matter with regard to the phytopathogenic mushroom Fusarium oxysporum. It also shows the fungistatic influence of extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. under concentration 25 and 50 mg/ml, fungicidal – under 100 mg/ml. Concerning Artemisia abrotanum L., the slow growth of mushroom is observed under the concentration 25 mg/m...

  8. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S Z; Andola, H C; Mohan, M

    2012-05-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34%) followed by α-thujone (9.91%) and 1,8-cineole (6.57%), Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%), whereas ar-curcumene (8.54%) was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%). Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes. PMID:23439844

  9. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of artemisia ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Z Haider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34% followed by α-thujone (9.91% and 1,8-cineole (6.57%, Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%, whereas ar-curcumene (8.54% was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%. Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes.

  10. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Obistioiu, Diana; Cristina, Romeo T; Schmerold, Ivo; Chizzola, Remigius; Stolze, Klaus; Nichita, Ileana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of essential oils is reported to have significant activity against Candida albicans. But the different chemical composition influences the degree of their activity. The intention of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the activity against Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect aga...

  11. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  12. Giant cardiac myxoma with malignant transformed glandular structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhardt, Boris P.; Stuckmann, Gerd; Zollikofer, Christoph L. [Institute of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Dommann-Scherrer, Corina C. [Insitute of Pathology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Wentz, Klaus U. [Institute of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Medical Faculty, University of Witten/Herdecke, Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50, 58448 Witten (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    A case of a right-sided giant cardiac myxoma with malignant transformation of glandular structures causing systemic metastases is described. Plain chest radiography and computed tomography localized the tumor within the heart. Exact depiction of the origin of the tumor using subtracted 2D-projection MR angiography is documented. Radiologic findings and differential diagnosis of this unique tumor are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Pulmonary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma mimicking adenocarcinoma: a case study and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Dongliang; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Jigang; Ding, Li; Xin, Fangjie; Zhao, Han; Li, Yujun

    2013-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. Here we present another case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma in a 64-year-old female nonsmoker. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly papillary structures covered with squamous, glandular and transitional epithelium. Some glandular structures extending into adjacent bronchiolar and alveolar spaces with mucus were similar to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed...

  14. Artemisia vulgaris L. ethanolic leaf extract reverses thrombocytopenia/ thrombocytosis and averts end-stage disease of experimental severe Plasmodium berghei murine malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayan S. Bamunuarachchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua is the most potent antimalarial against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We previously reported that the ethanolic leaf extract of Artemisia vulgaris, an invasive weed and the only Artemisia species in Sri Lanka, possess both potent and safe antimalarial activity (in terms of antiparasitic properties in a P. berghei murine malaria model. We report here a prototype study that investigated antidisease activities of A. vulgaris ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE in a P. berghei ANKA murine malaria model that elicit pathogenesis similar to falciparum malaria. Profound thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia in mice were detected in early-stage (Day 3, and at a later stage of infection (Day 6, respectively. Plasmodium berghei infected mice, 7 or 8 days post-infection reached end-stage disease with rapid drop in body temperature and usually die within 24 h, as a consequence of cerebral malaria. Methods: Three doses of the AVELE (500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg were used to assess antidisease activity of A. vulgaris in terms of survival, effects on thrombocyte related pathology and end-stage disease, antipyretic activity, and antinociception, using standard methodology. Results: The 1000 mg/kg dose of AVELE significantly increased survival, reversed the profound thrombocytopenia/ thrombocytosis (p ≤0.01, altered the end-stage disease (p ≤0.05, and manifested significant antipyretic and antinociceptive (p ≤0.05 activities. Interpretation & conclusion: We conclude that a crude ethanolic leaf extract of A. vulgaris, showed potent antimalarial properties, in terms of antidisease activities; antipyretic activity, peripheral and central antinociception, increased survival, averted end-stage disease and reversed hrombocytopenia/thrombocytosis.

  15. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Dilshad

    Full Text Available The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW. There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g, artesunate (2.24μg/g, dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g and artemether (12.8μg/g. Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS, cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1, with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1 showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism.

  16. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Ramirez Estrada, Karla; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW). There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g), artesunate (2.24μg/g), dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g) and artemether (12.8μg/g). Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1) showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism. PMID:26444558

  17. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col Seccion XVI, Mexico, D. F., C. P. 14080 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  18. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  19. Distribution of DMT 1 within the human glandular system

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, R.O.; H. Zoller; Theurl, I.; Obrist, P.; Egg, G.; Strohmayer, W.; Vogel, W.; Weiss, G. (Günter)

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: DMT1 is a transmembrane protein which transports the divalent metal ions Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+. Although DMT1 has been functionally linked to duodenal absorption and cellular utilisation of iron hardly anything is known about its distribution and potential role within the human glandular system. Methods: Two polyclonal antibodies were raised to study the expression of DMT1 in tissues obtained from human corpus by the means of immunocy...

  20. The glandular odontogenic jaw cyst: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, N W; Joseph, B K; Monsour, P A; Young, W G

    1996-11-01

    A case of a rare odontogenic cyst arising in the lateral periodontal membrane in the mandible in a 14 year old girl is reported. This lesion appeared to be a new entity and has been named glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) or sialo-odontogenic cyst. Histologically the lesion was lined by mucous producing cuboidal epithelium containing several areas of thickening and numerous duct-like structures. The cyst recurred with the same histology two years postoperatively.

  1. Genetic basis for glandular trichome formation in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Hu, Yan; Yang, Changqing; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Wan, Qun; Liang, Wenhua; Mei, Gaofu; Wang, Lingjian; Wang, Haiping; Ding, Linyun; Dong, Chenguang; Pan, Mengqiao; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Shuqi; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Guan, Xueying; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes originate from epidermal cells and can be classified as either glandular or non-glandular. Gossypium species are characterized by the presence of small and darkly pigmented lysigenous glands that contain large amounts of gossypol. Here, using a dominant glandless mutant, we characterize GoPGF, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor, that we propose is a positive regulator of gland formation. Silencing GoPGF leads to a completely glandless phenotype. A single nucleotide insertion in GoPGF, introducing a premature stop codon is found in the duplicate recessive glandless mutant (gl2gl3). The characterization of GoPGF helps to unravel the regulatory network of glandular structure biogenesis, and has implications for understanding the production of secondary metabolites in glands. It also provides a potential molecular basis to generate glandless seed and glanded cotton to not only supply fibre and oil but also provide a source of protein for human consumption. PMID:26795254

  2. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  3. New method for generating breast models featuring glandular tissue spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Oliveira, M. A.; Teixeira, M. H. A.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mammography is the main radiographic technique used for breast imaging. A major concern with mammographic imaging is the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer due to the high sensitivity of breast tissue. The mean glandular dose (DG) is the dosimetric quantity widely accepted to characterize the risk of radiation induced cancer. Previous studies have concluded that DG depends not only on the breast glandular content but also on the spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. In this work, a new method for generating computational breast models featuring skin composition and glandular tissue distribution from patients undergoing digital mammography is proposed. Such models allow a more accurate way of calculating individualized breast glandular doses taking into consideration the glandular tissue fraction. Sixteen breast models of four patients with different glandularity breasts were simulated and the results were compared with those obtained from recommended DG conversion factors. The results show that the internationally recommended conversion factors may be overestimating the mean glandular dose to less dense breasts and underestimating the mean glandular dose for denser breasts. The methodology described in this work constitutes a powerful tool for breast dosimetry, especially for risk studies.

  4. Population Responses of Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to Insecticide in Glandular-Haired and Non-glandular-Haired Alfalfa Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, R Mark; McCormick, John S; Hammond, Ronald B; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of glandular-haired alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to reduce potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, population abundance in field environments. We measured potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance and yield responses in a cultivar selected for high potato leafhopper resistance ('54H91') and in a non-glandular-haired susceptible cultivar ('54V54') with and without insecticide treatment across 3 yr. Treatments included no insecticide and insecticide applied either early or late in each summer growth cycle. Date × cultivar × treatment interactions were found for potato leafhopper population abundance. In the absence of insecticides, total potato leafhopper abundance (adults + nymphs per sweep) was lower in 54H91 than in 54V54 on 85% of sampling dates; cultivar differences were especially evident as potato leafhopper abundance peaked. Insecticide treatment reduced potato leafhopper populations in both cultivars, but populations recovered and often exceeded the normal action threshold in both cultivars within 2-3 wk of insecticide application. Yield gain from early insecticide treatment of 54V54 was >400 kg/ha in 11 of 14 summer harvests, whereas in 54H91 the yield gain was potato leafhopper resistance significantly suppress potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance, reduce yield losses in the absence of insecticides, and have potential within an integrated pest management strategy to reduce insecticide use in alfalfa production systems. PMID:26470072

  5. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients; Dosis glandular en examenes de tomosintesis de mama: estudio preliminar con una muestra de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  6. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  7. GLANDULAR HAIRS, NON-GLANDULAR HAIRS, AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN THE WINTER AND SUMMER LEAVES OF THE SEASONALLY DIMORPHIC THYMUS SIBTHORPII (LAMIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSABALIDIS ARTEMIOS Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the glandular and non-glandular hairs, and also the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in the winter and summer leaves of the seasonally dimorphic plant Thymus sibthorpii were studied. Glandular hairs comprise peltate hairs only (capitate hairs are missing. Peltate hairs are the sites of essential oil biosynthesis. They are more numerous in the winter leaves than in the summer leaves and consist of a 12-celled secretory head, a unicellular stalk, and an also unicellular epidermal foot. The essential oil of the winter leaves is mainly composed of linalool (42.4%, thymol (7.0%, p-cymene (5.8%, β-caryophyllene (5.7%, borneol (5.6%, and terpinen-4-ol (4.8%. The oil of the summer leaves is principally constituted of p-cymene (25.0%, linalool (19.1%, terpinen-4-ol (8.5% and borneol (8.3%. Non-glandular hairs proliferate in the summer leaves. They are conical in shape and consist of one basal epidermal cell and one apical pointed cell. Glandular and non-glandular hairs are implicated in the chemical and mechanical defense of the plant, respectively.

  8. Urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of squamous and glandular epithelium of the cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; van Westering, RP; Kok, LP

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The large data bases of the Dutch cervical screening program can be exploited to establish the relation between urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of the squamous and glandular epithelium, including mild or greater changes of the squamous and glandular epithelium of the cerv

  9. Retinol oxidation to retinoic acid in human thyroid glandular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, Gennaro; Gueli, Maria Concetta; Nicotra, Concetta M A; Cocciadiferro, Letizia; Carruba, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Retinoic acid is regarded as the retinol metabolite that controls proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) in retinoic acid biosynthesis in human thyroid glandular cells (HTGC). In particular, we observed that cellular retinoids binding proteins (CRBPs) are also implicated in the biosynthetic pathway leading to retinoic acid formation in primary cultures of HTGC, as we have already reported for human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). After partial protein purification, the enzyme responsible for retinoic acid biosynthesis was identified and quantified as XDH by immunoassay, by its ability to oxidize xanthine to uric acid and its sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of oxypurinol. The evidence of XDH-driven formation of retinoic acid in HTGC cultures further corroborates the potential role of XDH in retinoic acid biosynthesis in the epithelia. PMID:24506204

  10. Additional factors for the estimation of mean glandular breast dose using the UK mammography dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK and European protocols for mammographic dosimetry use conversion factors that relate incident air kerma to the mean glandular dose (MGD) within the breast. The conversion factors currently used were obtained by computer simulation of a model breast with a composition of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues by weight (50% glandularity). Relative conversion factors have been calculated which allow the extension of the protocols to breasts of varying glandularity and for a wider range of mammographic x-ray spectra. The data have also been extended to breasts of a compressed thickness of 11 cm. To facilitate the calculation of MGD in patient surveys, typical breast glandularities are tabulated for women in the age ranges 40-49 and 50-64 years, and for breasts in the thickness range 2-11 cm. In addition, tables of equivalent thickness of polymethyl methacrylate have been provided to allow the simulation for dosimetric purposes of typical breasts of various thicknesses. (author)

  11. Comparison Antitussive Activity Echinacea and Artemisia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esmailirad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to some pharmacological effects of Echinacea and Artemisia, the aim of present study was comparison their potential antitussive effect. Four groups of mice were used and received normal saline, dextromethorphan, Echinacea extract and Artemisia extract respectively before cough induction. Cough was induced in a 1000 mL special glass chamber with ammonium hydroxide (1 mL of 5% solution cotton ball. The numbers of cough were counted when mouse was kept for 2 min into the chamber and 5 min out of it. The mean of cough was significantly decreased by dextromethorphan, Echinacea extract and Artemisia extract. But there was no difference between effects of these agents statistically.

  12. Breast Glandularity in Malaysian Women from a Full-Field Digital Mammography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is undertaken to estimate breast glandularity in Malaysian women from a Full-Field Digital mammography System. This study involved 223 women (Malay=100;Chinese=101 and Indian=22) underwent voluntary screening mammography at Breast Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM Breast Centre) for the first quarter of year 2009. Those are women aged between 31 to 69 years old (median age, 49 years). Data on miliampere-seconds, kilo voltage and compressed breast thickness for each cranio caudal view are used to estimate breast glandularity for an individual breast. Breast glandularity is calculated using the fitted equation reported earlier. The difference in breast glandularity among ethnic groups was tested for significance using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The average breast glandularity estimated in our study, using FFDM system is 52.94±27.63 %. No significant difference was seen in breast glandularity among the ethnic groups (p>0.05, Kruskan Wallis test). Breast glandularity decrease as age increases, up to 60 years old. (author)

  13. Analysis Chemical Components of Volatile Oil from Artemisia anaua L.%青蒿挥发油化学成分的分析测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿梅

    2001-01-01

    青蒿[1]Artemisia annua L.又名香蒿,为菊科植物青蒿或黄花蒿的全草.分布辽宁、河北、山东、山西、江苏、广东等地.青蒿在我国各地均有大量野生,资源丰富,本植物的根(青蒿根),果实(青蒿籽)均可供药用,青蒿具有抗疟、抗血吸虫、解热、镇痛及退虚热、和胃止痛等功效.青蒿的主要成分有苦味质、挥发油和青蒿碱、维生素A等.为探讨其挥发油的成分,我们对青蒿全草进行挥发油的提取,并用GC-MS进行测定分析,从中鉴定出44个化合物.……

  14. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgNhetero) and homogeneous (pDgNhomo) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgNhetero coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgNhomo coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgNhetero relative to pDgNhomo of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the compressed breast width in the superior and

  15. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  16. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; ZHANG Xue-ke; WU Nan; FU Yu-jie; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves. The sample of the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. From 18 compounds representing the oils, Eucalyptole (18.42%), Spathulenol (14.32), 4-Methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-ol (3.10%), 3-Carene (2.64%) appeared as the main components. The screening of antimicro bial activity of the essential oil was evaluated using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Gram-positive bacterial were more sensitive than gram-negative bacterial of the 8 microorganisms, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 showed the lowest MIC (0.3125%) and MBC (0.625%). In the disc diffusion assay, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49134 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 showed obvious inhibitory activity. Survival curve showed that, 2MIC ofArtemisiae argyi essential oil had a lethal effect on Candida albicans within the first 1 h. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil of Artemisiae argyi leaves possesses antimicrobial properties, and provides scientific foundations for exploition ofArtemisiae argyi.

  17. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  18. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  19. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned;

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providi...

  20. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  1. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Mongolia medicine Artemisia frigida and phylogenetic relationships with other plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. CONCLUSION: The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome

  2. Creating of a plant compositions considering the Allelopathic activity of the Artemisia absinthium

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kornilova

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with Allelopathic impact of Artemisia absinthium L. on the growth and development of other kinds of medicinal plants. The effect of water extract of Artemisia absinthium L. on ge-rmination of seeds of medicinal plants has been studied. It has been determined, that extracts from Artemisia absinthium L. are characterized by significant Allelopathic activity and this kind can be sown from seed Calendula officinalis L., Lophanthus anisatus Benht., Hyssopus officinalis L, Salvia s...

  3. Mutagenic, Anti-Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide), in vitro, extracted from Artemisia diffusa

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artediffusin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide group which has been isolated from Artemisia diffusa. Artemisia has always been of great botanical and pharmaceutical interest and is useful in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases and complaints. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide) extracted from Artemisia diffusa. Methods: Cytotoxicity was meas...

  4. Effect of varying ratios of produced water and municipal water on soil characteristics, plant biomass, and secondary metabolites of Artemisia annua and Panicum virgatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal-bed natural gas production in the U.S. in 2012 was 1,655 billion cubic feet (bcf). A by-product of this production is co-produced water, which is categorized as a waste product by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effects of varying concentrations of coal-bed methane (produced) water wer...

  5. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  6. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However,it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is

  7. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on xenic bacteria isolated from clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, Ida; Hess, Claudia; Liebhart, Dieter;

    Infection with the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis in poultry has re-emerged since the ban of effective drugs. Consequently efforts are set to find alternatives to chemotherapeutics to combat histomonosis. At present histomonads need accompanying bacteria when cultured in vitro, probably serving...... with the antibacterial tests, it is reasonable to assume that the observed inhibitory effect of the tested materials is attributed to a direct effect on the protozoa. However, the potential of these materials on histomonosis has been tested in vivo in chickens and in turkeys without success....

  8. Chitosan oligosaccharide and salicylic acid up-regulate gene expression differently in relation to the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Heng; Kjær, Anders; Fretté, Xavier;

    2012-01-01

    oligosaccharide (COS) and salicylic acid (SA) on both artemisinin production and gene expression related to the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin. COS up-regulated the transcriptional levels of the genes ADS and TTG1 2.5 fold and 1.8 fold after 48 h individually, whereas SA only up-regulated ADS 2.0 fold after...

  9. Isolation and identification of a new flavonoid glycoside from Carrichtera annua L. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A.; Abdelshafeek, Khaled A.; Husseiny, Husseiny A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids are a major group of constituents and are assumed to be among the beneficial components. Recently, they have also received considerable interest as components of foodstuffs and nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Materials and Methods: About 500 g of air-dried powdered seeds of C. annua were defatted seeds and extracted with 70% methanol. The combined methanol extract was partitioned with chloroform and n-butanol. The butanol extract w...

  10. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Singhai AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martyniaannua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods: Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results: The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.

  11. Anthelmintic properties of extracts from Artemisia plants against nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Afshan, K; Mirza, B; Miller, J E; Manan, A; Irum, S; Rizvi, S S R; Qayyum, M

    2015-06-01

    Artemisia plant genus, natural inhabitant of northern Punjab Pakistan, is well known for its anthelmintic properties; many Artemisia species have not been so far scientifically proved. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia indica and Artemisia roxburghiana against mixed infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study is first scientifically proven study on anthelmintic activity of A. indica and A. roxburghiana. Five different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.75 mg/mL) accompanied by negative control (PBS) and positive control (albendazole, 10%) were used to carry out the egg hatch inhibition assay, larval mortality assay and adult worm mortality assay. The Baermann technique was used first time in larval mortality assay and proved to be effective. The results revealed that methanolic extracts of both A. indica and A. roxburghiana, showed maximum anthelmintic activity at concentration of 50 mg/ml by egg hatch inhibition (85±21.2; 80±28.3), larvae mortality (18±2.8; 17±4.2) and adult worm mortality (8.5±2.1; 8±2.8) assays. However, at concentration of 50 mg/ml both plant extracts in comparison to albendazole showed statistically insignificant (p≤0.05) results. The A. indica showed higher anthelmintic activity at all concentrations as compared to A. roburghiana. It has been concluded both plants exhibit anthelmintic activity and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out to purify the active ingredients for anthelmintic activity. Moreover, the decoctions of these plants could be used to GINs after confirming anthelmintic properties through in vivo.

  12. Phenolic Derivatives of Artemisia Spicigera C. Koch Growing in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati Afshar, Fariba; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Khodaie, Laleh; Bamdad Moghaddam, Seddigheh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine phenolic compounds of Artemisia spicigera (family Asteraceae) growing in East-Azarbaijan province of Iran. 20%, 40 % and 60% SPE fractions of methanolic extract of A. spicigera, were subjected to reversed phase preparative HPLC, with the mobile phase consisted of methanol and water. Structural identification of phytochemicals by spectroscopic methods including UV and NMR spectroscopy, yielded 4, 6-di methoxy acetophenone-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from 20%, 5-methox...

  13. Efficacy of Artemisia afra phytotherapy in experimental tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ntutela, Siyabulela; Smith, Pete; Matika, Lungile; Mukinda, James; Arendse, Hiram; Allie, Nasiema; Estes, D. Mark; Mabusela, Wilfred; Folb, Peter; Steyn, Lafras; Johnson, Quinton; Folk, William R.; Syce, James; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2009-01-01

    Artemisia afra [Jacq] (Asteraceae) phytotherapy is widely used for its medicinal properties in traditional practices. In this study we investigated whether extracts of A. afra are capable of controlling mycobacterial replication. For Mycobacterium aurum cultured in the presence of aqueous-, methanol- and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of A. afra we found that bacterial replication was inhibited by the dichloromethane extract only. Activity of the DCM extract was confirmed in dose-dependent st...

  14. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  15. New Polyphenols Identified in Artemisiae abrotani herba Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Baiceanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia abrotanum L. (“southernwood” belongs to the Artemisia genus and it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of illnesses. Scarce data is available on the chemical composition of this medicinal plant, most research being focused on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of its essential oil. Our aim was to investigate the content and profile of polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives present in the Artemisiae abrotani herba extract. We conducted LC/MS analysis and we screened for 19 polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. We determined the total content of these compounds and we screened for antioxidant activity. Most polyphenol acids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified for the first time in this study. We found an original polyphenol distribution profile with high concentration of sinapic acid, rutin, quercetol, ferulic acid and patuletin. We measured the antioxidant activity, the ethanolic extract presenting a modest radical scavenging activity. The value of this study consists in its novelty as it adds new data on the chemical composition of A. abrotanum L. and it opens novel perspectives for medical and nutritional applications of this plant.

  16. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  17. Next generation sequencing unravels the biosynthetic ability of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) peltate glandular trichomes through comparative transcriptomics

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jingjing; Panicker, Deepa; Wang, Qian; Kim, Mi Jung; Liu, Jun; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant glandular trichomes are chemical factories with specialized metabolic capabilities to produce diverse compounds. Aromatic mint plants produce valuable essential oil in specialised glandular trichomes known as peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Here, we performed next generation transcriptome sequencing of different tissues of Mentha spicata (spearmint) to identify differentially expressed transcripts specific to PGT. Our results provide a comprehensive overview of PGT’s dynam...

  18. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura]. E-mail: wrmaluf@ufla.br; fuminoue@yahoo.com.br; raphaelufla@yahoo.com.br; laagomes@ufla.br; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: emcastro@ufla.br; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mcardoso@ufla.br

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  19. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  20. Evaluation of subject contrast and normalized average glandular dose by semi-analytical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, two semi-analytical models are described to evaluate the subject contrast of nodules and the normalized average glandular dose in mammography. Both models were used to study the influence of some parameters, such as breast characteristics (thickness and composition) and incident spectra (kVp and target-filter combination) on the subject contrast of a nodule and on the normalized average glandular dose. From the subject contrast results, detection limits of nodules were also determined. Our results are in good agreement with those reported by other authors, who had used Monte Carlo simulation, showing the robustness of our semi-analytical method.

  1. Effect of anode/filter combination on average glandular dose in mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Biegala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the mean glandular doses was conducted in 100 female patients who underwent screening mammography in 2011 and 2013. Siemens Mammomat Novation with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination was used in 2011, whereas in 2013 anode/filter combination was Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh. The functioning of mammography was checked and the effectiveness of the automatic exposure control (AEC system was verified by measuring compensation of changes in the phantom thickness and measuring tube voltage. On the base of exposure parameters, an average glandular dose for each of 100 female patients was estimated. The images obtained by using AEC system had the acceptable threshold contrast visibility irrespective of the applied anode/filter combination. Mean glandular doses in the females, examined with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination, were on average 23.6% lower than that of the Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh anode/filter combinations. It is recommended to use a combination of the W/Rh anode /filter which exhibited lower mean glandular doses.

  2. Biochemical and histochemical localization of monoterpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershenzon, J.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (-)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C{sub 10} isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (-)-limonene, hydroxylation to (-)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates.

  3. Peltate glandular trichomes of Colquhounia seguinii harbor new defensive clerodane diterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Huan; Liu, Yan; Hua, Juan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are considered as major defensive chemicals against herbivore attack. The morphology and secondary metabolites of the peltate glandular trichomes of a lianoid Labiatae, Colquhounia seguinii Vaniot, were investigated. Three new clerodane diterpenoids, seguiniilactones A-C (1-3), were identified through precise trichome collection with laser microdissection, metabolic analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer, target compound isolation with classical phytochemical techniques, structure elucidation with spectroscopic methods. All compounds showed significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect Spodoptera exigua. Seguiniilactone A (1) was approximately 17-fold more potent than the commercial neem oil. α-Substituted α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone functionality was found to be crucial for strong antifeedant activity of this class of compounds. Quantitative results indicated that the levels of these compounds in the peltate glandular trichomes and leaves were sufficiently high to deter the feeding by generalist insects. Moderate antifungal activity was observed for seguiniilactone C (3) against six predominant fungal species isolated from the diseased leaves of C. seguinii, while seguiniilactones A and B were generally inactive. These findings suggested that seguiniilactones A-C might be specialized secondary metabolites in peltate glandular trichomes for the plant defense against insect herbivores and pathogens. PMID:25048077

  4. Expression of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of non-pregnant human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Ye; XU Peng; WEN Hai-xia; KONG Xian-chao; GUAN Li-li; LI Pei-ling

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleophosmin plays a critical role in embryonic development. This study aimed to examine the expression pattern of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of human endometrium during the menstrual cycle.Methods Endometrial tissues used for this study were obtained from 46 non-pregnant patients who underwent hysterectomy which had been performed to treat benign diseases. Nucleophosmin expression was assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Results At the early-, mid- and late-proliferative phase, nucleophosmin mRNA was highly expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium. At the secretory phase, the expression of nucleophosmin mRNA was reduced in glandular epithelium in early-secretory phase, and the expression in mid- and late-secretory phases was not detected.Similarly, nucleophosmin protein was strongly expressed in endometrial glands throughout the proliferative phase, but was gradually reduced during secretory phase.Conclusion Nucleophosmin mRNA and protein are expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle.

  5. Peltate glandular trichomes of Colquhounia seguinii harbor new defensive clerodane diterpenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Huan Li; Yan Liu; Juan Hua; Shi-Hong Luo; Sheng-Hong Li

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are considered as major defen-sive chemicals against herbivore attack. The morphology and secondary metabolites of the peltate glandular trichomes of a lianoid Labiatae, Colquhounia seguinii Vaniot, were investigated. Three new clerodane diterpenoids, seguiniilac-tones A-C (1-3), were identified through precise trichome collection with laser microdissection, metabolic analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer, target compound isolation with classical phytochemical techniques, structure elucidation with spec-troscopic methods. All compounds showed significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect Spodoptera exigua. Seguiniilactone A (1) was approxi-mately 17-fold more potent than the commercial neem oil. a-Substituted a,b-unsaturated g-lactone functionality was found to be crucial for strong antifeedant activity of this class of compounds. Quantitative results indicated that the levels of these compounds in the peltate glandular trichomes and leaves were sufficiently high to deter the feeding by generalist insects. Moderate antifungal activity was ob-served for seguiniilactone C (3) against six predominant fungal species isolated from the diseased leaves of C. seguinii, while seguiniilactones A and B were generally inactive. These findings suggested that seguiniilactones A-C might be specialized secondary metabolites in peltate glandular trichomes for the plant defense against insect herbivores and pathogens.

  6. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. He...

  7. Engineering of Tomato Glandular Trichomes for the Production of Specialized Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortbeek, R W J; Xu, J; Ramirez, A; Spyropoulou, E; Diergaarde, P; Otten-Bruggeman, I; de Both, M; Nagel, R; Schmidt, A; Schuurink, R C; Bleeker, P M

    2016-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized tissues on the epidermis of many plant species. On tomato they synthesize, store, and emit a variety of metabolites such as terpenoids, which play a role in the interaction with insects. Glandular trichomes are excellent tissues for studying the biosynthesis of specialized plant metabolites and are especially suitable targets for metabolic engineering. Here we describe the strategy for engineering tomato glandular trichomes, first with a transient expression system to provide proof of trichome specificity of selected promoters. Using microparticle bombardment, the trichome specificity of a terpene-synthase promoter could be validated in a relatively fast way. Second, we describe a method for stable expression of genes of interest in trichomes. Trichome-specific expression of another terpene-synthase promoter driving the yellow-fluorescence protein-gene is presented. Finally, we describe a case of the overexpression of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS), specifically in tomato glandular trichomes, providing an important precursor in the biosynthetic pathway of sesquiterpenoids. FPS was targeted to the plastid aiming to engineer sesquiterpenoid production, but interestingly leading to a loss of monoterpenoid production in the transgenic tomato trichomes. With this example we show that trichomes are amenable to engineering though, even with knowledge of a biochemical pathway, the result of such engineering can be unexpected. PMID:27480691

  8. Genetic structure along a gaseous organic pollution gradient: a case study with Poa annua L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiaoyong; Li Ning; Shen Lang; Li Yuanyuan

    2003-08-01

    Genetic composition of Poa annua populations showed clinal change along an organic pollution gradient. - The population genetic composition of Poa annua L. was studied by starch electrophoresis along a transect running NE from an organic reagents factory at Shanghai, China. Five enzyme systems were stained. We have reached the following preliminary conclusions: (1) Organic pollution has dramatically changed genotypic frequencies at some loci of Poa annua populations. At polluted sites, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Sod-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote. Especially in the two nearest sites to pollution source, all the individuals were heterozygous at locus Sod-1. The data suggests that heterozygotes were more tolerant to organic pollution than homozygotes, indicating the fitness superiority of heterozygotes. (2) A tendency towards clinal changes of allele frequencies was found at some polymorphic loci. Frequencies of the common alleles at loci Sod-1, Me and Fe-1 increased as the distance to the pollution source increased. (3) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were much higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site (Botanic Park population), but genetic multiplicity (number of alleles per locus) was lower than for the control. (4) Most genetic variability was found within populations, and only 2.56% were among populations of the polluted series. However, 9.48% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations when including the Botanic Park population. The genetic identity between populations of the pollution series (0.9869-1.0000, mean 0.9941) was higher than those between the pollution series and the Botanic Park population. UPGMA divided the five populations into two groups. One contained the four polluted populations, and the other only contained the Botanic Park population.

  9. Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Lutz, Daíse; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Kolodziejczyk, Paul P

    2008-05-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from aerial parts of seven wild sages from Western Canada -Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia biennis Willd., Artemisia cana Pursh, Artemisia dracunculus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Artemisia longifolia Nutt. and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 110 components were identified accounting for 71.0-98.8% of the oil composition. High contents of 1,8-cineole (21.5-27.6%) and camphor (15.9-37.3%) were found in Artemisia cana, A. frigida, A. longifolia and A. ludoviciana oils. The oil of A. ludoviciana was also characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a 5-ethenyltetrahydro-5-methyl-2-furanyl moiety, of which davanone (11.5%) was the main component identified. A. absinthium oil was characterized by high amounts of myrcene (10.8%), trans-thujone (10.1%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (26.4%). A. biennis yielded an oil rich in (Z)-beta-ocimene (34.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (40.0%) and the acetylenes (11.0%) (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers. A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%). Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger. A. biennis oil was the most active against dermatophytes, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger, and A. absinthium oil the most active against Staphylococcus strains. In addition, antioxidant (beta-carotene/linoleate model) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were determined, and weak activities were found for these oils. PMID:18417176

  10. Mono- and sesquiterpenes and antifungal constituents from Artemisia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, R X; Lu, H; Wolfender, J L; Yu, T T; Zheng, W F; Yang, L; Gafner, S; Hostettmann, K

    1999-02-01

    In addition to beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin detected in all the investigated species, the extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii var. giraldii gave stigmasterol, daucosterol, sesamine, luteolin, eupafolin, hispidulin, eupatilin, belamcanidin, pinitol, artemin, ridentin, and a new antifungal monoterpene (named santolinylol) while that of the aerial parts of A. mongolica afforded sesamine, eupafolin, eupatilin, matricarin, and a new germacranolide (3-oxo-11 alpha H-germacra-1(10)E,4Z-dien-12,6 alpha-olide), and that of the aerial parts of A. vestita yielded stigmasterol, daucosterol, umbelliferone, scopolin, scoparone, and isoscopoletin-O-glucoside. Pinitol, first reisolated from Artemisia genus, was shown to inhibit the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Geotrichun candidum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Umbelliferone was also active against Candida tropicalis, A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. The flavones hispidulin and belamcanidin were almost equally inhibitory to the growth of A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum, and santolinylol to C. albicans, A. flavus, A. niger, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. In addition, ridentin was active against the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:10083848

  11. Two torymid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Torymidae developing on Artemisia gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two parasitoid wasps, Torymus artemisiae Mayr and Torymoides violaceus (Nikol’skaya, were reared on Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae galles, in central Iran. Torymus artemisiae and T. violaceus were developed from the gall midges: Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares and R. hispanica Tavares, respectively. The occurrence of these two parasitic wasps in Iran, and their associations with R. navasi and R. hispanica, are new. Data on the wasps’ biological associations and geographical distribution are provided. The parasitoid compositions of the genus Rhopalomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were also discussed.

  12. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Almeida Gonçalves; Aristéa Alves Azevedo; Wagner Campos Otoni

    2010-01-01

    Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de ...

  13. The effects of CO2 and nutrient enrichment on photosynthesis and growth of Poa annua in two consecutive generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Jones, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    We studied short- and long-term growth responses of Poa annua L. (Gramineae) at ambient and elevated (ambient +200 lmol mol 1) atmospheric CO2. In experiment 1 we compared plant growth during the early, vegetative and final, reproductive growth phases. Plant growth in elevated CO2 was significantly

  14. Effects of traffic pollution on the genetic structure of Poa annua L.populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; CHEN Xiao-yong; SHEN Lang; LI Yuan-yuan; CAI Yue-wei

    2004-01-01

    The genetic composition of Poa annua L. populations with a series of traffic pollution was studied by starch electrophoresis. Five enzyme systems were stained. The results showed that: (1) Traffic pollution can dramatically change genotypic frequencies at some loci of P. annua populations. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Fe-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote in some populations. (2) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site(Botanic Park population), but the increase was not related with the pollution extent. (3) Most genetic variation was found within populations, and only 6.21% was among populations of the polluted series. Slightly higher differentiation(FST=7.98%) was observed when the control population was included. (4) The calculated gene flow(Nm) is 2.8841 per generation. The mean of genetic identity is 0.9864 and the genetic distance average to 0.0138.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of the glandular breast dose for a digital breast tomosynthesis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a screening and diagnostic modality that acquires images of the breast at multiple angles during a short scan. The Selenia Dimensions (Hologic, Bedford, Mass) DBT system can perform both full-field digital mammography and DBT. The system acquires 15 projections over a 15 deg. angular range (from -7.5 deg. to +7.5 deg.). An important factor in determining the optimal imaging technique for breast tomosynthesis is the radiation dose. In breast imaging, the radiation dose of concern is that deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast because this is the tissue that has a risk of developing cancer. The concept of the normalised mean glandular dose (DgN) has been introduced as the metric for the dose in breast imaging. The DgN is difficult to measure. The Monte Carlo techniques offer an alternative method for a realistic estimation of the radiation dose. The purpose of this work was to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX technique to generate monoenergetic glandular dose data for estimating the breast tissue dose in tomosynthesis for arbitrary spectra as well as to observe the deposited radiation dose by projection on the glandular portion of the breast in a Selenia Dimensions DBT system. A Monte Carlo simulation of the system was developed to compute the DgN in a craniocaudal view. Monoenergetic X-ray beams from 10 to 49 keV in 1-keV increments were used. The simulation utilised the assumption of a homogeneous breast composition and three compositions (0 % glandular, 50 % glandular and 100 % glandular). The glandular and adipose tissue compositions were specified according ICRU Report 44. A skin layer of 4 mm was assumed to encapsulate the breast on all surfaces. The breast size was varied using the chest wall-to-nipple distance (CND) and compressed breast thickness (t). In this work, the authors assumed a CND of 5 cm and the thicknesses ranged from 2 to 8 cm, in steps of 2 cm. The fractional energy absorption increases (up to 44

  16. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  17. Comparison of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) procedures. Mean glandular dose (DG) values were derived from the incident air kerma (Ki) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients. Ki values were obtained through an ionization chamber positioned in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using appropriate exposure parameters. This work contributes to determine the reliable radiation dose received by the patients and compare DG values provided by this DBT system images. - Highlights: • Studies are needed to determine the dose of tomosynthesis (DBT) procedures. • Mean glandular dose (DG) results derived from the incident air kerma (Ki). • Ki values were obtained through an ionization chamber. • A DBT system was used with appropriate exposure parameters. • This work contributes to compare DG values provided by this DBT system images

  18. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of glandular dose in a dedicated breast CT system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao; WEI Long; ZHAO Wei; WANG Yan-Fang; SHU Hang; SUN Cui-Li; WEI Cun-Feng; CAO Da-Quan; QUE Jie-Min; SHI Rong-Jian

    2012-01-01

    A dedicated breast CT system (DBCT) is a new method for breast cancer detection proposed in recent years.In this paper,the glandular dose in the DBCT is simulated using the Monte Carlo method.The phantom shape is half ellipsoid,and a series of phantoms with different sizes,shapes and compositions were constructed. In order to optimize the spectra,monoenergy X-ray beams of 5-80 keV were used in simulation.The dose distribution of a breast phantom was studied:a higher energy beam generated more uniform distribution,and the outer parts got more dose than the inner parts.For polyenergtic spectra,four spectra of Al filters with different thicknesses were simulated,and the polyenergtic glandular dose was calculated as a spectral weighted combination of the monoenergetic dose.

  20. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Maluf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII, and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence to spider mites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção para maior densidade de tricomas glandulares na resistência (repelência ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae, em populações de tomate derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Foram avaliados 19 genótipos quanto à densidade de tricomas, que incluíram 12 derivados de populações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, obtidos a partir do cruzamento original L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Nas faces abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, realizaram-se as contagens e os tricomas foram classificados em glandulares tipo IV e VI, outros glandulares (tipo I e VII e não glandulares. A repelência aos ácaros foi medida pela distância média, percorrida pelo

  1. Glandular odontogenic cyst associated with ameloblastoma occupying maxillary sinus: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC is a rare entity with around 111 cases available in the literature. The occurrence of GOC with ameloblastoma as a collision tumor is rarest, and such a case poses problems in the form of diagnostic dilemma and management. The present case report describes and discusses a rare case of GOC with ameloblastomatous component occurring in right maxilla of a 54-year-old male patient with a chief complaint of painful swelling.

  2. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  3. Analysis of patient exposure dose for mammography. Estimation of average glandular dose in 1998 questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, patient exposure dose for mammography are varied because of a great demand for mammography, which non-palpable lesion can be detected, diffusion of special X-ray equipment, progress of CR and enlightenment or study on mammography in Japanese society of radiological technology. Therefore, the newest patient exposure dose obtained from '98 questionnaire carried out to the whole country in Japan was investigated. Furthermore, the average glandular dose based on '98 was compared with that of '93. The average glandular dose can be calculated from the product of the breast entrance skin exposure and DgN (the average glandular dose per unit entrance skin exposure). The breast entrance skin dose was estimated from the dose of 782 institutions in '98, which was calculated from data measured at 51 institutions in Tokai and Hokuriku area. DgN was used published table of 50% adipose-50% glandular breast composition and 4.2 cm breast thickness corresponding to measured half-value layer (HVL) on each tube voltages. Then, patient exposure dose for mammography was estimated from exposure condition (tube voltage, mAs value) obtained '98 questionnaire. The dose in '98 estimated 1.422 mGy was reduced that compared with in '93 estimated 1.610 mGy. The dose of '98 without grid was reduced about 30% of '93. The dose of 98 with grid was not any reduced than the dose of '93. However, the number of institution of '98 with grid was about 2.8 times than '93. The patient exposure dose for mammography was reduced approximately 10% during 5 years. There are probability that mammography with grid for guidance level will be 1.5 mGy. (author)

  4. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Yosuke Kawakami; Tamaki Toda; Toshinao Nishimura; Junichi Sakane; Kazuya Kuraoka; Kazuhiro Takehara; Tomoya Mizunoe; Kiyomi Taniyama

    2011-01-01

    Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC) that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 ca...

  5. The Study of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography in Yazd and the Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bouzarjomehri

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds/Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose (MGD resulting from mammography examinations in Yazd, southeastern Iran and to identify the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: This survey was conducted during May to December 2005 to estimate the MGD for women undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of dose, com-pressed breast thickness, glandular tissue content, and mammography technique used. The clinical data were collected from 946 mammograms taken from 246 women who were referred to four mammography centers. The mammography instruments in these centers were four modern units with a molybdenum anode and either molybdenum or rhodium filter. The exposure conditions of each mammogram were recorded. The breast glandular content of each mammogram was estimated by a radiologist. The MGD was calculated based on measuring the normalized entrance skin dose (ESD in air, Half Value Layer (HVL, kVp, mAs, breast thickness and glandular content. HVL, kVp and ESD were measured by a solid-state detector. The analytical method of Sobol et al. was used for calculation of MGD. Results: The mean±SD MGD per film was 1.2±0.6 mGy for craniocaudal and 1.63±0.9 mGy for mediolateral oblique views. The mean±SD MGD per woman was 5.57±3.1 mGy. A positive correlation was found between the beam HVL with MGD (r=0.38 and the breast thickness with MGD (r=0.5. Conclusion: The mean±SD MGD per film of 1.42±0.8 mGy in present study was lower than most of similar reports. However, the mean MGD per woman was higher than that in other studies.

  6. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odgerel Oidovsambuu

    Full Text Available VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Although Vsig1(-/Y ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  7. A computational approach to resolve cell level contributions to early glandular epithelial cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Park Sunwoo; Mostov Keith; Debnath Jayanta; Kim Sean HJ; Hunt C Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3D) embedded cell cultures provide an appropriate physiological environment to reconstruct features of early glandular epithelial cancer. Although these are orders of magnitude simpler than tissues, they too are complex systems that have proven challenging to understand. We used agent-based, discrete event simulation modeling methods to build working hypotheses of mechanisms of epithelial 3D culture phenotype and early cancer progression. Starting with a...

  8. The effects of Artemisia aucheri extract on hepatotoxicity induced by thioacetamide in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Rezaei; Shahnaz ShekarForoush; Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani; Hydar Aqababa; Ali Zarei; Maryam Azizi; Hasan Yarmahmodi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Liver is an important organ that is exposed to many oxidant and carcinogenic agents, thus antioxidant compounds are beneficial for liver health. Artemisia contains flavonoid compounds and anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to possessing terpene and sesquiterpene compounds, this plant has antioxidant properties. This study was done to investigate the effects of Artemisia plant extract on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Materials an...

  9. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AERIAL PARTS OF ARTEMISIA VULGARIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Praveen Kumar; Upadhyaya Kumud

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris is an annual herb plant is a very common medicinal plant used for the various ailments. The aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris is mainly found in north India (Uttarakhand) and then dried, extracted and calculate the percentage of yield. Phytochemical studies of the Hexane and methanolic extracts showed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, phytosterol, proteins and amino acid, tannin & phenolic compounds and flavonoids. It was concluded that the all extract contains more ...

  10. Searching for a trace of Artemisia campestris pollen in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Grewling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determinate whether Artemisia campestris was present in the vicinity of 8 pollen monitoring stations in Poland by examining temporal variations in daily average airborne Artemisia pollen data recorded by Hirst type volumetric traps. Three day moving averages of airborne Artemisia pollen were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results show that Artemisia pollen seasons in Poland generally display similar unimodal patterns (correlation coefficients r > 0.900; P < 0.05. The only exception was the Artemisia pollen concentration noted in the outskirts of Poznań (Morasko, where the bimodal pattern was revealed. Correlations between Artemisia pollen data recorded at Poznań-Morasko and the other Polish sites were the lowest in the investigated dataset; this was particularly noticeable in the second part of pollen season (r ~0.730. We show that the typical bimodal pattern in Artemisia pollen seasons, which is characteristic of the presence of both A. vulgaris (first peak and A. campestris (second peak, does not occur at the majority of sites in Poland and is restricted to the outskirts of Poznań. In fact, it was noted that the pollen monitoring site in Poznań-Centre, just 8 km from Morasko, only exhibited one peak (attributed to A. vulgaris. This shows that the influence of A. campestris on airborne pollen season curves is limited and can be largely disregarded. In addition, this study supports previous records showing that the spatial distribution of airborne Artemisia pollen within a city (urban-rural gradient can vary markedly, depending on the species composition.

  11. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. (authors)

  12. Average glandular dose with amorphous silicon full-field digital mammography - clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Determination of average glandular dose with a full-field digital mammography system using a flat-panel X-ray detector based on amorphous silicon technology for a large group of patients. Material and Methods: The patient group includes women who were examined in a 4-month period with the digital mammographic system Senographe 2000D. The number of women was 591 and the number of exposures was 1116; only cranio-caudal projections were considered. Various quantities, including entrance surface air kerma, tube loading, and compressed breast thickness, were determined during actual mammography. Average glandular dose was determined using conversion factors g for standard breast composition. Results: The mean average glandular dose was 1.51 mGy (0.66-4.05 mGy) for a single view. The mean compressed breast thickness was 55.7 mm. The mean age of patients was 55 years (34-81 years). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that full-field digital mammography with a flat-panel detector based on amorphous silicon needs about 25% less dose in comparison with conventional screen-film mammography. (orig.)

  13. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed.

  14. Artemisia santolinifolia enhances glutamatergic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Katie M; Ribnicky, David M; Rogers, Richard C; Hermann, Gerlinda E

    2014-10-17

    Artemisia extracts have been used as remedies for a variety of maladies related to metabolic and gastrointestinal control. Because the vagal afferent-nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) synapse regulates the same homeostatic functions affected by Artemisia, it is possible that these extracts may have activity at the synaptic level in the NST. Therefore, we evaluated how extracts of three common medicinal Artemisia species, Artemisia santolinifolia (SANT), Artemisia scoparia (SCO), and Artemisia dracunculus L (PMI-5011), modulate the excitability of the glutamatergic vagal afferent-NST synapse. Our in vitro live cell calcium imaging data from prelabeled vagal afferent terminals show that SANT extract is a positive modulator of vagal afferent calcium levels, as the extract significantly increased the calcium signal relative to the time control. Neither SCO nor PMI-5011 extract altered the vagal calcium signals compared to the time control. Furthermore, whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from NST neurons corroborated the vagal terminal calcium data in that SANT extract also significantly increased miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency in NST neurons. These data suggest that SANT extract could be a pharmacologically significant mediator of glutamatergic neurotransmission within the CNS. PMID:25220699

  15. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  16. Characterization of fibrillar collagens and extracellular matrix of glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Bauman

    Full Text Available Recent studies have associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men with prostatic fibrosis, but a definitive link between collagen deposition and LUTS has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate ECM and collagen content within normal glandular prostate tissue and glandular BPH, and to evaluate the association of clinical parameters of LUTS with collagen content.Fibrillar collagen and ECM content was assessed in normal prostate (48 patients and glandular BPH nodules (24 patients using Masson's trichrome stain and Picrosirius red stain. Second harmonic generation (SHG imaging was used to evaluate collagen content. Additional BPH tissues (n = 47 were stained with Picrosirius red and the association between clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS and collagen content was assessed.ECM was similar in normal prostate and BPH (p = 0.44. Total collagen content between normal prostate and glandular BPH was similar (p = 0.27, but a significant increase in thicker collagen bundles was observed in BPH (p = 0.045. Using SHG imaging, collagen content in BPH (mean intensity = 62.52; SEM = 2.74 was significantly higher than in normal prostate (51.77±3.49; p = 0.02. Total collagen content was not associated with treatment with finasteride (p = 0.47 or α-blockers (p = 0.52, pre-TURP AUA symptom index (p = 0.90, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.86, post-void residual (PVR; p = 0.32, prostate size (p = 0.21, or post-TURP PVR (p = 0.51. Collagen content was not associated with patient age in patients with BPH, however as men aged normal prostatic tissue had a decreased proportion of thick collagen bundles.The proportion of larger bundles of collagen, but not total collagen, is increased in BPH nodules, suggesting that these large fibers may play a role in BPH/LUTS. Total collagen content is independent of clinical parameters of BPH and LUTS. If fibrosis and overall ECM deposition are

  17. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  18. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Hao, Fuhua; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures. PMID:24098541

  19. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Mijović A.; Stavretović N.; Popović Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa a...

  20. Environ: E00355 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00355 Artemisia annua stem and leaf Crude drug Artemisinin [CPD:C09538], Artemisinic acid, Arte...misilactone, Artemisinol, Kaempferol [CPD:C05903], Coumarins, Comphene [CPD:C06076 C06304], 1,8...-Cineole [CPD:C09844], D-alpha-Cadinene [CPD:C16815], Caryophyllene epoxide [CPD:C16908], Cuminal, Artemisia alcohol, Arte...hyllene [CPD:C09629], gamma-Caryophyllene Artemisia annua [TAX:35608] Asteraceae (daisy family) Artemisia an...nua stem and leaf (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) E00355 Artemisia annua stem and leaf ...

  1. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  2. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  3. Effect of anode/filter combination on average glandular dose in mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Biegala; Teresa Jakubowska; Karolina Markowska

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the mean glandular doses was conducted in 100 female patients who underwent screening mammography in 2011 and 2013. Siemens Mammomat Novation with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination was used in 2011, whereas in 2013 anode/filter combination was Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh. The functioning of mammography was checked and the effectiveness of the automatic exposure control (AEC) system was verified by measuring compensation of changes in the phantom thickness and m...

  4. Epithelial cell proliferation and glandular atrophy in lymphocytic gastritis: Effect of H pylori treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanna M. Makinen; Seppo Niemela; Tuomo Kerola; Juhani Lehtola; Tuomo J. Karttunen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Lymphocytic gastritis is commonly ass ociated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The presence of glandular atrophy and foveolar hyperplasia in lymphocytic gastritis suggests abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation,forming a potential link with the suspected association with gastric cancer. Our aim was to compare epithelial cell proliferation and morphology in H pylori associated lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori gastritis without features of lymphocytic gastritis,and to evaluate the effect of H pylori treatment.METHODS: We studied 14 lymphocytic gastritis patients with H pylori infection. For controls, we selected 14 matched dyspeptic patients participating in another treatment trial whose H pylori infection had successfully been eradicated.Both groups were treated with a triple therapy and followed up with biopsies for 6-18 months (patients) or 3 months (controls). Blinded evaluation for histopathological features was carried out. To determine the cell proliferation index,the sections were labeled with Ki-67 antibody.RESULTS: Before treatment, lymphocytic gastritis was characterized by foveolar hyperplasia (P=0.001) and glandular atrophy in the body (P=0.008), and increased proliferation in both the body (P=0.001) and antrum (P=0.002). Proliferation correlated with foveolar hyperplasia and inflammation activity. After eradication therapy, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes decreased in the body (P=0.004)and antrum (P=0.065), remaining higher than in controls (P<0.001). Simultaneously, the proliferation index decreased in the body from 0.38 to 0.15 (P=0.043), and in the antrum from 0.34 to 0.20 (P=0.069), the antral index still being higher in lymphocytic gastritis than in controls (P=0.010).Foveolar hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in the body improved (P=0.021), reaching the non-LG level.CONCLUSION: In lymphocytic gastritis, excessive epithelial cell proliferation is predominantly present in the body, where it associates with

  5. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  6. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  7. Influence of mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on winter habitat for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; Johnson, Dustin D; Nafus, Aleta M

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time. Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height (P plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves (P winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  8. Administration of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine does not improve healing of glandular gastric ulceration in horses receiving omeprazole: a randomised, blinded, clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Ben W; Sykes, Katja M; Hallowell, Gayle D

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS) has recently increased in part due to a growing awareness of the differences between squamous and glandular disease. The pathophysiology and epidemiology of squamous and glandular disease are different and recently it has been shown that the response of glandular gastric ulceration to monotherapy with omeprazole is poor. Given these differences it has been recommended that specific treatment guidelines be formulated for equine glandu...

  9. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, DG. Measuring methods of DG were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of DG from the measurement of incident air kerma, Ki, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the DG measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  10. Morphological characterization of gland cells of the glandular sac area in the complex stomach of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerdunchaolu; Takehana, K; Kobayashi, A; Baiyin; Cao, G F; Andrén, A; Iwasa, K; Abe, M

    1999-07-01

    The morphology of the gland cells in the glandular sac area of the Bactrian camel and the composition of secretory substances were examined by histochemical methods. It was found that the gland cells of the glandular sac area were of the same type and size as those of the cardiac glands. The composition of secretory substances from the glandular sac area was the same as that of secretory substances from the cardiac glands. Moreover, secretory substances from the gland cells of the glandular sac area contained a great deal of acid glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid, in addition to neutral saccharides (fucose, mannose, glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamin, galactose and N-acetyl-galactosamin). Furthermore, immunohistochemical examination showed that progastricsin was present in the gland cells of the glandular sac area and the cardiac gland. In this study, histological analysis suggested that the stomach of the Bactrian camel is a single cavity stomach, formed as a result of multiple differentiation and growth of cardiac glands through the process of evolution.

  11. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds. PMID:26118418

  12. Metabolic profiling of antioxidants constituents in Artemisia selengensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Wang, Hui; Fu, Zhi-feng; Wen, Qing-hui; Fan, Dan

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Artemisia selengensis Turcz (AST) leaves, a byproduct when processing AST stalk, and identify the antioxidant constituents by using HPLC-QTOF-MS(2). The total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidant abilities of fractions resulted from the successively partition of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were compared. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited the highest TFC (65.44 mg QuE/g fraction), n-butanol fraction (nBuF) showed the highest TPC (384.78 mg GAE/g fraction) and the best DPPH scavenging ability, ABTS(+) scavenging ability and reducing power. Totally, 57 compounds were identified or tentatively identified in nBuF and EAF, 40 of them were reported in AST for the first time. The major constituents in EAF were flavonoids, and the major constituents in nBuF were phenolic acids and organic acids. Thus, AST leaves might be a potential low-cost resource of natural antioxidants.

  13. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Oliaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia Kopetdaghensis. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and ovary (Cho cell lines. The A. Kopetdaghensis had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥200 μg/mL significantly (P<0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/mL (P<0.01. Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. Kopetdaghensis in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  14. INDUCTION OF GASTRIC INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA OF GLANDULAR STOMACH OF MONGOLIAN GERBILS BY ELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Pin; GU Lian-kun; ZHOU Jing; WANG Ru-ming; ZHAO Zi-hou; DENG Da-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To setup an animal model of gastric carcinogenesis by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) for basic, prevention and therapeutic research of Hp-related diseases. Methods: 22 young male Mongolian gerbils were administrated with suspension of Hp strain TN2 by intragastric gavage for 5 consecutive times (4×108 CFU/time, 1 time/4 days). 10 male gerbils were used as negative control. Two infected gerbils were killed at 10, 20, and 30 weeks, respectively, after inoculation to monitor the development of gastric lesions. Other animals were killed at 40 experimental weeks.Pathological changes of glandular stomach were examined histologically. Results: Gastric intraepithelial neoplasias (GIN) and low-grade dysplasias were observed only in the pyloric antrum of Hp-treated gerbils (3 and 2 ones,respectively), but not in control group (5/13 vs. 0/10, P<0.04). High incidence of chronic active gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis were observed in Hp-treated animals (10/13, 76.9%). Low incidence of chronic atrophic gastritis was also detected in negative control gerbils (3/10, 30%; P<0.04). Conclusion: Hp inoculation could induce chronic inflammation and malignant lesions of the glandular stomach of Mongolian gerbils conveniently.

  15. A polynomial hyperelastic model for the mixture of fat and glandular tissue in female breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Gallego, Jose L; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    In the breast of adult women, glandular and fat tissues are intermingled and cannot be clearly distinguished. This work studies if this mixture can be treated as a homogenized tissue. A mechanical model is proposed for the mixture of tissues as a function of the fat content. Different distributions of individual tissues and geometries have been tried to verify the validity of the mixture model. A multiscale modelling approach was applied in a finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) of tissue, formed by randomly assigning fat or glandular elements to the mesh. Both types of tissues have been assumed as isotropic, quasi-incompressible hyperelastic materials, modelled with a polynomial strain energy function, like the homogenized model. The RVE was subjected to several load cases from which the constants of the polynomial function of the homogenized tissue were fitted in the least squares sense. The results confirm that the fat volume ratio is a key factor in determining the properties of the homogenized tissue, but the spatial distribution of fat is not so important. Finally, a simplified model of a breast was developed to check the validity of the homogenized model in a geometry similar to the actual one. PMID:25950862

  16. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  17. Average glandular dose in routine mammography screening using a Sectra Microdose Mammography unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sectra MicroDose Mammography system is based on direct photon counting (with a solid-state detector), and a substantially lower dose to the breast than when using conventional system can be expected. In this work absorbed dose measurements have been performed for the first unit used in routine mammography screening (at the Hospitals of Helsingborg (Sweden)). Two European protocols on dosimetry in mammography have been followed. Measurement of half value layer (HVL) cannot be performed as prescribed, but this study has demonstrated than non-invasive measurements of HVL can be performed accurately with a sensitive and well collimated solid-state detector with simultaneous correction for the energy dependence. The average glandular dose for a 50 mm standard breast with 50% glandularity, simulated by 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate, was found to be 0.21 and 0.28 mGy in March and December 2004, respectively. These values are much lower than for any other mammography system on the market today. It has to be stressed that the measurement were made using the current clinical settings and that no systematic optimisation of the relationship between absorbed dose and diagnostic image quality has been performed within the present study. In order to further increase the accuracy of absorbed dose measurements for this unit, the existing dose protocols should be revised to account also for the tungsten/aluminium anode/filter combination, the multi-slit pre-collimator device and the occurrence of a dose profile in the scanning direction. (authors)

  18. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF-κB and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies.

  19. Immunohistochemical evidence: testicular and scented glandular androgen synthesis in muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus during the breeding season

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    Q. Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the relationship between androgens and the function of the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus scented glands during the breeding season, we investigated immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 in the muskrat testes and scented glands. Nine adult muskrats were obtained in March (n=3, May (n=3 and July (n=3 2010. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal P450scc, human placental 3βHSD and porcine testicular P450c17. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature–phase spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules were observed in all testes. Glandular cells, interstitial cells, epithelial cells and excretory tubules were identified in scented glands during the breeding season. P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 were only identified in Leydig cells during the breeding season; P450scc and P450c17 were observed in glandular cells of scented glands, however, 3βHSD was not found in scented glands during the breeding season. These novel findings provide the first evidence showing that scented glands of the muskrats are capable of locally synthesizing androgens and androgens acting via an endocrine, autocrine or paracrine manner may play an important role in scented gland function during the breeding season.

  20. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  1. The Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica

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    A Mirzaei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Consumption of plant derived antioxidant contributes to reducing risks of certain chronic and degenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to study the antioxidant activities and total phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The Stem and flower sample of plants were air-dried, and then grinded and were finally extracted by ethanol: water (70: 30 for 48 h in room temperature. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum system. The antioxidant activity of three ethanol extract of the medicinal plants, Artemisia martima, Achillea millefolium and Matricaria recutica, were analyzed by five different methods (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2, 20azinobis- (3-ethylbenzthiazoline -6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation,Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power ( RP. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components, the total phenolic content was also analyzed. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: For all antioxidant activity assays, Artemisia martima had the highest antioxidant activity value and also total phenol content. Antioxidant capacity analyses revealed that the FRAP and DPPH had comparable results. Antioxidant activity at 1 mg/mL, in ABTS were in the order Artemisia martima> Achillea millefolium> Matricaria recutica. Similar trend was observed for PMB content. RP, FRAP and DPPH were in the order Artemisia martima> Matricaria recutica > Achillea millefolium . Conclusion: The extracts showed a variety of antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assay system. This study demonstrated that Artemisia martima crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  2. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  3. Poder pastoral, acomodo y terrtitorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

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    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen referencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para sondear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea.

  4. Is rapid evolution of reproductive traits in Adonis annua consistent with pollinator decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, M.; Imbert, E.; Cheptou, P.-O.

    2015-11-01

    Growing human footprint on the environment rapidly modifies the living conditions of natural populations. This could lead to phenotypic changes through both plasticity and evolution. Therefore, distinguishing the role of evolution in the phenotypic response to global change is a major challenge. In this study, we benefited from past and recent seeds from a population of the annual self-compatible weed Adonis annua. Seeds were sampled from the same locality at an 18 years interval and close to a region where reduction of bee pollinators' density has been reported. We used a common garden experiment to investigate evolutionary changes, between the old (1992) and the recent (2010) sample, for some reproductive traits expected to be under selection in the context of climate warming and pollinator decline. Plants of the recent sample flowered earlier, had larger flowers, but also evolved a shorter floral longevity. The capacity of plants to reproduce autonomously (autonomous selfing) was similar in the two samples. These results are consistent with adaptation of flowering phenology to climate warming and in part consistent with the evolution of increased pollinator attraction under pollinator decline. Together with other recent studies, this study provides evidence that short-term evolution is a frequent phenomenon accompanying global change.

  5. Isolation and identification of a new flavonoid glycoside from Carrichtera annua L. seeds

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    Abdelaaty A Shahat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids are a major group of constituents and are assumed to be among the beneficial components. Recently, they have also received considerable interest as components of foodstuffs and nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Materials and Methods: About 500 g of air-dried powdered seeds of C. annua were defatted seeds and extracted with 70% methanol. The combined methanol extract was partitioned with chloroform and n-butanol. The butanol extract was concentrated and subjected to column chromatography on polyamide. Results: The fraction eluted with aqueous methanol (40% and 50% was found to contain three main flavonoids (1, 2, and 3. Repeated column chromatography on polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 gave compound 1. Compounds 2 and 3 were further purified using preparative paper chromatography with 20% HOAc and Sephadex LH-20 column. Conclusions: Reinvestigation of the flavonoidal constituents of the butanol fraction of the aqueous methanolic extract of Carrichteraannua seeds led to isolation and identification of a new flavonoidal glycosidenamed as quercetin 3-O-[(6-sinapoyl-b-glucopyranosyl-(1;2-b-arabinopyranosyl]-7-O-b-glucopyranoside 1, in addition to, quarecetin-3-O-glucoside 2, isorhamnetin-3-O-b-runtinoside3, and isorhamnetin4.Structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV, MS, and 1 H and 13 C NMR.

  6. A Quality Assurance programme in mammography and an evaluation of the mean glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of X-ray in medicine for diagnosis represents the largest man-made sources of public exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore a reduction of medical exposure is desired without reduction of the diagnostic capability. Dose and image quality are essential component of a Quality Assurance (QA) programme in mammography where the characteristic of diagnostic signs, represented by microcalcifications and low contrast structures, and the radiosensitivity of the glandular tissue of the breast stress the need of QA programme. The paper describes QA procedures in mammography and reports the results obtained in more than 120 periodic tests, performed on 63 mammographic units of 41 centers. Moreover individual evaluation of entrance exposure are presented for 340 patients. The experimental data permits to evaluate the mean grandular absorbed dose in the single exams using different procedures based on Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  7. A case of glandular odontogenic cyst in the mandible treated with the dredging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Naomi; Ohba, Seigo; Uehara, Masataka; Fujita, Syuichi; Asahina, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare odontogenic cyst derived from the odontogenic epithelium. GOC shows unpredictable and potentially aggressive behavior. Although enucleation and curettage are applied in most cases, the recurrence rate remains relatively high. Because a standard care procedure for GOC has not been established, we propose a new treatment procedure for GOC. In this case report, we describe a 62-year-old Japanese woman who suffered from GOC arising at the anterior region of her mandible and who was treated using the dredging method. She underwent enucleation and curettage twice using the dredging method with preservation of the teeth, which were involved with the lesion, but the lesion recurred 2 years later. In addition to enucleation and curettage, apicoectomy of the teeth was performed with a third dredging method procedure, and prognosis has been good with no recurrence for 18 months since the last treatment. PMID:24374982

  8. Mammography equipment performance, image quality and mean glandular dose in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M; Badr, I; Royle, G J

    2013-09-01

    In this first Maltese national mammography survey, the effectiveness of direct digital (DR) mammography in breast cancer screening has been confirmed. Patient data were made available from three clinics out of the participating nine. A dose survey of mean glandular dose (MGD) calculated for 759 patients examined in the state-owned mammography facilities was performed. An MGD national diagnostic reference level was set at 1.87 mGy for patients with breast compression thicknesses (BCT) between 5.0 and 7.0 cm. This range was selected since patient data were retrieved from three clinics only and the results showed that other international BCT reference levels may be unsuitable for the Maltese population. In fact, the overall average BCT was 5.75 ± 1.4 cm. The survey results have shown that the technical standard of mammographic equipment in the Malta National Breast Screening Programme is on a par with other countries, including its Western European counterparts.

  9. Effect of filter on average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsaeng, C.; Krisanachinda, A.; Theerakul, K.

    2016-03-01

    To determine the average glandular dose and entrance surface air kerma in both phantoms and patients to assess image quality for different target-filters (W/Rh and W/Ag) in digital mammography system. The compressed breast thickness, compression force, average glandular dose, entrance surface air kerma, peak kilovoltage and tube current time were recorded and compared between W/Rh and W/Ag target filter. The CNR and the figure of merit were used to determine the effect of target filter on image quality. The mean AGD of the W/Rh target filter was 1.75 mGy, the mean ESAK was 6.67 mGy, the mean CBT was 54.1 mm, the mean CF was 14 1bs. The mean AGD of W/Ag target filter was 2.7 mGy, the mean ESAK was 12.6 mGy, the mean CBT was 75.5 mm, the mean CF was 15 1bs. In phantom study, the AGD was 1.2 mGy at 4 cm, 3.3 mGy at 6 cm and 3.83 mGy at 7 cm thickness. The FOM was 24.6, CNR was 9.02 at thickness 6 cm. The FOM was 18.4, CNR was 8.6 at thickness 7 cm. The AGD from Digital Mammogram system with W/Rh of thinner CBT was lower than the AGD from W/Ag target filter.

  10. Atypical glandular cells in conventional cervical smears: Incidence and follow-up

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    Knolle Ulrich

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical glandular cells on cervical smears are often associated with clinically significant uterine lesions. The frequency and accuracy of AGC-NOS (i.e. atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified diagnoses, regardless of the gland cell type or the degree of suspicion, and their outcome were investigated. Methods From January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1999 a total of 261 patients had an AGC-NOS diagnosis made by conventional cervical Papanicolaou smear interpretation representing 0.05% of all Pap-smears analyzed at the national level. 191 (73.2% patients had a subsequent histological examination, 8 samples were not representative by origin and were excluded. Results Out of 183 AGC-NOS diagnosed, 56.3% (103/183 were associated with tissue-proven precancerous and/or cancerous lesions, 44% being of endocervical and 56% of endometrial origin. 75% of all AGC-patients were asymptomatic. 66.7% (6/9 of the patients with subsequent invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma (AC and 56% (28/50 of those patients with invasive endometrial AC were without clinical symptoms. 3 patients out of 9 with an invasive endocervical AC were 35 years of age or less. 10.1% and 12.3% of all 'new' tissue-proven invasive endocervical or endometrial AC respectively recorded by the national Morphologic Tumour Registry (MTR were first identified by a cytological AGC-NOS diagnosis. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of the cytological AGC-category even in the absence of a precise origin or cell type specification. 56% of the AGC-diagnoses being associated with significant cancerous or precancerous conditions, a complete and careful evaluation is required.

  11. Clinical implications and histological correlation of atypical glandular cells found in cervicovaginal smears

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    Beliza Loos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atypical glandular cells (AGC are carriers of insufficient nuclear abnormalities for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, but exceed the criteria for classification as reactive glandular cells. This is an uncommon diagnosis, which may be associated with neoplastic lesions. Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of primary cytological diagnosis of AGC through correlation with results of subsequent cyto-histologic examination. Materials and methods: 10 years retrospective study based on cervical cytologic results indicating AGC, classified as "possibly non-neoplastic" or "cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion". It was performed cyto-histopathological correlation in cases that were submitted to subsequent histopathological examination up to two years after cervical cytology analysis. Results: AGC were reported in 380 (0.06% exams, providing 160 cases with subsequent biopsy. 85 (53.1% of these, presented benign changes and 75 (46.9% neoplastic lesions. From 114 "possibly non-neoplastic" cytological results, 71 (62.3% had benign histological changes, and 43 (37.7% neoplastic lesions, corresponding to a negative predictive value (NPV of 62.3%. In contrast, among the 46 AGC "cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion" results, 14 (30.4% presented benign changes and 32 (69.6% neoplastic lesions (positive predictive value [PPV] = 69.6%. Discussion: The high rate of cancer associated with the diagnosis of AGC reassures the importance of recognizing these atypical cells in pap smears. The classification of "possibly non-neoplastic" and "cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion" may suggest the origin of cytological changes. Conclusion: Our results reinforce the importance of adequate follow-up of patients with AGC diagnosis on cervical cytology.

  12. Glandular Proteome Identifies Antiprotease Cystatin C as a Critical Modulator of Airway Hydration and Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T Idil Apak; Joo, Nam Soo; Keiser, Nicholas W; Yan, Ziying; Tyler, Scott R; Xie, Weiliang; Zhang, Yulong; Hsiao, Jordy J; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Wright, Michael E; Wine, Jeffrey J; Engelhardt, John F

    2016-04-01

    Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel lead to viscous secretions from submucosal glands that cannot be properly hydrated and cleared by beating cilia in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. The mechanisms by which CFTR, and the predominant epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), control the hydration and clearance of glandular secretions remain unclear. We used a proteomics approach to characterize the proteins contained in CF and non-CF submucosal gland fluid droplets and found that differentially regulated proteases (cathepsin S and H) and their antiprotease (cystatin C) influenced the equilibration of fluid on the airway surface and tracheal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Contrary to prevailing models of airway hydration and clearance, cystatin C, or raising the airway surface liquid (ASL) pH, inhibited cathepsin-dependent ENaC-mediated fluid absorption and raised the height of ASL, and yet decreased MCC velocity. Importantly, coupling of both CFTR and ENaC activities were required for effective MCC and for effective ASL height equilibration after volume challenge. Cystatin C-inhibitable cathepsins controlled initial phases of ENaC-mediated fluid absorption, whereas CFTR activity was required to prevent ASL dehydration. Interestingly, CF airway epithelia absorbed fluid more slowly owing to reduced cysteine protease activity in the ASL but became abnormally dehydrated with time. Our findings demonstrate that, after volume challenge, pH-dependent protease-mediated coupling of CFTR and ENaC activities are required for rapid fluid equilibration at the airway surface and for effective MCC. These findings provide new insights into how glandular fluid secretions may be equilibrated at the airway surface and how this process may be impaired in CF. PMID:26334941

  13. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

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    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  14. Loss of essential oil of tarragon (Artemisia dranunculus L.) due to drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Müller, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hot air-drying on the essential oil constituents and yield in French and Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. The tarragon leaves were dried at air temperatures ranging from 40 to 90 °C. The drying stopped when the moisture content of the samples reached 10%

  15. Effect of Drying on the Color of Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Huisman, W.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Müller, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drying conditions on the color of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures of 40 to 90 °C with a constant airflow of 0.6 m/s. The samples were collected at 7%, 10%, 20%, and 30% moisture content wet basis for evaluation of the c

  16. Inhibitory Activity of Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil Against Fungal Species Isolated From Minced Meat

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    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Meat is an important source of several nutrients. The capability top of fresh meat to rot, causing the group of studies food science, biological and chemical stability meat consideration. Objectives This study was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil against fungal species isolated from minced meat. Materials and Methods Two types of media dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18 agar and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol (DRBC agar were selected for the mycological analysis of the minced meat samples. To evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils, the microdilution broth method based on the CLSI (M27A guideline was used. Results Artemisias spicigera essential oil has an inhibitory effect on the growth of fungi found in samples of minced meat. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most common genera on both medium types. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentration 50 = 1.88 µL/mL and MIC90 = 2 µL/mL were reported. The genus of Mucor with MIC = 1.0 µL/mL was the most sensitive and Aspergilus versicolor was the most resistant species to the essential oil with MIC = 4 µL/mL. Conclusions The results of the present study show a favorable inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil on fungal growth, especially Aspergillus species. According to the results, antifungal components of Artemisias spicigera in different forms are used to prevent fungal pollution.

  17. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a favorite herbal and medicinal plant. Drying is necessary to achieve longer shelf life with high quality, preserving the original flavor. Essential oil content and color are the most important parameters that define the quality of herbal and medicinal plants.

  18. Dendrochronology of Atriplex portulacoides and Artemisia maritima in Wadden Sea salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decuyper, M.; Slim, P.A.; Loon-Steensma, van J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study uses a rather unusual method, dendrochronology, to investigate the growth and survival of Atriplex portulacoides L. and Artemisia maritima L. on salt marshes at two field sites on the Dutch North Sea barrier islands of Terschelling and Ameland. By providing information on longevity of thes

  19. Volatile components of the aerial parts of Artemisia pontica L. grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Stojanova, A.S.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Koulman, A; Quax, Wim

    2005-01-01

    The volatile components of the aerial parts of Artemisia pontica L., obtained through hydrodistillation, were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oxygen-containing monoterpene fraction dominated (36.7%), while 1.8-cineole (14.1%) and camphor (13.9%) were the main components. Other relatively abundant

  20. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

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    Izdihar Kamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50 and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80 commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy for two dimension (2D and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error.

  1. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  2. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore. PMID:27556560

  3. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of sevenArtemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Mohabatkar; Mandana Behbahani; Mohammad Reza Rahimi Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of sevenArtemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) toxicity andHIV-1 replication. Methods:The studiedArtemisia species wereArtemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi andArtemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts onHIV-1 replication andCD4 expression was performed byHIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increasedPBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency ofCD4 expression inPBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect onHIV-1 replication. Conclusions:In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts ofArtemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Pullulan film incorporated with Artemisia sieberi essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh hedayati rad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: A large number of non-recyclable packaging materials, which are harmful for the health of consumers, are produced all over the world. The Suggested solution is using films and coatings which are biodegradable in nature. Pullulan is a biopolymer that is produced by Aureobasidium pullulans and used in order to produce edible films. These edible films could contain antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The primary aim of this study is to produce edible blended films that form pullulan whit Artemisia sieberi essential oil and the secondary goal is to investigate the antimicrobial attributes of the obtained film. Materials and Methods: The Essential oil of Artemisia sieberi was added to the solution of pullulan films in seven concentrations. Then, the antimicrobial attributes were determined with the dick diffusion method. Finally, minimal inhibitory concentration was calculated for each microbe. The SAS program (Version 9.1 was used for the completely randomized design of data analyses. Results: It is possible to produce pullulan film containing Artemisia sieberi essential oil. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus had maximum and minimum resistance towards the antimicrobial attributes of Artemisia sieberi essential oil, respectively. MIC of Artemisia sieberi essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Escherichia coli were respectively obtained at 15%, 10% and 15%. Conclusion: Due to the possibility of the production of biodegradable films with the addition of natural antimicrobial agents such as essential oils it can be concluded that it is appropriate to use these materials in order to decrease microbial load and increase the shelf life of foods.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of some representatives of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium (genus Artemisia, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès, J.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular cytogenetic study has been performed in three species of the genus Artemisia, complementing previous works on two subgenera that had been scarcely studied from this standpoint, Artemisia ( A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris and Absinthium ( A. absinthium. Chromomycin A3 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI banding have been carried out, as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal DNA. Morphometrical data of karyotype characters were calculated and idiograms with the position of the AT- and GC-rich regions as well as rDNA loci were constructed. Colocalization of most of these regions has been observed, confirming previous findings in this genus. Both ribosomal DNA appear always colocalized, which is a distinct feature with respect to most angiosperms surveyed. Regarding the differential characteristics of each species, a symmetrical karyotype has been found in the species studied. Artemisia absinthium shows long chromosomes and absence of centromeric banding signals that, conversely, are absent in A. vulgaris andA. chamaemelifolia. The last species also presents B-chromosomes in which ribosomal DNA and heterochromatin have been detected. Despite these differences, karyotype morphology and signal pattern of the three species are quite coincidental. This might reflect a close phylogenetic relationship between both subgenera, which is consistent with the available molecular phylogenies presenting species of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium intermixed.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio citogenético molecular en tres especies del género Artemisia, que complementa trabajos previos sobre dos subgéneros que han sido poco estudiados desde este punto de vista, Artemisia (A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris y Absinthium (A. absinthium. Se han efectuado tinciones de bandeo con cromomicina A3

  6. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    realiza mediante la biopsia de cono, y el espécimen debe tener márgenes negativos para enfermedad. La histerectomía es un tratamiento probable, a menos que la fertilidad esté siendo buscada. La escisión, particularmente por electrocirugía (loop, puede interferir con la interpretación histológica en algunos casos o de ambos, particularmente en enfermedades escamosas y adenocarcinoma in situ. En este artículo se describe ampliamente el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial escamosa y glandular.

  7. 茵陈药理作用研究进展%The study on the pharmacologic action of artemisiae capillaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 陈炜

    2010-01-01

    @@ 茵陈为菊科植物滨蒿Artemisia scoparia Waldst.et Kit.或茵陈蒿Artemisia capillaris Thunb.的干燥地上部分.春季幼苗高6~10cm时采收或秋季花蕾成长时采割,除去杂质及老茎,晒干.春季采收的习称"绵茵陈",秋季采割的称"茵陈蒿".

  8. Wound healing effect of flavonoid rich fraction and luteolin isolated from Martynia annua Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Abhay K Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate wound healing potential of flavonoid fractions of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn. leaves in diabetic rats on the basis of folkloric information and preliminary study. Methods: The flavonoid compound luteolin and apigenin were isolated from dried leaves of plant by column chromatography. The two concentrations (0.2% and 0.5% w/w) of luteolin and flavonoid fraction were selected for topically applied as ointment on diabetic wound. The Povidone Iodine Ointment USP was used as a reference. On 18th days, protein content, hydroxyproline and antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) level in granuloma tissues were determined.Results:The results showed that, percent wound contraction were observed significantly (P<0.01) greater in MAF fraction and 0.5% w/w of luteolin treatment groups. Presence of matured collagen fibres and fibroblasts with better angiogenesis were observed in histopathological studies.Conclusions:In conclusion, our findings suggest that flavonoid fraction (MAF) and luteolin (0.5%w/w) may have potential benefit in enhancing wound healing in diabetic condition, possibly due to free-radical scavenging activity of plant.

  9. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  10. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  11. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

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    Gulmira Özek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia argyi , A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, and A. olgensis (Asteraceae were collected in Far East Russia. Oils were hydrodistilled and simultaneously analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Main constituents were found as follows in Artemisia oils: selin-11-en-4 a -ol (18.0%, 1,8-cineole (14.2.0%, artemisia alcohol (12.9%, borneol (9.7% in A. argyi; camphor (31.2%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%, a -thujone (5.7% in A. feddei; longiverbenone (12.0%, isopinocamphone (8.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, camphor (5.8%, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (5.3% in A. gmelinii; germacrene D (11.2%, rosifoliol (10.1%, caryophyllene oxide (6.8%, eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (5.6% in A. manshurica; eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (6.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.6%, guaia-6,10(14-dien-4 b -ol (5.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.0% in A. olgensis. Oils were subsequently submitted for antifungal and antimosquito evaluations. Artemisia species oils showed biting deterrent effects in Aedes aegypti and Artemisia gmelinii oil with the most active biting deterrence index values of 0.82 ± 0.1 at 10 m g/mL. Larval bioassay of A. gmelinii and A. olgensis oils showed higher larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LD50 values of 83.8 (72.6 – 95.7 ppm and 91.0 (73.8 – 114.5 ppm, respectively. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using direct overlay bioautography assay and all showed non-selective weak antifungal activity. Antioxidant evaluations of the oils were performed by using b -carotene bleaching, Trolox equivalent and DPPH tests. The tested Artemisia oils demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity.

  12. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  13. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Roberto Maluf; Irene Fumi Inoue; Raphael de Paula Duarte Ferreira; Luiz Antonio Augusto Gomes; Evaristo Mauro Castro; Maria das Graças Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. h...

  14. Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergau, Nick; Navarette Santos, Alexander; Henning, Anja; Balcke, Gerd U; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. PMID:27446176

  15. Cistitis quística glandular presentada como cistopatía quística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Orlich-Castelán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 73 años, con historia de hematuria macroscópica de aparición reciente, con presencia de quistes en toda la extensión de la mucosa vesical, y con diagnóstico por biopsias de vejiga, de una cistitis glandular. Se habla de cistopatía quística cuando los quistes se encuentran difusamente en la vejiga, y frecuentemente coexiste con lipomatosis pélvica en pacientes obesas, como la que reportada aquí. Es considerada una lesión premaligna y por eso es importante un seguimiento cuidadoso con cistoscopias periódicas. La cistitis quística se presenta más frecuentemente en hombres y en personas de mayor edad. Macroscópicamente, se manifiesta con nódulos submucosos únicos o múltiples, y los hallazgos histológicos son la presencia de nidos uroteliales redondeados, con dilatación quística dentro de la lámina propia, y paralelos a la superficie urotelial.

  16. Capitate glandular trichomes of Paragutzlaffia henryi harbor new phytotoxic labdane diterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Xiao-Nian; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2015-11-18

    The morphology and chemical profile of the capitate glandular trichomes (CGTs) of Paragutzlaffia henryi (Acanthaceae) were investigated. Four new labdane diterpenoids named paraguhenryisins A-D (1-4), together with the known physacoztomatin (5), were localized to the CGTs using laser microdissection coupled with cryogenic (1)H NMR and HPLC analyses and were traced and isolated from the CGT extract of inflorescences. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Bioassays indicated significant inhibitory effect for these diterpenoids on Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and seedling root elongation. The most potent inhibitor, paraguhenryisin C (3), was interestingly detected in both the rhizosphere soil and water rinsed inflorescences extract of P. henryi but not the roots, with average contents in the rhizosphere soil relevant to its phytotoxic EC50 values. These results suggested that phytotoxic labdane diterpenoids in the CGTs might be released into the environment as a defensive measure for P. henryi against other competitive plants. PMID:26513276

  17. Single-cell analysis of glandular T cell receptors in Sjögren’s syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachims, Michelle L.; Leehan, Kerry M.; Lawrence, Christina; Pelikan, Richard C.; Moore, Jacen S.; Pan, Zijian; Rasmussen, Astrid; Radfar, Lida; Lewis, David M.; Grundahl, Kiely M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Wiley, Graham B.; Shugay, Mikhail; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Stone, Donald U.; Scofield, R. Hal; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Thompson, Linda F.; Farris, A. Darise

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells predominate in salivary gland (SG) inflammatory lesions in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). However, their antigen specificity, degree of clonal expansion, and relationship to clinical disease features remain unknown. We used multiplex reverse-transcriptase PCR to amplify paired T cell receptor α (TCRα) and β transcripts of single CD4+CD45RA− T cells from SG and peripheral blood (PB) of 10 individuals with primary SS, 9 of whom shared the HLA DR3/DQ2 risk haplotype. TCRα and β sequences were obtained from a median of 91 SG and 107 PB cells per subject. The degree of clonal expansion and frequency of cells expressing two productively rearranged α genes were increased in SG versus PB. Expanded clones from SG exhibited complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequence similarity both within and among subjects, suggesting antigenic selection and shared antigen recognition. CDR3 similarities were shared among expanded clones from individuals discordant for canonical Ro and La autoantibodies, suggesting recognition of alternative SG antigen(s). The extent of SG clonal expansion correlated with reduced saliva production and increased SG fibrosis, linking expanded SG T cells with glandular dysfunction. Knowledge of paired TCRα and β sequences enables further work toward identification of target antigens and development of novel therapies. PMID:27358913

  18. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid. PMID:25956500

  19. Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergau, Nick; Navarette Santos, Alexander; Henning, Anja; Balcke, Gerd U.; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. PMID:27446176

  20. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  1. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS: Second-harmonic generation as a DNA malignancy indicator of prostate glandular epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zheng-Fei; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Zhuo, Shuang-Mu; Yu, Bi-Ying; Deng, Xiao-Yuan

    2010-04-01

    This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a scanning region of 2.7 μm×2.7 μm in cell nuclei, SHG signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been investigated. Statistical analyses (t test) of a total of 405 measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference (p prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA.

  2. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  4. Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L enhance cellular insulin signaling in primary human skeletal muscle culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhong Q.; RIBNICKY, DAVID; Zhang, Xian H.; Raskin, Ilya; Yu, Yongmei; Cefalu, William T.

    2008-01-01

    An alcoholic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L (PMI 5011) has been shown to decrease glucose and improve insulin levels in animal models, suggesting an ability to enhance insulin sensitivity. We sought to assess the cellular mechanism by which this botanical affects carbohydrate metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle culture. We measured basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen accumulation, phosphoinositide 3 (PI-3) kinase activity, and Akt phosphorylation in primary skele...

  5. Medicine Exploiture and Utilization on Artemisia Sphaerocephala Kmsch of Wild Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI ZhenFang; ZHANG Ji; YANG YongLi; DONG HongJu; HUANG AiLun

    2001-01-01

    @@ We distilled axunge from aerial parts of the wild plant Artemisia sphaerocephala Kmsch by soaking and organic extraction, and then measured the concentrations of sub oleic acid in the aerial parts and seeds. The concentrations were 12.7% in the leaves and stems and 18.4% in the seed. Suboleic acid second ester can be hydrolysed into oleic acid and ethanol. The molecular weigh of oleic acid is 280.44 and its structure is as follow:

  6. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    OpenAIRE

    Cronn Richard C; Price Jared C; Richardson Bryce A; Bajgain Prabin; Udall Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary his...

  7. Poder pastoral, acomodo y territorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen refe-rencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para son-dear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea. The article looks at the Jesuit Annual Letters concerning the Audiencia of Quito between 1586 and 1660. This virtually unexplored source is employed to analyze the conversion strategies and sacramental regime of the Jesuits in Quito. The article contends that the Jesuit conversion strategies shifted from an early enga-gement with native religion that included an interest in native myths, and ex-tirpation of idolatry to a tabula rasa approach centered on the administration of sacraments. The article attributes this shift to the transfer of the Colegio de Quito from the Jesuit province of Peru to that of the New Kingdom (New Granada. The article contextualizes the Jesuit engagement with native culture in Quito and the operation of the administration of sacraments with reference to Juan Carlos Estenssoro’s notion of the two conversions as well as with reference to Michel Foucault

  8. Mutagenic, Anti-Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide, in vitro, extracted from Artemisia diffusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artediffusin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide group which has been isolated from Artemisia diffusa. Artemisia has always been of great botanical and pharmaceutical interest and is useful in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases and complaints. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide extracted from Artemisia diffusa. Methods: Cytotoxicity was measured using a modified MTT assay on normal human lymphocytes and cancer cells. The mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin were evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with and without metabolic activation S9. Results: 28μg/ml concentration of Artediffusin inactivated 77.73±0.78% of HeLa cells activity and 5600µg/ml concentration of Artediffusin inactivated 28.79±1.82% of lymphocytes activity. The maximum percentage of anti-mutagenic activity of Artediffusin was observed in the strain of S. typhimurium TA98, with the presence of metabolic activation S9. Conclusion: Artediffusin may be exploited as a natural anti-cancer and anti-mutagenic agent with low adverse side effects.

  9. Preparation of artemisia oil emulsion for mosquito repellent%艾叶油驱蚊乳液的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    化丹丹; 刁水华; 谢洪德; 蒋耀兴

    2014-01-01

    The artemisia oil emulsion was prepared by the phase transformation method with artemisia oil as raw material and compound surfactant as emulsifier. The effects of emulsification process on particle size and its distribution of emulsion were investigated. The morphology of artemisia oil emulsion was characterized by SEM, and the effect of the nylon socks finished with artemisia oil emulsion was measured. The results showed that the optimal emulsion process was as fol ows: HLB value of compound emulsifier was 8, mass fraction of emulsifier was 3%, mass fraction of artemisia oil was 18%, and shearing time was 8 min. The SEM photos showed that particle size of artemisia oil emulsion was smal and its distribution was uniformity. The nylon socks finished by artemisia oil emulsion had good mosquito repel ent effect.%以艾叶油为原料,复合表面活性剂为乳化剂,利用相转化法制备了艾叶油乳液。研究了乳化工艺对乳液粒径及其分布的影响,采用扫描电镜对乳液形貌进行了表征,并测定了乳液整理锦纶袜子的驱蚊效果。结果显示,艾叶油驱蚊乳液最佳制备工艺为:乳化剂HLB值8,乳化剂质量分数3%,艾叶油质量分数18%,剪切时间8 min;电镜观察显示,艾叶油乳液粒径较小且分布均匀;整理锦纶丝袜具有良好的驱蚊效果。

  10. A proposal for chemical characterization and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials using glandular trichome microsampling of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia, Asteraceae), an Andean medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    K. Schorr; F.B. Da Costa

    2003-01-01

    A proposal for chemical characterisation and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials by analysing the glandular trichomes from the leaves of two different populations of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig & Endlicher, Asteraceae) is described. This species is an Andean medicinal plant and the tea prepared with their leaves displays hypoglycemic property. The method was based on the glandular trichome microsampling using LC/DAD. Qualitative chromatographic fingerprints of the glands wer...

  11. 辣根过氧化物酶在体外条件下对青蒿素生物合成的影响%EFFECT OF HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ARTEMISININ IN ARTEMISIA ANNUA IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章焰生; 叶和春; 李国凤

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of horseradish peroxidase on the biosynthesis of artemisinin was studied. Two buffer systems were used to prepare cell free extracts. The results showed that the level of artemisinin was elevated to about 1-fold when the peroxidase was included in cell free extracts by phosphate buffer system, and the added exogenous artemisinic acid could not greatly affect the production of artemisinin. This study indicated that phosphate buffer system was better for peroxidase activities than Tris buffer system. In the cell free extracts by Tris buffer system, addition of horseradish peroxidase did not promote the biosynthesis of artemisinin. Fig 4, Ref 12%通过细胞提取液,在体外条件下研究了辣根过氧化物酶对青蒿素生物合成的影响.细胞提取液以磷酸与Tris两种缓冲液制备.结果表明,辣根过氧化物酶在以磷酸缓冲液制备的细胞提取液中,很大地促进了青蒿素的生物合成,青蒿素的含量提高约1倍左右,而外加青蒿酸对青蒿素的生物合成并无显著的影响.以Tris缓冲液制备细胞提取液,外加过氧化物酶并不能促进青蒿素的生物合成. 图4 参12

  12. Mensurating the Antiseptic Activity of Extracts from Artemisia annua L. to Mold with the Filter Paper Method%滤纸片法测定黄花蒿提取物对霉菌的抑制活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳; 王莹; 张峰; 王付丽

    2009-01-01

    应用滤纸片法测定了黄花蒿对霉菌的抑制活性.结果表明,黄花蒿提取物浓度为50mg·mL-1时对霉菌具有较强的抑制活性,抑菌圈直径为10~15mm,其对霉菌的最小抑制浓度为9~12 mg·mL-1.

  13. 青蒿中青蒿素的提取分离及蒿甲醚的制备%Extraction and Isolation of Arteannuin from Herba Artemisiae Annuae and Preparation of Artemether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莹; 侯华

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨青蒿素的提取分离条件及合成其衍生物蒿甲醚.方法 以溶剂法从青蒿中提取青蒿素,采用柱层析法进行纯化.通过还原、醚化反应制得其衍生物蒿甲醚.结果 青蒿素收率好,纯度高;蒿甲醚合成收率达 75.8%.结论 该方法获得的产品质量稳定,产率高,成本低.

  14. Oncoplastic Resection of Retroareolar Breast Cancer: Central Quadrantectomy and Reconstruction by Local Skin-Glandular Flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy. The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result. With the help of Oncoplastic Surgical Techniques, BCS can be offered to these patients. In this study central quadrantectomy and breast reconstruction by an infero-Iaterally based pedicled flap were evaluated. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 23 women with central breast tumors treated at the National Cancer Institute (NC]), Cairo University and at the Aswan Cancer Center, Egyptian Ministry of Health. Their ages ranged from 31 to 62 years (mean: 48.4±10.2 years). Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only I had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass. The size of their tumors ranged from 4 to 33mm (mean: 16.9±8.6mm). Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction. Seventeen cases had their tumors strictly in the retro-areolar region, while 5 had tumors extending for a maximum of I.5Cm beyond the areolar edge. All patients underwent central quadrantec-tomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection. Advancement of an infero-Iaterally based skin-glandular flap was then carried out. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Results: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%). The free safety margin (SM) ranged from 9 to 13mm (mean: 10. 0.9mm). This could be accomplished from the first attempt in 18 patients; however, in 5 patients a second wider excision was needed to obtain an adequate

  15. Negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of flavonoids in glandular trichomes of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports a method for the analysis of secondary metabolites stored in glandular trichomes, employing negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses of glandular trichomes from Lychnophora ericoides, a plant endemic to the Brazilian 'cerrado' and used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, led to the identification of five flavonoids (chrysin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin and 3-O-acetylpinobanksin) by direct infusion of the extracts of glandular trichomes into the nanospray ionisation source. All the flavonoids have no oxidation at ring B, which resulted in a modification of the fragmentation pathways compared with that of the oxidised 3,4-dihydroflavonoids already described in the literature. The absence of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant di-C-glucosylflavone vicenin-2, or any other flavonoid glycosides, in the glandular trichomes was also demonstrated. The use of the 'chip-based' nanospray QqTOF apparatus is a new fast and useful tool for the identification of secondary metabolites stored in the glandular trichomes, which can be useful for chemotaxonomic studies based on metabolites from glandular trichomes. PMID:18980260

  16. Biotechnology for breeding industrial rape: Characterisation and isolation of fatty acid elongases from Lunaria annua. Final report; Biotechnologie fuer die Zuechtung von Industrieraps: Charakterisierung und Isolierung von Fettsaeure-Elongasen aus Lunaria annua. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepker, H.; Fehling, E.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    The present part-project of the BMFT (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) integrated project `Industrial Rape Biotechnology` was aimed at isolating and characterising the constituent enzymes of fatty acid elongase (acyl-CoA-elongase) that catalyse the biosynthesis of extra-long-chain fatty acids (erucic and nervonic acid). This was in preparation of cloning and transferring the responsible elongase genes to rape. The constituent enzymes of acyl-CoA elongase from lunaria annua were isolated using insights gained in preceding studies of the integrated project. The ripencing seeds of this singular crucifer synthesise erucic acid and an unusually high proportion of nervonic acid. These examinations provide the basis to studies for cloning the elongase genes and transferring them to rape. The ultimate aim is to create an industrial rape rich in erucic and nervonic acid, a reproductive raw material that would be of great interest to the chemico-technical sector. (EF) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des BMFT-Verbundprojektes `Industrieraps-Biotechnologie` sollten im vorliegenden Teilvorhaben die konstituierenden Enzyme der Fettsaeure-Elongase (Acyl-CoA-Elongase), die die Biosynthese sehr langkettiger Fettsaeuren (Erucasaeure und Nervonsaeure) katalysieren, isoliert und charakterisiert werden, um die entsprechenden Elongase-Gene zu klonieren und auf Raps zu uebertragen. Mit Hilfe der in vorausgegangenen Arbeiten dieses Verbundprojektes gewonnenen Erkenntnisse sollten die konstituierenden Enzyme der Acyl-CoA-Elongase aus Silberblatt (Lunaria annua) isoliert werden - eine einzigartige crucifere Pflanze, in deren reifenden Samen neben Erucasaeure ungewoehnlich hohe Anteile von Nervonsaeure synthetisiert werden. Diese Untersuchungen bilden die Voraussetzungen fuer die Arbeiten zur Klonierung der Elongase-Gene sowie deren Uebertragung auf Raps. Auf diese Weise soll Industrieraps mit einem hohen Anteil an Erucasaeure und Nervonsaeure, die als nachwachsende Industrierohstoffe fuer

  17. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  18. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, R. W.; van Engen, R. E.; Young, K. C.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.; Schopphoven, S.; Jeukens, C. R. L. P. N.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Dance, D. R.

    2015-10-01

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last decades the automatic exposure control (AEC) increased in complexity and became more sensitive to (local) differences in breast composition. The question is how well the AGD estimated using these simple dosimetry phantoms agrees with the average patient AGD. In this study the AGDs for both dosimetry phantoms and for patients have been evaluated for 5 different x-ray systems in DM and DBT modes. It was found that the ratios between patient and phantom AGD did not differ considerably using both dosimetry phantoms. These ratios averaged over all breast thicknesses were 1.14 and 1.15 for the PMMA and PMMA-PE dosimetry phantoms respectively in DM mode and 1.00 and 1.02 in the DBT mode. These ratios were deemed to be sufficiently close to unity to be suitable for dosimetry evaluation in quality control procedures. However care should be taken when comparing systems for DM and DBT since depending on the AEC operation, ratios for particular breast thicknesses may differ substantially (0.83-1.96). Although the predictions of both phantoms are similar we advise the use of PMMA  +  PE slabs for both DM and DBT to harmonize dosimetry protocols and avoid any potential issues with the use of spacers with the PMMA phantoms.

  19. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography

  20. Results of a 2011 national questionnaire for investigation of mean glandular dose from mammography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for mammography have yet to be created in Japan. A national questionnaire investigation into radiographic conditions in Japan was carried out for the purpose of creating DRLs. Items investigated included the following: tube voltage; tube current; current–time product; source–image distance; craniocaudal view; automatic exposure control (AEC) settings; name of mammography unit; image receptor system (computed radiography (CR), flat panel detector (FPD), or film/screen (F/S)); and supported or unsupported monitor diagnosis (including monitor resolution). Estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for mammography was performed and compared with previous investigations. The MGD was 1.58(0.48) mGy, which did not significantly differ from a 2007 investigation. In relation to image receptors, although no difference in average MGD values was observed between CR and FPD systems, F/S systems had a significantly decreased value compared to both CR and FPDs. Concerning digital systems (FPDs), the MGD value of the direct conversion system was significantly higher than the indirect conversion system. No significant difference in MGD value was evident concerning type of monitor diagnosis for either the CR or the FPD digital systems; however, hard copies were used more often in CR. No significant difference in the MGD value was found in relation to monitor resolution. This report suggests ways to lower the doses patients undergoing mammography receive in Japan, and serves as reference data for 4.2 cm compressed breast tissue of 50% composition DRLs. Furthermore, our findings suggest that further optimisation of FPD settings can promote a reduction in the MGD value. (paper)

  1. Normalized mean glandular dose computation from mammography using GATE: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronakis, Marios E.; Zvelebil, Marketa; Darambara, Dimitra G.

    2013-04-01

    Mean glandular dose (MGD) is the figure of merit to assess breast dose after a mammographic acquisition. The use of normalized MGD obtained from Monte Carlo computations with measured incident air kerma determines the MGD delivered to patients. The Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) toolkit is a modern Monte Carlo application specifically designed for medical imaging systems modelling. Although there is an increasing number of publications using GATE worldwide for a wide range of medical imaging and therapeutic applications, there is currently no means to obtain normalized MGD. In this work, the GATE toolkit is extended, through the development of two new modules, to provide normalized MGD information for compressed breast phantoms based on simple geometries. The normalized MGD values were validated against published work and provided results at half value layers lower than 0.3 and greater than 0.6 mmAl. In addition, the skin thickness and composition were considered. Normalized MGD was computed after substitution of the adipose layer surrounding the standard breast phantom with skin tissue and the relative difference is reported. Spectrum generation was facilitated by further development of previously published work by other authors. Validation of the new GATE extension showed good agreement with published data and can be used to assess breast dose from mammographic as well as more complex x-ray imaging techniques. Changing skin thickness and composition revealed substantial changes in normalized MGD specifically for compressed breast thickness different than 5 cm and a possible revision of the structure of the standard breast model may be necessary.

  2. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last decades the automatic exposure control (AEC) increased in complexity and became more sensitive to (local) differences in breast composition. The question is how well the AGD estimated using these simple dosimetry phantoms agrees with the average patient AGD. In this study the AGDs for both dosimetry phantoms and for patients have been evaluated for 5 different x-ray systems in DM and DBT modes. It was found that the ratios between patient and phantom AGD did not differ considerably using both dosimetry phantoms. These ratios averaged over all breast thicknesses were 1.14 and 1.15 for the PMMA and PMMA-PE dosimetry phantoms respectively in DM mode and 1.00 and 1.02 in the DBT mode. These ratios were deemed to be sufficiently close to unity to be suitable for dosimetry evaluation in quality control procedures. However care should be taken when comparing systems for DM and DBT since depending on the AEC operation, ratios for particular breast thicknesses may differ substantially (0.83–1.96). Although the predictions of both phantoms are similar we advise the use of PMMA  +  PE slabs for both DM and DBT to harmonize dosimetry protocols and avoid any potential issues with the use of spacers with the PMMA phantoms. (paper)

  3. Mean glandular doses for women undergoing mammographic breast screening in Oyo state, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, thermoluminescent dosimeters have been used to measure entrance surface doses (ESDs) of patients undergoing mammographic screening at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state. The mean glandular doses (MGDs) were also calculated using the measured ESDs. The results showed that the ESDs ranged from 0.26 mGy to 21.26 mGy for the mediolateral oblique (MLO) views and 0.08 mGy to 5.36 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC) views. The calculated MGD ranged from 0.07 mGy to 3.57 mGy for the MLO views and 0.02 mGy to 0.98 mGy for the CC views. The possible reasons for the large variations in the individual ESD values and MGD values for both views are discussed using patients' data, equipment specific data and the technical parameters used for the examinations. Comparison showed that the mean ESD values and MGD values reported in this work are below published values. The mean of the calculated MGD values is also found to be lower than the recommended guidance level of 3.0 mGy when using grid. 92.5% of the patients had MGD values that are less than 2.5 mGy, hence a national reference MGD value of 2.5 mGy is proposed for Nigeria. Implementation of a dose reduction program in mammographic screening is also suggested because of the observed large variations in patients MGD values.

  4. A computational approach to resolve cell level contributions to early glandular epithelial cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sunwoo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3D embedded cell cultures provide an appropriate physiological environment to reconstruct features of early glandular epithelial cancer. Although these are orders of magnitude simpler than tissues, they too are complex systems that have proven challenging to understand. We used agent-based, discrete event simulation modeling methods to build working hypotheses of mechanisms of epithelial 3D culture phenotype and early cancer progression. Starting with an earlier software analogue, we validated an improved in silico epithelial analogue (ISEA for cardinal features of a normally developed MDCK cyst. A set of axiomatic operating principles defined simulated cell actions. We explored selective disruption of individual simulated cell actions. New framework features enabled recording detailed measures of ISEA cell activities and morphology. Results Enabled by a small set of cell operating principles, ISEA cells multiplied and self-organized into cyst-like structures that mimicked those of MDCK cells in a 3D embedded cell culture. Selective disruption of "anoikis" or directional cell division caused the ISEA to develop phenotypic features resembling those of in vitro tumor reconstruction models and cancerous tissues in vivo. Disrupting either process, or both, altered cell activity patterns that resulted in morphologically similar outcomes. Increased disruption led to a prolonged presence of intraluminal cells. Conclusions ISEA mechanisms, behaviors, and morphological properties may have biological counterparts. To the extent that in silico-to-in vitro mappings are valid, the results suggest plausible, additional mechanisms of in vitro cancer reconstruction or reversion, and raise potentially significant implications for early cancer diagnosis based on histology. Further ISEA development and use are expected to provide a viable platform to complement in vitro methods for unraveling the mechanistic basis of

  5. Predominant Glandular Cholinergic Dysautonomia in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrich, Richard; Alevizos, Ilias; Bebris, Lolita; Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Illei, Gabor G.; Nikolov, Nikolay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates exocrine gland function. Available data show poor correlation between the degree of exocrine gland function and destruction in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) suggesting other mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction may be important in these patients. We performed a comprehensive analysis of sympathoneural and sympathetic cholinergic function in well-characterized patients with pSS. Methods 21 pSS patients (mean±SE age 44±3 years) and in 13 healthy controls (51±2 years) were assessed during orthostasis and intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg). The postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic system was evaluated by assessing sweat production by the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Gastric empting testing assessed the gastro-intestinal ANS in pSS patients. Results Velocity index and acceleration index were significantly higher (p<0.05) in pSS compared to controls before and during the orthostatic and edrophonium tests. Other hemodynamic and neurochemical parameters did not differ between pSS patients and controls during the orthostasis and edrophonium test, however, edrophonium-induced saliva increment was lower in pSS (p=0.002). Abnormally low sweat production was found in four (N=4) pSS patients but in none of the controls in the QSART. Gastric empting was delayed in 53 % of pSS patients. Conclusion We observed subtle differences in several ANS domains, including gastrointestinal and sympathocholinergic system suggesting a complex ANS dysfunction in pSS. The impact was the largest on the exocrine glands with subtle differences in the cardiac parasympathetic function independent of glandular inflammation and atrophy, suggesting an alternative pathogenesis mechanism of the disease in pSS. PMID:25622919

  6. Glandular odontogenic cyst – Literature review and report of a paediatric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Ahmad, Syed Ansar; Ansari, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an extremely rare lesion occurring in the jawbones. The present paper is a review of 181 cases of GOCs reported in English literature, since it was first reported by Padayache and Van Wyk in 1987. Mandible was involved in 130 cases and maxilla in 51 cases. Anterior mandible was the most common area of involvement. Radiographic appearance was that of a unilocular radiolucency in 98 of 176 reported cases. Rest presented as multilocular radiolucency. Cortical expansion was observed in 136 of the 180 reported cases while cortex breach or perforation was seen in 81 cases. The treatment of choice was that of minor procedures that included enucleation with or without curettage, peripheral ostectomy, cryotherapy, etc. in 157 of the total 177 reported cases. Marginal jaw resection, segmental mandibulectomy etc. was reported in 20 cases. Although minor surgical procedures were the treatment of choice in most studies, two major studies of Kaplan et al. and Fowler et al. involving 111 and 46 cases, recorded a recurrence rate of 35.9 and 19.6%, respectively. The age range was between 11 and 82 years. The respective mean age of patients in the above mentioned studies was 45.7 for Kaplan's and 51 years for Fowler's whereas in our study, the mean age was 45.9 years. Very rarely does GOC presents itself in a paediatric patient. The paper also reports a case of an 11-year-old child whose histopathogy came out to be a case of a GOC. PMID:26587384

  7. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. PMID:27316764

  8. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  9. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  10. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  11. Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the

  12. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Murine Model by Hydro Alcoholic Essence of Artemisia sieberi

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    A Doroodgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the prevalence of leishmaniasis in Iran and many side effects associated with pentavalent antimony compounds use in its treatment, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of Artemisia sieberi essence on the experimental ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis on BALB/c mice."nMethods: This experimental research was performed to determine the effect of various concentrations of  Artemisia essence in BALB/c mice previously infected with active Leishmania major promastigote. A total of 50 infected BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. Three groups (30 mice were used in the experimental condi­tions and the others were assigned as the control groups. The experimental groups received 1%, 3% and 5% of Ar­temisia, respectively. One of the control groups received ethanol 80% and the other received no treatment. The drug was administered by dropping the liquid on the top lesions, three times daily for maximum of 30 d. Every 10 days the ulcers diameter were measured and sampled for amastigote in all groups. Ulcers diameter changes were deter­mined by statistical tests."nResults: After 30 days, diameter of CL lesions increased in 1%, 3% and 5% Artemisia concentrations and the control groups. Ulcers got bigger with the more concentration. Treatments could not reduce the diameter or caused small lesions. In addition, the mice direct smears in microscopic studies were positive."nConclusion: To find the effective concentration and the mechanism of the effectiveness of the drug, further investi­gations with less concentrates of A. sieberi essence are recommended.

  13. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Zant; Daniel; A.Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia austeralis(A.australis),a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A.australis was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement Results:The major chemical components of A.australis include eucalyptol.borneol,and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  14. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Zant; Daniel A. Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia australis (A. australis), a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A. australis was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement.Results:The major chemical components of A. australis include eucalyptol, borneol, and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  15. Medicine Exploiture and Utilization on Artemisia Sphaerocephala Kmsch of Wild Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; ZhenFang

    2001-01-01

    We distilled axunge from aerial parts of the wild plant Artemisia sphaerocephala Kmsch by soaking and organic extraction, and then measured the concentrations of sub oleic acid in the aerial parts and seeds. The concentrations were 12.7% in the leaves and stems and 18.4% in the seed. Suboleic acid second ester can be hydrolysed into oleic acid and ethanol. The molecular weigh of oleic acid is 280.44 and its structure is as follow:  ……

  16. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and image of digital mammography and film mammography in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. Mammography is the best method for breast-cancer screening and is capable of reducing mortality rates To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. Digital mammography has been proposed as a substitute for film mammography given the benefits inherent to digital technology. The purpose of our study was to compare the technical performance of digital mammographic and screen-film mammography. A PMMA phantom with objects to simulate breast structures. For the screen/film (SF) technique the results showed that 54% mammography units did not achieve the minimum acceptable performance as far the image quality. Besides, 67% services showed inadequate performance in their processing systems, which had significant influence on the image quality. At the mean glandular dose only 44% of digital systems evaluated were compliant in all thicknesses of PMMA. The average glandular dose AGD was 90 % higher than in screen/film systems. (authors)

  17. Evidence for estrogen-dependent uterine serpin (SERPINA14) expression during estrus in the bovine endometrial glandular epithelium and lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Frohlich, Thomas; Schulke, Katy; Englberger, Eva; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Uterine secretions have a dominant impact on the environment in which embryo development takes place. The uterine serpins (SERPINA14, previously known as UTMP) are found most abundantly during pregnancy in the uterus of ruminants. Although progesterone is currently assumed to be the major regulator of SERPINA14 expression, our recent study of transcriptome changes in bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle unexpectedly detected a marked upregulation of SERPINA14 mRNA levels at estrus. The present study describes the full-length mRNA sequence, genomic organization, and putative promoter elements of the SERPINA14 gene. The SERPINA14 mRNA abundance was quantified by real-time RT-PCR in intercaruncular endometrium at several time points during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Highest levels were found at estrus, followed by a dramatic decrease and a moderate expression during the luteal phase. Transcript levels were higher in pregnant endometrium compared with controls at Day 18. At estrus, immunoreactive protein was localized in deep glandular epithelium, and Western blotting concomitantly showed the 52-kDa form in uterine flushings. SERPINA14 mRNA was significantly upregulated in glandular endometrial cells in vitro after stimulation with estradiol-17beta and progesterone, but not after interferon-tau treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that SERPINA14 appears distinctly in bovine endometrium during the estrus phase. A supporting role toward providing a well-prepared endometrial environment for passing gametes, especially sperm, is assumed. PMID:19494250

  18. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  19. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rasool; B.A.Ganai; S.Akbar; A.N.Kamili

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Artemisia amygdalina Decne.(Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan.Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia.The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day.This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A.amygdalina.METHODS:In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium.Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays:DPPH assay,riboflavin photo-oxidation assay,deoxy ribose assay,ferric thiocyanate assay,thiobarbituric acid assay,post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel.RESULTS:In vitro grown plants,as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl,superoxide,and lipid peroxyl radicals.CONCLUSION:This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A.amydalina.

  20. Compositional Characters and Antimicrobial Potential of Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Manika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological investigations were carried out to evaluate the composition and anti-microbial potential of a rare Artemisia species viz. Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. essential oil for the first time. GC and GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27 compounds, which constituted 93.2% volatile constituents of the oil. The major constituents were capillene (41.6%, spathulenol (14.6% and β-caryophyllene (13.4%. The oil was also assayed to determine its antimicrobial potential against eight bacterial and six fungal strains. The oil exhibited both antifungal and antibacterial activities. Among bacteria, the oil was most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC 0.625 mg/mL followed by Staphylococcu. Aureus (MIC 1.25 mg/mL . While among fungi, the oil was most effective against Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Sporothrix schenckii with MIC as low as 0.625 mg/mL.

  1. QUERCETIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARMENIAN CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA, PLANTAGO MAJOR AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM PLANTS EXTRACTS

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    Vardapetyan H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study in vitro antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of Armenian plants Crataegus laevigata, Plantago major and Artemisia absinthium was investigated by DPPH stable radical chemical model with simultaneous monitoring of the total flavonoids and selected polyphenolic compounds content. Experimental results indicates that ethanolic extract of Crataegus laevigata exhibit the highest radical scavenging activity in neutralization of DPPH with an IC50 value of 12.5 ± 0.08 µl, while the lowest activity was reported in Plantago major extract (IC50 = 45 ± 0.1 µl and IC50 of Artemisia absinthium extract was 35 ± 0.1 µl. Present study also demonstrates a possible relationship between quercetin content and antioxidant activity of extracts. Crataegus laevigata ethanoic extract showed highest antiradical potential as well as the highest concentration of quercetin (7.47 ± 0.2 µg/ml and it can be proposed as a potential sources of natural antioxidants and bioactive phytopharmaceuticals.

  2. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yarahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci, is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm.

  3. Pharmacological effects of ethanol extract of Egyptian Artemisia herba-alba in rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heba Mohammed Ibrahim Abdallah; Nawal E.L. Sayed Gomaa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate some pharmacological effects including gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and in vitro antioxidant effects of Artemisia herba-alba extract in different experimental models. Methods: Inflammation was induced in rat paw by subcutaneous injection of 1% (v/v) carrageenan solution. Writhes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6%(v/v) acetic acid solution. Pyrexia was induced using Brewer's yeast suspension. Gastric lesion was induced in rats by oral administration of 99% ethanol. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and gastroprotective activities of Artemisia herba-alba extract were investigated respectively. In vitro antioxidant effect was investigated using DPPH free radical. Results: The plant extract showed anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, analgesic effect against acetic acid-induced writhing, and antipyretic ac-tivity in Brewer's yeast model of pyrexia. Besides, it was shown to be a gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The plant also exhibited a free radical scavenging potential in an in vitro antioxidant study using DPPH. Conclusions: The results validate the use of the investigated plant in traditional medicine for different ailments.

  4. Urease Inhibitory Activity of Aerial Parts of Artemisia scoparia: Exploration in an In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Ali Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artimisia scoparia has been used in the treatment of different disorders including ulcers. The current study was therefore designed to investigate the aerial parts of  Artemisia scoparia (crude extract, total sterol and flavonoidal contents, and aqueous fraction for its urease inhibitory potential. The crude of the plant evoked marked attenuation on urease activity, when tested in various concentrations with IC50 values of 4.06 mg/ml. The inhibitory potential was further augmented in the aqueous fraction (IC50: 2.30 mg/ml of the plant. When the total sterol and flavonoidal contents were challenged against urease, both showed concentration dependent activity; the latter showed maximum potency with IC50 values of 8.04 and 2.10 mg/ml, respectively. In short, the aerial parts of the plant demonstrated marked antagonism on urease and thus our study validated the traditional use of Artemisia scoparia in the treatment of ulcer.

  5. Effects of the penetration of Artemisia vulgaris L. into maize crops as a result of the use of reduced tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Gołębiowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a significant increase in weed infestation of agricultural crops with Artemisia vulgaris has been observed in the south-western region of Poland. The ease of migration of this expansive species results from the fact that it does not face competition from segetal weeds and therefore poses a great threat to the ecological balance. During the period 2008–2011, a floristic study was carried out using the Braun-Blanquet method in an abandoned field adjacent to a maize monoculture grown under two tillage systems: plough and ploughless tillage. These observations allowed an evaluation of the actual risk of spread of Artemisia vulgaris depending on tillage system. The vicinity of the abandoned field had a significant effect on the penetration of Artemisia vulgaris into maize crops. Higher numbers of individuals of this species were found under ploughless tillage compared to plough tillage, regardless of the distance from the field edge, and its increased competitive effects on Viola arvensis L. and Veronica persica L. could be observed. The lowest grain yield was obtained under ploughless tillage where the strong competitive effects of Artemisia vulgaris were observed even in the plot most distant from the abandoned field adjacent to the maize crop.

  6. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  7. Células glandulares atípicas e câncer de colo uterino: revisão sistemática Atypical glandular cells and cervical cancer: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Pedrosa de Holanda Marques; Lívia Bandeira Costa; Ana Paula de Souza e Pinto; Anacássia Fonseca de Lima; Maria Eugênia Leite Duarte; Ana Paula Fernandes Barbosa; Paloma Lys de Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    Atipias de células glandulares em esfregaços cervicovaginais é um achado citológico na rotina de rastreamento do câncer cervical, que aumentou nas últimas décadas. Sua constatação é importante clinicamente, pois é alta a percentagem de casos associados com doença cervical e endometrial de alto grau e câncer. Este trabalho avaliou, por meio de uma revisão sistemática, estudos que investigaram o perfil das lesões de colo uterino em avaliações histológicas de seguimento de pacientes já diagnosti...

  8. Comportamento da dose glandular versus contraste do objeto em mamografia: determinação de formalismo semi-empírico para diferentes combinações alvo-filtro Behavior of subject contrast versus glandular dose in mammography: determination of a semi-empirical formalism for different target-filter combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da mudança no contraste do objeto, tempo de exposição e dose de radiação quando diferentes espessuras de filtração de molibdênio (Mo e ródio (Rh são empregadas em mamógrafos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se medidas da exposição na entrada da pele com uma câmara de ionização para diferentes espessuras para os filtros de Mo e Rh. Para determinar a dose glandular média foi utilizado simulador de BR12 (50% tecido adiposo e 50% tecido glandular de diferentes espessuras (4 cm e 8 cm. Energias na faixa de 24 kVp a 34 kVp foram empregadas e filmes Kodak MinR 2000 foram utilizados. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram dados de contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para diferentes espessuras de filtros adicionais e diferentes tensões. Esses dados indicaram aumento nos valores de contraste do objeto e tempo de exposição, com o aumento da espessura dos filtros. A dose glandular apresentou comportamento com diferentes tendências para cada caso analisado. Equações foram definidas para possibilitar a estimativa do contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para os casos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados possibilitaram a estimativa de equações que auxiliam na verificação do comportamento do contraste do objeto e da dose glandular para simuladores com espessura de 4 cm e 8 cm e para os filtros de Rh e Mo. Dessa forma, torna-se possível estimar a figura de mérito (razão entre o contraste do objeto e a dose glandular, podendo auxiliar na análise da relação risco-benefício dos casos estudados.OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to verify the effect of changes in subject contrast, exposure time and radiation dose when different thicknesses of molybdenum (Mo and rhodium (Rh filters are used in mammography equipments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Entrance skin exposure measurements were performed with an ionization chamber for different thicknesses of Mo and Rh filters

  9. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality. PMID:27534133

  10. Digital breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography: A comparison of figures of merit for various average glandular doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-seul; Park, Hye-Suk; Park, SuJin; Kim, Hee-Joung; Choi, Jae-Gu; Choi, Young-Wook; Park, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jae-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies on the application of tomosynthesis to breast imaging have demonstrated the potential of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). DBT can improve the specificity of digital mammography (DM) through improved marginal visibility of lesions and early breast cancer detection for women with dense breasts. To investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of lesion detection with DBT systems as compared to DM, we conducted a quantitative evaluation by using simulated lesions embedded in a breast phantom. A prototype DBT and dedicated DM system were used in this study. For the DBT system, the average glandular dose (AGD) was calculated using a formalism that was a simple extension of mammography dosimetry. The DBT and the DM images were acquired with average glandular doses (AGDs) ranging from 1 to 4 mGy. To analyze the results objectively, we calculated metrics for in-plane lesion visibility in the form of the contrast-to-noise ratio for the in-focus plane from the DBT reconstruction image and from the craniocaudal (CC) image from the DM system. The imaging performance of DBT was quantitatively compared with that of DM in terms of the figure of merit. Although the DM showed better results in terms of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the mass due to the reduced overlapping of tissue and lesion, an increase in breast thickness of over 3 cm increased the CNR of the mass with the DBT system. For microcalcification detection, the DBT system showed significantly higher CNR than the DM system and gave better predictions of the microcalcification size. We compared the performances of the DM and the DBT systems for various AGDs and breast thicknesses. In conclusion, the results indicate that the DBT systems can play an important role in the detection of masses or microcalcifications without severe compression.

  11. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  12. Dades sobre la biologia d'espècies ibèrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès Xirau, Joan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    [ca] S'estudien diversos aspectes de la biologia de les espècies ib èrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L., fonamentalment de les seccions Artemisia L. i Seriphidium Besser. La germinació de les cipseles, el tipus de cicle biològic, la biologia de la reproducció i la fenologia són els principals termes tractats. [fr] On étude des aspects divers de la biologie des espèces ibéro-baléariques du genre Artemisia L., notamment des sections Artemisia L. et Seriphidium Besser. La germination des cypseles, le type du cycle biologique, la biologie de la reproduction et la phénologie sont les principaux points traités.

  13. Studies on Silage of Artemisia Scoparia%黄蒿的可青贮性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    以黄蒿为原料,通过添加采禾添加剂青贮和和直接青贮,探讨黄蒿的可青贮性。试验结果表明,直接青贮和添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为16和17分,达到了优良等级。添加剂青贮后的pH值为4.26,直接青贮后的pH值为5.09,直接青贮乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比高于添加剂青贮,丁酸占总酸的百分比为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮,氨态氮占总氮的百分比表现为直接青贮高于添加剂青贮。通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为87分,为优良青贮;而添加剂青贮为56分,为合格。综合感官性状、发酵品质,黄蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,对黄蒿%Artemisia scoparia was used as material to make silage without adding additive and make silage adding additive. The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages achieved excellent grade, and the score were 16 and 17 respectively. The pH value of silage without adding additive and with it were 5.09 and 4.26 respectively. The addition of the additive can't increase content of LA and AA. Content of PA in silage without adding additive was less than in the silage adding additive. The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was an excellent silage, the silage adding additive was a qualified silage. By the comprehensive combination of sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, we found that artemisia scoparia can make silage, and making Artemisia ordosica silage without adding additive was the best way.

  14. 黄蒿的青贮特性研究%Studies on Artemisia scoparia Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia adding additive and without additive were used to study the silage quality.The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages were good in silage without adding additive and in silage adding additive,the score were 16 and 17, respectively.The pH value of silage without adding additive and silage adding additive were 5.09 and 4.26, respectively.The silage with additive increased the contents of lactic acid and Acetic acid,while the content of PA in direct silage was higher.The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was excellent with 87 score, while the silage adding additive was a qualified silage with 56 score.Judging from comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, Artemisia scoparia silage without adding additive was the prior way.%以黄蒿(Artemisia scoparia)为原料,比较加入添加剂采禾青贮和直接青贮,探讨黄蒿的青贮性.试验结果表明:直接青贮和加入添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为16分和17分,均达到优良等级.加入添加剂青贮后为pH 4.26,直接青贮后的pH 5.09,乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比以直接青贮较高,丁酸占总酸的百分比以加入添加剂青贮后较高,氨态氮占总氮的百分比表现为直接青贮高于添加剂青贮.通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为87分,为优良青贮,而加入添加剂青贮为56分,为合格.综合感官性状和发酵品质,黄蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,对黄蒿青贮时采用直接青贮的方法更好.

  15. High-Fat Diet-Induced Neuropathy of Prediabetes and Obesity: Effect of PMI-5011, an Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Watcho; Roman Stavniichuk; David M. Ribnicky; Ilya Raskin; Obrosova, Irina G.

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-sfat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalg...

  16. Acute hypotensive and diuretic activities of Artemisia herba alba aqueous extract in normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoufel Ali Zeggwagh; Jean Baptiste Michel; Mohamed Eddouks

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of Artemisia herba alba (A. herba alba) intravenous injection on cardiovascular and renal function in normal rats. Methods:The effect of intravenous injection of A. herba alba extract at the different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated in normal rats. Diuresis, heart frequency and electrolytes concentrations were analyzed. Results: Intravenous bolus injection of A. herba alba at the different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a dose dependent reduction in arterial blood pressure (P Conclusions: We conclude that the aqueous A. herba alba extract possesses a potent acute hypotensive effect on normal rats. In addition, A. herba alba perfusion may affect renal function to increase urine and electrolytes excretion.

  17. Ultrasonic studies of the effect of artemisia decoction on the volume and dynamics of gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z F; Wu, X S

    1993-02-01

    This paper deals with the ultrasonic studies of the effect of artemisia decoction (AD) on the volume and motion of gallbladder in 33 cases. Ultrasonic examination shows that AD intravenous infusion has remarkable effects on the contractility of gallbladder. There are 4 patterns of phasic changes in the motion of gallbladder and an increase in frequency of its contraction and relaxation. AD has also certain contraction effects on the gallbladders which can not contract after a fatty meal. The above findings indicate that AD is a good choleretic and has a definite regulating effect on the motility of the gallbladder. The clinical use of AD is conducive to bile flow, stone expelling, inhibiting the deposition of bile solids and reducing the possibility of stone formation. PMID:8504698

  18. Selective nematocidal effects of essential oils from two cultivated Artemisia absinthium populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Juan José; Andrés, María-Fé; Ibañez-Escribano, Alexandra; Julio, Luis F; Burillo, Jesús; Bolás-Fernández, Francisco; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) obtained from two crops and populations of thujone-free cultivated Artemisia absinthium were tested against two nematode models, the mammalian parasite Trichinella spiralis, and the plant parasitic root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. The EOs were characterized by the presence of (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenol as major components and showed time and population dependent quantitative and qualitative variations in composition. The EOs showed a strong ex vivo activity against the L1 larvae of the nematode Trichinella spiralis with a reduction of infectivity between 72 and 100% at a dose range of 0.5-1 mg/ml in absence of cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Moreover, the in vivo activity of the EO against T. spiralis showed a 66% reduction of intestinal adults. However, these oils were not effective against M. javanica. PMID:26444350

  19. Qualitative variation of anti-diabetic compounds in different tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) cytotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, Sasha W.; Poulev, Alexander; Struwe, Lena; Raskin, Ilya; Ribnicky, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts of diploid Artemisia dracunculus L. (wild tarragon) from populations in the U.S., and polyploid tarragon from a variety of sources, were screened for the anti-diabetic compounds davidigenin; sakuranetin; 2′,4′-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone; 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid; 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 6-demethoxycapillarisin using LC-MS. Only decaploid plants contained all six target compounds and were the only plants that contained davidigenin and 2,4-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone. These results exhibit the importance of germplasm selection and provenance when studying plants for medicinal activity. Relying only on the “right species” for consistent medicinal activities may not be sufficient, as intraspecific variation may be highly significant. PMID:21798321

  20. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: In vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H.; Fadda, Anna M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN in...