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Sample records for artemisia annua glandular

  1. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants.

  2. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth

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    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Lilian A.; Korndörfer, Gaspar H.; Lana, Regina M. Q.; Rossi, Monica L.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Silva, Deise A.O.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  3. Artemisinin concentration and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua distillation byproduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia annua is mostly known as the source of artemisinin, the raw material for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy, used against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum where malaria is endemic. Artemisinin drugs are also effective against helminthic and protozoan parasites tha...

  4. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphorus application on artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rupam; Chaudhary, Vidhi; Bhatnagar, A K

    2007-10-01

    Annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) produces an array of complex terpenoids including artemisinin, a compound of current interest in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. However, this promising antimalarial compound remains expensive and is hardly available on the global scale. Synthesis of artemisinin has not been proved to be feasible commercially. Therefore, increase in yield of naturally occurring artemisinin is an important area of investigation. The effects of inoculation by two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus macrocarpum and Glomus fasciculatum, either alone or supplemented with P-fertilizer, on artemisinin concentration in A. annua were studied. The concentration of artemisinin was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The two fungi significantly increased concentration of artemisinin in the herb. Although there was significant increase in concentration of artemisinin in nonmycorrhizal P-fertilized plants as compared to control, the extent of the increase was less compared to mycorrhizal plants grown with or without P-fertilization. This suggests that the increase in artemisinin concentration may not be entirely attributed to enhanced P-nutrition and improved growth. A strong positive linear correlation was observed between glandular trichome density on leaves and artemisinin concentration. Mycorrhizal plants possessed higher foliar glandular trichome (site for artemisinin biosynthesis and sequestration) density compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. Glandular trichome density was not influenced by P-fertilizer application. The study suggests a potential role of AM fungi in improving the concentration of artemisinin in A. annua.

  5. Chitosan oligosaccharide and salicylic acid up-regulate gene expression differently in relation to the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Heng; Kjær, Anders; Fretté, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for treating fevers and malaria. The primary anti-malarial component is the sesquiterpene lactone peroxide artemisinin, which is accumulated in glandular trichomes. This study investigated the effect of treating plants with chitosan...

  6. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

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    Monika Skowyra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  7. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  8. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

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    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  9. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

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    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission.

  10. Purification of artemisinin excerpt from Artemisia annua L

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    Chemat-Djenni Z.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The active pharmaceutical substance artemisinin found in Artemisia annua L. remains the most effective remedy against malaria. The objective of this work is the purification of the active ingredient through a natural matrix composed of clay sandwiched by aluminum. The purification process is carried by adsorption of the extracts on sodium type and bridged clay type. The XRD characterization of this material shows an increase in the basal distance of 10 Å to 17 Å. This shows the success of the intercalation of aluminum polycation. We find a better purification of the extract when using aluminum bridged clay compared to sodium clay. The best performance of 80.64% adsorption is obtained at 40 ° C for the clay matrix bridged with aluminum complex.

  11. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect of Artemisia annua extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, E.; Fretté, X. C.; Engberg, R. M.;

    2012-01-01

    be banned in the EU. Extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (AA) showed antimicrobial activity in overnight cultures of CP strains isolated from diseased broilers. The hexane extract (HEX) gave the strongest inhibition (MIC=185ppm) while the dichloromethane extract (DCM) gave a weaker inhibition (MIC......=270ppm). The dietary incorporation of HEX reduced the population of CP and the severity of the associated small intestinal lesions (P>0.05) in broilers when applying a NE disease model. The antibacterial compounds from HEX and DCM, chrysosplenol and ponticaepoxide, were isolated. This is the first...... report of activity against CP for these compounds. HEX, DCM and artemisinin were also tested against HM. The two latter showed highest antiprotozoal effect in vitro (MLC=1.0mg/ml and IC50=1.3mg/ml respectively), and were tested in vivo in infected poultry. However, no effect against HM at the given...

  12. Isolation and characterization of three new monoterpene synthases from Artemisia annua

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    Ju-Xin eRuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5 and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and gibberellin (GA, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant.

  13. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

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    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications.

  14. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract(CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control(no addition)

  15. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

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    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  16. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids, a

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  19. ARTEMISININ, RELATED SESQUITERPENES, AND ESSENTIAL OIL IN ARTEMISIA-ANNUA DURING A VEGETATION PERIOD IN VIETNAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; BOS, R; VANUDEN, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; BATTERMAN, S; LUGT, CB

    1994-01-01

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related sesquiterp

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia annua L. from Iran

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    M R Verdian-rizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowering aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. (Compositae was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-two components were identified in the essential oil of A. annua L. with campher (48.00%, 1,8-cineole (9.39%, camphene (6.98% and spathulenol (4.89% as major components. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities . The activity was more pronounced against fungal organisms than against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  1. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a sustainable approach to improve anti-malarial drug production

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    Giuseppe ePulice

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progresses in prevention and treatment have been developed, 198 million cases of malaria occurred in 2013, resulting in 584000 estimated deaths. 90% of all malaria deaths occurred in Africa, mostly among children under the age of five. This article aims to review malaria’s history, epidemiology and current treatments, with a particular focus on the potential of molecular farming that use metabolic engineering in plants as effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria indeed represents an example of how a health problem on one hand, may eventually influence the proper development of a country due to the burden of the disease, and on the other hand, constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is here proposed as a sustainable alternative for the production not only of natural herbal repellents used for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs like artemisinin used for primary parasite infection treatments.Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua plant. However, the low concentration of artemisinin in plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to meet the worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies, especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, a process that only takes place in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated, and significant efforts using plant genetic engineering have been made to increase the production of this compound. These include studies on diverse transcription factors, which all have been shown to regulate artemisinin genetic pathway and other biological processes. Therefore, genetic manipulation of these genes may be used as a cost-effective potential

  2. Artemisia annua L.: Polyploidy and NIRS, two tools to improve breeding efficiency

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    Quennoz, Mélanie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Breeding a new cultivar needs 5 to 15 years according to the species and the breeding objectives from bioprospection up to cultivar registration. This is a very long time for companies developing and trading plant based products. To react more quickly to the requirements of the stakeholders, methods to accelerate the breeding procedures have to be taken into account. Among different possibilities, polyploidy induction and rapid methods to measure target traits with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS were tested on Artemisia annua L. Tetraploid progenies were compared to the cultivar Apollon. These tests showed no significant differences between the tetraploid plants and the cultivar Apollon for the artemisinin content, as well for the leaf and the artemisin yield. The determination of artemisinin in powder of Artemisia annua using a hand-held NIRS device showed accurate results in predicting artemininin contents. Root mean square error values of cross-validation and prediction of 0.1 % were calculated, in both cases.

  3. Studies on the expression of linalool synthase using a promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Han, Junli; Hao, Mengshu; Yang, Yiyi; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2014-01-15

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial endoperoxide sesquiterpene, is synthesized in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. A number of other enzymes of terpene metabolism utilize intermediates of artemisinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl and farnesyl diphosphate, and may thereby influence the yield of artemisinin. In order to study the expression of such enzymes, we have cloned the promoter regions of some enzymes and fused them to β-glucuronidase (GUS). In this study, we have investigated the expression of the monoterpene synthase linalool synthase (LIS) using transgenic A. annua carrying the GUS gene under the control of the LIS promoter. The 652bp promoter region was cloned by the genome walker method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted indicating that the LIS is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. Transgenic plants carrying the promoter-GUS fusion showed specific expression of GUS in T-shaped trichomes (TSTs) but not in glandular secretory trichomes, which is the site for artemisinin biosynthesis. GUS expression was observed at late stage of flower development in styles of florets and in TSTs and guard cells of basal bracts. GUS expression after wounding showed that LIS is involved in plant responsiveness to wounding. Furthermore, the LIS promoter responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). These results indicate that the promoter carries a number of cis-acting regulatory elements involved in the tissue-specific expression of LIS and in the response of the plant to wounding and MeJA treatment. Southern blot analysis indicated that the GUS gene was integrated in the A. annua genome as single or multi copies in different transgenic lines. Promoter activity analysis by qPCR showed that both the wild-type and the recombinant promoter are active in the aerial parts of the plant while only the recombinant promoter was active in roots. Due to the expression in TSTs but not in glandular trichomes, it may be concluded that LIS expression will most

  4. Studies on Acaricidal Bioactivities of Artemisia annua L. Extracts Against Tetranychus cinnabarinus Bois. (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-qiang; DING Wei; ZHAO Zhi-mo; WU Jing; FAN Yu-hu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction technique, the most suitable solvent, the optimal plant parts,and the acaricidal activities of Artemisia annua L. The petroleum ether (30-60℃), petroleum ether (60-90℃), ethanol,acetone, and water parallel and sequenced extracts were obtained from the leaves, stems and roots of different period of A. annua L. in April, May, June, July and September respectively. And then the acaricidal bioactivities against Tetranychus cinnabarinus of all extracts were determined by the slide-capillary method in the laboratory. The results indicated that the acaricidal bioactivities elevated as the development of A. annua plant at the concentration of 5 mg mL-1. The general tendency exhibited the sequence of July > June > May > April, but September decreased comparing to July. However, the most effective extracts in five months were all acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf, and the corrected mortalities treated after 48 h ranged from 74 to 100%. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) against T. cinnabarinus of acetone parallel extracts of A. annua leaves in September, July, June, May and April were 0.5986, 0.4341, 0.8376, 0.9443 and 1.3817 mg mL-1, respectively, treated after 48 h. The 13 groups were isolated from acetone extracts of A. annua leaves in July by column chromatography, both the 11th and 12th groups exhibited strong bioactivities. The median lethal concentrations of the 11th and 12th groups against T. cinnabarinus were 0.3683 and 0.1586 mg mL-1, respectively. The acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf in July was the most toxic to T. cinnabarinus and the corrected mortality was 100% after 48 h. The acetone parallel extract of the 11th and 12th groupswere the most active components, acted as the emphases in further study.

  5. Effects of Overexpression of the Endogenous Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase on the Artemisinin Content in Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Artemisinin Is a novel effective antimalarial drug extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Owing to the tight market and low yield of artemislnin, there is great interest in enhancing the production of artemisinin.In the present study, farnesyl dlphosphate synthase (FPS) was overexpressed in high-yield A. annua to increase the artemislnin content. The FPS activity in transgenic A. annua was two- to threefold greater than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The highest artemisinin content in transgenic A. annua was approximately 0.9% (dry weight), which was 34.4% higher than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The results demonstrate the regulatory role of FPS in artemisinin biosynthesis.

  6. Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.

  7. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

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    Meiya Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  8. Feeding Artemisia annua alters digesta pH and muscle lipid oxidation products in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, G; Orr, A; Burke, I C; Pan, W

    2013-04-01

    Because of growing consumer concern about the use of antimicrobials and the ban on most antibiotic feed additives in the European Union, there is increased interest in using alternatives to antimicrobials in poultry diets. Dried leaves of Artemisia annua have been used in Oriental medicine due to their antimicrobial activities. In the current study, the effect of including A. annua in broiler diets on hindgut and ceca pH, lipid oxidation products, and phenolic content of dark and white meat, and bird performance were investigated. A total of 96 broiler chicks were kept in 48 cages. Two cages with 2 birds per each cage are considered as 1 replicate, and there were 8 replications per treatment. The birds were fed corn-soy diets containing 0% (control), 2% (ART2), or 4% (ART4) dried A. annua leaves from d 14 through d 42. Cecal digesta pH was the lowest in birds fed the ART4 diet (P muscle of birds fed ART2 and ART4 diets compared with the control (P abdominal fat pads, or breast or thigh muscle content (P > 0.05). Artemisia annua addition did not affect final BW, weight gain, feed consumption, carcass weight, or feed:gain. No difference was observed in the relative weight of liver, abdominal fat, spleen, or heart tissue. Gastric acidity is protective against intestinal colonization and translocation of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, gut pH and muscle tissue TBARS reduction in birds fed ART2 and ART4 suggest that A. annua may prove useful as a natural phytogenic feed additive with antioxidant potential that could be incorporated into poultry diets.

  9. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

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    Himanshu Misra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimized for fast sample preparation for the faster quantitative determination of artemisinin, potential new generation antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of Artemisia annua L. A simple experiment was designed for the optimization of the appropriate solvent under same extraction conditions. The selected appropriate solvent was then standardized for various different extraction variables. The major parameters studied showed effects on extraction efficiency including processing time, strength of microwave, moisture content, volume and nature of the solvent. The most favorable conditions were obtained by using plant material of 25 mesh (particle size extracted with acetone for 120 seconds at 160 W (i.e., 20% of total power. Quantitative analysis was performed using thin-layer chromatography coupled with a densitometer (TLC densitometry. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors.

  11. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

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    Fabio F. Perazzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  12. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

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    Lundgren Anneli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13 reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures. Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes. The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a

  13. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract (CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control (no addition),3,30,300 and 3 000 mg/L mixed culture fluid,respectively.Rumen fluid was taken from 3ruminally fistulated dairy goats fed a 50% forage to 50% mixed concentrate ratio diet.The rumen contents were thoroughly mixed and strained through 4 layers of cheese-cloth.

  14. Isolation and identification of novel genes involved in artemisinin production from flowers of Artemisia annua using suppression subtractive hybridization and metabolite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuoqian; Tian, Na; Li, Juan; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2009-11-01

    Malaria is a global health problem that threatens 300-500 million people and kills more than one million people annually. Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and it has been widely used as part of the artemisinin-based combination therapies against malaria. To elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin and to clone related genes in Artemisia annua, differentially expressed genes between blooming flowers and flower buds were isolated and characterized by a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and metabolite analysis. A total of 350 cDNA clones from a subtractive cDNA library were randomly picked, sequenced and analyzed and 253 high-quality sequences were obtained. BLASTX comparisons indicated that about 9.9 % of the clones encoded enzymes involved in isoprenoid (including artemisinin) biosynthesis. The expression of 4 gene transcripts involved in artemisinin biosynthesis was examined by RT-PCR and the results confirmed the higher expression of these transcripts in blooming flowers than in flower buds. In addition, 2 putative transcript factors transparenta testa glabra 1 (TTG1) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3), which promote trichome initiation, were presented in the library. Finally, this study demonstrated that the increase of expression level of the putative TTG1 gene correlated with the improvement of glandular trichome density and artemisinin production in A. annua leaves. The subtractive cDNA library described in the present study provides important candidate genes for future research in order to increase the artemisinin content in A. annua.

  15. Anti-Giardial Activity of Chloroformic Extract of Tanacetum parthenium and Artemisia annua in vitro

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    Shirzad Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardiasis is a one of the most prevalent intestinal parasitic diseases in human, treatment of this disease through medicinal plants is very important since parasite resistance to chemical drugs exists. Thus, in this study, the in vitro anti-giardial activity of chloroformic extract of Tanacetum parthenium and Artemisia annua on cyst and trophozoite of Giardia lamblia were separately investigated.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study chloroformic extracts of Artemisia annua and Tanacetum parthenium on cyst and trophozoite of G. lamblia in vitro were prepared in 1, 10, 50 and 100 mg∕ml concentrations for 5, 10, 30, 60 and 180 min. Purified cysts were used for encystations and culture in TYI-S-33 medium. Then, 2 ml of each solution was placed in test tubes, to which 10,000 washed cysts and trophozoites were added. The contents of the tubes were gently mixed and incubated. The percentages of dead parasites were determined by counting 500 cysts. Non treated parasites were considered a control group in each experiment and the viability of the parasites checked with Eeosin staining and statistical analysis were done. Results: The results showed that chloroformic extracts of A. annua at 100 mg/ml concentration affected on Gardia cyst 86% and 100% trophozoite after 1 hour. T. parthenium at 50mg/ml concentration killed cysts (83% and trophozite (100% after 1 hour, respectively. T. parthenium chloroformic extract had a better effect on cyst and trophozoite of Giardia at 50 mg/ml after 1 hour exposure than A. annua extract. Conclusion: According to this study, A. annua and T. parthenium chlorofomic extracts could be considered as a more effective anti-giardial agent. Chloroformic extract of T. parthenium was also shown the anti-giardial activity compared with A. annua and control groups at all exposure times. Therefore, in the future research using these plants are recommended against Giardia in low concentration in the in vivo

  16. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

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    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  18. Optimization of genetic transformation of Artemisia annua L. Using Agrobacterium for Artemisinin production

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    Elfahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a choice and effective drug for malaria treatment. Due to the low yield of artemisinin in plants, there is a need to enhance the production of artemisinin from A. annua and biotechnological technique may be one of the methods that can be used for the purpose. Aim: To study the transformation efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in A. annua that could be applied to enhance the production of artemisinin by means of transgenic plants. Setting and Designs: The factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. annua were explored to optimize the transformation system, which included A. tumefaciens strain and effect of organosilicone surfactants. Three strains of A. tumefaciens, that is, LBA4404, GV1301, and AGL1 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1303 have been used for transformation. The evaluation was based on transient β-glucuronidase (GUS. Materials and Methods: Plant cell cultures were inniatiated from the seeds of A. annua using the germination Murashige and Skoog medium. A. tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA were tranformed into the leaves of A.annua cultures from 2-week-old-seedling and 2-month-old-seedling for 15 min by vacuum infiltration. Transformation efficiency was determinated by measuring of blue area (GUS expression on the whole leaves explant using ImageJ 1.43 software. Two organosilicon surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were used to improve the transformation efficiency. Results: The transformation frequency with AGL1 strain was higher than GV3101 and LBA4404 which were 70.91, 49.25, and 45.45%, respectively. Effect of organosilicone surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were tested on A. tumefaciens AGL1 and GV3101 for their level of transient expression, and on A. rhizogenes R1000 for its hairy root induction frequency. For AGL1, Silwet S-408 produced higher level of

  19. In vitro antibacterial activity of Artemisia annua Linn. growing in India

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    Gupta Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia annua Linn. (Asteraceae were investigated for their antibacterial activity by using agar well diffusion assays against five Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus, and Micrococcus luteus and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the various extracts, the methanol extract showed the strongest activity against most bacteria used in this study. The most sensitive organism to the extracts was M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined by the tube dilution method. The results showed that S. aureus required ~0.25 mg/mL of the methanol extract for inhibition. The HPTLC fingerprint of the methanol extract after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent showed a maximum number of separated components. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract showed that the area of inhibition around compounds differentiated at R f = 0.32, R f = 0.42, R f = 0.46, R f = 0.77, and R f = 0.87 against S. aureus. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of A. annua against food-borne bacteria. The results indicated that aerial parts of A. annua might be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  20. ANALYSIS OF ARTEMISININ AND RELATED SESQUITERPENOIDS FROM ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L BY COMBINED GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS-SPECTROMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; BOS, R; VISSER, JF; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1991-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoid artemisinin (3) and its biosynthetic precursors arteannuic acid (1), arteannuin B (2) and artemisitene (4) can be separated and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry both as a mixture of reference standards as well as in extracts of Artemisia annua L. From t

  1. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  2. The Biosynthesis of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu and the Phytochemistry of Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao

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    Geoffrey D. Brown

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao is the only known source of the sesquiterpene artemisinin (Qinghaosu, which is used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin is a highly oxygenated sesquiterpene, containing a unique 1,2,4-trioxane ring structure, which is responsible for the antimalarial activity of this natural product. The phytochemistry of A. annua is dominated by both sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids, as is the case for many other plants in the Asteraceae family. However, A. annua is distinguished from the other members of the family both by the very large number of natural products which have been characterised to date (almost six hundred in total, including around fifty amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes, and by the highly oxygenated nature of many of the terpenoidal secondary metabolites. In addition, this species also contains an unusually large number of terpene allylic hydroperoxides and endoperoxides. This observation forms the basis of a proposal that the biogenesis of many of the highly oxygenated terpene metabolites from A. annua – including artemisinin itself – may proceed by spontaneous oxidation reactions of terpene precursors, which involve these highly reactive allyllic hydroperoxides as intermediates. Although several studies of the biosynthesis of artemisinin have been reported in the literature from the 1980s and early 1990s, the collective results from these studies were rather confusing because they implied that an unfeasibly large number of different sesquiterpenes could all function as direct precursors to artemisinin (and some of the experiments also appeared to contradict one another. As a result, the complete biosynthetic pathway to artemisinin could not be stated conclusively at the time. Fortunately, studies which have been published in the last decade are now providing a clearer picture of the biosynthetic pathways in A. annua. By synthesising some of the sesquiterpene natural products

  3. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of extracts of endophytic fungi from Artemisia annua

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    Huawei Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic extracts of 11 fungi associated with asympomatic Artemisia annua Linn., were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against three human pathogenic microbes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum, and two plant pathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Magnaporthe grisea. The results showed that these endophytic extracts had different inhibitory effects on microbial pathogens at 100 mg/mL. Among these fungal endophytes, three strains Aspergillus spp. SPS-02, SPS-04 and SPS-01 respectively showed the strongest antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureu, T. rubrum. An endophytic Mucor sp. SPS-11 had the most pronounced effect on R. cerealis. Two strains Aspergillus sp. SPS-02 and Cephalosporium sp. SPS-08 exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activities against M. grisea. These anti-pathogenic endophytes could be applied as new sources of antibiotics in agriculture and pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Identification and purification of novel chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L

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    Wenwen Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present work has been carried out to study the identification and purification of chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L. Thirty-six chlorogenic acids were identified from this plant. Among these fifteen viz. two monocaffeoylquinic acids (Mr354, five dicaffeoylquinic acids (Mr516, one feruloylquinic acid (Mr368, three caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (Mr530, two ferulylquinic acids (Mr544, one dimethoxy-cinnamoylquinic acid (Mr382 and one p-coumaroylquinic acid (Mr338 were reported first time in present study by LC/MSn . Cis-isomers of these chlorogenic acids were also identified. Furthermore, column chromatography was used for the separation and purification of these chlorogenic acid; by the use of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate decolorization methods as mentioned in the literature, thus separation and purification process carried out at the same time. Polyamide and dextran were also used to purify Dicaffeoylquinic acid and purity level reached 85.7% with a yield of 53.4% after the secondary purification by Sephadex LH-20. Result of study revealed that A. annua can not only used for the production of artemisinin, but also yielding different kinds of chlorogenic acids, thus making comprehensive utilization of this plant.

  5. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Zhu, Xiao-Xin, E-mail: zhuxx59@163.com [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Kmoníèková, Eva [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Zídek, Zdenìk [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeòská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  6. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities.

  7. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Asteraceae or compositae known as the ester, daisy or sunflower family is the largest family of flowering plants. Artemisia is a large diverse genus of plants with between 100 to 150 species belonging to the family asteraceae (compositae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climate of the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere usually in dry or, semidry habitats. The collected herbs were authenticated, dried and extracted to calculate the percentage of yield. Phytochemical studies of the Hexane and alcoholic extracts showed the presence of various phytoconstituents i.e. carbohydrate, saponins, phytosterol, proteins and amino acid, tannin, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. It was observed that all the extracts show more important chemical constituents for various pharmacological activities. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analysis of this species.

  8. Nitric Oxide Potentiates Oligosaccharide-induced Artemisinin Production in Artemisia annua Hairy Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in Artemisia annua roots induced by an oligosaccharide elicitor (OE) from Fusarium oxysporum mycelium and the potentiation role of NO in the elicitation of artemisinin accumulation. The OE (0.3 mg total sugar/mL) induced a rapid production of NO in cultures, which exhibited a biphasic time course, reaching the first plateau within 1.5 h and the second within 8 h of OE treatment. Artemisinin content in 20-day-old hairy roots was increased from 0.7 mg/g dry wt to 1.3 mg/g dry wt by using the OE treatment for 4d. In the absence of OE, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 10, 50 μM and 100 μM enhanced the growth of hairy roots, but had no effect on artemisinin synthesis. The combination of SNP with OE increased artemisinin content from 1.2 mg/g dry wt to 2.2 mg/g dry wt, whereas the maximum production of artemisinin in cultures was 28.5 mg/L, a twofold increase over the OE treatment alone. The effects of SNP on the OE-induced artemisinin were suppressed strongly by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO). The results suggest that NO can strongly potentiate elicitor-induced artemisinin synthesis in A. annua hairy roots.

  9. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, Tariq, E-mail: tarik.alig@gmail.co [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin,; Hashmi, Nadeem [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by {sup 60}Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L{sup -1}, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L{sup -1} increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in the leaves. -- Highlights: {yields} Application of ionizing radiation to degrade natural bioactive agents is a novel emerging technology. {yields} Sodium alginate has been used as the growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form for various plants. {yields} The study revealed that irradiated sodium algiante at 20-120 ppm concentration improved the plant growth. {yields} The enhancement of artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in leaves.

  10. Insect feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of scopoletin isolated from Artemisia annua against Spilarctia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar Tripathi; Rajendra Singh Bhakuni; Shikha Upadhyay; Rashmi Gaur

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) is well known for its antimalarial activities due to presence of the compound artemisinin. We isolated a methoxy coumarin from the stem part of A. annua and confirmed its identity as scopoletin through mass spectral data.The structure was established from 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR.The compound scopoletin was evaluated for its feeding deterrence and growth inhibitory potential against a noxious lepidopteran insect, Spilartctia obliqua Walker. Scopoletin gave FD50 (feeding deterrence of 50%) value of 96.7 μg/g diet when mixed into artificial diet. S. obliqua larvae (12-day-old) exposed to the highest concentration (250 μg/g diet)of scopoletin showed 77.1% feeding-deterrence. In a growth inhibitory assay, scopoletin provided 116.9% growth inhibition at the highest dose of 250 μg/g diet with a GI50 (growth inhibition of 50%) value of 20.9μg/g diet. Statistical analysis showed a concentrationdependent dose response relationship toward both feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities. Artemisinin is found mainly in the leaves of A. annua and not in the stems,which are typically discarded as waste. Therefore identification of scopoletin in stems of A. annua may be important as a source of this material for pest control.

  11. Chemical composition of Artemisia annua L. leaves and antioxidant potential of extracts as a function of extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-05-21

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  12. Inhibitory Action of Artemisia annua Extracts and Artemisinin on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Okafor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of ethanol (EEAA, acid (AEAA, and toluene (TEAA extracts from Artemisia annua and Artemisinin (ATS on mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions was investigated using gravimetric and gasometric techniques. The extracts and ATS functioned as good inhibitors, and their inhibition efficiencies (%IE followed the trend: EEAA > AEAA > TEAA > ATS. %IE increased with increase in inhibitors concentration and decreased with increase in temperature. The enhanced %IE values of the extracts were attributed to synergistic effect of the components of the plant extracts with ATS. The adsorption of the inhibitors was consistent with Langmuir isotherm. Physisorption is proposed as the mechanism of inhibition.

  13. Characterization of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases isolated from trichome enriched fraction of Artemisia annua L. leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Amita; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Gupta, Madan M; Dwivedi, Upendra N; Shasany, Ajit K

    2012-12-01

    CYPs have major role in the biosynthesis and modification of secondary metabolites. Predicting the possible involvement of CYPs in secondary metabolism, 20 partial sequences were amplified from the cDNA of trichome enriched tissue of Artemisia annua. Seven CYPs were converted to full length and assigned to different families based on sequence homology. These were co-expressed with CPR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and microsome fractions were assayed for conversion of sesquiterpenes, phenols and fatty acid substrates. CIM_CYP02(c73) and CIM_CYP05(c81) converted trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid; and capric acid, lauric acid to their hydroxylated products, respectively. Higher expression of CIM_CYP71AV1, CIM_CYP03(c72a), CIM_CYP06(c72b), CIM_CYP02(c73) and CIM_CYP04(c83) was observed in the mature leaf, whereas expression of CIM_CYP05(c81) was more in the seedling. CIM_CYP71AV1, CIM_CYP02(c73) and CIM_CYP04(c83) expressed more in the flower bud compared to the leaf, with minor expression in stem. All CYPs' expression increased progressively with time after wounding except for CIM_CYP07(c92). These results relate involvement of CIM_CYP02(c73) to phenyl-propanoid metabolism in the leaf and CIM_CYP05(c81) to fatty acid metabolism in the seedling. Expression of CIM_CYP71AV1 and CIM_CYP02(c73) significantly increased when sprayed with trans-cinnamic acid indicating a relationship between phenylpropanoid and artemisinic acid pathways.

  14. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eIslamuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 % followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %. AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 µg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 µg ml─1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide (NO generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 µg ml─1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w. to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90 % in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  15. The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Townsend

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach.

  16. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30-50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications.

  17. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  18. Cloning and enzymology analysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from a superior strain of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA(af1) encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase AaFPS1 (FPS, EC2.5.1.1/EC2.5.1.10) from a high yield Artemisia annua strain 025 has been cloned from its cDNA library. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 343 amino acid (aa) residues with molecular weight of 39 kD. Deduced aa sequence of the cDNA was similar to FPS from other plants, yeast and mammals, containing 5 conserved domains found in both prenyl transferase and polyprenyl synthase. The expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli showed measurable specific activity of FPS in vitro. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography and its kinetics was measured. These results would further promote the molecular regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis.

  19. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  20. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F.S. Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decade, the work with artemisinin-based compounds has expanded to their anti-cancer properties. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations (tea, leaf flavonoids, also present in the tea, have shown a variety of biological activities and may synergize the effects of artemisinin against malaria and cancer. However, only a few studies have focused on the potential synergistic effects between flavonoids and artemisinin. The resurgent idea that multi-component drug therapy might be better than monotherapy is illustrated by the recent resolution of the World Health Organization to support artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT, instead of the previously used monotherapy with artemisinins. In this critical review we will discuss the possibility that artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs might become more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria and cancer if simultaneously delivered with flavonoids. The flavonoids present in A. annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of artemisinin in the body, but also have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases.

  1. Effect of cadmium on photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation,antioxidants, and artemisinin in hydroponically grown Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Li; Manxi Zhao; Lanping Guo; Luqi Huang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different cadmium(Cd)concentrations(0,20,60,and 100 μmol/L)on hydroponically grown Artemisia annua L.were investigated.Cd treatments applied for 0,4,12,24,72,144,216,and 336 hr were assessed by measuring the changes in photosynthetic pigments,electrolyte leakage,malondialdehyde(MDA)and antioxidants(ascorbic acid and glutathione),while the artemisinin content was tested after 0,12,144,216,and 336 hr.A significant decrease was observed in photosynthetic pigment levels over time with increasing Cd concentration.Chlorophyll b levels were more affected by Cd than were chlorophyll a or carotenoid levels.The cell membrane was sensitive to Cd stress,as MDA content in all treatment groups showed insignificant differences from the control group,except at 12 hr treatment time.Ascorbic acid(AsA)content changed slightly over time,while glutathione(GSH)content took less time to reach a maximum as Cd concentration increased.Cd was found to promote synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin,especially at concentrations of 20 and 100 μmol/L.In conclusion,Cd stress can damage to photosynthetic pigments,and vigorously growing A.annua showed a strong tolerance for Cd stress.Appropriate amounts of added Cd aided synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin.

  2. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of artemisinin delivered by oral consumption of Artemisia annua dried leaves in healthy vs. Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Elfawal, Mostafa A.; Towler, Melissa J.; Acquaah-Mensah, George K.; Rich, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance The Chinese have used Artemisia annua as a tea infusion to treat fever for > 2,000 yrs. The active component is artemisinin. Previously we showed that when compared to mice fed an equal amount of pure artemisinin, a single oral dose of dried leaves of Artemisia annua (pACT) delivered to Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice reduced parasitemia at least fivefold. Dried leaves also delivered >40 times more artemisinin in the blood with no toxicity. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of artemisinin delivered from dried plant material has not been adequately studied. Material and Methods Healthy and P. chabaudi-infected mice were oral gavaged with pACT to deliver a 100 mg kg−1 body weight dose of artemisinin. Concentrations of serum artemisinin and one of its liver metabolites, deoxyartemisinin, were measured over two hours by GCMS. Results The first order elimination rate constant for artemisinin in pACT-treated healthy mice was estimated to be 0.80 hr−1 with an elimination half-life (T½) of 51.6 min. The first order absorption rate constant was estimated at 1.39 hr−1. Cmax and Tmax were 4.33 mg L−1 and 60 min, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was 299.5 mg·min L−1. In contrast, the AUC for pACT-treated infected mice was significantly greater at 435.6 mg·min L−1. Metabolism of artemisinin to deoxyartemisinin was suppressed in infected mice over the period of observation. Serum levels of artemisinin in the infected mice continued to rise over the 120 min of the study period, and as a result, the elimination T½ was not determined; the Cmax and Tmax were estimated at ≥ 6.64 mg L−1 and ≥ 120 min, respectively. Groups of healthy mice were also fed either artemisinin or artemisinin mixed in mouse chow. When compared at 60 min, artemisinin was undetectable in the serum of mice fed 100 mg AN kg−1 body weight. When plant material was present either as mouse chow or A. annua pACT, artemisinin levels in the serum rose to 2

  4. Research Progress on the Essential Oil of Artemisia Annua L.%青蒿挥发油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 胡浩斌; 郑旭东; 王春林

    2011-01-01

    From the aspects of extraction method, harvesting time, storage time, producing area, collection position and planting season, the influence factors of essential oil yield of Artenisia annua L. were analyzed, and essential oil components were collected from different places.The results showed that there was great difference in the chemical composition of essential oils, and the major chemical composition of essential oil are sesquiterpene and monoterpene, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, caryophyllene oside, caryophyllene, seltnene, camphene, pinene and germacrene D.%从提取方法、采收期、贮存期、产地、采集部位和种植季节6个方面分析青蒿挥发油收率的影响因素.并收集整理了不同产些的挥发油组分,总结出青蒿挥发油化学成分差异较大,以倍半萜和单萜为主,主要成分是樟脑(Camphor)、1,8-按叶素(1,8-cineole)、蒿酮(Artemisia ketone)、石竹烯氧化物(Caryophyllene oside)、石竹烯(Caryophyllene)、芹予烯(Seltnene)、莰烯(Camphene)、蒎烯(Pinene)和大根香叶烯D(Germacrene D)等化合物.

  5. Protective capacity of Artemisia annua as a potent antioxidant remedy against free radical damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Nkachukwu Chukwurah; Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe; Aniefiok Ndubuisi Osuagwu; Tebekeme Okoko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of four leaf-derived solvent extracts of Artemisiaannua Methods: A. annua leaves were extracted with four solvents (absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, 70% ethanol and 70% methanol), and extracts obtained studied by five complementaryin vitro antioxidant test systems using ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and rutin as standard references. Results: The extracts remarkably inhibited lipid peroxidation (79.81%-86.70%), and erythrocyte haemolysis (40.02%-49.91%). Their IC50 values for hydroxyl, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities ranged from 2.39-3.81 mg/mL (superior to the standards), 107.24-144.49 µg/mL and 28.53-53.20 µg/mL, respectively. 70% alcohol extracts generally showed better antioxidant activity than absolute alcohol extracts. (A. annua), a medicinal plant widely touted for its vast phyto-therapeutic potential. Conclusions: The results indicate that A. annua leaf extracts have potent antioxidant activities that would have beneficial effect on human health, and aqueous organic solvents are superior to the absolute counterparts in yielding extracts with better antioxidant potential.

  6. Atividade ovicida e larvicida do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua sobre parasitas gastrintestinais de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Sprenger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitas gastrintestinais causam enorme prejuízo econômico na bovinocultura, tanto nacional como mundial, ocasionado principalmente por Bunostumom sp., Cooperia sp. e Trichostrongylus sp. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a eficácia in vitro do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua (H.7 frente a esses endoparasitas. O H.7 foi produzido com sete dias de percolação a 4ºC e posteriormente liofilizado. Com esse fitoterápico, realizaram-se testes de eclodibilidade de ovos (TEO e de migração larvar em ágar (TMLA, com seis repetições, com concentrações crescentes (0,78 a 50mg/mL. Para analisar a composição química do fitoterápico, procedeu-se à marcha fitoquímica completa. No TEO, a eficácia variou de 94,08±2,58% na maior concentração a 15,67±0,97% na menor concentração. Já no TMLA os valores encontrados variaram de 90,05±0,55% a 4,12±0,46%. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram encontrados diversos compostos com propriedades de combater os nematódeos, tanto direta como indiretamente. Os resultados obtidos nos testes in vitro evidenciam que o extrato produzido possui potencial de combater nematódeos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Novos estudos devem ser realizados buscando maximizar a eficácia do H.7 e de outras extrações obtidas a partir de A. annua, uma vez que foram demonstrados excelentes resultados em ambos os experimentos.

  7. Cloning and functional characterization of a beta-pinene synthase from Artemisia annua that shows a circadian pattern of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Xu, Ran; Jia, Jun-Wei; Pang, Jihai; Matsuda, Seiichi P T; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2002-09-01

    Artemisia annua plants produce a broad range of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, which contribute to the characteristic fragrance of this medicinal species. A cDNA clone, QH6, contained an open reading frame encoding a 582-amino acid protein that showed high sequence identity to plant monoterpene synthases. The prokaryotically expressed QH6 fusion protein converted geranyl diphosphate to (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-alpha-pinene in a 94:6 ratio. QH6 was predominantly expressed in juvenile leaves 2 weeks postsprouting. QH6 transcript levels were transiently reduced following mechanical wounding or fungal elicitor treatment, suggesting that this gene is not directly involved in defense reaction induced by either of these treatments. Under a photoperiod of 12 h/12 h (light/dark), the abundance of QH6 transcripts fluctuated in a diurnal pattern that ebbed around 3 h before daybreak (9th h in the dark phase) and peaked after 9 h in light (9th h in the light phase). The contents of (-)-beta-pinene in juvenile leaves and in emitted volatiles also varied in a diurnal rhythm, correlating strongly with mRNA accumulation. When A. annua was entrained by constant light or constant dark conditions, QH6 transcript accumulation continued to fluctuate with circadian rhythms. Under constant light, advanced cycles of fluctuation of QH6 transcript levels were observed, and under constant dark, the cycle was delayed. However, the original diurnal pattern could be regained when the plants were returned to the normal light/dark (12 h/12 h) photoperiod. This is the first report that monoterpene biosynthesis is transcriptionally regulated in a circadian pattern.

  8. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  9. Variation in the volatile constituents of Artemisia annua var. CIM-Arogya during plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2011-02-01

    The essential oils yield and composition of the aerial parts of A. annua var. CIM-Arogya grown in Uttarakhand, India were analyzed and compared by capillary GC and GC-MS at different stages of development. The analysis led to the identification of 81 constituents forming 91.0%-97.1% of the essential oils compositions. The essential oil content of the aerial parts was found to vary from 0.3% to 0.7% at different stages of growth. A. annua crop harvested at full flowering and seed setting stage gave higher yield of essential oil (0.6%, 0.7%) than that harvested at pre flowering (0.5%), late vegetative (0.4%, 0.5%), mid vegetative (0.4%, 0.4%) and early vegetative stages (0.3%, 0.3%). The essential oils at different stages of growth showed monoterpenoids (38.5%-72.0%) and sesquiterpenoids (22.2%-48.2%) as major grouped constituents. The major constituents identified were camphor (22.8%-42.6%), 1,8-cineole (3.7%-8.4%), linalool (<0.1%-11.9%), beta-caryophyllene (2.0%-9.2%), (E)-beta-farnesene (1.3%-8.5%), germacrene D (0.5%-7.3%) and 1-epi-cubenol (0.7%-5.2%) in essential oil samples collected at different crop stages.

  10. PHENOLIC CONTENT OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. FROM NATURAL HABITATS IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Paula STEFANACHE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the phenolic compounds content and profile of A. annua samples harvested from natural habitats in R. Moldova. The samples, consisting in leaves, were harvested in August 2014 (before flowering from different growing sites in north, centre and south regions. Phenolic extracts were obtained by methanol extraction of the residual plant material resulted from artemisinin separation. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by TLC and HPLC-DAD analyses, respectively. In all samples, four phenolic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids, cynarin and two flavonoids (isoquercitrin and luteolin-7-glucoside were identified and quantified, cynarin being the major compound. The variations in phenolic composition between samples harvested from the same growing site and also for the samples from different growing areas (south, centre, north, were mostly quantitative. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained for all samples, regardless of the growing site. Phenolic acids were the dominant components in the phenolic extracts.

  11. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (ptreatment - accounted mainly for the fact that Kosmos females responded positively to the Artemisia treatment while Kosmos males responded negatively, and only minor differences were found between sexes for the White Bresse genotype. In conclusion, supply of A. annua dried leaves as a botanical coccidiostat significantly reduced oocyst output in free ranged broilers and thus may form part

  12. Antihistomonal effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts in vitro could not be confirmed by in vivo experiments in turkeys and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Liebhart, D.; Hess, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Five different Artemisia annua-derived materials (i.e. dry leaves, pure artemisinin, and hexane, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of leaves) were screened for their in vitro activities against six clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis. Except for the methanol extract, all tested materials....... The dichloromethane extract of dry leaves (Ext-DCM) (minimal lethal concentration1.0 mg/ml) and artemisinin (half-maximal inhibitory concentration1.295 mg/ml) had the most promising antihistomonal properties and were therefore subsequently tested in a standardized experimental infection model in both turkeys...

  13. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Madeira, Alda M.B.N

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative...... and oocyst excretion were investigated. Broilers given chemical coccidiostats performed better than all other groups. Broilers given the two highest dosages of the herbal mixture had intermediate lesion scores caused by Eimeria acervulina, which was higher than in broilers given coccidiostats, but less than...

  14. Use of Model-Based Nutrient Feeding for Improved Production of Artemisinin by Hairy Roots of Artemisia Annua in a Modified Stirred Tank Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Nivedita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin has been indicated to be a potent drug for the cure of malaria. Batch growth and artemisinin production kinetics of hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua were studied under shake flask conditions which resulted in accumulation of 12.49 g/L biomass and 0.27 mg/g artemisinin. Using the kinetic data, a mathematical model was identified to understand and optimize the system behavior. The developed model was then extrapolated to design nutrient feeding strategies during fed-batch cultivation for enhanced production of artemisinin. In one of the fed-batch cultivation, sucrose (37 g/L) feeding was done at a constant feed rate of 0.1 L/day during 10-15 days, which led to improved artemisinin accumulation of 0.77 mg/g. The second strategy of fed-batch hairy root cultivation involved maintenance of pseudo-steady state sucrose concentration (20.8 g/L) during 10-15 days which resulted in artemisinin accumulation of 0.99 mg/g. Fed-batch cultivation (with the maintenance of pseudo-steady state of substrate) of Artemisia annua hairy roots was, thereafter, implemented in bioreactor cultivation, which featured artemisinin accumulation of 1.0 mg/g artemisinin in 16 days of cultivation. This is the highest reported artemisinin yield by hairy root cultivation in a bioreactor.

  15. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments induce physiological changes and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. - an antimalarial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rashmi; Meena, Ram Prasad; Smita, Shachi Shuchi; Shukla, Aparna; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2011-12-02

    Present study was undertaken to investigate if short-term UV-B (4.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and UV-C (5.7 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), pre-treatments can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua. Twenty-one day old Artemisia seedlings were subjected to short-term (14 days) UV pre-treatment in an environmentally controlled growth chamber and then transplanted to the field under natural conditions. Treatment of A. annua with artificial UV-B and UV-C radiation not only altered the growth responses, biomass, pigment content and antioxidant enzyme activity but enhanced the secondary metabolites (artemisinin and flavonoid) content at all developmental stages as compared to non-irradiated plants. The extent of oxidative damage was measured in terms of the activities of enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Reinforcement in the antioxidative defense system seems to be a positive response of plants in ameliorating the negative effects of UV-B and UV-C radiations. While the carotenoid content was elevated, the chlorophyll content decreased under UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments. The reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes associated in artemisinin/isoprenoid biosynthesis like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) genes at different growth stages revealed UV induced significant over-expression of the above protein genes. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments, led to an increase in the concentrations of artemisinin at full bloom stage by 10.5% and 15.7% than that of the control respectively. Thus, the result of our study suggests that short term UV-B pre-treatment of seedlings in greenhouse prior to transplantation into the field enhances artemisinin production with lesser yield related damages as compared to UV-C radiation in A. annua.

  16. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  17. Otimização do processo de extração e isolamento do antimalárico artemisinina a partir de Artemisia annua L. Optimization of the extraction and isolation of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still one of the major diseases in the world, causing physical and economic problems in tropical regions. Artemisinin (Qinghaosu, a natural compound identified in Artemisia annua L. , is an effective drug mainly against cerebral malaria. The action of this drug is immediate and parasitaemia in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria is rapidily reduced, justifying the industrial production of artemisinin. This article focuses on the industrial production of this potent antimalarial drug, including strategies for enhancing yield using inexpensive and easy steps.

  18. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  19. Validation, transfer and measurement uncertainty estimation of an HPLC-UV method for the quantification of artemisinin in hydro alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Hermine Zime; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Evrard, Brigitte; Leclercq, Joëlle Quetin; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Debrus, Benjamin; Hubert, Philippe; Rozet, Eric

    2011-08-25

    Malaria is the world's most important parasitic infection with 500 millions cases annually and almost 2 millions death per year. This disease is more present in Sub-Saharan Africa where 90% of the infections are found. Artemisinin and its semi synthetic derivatives (artemether, artesunate) have actually the most powerful activity on malaria, even in its complicated forms and resistance cases. Various methods have been proposed for detection and quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. by HPLC-UV, but the plant extracts used for this quantification were extracts obtained with organic solvents (toluene, petroleum ether, hexane). To be able to use crude A. annua extracts prepared at low cost to formulate antipaludic drugs, we chose the use of a mixture of water and ethanol as solvent of extraction, but no adequate analytical method for this kind of extracts is published. The main objectives of this work were first to develop an analytical method for artemisinin quantification in hydro alcoholic extracts of A. annua. Second, this method had to be thoroughly validated by the research and development laboratory and, third, the transfer of this method to the routine laboratory had to be demonstrated. The final aim was to compare the estimation of measurement uncertainty obtained during the method validation with validation standards to measurement uncertainty estimates obtained during the method transfer study with real samples. The method was validated following the accuracy profile methodology and was found to be accurate in the concentration range of 10.0-54.0 μg/ml with CVmeasurement uncertainty of the method was estimated from the validation experiments as well as from the transfer study with authentic unspiked samples of A. annua. The comparison of these measurement uncertainty estimations showed that they were coherent. It confirmed thus that the estimation of measurement uncertainty from validation experiments predicts well the measurement uncertainty

  20. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  1. Progress of the Study about Essential Oil of the Artemisia annua L%青蒿精油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康振国

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the worldwide research progress of Essential Oil of the Artemisia annua L both on phytochemi-cal and pharmacology work in the past fifteen years. The main constitutes of this Essential Oil are proved to be tepenoids. Pharmaco-logical investigations revealed that the oil possess significant bioactivities on antitumor, antibacterial, antivirus, antioxidant activities, insecticidal activity, poison activity to mosquito and a strong depressant activity on the CNS. This review afforded the comprehensive description of the active components as to provide useful references to elucidate their historical clinical application on anticonvulsant drugs, heat-clearing and detoxifying, anti-inflammation and heat-stroke-lifting. At the same time, this paper also provided references for the further studied about Artemisia annua L oil.%本文对近十五年来国内外关于蒿属药用植物青蒿中精油的研究现状进行了综述。青蒿精油的主要成分是萜类化合物;药理试验表明其具有抗癌,抗菌,抗病毒,抗氧化,杀虫,驱蚊和对中枢神经系统的镇静作用等多种生物活性。本文有助于阐明青蒿精油作为抗惊厥,清热,解毒,抗炎,消暑等临床应用的物质基础,对青蒿精油的深度研发也具有一定的参考价值。

  2. Overexpression and Suppression of Artemisia annua 4-Hydroxy-3-Methylbut-2-enyl Diphosphate Reductase 1 Gene (AaHDR1) Differentially Regulate Artemisinin and Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongming; Li, Gui; Zhu, Yue; Xie, De-Yu

    2017-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) catalyzes the last step of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4- phosphate (MEP) pathway to synthesize isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). To date, little is known regarding effects of an increase or a decrease of a HDR expression on terpenoid and other metabolite profiles in plants. In our study, an Artemisia annua HDR cDNA (namely AaHDR1) was cloned from leaves. Expression profiling showed that it was highly expressed in leaves, roots, stems, and flowers with different levels. Green florescence protein fusion and confocal microscope analyses showed that AaHDR1 was localized in chloroplasts. The overexpression of AaHDR1 increased contents of artemisinin, arteannuin B and other sesquiterpenes, and multiple monoterpenes. By contrast, the suppression of AaHDR1 by anti-sense led to opposite results. In addition, an untargeted metabolic profiling showed that the overexpression and suppression altered non-polar metabolite profiles. In conclusion, the overexpression and suppression of AaHDR1 protein level in plastids differentially affect artemisinin and other terpenoid biosynthesis, and alter non-polar metabolite profiles of A. annua. Particularly, its overexpression leading to the increase of artemisinin production is informative to future metabolic engineering of this antimalarial medicine. PMID:28197158

  3. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  4. Cloning, E. coli Expression and Molecular Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase from a High-Yield Strain of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Qiu Li; Yan Liu; Ben-Ye Liu; Hong Wang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demand of artemisinin in the treatment of malaria has placed substantial stress on the total artemisinin supplies world-wide, so more attention has been paid to increasing the content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua L. plant. In this study, amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) cDNA (ads1) and genomics gene (gads1) were cloned from a high-yield A. annua strain 001. The activity of ADS1 was confirmed by heterogeneous overexpression of ads1 and in vitro enzymatic incubation. Reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that ads1 expressed in leaves, flowers and young stems, but not in roots. This organ-specific expression pattern of ads1 is consistent with that of artemisinin accumulation in the plant. The gads1 has a complex organization including seven exons and six introns, and belongs to class Ⅲ terpene synthase. DNA gel blotting revealed that the ADS gene has at least four copies in the genome of strain 001. The higher copy numbers might be one of the reasons for its high artemisinin content.

  5. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway.

  6. The effect of Artemisia annua on broiler performance, on intestinal microbiota and on the course of a Clostridium perfringens infection applying a necrotic enteritis disease model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Grevsen, Kai; Ivarsen, Elise;

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of the plant Artemisia annua contain essential oils having antimicrobial properties against Clostridium perfringens Type A, the causal agent for necrotic enteritis in broilers. In two experiments, the influence of increasing dietary concentrations of dried A. annua leaves (0, 5, 10...... and 20 g/kg) and n-hexane extract from fresh A. annua leaves (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) on broiler performance was investigated. Dried plant material decreased feed intake and body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and 10 and 20 g/kg diet tended to improve the feed conversion ratio. The n......-hexane extract also reduced feed intake, but broiler weight tended to decrease only at the highest dietary concentration. The feed conversion ratio tended to improve when birds received 250 and 500 mg/kg n-hexane extract. In a third experiment, a necrotic enteritis disease model was applied to investigate...

  7. Research on the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth condition of artemisia annua l%菌根真菌对青蒿生长状况影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦艺; 赵君; 韩颂; 赵敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:青蒿又名黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L),是一年生菊科草本植物。从中提取的有效成分青蒿素,对抗氯喹的恶性疟及脑内虐有特效,其作用机理与传统的奎宁类抗疟药物不同。菌根是自然界中一种普遍存在的植物共生现象。它是土壤中的菌根真菌与高等植物营养根系形成的一种互惠共生体。作为自然界中的一种普遍现象,菌根真菌的存在对青蒿的生长状况必然有一定的影响。%Objective:Artemisia annua L is a kind of herbaceous compositae which grows in one year. Artemisinin ,the effective constituent extract from the Artemisia annua L , have an special effect to fight against the chloroquine of malignant malaria and the malaria in the cerebrum .Its mechanism of action is different from the traditional of the quinine medicine.Mycorrhiza is a kind of widespread phenomenon of plants mutualism.It is a kind of To be a widespread phenomenon in the nature, The existence of mycorrhizal fungi have a significant effection on the grown condition of the Artemisia annua L.

  8. Inducing Effect of Dihydroartemisinic Acid in the Biosynthesis of Artemisinins with Cultured Cells of Artemisia annua by Enhancing the Expression of Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin has been used in the production of “artemisinin combination therapies” for the treatment of malaria. Feeding of precursors has been proven to be one of the most effective methods to enhance artemisinin production in plant cultured cells. At the current paper, the biosynthesis of artemisinin (ART and its four analogs from dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA in suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua were investigated. ARTs were detected by HPLC/GC-MS and isolated by various chromatography methods. The structures of four DHAA metabolites, namely, dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B, arteannuin I, arteannuin K, and 3-β-hydroxy-dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B, were elucidated by physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. The correlation between gene expression and ART content was investigated. The results of RT-PCR showed that DHAA could up-regulate expression of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene (ADS, amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase gene (CYP71AV1, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene (FPS (3.19-, 7.21-, and 2.04-fold higher than those of control group, resp., which indicated that biosynthesis processes from DHAA to ART were enzyme-mediated.

  9. Antiviral effect of artemisinin from Artemisia annua against a model member of the Flaviviridae family, the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Marta R; Serrano, Maria A; Vallejo, Marta; Efferth, Thomas; Alvarez, Marcelino; Marin, Jose J G

    2006-10-01

    The antiviral activity versus flaviviruses of artemisinin, a safe drug obtained from Artemisia annua and commonly used to treat malaria, has been investigated using as an IN VITRO model bovine epithelial cells from embryonic trachea (EBTr) infected with the cytopathic strain Oregon C24V, of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), which is a member of the Flaviviridae family. Antiviral activity was estimated by the degree of protection against the cytopathic effect of BVDV on host cells and by the reduction in BVDV-RNA release to the culture medium. To induce an intermediate cytopathic effect in non-treated cells, EBTr cells were first exposed to BVDV for 48 h and then incubated with virus-free medium for 72 h. Ribavirin and artemisinin (up to 100 microM) induced no toxicity in host cells, whereas a slight degree of toxicity was observed for IFN-alpha at concentrations above 10 U/mL up to 100 U/mL. Treatment of infected cells with IFN-alpha, ribavirin and artemisinin markedly reduced BVDV-induced cell death. A combination of these drugs resulted in an additive protective effect. These drugs induced a significant reduction in the production/release of BVDV virions by infected EBTr cells; there was also an additive effect when combinations of them were assayed. These results suggest a potential usefulness of artemisinin in combination with current pharmacological therapy for the treatment of human and veterinary infections by flaviviruses.

  10. Artemisinin production and precursor ratio in full grown Artemisia annua L. plants subjected to external stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2013-01-01

    was examined on the concentrations of AN and its immediate precursors in leaves, and these concentrations were related to densities and sizes of the glandular trichomes (GT). Plants were stress treated weekly five times by sandblasting or spraying with salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide, H2O2, and Na...

  11. Dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua to free range broilers and its effects on gastro-intestinal parasite infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    of the 12 groups (n=120) were monitored twice a week for excretion of coccidia oocysts (OPG) and gastrointestinal nematode eggs (EPG). At the end of the trial, when broilers were 74 days of age, 5 broilers per plot (n=60) were necropsied and their intestines opened for coccidia speciation and to account...... for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. In general, broilers from both genotypes coped well with coccidia infections as no deaths were reported. Broilers supplemented with A. annua showed a reduced number of excreted oocysts (67% less; p... of oocysts than males (45% more; pgastrointestinal nematodes were observed during routine EPG. However, during necropsy, juvenile larvae of Ascaridia galli were found in 73% of the broilers with no differences in respect...

  12. Extraction of Artemisinin, an Active Antimalarial Phytopharmaceutical from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L., Using Microwaves and a Validated HPTLC-Visible Method for Its Quantitative Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, precise, and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method coupled with visible densitometric detection of artemisinin is developed and validated. Samples of the dried Artemisia annua leaves were extracted via microwaves using different solvents. This method shows the advantage of shorter extraction time of artemisinin from leaves under the influence of electromagnetic radiations. Results obtained from microwave-assisted extraction (MAE were compared with hot soxhlet extraction. Chromatographic separation of artemisinin from plant extract was performed over silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate as mobile phase in the ratio of 75 : 25, v/v. The plate was developed at room temperature 25 ± 2.0°C. Artemisinin separation over thin-layer plate was visualized after postchromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent. HPTLC plate was scanned in a CAMAG’s TLC scanner 3 at 540 nm. Artemisinin responses were found to be linear over a range of 400–2800 ng spot−1 with a correlation coefficient 0.99754. Limits of detection and quantification were 40 and 80 ng spot−1, respectively. The HPTLC method was validated in terms of system suitability, precision, accuracy, sensitivity (LOD and LOQ, and robustness. Additionally, calculation of plate efficiency and flow constant were included as components of validation. Extracts prepared from different parts of the plant (leaves, branches, main stem, and roots were analyzed for artemisinin content, in which, artemisinin content was found higher in the leaf extract with respect to branches and main stem extracts; however, no artemisinin was detected in root extract. The developed HPTLC-visible method of artemisinin determination will be very useful for pharmaceutical industries, which are involved in monitoring of artemisinin content during different growth stages (in vitro and in vivo of A. annua for qualitative

  13. Cloning and function analyses of HDS gene from Artemisia annua%黄花蒿HDS基因的克隆与功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖荣; 廖志华; 彭梅芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 克隆获得黄花蒿MEP途径中必需关键酶——羟甲基丁烯基-4-磷酸合成酶基因(HDS),并进行生物信息学分析和功能互补分析研究.方法 对已知的其他种子植物HDS基因的核苷酸序列进行多重序列比对,选取保守区域设计简并引物,利用同源扩增和cDNA末端快速扩增技术从黄花蒿中获得目的基因;利用BLAST进行序列比对,ORF Finder寻找开放阅读框,并用MEGA3.0中的临位相联法构建进化树.结果 得到1条长2324 bp的HDS cDNA序列,其ORF 框长1854 bp,编码617个氨基酸残基的蛋白;生物信息学分析显示,黄花蒿HDS基因AaHDS与其他种子植物来源的HDS高度同源;功能互补分析表明,AaHDS能互补突变菌株Escherichia coli MG1655 ara<> HDS中缺失的HDS功能,使突变菌株恢复生长,证明AaHDS具有典型的HDS基因功能.结论 首次克隆获得黄花蒿HDS基因,为青蒿素的代谢工程研究提供相应的基础.%Objective To obtain the indispensable key enzyme-hydroxide methyl enylamino 4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (HDS) gene involved in the MEP pathway cloned from Artemisia annua and conduct bioinformatic and functional complementation analysis. Methods To perform multiple sequence alignment for the nucleotide acid sequence of the other reported seed plants' HDS gene, to select conservative areas for designing degenerate primers, and to gain the aim gene from A. Annua through homologous expanding and cDNA bottom speedily expanding technique. To perform sequence alignment using BLAST, to identify open reading frame (ORF) using ORF Finder, and to construct phylogenetic tree using neighbor joining (NJ) ways in MEGA3.0. Results The obtained HDS cDNA sequence was 2 324 bp containing a 1 854 bp ORF and encoding a 617-amino acid protein. Bioinformatic analysis showed that AaHDS was homologous with HDS derived from other seed plant species. Functional complementation analysis indicated that AaHDS could make up the short HDS

  14. Extraction mechanism of ultrasound assisted extraction and its effect on higher yielding and purity of artemisinin crystals from Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Smain; Aissa, Abdallah; Boumechhour, Abdenour; Arous, Omar; Ait-Amar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes an ultrasound-horn system for the extraction of a natural active compound "artemisinin" from Artemisia annua L. leaves as an alternative to hot maceration technique. Ultrasound leaching improves artemisinin recovery at all temperatures where only ten minutes is required to recover 70% (4.42mgg(-1)) compared to 60min of conventional hot leaching for the same yield. For instance, ultrasound treatment at 30°C produced a higher yield than the one obtained by conventional maceration at 40°C. Kinetic study suggests that the extraction pattern can be assimilated, during the first ten minutes, to a first order steady state, from which activation energy calculations revealed that each gram of artemisinin required 7.38kJ in ultrasound versus 10.3kJ in the conventional system. Modeling results indicate the presence of two extraction stages, a faster stage with a diffusion coefficient of 19×10(-5)cm(2)min(-1) for ultrasound technique at 40°C, seven times higher than the conventional one; and a second deceleration stage similar for both techniques with diffusion coefficient ranging from 1.7 to 3.1×10(-5)cm(2)min(-1). It is noted that the efficient ultrasound extraction potential implies extraction of higher amount of co-metabolites so low artemisinin crystal purity is engendered but a combination with a purification step using activated charcoal and celite adsorbents produced crystals with comparable purity for conventional and ultrasound samples.

  15. 青蒿种子萌发过程中生理生化变化的研究%Study on the Change of Physiology and Biochemistry During Process of Artemisia annua Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 李隆云; 孙年喜

    2011-01-01

    Studied the dynamic changes of physiological index of Artemisia annua seed during germination. The result showed that in the seed budding of Artemisia annua,the content of soluble sugar increased rapidly at the beginning, forty hours later, it decreased step by step. The content of starch fell down at first, then rose, interrelated with the change of soluble sugar. The content of MDA rose at first, then fell down. The content of soluble protein, dissociated amino acid, SOD, POD and CAT all increased.%以青蒿种子为材料,研究了青蒿种子萌发过程中营养物质的动态变化.结果表明:种子萌发期间,可溶性糖含量从第24小时开始迅速升高,第72小时达到最高值,此后缓慢降低;淀粉含量先降低后升高,与可溶性糖含量变化相对应;可溶性蛋白质、游离氨基酸总量呈上升趋势;MDA含量开始小幅上升后逐渐降低;SOD、POD、CAT均呈上升趋势.

  16. 黄花蒿提取物生产工艺条件及其对乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)生成的调控作用%Processing Condition of Artemisia annua L. Extracts and Its Regulative Effect on Production of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA)in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 姚一萍

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. contains many kinds of nutritional and biologically active components, including terpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, aromatics, fatty acids, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, etc. Supplementation of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. in ruminant diet is able to increase the CLA content in their milk. Here, we reviewed the nutritional and biologically active components, extraction conditions, detection methods and proper supplementation level in animal diet of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L, so as to provide references for the large scale production of CLA-enriched milk.%黄花蒿乙醇提取物含有多种营养活性物质,主要包括萜类、倍半萜类、芳香族类、脂肪酸类、甾体类、黄酮类、生物碱类等化合物。反刍动物日粮中添加黄花蒿乙醇提取物能够增加其乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)含量。综述了黄花蒿乙醇提取物的主要营养活性物质、提取工艺条件、营养活性物质的检测方法及黄花蒿提取物在动物日粮中的适宜添加量,旨在为生产CLA乳提供参考。

  17. 土壤微生物对黄花蒿凋落物或青蒿素的响应%Responses of soil microorganisms to Artemisia annua leaf litter or artemisinin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 袁玲; 杨水平; 黄建国

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua releases many kinds of allelochemicals into soils via dead plant residues,either by rain leaching or root exudation.Dead leaves of A.annua contribute more than 80% of the total artemisinin that enters soils during the growth period of A.annua.Allelochemicals released by the dead leaves reduce the growth and yields of succeeding and adjacent crops.Soil microbes play roles in nutrient transformation,organic matter recycling,toxicant decomposition,and hormone efflux,and thus,are important for plant growth and development.However,little is known about the effects of these allelochemicals on soil microorganisms.In these experiments,artemisinin and A.annua leaf litter were each added to soil and changes in microbial bio-mass and community structure were evaluated.The growth and reproduction of culturable microorganisms in soils showed wide variations in response to A.annua leaf litter or artemisinin.For example,the number of fungi increased but the numbers of actinomycetes,azotobacteria,nitrobacteria,and nitrite bacteria significantly decreased in soils containing A.annua leaf litter or artemisinin.The results suggested that both leaf litter or artemisinin inhibited organic matter mineralization,nitrogen bio-fixation,mobilization of phosphorus and po-tassium,and nitrification.The soil microbial quotient decreased,while the metabolic quotient increased,after A.annua and artemisinin were added to soils.This result indicated that artemisinin and other allelochemicals in the leaf litter interfered with the metabolism of soil microorganisms.The types and total contents of signa-ture phospholipid fatty acids of microbes such as actinomycetes and protozoa decreased in soils containing leaf litter or artemisinin.The diversity and evenness indices of the microbial community also decreased,suggesting that the soil microbial ecosystem deteriorated as the densities of various microbial groups decreased.Therefore, artemisinin and allelopathic chemicals released from A.annua

  18. Molecular Cloning, Escherichia coli Expression and Genomic Organization of Squalene Synthase Gene from Artemisia annua%青蒿鲨烯合酶基因的克隆、结构分析与大肠杆菌表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 叶和春; 王红; 李国凤

    2003-01-01

    A 1 539 bp squalene synthase (AaSQS) cDNA was cloned from a high-yield Artemisia annua L. strain 001 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amino acid sequence of AaSQS is 70%, 77%, 44% and 39% identical to that of squalene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, human and yeast, respectively. The AaSQS genomic DNA has a complex organization containing 14 exons and 13 introns. Full-length or C-terminal truncated cDNA was subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET30a and the constructed plasmid was introduced to Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) for induced overexpression. No squalene synthase protein with expected molecular mass was observed in E.coli containing the putative full-length squalene synthase cDNA, however, overexpression in E.coli was achieved by truncating 30 amino acids of hydrophobic region at the carboxy terminus.%用RT-PCR方法从青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)中克隆了一个1 539 bp全长鲨烯合酶cDNA.青蒿鲨烯合酶氨基酸序列与拟南芥、烟草、人类、酵母鲨烯合酶的一致性分别为70%、77%、44%和39%.青蒿鲨烯合酶基因组DNA结构很复杂,包括14个外显子和13个内含子.全长的或C末端截短的鲨烯合酶cDNA被克隆进原核表达载体pET30a并在大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli) BL21(DE3)中诱导表达.但在含有全长的鲨烯合酶cDNA的大肠杆菌中并没有观察到预期大小的鲨烯合酶表达,而C末端截短疏水区30个氨基酸的鲨烯合酶可在大肠杆菌中过量表达.

  19. Effect of temperature on growth and artemisinin biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua%温度对青蒿毛状根生长和青蒿素生物合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晨; 刘春朝; 叶和春; 李国风

    2004-01-01

    本实验研究了不同温度(15℃~ 35°C)对青蒿毛状根生长和青蒿素生物合成的影响,发现25°C有利于毛状根生长,30°C促进了青蒿素生物合成.通过温度改变的二步培养技术(培养前20 d温度控制在25°C,后10 d温度提高到30°C),青蒿素的产量得到明显提高,高于在恒温培养时(25°C或30°C)的结果.%Temperature effect on growth and artemisinin biosynthesis in the cultured Artemisia annua L. hairy roots was investigated at a range of 15°C ~ 35°C. Maximum hairy root growth was found at 25°C, however, the highest artemisinin content in the root cultures was observed at 30°C. Based on these results, a step-wise temperature shift strategy was developed in which 25°C was used for cultivation for the first 20 days and 30°C for the remainder of the cultivation period. The artemisinin production obtained by the strategy was higher than those in single temperature-control experiments.

  20. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    , a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-daysold and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment...... and the daily weight gain when infection was subdued showed a three-way interaction among genotype, sex and treatment – accounted mainly for the fact that Kosmos females responded positively to the Artemisia treatment while Kosmos males responded negatively, and only minor differences were found between sexes...

  1. Avaliação da eficácia dos tratamentos com a associação de Sulfadiazina, Pirimetamina e Ácido folínico (SPAF), Azitromicina, infusão de Artemisia annua L. e Espiramicina na prevenção da transmissão vertical da toxoplasmose em Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Idessania Nazareth da

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficácia dos tratamentos com sulfadiazina, pirimetamina e ácido folínico (SPAF) associados, azitromicina, infusão de Artemisia annua e espiramicina na prevenção da transmissão vertical da toxoplasmose em Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Fêmeas de C. callosus foram oralmente infectadas com 20 cistos de Toxoplasma gondii (cepa ME-49) no dia de detecção da rolha vaginal (primeiro dia de gestação). O tratamento com azitromicina, inf...

  2. 黄花篙发根的生长及部分代谢成分的特征研究%Characterization on Growth and Some Secondary Metabolites of Artemisia annua Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹婷; 张犇; 陈晶磊; 陈韶华; 王剑文

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The characterization on growth and some secondary metabolites of Artemisia annua hairy roots were investigated. Method: We investigated the effects of plant growth regulators such as NAA and GA3 on the hairy roots and untransformed roots. The main components of some secondary metabolites were tested in the hairy roots. Result: NAA at lower concentration (0.01 -0.05 mg·L-1) could promote formation of lateral and branch roots and had no effect on untransformed roots. High concentrated NAA (0. 1 mg·L-1) inhibited the growth of hairy roots but stimulated the growth of untransformed roots. Artemisinin was not detected in untransformed roots,but at 0. 64 mg· g-1 in hairy roots. To the flavonoids in A. annua, chrysoplenetin was found in both roots, but there was a higher content of arteannuin (0. 76 mg · g-1 ) in hairy roots, 3.5 folds of that in untransformed roots.Conclusion: A. annua hairy roots have a unique characterization on growth and secondary metabolites.%目的:研究黄花篙发根的生长形态和部分次生代谢物特征.方法:比较发根和未转化根的形态差异,测定生长调节剂如萘乙酸(NAA)和赤霉素(GA3)对根生长的影响,分析了发根和未转化根的部分次生代谢物的含量特征.结果:低浓度NAA (0.01~0.05 mg·L-1)能明显促进发根侧根和次侧根的形成,对未转化根则无显著作用,高浓度NAA(0.1 mg·L-1)抑制发根的生长,而对未转化根的生长起促进作用.未转化根中不含有青篙素,而在发根中检测到较高含量的青蒿素(0.64 mg·g-1),未转化根中青蒿乙素含量较高(1.24 mg·g-1 ).在未转化根和发根中,青篙黄酮chrysopleneti.含量相当,而发根中另一种黄酮化合物artemitin含量(0.76 mg·g-1)是未转化根的3.5倍.结论:黄花蒿发根具有较独特的生长和次生代谢特征.

  3. Effect of Development Stage on the Artemisinin Content and the Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) Marker of High-Artemisinin Yielding Strains of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    The effects of development states on the artemisinin content of clone S1 of Artemisia anuua L. grown in a greenhouse were investigated in the present study. The artemisinin content increased gradually during the phase of vegetative growth and reached its highest level at 8-9 mg/g dry weight (DW) when the S1 was 6 months old on a long day (LD) photoperiod. Treatment with 9-18 d of short day (SD) photoperiod resulted in the artemisinin content reaching and being maintained at a higher level (2.059-2.289 mg/g DW), twofold that of control plants and plants of S1 presented at the pro-flower budding and flower-budding stages. The artemisinin content varied in different parts of the plant. The artemisinin content of leaves was higher than that of florets and branches. The artemisinin content in middle leaves was higher than that of bottom leaves, and then top leaves. Different densities of capitate glands (the storage organ of artemisinin) located on the surface of leaves, florets, and branches explained the variations in artemisinin content in these parts of the plant. The correlation coefficient between artemisinin content and density of capitate glands on the surface of different organs was 0.987. The genetic marker for artemisinin content was screened using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) techniques.The random primer OPA15 (5'-TTCCGAACCC-3') could amplify a specific band of approximately 1 000 bp that was present in all high-artemisinin yielding strains, but absent in all low-yielding strains in three independent replications. This specific band was cloned and its sequence was analyzed. This RAPD marker was converted into a SCAR marker to obtain a more stable marker.

  4. Efeito alelopático de Artemisia annua L. na germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L. Allelopathic effect of Artemisia annua L. on the germination and initial development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Magiero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de A. annua sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L.. O extrato aquoso bruto foi preparado a partir de 250 g folhas frescas extraídas em 1 L de água destilada. Este primeiro extrato foi filtrado e centrifugado, sendo utilizado o sobrenadante. Foram utilizadas as seguintes concentrações de 100% (extrato filtrado e centrifugado; 75%, 50% e 25% (diluições do extrato 100%; e 0% (água destilada. As sementes das espécies testadas foram distribuídas em placas de petri e acondicionadas em câmara de germinação. Foram analisadas as variáveis: germinabilidade (G, velocidade média de germinação (V, tempo médio de germinação (t, comprimento da radícula (CR e massa seca das plântulas. A elevação da concentração do extrato aquoso de A. annua provocou redução na germinabilidade de alface e, a partir da concentração de 50%, a germinação foi completamente inibida. Para o leiteiro, a germinação foi totalmente inibida a partir da concentração de 75%. Observou-se também redução significativa na velocidade média de germinação de alface com a elevação da concentração do extrato, efeito que não foi observado para o leiteiro. O comprimento radicular do leiteiro foi significativamente reduzido nas concentrações de 25 e 50%, e totalmente inibido em 75 e 100%. Para alface, a concentração de 25% reduziu significativamente o comprimento radicular, e as concentrações de 50, 75 e 100% inibiram completamente a formação de raízes, mostrando ser esta espécie mais sensível que o leiteiro. Extratos aquosos de A. annua apresentaram ação alelopática inibitória sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface e leiteiro.The aim of this work was to study the allelopathic effect of leaf aqueous extract of A

  5. Antimicrobial Activity and GC-MS Analysis of the Volatile Oil of Artemisia annua%不同方法提取青蒿挥发油成分分析及抗菌活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽勇; 林秀梅; 战月; 崔云虹; 郭子琦; 刘玲绯; 侯春妹

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the optimum condition for the extract of essential oil from Artemisia annua by different extract methods and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil by GC-MS and evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil. Method: The fresh aerial part of A. Annua was extracted by Soxhlet extraction and direct distillation to yield two essential oil samples designated as oil-1 and oil-2, respectively, which were both subjected to antimicrobial activity screening and GC-MS analysis. Result: The optimum condition for Soxhlet extraction was at a solid-liquid ratiol :7. 8 and extraction time of 3 h, while for direct distillation at a solid-liquid ratiol: 7.4 and extraction time of 5 h. Oil-1 displayed inhibitory activity against Aspergillus niger, Mycocentrospora sp. , Penicillium sp. , and Penicillium marneffei with MIC values of 1. 25, 1. 25, 5.0, and 1. 25 mg · L-1 , respectively, while oil-2 showed antibacterial activity toward Corynebacterium pekinense, Bacillus subtilis, tetracoccus, and Proteus vulgaris with MIC values of 0.023 5, 0.023 5, 0.005 9,3.75 mg-L-1, respectively. According to the results from GC-MS analysis, 48 components from 55 peaks in the gas chromatogram of oil-1 and 39 components from 48 peaks in the gas chromatogram of oil-2 were identified. Conclusion: Comparatively, fungi were more sensitive to oil-1 in the antimicrobial test, which may be attributed to the antifungal components comprising 8. 25% of the oil-1, including ketones, ethers, and oganic acids. However, oil-2 showed stronger antibacterial activity than oil-1 due to the higher content of alkenes in oil-2 (65. 42%) than that of in oil-1 (26. 49% ), since alkenes were the major antibacterial components of the essential oil.%目的:采用不同方法对青蒿挥发油进行提取,研究提取过程的优化条件,并对所得青蒿挥发油分别进行抗菌活性研究及GC-MS分析,用于指导制药.方法:采用索氏提取法和直接蒸

  6. 内生青霉菌对黄花蒿组培苗生长和青蒿素合成的影响%Effect of Endophytic Penicillium sp.Y2 on Growth and Artemisinin Biosynthesis of Plantlets in Tissue Cultures of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚菲; 董婷; 王剑文

    2011-01-01

    17 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from the stems of Artemisia annua L. Penicillium sp. Y2 could effectively promote the growth and artemisinin accumulation in the plantlets in tissue cultures of A. annua. After 5 days of broth culture,the fungal mycelium and culture medium were prepared for elicitors,including elicitor A(autoclaved conditioned homogenates of mycelia filtrates and medium) ,elicitor B(autoclaved conditioned medium) and elicitor C(filtrated conditioned medium). The results showed that all of the three fungal elicitors could promote the growth,induce activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase( SOD) , catalase( CAT) and peroxidase( POD) , and the accumulation of artemisinin. Elicitor C had the best effect on artemisinin induction among them. The dry weight and the content of soluble sugar of the tissue cultures of A. annua were increased by 44. 44 % and 38. 24% ,respectively. The content of artemisinin reached to 4. 701 mg·g-1 DW,a 58. 86 % increase over the control.%从黄花蒿茎中分离得到了17株内生真菌,其中内生青霉菌(Penicillium sp.Y2)能有效促进黄花蒿组培苗生长及青蒿素合成.内生青霉菌悬浮培养5d后,分别将培养液与菌丝匀浆后经过高压灭菌处理,或将培养液经过高压灭菌、过滤除菌处理获得3种内生菌诱导子(A、B和C).结果表明,3种内生菌诱导子对植株生长、抗氧化酶活性及青蒿素合成都有促进作用,诱导子C青蒿素合成诱导效果最好,可促进黄花蒿组培苗的干重增长44.44%、可溶性糖含量提高38.24%,诱导超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性,从而提高青蒿素合成达58.86%,黄花蒿组培苗青蒿素含量达4.701 mg·g-1(干重).

  7. D-101大孔吸附树脂对黄花蒿黄酮的吸附热力学和动力学研究%ADSORPTION THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA FLAVONOIDS ADSORBED ON MACROPOROUS ADSORBENT RESINS D101

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊利芝; 李佳焱; 王家坚; 欧阳文; 朱杰英

    2014-01-01

    通过静态吸附实验,研究了D-101大孔吸附树脂对黄花蒿黄酮的吸附热力学和动力学过程.结果表明,当温度在298~318K和在实验研究浓度范围内,D-101大孔吸附树脂对黄花蒿黄酮的吸附符合Freundlich等温吸附方程;ΔG<0,吸附过程能自发进行;ΔH<0,为放热过程;ΔS<0,D-101大孔吸附树脂吸附黄花蒿黄酮的作用大于水的解吸过程,导致熵减.分别采用准一级动力学方程、准二级动力学方程和粒内扩散动力学模型探讨其吸附特性,研究结果表明,吸附过程符合准二级动力学方程,粒内扩散与膜扩散交互控制黄花蒿黄酮在D-101大孔吸附树脂上的吸附.%The adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of artemisia annua flavonoids absorbed on macroporous adsorbent resins D101 were studied by static adsorption experiments.The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium data were agreed with Freundlich adsorption isotherm well in the temperature range of 298~318K and concentration range in the experiment.Thermodynamic analysis suggested ΔG<0,ΔH<0 and ΔS<0,which indicated the adsorption procedure was a spontaneously exothermic reaction with entropy decrease.The adsorption of artemisia annua flavonoids on the macroporous adsorbent resins D101 could be described well by Pseudo-second-order rate equation,and the rate-determining step of the adsorption was the combined action of film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion.

  8. Elicitation on Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua Hairy Roots by the Oligosaccharide Extract from the Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. B501%内生真菌Colletotrichum sp. B501的寡糖提取物对黄花蒿发根中青蒿素生物合成的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑文; 夏仲豪; 谭仁祥

    2002-01-01

    The oligosaccharide elicitor from the mycelial wall of an endophytic Colletotrichum sp. B501 promoted the production of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. hairy root culture. When hairy roots of 22-day-old cultures (later growth phase) were exposed to the elicitor (20 mg/L) for 4 d, the maximum content of artemisinin reached 1.15 mg/g, a 64.29% increment over the control. The electron X-ray microanalysis disclosed the rapid accumulation of Ca2+ in the elicited cortical cells of hairy root. The electronic microscope observation revealed the high electron density area in vacuole of elicited cells. During the first day of elicitation the peroxidase activity of hairy roots was improved sharply. Some cellular morphological changes including cell shrinkage, condensation of cytoplasm and nuclear fragmentation, coincident with the appearance of DNA ladders, were observed after the third day of elicitation. It was suggested that the oligosaccharide elicitor triggered the programmed cell death, which may provide the substance or chemical signal for artemisinin biosynthesis.%在黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.)发根液体培养中,黄花蒿内生炭疽菌(Colletotrichum sp. B501)细胞壁寡糖提取物可促进发根青蒿素的合成.经寡糖诱导子(20 mg/L)处理4 d后,发根青蒿素含量达1.15 mg/g, 比对照高出64.29%.诱导作用与诱导子浓度、作用时间相关.诱导处理1 d后,X射线能谱分析表明黄花蒿发根细胞中Ca2+积累量显著增高,电镜观察发现液泡内出现高电子致密物,具活性氧清除作用的过氧化物酶表现出高活性(6.5 unit*min-1*g-1 FW).诱导处理第三天,细胞核DNA呈梯度条带降解,部分细胞出现程序化死亡.内生菌细胞壁寡糖提取物引起的生理反应有利于细胞中青蒿素的生物合成.

  9. 蒿属植物的农药活性及其有效成分%Pesticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Artemisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利娟; 桑晓清; 孙永艳; 杨文杰

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on pesticidal activities and the corresponding active ingredients of Artemisia are presented. Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia selengensis, Artemisia vestita, Artemisia parvijlora, Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia capillarie, Artemisia mongoli-ca, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia monosperma and Artemisia judaica possess insecticidal activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, borneol, camphor, caryophyllene, isoaryophyllene and farnesene. Artemisia annua, Artemisia ludoviciana, Artemisia tournefortiana, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia herba alba, Artemisia taurica, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia molinieri, Artemisia stolonifera show fungicidal activities and the main active ingredients are camphor, cineole, borneol, flavonoids, olefins, terpene hydrocarbons, alkanes and organic acids. Artemisia caerulescens subsp. gallica, Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia roxburghiana,Artenisia annua, Artemisia tridentate, Artemisia scoparia and Artemisia taurica exhibit herbicide activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, camphor, arteether, monoterpenes and ses-quiterpenes. Artemisia absinthium shows nematicidal activity. Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia dracunculus have mollusicidal activities. In all, Artemisia annua, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia borealis and Artemisia judaica show multiple activities and may be used as botanical pesticides.%综述了蒿属植物的杀虫、杀螨、杀菌、除草、杀线虫和杀软体动物活性及相应的有效成分.该属中具有杀虫杀螨活性的主要有黄花蒿、野艾蒿、苦艾、蒌蒿、毛莲蒿、西南牡蒿、大籽蒿、猪毛蒿、茵陈蒿、蒙古蒿、巴儿古津蒿、南亚蒿、犹地蒿和Artemisia monsperma等,其主要有效成分是桉树脑、龙脑、樟脑、石竹烯、异石竹烯和β-法呢烯等.该属中具有杀菌活性的主要有黄花蒿、银叶艾蒿

  10. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land.

  11. Comparative analysis of ADS gene promoter in seven Artemisia species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mojtaba Ranjbar; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Hoshang Alizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin is the most effective antimalarial drug that is derived from Artemisia annua. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) controls the first committed step in artemisinin biosynthesis. The ADS gene expression is regulated by transcription factors which bind to the cis-acting elements on the ADS promoter and are probably responsible for the ADS gene expression difference in the Artemisia species. To identify the elements that are significantly involved in ADS gene expression, the ADS gene promoter of the seven Artemisia species was isolated and comparative analysis was performed on the ADS promoter sequences of these species. Results revealed that some of the cis-elements were unique or in terms of number were more in the high artemisinin producer species, A. annua, than the other species. We have reported that the light-responsive elements, W-box, CAAT-box, 5′-UTR py-rich stretch, TATA-box sequence and tandem repeat sequences have been identified as important factors in the increased expression of ADS gene.

  12. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Hexia; Liang, Junsong

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. The melting profiles of the ITS2 amplicons of the five closely related herbal species are clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The method was further applied to authenticate commercial products in powdered. HRM curves of all the commercial samples tested are similar to the botanical species as labeled. These congeneric medicinal products were also clearly separated using the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Therefore, HRM method could provide an efficient and reliable authentication system to distinguish these commonly used Artemisia herbal products on the markets and offer a technical reference for medicines quality control in the drug supply chain. PMID:27698485

  13. Phytochemical Analysis, Biological Activity, and Secretory Structures of Stachys annua (L.) L. subsp. annua (Lamiaceae) from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Damiano, Silvia; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Maleci Bini, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia; Lucarini, Domenico; Maggi, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Stachys annua subsp. annua, well-known in central Italy as 'stregona annuale', is an annual, small, slightly-scented herb, commonly found in fields and uncultivated areas in almost all regions of Italy. In folk medicine, its aerial parts were used as anti-catarrhal, febrifuge, tonic, and vulnerary. In the present work, the chemical composition of the flowering aerial parts was studied. The hydrodistilled volatile oil, analysed by GC/MS, showed sesquiterpenoids as the major fraction (42.5%); phytol (9.8%), germacrene D (9.2%), and spathulenol (8.5%) were the most abundant constituents. The volatile oil was assayed for antioxidant and cytotoxic activity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and MTT methods. The cytotoxicity results against HCT116, A375, and MDA-MB 231 human tumor cell lines were significant, with IC50 values of 23.5, 37.2, and 41.5 μg/ml, respectively, whereas the antioxidant power was negligible. The EtOH extract was composed mainly of three glycosidic flavonoids, namely 7-{[2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-5,8-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (1), 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (2), and 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (3). On the contrary, iridoids, considered chemotaxonomic markers of the genus Stachys, were absent in this species. Finally, the morphological and histochemical survey showed that glandular trichomes were composed of two main types, i.e. peltate type A and capitate types B and C giving positive response for both lipids and polyphenols.

  14. 转青蒿反义鲨烯合酶基因对烟草鲨烯合酶基因表达的影响%Regulation of Squalene Synthase Gene Expression in Tobacco by Antisense Transformation with an Artemisia annua Squalene Synthase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 刘彦; 王红; 叶和春; 李国凤

    2005-01-01

    利用反义技术,通过根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)介导,将青蒿(Artemisia anlua)的反义鲨烯合酶基因导入烟草(Nicotiana tabacum)株系W38中.在转基因烟草中,鲨烯合酶的表达成功地得到抑制,其mRNA的水平降低.对鲨烯合酶的下游产物之一胆固醇的检测显示,转基因烟草的胆固醇含量低于对照,同时以法呢基焦磷酸为前体的二萜支路产物之一的GA3含量得到提高.实验结果表明,反义抑制烟草鲨烯合酶可以降低植物甾醇的生物合成,并促进类异戊二烯途径中以法呢基焦磷酸为前体的其它代谢支路的生物合成.

  15. ITS2, a Better DNA Barcode than ITS in Identification of Species in Artemisia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yue Wang; Si-hao Zheng; Yang Liu; Jian-ping Han

    2016-01-01

    Objective To select a more suitable DNA barcode to identify the species in Artemisia L.Methods ITS,ITS2,and three other major universal barcode candidates (matK,rbcL,and psbA-trnH) were evaluated in the identification efficiency using a total of 1433 sequences downloaded from GenBank representing 343 species in Artemisia L.ITS and ITS2 were evaluated in the PCR and sequencing rate,sequencing peak quality (Q value),and misread rate.One hundred and twelve A.annua samples were collected from 11 populations across over China,which were amplified with universal primers on the ITS and ITS2 regions.Results ITS and ITS2 shared a higher identification efficiency and exhibited 71.43% and 64.11% detectability at the species level,respectively.The Q values of ITS and ITS2 showed that the direct PCR sequencing data were reliable for the ITS2 region and ITS exhibited poor sequencing trace quality.In certain sites,the ITS sequences exhibited reading ambiguities and errors,indicating that the misread and deletion sites in the ITS region would incorrectly inflate the identification ratio.Conclusion ITS2 is a suitable barcode for identification of species in Artemisia L.,which enlarges the optimal range of divergence levels for taxonomic inferences using ITS2 sequences.

  16. Antimalarial properties of Artemisia vulgaris L. ethanolic leaf extract in a Plasmodium berghei murine malaria model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayan S. Bamunuarachchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua is the most potent antimalarial drug against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artemisia vulgaris, an invasive weed, is the only Artemisia species available in Sri Lanka. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of an A. vulgaris ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE in a P. berghei ANKA murine malaria model that elicits pathogenesis similar to falciparum malaria. Methods: A 4-day suppressive and the curative assays determined the antiparasitic activity of AVELE using four doses (250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg, Coartem® as the positive control and 5% ethanol as the negative control in male ICR mice infected with P. berghei. Results: The 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg doses of AVELE significantly (p ≤0.01 inhibited parasitaemia by 79.3, 79.6 and 87.3% respectively, in the 4-day suppressive assay, but not in the curative assay. Chronic administration of the high dose of AVELE ruled out overt signs of toxicity and stress as well as hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity and haematotoxicity. Interpretation & conclusion: The oral administration of a crude ethonolic leaf extract of A. vulgaris is non-toxic and possesses potent antimalarial properties in terms of antiparasitic activity.

  17. The Presence of Amorpha-4, 11-Diene Synthase, a Key Enzyme in Artemisinin Production in Ten Artemisia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GA. Garoosi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicine against malaria, which is produced naturally by Artemisia annua in low yield. It is produced in a metabolic pathway, in which several genes and gene products are involved. One of the key genes in this pathway is am1, which encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS, a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of this gene in ten Artemisia species in order to increase the yield of production of Artemisinin. Methods : The experiments were carried out using PCR. Specific primers were designed based on the published am1 gene sequence obtained from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527. Results: The amplification of this gene by the specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, corresponding to a pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b aspartate rich motif (DDXXD, c active site final lid and d active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP ionization sites and catalytic site in the ADS enzyme, were investigated. Major conclusion: The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alteration, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene for artemisinin overproduction.

  18. Sexual Dimorphism in the Response of Mercurialis annua to Stress

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    Ezra M. Orlofsky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed in a comprehensive way, by comparing morphological, biochemical and metabolomics changes in female and male plants during their development and under salinity. There were practically no differences between the genders in vegetative development and physiological parameters. However, under salinity conditions, female plants produced significantly more new reproductive nodes. Gender-linked differences in peroxidase (POD and glutathione transferases (GSTs were involved in anti-oxidation, detoxification and developmental processes in M. annua. 1H NMR metabolite profiling of female and male M. annua plants showed that under salinity the activity of the TCA cycle increased. There was also an increase in betaine in both genders, which may be explainable by its osmo-compatible function under salinity. The concentration of ten metabolites changed in both genders, while ‘Female-only-response’ to salinity was detected for five metabolites. In conclusion, dimorphic responses of M. annua plant genders to stress may be attributed to female plants’ capacity to survive and complete the reproductive life cycle.

  19. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shots were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There were distinguished 3 types of non-glandular trichomes, 3 types of glandular trichomes and papillae of the osmophore in the epidermis of the corolla. The highest density of non-glandular and glandular trichomes was found on the abaxial surface of the calyx, on bracts and in the upper part of the stem. Structural variations in the head and stalk of long glandular trichomes were demonstrated. The dimensions of particular types of trichomes are given in the present paper. Differences in the structure of the trichomes of this species are presented, compared to literature data. The micromorphology of particular trichome types is documented in numerous photographs showing the rich ornamentation of the cuticle of non-glandular trichomes.

  20. Glandular prediction: the pride and the prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, C

    2004-08-01

    For the cytologist and clinician alike, glandular lesions pose possibly the greatest challenge in cervical screening. Worldwide, with increasing confidence in cytological prediction, terminology is evolving. In the UK, with the adoption of liquid based methods, the technical aspects of cervical cytology are being addressed, it is now time to standardise our terminology in glandular reporting. Consideration of the cytological complexity, clinical needs and international protocols is essential in this endeavour.

  1. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  2. Artemisia Gentileschi and her world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohacsy, Ildiko

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with one of the most notable artists of 17th century Italy: Artemisia Gentileschi. Gentileschi holds a unique place in art history, both as a woman artist and as the first female member of the Academy of Design in Florence. Brought up to be an artist by her father--the painter Orazio Gentileschi--she was allowed to work in his studio, use models, receive instruction and collaborate with well-known artists. Artemisia Gentileschi became a follower of the school of Caravaggio--the school's only Caravaggista. She began public life in a notorious way; her father had his colleague Tassi--her painting instructor--charged with raping her. The relationship between historical and art historical events in Gentileschi's lifetime and creative processes are explored. Special attention is given to those vicissitudes of Gentileschi's personal life that may be reflected through her work. Popular psychoanalytic conceptualizations about Gentileschi are discussed, as are mythological and biblical themes in her art.

  3. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

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    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  4. Malignant glandular lesions and glandular differentiation in invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Although the lumen of the urinary bladder is covered with only urothelial epithelium, malign glandular lesions (eg, nonurachal adenocarcinoma) and benign lesions (eg, cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis) can also rarely occur in this site due to its characteristic embryologic development. Glandular differentiation is uncommon in urothelial carcinomas and is even less common in noninvasive urothelial cancers. In addition, in situ urothelial carcinomas are more likely to progress in the presence of glandular differentiation toward high-grade urothelial carcinomas and/or aggressive urothelial carcinomas. Pure nonurachal adenocarcinomas and mixed carcinomas (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) are very rare, and their pathogenesis is not clear. Most of the nonurachal adenocarcinomas are thought to arise on the grounds of cystitis glandularus with intestinal metaplasia. Here, I present 2 cases with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with substantial glandular differentiation showing progression to signet ring cell carcinoma and invasive urothelial carcinoma, one case with mixed carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) and another case with pure adenocarcinoma developing from cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia, and discuss malign glandular lesions in the bladder and invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation.

  5. Prevalence of sensitization to weed pollens of Humulus scandens,Artemisia vulgaris, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-dong HAO; Yi-wu ZHENG; Birgitte GJESING; Xing-ai KONG; Jing-yuan WANG; Zhi-jing SONG; Xu-xin LAI

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Weed pollens are common sources of allergens worldwide.The prevalence of weed pollen sensitization is not yet fully known in China.The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to weed allergens from Artemisia,Ambrosia,and Humulus in northern China.Methods:A total of 1144 subjects (aged from 5 to 68 years) visiting our clinic from June to October 2011 underwent intradermal testing using a panel of 25 allergen sources.Subjects with positive skin responses to any pollen were further tested for their serum concentrations of IgE antibodies against Artemisia vulgaris,Ambrosia artemisiifolia,and Humulus scandens,and against the purified allergens,Art v 1 and Amb a 1.Results:Of 1 144 subjects,170 had positive intradermal reactions to pollen and 144 donated serum for IgE testing.The prevalence of positive intradermal responses to pollens of Artemisia sieversiana,Artemisia annua,A.artemisiifolia,and H.scandens was 11.0%,10.2%,3.7%,and 6.6%,respectively.Among the intradermal positive subjects,the prevalence of specific IgE antigens to A.vulgaris was 58.3%,to A.artemisiifolia 14.7%,and to H.scandens 41.0%.The prevalence of specific IgE antigens to the allergen Art v 1 was 46.9%,and to Amb a 1 was 11.2%.The correlation between the presence of IgE antibodies specific to A.vulgaris and to the Art v 1 antigen was very high.Subjects with A.artemisiifolia specific IgE also had A.vulgaris specific IgE,but with relatively high levels of A.vulgaris IgE antibodies.There were no correlations between the presence of IgE antibodies to H.scandens and A.vulgaris or to H.scandens and A.artemisiifolia.Conclusions:The intradermal prevalence of weed pollen sensitization among allergic subjects in northern China is about 13.5%.Correlations of specific IgE antibodies suggest that pollen allergens from Artemisia and Humulus are independent sources for primary sensitization.

  6. Melilotoside Derivatives from Artemisia splendens (Asteraceae

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    Fariba H. Afshar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of solid-phase-extraction (SPE and reversed-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia splendens (common name: “Asia Minor Wormwood”, an endemic Iranian species, afforded Z- and E-melilotosides (1 and 2, Z- and E-4-methoxy-melilotosides (3 and 4, and a new dimer, bis-ortho-Z-melilotoside (5, named: splendenoside. Whilst the structures of these compounds (1-5 were elucidated unequivocally by spectroscopic means, the in vitro free-radical-scavenging property of 1-5 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. This is the first report on the occurrence of any melilotoside derivatives in the genus Artemisia. Artemisia splendens, Asteraceae, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, free-radical scavenger, melilotoside, splendenoside

  7. Assessing the importance of human activities for the establishment of the invasive Poa annua in Antarctica

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    Marco A. Molina-Montenegro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its harsh environmental conditions and remoteness, Antarctica is often considered to be at low risk of plant invasion. However, an increasing number of reports have shown the presence and spread of non-native plants in Antarctica; it is therefore important to study which factors control the invasion process in this ecosystem. Here, we assessed the role of different human activities on the presence and abundance of the invasive Poa annua. In addition, we performed a reciprocal transplant experiment in the field, and a manipulative experiment of germination with P. annua and the natives Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, in order to unravel the effects of physical soil disturbance on the establishment and survival of P. annua. We found a positive correlation between abundance of P. annua and level of soil disturbance, and that survival of P. annua was 33% higher in sites with disturbed soil than non-disturbed. Finally, we found that disturbance conditions increased germination for P. annua, whereas for native species germination in experimentally disturbed soil was either unchanged or reduced compared to undisturbed soil. Our results indicate that human activities that modify abiotic soil characteristics could play an important role in the abundance of this invasive species. If the current patterns of human activities are maintained in Antarctica, the establishment success and spread of P. annua could increase, negatively affecting native flora.

  8. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

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    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  9. Two new phenolic compounds from Artemisia sphaerocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Bao Zhao; Lin Xi Li; Xiu Hua Liu; Ming Jing Li; Wen Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds were isolated from whole plant of Artemisia sphaerocephala. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods as 4-(1-hydroxylethyl)-phenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 4-O-acetophenone-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  10. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  11. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  12. Media glandular dose in mammography;Dosis glandular media en mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran M, H. A.; Hernandez O, M.; Pinedo S, A.; Guerra M, J. A.; Gonzalez G, R.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada en Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J., E-mail: hduran20_1@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the media glandular dose of the patients group who most frequently are exposed at mammographic studies in the General Hospital of Zone No. 1 of IMSS in Zacatecas, later to compare this dose with the value that establishes the Mexican Official Standard and to know risk-benefit that a patient is exposed when it is realized studies of this nature. This with the purpose of to know if the patients who are realized this type of studies are exhibited to irradiations of unnecessary way. In order to obtain the media glandular dose, first it was choose the age group of feminine population that is predominant to this suffering. Of the classification of the age group it was determine the frequency of each thickness of mamma, and on the basis of the thickness of the compressed mamma the conditions were registered with it radiates the patient. When having the age and compressed mamma thickness of patient and the voltage, current, anode/filter that uses the mammography equipment for to radiate it was calculated the media glandular dose. The media glandular dose was calculated using two algorithms proposed in literature and thermoluminescent dosemeters. For the case of the thermoluminescent dosemeters were used two phantoms. In this study was detected that the limits, with that they radiate the patients who are exposed at mammographic studies it is by underneath of 3 mGy. Finally, it was detected that the Mexican Official Standard lacks of elements to offer radiological limits for the mammography area, because in this standard they are excluded the radiological limits for anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. To know the dose applying these anodes and filters is of extreme importance because 85% of the population that is exposed to this studies type was radiated with anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. (Author)

  13. FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES OF ARTEMISIA AROMATIC PLANTS TOWARDS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

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    Ivashchenko Iryna Vіctorovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article establishes the fungicidal activity of water extracts of Artemisia maritimа L., Artemisia austriaca Jacq., under the concentration of 100, 50 and 25 mg/ml on dry matter with regard to the phytopathogenic mushroom Fusarium oxysporum. It also shows the fungistatic influence of extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. under concentration 25 and 50 mg/ml, fungicidal – under 100 mg/ml. Concerning Artemisia abrotanum L., the slow growth of mushroom is observed under the concentration 25 mg/ml, fungicidal effect – under 50 and 100 mg/ml. The paper provides the information on the component composition of ethereal oil and phenolic compounds of Artemisia maritimа, Artemisia austriaca, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia dracunculus, cultivated in Zhytomyr Polissya. The chief ingredients of ethereal oil which is synthesized by the plant of Artemisia abrotanum are 1,8-cineole (30.44% and camphor (31.92%. A high 1,8-cineole and camphor content determines antimicrobial properties of the plants. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Artemisia abrotanum is 2.98 percent. By the method of highly efficient solution chromatography (HESChr in the grass of Artemisia abrotanum we have detected 23 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, luteolin-7-glycoside as well as caffeic, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. The main compounds of ethereal oil of Artemisia austriaca are trans-verbenole (30.77 %, pinocarvone (10.77 % and sabinilacetate (18.16 %. In the grass of Artemisia austriaca we have detected 31 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, apigenin, quercetin-bioside and the following acids: caffeic, chlorogenic, and isochlorogenic. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Austrian wormwood is 27.25 mg / g (2.73 %. The main component of ethereal oil of Artemisia dracunculus is methyleugenol (94.65 %. We have discovered 31 phenolic compounds in the grass of linear-leaved wormwood

  14. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Obistioiu, Diana; Cristina, Romeo T; Schmerold, Ivo; Chizzola, Remigius; Stolze, Klaus; Nichita, Ileana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of essential oils is reported to have significant activity against Candida albicans. But the different chemical composition influences the degree of their activity. The intention of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the activity against Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect aga...

  15. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

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    Erum Dilshad

    Full Text Available The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW. There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g, artesunate (2.24μg/g, dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g and artemether (12.8μg/g. Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS, cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1, with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1 showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism.

  16. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  17. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  18. Effects of flavonoids from Martynia annua and Tephrosia purpurea on cutaneous wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram Lodhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Martynia annua L. (M. annua, (Martyniaccae has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea, (Fabaceae has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M. annua leaves and aerial parts of T. purpurea. Materials and Methods: Methanol fraction of M. annua (MAF-C and ethyl acetate fraction of T. purpurea (TPF-A were evaluated for healing potential in dead-space and burn wound models. An ointment (5% w/w of MAF-C and TPF-A, pongamol (0.2 and 0.5% w/w and luteolin (0.2 and 0.5% w/w was applied topically twice a day. The effects were compared with Povidone Iodine ointment with respect to protein, collagen content, enzymatic assay and histopathological finding of granuloma tissues. Results: Ethanol extracts of M. annua and T. purpureawere exhibited total flavonoid contents of 126.2 ± 4.69 and 171.6 ± 6.38 mg (quercetin equivalent, respectively. HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of luteolin in M. annua and quercetin in T. purpurea. TPF-A and MAF-C ointments (5% w/w significantly increases the hydroxyproline and protein contents. Luteolin and pongamol ointments were also found to be effective in both wound models. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5% w/w ointment of TPF-A and MAF-C fractions were more effective than isolated flavonoids in wound healing which may be due to synergistic interactions between the flavonoids and other constituents.

  19. The Herodotean »Amazonic« Artemisia

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    Konstantinos N. Deligiorgis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the oeuvre written by Herodotus of Halicarnassus consists of narratives presenting female protagonists. The historian’s interest and curiosity are fascinated and attracted by mysterious queens with masculine attitudes. Perhaps the best-known heroine of that uncommon ‘elite’ is Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus and compatriot of Herodotus. Describing her presence and action during the great Persian War against Greece, the paper attempts to investigate her role by comparing her with the Amazons of myth and legend and their influence on the barbaric Scythian tribe of the Sauromatae. Herodotus interweaves reality and mythology in order to portray an unusual type, a miraculous female figure who commands our admiration.

  20. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

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    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  1. Maxilary glandular odontogenic cyst: case report = Cisto odontogênico glandular em maxila: relato de caso

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    Cardoso, Juliana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente trabalho objetiva relatar um caso clínico de cisto odontogênico glandular (COG em maxila, cisto de desenvolvimento raro que pode apresentar comportamento agressivo e recidivante, dando ênfase no tratamento e proservação desta doença. Relato de Caso: Paciente faioderma, gênero feminino, 36 anos, foi encaminhada pelo Ortodontista por apresentar aumento de volume em maxila com abaulamento e crepitação. Foram realizadas radiografias e punção aspirativa. Uma vez observado o conteúdo da lesão, foi realizada a biópsia incisional e iniciada a descompressão com colocação de dreno rígido. Tendo a confirmação do diagnóstico para COG, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia para remoção do cisto maxilar, através da enucleação cirúrgica, curetagem e osteotomia periférica. Conclusões: O COG é uma patologia incomum, recentemente reconhecida, cujo comportamento biológico pouco ainda se sabe. Sugere-se, portanto, a realização de investigações futuras sobre critérios para classificação de variáveis comumente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos, na tentativa de padronizar e possibilitar comparação entre estudos, todavia, para auxiliar em um diagnóstico bem sucedido

  2. Phytochemical Contents of Five Artemisia Species

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    Murat KURSAT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the fatty acid compositions, vitamin, sterol contents and flavonoid constituents of five Turkish Artemisia species (A. armeniaca, A. incana , A. tournefortiana, A. haussknechtii and A. scoparia were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. The results of the fatty acid analysis showed that Artemisia species possess high saturated fatty acid compositions. On the other hand, the studied Artemisia species were found to have low vitamin and sterol contents. Eight flavononids (catechin, naringin, rutin, myricetin, morin, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol were determined in the present study. It was found that Artemisia species contained high levels of flavonoids. Morin (45.35 ± 0.65 – 1406.79 ± 4.12 μg/g and naringenin (15.32 ± 0.46 – 191.18 ± 1.22 μg/g were identified in all five species. Naringin (268.13 ± 1.52 – 226.43 ± 1.17 μg/g and kaempferol (21.74 ± 0.65 – 262.19 ± 1.38 μg/g contents were noted in the present study. Present research showed that the studied Artemisia taxa have high saturated fatty acids and also rich flavonoid content.

  3. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica.

  4. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Chokri; Haoues, Meriam; Neffati, Noura; Bassoumi Jamoussi, Imen; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Boussaid, Mohamed; Karoui, Habib

    2016-01-01

    We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs). Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp.), while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+). Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products. PMID:27807464

  5. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohra Aloui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs. Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp., while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+. Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products.

  6. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: The Value of Intraepithelial Hemosiderin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Koilelat, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a relatively rare but well-described clinicopathologic entity. Its rarity and unpredictable clinical behavior are challenging to managing clinicians. Its variable and overlapping histomorphologic features are also diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Other odontogenic cysts and oral cystic neoplasms can simulate GOC. There are specific histologic criteria that help distinguish GOC from other mimickers. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of hemosiderin pigments deposition within the lining glandular epithelium of GOC has not been covered in detail or specifically reported so far in the literature. We report a case of nontraumatized anterior mandibular GOC in a middle-aged male, which histologically showed hemosiderin pigments within the lining epithelium without stromal siderophages. This finding might reflect a nonspecific spontaneous intraluminal hemorrhage. However, intraepithelial hemosiderin in GOC may be an additional helpful diagnostic clue of GOC in challenging cases since this phenomenon has not been reported in other mimicker cystic lesions.

  7. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col Seccion XVI, Mexico, D. F., C. P. 14080 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  8. Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Artemisia herba-alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou El-Hamd H. Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia, one of the larger genera in the family Asteraceae and the largest genus in the tribe Anthemideae, comprises from 200 to more than 500 taxa at the specific or subspecific level. Many Artemisia species have a high economic value in several fields, as food plants and as antihelminthic and antimalaria in medicine. Artemisia herba-alba was known for its therapeutic and medicinal properties, it was used in both traditional and modern medicine. Several papers have been published on the chemical composition of specimens of A. herba-alba. The aim of this work is to review all available scientific literature published on A. herba-alba. The focus will be on the chemical constitutions which have been identified from this species, in addition to all of the reported biological activites of this species have been included as well as the pharmacology and toxicology

  9. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Singhai AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martyniaannua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods: Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results: The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.

  10. Bone metastasis of glandular cardiac myxoma mimicking a metastatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppin, Shantveer G; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Puri, Ajay; Kumar, Rajiv; Agarwal, Manish; Sanghvi, Darshana

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis from a cardiac myxoma is rare. We describe an extremely unusual case of a cardiac myxoma metastasing to the femur in a 46-year-old female presenting with pain in the right hip. Radiographs showed an expansile lytic lesion with pathological fracture involving the neck and proximal shaft of the right femur. Histology revealed features of cardiac myxoma with heterologous glandular elements, which was initially mistaken for a metastatic mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma.

  11. Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix: a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Marisa R

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the cervix continue to be diagnostically challenging for the surgical pathologist. This review covers a select number of these lesions that may be misinterpreted as premalignant or malignant, with an emphasis on those about which Dr Scully has advanced our knowledge. The topics covered include microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric hyperplasia, diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, and endocervical adenomyoma. The first listed entity has a greater diversity of morphology than the name might imply including, but not limited to solid growth and prominent hyaline stroma. The second entity may be remarkably diffuse within the cervical wall and reasonably result in consideration of diagnoses such as minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum), but has nonmucinous epithelium and bland cytology. The third entity, one of the least common of those considered, represents a peculiar form of reactive hyperplasia of the endocervical epithelium. The fourth entity is the one about which knowledge is still fast advancing. In pure form with no atypia it is almost certainly a clinically benign process, but a subset of cases show cytologic atypia and an occasional association with adenocarcinoma is seen. Finally, adenomyomas of the uterus in general have received much attention in recent years, mostly in the corpus, but the less common endocervical variant may be particularly problematic because mucinous epithelium in abundant myogenic stroma may be potentially confused with an infiltrating differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Although immunohistochemistry may play a role on occasion in evaluating benign endocervical glandular proliferations the mainstay of their interpretation remains conventional morphologic analysis of routinely stained slides.

  12. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

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    Baneet Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4. The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears.

  13. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  14. The glandular odontogenic jaw cyst: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, N W; Joseph, B K; Monsour, P A; Young, W G

    1996-11-01

    A case of a rare odontogenic cyst arising in the lateral periodontal membrane in the mandible in a 14 year old girl is reported. This lesion appeared to be a new entity and has been named glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) or sialo-odontogenic cyst. Histologically the lesion was lined by mucous producing cuboidal epithelium containing several areas of thickening and numerous duct-like structures. The cyst recurred with the same histology two years postoperatively.

  15. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of seven Artemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohabatkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of seven Artemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs toxicity and HIV-1 replication. Methods: The studied Artemisia species were Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression was performed by HIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increased PBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency of CD4 expression in PBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts of Artemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  16. Extraction of total flavoniods from Artemisia annua L.%栽培青蒿中总黄酮提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋婧; 王伯初; 余正文

    2009-01-01

    利用超声波辅助技术,获得最大限度提取青篙中总黄酮的新工艺.用正交设计理论,结合分光光度法,优化超声波辅助醇提法提取青蒿总黄酮工艺中的关键技术参数.最佳提取工艺为:超声波频率59 kHz,乙醇体积分数60%,提取时间40 min,料液比1:40.超声波辅助提取法能够实现青蒿中总黄酮的高效提取,产率达1.497%.

  17. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  18. Effect of varying ratios of produced water and municipal water on soil characteristics, plant biomass, and secondary metabolites of Artemisia annua and Panicum virgatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal-bed natural gas production in the U.S. in 2012 was 1,655 billion cubic feet (bcf). A by-product of this production is co-produced water, which is categorized as a waste product by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effects of varying concentrations of coal-bed methane (produced) water wer...

  19. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on xenic bacteria isolated from clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, Ida; Hess, Claudia; Liebhart, Dieter;

    Infection with the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis in poultry has re-emerged since the ban of effective drugs. Consequently efforts are set to find alternatives to chemotherapeutics to combat histomonosis. At present histomonads need accompanying bacteria when cultured in vitro, probably serving...... with the antibacterial tests, it is reasonable to assume that the observed inhibitory effect of the tested materials is attributed to a direct effect on the protozoa. However, the potential of these materials on histomonosis has been tested in vivo in chickens and in turkeys without success....

  20. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However,it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is

  1. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  2. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; ZHANG Xue-ke; WU Nan; FU Yu-jie; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves. The sample of the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. From 18 compounds representing the oils, Eucalyptole (18.42%), Spathulenol (14.32), 4-Methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-ol (3.10%), 3-Carene (2.64%) appeared as the main components. The screening of antimicro bial activity of the essential oil was evaluated using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Gram-positive bacterial were more sensitive than gram-negative bacterial of the 8 microorganisms, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 showed the lowest MIC (0.3125%) and MBC (0.625%). In the disc diffusion assay, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49134 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 showed obvious inhibitory activity. Survival curve showed that, 2MIC ofArtemisiae argyi essential oil had a lethal effect on Candida albicans within the first 1 h. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil of Artemisiae argyi leaves possesses antimicrobial properties, and provides scientific foundations for exploition ofArtemisiae argyi.

  3. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  4. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  5. Mixed Squamous Cell and Glandular Papilloma of the Lung in a 64-Year-Old Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopat...

  6. Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung in a 64-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-02-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopathological diagnosis was mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma.

  7. New method for generating breast models featuring glandular tissue spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Oliveira, M. A.; Teixeira, M. H. A.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mammography is the main radiographic technique used for breast imaging. A major concern with mammographic imaging is the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer due to the high sensitivity of breast tissue. The mean glandular dose (DG) is the dosimetric quantity widely accepted to characterize the risk of radiation induced cancer. Previous studies have concluded that DG depends not only on the breast glandular content but also on the spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. In this work, a new method for generating computational breast models featuring skin composition and glandular tissue distribution from patients undergoing digital mammography is proposed. Such models allow a more accurate way of calculating individualized breast glandular doses taking into consideration the glandular tissue fraction. Sixteen breast models of four patients with different glandularity breasts were simulated and the results were compared with those obtained from recommended DG conversion factors. The results show that the internationally recommended conversion factors may be overestimating the mean glandular dose to less dense breasts and underestimating the mean glandular dose for denser breasts. The methodology described in this work constitutes a powerful tool for breast dosimetry, especially for risk studies.

  8. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients; Dosis glandular en examenes de tomosintesis de mama: estudio preliminar con una muestra de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  9. Effect of Artemisia capillaries on Gene Expression of Lipid Metabolism in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Seok Jang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective :The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Artemisia capillaries on gene expression of lipid metabolism in rats. Method :The author performed several experimental items to analyze the total cholesterol and triglyceride in liver tissue, the gene expressions of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoA reductase. Results :1. In Artemisia capillaries group, the levels of total cholesterol in liver tissue were significantly decreased. 2. In Artemisia capillaries group, the ratios of CYP7A1, HMG-CoA reductase were as same as the normal group. Conclusion :From the above results, Artemisia capillaries can be used to treat hyperlipidemia.

  10. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  11. Urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of squamous and glandular epithelium of the cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; van Westering, RP; Kok, LP

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The large data bases of the Dutch cervical screening program can be exploited to establish the relation between urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of the squamous and glandular epithelium, including mild or greater changes of the squamous and glandular epithelium of the cerv

  12. GLANDULAR HAIRS, NON-GLANDULAR HAIRS, AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN THE WINTER AND SUMMER LEAVES OF THE SEASONALLY DIMORPHIC THYMUS SIBTHORPII (LAMIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSABALIDIS ARTEMIOS Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the glandular and non-glandular hairs, and also the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in the winter and summer leaves of the seasonally dimorphic plant Thymus sibthorpii were studied. Glandular hairs comprise peltate hairs only (capitate hairs are missing. Peltate hairs are the sites of essential oil biosynthesis. They are more numerous in the winter leaves than in the summer leaves and consist of a 12-celled secretory head, a unicellular stalk, and an also unicellular epidermal foot. The essential oil of the winter leaves is mainly composed of linalool (42.4%, thymol (7.0%, p-cymene (5.8%, β-caryophyllene (5.7%, borneol (5.6%, and terpinen-4-ol (4.8%. The oil of the summer leaves is principally constituted of p-cymene (25.0%, linalool (19.1%, terpinen-4-ol (8.5% and borneol (8.3%. Non-glandular hairs proliferate in the summer leaves. They are conical in shape and consist of one basal epidermal cell and one apical pointed cell. Glandular and non-glandular hairs are implicated in the chemical and mechanical defense of the plant, respectively.

  13. Anthelmintic properties of extracts from Artemisia plants against nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Afshan, K; Mirza, B; Miller, J E; Manan, A; Irum, S; Rizvi, S S R; Qayyum, M

    2015-06-01

    Artemisia plant genus, natural inhabitant of northern Punjab Pakistan, is well known for its anthelmintic properties; many Artemisia species have not been so far scientifically proved. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia indica and Artemisia roxburghiana against mixed infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study is first scientifically proven study on anthelmintic activity of A. indica and A. roxburghiana. Five different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.75 mg/mL) accompanied by negative control (PBS) and positive control (albendazole, 10%) were used to carry out the egg hatch inhibition assay, larval mortality assay and adult worm mortality assay. The Baermann technique was used first time in larval mortality assay and proved to be effective. The results revealed that methanolic extracts of both A. indica and A. roxburghiana, showed maximum anthelmintic activity at concentration of 50 mg/ml by egg hatch inhibition (85±21.2; 80±28.3), larvae mortality (18±2.8; 17±4.2) and adult worm mortality (8.5±2.1; 8±2.8) assays. However, at concentration of 50 mg/ml both plant extracts in comparison to albendazole showed statistically insignificant (p≤0.05) results. The A. indica showed higher anthelmintic activity at all concentrations as compared to A. roburghiana. It has been concluded both plants exhibit anthelmintic activity and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out to purify the active ingredients for anthelmintic activity. Moreover, the decoctions of these plants could be used to GINs after confirming anthelmintic properties through in vivo.

  14. Effects of traffic pollution on the genetic structure of Poa annua L.populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; CHEN Xiao-yong; SHEN Lang; LI Yuan-yuan; CAI Yue-wei

    2004-01-01

    The genetic composition of Poa annua L. populations with a series of traffic pollution was studied by starch electrophoresis. Five enzyme systems were stained. The results showed that: (1) Traffic pollution can dramatically change genotypic frequencies at some loci of P. annua populations. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Fe-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote in some populations. (2) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site(Botanic Park population), but the increase was not related with the pollution extent. (3) Most genetic variation was found within populations, and only 6.21% was among populations of the polluted series. Slightly higher differentiation(FST=7.98%) was observed when the control population was included. (4) The calculated gene flow(Nm) is 2.8841 per generation. The mean of genetic identity is 0.9864 and the genetic distance average to 0.0138.

  15. Allergy to foods in patients monosensitized to Artemisia pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ortiz, J C; Cosmes, P M; Lopez-Asunsolo, A

    1996-12-01

    It is known that patients with pollinosis may display clinical characteristics caused by allergy to certain fruits and vegetables, but subjects allergic to Artemisia seem to show particularly peculiar characteristics. The clinical features of 84 patients with rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, and/or anaphylaxis whose inhalant allergy was exclusively to Artemisia vulgaris were studied and compared with a control group of 50 patients monosensitized to grass pollen. The mean age for the beginning of symptoms was 30.2 years, and this was higher than in the control group (P pistachio (three), hazelnut (two), lettuce (two), pollen (two), beer (two), almond (one), peanut (one), other nuts (one), carrot (one), and apple (one). None of the patients monosensitized to grass had food allergy. CAP inhibition experiments were carried out on a single patient. Results showed the existence of common antigenic epitopes in pistachio and Artemisia pollen for this patient. We concluded that mugwort hay fever can be associated with the Compositae family of foods, but that it is not normally associated with other foods.

  16. New Polyphenols Identified in Artemisiae abrotani herba Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Baiceanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia abrotanum L. (“southernwood” belongs to the Artemisia genus and it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of illnesses. Scarce data is available on the chemical composition of this medicinal plant, most research being focused on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of its essential oil. Our aim was to investigate the content and profile of polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives present in the Artemisiae abrotani herba extract. We conducted LC/MS analysis and we screened for 19 polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. We determined the total content of these compounds and we screened for antioxidant activity. Most polyphenol acids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified for the first time in this study. We found an original polyphenol distribution profile with high concentration of sinapic acid, rutin, quercetol, ferulic acid and patuletin. We measured the antioxidant activity, the ethanolic extract presenting a modest radical scavenging activity. The value of this study consists in its novelty as it adds new data on the chemical composition of A. abrotanum L. and it opens novel perspectives for medical and nutritional applications of this plant.

  17. The influence of Artemisia Absinthium on neighbouring plants. (An essay of Experimental Plant Sociology No. III)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funke, G.L.

    1943-01-01

    Eighteen species of plants, most of which were chosen at random, were sown beside a hedge of Artemisia Absinthium; they were severely injured and in one ease ( Levisticum officinale) even killed by the chemical excretions of the latter within a distance of ± 100 cm; seedlings of Artemisia Absinthium

  18. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past.

  19. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  20. Nationwide survey of glandular tissue doses for the establishment of a breast cancer screening system using mammography. Analysis of technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, Yoshiharu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Hagiwara, Akira; Asahara, Masaki [and others

    2000-09-01

    The effects of technical parameters, such as screen-film combinations, antiscatter grids, processing conditions and X-ray beam qualities, on the average glandular tissue dose of radiation were analyzed under two exposure conditions: The standard radiographic condition for an RMI 156 phantom at each facility (Standard Radiographic Condition). The radiographic condition needed to obtain a radiographic density of 1.20 to 1.40 with an RMI 156 phantom (Canonical Radiographic Condition). The analysis included 208 dose measurements at 104 facilities. The results showed that the average glandular tissue dose depends strongly on the grid types and screen-film combinations used. There were also significant differences in radiographic density between the Standard Radiographic Condition and the Canonical Radiographic Condition. This analysis of the technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose will be useful in establishing a standardized mammographic breast cancer screening system. (author)

  1. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDIZATION OF AERIAL PARTS OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Javed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium Linn. is an important medicinal plant of family Asteraceae. It is commonly known as Afsanteen. The whole plant is used in Indian traditional systems of medicine specifically indicated in chronic fever, swellings, inflammation of liver, gastric problems, enlargement of spleen, urinary disorders and for wound healing. As the herb is used widely in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it was thought worthwhile to undertake the standardization of its aerial parts. The results of preliminary pharmacognostic standardization of aerial parts of A. absinthium are very helpful in determination of quality and purity of the crude drug and its marketed formulation.

  2. Glandular breast tissue volume by magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Louise; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appearance of glandular breast tissue may be difficult to distinguish from fat tissue by palpation, especially in obese girls. To our knowledge, validation of the clinical assessment of pubertal breast stages by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has never been performed. Our objective...... was to report normative data of glandular breast tissue volume and validate the clinical evaluation of pubertal breast staging by MRI of breast tissue and to evaluate circulating reproductive hormone levels and estrogen-dependent transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) parameters as markers of glandular breast tissue....... METHODS: Glandular breast tissue volume quantified by MRI and breast stage evaluation was performed in 100 healthy peripubertal girls. Circulating levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), inhibin B, and estradiol were measured by immunoassays. Ovarian volume, uterine volume...

  3. Pulmonary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma mimicking adenocarcinoma: a case study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dongliang; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Jigang; Ding, Li; Xin, Fangjie; Zhao, Han; Li, Yujun

    2013-08-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. Here we present another case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma in a 64-year-old female nonsmoker. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly papillary structures covered with squamous, glandular and transitional epithelium. Some glandular structures extending into adjacent bronchiolar and alveolar spaces with mucus were similar to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the different kinds of epithelia had similar immunophenotype. The different components were positive for cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, CAM5.2, CK5/6, CK34βE12, and TTF-1, but negative for CK20. The transitional morphology and immunohistochemistry indicate the different components likely come from a same kind of progenitor in the bronchiolar wall.

  4. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  5. Glandular Dysplasia of the Uterine Endocervix A Morphological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    中西, 慶喜

    1991-01-01

    The endocervical mucosa was evaluated morphologically and immunohistochemically in 935 cases (441 non-cancerous, 347 squamous cell carcinoma, 109 mixed type of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and 38 adenocarcinoma of the cervix) to indicate the relationship between glandular dysplasia and endocervical adenocarcinoma. The following results were obtained. (1) Glandular dysplasia occurred in 35.9% of the cases with endocervical adenocarcinoma including co-existence with squamous c...

  6. Cervical glandular atypia associated with squamous intraepithelial neoplasia: a premalignant lesion?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, L J; Wells, M

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have described premalignant changes in the endocervical epithelium, but morphological criteria for the diagnosis of cervical glandular atypia of lesser severity than adenocarcinoma in situ have not been established. Adenocarcinoma in situ is often associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The endocervical mucosa in 105 cases of CIN grade III was evaluated and compared with that of 100 controls. Sixteen cases of cervical glandular atypia and one case of adenocarc...

  7. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  8. Glandular epithelial AR inactivation enhances PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion induces uterine pathology, whereas androgen actions via androgen receptor (AR) support uterine growth and therefore may modify uterine cancer risk. We hypothesized that the androgen actions mediated via uterine glandular epithelial AR could modify PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology. To test our hypothesis, we developed uterine glandular epithelium-specific PTEN and/or AR knockout mouse models comparing the uterine pathology among wild-type (WT), glandular epithelium-specific AR inactivation (ugeARKO), PTEN deletion (ugePTENKO), and the combined PTEN and AR knockout (ugePTENARKO) female mice. The double knockout restricted to glandular epithelium showed that AR inactivation enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology with development of intraepithelial neoplasia by 20 weeks of age. In ugePTENARKO, 6/10 (60%) developed intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas 3/10 (30%) developed only glandular hyperplasia in ugePTENKO uterus. No uterine pathology was observed in WT (n=8) and ugeARKO (n=7) uteri. Uterine weight was significantly (P=0.002) increased in ugePTENARKO (374±97 mg (mean±s.e.)) compared with WT (97±6 mg), ugeARKO (94±12 mg), and ugePTENKO (205±33 mg). Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and P-AKT expression was modified by uterine pathology but did not differ between ugePTENKO and ugePTENARKO, suggesting that its expressions are not directly affected by androgens. However, progesterone receptor (PR) expression was reduced in ugePTENARKO compared to ugePTENKO uterus, suggesting that PR expression could be regulated by glandular epithelial AR inactivation. In conclusion, glandular epithelial AR inactivation (with persistent stromal AR action) enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology possibly by downregulating PR expression in the uterus.

  9. A comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of two Artemisia species found in Nilgiris biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, J; Elango, K; Dhanabal, S P; Paramakrishnan, N; Suresh, B

    2007-10-01

    Artemisia pallens Wall. ex DC commonly known as "Davana" in Kannada and Artemisia abrotanum Linn. known as "Southernwood" (Asteraceae) are aromatic herbs, erect in habit, upto 60 cm tall, leaves are very small, much divided, bluish green. These plants find use in traditional systems of medicine viz., anthelmintic, tonic and antipyretic properties. Since, these species have not been scientifically evaluated; the present study was aimed to bring these plants under a suitable pharmacognostical scheme.

  10. Searching for a trace of Artemisia campestris pollen in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Grewling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determinate whether Artemisia campestris was present in the vicinity of 8 pollen monitoring stations in Poland by examining temporal variations in daily average airborne Artemisia pollen data recorded by Hirst type volumetric traps. Three day moving averages of airborne Artemisia pollen were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results show that Artemisia pollen seasons in Poland generally display similar unimodal patterns (correlation coefficients r > 0.900; P < 0.05. The only exception was the Artemisia pollen concentration noted in the outskirts of Poznań (Morasko, where the bimodal pattern was revealed. Correlations between Artemisia pollen data recorded at Poznań-Morasko and the other Polish sites were the lowest in the investigated dataset; this was particularly noticeable in the second part of pollen season (r ~0.730. We show that the typical bimodal pattern in Artemisia pollen seasons, which is characteristic of the presence of both A. vulgaris (first peak and A. campestris (second peak, does not occur at the majority of sites in Poland and is restricted to the outskirts of Poznań. In fact, it was noted that the pollen monitoring site in Poznań-Centre, just 8 km from Morasko, only exhibited one peak (attributed to A. vulgaris. This shows that the influence of A. campestris on airborne pollen season curves is limited and can be largely disregarded. In addition, this study supports previous records showing that the spatial distribution of airborne Artemisia pollen within a city (urban-rural gradient can vary markedly, depending on the species composition.

  11. Composition of the Essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farukh S. Sharopov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of Artemisia absinthium were collected from two different locations in the central-south of Tajikistan. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. A total of 41 compounds were identified representing 72-94% of total oil compositions. The major components of A. absinthium oil were myrcene (8.6-22.7%, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (7.7-17.9%, a dihydrochamazulene isomer (5.5-11.6%, germacrene D (2.4-8.0%, β-thujone (0.4-7.3%, linalool acetate (trace-7.0%, α-phellandrene (1.0-5.3%, and linalool (5.3-7.0%. The chemical compositions of A. absinthium from Tajikistan are markedly different from those from European, Middle Eastern, or other Asian locations and likely represent new chemotypes.

  12. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  13. Aquaporins are upregulated in glandular epithelium at the time of implantation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Laura A; Murphy, Christopher R

    2007-03-01

    Regulation of luminal fluid is essential for blastocyst implantation. While it has been known for quite some time that there is a reduction in the amount of luminal fluid at the time of implantation, the mechanisms regulating this process are only just emerging. Previous studies have shown an upregulation of aquaporin (AQP) 5 channels in luminal epithelial cells at the time of implantation providing a mechanism for fluid reabsorption across the surface epithelium. However to date the contribution of fluid reabsorption by glandular epithelial cells has not been established. This study using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrates the presence of several AQP isoforms in the rat uterus at the time of implantation while immunofluorescence data demonstrates an apical distribution of AQPs5 and 9 in the glandular epithelium at the time of implantation. The presence of AQPs5 and 9 in the apical plasma membrane of the glandular epithelium seen in this study provides a mechanism for transcellular fluid transport across these glandular epithelial cells similar to that seen in luminal epithelial cells. The reabsorption of glandular fluid via AQP channels may also regulate luminal fluid volume and be involved in the reduction in luminal fluid seen at the time of implantation.

  14. Establishing epithelial glandular polarity: interlinked roles for ARF6, Rac1, and the matrix microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleon, Christine L; Sedgwick, Alanna; Hartsell, Alyssa; Dai, Michael; Whittington, Catherine; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial cysts comprise the structural units of the glandular epithelium. Although glandular inversion in epithelial tumors is thought to be a potential mechanism for the establishment of metastatic disease, little is known about the morphogenic cues and signaling pathways that govern glandular polarity and organization. Using organotypic cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in reconstituted basement membrane, we show that cellular depletion of the small GTP-binding protein ARF6 promotes the formation of inverted cysts, wherein the apical cell membrane faces the cyst exterior, and the basal domain faces the central lumen, while individual cell polarity is maintained. These cysts are also defective in interactions with laminin at the cyst-matrix interface. This inversion of glandular orientation is accompanied by Rac1 inactivation during early cystogenesis, and temporal activation of Rac1 is sufficient to recover the normal cyst phenotype. In an unnatural collagen I microenvironment, ARF6-depleted, inverted epithelial cysts exhibit some loss of cell polarity, a marked increase in Rho activation and Rac1 inactivation, and striking rearrangement of the surrounding collagen I matrix. These studies demonstrate the importance of ARF6 as a critical determinant of glandular orientation and the matrix environment in dictating structural organization of epithelial cysts.

  15. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura]. E-mail: wrmaluf@ufla.br; fuminoue@yahoo.com.br; raphaelufla@yahoo.com.br; laagomes@ufla.br; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: emcastro@ufla.br; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mcardoso@ufla.br

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  16. Poder pastoral, acomodo y terrtitorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen referencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para sondear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea.

  17. Isolation and identification of a new flavonoid glycoside from Carrichtera annua L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaaty A Shahat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids are a major group of constituents and are assumed to be among the beneficial components. Recently, they have also received considerable interest as components of foodstuffs and nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Materials and Methods: About 500 g of air-dried powdered seeds of C. annua were defatted seeds and extracted with 70% methanol. The combined methanol extract was partitioned with chloroform and n-butanol. The butanol extract was concentrated and subjected to column chromatography on polyamide. Results: The fraction eluted with aqueous methanol (40% and 50% was found to contain three main flavonoids (1, 2, and 3. Repeated column chromatography on polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 gave compound 1. Compounds 2 and 3 were further purified using preparative paper chromatography with 20% HOAc and Sephadex LH-20 column. Conclusions: Reinvestigation of the flavonoidal constituents of the butanol fraction of the aqueous methanolic extract of Carrichteraannua seeds led to isolation and identification of a new flavonoidal glycosidenamed as quercetin 3-O-[(6-sinapoyl-b-glucopyranosyl-(1;2-b-arabinopyranosyl]-7-O-b-glucopyranoside 1, in addition to, quarecetin-3-O-glucoside 2, isorhamnetin-3-O-b-runtinoside3, and isorhamnetin4.Structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV, MS, and 1 H and 13 C NMR.

  18. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  19. Environ: E00355 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00355 Artemisia annua stem and leaf Crude drug Artemisinin [CPD:C09538], Artemisinic acid, Arte...misilactone, Artemisinol, Kaempferol [CPD:C05903], Coumarins, Comphene [CPD:C06076 C06304], 1,8...-Cineole [CPD:C09844], D-alpha-Cadinene [CPD:C16815], Caryophyllene epoxide [CPD:C16908], Cuminal, Artemisia alcohol, Arte...hyllene [CPD:C09629], gamma-Caryophyllene Artemisia annua [TAX:35608] Asteraceae (daisy family) Artemisia an...nua stem and leaf (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) E00355 Artemisia annua stem and leaf ...

  20. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  1. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  2. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  3. Peltate glandular trichomes of Colquhounia seguinii harbor new defensive clerodane diterpenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Huan Li; Yan Liu; Juan Hua; Shi-Hong Luo; Sheng-Hong Li

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are considered as major defen-sive chemicals against herbivore attack. The morphology and secondary metabolites of the peltate glandular trichomes of a lianoid Labiatae, Colquhounia seguinii Vaniot, were investigated. Three new clerodane diterpenoids, seguiniilac-tones A-C (1-3), were identified through precise trichome collection with laser microdissection, metabolic analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer, target compound isolation with classical phytochemical techniques, structure elucidation with spec-troscopic methods. All compounds showed significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect Spodoptera exigua. Seguiniilactone A (1) was approxi-mately 17-fold more potent than the commercial neem oil. a-Substituted a,b-unsaturated g-lactone functionality was found to be crucial for strong antifeedant activity of this class of compounds. Quantitative results indicated that the levels of these compounds in the peltate glandular trichomes and leaves were sufficiently high to deter the feeding by generalist insects. Moderate antifungal activity was ob-served for seguiniilactone C (3) against six predominant fungal species isolated from the diseased leaves of C. seguinii, while seguiniilactones A and B were generally inactive. These findings suggested that seguiniilactones A-C might be specialized secondary metabolites in peltate glandular trichomes for the plant defense against insect herbivores and pathogens.

  4. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. He...

  5. Expression of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of non-pregnant human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Ye; XU Peng; WEN Hai-xia; KONG Xian-chao; GUAN Li-li; LI Pei-ling

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleophosmin plays a critical role in embryonic development. This study aimed to examine the expression pattern of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of human endometrium during the menstrual cycle.Methods Endometrial tissues used for this study were obtained from 46 non-pregnant patients who underwent hysterectomy which had been performed to treat benign diseases. Nucleophosmin expression was assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Results At the early-, mid- and late-proliferative phase, nucleophosmin mRNA was highly expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium. At the secretory phase, the expression of nucleophosmin mRNA was reduced in glandular epithelium in early-secretory phase, and the expression in mid- and late-secretory phases was not detected.Similarly, nucleophosmin protein was strongly expressed in endometrial glands throughout the proliferative phase, but was gradually reduced during secretory phase.Conclusion Nucleophosmin mRNA and protein are expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle.

  6. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  7. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  8. Influence of mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on winter habitat for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; Johnson, Dustin D; Nafus, Aleta M

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time. Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height (P plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves (P winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  9. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Oliaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia Kopetdaghensis. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and ovary (Cho cell lines. The A. Kopetdaghensis had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥200 μg/mL significantly (P<0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/mL (P<0.01. Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. Kopetdaghensis in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  10. Efficient in vitro micropropagation and regeneration of Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Govindaraj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes efficient propagation of Artemisia vulgaris using shoot tip explants isolated from 35 daysold in vitro grown seedlings. Optimum proliferation was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s salts and B5 vitamins supplementedwith 3% sucrose, 4.44 μM BA, and 0.7% agar. Shoot proliferation was maximal (99.8% with 14-23 shoots per explant after6 weeks of culture. Shoots with a minimum length of 1.5 cm were transferred to shoot elongation medium supplemented with0.44 μM BA and 1.44 μM GA3. The successfully elongated shoots with a height of 7.2-12.1 cm were transferred to rootingmedium augmented with 8.56 μM IAA. Rooted plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing autoclaved garden soil,farmyard soil and sand (2:1:1 for hardening. Plantlets were initially maintained under culture room conditions (5 weeks,followed by normal laboratory conditions (4 weeks and finally transferred to a Botanical Evaluation Garden and maintainedthere.

  11. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Characterization of chemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xia; Wu, Fang; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-11-20

    The biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides are related to the substitution positions of functional groups. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. FT-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that SO(3-) group (S(6+), high binding energy of 168.7eV) was widely present in sulfated polysaccharides. (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed that C-2 and C-3 substitution was occurred but not fully sulfation. Meanwhile, C-6 substituted signals near 65ppm were not observed. The degree of substitution varied from 0.44 to 0.63 in SRSASP which could be attributed to the low reactivity at secondary hydroxyl. Monosaccharide composition result showed a decrease in the ratio of mannose/glucose, indicating the change of chemical composition in sulfated polysaccharides. In size-exclusion chromatograph analysis, a decrease in molecular weight and broadening of molecular weight distribution of sulfated polysaccharides was also observed. It could be attributed to the hydrolysis of polysaccharide in the sulfated reaction.

  12. Wound healing effect of flavonoid rich fraction and luteolin isolated from Martynia annua Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Abhay K Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate wound healing potential of flavonoid fractions of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn. leaves in diabetic rats on the basis of folkloric information and preliminary study. Methods: The flavonoid compound luteolin and apigenin were isolated from dried leaves of plant by column chromatography. The two concentrations (0.2% and 0.5% w/w) of luteolin and flavonoid fraction were selected for topically applied as ointment on diabetic wound. The Povidone Iodine Ointment USP was used as a reference. On 18th days, protein content, hydroxyproline and antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) level in granuloma tissues were determined.Results:The results showed that, percent wound contraction were observed significantly (P<0.01) greater in MAF fraction and 0.5% w/w of luteolin treatment groups. Presence of matured collagen fibres and fibroblasts with better angiogenesis were observed in histopathological studies.Conclusions:In conclusion, our findings suggest that flavonoid fraction (MAF) and luteolin (0.5%w/w) may have potential benefit in enhancing wound healing in diabetic condition, possibly due to free-radical scavenging activity of plant.

  13. Variation in bioactive principles of Artemisia amygdalina Decne. in wild and tissue culture regenerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Rafia; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Akbar, Seema; Kamili, Azra Nahaid; Dar, Muhammad Younus; Masood, Akbar

    2013-05-01

    Wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina, a critically endangered and endemic plant of Kashmir and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan were screened for the amount of bioactive principles and in particular antimalarial compound artemesinin. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of terpenes, alkaloids, phenolics, tannins (polyphenolics), cardiac glycosides and steroids in wild (aerial, inflorescence) and tissue culture regenerants (in vitro grown plant, callus and green house acclimatized plants). HPLC of Artemisia amygdalina revealed the presence of artemesinin in petroleum ether extracts of wild aerial part, tissue culture raised plant and green house acclimatized plants. Acetonitrile and water in 70:30 ratios at flow rate of 1ml/min was standardised as mobile phase. Retention time for standard chromatogram was 6.7. Wild inflorescences and callus does not produce artemesinin. This is the first report of phytochemical screening and artemesinin estimation of wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina.

  14. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis; Estimacion de la dosis glandular media en un equipo de tomosintesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-07-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  15. Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb., neófito de la flora Española

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Andrés, Florentino; Sánchez Rodríguez, Juan Antonio

    1982-01-01

    [ES] Se denuncia por vez primera la presencia en España de Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb., neófito poco conocido en Europa occidental. Así mismo se estudia su corologia y su comportamiento ecológico. Finalmente se discuten sus caracteres diferenciales con respecto a otras especies anuales próximas y se describe. [EN] The presence in Spain of Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb. is announced for the first time and the plant is described. This is a neophyte wich is rather in Western Europe. Its co...

  16. Poder pastoral, acomodo y territorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen refe-rencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para son-dear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea. The article looks at the Jesuit Annual Letters concerning the Audiencia of Quito between 1586 and 1660. This virtually unexplored source is employed to analyze the conversion strategies and sacramental regime of the Jesuits in Quito. The article contends that the Jesuit conversion strategies shifted from an early enga-gement with native religion that included an interest in native myths, and ex-tirpation of idolatry to a tabula rasa approach centered on the administration of sacraments. The article attributes this shift to the transfer of the Colegio de Quito from the Jesuit province of Peru to that of the New Kingdom (New Granada. The article contextualizes the Jesuit engagement with native culture in Quito and the operation of the administration of sacraments with reference to Juan Carlos Estenssoro’s notion of the two conversions as well as with reference to Michel Foucault

  17. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  18. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  19. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Maluf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII, and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence to spider mites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção para maior densidade de tricomas glandulares na resistência (repelência ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae, em populações de tomate derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Foram avaliados 19 genótipos quanto à densidade de tricomas, que incluíram 12 derivados de populações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, obtidos a partir do cruzamento original L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Nas faces abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, realizaram-se as contagens e os tricomas foram classificados em glandulares tipo IV e VI, outros glandulares (tipo I e VII e não glandulares. A repelência aos ácaros foi medida pela distância média, percorrida pelo

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of glandular dose in a dedicated breast CT system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao; WEI Long; ZHAO Wei; WANG Yan-Fang; SHU Hang; SUN Cui-Li; WEI Cun-Feng; CAO Da-Quan; QUE Jie-Min; SHI Rong-Jian

    2012-01-01

    A dedicated breast CT system (DBCT) is a new method for breast cancer detection proposed in recent years.In this paper,the glandular dose in the DBCT is simulated using the Monte Carlo method.The phantom shape is half ellipsoid,and a series of phantoms with different sizes,shapes and compositions were constructed. In order to optimize the spectra,monoenergy X-ray beams of 5-80 keV were used in simulation.The dose distribution of a breast phantom was studied:a higher energy beam generated more uniform distribution,and the outer parts got more dose than the inner parts.For polyenergtic spectra,four spectra of Al filters with different thicknesses were simulated,and the polyenergtic glandular dose was calculated as a spectral weighted combination of the monoenergetic dose.

  1. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  2. Glandular trichomes and essential oil composition of Thymus pannonicus All. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BOZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of Lamiaceae are among the most investigated secretory structures. Micromorphological and anatomical analyses of the glandular trichomes of Th. pannonicus L. were carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our research results show that, the secretory structures are always multicellular, consisting in a basal cell, a unicellular pedicel and a gland which bears 1, 2, 8 or 12 cells. Aerial parts of Th. pannonicus L. were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield volatile oil which were subsequently analysed by GC/MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified in Th. pannonicus L. volatil oil were a-terpinyl acetate (48.83%, germacrene D (12.12%, cariophyllene oxide (6.35% and mircene (4.73%.

  3. Biotechnology for breeding industrial rape: Characterisation and isolation of fatty acid elongases from Lunaria annua. Final report; Biotechnologie fuer die Zuechtung von Industrieraps: Charakterisierung und Isolierung von Fettsaeure-Elongasen aus Lunaria annua. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepker, H.; Fehling, E.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    The present part-project of the BMFT (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) integrated project `Industrial Rape Biotechnology` was aimed at isolating and characterising the constituent enzymes of fatty acid elongase (acyl-CoA-elongase) that catalyse the biosynthesis of extra-long-chain fatty acids (erucic and nervonic acid). This was in preparation of cloning and transferring the responsible elongase genes to rape. The constituent enzymes of acyl-CoA elongase from lunaria annua were isolated using insights gained in preceding studies of the integrated project. The ripencing seeds of this singular crucifer synthesise erucic acid and an unusually high proportion of nervonic acid. These examinations provide the basis to studies for cloning the elongase genes and transferring them to rape. The ultimate aim is to create an industrial rape rich in erucic and nervonic acid, a reproductive raw material that would be of great interest to the chemico-technical sector. (EF) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des BMFT-Verbundprojektes `Industrieraps-Biotechnologie` sollten im vorliegenden Teilvorhaben die konstituierenden Enzyme der Fettsaeure-Elongase (Acyl-CoA-Elongase), die die Biosynthese sehr langkettiger Fettsaeuren (Erucasaeure und Nervonsaeure) katalysieren, isoliert und charakterisiert werden, um die entsprechenden Elongase-Gene zu klonieren und auf Raps zu uebertragen. Mit Hilfe der in vorausgegangenen Arbeiten dieses Verbundprojektes gewonnenen Erkenntnisse sollten die konstituierenden Enzyme der Acyl-CoA-Elongase aus Silberblatt (Lunaria annua) isoliert werden - eine einzigartige crucifere Pflanze, in deren reifenden Samen neben Erucasaeure ungewoehnlich hohe Anteile von Nervonsaeure synthetisiert werden. Diese Untersuchungen bilden die Voraussetzungen fuer die Arbeiten zur Klonierung der Elongase-Gene sowie deren Uebertragung auf Raps. Auf diese Weise soll Industrieraps mit einem hohen Anteil an Erucasaeure und Nervonsaeure, die als nachwachsende Industrierohstoffe fuer

  4. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odgerel Oidovsambuu

    Full Text Available VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Although Vsig1(-/Y ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  5. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidovsambuu, Odgerel; Nyamsuren, Gunsmaa; Liu, Shuai; Göring, Wolfgang; Engel, Wolfgang; Adham, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Although Vsig1(-/Y) ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y) cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  6. Histological analysis of the distribution pattern of glandular tissue in normal inferior nasal turbinates

    OpenAIRE

    Millas, Ieda; Liquidato, Bianca Maria; Dolci,José Eduardo Lutaif; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Macéa,José Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Nasal turbinates play an important role in nasal physiology. These functions include the important function of particle filtration by the mucocilliary system. Many nasal mucosal diseases, such as rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, are directly related with structural alterations of the mucosal lining of the turbinates. AIM: To study the distribution pattern of the glandular epithelium of the lamina propria in the normal lower nasal turbinate mucosa of the anterior, medium and posterior portions. MA...

  7. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  8. Localization of Salvinorin A and Related Compounds in Glandular Trichomes of the Psychoactive Sage, Salvia divinorum

    OpenAIRE

    SIEBERT, DANIEL J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution.

  9. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed.

  10. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Susanne N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results Stomach lesions, as well as normal appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal samples, clones with 99% similarities to Lactobacillus salivarius and Sarcina ventriculi were found. Escherichia like bacterium clones and Enterococcus clones were demonstrated in one focal erosion. Based on a phylogenetic tree these clones had 100% similarity to Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described as an emerging pathogen in both humans and animals, the finding of this bacterium in gastric erosion warrants further clarification to whether gastric infection with this type bacterium is important for horses.

  11. Benign müllerian glandular inclusions in men undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallan, Alexander J; Antic, Tatjana

    2016-11-01

    Benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in lymph nodes are commonly seen in women, but to our knowledge, there have only been 4 reported cases in men. Distinction of these glandular structures from metastatic adenocarcinoma is crucial for proper staging, prognosis, and treatment of the patient. We report 3 cases of benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in men undergoing either prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy with lymph node dissection for treatment of prostatic adenocarcinoma and/or urothelial carcinoma. None of the patients were receiving hormonal therapy. All 3 cases showed benign glands with ciliated cuboidal to columnar cells and rare secretory cells, morphologically comparable with endosalpingiosis in women. These glands were diffusely positive for PAX-8, WT-1, estrogen receptor, and progesteron receptor consistent with müllerian origin. Our study is the first to confirm müllerian origin of these glands by PAX-8 and WT-1 positivity. This finding of müllerian glands in men identical to endosalpingiosis in women supports the theory that this entity can result from müllerian metaplasia of the peritoneal mesothelium rather than displacement of tubal-type epithelium. Pathologists should also be aware that müllerian-type glands can rarely occur in men to prevent the incorrect diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma involving a lymph node.

  12. Dendrochronology of Atriplex portulacoides and Artemisia maritima in Wadden Sea salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decuyper, M.; Slim, P.A.; Loon-Steensma, van J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study uses a rather unusual method, dendrochronology, to investigate the growth and survival of Atriplex portulacoides L. and Artemisia maritima L. on salt marshes at two field sites on the Dutch North Sea barrier islands of Terschelling and Ameland. By providing information on longevity of thes

  13. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    insecticides as alternatives to conventional synthetic agrochemicals, unique Artemisia species from Russia were evaluated for biopesticide activity. The oils...compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review), Int. J. Oncol. 37(1), 5-14. [15] J.M. Seo, H.M. Kang, K.H. Son, J.H. Kim, C.W. Lee, H.M. Kim, S.I

  14. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a favorite herbal and medicinal plant. Drying is necessary to achieve longer shelf life with high quality, preserving the original flavor. Essential oil content and color are the most important parameters that define the quality of herbal and medicinal plants.

  15. Inhibitory Activity of Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil Against Fungal Species Isolated From Minced Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Meat is an important source of several nutrients. The capability top of fresh meat to rot, causing the group of studies food science, biological and chemical stability meat consideration. Objectives This study was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil against fungal species isolated from minced meat. Materials and Methods Two types of media dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18 agar and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol (DRBC agar were selected for the mycological analysis of the minced meat samples. To evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils, the microdilution broth method based on the CLSI (M27A guideline was used. Results Artemisias spicigera essential oil has an inhibitory effect on the growth of fungi found in samples of minced meat. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most common genera on both medium types. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentration 50 = 1.88 µL/mL and MIC90 = 2 µL/mL were reported. The genus of Mucor with MIC = 1.0 µL/mL was the most sensitive and Aspergilus versicolor was the most resistant species to the essential oil with MIC = 4 µL/mL. Conclusions The results of the present study show a favorable inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil on fungal growth, especially Aspergillus species. According to the results, antifungal components of Artemisias spicigera in different forms are used to prevent fungal pollution.

  16. Loss of essential oil of tarragon (Artemisia dranunculus L.) due to drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Müller, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hot air-drying on the essential oil constituents and yield in French and Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. The tarragon leaves were dried at air temperatures ranging from 40 to 90 °C. The drying stopped when the moisture content of the samples reached 10%

  17. Antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of Artemisia absinthium L. hydroalcholic extract in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadian Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Artemisia absinthium L. (AA is a large, diverse genus of the family Asteraceae. AAhas long been used as customary herbal medicine in world for the treatment of gastric pain, cardiacstimulation, improvement of memory and for the restoration of declined mental function. The aimof present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of AA on some factors ref lecting thedevelopment of oxidative toxic stress in plasma.Methods: Twenty male rats were equally divided in to 4 groups (5 rats each. Group I actedas control (received normal salin. Treatment groups were II, III and IV which were givenArtemisia 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day respectively only by gavage for 24 hours. After treatment,blood specimens were collected. Liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST andalanine aminotransferase (ALT with total antioxidant power (TAP and total thiol groups (TTGconcentrations were measured.Results: Levels of ALT, AST and TTG were decreased in the group II compared to the control(group I. ALT and AST in 50 mg/kg group was observed compared with control group. Also, TTGincreased in Artemisia 50 mg/kg group compared to control group.Conclusion: Results suggests that alcoholic extract of Artemisia can ameliorate liver toxicity inrats through reducing the serum levels of ALT, AST, and oxidative damage.

  18. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  19. Antidiabetic Activity of Artemisia amygdalina Decne in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Ghazanfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Artemisia amygdalina. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia amygdalina were tested for their antidiabetic potentials in diabetic rats. The effect of extracts was observed by checking the biochemical, physiological, and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats. The hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts each at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b. w significantly reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. The other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL, serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, and alkaline phosphatise (ALP, were found to be reduced by the hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts. The extracts also showed reduction in the feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The current study revealed the antidiabetic potential of Artemisia amygdalina being effective in hyperglycemia and that it can effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by diabetes in rats, which seems to validate its therapeutic traditional use.

  20. Plasticity in sex allocation in the plant Mercurialis annua is greater for hermaphrodites sampled from dimorphic than from monomorphic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Vilas, J; Pannell, J R

    2014-09-01

    Plants are notoriously variable in gender, ranging in sex allocation from purely male through hermaphrodite to purely female. This variation can have both a genetic and an adaptive plastic component. In gynodioecious species, where females co-occur with hermaphrodites, hermaphrodites tend to shift their allocation towards greater maleness when growing under low-resource conditions, either as a result of hermaphrodites shifting away from an expensive female function, or because of enhanced siring advantages in the presence of females. Similarly, in the androdioecious plant Mercurialis annua, where hermaphrodites co-exist with males, hermaphrodites also tend to enhance their relative male allocation under low-resource conditions. Here, we ask whether this response differs between hermaphrodites that have been evolving in the presence of males, in a situation analogous to that supposed for gynodioecious populations, vs. those that have been evolving in their absence. We grew hermaphrodites of M. annua from populations in which males were either present or absent under different levels of nutrient availability and compared their reaction norms. We found that, overall, hermaphrodites from populations with males tended to be more female than those from populations lacking males. Importantly, hermaphrodites' investment in pollen and seed production was more plastic when they came from populations with males than without them, reducing their pollen production at low resource availability and increasing their seed production at high resource availability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that plasticity in sex allocation is enhanced in hermaphrodites that have likely been exposed to variation in mating opportunities due to fluctuations in the frequency of co-occurring males.

  1. Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Shigeto; Kusuda, Tomoko; Liu, Xu-Ping; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Mikami, Yoshiki; Takeshita, Morishige; Nakao, Motonao; Chochi, Yasuyo; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2008-12-01

    Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix. In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurrent chromosomal imbalances, that is, gains of chromosome 3q and a loss of 1p, which were common to MDA and MAC, in 3 of 14 LEGHs analyzed (21%). LEGHs with chromosomal imbalances showed a degree of cellular atypia in the hyperplastic glandular epithelium. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions. HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined. Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions. Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.

  2. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  3. Characterization of fibrillar collagens and extracellular matrix of glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules.

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    Tyler M Bauman

    Full Text Available Recent studies have associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men with prostatic fibrosis, but a definitive link between collagen deposition and LUTS has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate ECM and collagen content within normal glandular prostate tissue and glandular BPH, and to evaluate the association of clinical parameters of LUTS with collagen content.Fibrillar collagen and ECM content was assessed in normal prostate (48 patients and glandular BPH nodules (24 patients using Masson's trichrome stain and Picrosirius red stain. Second harmonic generation (SHG imaging was used to evaluate collagen content. Additional BPH tissues (n = 47 were stained with Picrosirius red and the association between clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS and collagen content was assessed.ECM was similar in normal prostate and BPH (p = 0.44. Total collagen content between normal prostate and glandular BPH was similar (p = 0.27, but a significant increase in thicker collagen bundles was observed in BPH (p = 0.045. Using SHG imaging, collagen content in BPH (mean intensity = 62.52; SEM = 2.74 was significantly higher than in normal prostate (51.77±3.49; p = 0.02. Total collagen content was not associated with treatment with finasteride (p = 0.47 or α-blockers (p = 0.52, pre-TURP AUA symptom index (p = 0.90, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.86, post-void residual (PVR; p = 0.32, prostate size (p = 0.21, or post-TURP PVR (p = 0.51. Collagen content was not associated with patient age in patients with BPH, however as men aged normal prostatic tissue had a decreased proportion of thick collagen bundles.The proportion of larger bundles of collagen, but not total collagen, is increased in BPH nodules, suggesting that these large fibers may play a role in BPH/LUTS. Total collagen content is independent of clinical parameters of BPH and LUTS. If fibrosis and overall ECM deposition are

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Pullulan film incorporated with Artemisia sieberi essential oil

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    fatemeh hedayati rad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: A large number of non-recyclable packaging materials, which are harmful for the health of consumers, are produced all over the world. The Suggested solution is using films and coatings which are biodegradable in nature. Pullulan is a biopolymer that is produced by Aureobasidium pullulans and used in order to produce edible films. These edible films could contain antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The primary aim of this study is to produce edible blended films that form pullulan whit Artemisia sieberi essential oil and the secondary goal is to investigate the antimicrobial attributes of the obtained film. Materials and Methods: The Essential oil of Artemisia sieberi was added to the solution of pullulan films in seven concentrations. Then, the antimicrobial attributes were determined with the dick diffusion method. Finally, minimal inhibitory concentration was calculated for each microbe. The SAS program (Version 9.1 was used for the completely randomized design of data analyses. Results: It is possible to produce pullulan film containing Artemisia sieberi essential oil. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus had maximum and minimum resistance towards the antimicrobial attributes of Artemisia sieberi essential oil, respectively. MIC of Artemisia sieberi essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Escherichia coli were respectively obtained at 15%, 10% and 15%. Conclusion: Due to the possibility of the production of biodegradable films with the addition of natural antimicrobial agents such as essential oils it can be concluded that it is appropriate to use these materials in order to decrease microbial load and increase the shelf life of foods.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of some representatives of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium (genus Artemisia, Asteraceae

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    Vallès, J.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular cytogenetic study has been performed in three species of the genus Artemisia, complementing previous works on two subgenera that had been scarcely studied from this standpoint, Artemisia ( A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris and Absinthium ( A. absinthium. Chromomycin A3 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI banding have been carried out, as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal DNA. Morphometrical data of karyotype characters were calculated and idiograms with the position of the AT- and GC-rich regions as well as rDNA loci were constructed. Colocalization of most of these regions has been observed, confirming previous findings in this genus. Both ribosomal DNA appear always colocalized, which is a distinct feature with respect to most angiosperms surveyed. Regarding the differential characteristics of each species, a symmetrical karyotype has been found in the species studied. Artemisia absinthium shows long chromosomes and absence of centromeric banding signals that, conversely, are absent in A. vulgaris andA. chamaemelifolia. The last species also presents B-chromosomes in which ribosomal DNA and heterochromatin have been detected. Despite these differences, karyotype morphology and signal pattern of the three species are quite coincidental. This might reflect a close phylogenetic relationship between both subgenera, which is consistent with the available molecular phylogenies presenting species of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium intermixed.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio citogenético molecular en tres especies del género Artemisia, que complementa trabajos previos sobre dos subgéneros que han sido poco estudiados desde este punto de vista, Artemisia (A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris y Absinthium (A. absinthium. Se han efectuado tinciones de bandeo con cromomicina A3

  6. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of sevenArtemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Mohabatkar; Mandana Behbahani; Mohammad Reza Rahimi Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of sevenArtemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) toxicity andHIV-1 replication. Methods:The studiedArtemisia species wereArtemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi andArtemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts onHIV-1 replication andCD4 expression was performed byHIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increasedPBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency ofCD4 expression inPBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect onHIV-1 replication. Conclusions:In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts ofArtemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  7. Mensurating the Antiseptic Activity of Extracts from Artemisia annua L. to Mold with the Filter Paper Method%滤纸片法测定黄花蒿提取物对霉菌的抑制活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳; 王莹; 张峰; 王付丽

    2009-01-01

    应用滤纸片法测定了黄花蒿对霉菌的抑制活性.结果表明,黄花蒿提取物浓度为50mg·mL-1时对霉菌具有较强的抑制活性,抑菌圈直径为10~15mm,其对霉菌的最小抑制浓度为9~12 mg·mL-1.

  8. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-10-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  9. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

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    Gulmira Özek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia argyi , A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, and A. olgensis (Asteraceae were collected in Far East Russia. Oils were hydrodistilled and simultaneously analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Main constituents were found as follows in Artemisia oils: selin-11-en-4 a -ol (18.0%, 1,8-cineole (14.2.0%, artemisia alcohol (12.9%, borneol (9.7% in A. argyi; camphor (31.2%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%, a -thujone (5.7% in A. feddei; longiverbenone (12.0%, isopinocamphone (8.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, camphor (5.8%, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (5.3% in A. gmelinii; germacrene D (11.2%, rosifoliol (10.1%, caryophyllene oxide (6.8%, eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (5.6% in A. manshurica; eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (6.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.6%, guaia-6,10(14-dien-4 b -ol (5.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.0% in A. olgensis. Oils were subsequently submitted for antifungal and antimosquito evaluations. Artemisia species oils showed biting deterrent effects in Aedes aegypti and Artemisia gmelinii oil with the most active biting deterrence index values of 0.82 ± 0.1 at 10 m g/mL. Larval bioassay of A. gmelinii and A. olgensis oils showed higher larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LD50 values of 83.8 (72.6 – 95.7 ppm and 91.0 (73.8 – 114.5 ppm, respectively. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using direct overlay bioautography assay and all showed non-selective weak antifungal activity. Antioxidant evaluations of the oils were performed by using b -carotene bleaching, Trolox equivalent and DPPH tests. The tested Artemisia oils demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity.

  10. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  11. Computer-aided identification of prostatic adenocarcinoma: Segmentation of glandular structures

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    Yahui Peng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of individual prostatic glandular structures is an important prerequisite to quantitative histological analysis of prostate cancer with the aid of a computer. We have developed a computer method to segment individual glandular units and to extract quantitative image features, for computer identification of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Two sets of digital histology images were used: database I (n = 57 for developing and testing the computer technique, and database II (n = 116 for independent validation. The segmentation technique was based on a k-means clustering and a region-growing method. Computer segmentation results were evaluated subjectively and also compared quantitatively against manual gland outlines, using the Jaccard similarity measure. Quantitative features that were extracted from the computer segmentation results include average gland size, spatial gland density, and average gland circularity. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA was used to combine quantitative image features. Classification performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis and the area under the ROC curve (AUC. Results: Jaccard similarity coefficients between computer segmentation and manual outlines of individual glands were between 0.63 and 0.72 for non-cancer and between 0.48 and 0.54 for malignant glands, respectively, similar to an interobserver agreement of 0.79 for non-cancer and 0.75 for malignant glands, respectively. The AUC value for the features of average gland size and gland density combined via LDA was 0.91 for database I and 0.96 for database II. Conclusions: Using a computer, we are able to delineate individual prostatic glands automatically and identify prostatic adenocarcinoma accurately, based on the quantitative image features extracted from computer-segmented glandular structures.

  12. Rescue of glandular dysmorphogenesis in PTEN-deficient colorectal cancer epithelium by PPARγ-targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, I; Fatehullah, A; Deevi, R K; Bingham, V; Campbell, F C

    2013-03-07

    Disruption of glandular architecture associates with poor clinical outcome in high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) regulates morphogenic growth of benign MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cells through effects on the Rho-like GTPase cdc42 (cell division cycle 42). This study investigates PTEN-dependent morphogenesis in a CRC model. Stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of PTEN in Caco-2 cells influenced expression or localization of cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors and inhibited cdc42 activation. Parental Caco-2 cells formed regular hollow gland-like structures (glands) with a single central lumen, in three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Conversely, PTEN-deficient Caco-2 ShPTEN cells formed irregular glands with multiple abnormal lumens as well as intra- and/or intercellular vacuoles evocative of the high-grade CRC phenotype. Effects of targeted treatment were investigated. Phosphatidinylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) modulating treatment did not affect gland morphogenesis but did influence gland number, gland size and/or cell size within glands. As PTEN may be regulated by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), cultures were treated with the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone. This treatment enhanced PTEN expression, cdc42 activation and rescued dysmorphogenesis by restoring single lumen formation in Caco-2 ShPTEN glands. Rosiglitazone effects on cdc42 activation and Caco-2 ShPTEN gland development were attenuated by cotreatment with GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist. Taken together, these studies show PTEN-cdc42 regulation of lumen formation in a 3D model of human CRC glandular morphogenesis. Treatment by the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone, but not PI3K modulators, rescued colorectal glandular dysmorphogenesis of PTEN deficiency.

  13. Epithelial cell proliferation and glandular atrophy in lymphocytic gastritis: Effect of H pylori treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanna M. Makinen; Seppo Niemela; Tuomo Kerola; Juhani Lehtola; Tuomo J. Karttunen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Lymphocytic gastritis is commonly ass ociated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The presence of glandular atrophy and foveolar hyperplasia in lymphocytic gastritis suggests abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation,forming a potential link with the suspected association with gastric cancer. Our aim was to compare epithelial cell proliferation and morphology in H pylori associated lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori gastritis without features of lymphocytic gastritis,and to evaluate the effect of H pylori treatment.METHODS: We studied 14 lymphocytic gastritis patients with H pylori infection. For controls, we selected 14 matched dyspeptic patients participating in another treatment trial whose H pylori infection had successfully been eradicated.Both groups were treated with a triple therapy and followed up with biopsies for 6-18 months (patients) or 3 months (controls). Blinded evaluation for histopathological features was carried out. To determine the cell proliferation index,the sections were labeled with Ki-67 antibody.RESULTS: Before treatment, lymphocytic gastritis was characterized by foveolar hyperplasia (P=0.001) and glandular atrophy in the body (P=0.008), and increased proliferation in both the body (P=0.001) and antrum (P=0.002). Proliferation correlated with foveolar hyperplasia and inflammation activity. After eradication therapy, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes decreased in the body (P=0.004)and antrum (P=0.065), remaining higher than in controls (P<0.001). Simultaneously, the proliferation index decreased in the body from 0.38 to 0.15 (P=0.043), and in the antrum from 0.34 to 0.20 (P=0.069), the antral index still being higher in lymphocytic gastritis than in controls (P=0.010).Foveolar hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in the body improved (P=0.021), reaching the non-LG level.CONCLUSION: In lymphocytic gastritis, excessive epithelial cell proliferation is predominantly present in the body, where it associates with

  14. Phytochemical investigation on Artemisia dracunculus L. due to its introduction in the Ukrainian Polissya

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    Iryna V. Ivashchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 15 components in etheric oil of Artemisia dracunculus plants has been determined by the method of gas and liquid chromatography. The main component appeared to be methyleugenol (94.65%. Using highly effective method of liquid chromatography, we have discovered 31 phenolic compounds in the grass of linear-leaved wormwood. Within the discovered compounds, four substances have been identified as follows: rutin, luteolin‑7‑glycoside, apigenin‑7‑glycoside and isochlorogenic acid.

  15. Method for extracting bioinsecticide deriv atives from the plant artemisia absinthium L

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Urieta Navarro, José Antonio; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Díaz, Carmen E.; Fraga González, Manuel; Reina, Matías; Cabrera, Raimundo; Martínez Díaz, Rafael; Mainar Fernández, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for the extraction of bioinsecticide derivatives from the plant Artemisia absinthimn L, characterised by agronomic and economic parameters relating to the organic production ofthe plant with a specific chemotype in order to produce organic extracts consisting of essential oil and a non-volatile extract, and in another phase supercritical extracts of characterised chemical composition, obtained with pressurised CO2 as the main solvent. The main industr...

  16. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium on appetite in male rats

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    Sara Baghban Taraghdari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05 differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05. So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Conclusion: Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant.

  17. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

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    Ji Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF-κB and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies.

  18. INDUCTION OF GASTRIC INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA OF GLANDULAR STOMACH OF MONGOLIAN GERBILS BY ELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Pin; GU Lian-kun; ZHOU Jing; WANG Ru-ming; ZHAO Zi-hou; DENG Da-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To setup an animal model of gastric carcinogenesis by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) for basic, prevention and therapeutic research of Hp-related diseases. Methods: 22 young male Mongolian gerbils were administrated with suspension of Hp strain TN2 by intragastric gavage for 5 consecutive times (4×108 CFU/time, 1 time/4 days). 10 male gerbils were used as negative control. Two infected gerbils were killed at 10, 20, and 30 weeks, respectively, after inoculation to monitor the development of gastric lesions. Other animals were killed at 40 experimental weeks.Pathological changes of glandular stomach were examined histologically. Results: Gastric intraepithelial neoplasias (GIN) and low-grade dysplasias were observed only in the pyloric antrum of Hp-treated gerbils (3 and 2 ones,respectively), but not in control group (5/13 vs. 0/10, P<0.04). High incidence of chronic active gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis were observed in Hp-treated animals (10/13, 76.9%). Low incidence of chronic atrophic gastritis was also detected in negative control gerbils (3/10, 30%; P<0.04). Conclusion: Hp inoculation could induce chronic inflammation and malignant lesions of the glandular stomach of Mongolian gerbils conveniently.

  19. Comparison of polyphenol oxidase expression in glandular trichomes of solanum and lycopersicon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H; Kowalski, S P; Steffens, J C

    1992-12-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble M(r) 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the M(r) 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the M(r) 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiM(r) 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed.

  20. A polynomial hyperelastic model for the mixture of fat and glandular tissue in female breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Gallego, Jose L; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    In the breast of adult women, glandular and fat tissues are intermingled and cannot be clearly distinguished. This work studies if this mixture can be treated as a homogenized tissue. A mechanical model is proposed for the mixture of tissues as a function of the fat content. Different distributions of individual tissues and geometries have been tried to verify the validity of the mixture model. A multiscale modelling approach was applied in a finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) of tissue, formed by randomly assigning fat or glandular elements to the mesh. Both types of tissues have been assumed as isotropic, quasi-incompressible hyperelastic materials, modelled with a polynomial strain energy function, like the homogenized model. The RVE was subjected to several load cases from which the constants of the polynomial function of the homogenized tissue were fitted in the least squares sense. The results confirm that the fat volume ratio is a key factor in determining the properties of the homogenized tissue, but the spatial distribution of fat is not so important. Finally, a simplified model of a breast was developed to check the validity of the homogenized model in a geometry similar to the actual one.

  1. Biological activity of acyl glucose esters from Datura wrightii glandular trichomes against three native insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, J Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Datura wrightii is dimorphic for leaf trichome type in southern California. "Sticky" plants produce glandular trichomes that secrete acylsugars, whereas velvety plants produce nonglandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes confer resistance to some potential insect herbivores and are associated with reduced feeding in the field by two native coleopteran herbivores: the tobacco flea beetle, Epitrix hirtipennis, and a weevil, Trichobaris compacta. In contrast, another native beetle, Lema daturaphila, damages sticky and velvety plants similarly in the field. A series of choice and no-choice "ester removal" and "ester addition" feeding experiments were performed in the laboratory to evaluate the role of acylsugars in feeding by all three insect species. Consumption of sticky leaves after their esters were removed by washing was compared to consumption of unwashed sticky leaves and velvety leaves in ester removal experiments. Consumption of velvety leaves was measured after acylsugars were applied to those leaves in controlled amounts in the ester addition experiments. Consumption by E. hirtipennis was reduced by acylsugars in all experiments. Consumption by T. compacta was reduced by acylsugars in the ester removal experiments, but not in the ester addition experiments. The location of the acylsugars at the tip of a long trichome, rather than simply on the leaf surface, may be an important component of the biological activity of acylsugars against T. compacta in nature. Consumption by L. daturaphila was not significantly reduced by acylsugars in any experiment. The acylsugars caused no significant mortality of any of the three insect species.

  2. Glandular epithelium as a possible source of a fertility signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-04-19

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed.

  3. Cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. A comparative morphological analysis of the entire glandular tree of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnelli, R; Squartini, F

    1989-01-01

    Cancerous and clinically normal autopsy obtained breasts were collected in order to compare the physiopathological profile of both types of glandular tree. Each breast was visualized by whole thin sections and observed under a stereomicroscope with removal of the more interesting changes for histology. The comparison was made between 67 atrophic cancerous breasts and 88 atrophic control breasts. The results were as follows: 25% of the cancerous breasts versus 47% of control breasts showed no changes, atypical lobules, microfoci of "in situ" and/or infiltrating cancer were present in 46% of cancerous breasts and in 16% of control breasts, showing a significant correlation with clinical cancer. All other types of functional and proliferative changes, variously associated each other, were found in 29% of cancerous and in 37% of control breasts. Our morphological data agree completely with the statements in follow-up studies carried out on benign breast biopsies. The significant differences in the physiopathological profile of the glandular tree between "normal" and cancerous breasts, confirms that some changes are causally related to clinical cancer.

  4. Nationwide survey of glandular tissue dose for establishment of breast cancer screening using mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Tsuguhisa; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences (Japan); Higashida, Yoshiharu [and others

    1999-06-01

    A nationwide survey was performed in an attempt to investigate the distribution of average glandular doses caused by mammography for breast cancer mass screening, and to utilize the data to determine the national guidance level for mammography. A phantom equivalent to a breast with a compressed thickness of 42 mm, and glass radio-photo luminescence dosimeters were sent to 104 institutions and facilities. The dosimeters were exposed using a method based on the protocols described in the Mammography Quality Control Manual. The returned dosimeters were then analyzed, and the beam qualities and the entrance surface exposure were determined. Using these values, the average glandular doses were estimated with an accuracy of {+-}8%. The doses ranged from 0.5 to 3.7 mGy. The mean dose and the standard deviation were 1.48 mGy and 0.52 mGy, respectively. In 91 facilities, the doses were less than 2 mGy. Regarding the technical factors for facilities which presented doses of 2 mGy or over, it seemed that the doses could be easily reduced to less than 2 mGy if the settings of the auto exposure controller (AEC), anti-scatter grid and/or the film-screen system were optimized. (author)

  5. Cytotoxicity of Dorema auchri, Achillea millefolium and Artemisia aucheri by Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghavamizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Nowadays, toxic compounds derived from plants used against microbes and cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of Dorema aucheri, Achillea millefollium and Artemisia aucheri using brine shrimp, Artemia urmiana, lethality test. Methods: In this experimental study, the plants were collected from the Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, then identified by a botanist. Clean and air-dried aerial parts of plants were extracted with suitable solvents. Cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using larvae hatched cysts were purchased from Urmia. Live larvae were exposed to different concentrations of extract and the numbers of live and dead larvae were counted after 24 hours. Mean of LC 50 of any extracts from control and exposed live larvae were examined. The data were analyzed using the Finney’s Probit analysis. Results: Hydro ethanol and chloroform extracts of Achillea millefolium, Dorema aucheri and Artemisia aucheri exhibited potent brine shrimp lethality with LC50 67.8±0.53μg.ml-1, 76.50±0.60μg.ml-1, 92.70±6.05μg.ml-1 respectively. The degree of lethality was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of extracts. Conclusion: According to BSLT, LC50 of D. aucheri, A. millefolium and A. aucheri, they were considered as toxic. So these plants could be a source of new compounds with biological activity. Key words: Artemia urmiana, Dorema auchri, Achillea millefolium, Artemisia aucheri, Cytotoxicity

  6. The field study of the mammography in Fukuoka prefecture. Second report. Investigation of glandular tissue dose and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Kaoru; Nakahara, Hiroko [Social Insurance Kurume Daiichi Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Isamu [Hakuaikai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The research of the glandular tissue dose and image quality of the mammography in Fukuoka prefecture was performed from April to October 2000 at 50 mammography sites. Effects of the technical parameters, such as screen-film combinations, antiscatter grids, processing conditions, x-ray beam qualities, on the average glandular tissue dose and image quality were analyzed under two exposure conditions: The standard radiographic condition for a RMI156 phantom in each facility (Standard Radiographic Condition). The radiographic condition for obtaining the radiographic density of 1.40{+-}0.15 with RMI156 phantom (Canonical Radiographic Condition). In the investigation in Fukuoka prefecture, facilities of 3 mGy or less at the average mammary gland dosage were 98%. In the meantime, image quality of 54% facilities was insufficient. Analysis of technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose and image quality will be useful for the establishment of breast cancer screening system using mammography. (author)

  7. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and extent of the disease are features of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdücü, Nilgün; Sidar, Güliz; Başsüllü, Nuray; Türkmen, Ilknur; Dünder, Ilkkan

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the rate of endocervical glandular involvement, positive surgical margins, multicentricity, and disease extent between low-grade and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Pathology medical records of patients who underwent LEEP were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with negative LEEP results were excluded. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure reports of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, 2, and 3 were compared. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with CIN 1 (n=24), CIN 2 (n=27), and CIN 3 (n=64) when age and surgical margin positivity were considered. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and disease extent were higher in patients with CIN 3 (P=.001, P=.002, and P=.001, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend that patients with endocervical glandular involvement, lesions involving more than two-thirds of the LEEP specimen, and multicentricity be followed up more closely.

  8. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  9. 艾叶油驱蚊乳液的制备%Preparation of artemisia oil emulsion for mosquito repellent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    化丹丹; 刁水华; 谢洪德; 蒋耀兴

    2014-01-01

    以艾叶油为原料,复合表面活性剂为乳化剂,利用相转化法制备了艾叶油乳液。研究了乳化工艺对乳液粒径及其分布的影响,采用扫描电镜对乳液形貌进行了表征,并测定了乳液整理锦纶袜子的驱蚊效果。结果显示,艾叶油驱蚊乳液最佳制备工艺为:乳化剂HLB值8,乳化剂质量分数3%,艾叶油质量分数18%,剪切时间8 min;电镜观察显示,艾叶油乳液粒径较小且分布均匀;整理锦纶丝袜具有良好的驱蚊效果。%The artemisia oil emulsion was prepared by the phase transformation method with artemisia oil as raw material and compound surfactant as emulsifier. The effects of emulsification process on particle size and its distribution of emulsion were investigated. The morphology of artemisia oil emulsion was characterized by SEM, and the effect of the nylon socks finished with artemisia oil emulsion was measured. The results showed that the optimal emulsion process was as fol ows: HLB value of compound emulsifier was 8, mass fraction of emulsifier was 3%, mass fraction of artemisia oil was 18%, and shearing time was 8 min. The SEM photos showed that particle size of artemisia oil emulsion was smal and its distribution was uniformity. The nylon socks finished by artemisia oil emulsion had good mosquito repel ent effect.

  10. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  11. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro.

  12. Mammography equipment performance, image quality and mean glandular dose in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M; Badr, I; Royle, G J

    2013-09-01

    In this first Maltese national mammography survey, the effectiveness of direct digital (DR) mammography in breast cancer screening has been confirmed. Patient data were made available from three clinics out of the participating nine. A dose survey of mean glandular dose (MGD) calculated for 759 patients examined in the state-owned mammography facilities was performed. An MGD national diagnostic reference level was set at 1.87 mGy for patients with breast compression thicknesses (BCT) between 5.0 and 7.0 cm. This range was selected since patient data were retrieved from three clinics only and the results showed that other international BCT reference levels may be unsuitable for the Maltese population. In fact, the overall average BCT was 5.75 ± 1.4 cm. The survey results have shown that the technical standard of mammographic equipment in the Malta National Breast Screening Programme is on a par with other countries, including its Western European counterparts.

  13. Chemistry of fruit flies: Glandular secretion ofBactrocera (Polistomimetes) visenda (Hardy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, S; Fletcher, M T; Kitching, W; Moore, C J; Drew, R A; Francke, W

    1992-12-01

    The major component (>90% of volatiles) of the male rectal glandular extract of the nonpest speciesBactrocera visenda (Hardy) is 3-methyl2-butenyl acetate, with minor components being the isomeric 3-methyl-3-butenyl acetate, the homologous esters, 3-methyl-2-butenyl propanoate and 3-methyl-2-butenyl formate, along with 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butenal, and 3-methylbutyl acetate. None of these compounds has been identified previously from aBactrocera species, supporting the view thatBactrocera visenda is taxonomically distant from otherBactrocera species identified from the Australian mainland. This collection of compounds adds to the known types utilized by dipteran species and emphasizes their extensive biosynthetic capability.

  14. Endometrial stromal sarcoma with smooth muscle and glandular differentiation of the feline uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Maeda, H; Suzuki, A; Shibuya, H; Sakata, A; Shirai, W

    2007-05-01

    The intra-abdominal tumor developing in the uterus and lung of a domestic Shorthair cat was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The tumor showed a proliferation of both endometrial stromal and smooth muscle cells accompanied by prominent vasculature. There were well-differentiated endometrial glands, and tubuli made up a monolayer of eosinophilic cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, the spindle-shaped cells and half of the stromal-like cells reacted to caldesmon and desmin antibodies. The neoplastic epithelium expressed AE1/AE3 cytokeratin. Feline endometrial stromal tumor has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported previously and has smooth muscle and glandular components that are a unique variant to the human counterpart.

  15. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. Here...... we show that in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) secretions of the male accessory glands, the major contributors towards seminal fluid, enhance sperm survival. We further demonstrate that the protein fraction of the male accessory gland secretion is indeed important for achieving the maximal effect...... on sperm survival. After sperm storage, the queens also provide sperm with secretions from spermathecal glands and we show that these secretions have a comparable positive effect on sperm viability. SDS gels show that the proteomic profiles of accessory gland secretion and spermathecal fluid secretion...

  16. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Streuli, Charles H

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a crucial role in determining the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and the formation of lumens in glandular tissues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. By using Cre–Lox deletion we show that β1 integrins are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and lumen formation, both in vivo and in a three-dimensional primary culture model in which epithelial cells directly contact a basement membrane. Downstream of basement membrane β1 integrins, Rac1 is not involved; however, ILK is needed to polarize microtubule plus ends at the basolateral membrane and disrupting each of these components prevents lumen formation. The integrin–microtubule axis is necessary for the endocytic removal of apical proteins from the basement-membrane–cell interface and for internal Golgi positioning. We propose that this integrin signalling network controls the delivery of apical components to the correct surface and thereby governs the orientation of polarity and development of lumens.

  17. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    : 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared...... to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority......Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...

  18. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  19. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  20. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  1. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  2. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore. PMID:27556560

  3. 茵陈酸奶的工艺研究%Study on the Technology of Herba Artemisiae Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪清美; 刘敏杰; 杨海军; 徐倩

    2015-01-01

    With fresh milk and Herba Artemisiae as main raw materials, on the basis of single factor experiments, studied from the adding amount of sucrose,fresh milk and Herba artemisiae juice,and decided the optimum process paraemeters.The optimal parameters are:the Herba artemisiae juice amount is 5%,sugar mount is 6%,and fresh milk amount is 90%.%以鲜乳和茵陈为主要原料,在单因素试验的基础上,从蔗糖添加量、鲜乳添加量和茵陈汁添加量三方面进行优化,确定茵陈酸奶最佳工艺参数:茵陈汁添加量5%,蔗糖添加量6%,鲜乳添加量90%。

  4. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  5. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Murine Model by Hydro Alcoholic Essence of Artemisia sieberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Doroodgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the prevalence of leishmaniasis in Iran and many side effects associated with pentavalent antimony compounds use in its treatment, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of Artemisia sieberi essence on the experimental ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis on BALB/c mice."nMethods: This experimental research was performed to determine the effect of various concentrations of  Artemisia essence in BALB/c mice previously infected with active Leishmania major promastigote. A total of 50 infected BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. Three groups (30 mice were used in the experimental condi­tions and the others were assigned as the control groups. The experimental groups received 1%, 3% and 5% of Ar­temisia, respectively. One of the control groups received ethanol 80% and the other received no treatment. The drug was administered by dropping the liquid on the top lesions, three times daily for maximum of 30 d. Every 10 days the ulcers diameter were measured and sampled for amastigote in all groups. Ulcers diameter changes were deter­mined by statistical tests."nResults: After 30 days, diameter of CL lesions increased in 1%, 3% and 5% Artemisia concentrations and the control groups. Ulcers got bigger with the more concentration. Treatments could not reduce the diameter or caused small lesions. In addition, the mice direct smears in microscopic studies were positive."nConclusion: To find the effective concentration and the mechanism of the effectiveness of the drug, further investi­gations with less concentrates of A. sieberi essence are recommended.

  6. Origen del polen de "artemisia" en la atmósfera de Extremadura "so España"

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Origen del polen de Artemisia en la atmósfera de Extremadura (SO España). Mediante tres captadores volumétricos de tipo Hirst se ha podido conocer la concentración de granos de polen de Artemisia en Extremadura entre 1993 y 1998 para Badajoz y entre 1996 y 1998 para Cáceres y Mérida. Su presencia es muy esporádica y la cantidad reducida, aparece centrada fundamentalmente entre agosto y noviembre, aunque se detectan también en menor cantidad entre enero y marzo, la cantidad encontrada nunca ll...

  7. [Responses of spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population to the precipitation gradient on Ordos Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-shuang; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fei; Lai, Li-ming; Zhang, Li; Li, Wen-ting; Bai, Hua; Zheng, Yuan-run

    2009-09-01

    Five sites along the precipitation gradient (336-249 mm x a(-1)) from east to west in Ordos Plateau were selected to study the spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population and its responses to the precipitation gradient by the methods of variance mean ratio, aggregative index, and point pattern analysis. The reduction of precipitation affected the spatial distribution pattern of A. ordosica population significantly. With decreasing precipitation gradient, the spatial pattern of A. ordosica population changed from uniform to random in small scale, and from random to clumpy in large scale, suggesting that in the ecological restoration of Ordos Plateau, a rational arrangement of A. ordosica should be made.

  8. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Zant; Daniel; A.Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia austeralis(A.australis),a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A.australis was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement Results:The major chemical components of A.australis include eucalyptol.borneol,and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  9. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Zant; Daniel A. Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia australis (A. australis), a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A. australis was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement.Results:The major chemical components of A. australis include eucalyptol, borneol, and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  10. Procedimiento de extracción de derivados bioinsecticidas de la planta Artemisia absinthium L

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Urieta Navarro, José Antonio; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Díaz, Carmen E.; Fraga González, Manuel; Reina, Matías; Cabrera, Raimundo; Martínez Díaz, Rafael; Mainar Fernández, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    Procedimiento de extracción de derivados bioinsecticidas de la planta Artemisia absinthium L, caracterizado por unos parámetros agronómicos y económicos de producción orgánica de la planta con un quimiotipo específico con el fin de producir extractos orgánicos consistentes en aceite esencial y extracto no volátil, y en otra fase extractos supercríticos de composición química caracterizada, obtenidos con CO2 a presión como disolvente mayoritario, siendo las principales ...

  11. Procedimiento de extracción de derivados bioinsecticidas de la planta Artemisia Absinthium L.

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Urieta Navarro, José Antonio; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Fraga González, Manuel; Reina, Matías; Cabrera, Raimundo; Martínez Díaz, Rafael; Mainar Fernández, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    Procedimiento de extracción de derivados bioinsecticidas de la planta Artemisia absinthium L., caracterizado por unos parámetros agronómicos y económicos de producción orgánica de la planta con un quimiotipo específico con el fin de producir extractos orgánicos consistentes en aceite esencial y extracto no volátil, y en otra fase extractos supercríticos de composición química caracterizada, obtenidos con CO2 a presión como disolvente mayoritario, siendo las principales aplicaciones industrial...

  12. Células glandulares atípicas em esfregaços cervicovaginais: significância e aspectos atuais Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: significance and current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bittencourt Campaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Células glandulares atípicas (AGC em esfregaços cervicovaginais são achados citológicos raros, porém de significado representativo. Sua incidência varia, na literatura, de 0,08% a 0,81%. O sistema Bethesda de 2001 classifica estas lesões glandulares como AGCs sem outras especificações, AGCs provavelmente neoplásicas, adenocarcinoma cervical in situ (AIS e adenocarcinoma invasivo. Das mulheres portadoras de AGC, grande parte não apresentará qualquer tipo de alteração histológica em avaliação subseqüente. Entretanto, em 17,4% a 62,2% dos casos serão encontradas lesões histológicas significativas, como neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais, AIS, neoplasias escamosas e glandulares, cervicais e endometriais, bem como neoplasias de outras localizações. O risco de doença significativa está relacionado à subdivisão de AGC encontrada. Em virtude da elevada probabilidade de anormalidades histológicas significativas em casos de AGC, a simples repetição citológica é insuficiente para o seguimento dessa condição. Esta atualização descreve a epidemiologia, a avaliação e a conduta das pacientes portadoras dessa anormalidade citológica.Atypical glandular cells (AGC on cervical smears are unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The incidence of AGC ranges from 0.08% to 0.81 % of all cervical smears tests. The 2001 Bethesda System nomenclature classifies these glandular lesions as AGC not otherwise specified, AGC favor neoplasia, endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma. Of women with AGC smears, a great number will have no histologic abnormalities on further evaluation. However, 17.4% to 62.2% are found to have significant histologic lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, AIS, squamous and glandular cancers from sites farther the cervix and endometrium. The risk of significant disease is related to the AGC subclassification that was found. Because of the high likelihood that AGC

  13. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    realiza mediante la biopsia de cono, y el espécimen debe tener márgenes negativos para enfermedad. La histerectomía es un tratamiento probable, a menos que la fertilidad esté siendo buscada. La escisión, particularmente por electrocirugía (loop, puede interferir con la interpretación histológica en algunos casos o de ambos, particularmente en enfermedades escamosas y adenocarcinoma in situ. En este artículo se describe ampliamente el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial escamosa y glandular.

  14. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch.

  15. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  16. Compositional Characters and Antimicrobial Potential of Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Manika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological investigations were carried out to evaluate the composition and anti-microbial potential of a rare Artemisia species viz. Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. essential oil for the first time. GC and GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27 compounds, which constituted 93.2% volatile constituents of the oil. The major constituents were capillene (41.6%, spathulenol (14.6% and β-caryophyllene (13.4%. The oil was also assayed to determine its antimicrobial potential against eight bacterial and six fungal strains. The oil exhibited both antifungal and antibacterial activities. Among bacteria, the oil was most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC 0.625 mg/mL followed by Staphylococcu. Aureus (MIC 1.25 mg/mL . While among fungi, the oil was most effective against Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Sporothrix schenckii with MIC as low as 0.625 mg/mL.

  17. QUERCETIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARMENIAN CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA, PLANTAGO MAJOR AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM PLANTS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardapetyan H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study in vitro antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of Armenian plants Crataegus laevigata, Plantago major and Artemisia absinthium was investigated by DPPH stable radical chemical model with simultaneous monitoring of the total flavonoids and selected polyphenolic compounds content. Experimental results indicates that ethanolic extract of Crataegus laevigata exhibit the highest radical scavenging activity in neutralization of DPPH with an IC50 value of 12.5 ± 0.08 µl, while the lowest activity was reported in Plantago major extract (IC50 = 45 ± 0.1 µl and IC50 of Artemisia absinthium extract was 35 ± 0.1 µl. Present study also demonstrates a possible relationship between quercetin content and antioxidant activity of extracts. Crataegus laevigata ethanoic extract showed highest antiradical potential as well as the highest concentration of quercetin (7.47 ± 0.2 µg/ml and it can be proposed as a potential sources of natural antioxidants and bioactive phytopharmaceuticals.

  18. Insect communities on experimental mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) plots along an urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, C; Schmidt, Holger

    1998-01-01

    We studied the ability of insect herbivores and their natural enemies to colonize exposed, potted mugwort plants (Artemisia vulgaris L.) along a rural-urban gradient in 1994 in Hamburg (northern Germany). Ectophagous insects, leafmines and galls were monitored weekly from mid-May to mid-September. Endophagous insects were counted by harvesting and dissecting the stems at the end of the growing season. The rural-urban gradient was characterized by a gradient of vegetation-free areas and increasing proportion of ground covered in concrete, tarmac, paving and other impermeable surfaces surrounding the Artemisia plots, i.e. six different zones of increasing isolation. Numbers of insect species (herbivores, parasitoids and predators) decreased along the gradient from 43 to 12. Monophagous herbivores were not more affected than polyphagous herbivores, but parasitoids, especially rare species, were more strongly affected by isolation than predators. Some dominant herbivorous species were very successful colonizers and occurred in inner city sites devoid of all natural vegetation. Sometimes their abundance increased in the inner city to significantly higher densities than in the urban fringe. Isolation appeared to be the main reason for the observed patterns, since area and soil conditions were held constant in the experiment. Microclimate and pollution were considered to play a minor role.

  19. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rasool; B.A.Ganai; S.Akbar; A.N.Kamili

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Artemisia amygdalina Decne.(Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan.Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia.The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day.This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A.amygdalina.METHODS:In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium.Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays:DPPH assay,riboflavin photo-oxidation assay,deoxy ribose assay,ferric thiocyanate assay,thiobarbituric acid assay,post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel.RESULTS:In vitro grown plants,as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl,superoxide,and lipid peroxyl radicals.CONCLUSION:This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A.amydalina.

  20. Pharmacological effects of ethanol extract of Egyptian Artemisia herba-alba in rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heba Mohammed Ibrahim Abdallah; Nawal E.L. Sayed Gomaa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate some pharmacological effects including gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and in vitro antioxidant effects of Artemisia herba-alba extract in different experimental models. Methods: Inflammation was induced in rat paw by subcutaneous injection of 1% (v/v) carrageenan solution. Writhes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6%(v/v) acetic acid solution. Pyrexia was induced using Brewer's yeast suspension. Gastric lesion was induced in rats by oral administration of 99% ethanol. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and gastroprotective activities of Artemisia herba-alba extract were investigated respectively. In vitro antioxidant effect was investigated using DPPH free radical. Results: The plant extract showed anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, analgesic effect against acetic acid-induced writhing, and antipyretic ac-tivity in Brewer's yeast model of pyrexia. Besides, it was shown to be a gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The plant also exhibited a free radical scavenging potential in an in vitro antioxidant study using DPPH. Conclusions: The results validate the use of the investigated plant in traditional medicine for different ailments.

  1. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yarahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci, is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm.

  2. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore Displays Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi; Wang, Yuan-Lai; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia anomala S. Moore has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory diseases for hundreds of years. However, mechanisms associated with its anti-inflammatory effect are not clear. In this study, we prepared ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, n-BuOH, and aqueous extracts from ethanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore. Comparing anti-inflammatory effects of these extracts, we found that ethyl acetate extract of this herb (EAFA) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS/IFN γ -stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA suppressed the production of NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner without eliciting cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying EAFA's anti-inflammatory effect, we showed that EAFA increased total cellular anti-oxidant capacity while reducing the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA also suppressed the expression of IL-1 β and IL-6, whereas it elevates the level of heme oxygenase-1. These EAFA-induced events were apparently associated with NF- κ B and MAPK signaling pathways because the DNA binding activity of p50/p65 was impaired and the activities of both ERK and JNK were decreased in EFEA-treated cells comparing to untreated cells. Our findings suggest that EAFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of iNOS.

  3. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore Displays Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia anomala S. Moore has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory diseases for hundreds of years. However, mechanisms associated with its anti-inflammatory effect are not clear. In this study, we prepared ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, n-BuOH, and aqueous extracts from ethanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore. Comparing anti-inflammatory effects of these extracts, we found that ethyl acetate extract of this herb (EAFA exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO production in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA suppressed the production of NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner without eliciting cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying EAFA’s anti-inflammatory effect, we showed that EAFA increased total cellular anti-oxidant capacity while reducing the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA also suppressed the expression of IL-1β and IL-6, whereas it elevates the level of heme oxygenase-1. These EAFA-induced events were apparently associated with NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways because the DNA binding activity of p50/p65 was impaired and the activities of both ERK and JNK were decreased in EFEA-treated cells comparing to untreated cells. Our findings suggest that EAFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of iNOS.

  4. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  5. Weeding atypical glandular cell look-alikes from the true atypical lesions in liquid-based Pap tests: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Moira D; Horst, Julie A; Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify features that separate atypical glandular cells (AGC) associated with glandular neoplasia from its mimickers, both benign and neoplastic. We reviewed cases of AGC diagnosed on liquid-based Pap tests (LBP) for which corresponding histological follow-up was available. A review of the literature for similar studies in LBP tests was also conducted. We find that certain benign mimics can be reliably separated from AGC, but recommend caution in attempting to increase specificity at the risk of losing sensitivity. Although accounting for only a small percentage of diagnoses AGC require a thorough clinical evaluation, including colposcopy. Most cases are ultimately found to be benign. When evaluating smears suspicious for AGC, it is important to examine the subtle features which make truly atypical cells discernible from their numerous benign mimickers.

  6. Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergau, Nick; Navarette Santos, Alexander; Henning, Anja; Balcke, Gerd U.; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. PMID:27446176

  7. Glandular Characteristics of the Stigma During the Development of Cucumis sativus Female Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGYi-Ben; BAIShu-Nong; XUZhi-Hong; LIYi-Qin

    2004-01-01

    The stigma initiation and development of Cucumis sativus L female flower was studied usingelectron microscopy. The differentiation of stigmatic cells could be recognized when the floral bud wasabout 1 mm in length. After the pinnate structure of the stigma appeared, three regions indicating thepapillae, the transmitting tissue and the secretory tissue were observed. The pinnate stigma wascharacterized as a partition structure for naming immature and mature stigma in the following investigation.The ultrastructure of various tissue cells of the stigma during the development was observed usingtransmission electron microscopy. Throughout the whole developmental process the cytoplasm of papillaeand secretory tissue cells was filled with many endoplasmic reticula (ER). Most of the ER was tube-like andrough with enlarged cisterna from which many vesicles were produced. |n the mature stigma, numbers ofplasmodesmata were found between the secretory and the transmitting tissue cells. The papillae andsecretory tissue cells are highly vacuolated and the plasmalemma was invaginated or exvaginated. Thenuclear envelope of secretory tissue cells was enlarged, which led to the formation of plurivalvis nucleusduring stigma development, Apparently, nuclear envelope became more strongly lamellate at mature stage.In different tissue cells of mature stigma, ATPase activity was localized along the plasmalemma andvacuole membrane. The PM-H*-ATPase specific activity increased during stigma deve{opment. Ourresults revealed the glandular characteristics of the developing stigma of cucumber female flowers.

  8. Glandular odontogenic cyst: review of literature and report of a new case with cytokeratin-19 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascitti, Marco; Santarelli, Andrea; Sabatucci, Antonio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Zizzi, Antonio; Rubini, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) was a rare jawbone cyst described in 1988 as a distinct entity. This lesion can involve either jaw, and the anterior region of the mandible was the most commonly affected area. Clinical and radiographic findings were not specific, and the diagnosis of GOC can be extremely difficult due to the rarity of this lesion. The cyst presented a wall constituted by fibrous connective tissue and was lined by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of variable thickness. Large areas of the lining epithelium presented cylinder cells, sometimes ciliated. A variable amount of mucina was occasionally noted. Due to the strong similarities, this cyst can be easily misdiag-nosed as a central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). Immunohistochemistry may be an aid in diagnosis; in fact has been demonstrated that there were differences in the expression of cytokeratins (CK) in GOC and CMEC. In this study, we reported a new case of GOC in a 38 year female patient. In addition, we carried out a review of 110 previous cases reported in literature.

  9. Bladder drainage and glandular epithelial morphometry of the prostate in benign prostatic hyperplasia with severe symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Cury

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Morphometrically analyze the cells nuclei of the basal layer of the prostatic glandular epithelium in 20 patients aged between 57 and 85 years presenting benign prostatic hyperplasia with severe symptoms, catheterized or not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with score of severe prostatic symptoms (with indication for transurethral resection of the prostate were distributed according to the presence or absence of bladder drainage previous to the surgery, in the treated group (n = 10, catheter during 3 months and in the control group (n = 10, without catheter. After obtaining prostate fragments through transurethral resection and the use of morphometric techniques, 100 nuclei of prostatic glands epithelium cells were studied (as to size and form, and compared to 500 nuclei from patients submitted to catheter drainage and 500 nuclei of non-catheterized patients. RESULTS: Significantly reduced values of the major, medium and minor nuclear diameters, volume, area and perimeter, contour index and nuclear volume-nuclear area ratio were observed in the treated group in relation to the control group. As to the form, eccentricity and coefficient of nuclear form, there were significant differences between treated and control groups. CONCLUSION: Long-term catheter bladder drainage in patients presenting benign prostatic hyperplasia with severe symptoms is associated to the reduction of morphometric parameters of the nuclei of prostatic glands’ epithelial cells, suggesting a likely decompressive duct effect.

  10. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research.

  11. A solitary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, Yoshiki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (mixed papilloma) of the lung is exceedingly rare, with only 18 cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of mixed papilloma and its associated immunohistochemical and positron emission tomographic (PET) findings. A 60-year-old Japanese male with a smoking history of 40 pack-years presented with a smooth-edged pulmonary lesion in the right S5 segment on computed tomography (CT). F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET revealed abnormally increased FDG uptake in the mass (maximum standardized uptake value, 3.4). We performed right middle lobectomy and combined partial resection of the S8 segment. The 1.8-cm tumor that filled the enlarged lumen of the B5b was histologically diagnosed as mixed papilloma. Immunohistochemically, the pseudostratified columnar epithelium was positive for cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and CK7. p40 positivity was predominant in the basal and squamous cells. Thyroid transcription factor-1 and carcinoembryonic antigen were negative on immunostaining. Malignant features were absent. The postoperative course has been uneventful for 3 months after the surgery. No recurrences were reported after the surgical resection of the mixed papilloma. Therefore, surgical resection may be considered the mainstay of curative treatment.

  12. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  13. Cistitis quística glandular presentada como cistopatía quística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Orlich-Castelán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 73 años, con historia de hematuria macroscópica de aparición reciente, con presencia de quistes en toda la extensión de la mucosa vesical, y con diagnóstico por biopsias de vejiga, de una cistitis glandular. Se habla de cistopatía quística cuando los quistes se encuentran difusamente en la vejiga, y frecuentemente coexiste con lipomatosis pélvica en pacientes obesas, como la que reportada aquí. Es considerada una lesión premaligna y por eso es importante un seguimiento cuidadoso con cistoscopias periódicas. La cistitis quística se presenta más frecuentemente en hombres y en personas de mayor edad. Macroscópicamente, se manifiesta con nódulos submucosos únicos o múltiples, y los hallazgos histológicos son la presencia de nidos uroteliales redondeados, con dilatación quística dentro de la lámina propia, y paralelos a la superficie urotelial.

  14. Activity of alkaline and acidic phosphatase in glandular cells of uterine endometrium of puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Valocky I.; Krajničakova Maria; Legath J.; Lenhardt L.; Ostro A.; Danko J.; Tkačikova L`udmila; Mojžišova Jana; Fialkovičova Maria; Mardzinova Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The study is focused on the observation of alkaline and acidic phosphatase activity in the glandular cells of uterine endometrium in puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Ewes of Slovak merino breed (n=25) divided into 2 groups were included in the experiment. The animals in the experimental group (n=14) and control group (n=11) were euthanised on day 17, 25 and 34 postpartum. The ewes in the experimental group were given per os capsules of the chemical preparation Delor...

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Allison L; Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Ford, Henri R; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  17. Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD): morphologically and biologically distinctive putative precursor lesions of Type II endometrial cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Wenxin; Fadare Oluwole

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this article, the authors briefly review the historical evolution of the various putative precursor lesions for Type II endometrial cancers, with an emphasis on the newly defined "Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD)". The evidentiary basis for delineating serous EmGD as the most probable precursor lesions to endometrial serous carcinoma is reviewed in detail. An argument is advanced for the discontinuation of the term serous "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC)" as a de...

  18. Notch signaling functions as a binary switch for the determination of glandular and luminal fates of endodermal epithelium during chicken stomach development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Kohyama, Jun; Okano, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Kimiko; Yasugi, Sadao

    2005-06-01

    During development of the chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), gut endoderm differentiates into glandular and luminal epithelium. We found that Delta1-expressing cells, undifferentiated cells and Notch-activated cells colocalize within the endodermal epithelium during early gland formation. Inhibition of Notch signaling using Numb or dominant-negative form of Su(H) resulted in a luminal differentiation, while forced activation of Notch signaling promoted the specification of immature glandular cells, but prevented the subsequent differentiation and the invagination of the glands. These results suggest that Delta1-mediated Notch signaling among endodermal cells functions as a binary switch for determination of glandular and luminal fates, and regulates patterned differentiation of glands in the chicken proventriculus.

  19. Genetics and biochemistry of collagen binding-triggered glandular differentiation in a human colon carcinoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignatelli, M.; Bodmer, W.F. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

    1988-08-01

    The authors have examined the interaction between collagen binding and epithelial differentiation by using a human colon carcinoma cell line (SW1222) that can differentiate structurally when grown in a three-dimensional collagen gel to form glandular structures. As much as 66% inhibition of glandular differentiation can be achieved by addition to the culture of a synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr (RGDT) sequence, which is a cell recognition site found in collagen. Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr also inhibited the cell attachment to collagen-coated plates. Chromosome 15 was found in all human-mouse hybrid clones that could differentiate in the collagen gel and bind collagen. Both binding to collagen and glandular differentiation of the hybrid cells were also inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr as for the parent cell line SW1222. The ability of SW1222 cells to express the differentiated phenotype appears, therefore, to be determined by an Arg-Gly-Asp-directed collagen receptor on the cell surface that is controlled by a gene on chromosome 15.

  20. 黄蒿的青贮特性研究%Studies on Artemisia scoparia Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia adding additive and without additive were used to study the silage quality.The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages were good in silage without adding additive and in silage adding additive,the score were 16 and 17, respectively.The pH value of silage without adding additive and silage adding additive were 5.09 and 4.26, respectively.The silage with additive increased the contents of lactic acid and Acetic acid,while the content of PA in direct silage was higher.The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was excellent with 87 score, while the silage adding additive was a qualified silage with 56 score.Judging from comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, Artemisia scoparia silage without adding additive was the prior way.%以黄蒿(Artemisia scoparia)为原料,比较加入添加剂采禾青贮和直接青贮,探讨黄蒿的青贮性.试验结果表明:直接青贮和加入添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为16分和17分,均达到优良等级.加入添加剂青贮后为pH 4.26,直接青贮后的pH 5.09,乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比以直接青贮较高,丁酸占总酸的百分比以加入添加剂青贮后较高,氨态氮占总氮的百分比表现为直接青贮高于添加剂青贮.通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为87分,为优良青贮,而加入添加剂青贮为56分,为合格.综合感官性状和发酵品质,黄蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,对黄蒿青贮时采用直接青贮的方法更好.

  1. Studies on Silage of Artemisia Scoparia%黄蒿的可青贮性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    以黄蒿为原料,通过添加采禾添加剂青贮和和直接青贮,探讨黄蒿的可青贮性。试验结果表明,直接青贮和添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为16和17分,达到了优良等级。添加剂青贮后的pH值为4.26,直接青贮后的pH值为5.09,直接青贮乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比高于添加剂青贮,丁酸占总酸的百分比为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮,氨态氮占总氮的百分比表现为直接青贮高于添加剂青贮。通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为87分,为优良青贮;而添加剂青贮为56分,为合格。综合感官性状、发酵品质,黄蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,对黄蒿%Artemisia scoparia was used as material to make silage without adding additive and make silage adding additive. The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages achieved excellent grade, and the score were 16 and 17 respectively. The pH value of silage without adding additive and with it were 5.09 and 4.26 respectively. The addition of the additive can't increase content of LA and AA. Content of PA in silage without adding additive was less than in the silage adding additive. The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was an excellent silage, the silage adding additive was a qualified silage. By the comprehensive combination of sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, we found that artemisia scoparia can make silage, and making Artemisia ordosica silage without adding additive was the best way.

  2. Dades sobre la biologia d'espècies ibèrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès Xirau, Joan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    [ca] S'estudien diversos aspectes de la biologia de les espècies ib èrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L., fonamentalment de les seccions Artemisia L. i Seriphidium Besser. La germinació de les cipseles, el tipus de cicle biològic, la biologia de la reproducció i la fenologia són els principals termes tractats. [fr] On étude des aspects divers de la biologie des espèces ibéro-baléariques du genre Artemisia L., notamment des sections Artemisia L. et Seriphidium Besser. La germination des cypseles, le type du cycle biologique, la biologie de la reproduction et la phénologie sont les principaux points traités.

  3. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  4. Normalized mean glandular dose computation from mammography using GATE: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronakis, Marios E.; Zvelebil, Marketa; Darambara, Dimitra G.

    2013-04-01

    Mean glandular dose (MGD) is the figure of merit to assess breast dose after a mammographic acquisition. The use of normalized MGD obtained from Monte Carlo computations with measured incident air kerma determines the MGD delivered to patients. The Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) toolkit is a modern Monte Carlo application specifically designed for medical imaging systems modelling. Although there is an increasing number of publications using GATE worldwide for a wide range of medical imaging and therapeutic applications, there is currently no means to obtain normalized MGD. In this work, the GATE toolkit is extended, through the development of two new modules, to provide normalized MGD information for compressed breast phantoms based on simple geometries. The normalized MGD values were validated against published work and provided results at half value layers lower than 0.3 and greater than 0.6 mmAl. In addition, the skin thickness and composition were considered. Normalized MGD was computed after substitution of the adipose layer surrounding the standard breast phantom with skin tissue and the relative difference is reported. Spectrum generation was facilitated by further development of previously published work by other authors. Validation of the new GATE extension showed good agreement with published data and can be used to assess breast dose from mammographic as well as more complex x-ray imaging techniques. Changing skin thickness and composition revealed substantial changes in normalized MGD specifically for compressed breast thickness different than 5 cm and a possible revision of the structure of the standard breast model may be necessary.

  5. Predominant Glandular Cholinergic Dysautonomia in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrich, Richard; Alevizos, Ilias; Bebris, Lolita; Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Illei, Gabor G.; Nikolov, Nikolay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates exocrine gland function. Available data show poor correlation between the degree of exocrine gland function and destruction in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) suggesting other mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction may be important in these patients. We performed a comprehensive analysis of sympathoneural and sympathetic cholinergic function in well-characterized patients with pSS. Methods 21 pSS patients (mean±SE age 44±3 years) and in 13 healthy controls (51±2 years) were assessed during orthostasis and intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg). The postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic system was evaluated by assessing sweat production by the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Gastric empting testing assessed the gastro-intestinal ANS in pSS patients. Results Velocity index and acceleration index were significantly higher (p<0.05) in pSS compared to controls before and during the orthostatic and edrophonium tests. Other hemodynamic and neurochemical parameters did not differ between pSS patients and controls during the orthostasis and edrophonium test, however, edrophonium-induced saliva increment was lower in pSS (p=0.002). Abnormally low sweat production was found in four (N=4) pSS patients but in none of the controls in the QSART. Gastric empting was delayed in 53 % of pSS patients. Conclusion We observed subtle differences in several ANS domains, including gastrointestinal and sympathocholinergic system suggesting a complex ANS dysfunction in pSS. The impact was the largest on the exocrine glands with subtle differences in the cardiac parasympathetic function independent of glandular inflammation and atrophy, suggesting an alternative pathogenesis mechanism of the disease in pSS. PMID:25622919

  6. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  7. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  8. Glandular odontogenic cyst – Literature review and report of a paediatric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Ahmad, Syed Ansar; Ansari, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an extremely rare lesion occurring in the jawbones. The present paper is a review of 181 cases of GOCs reported in English literature, since it was first reported by Padayache and Van Wyk in 1987. Mandible was involved in 130 cases and maxilla in 51 cases. Anterior mandible was the most common area of involvement. Radiographic appearance was that of a unilocular radiolucency in 98 of 176 reported cases. Rest presented as multilocular radiolucency. Cortical expansion was observed in 136 of the 180 reported cases while cortex breach or perforation was seen in 81 cases. The treatment of choice was that of minor procedures that included enucleation with or without curettage, peripheral ostectomy, cryotherapy, etc. in 157 of the total 177 reported cases. Marginal jaw resection, segmental mandibulectomy etc. was reported in 20 cases. Although minor surgical procedures were the treatment of choice in most studies, two major studies of Kaplan et al. and Fowler et al. involving 111 and 46 cases, recorded a recurrence rate of 35.9 and 19.6%, respectively. The age range was between 11 and 82 years. The respective mean age of patients in the above mentioned studies was 45.7 for Kaplan's and 51 years for Fowler's whereas in our study, the mean age was 45.9 years. Very rarely does GOC presents itself in a paediatric patient. The paper also reports a case of an 11-year-old child whose histopathogy came out to be a case of a GOC. PMID:26587384

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Flavonoids in Aerial Parts of Artemisia frigida by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hu; AO Wu-li-ji; TAI Wen-quan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for the determination of seven flavonoids from the aerial part of Artemisia frigida.Methods Hypersil ODS-2 (300 mm× 4.6 mm,5 μm) column was used,with acetonitril-0.2% phosphoric acid (gradient elution) as a mobile phase,and the detection wavelength was at 283 nm with flow rate at 1mL/min.Results All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r > 0.9990) within the tested range.All average recovery was more than 98.00% and RSD was less than 3.0% (n =6).Conclusion The method is steady and with good repeatability,and could be used to determine the content of flavonoids in A.frigida from different areas.

  10. Acute hypotensive and diuretic activities of Artemisia herba alba aqueous extract in normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoufel Ali Zeggwagh; Jean Baptiste Michel; Mohamed Eddouks

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of Artemisia herba alba (A. herba alba) intravenous injection on cardiovascular and renal function in normal rats. Methods:The effect of intravenous injection of A. herba alba extract at the different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated in normal rats. Diuresis, heart frequency and electrolytes concentrations were analyzed. Results: Intravenous bolus injection of A. herba alba at the different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a dose dependent reduction in arterial blood pressure (P Conclusions: We conclude that the aqueous A. herba alba extract possesses a potent acute hypotensive effect on normal rats. In addition, A. herba alba perfusion may affect renal function to increase urine and electrolytes excretion.

  11. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Artemisia absinthium using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Saliha; Aybastıer, Onder; Işık, Esra

    2013-11-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Artemisia absinthium. The central composite design was employed, the extracts were characterised by the determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents of extracts were determined by Folin method and also total antioxidant capacities of extracts were determined by ABTS and CUPRAC methods. The phenolic compounds of A. absinthium at optimum extraction conditions were determined by HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions were determined as HCl concentration between 0.41 and 0.44mol/L, methanol volume between 55% and 59% (v/v), extraction temperature between 64 and 70°C, extraction time between 101 and 107min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95% confidence level, thus indicating the suitability of response surface methodology in optimising the ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from A. absinthium.

  12. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  13. Development of monacolin K-enriched ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) by fermentation with Monascus pilosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Sub; Lee, Inhyung

    2012-07-01

    Monacolin K-enriched ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) was developed by fermentation with Monascus sp. Among the 15 Monascus spp. isolated previously from Monascus fermentation products, Monascus pilosus KMU108 produced 2,219 mg/kg of monacolin K during ganghwayakssuk fermentation with no detectable citrinin. The optimum concentrations of ganghwayakssuk and glucose determined from the response surface methodology (RSM) design were 2.2% and 3.8%, respectively. By applying these conditions, the monacolin K productivity was increased to 3,007 mg/kg after 15 days of fermentation. On the other hand, other characteristics such as the total content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant activity were relatively unchanged. Therefore, Monascusfermented ganghwayakssuk is an excellent biomaterial for the development of functional foods because of its high level of monacolin K, known to lower cholesterol levels.

  14. Methanolic Extract’s Activity of Artemisia absinthium, Vitexagnus-castus and Phytolacaamericana Against Leishmania major; in vitro and in vivo

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    Khanjani Jafroodi S.1 MSc,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Leishmaniasis is the most prevalent vector- borne parasitic disease in Iran. Drug treatment is the best way to treat leishmaniasis, while the common drugs are not efficient enough and inevitable side effects limit using these drugs. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro and in vivo activity of the methanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium, Vitex agnus-castus and Phytolaca americana Against Leishmania major. Materials & Methods The methanolic extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Vitex agnuscastus and Phytolaca americana were prepared by cold percolation method. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 of the plant extracts was determined against L. major promastigotes followed by efficacy evaluation of the extracts against amastigotes and in vivo assay in the BALB/c animal model. The data was analyzed with SPSS 19 software using Student’s T test and ANOVA. Findings Artemisia absinthium had the highest amount of active compounds against promastigotes of L. major (IC50=159.45 and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia absinthium on both forms of L. major (extracellular promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes was the highest (MI=33%. Vitex agnus-castus had the least toxic effect for macrophages (8%. All extracts limited the progression of lesion size versus control group, however, only inhibitory effect of Artemisia absinthium extract was statistically significant. Conclusion Artemisia absinthium is the most effective growth inhibitor of amastigotes in animal lesions and it is safe for drug application in human and animals.

  15. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  16. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  17. Gastric tumor development in Smad3-deficient mice initiates from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Taek; O'Neal, Ryan; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan; Coffey, Robert J; Goldenring, James R

    2012-06-01

    SMAD proteins are downstream effectors of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Smad3-null mice develop colorectal cancer by 6 months of age. In this study, we have examined whether the loss of Smad3 promotes gastric neoplasia in mice. The stomachs of Smad3⁻/⁻ mice were compared with age-matched Smad3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. E-cadherin, Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemisty. The short hairpin RNA (ShRNA)-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells was also performed. In addition, we examined alterations in DCLK1-expressing cells. Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs at 6 months of age revealed the presence of exophytic growths along the lesser curvature in the proximal fundus. Six-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs showed metaplastic columnar glands initiating from the transition zone junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium along the lesser curvature. Ten-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice all exhibited invasive gastric neoplastic changes with increased Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3 expression, and aberrant cytosolic E-cadherin staining in papillary glands within the invading submucosal gland. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells promoted the expression of phosphoSTAT3. DCLK1-expressing cells, which also stained for the tuft cell marker acetylated-α-tubulin, were observed in 10-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice within tumors and in fundic invasive lesions. In conclusion, Smad3-null mice develop gastric tumors in the fundus, which arise from the junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium and progress to prominent invasive tumors over time. Smad3-null mice represent a novel model of fundic gastric tumor initiated from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

  18. The Key Role of Peltate Glandular Trichomes in Symbiota Comprising Clavicipitaceous Fungi of the Genus Periglandula and Their Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Steiner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  19. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  20. Morphology of a novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity in the ant Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W; Billen, Johan

    2004-10-01

    A novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity and anterior pharynx is described in both workers and queens of the pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis. The infrabuccal cavity, connected with the buccal tube, forms a ventral outgrowth of the anterior pharynx, and as such displays the tegumental lining with a cuticle and an epithelial layer. In its dorsal region, the cavity's epithelium reaches a thickness of approx. 11-12mum in both workers and queens, which is considerably thicker than the epithelium lining the rest of the infrabuccal cavity. Also the possible role of the infrabuccal gland is discussed.

  1. Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD): morphologically and biologically distinctive putative precursor lesions of Type II endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Oluwole; Zheng, Wenxin

    2008-02-08

    In this article, the authors briefly review the historical evolution of the various putative precursor lesions for Type II endometrial cancers, with an emphasis on the newly defined "Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD)". The evidentiary basis for delineating serous EmGD as the most probable precursor lesions to endometrial serous carcinoma is reviewed in detail. An argument is advanced for the discontinuation of the term serous "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC)" as a descriptor for a supposedly intraepithelial, precancerous lesion. Preliminary evidence is also presented that suggests that there is a morphologically recognizable "clear cell EmGD" that probably represents a precancerous lesion to endometrial clear cell carcinomas.

  2. Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Artemisia Leaf Extract in Mice with Contact Dermatitis In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Artemisia argyi Lev. et Vant. and A. princeps Pamp. are well known medicinal herbs used to treat patients in China, Japan, and Korea with skin problems such as eczema and itching, as well as abdominal pain and dysmenorrhoea. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia leaf extract (ALE using CD mice and Raw 264.7 cells. The effects of ALE on histopathological changes and cytokine production in ear tissues were assessed in mice with CD induced by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects on production levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO and expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated in Raw 264.7 cells. Topical application of ALE effectively prevented ear swelling induced by repeated DNFB application. ALE prevented epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of immune cells and lowered the production of interferon- (IFN- gamma (γ, tumour necrosis factor- (TNF- alpha (α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 in inflamed tissues. In addition, ALE inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS and production of NO and PGE2 in Raw 264.7 cells. These results indicate that Artemisia leaf can be used as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory skin diseases and that its anti-inflammatory effects are closely related to the inhibition of inflammatory mediator release from macrophages and inflammatory cytokine production in inflamed tissues.

  4. Types of Artemisia pollen season depending on the weather conditions in Wrocław (Poland), 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiewicz, Małgorzata; Klaczak, Kamilla; Drzeniecka-Osiadacz, Anetta; Krynicka, Justyna; Migała, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise Artemisia pollen season types according to weather conditions in Wrocław (south-western Poland) in the years 2002-2011. Over the period analysed, the start date of the pollen season (determined by the 95 % method) ranged from 10 July 2002 to 28 July 2010. The start date of the pollen season can be determined by using Crop Heat Units (CHUs). During the period 2002-2011, the Artemisia pollen season started after the cumulative value of CHUs had reached 2,000-2,100 °C. The three distinguished types of Artemisia pollen season are best described by the frequency of weather types defined by the type of circulation, mean daily air temperature, and the occurrence of rain. The variation in these factors affected the dynamics of the pollen season. The noteworthy frequency of days with rain and high seasonal sum of precipitation totals as well as the dominance of cyclonic weather from the westerly direction had an impact on the extension of the pollen season. The meteorological factors that directly affect pollen release and transport primarily include air humidity, expressed as vapour pressure (r > 0.3, p  0.5, p < 0.01). Based on the correlation analysis, the meteorological variables were selected and regression equations were established using stepwise backward regression analysis.

  5. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of different extracts of Artemisia biennis Willd. on K562 and HL-60 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tayarani-Najaran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Artemisia is a genus of herbs and small shrubs forms an important part of natural vegetation in Iran. It has been reported that several Artemisia species possess anti-proliferative effects. Considering the value of this genus in anti-cancer researches we have chosen Artemisia biennis for cytotoxic and mechanistic studies. Materials and Methods:In this study we have investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and ethanol:water (1:1 v/v extracts of A. biennis Willd. on two cancer human cell lines (K562 and HL-60 and J774 as normal cells. Results: CH2Cl2 extract was found to have the highest anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. IC50 values obtained in AlamarBlue® assay for CH2Cl2 extract were 64.86 and 54.31 µg/ml on K562 and HL-60 cells respectively. In flow cytometry histogram of the cells treated with CH2Cl2 extract, sub-G1 peak was induced. DNA fragmentation, increased in the level of Bax and cleavage of PARP protein all showed the induction of apoptosis with CH2Cl2 extract after 48 hr contact with cells. Conclusion: The results can corroborate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the CH2Cl2 extract of A. biennis on the K562 and HL-60 cancer cell lines.

  6. Sôbre o órgão abdominal glandular de Arilus carinatus (Forster, 1771: (Heteroptera, Reduviidae

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    Rudolf Barth

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um órgão glandular, encontrado na fêmea de Arilus carinatus, de um tipo ainda desocnhecido em insetos. Localiza-se, em forma de um saco membranoso, nos dois lados da linha ventral, entre os 8º e 9º segmentos abdominais. O órgão é expulso por um aumento da pressão interna da cavidade abdominal e volta ao estado de repouso, no interior do corpo, por meio de contração muscular. A vesícula retal volumosa forma, em direção distal, um amplo divertículo, do qual partem dois "tubos retais" que penetram nas vesículas membranosas, tendo na superfície destas uma abertura em forma de fenda. A hipoderme do divertículo, bem como a de uma região da vesícula retal e da parte basal dos tubos retais é glandular. A secreção possui um cheiro intenso e ardido que lembra o gás de acetileno. Trata-se, provàvelmente, de uma glândula repugnatória. Não se sabe nada sôbra a ocorrência do aparelho no macho e em outras espécies de Reduviídeos.

  7. Proteomics of the human endometrial glandular epithelium and stroma from the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Brian L; Liu, Baoquan; Alkhas, Addie; Shoji, Yutaka; Challa, Rusheeswar; Wang, Guisong; Ferguson, Susan; Oliver, Julie; Mitchell, Dave; Bateman, Nicholas W; Zahn, Christopher M; Hamilton, Chad A; Payson, Mark; Lessey, Bruce; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Maxwell, G Larry; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance in reproductive biology and women's health, a detailed molecular-level understanding of the human endometrium is lacking. Indeed, no comprehensive studies have been undertaken to elucidate the important protein expression differences between the endometrial glandular epithelium and surrounding stroma during the proliferative and midsecretory phases of the menstrual cycle. We utilized laser microdissection to harvest epithelial cells and stromal compartments from proliferative and secretory premenopausal endometrial tissue and performed a global, quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis. This analysis identified 1224 total proteins from epithelial cells, among which 318 were differentially abundant between the proliferative and secretory phases (q glandular cells in the secretory phase, was confirmed to be elevated in midsecretory-phase baboon uterine lavage samples and also observed to have an N-linked glycosylated form that was not observed in the proliferative phase. This study provides a detailed view into the global proteomic alterations of the epithelial cells and stromal compartments of the cycling premenopausal endometrium. These proteomic alterations during endometrial remodeling provide a basis for numerous follow-up investigations on the function of these differentially regulated proteins and their role in reproductive biology and endometrial pathologies.

  8. Evidence for estrogen-dependent uterine serpin (SERPINA14) expression during estrus in the bovine endometrial glandular epithelium and lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Frohlich, Thomas; Schulke, Katy; Englberger, Eva; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Uterine secretions have a dominant impact on the environment in which embryo development takes place. The uterine serpins (SERPINA14, previously known as UTMP) are found most abundantly during pregnancy in the uterus of ruminants. Although progesterone is currently assumed to be the major regulator of SERPINA14 expression, our recent study of transcriptome changes in bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle unexpectedly detected a marked upregulation of SERPINA14 mRNA levels at estrus. The present study describes the full-length mRNA sequence, genomic organization, and putative promoter elements of the SERPINA14 gene. The SERPINA14 mRNA abundance was quantified by real-time RT-PCR in intercaruncular endometrium at several time points during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Highest levels were found at estrus, followed by a dramatic decrease and a moderate expression during the luteal phase. Transcript levels were higher in pregnant endometrium compared with controls at Day 18. At estrus, immunoreactive protein was localized in deep glandular epithelium, and Western blotting concomitantly showed the 52-kDa form in uterine flushings. SERPINA14 mRNA was significantly upregulated in glandular endometrial cells in vitro after stimulation with estradiol-17beta and progesterone, but not after interferon-tau treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that SERPINA14 appears distinctly in bovine endometrium during the estrus phase. A supporting role toward providing a well-prepared endometrial environment for passing gametes, especially sperm, is assumed.

  9. Ablation of beta1 integrin in mammary epithelium reveals a key role for integrin in glandular morphogenesis and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Matthew J; Li, Na; Cheung, Julia; Lowe, Emma T; Lambert, Elise; Marlow, Rebecca; Wang, Pengbo; Schatzmann, Franziska; Wintermantel, Timothy; Schüetz, Günther; Clarke, Alan R; Mueller, Ulrich; Hynes, Nancy E; Streuli, Charles H

    2005-11-21

    Integrin-mediated adhesion regulates the development and function of a range of tissues; however, little is known about its role in glandular epithelium. To assess the contribution of beta1 integrin, we conditionally deleted its gene in luminal epithelia during different stages of mouse mammary gland development and in cultured primary mammary epithelia. Loss of beta1 integrin in vivo resulted in impaired alveologenesis and lactation. Cultured beta1 integrin-null cells displayed abnormal focal adhesion function and signal transduction and could not form or maintain polarized acini. In vivo, epithelial cells became detached from the extracellular matrix but remained associated with each other and did not undergo overt apoptosis. beta1 integrin-null mammary epithelial cells did not differentiate in response to prolactin stimulation because of defective Stat5 activation. In mice where beta1 integrin was deleted after the initiation of differentiation, fewer defects in alveolar morphology occurred, yet major deficiencies were also observed in milk protein and milk fat production and Stat5 activation, indicating a permissive role for beta1 integrins in prolactin signaling. This study demonstrates that beta1 integrin is critical for the alveolar morphogenesis of a glandular epithelium and for maintenance of its differentiated function. Moreover, it provides genetic evidence for the cooperation between integrin and cytokine signaling pathways.

  10. Trans-nipple removal of fibro-glandular tissue in gynaecomastia surgery without additional scars: An innovative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The established techniques that have been used to treat gynaecomastia are said to have relatively less patient satisfaction rate as they leave some visible scars or mild elevation over the nipple areola complex, resulting in aesthetically unsatisfactory results. Even the slightest elevation or smallest scar over nipple areola complex leave patients extremely self conscious and in a dilemma of having a second intervention to get rid of that blemish. Aims: The aim of the study is to achieve - A flat chest without adding a scar and with no chances of re-occurrence of the condition. This article suggests an innovative approach to address the problem. Materials and Methods: The author presents trans-nipple incision approach for the delivery of fibro-glandular tissue component following liposuction for maximum patient satisfaction. This method consists of a unique small criss-cross incision right on the nipple itself for retrieving any volume of tough fibro-glandular tissues. Between the duration of January 2012 to October 2013, 28 male patients of different ages were operated with this technique. Results: The surgery resulted in well-shaped, symmetric chest contour without any visible elevation or additional scars on nipple areola complex. No complications were noticed in any of the patients. Conclusions: The presented technique is proved to have a high patient satisfaction rate and to be promising method to achieve good aesthetic results in gynaecomastia surgery.

  11. EST analysis of hop glandular trichomes identifies an O-methyltransferase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of xanthohumol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jana; Culley, Lana K; Lu, Yuping; Liu, Enwu; Matthews, Paul D; Stevens, Jan F; Page, Jonathan E

    2008-01-01

    The glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) of hop (Humulus lupulus) synthesize essential oils and terpenophenolic resins, including the bioactive prenylflavonoid xanthohumol. To dissect the biosynthetic processes occurring in lupulin glands, we sequenced 10,581 ESTs from four trichome-derived cDNA libraries. ESTs representing enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis, including all of the steps of the methyl 4-erythritol phosphate pathway, were abundant in the EST data set, as were ESTs for the known type III polyketide synthases of bitter acid and xanthohumol biosynthesis. The xanthohumol biosynthetic pathway involves a key O-methylation step. Four S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) with similarity to known flavonoid-methylating enzymes were present in the EST data set. OMT1, which was the most highly expressed OMT based on EST abundance and RT-PCR analysis, performs the final reaction in xanthohumol biosynthesis by methylating desmethylxanthohumol to form xanthohumol. OMT2 accepted a broad range of substrates, including desmethylxanthohumol, but did not form xanthohumol. Mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed it methylated xanthohumol to 4-O-methylxanthohumol, which is not known from hop. OMT3 was inactive with all substrates tested. The lupulin gland-specific EST data set expands the genomic resources for H. lupulus and provides further insight into the metabolic specialization of glandular trichomes.

  12. Integration of co-localized glandular morphometry and protein biomarker expression in immunofluorescent images for prostate cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard; Khan, Faisal M.; Zeineh, Jack; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Immunofluorescent (IF) image analysis of tissue pathology has proven to be extremely valuable and robust in developing prognostic assessments of disease, particularly in prostate cancer. There have been significant advances in the literature in quantitative biomarker expression as well as characterization of glandular architectures in discrete gland rings. However, while biomarker and glandular morphometric features have been combined as separate predictors in multivariate models, there is a lack of integrative features for biomarkers co-localized within specific morphological sub-types; for example the evaluation of androgen receptor (AR) expression within Gleason 3 glands only. In this work we propose a novel framework employing multiple techniques to generate integrated metrics of morphology and biomarker expression. We demonstrate the utility of the approaches in predicting clinical disease progression in images from 326 prostate biopsies and 373 prostatectomies. Our proposed integrative approaches yield significant improvements over existing IF image feature metrics. This work presents some of the first algorithms for generating innovative characteristics in tissue diagnostics that integrate co-localized morphometry and protein biomarker expression.

  13. A Monte Carlo study of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Di Lillo, Francesca; Russo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of model assumptions in GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the calculation of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) in mammography, focussing on the effect of the skin thickness and composition, of the role of compression paddles and of the bremsstrahlung processes. We showed that selecting a skin thickness of 4 mm instead of 1.45 mm produced DgN values with deviations from 9% to 32% for x-ray spectra routinely adopted in mammography. Consideration of the bremsstrahlung radiation had a weak influence on monoenergetic DgN. Simulations (in the range 8-40 kVp) which included consideration of bremsstrahlung radiation, a skin thickness of 1.45 mm and a 2 mm thick compression paddles produced polyenergetic DgN coefficients up to 19% higher than corresponding literature data. Adding a 2 mm thick adipose layer between the skin layer and the radiosensitive portion of the breast produces polyenergetic DgN values up to 15% higher than those routinely adopted. These findings provide a quantitative estimate of the influence of model parameters on the calculation of the mean glandular dose in mammography.

  14. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata

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    Cronn Richard C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecological adaptation in this species. Here, we report on the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers in subspecies of big sagebrush. Results cDNA of A. tridentata sspp. tridentata and vaseyana were normalized and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Assembly of the reads resulted in 20,357 contig consensus sequences in ssp. tridentata and 20,250 contigs in ssp. vaseyana. A BLASTx search against the non-redundant (NR protein database using 29,541 consensus sequences obtained from a combined assembly resulted in 21,436 sequences with significant blast alignments (≤ 1e-15. A total of 20,952 SNPs and 119 polymorphic SSRs were detected between the two subspecies. SNPs were validated through various methods including sequence capture. Validation of SNPs in different individuals uncovered a high level of nucleotide variation in EST sequences. EST sequences of a third, tetraploid subspecies (ssp. wyomingensis obtained by Illumina sequencing were mapped to the consensus sequences of the combined 454 EST assembly. Approximately one-third of the SNPs between sspp. tridentata and vaseyana identified in the combined assembly were also polymorphic within the two geographically distant ssp. wyomingensis samples. Conclusion We have produced a large EST dataset for Artemisia tridentata, which contains a large sample of the big sagebrush

  15. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

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    Zhi-Yong Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance.

  16. Physiological water strategy of Artemisia ordosica around soil threshold of drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for plants around the soil threshold of drought (close to the soil wilting water content) is a problem that needs to be further explored. In this paper, Artemisia ordosica, which grows in the Tengri Desert, was selected to analyze the changes in the plant water potentials in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC), the water contents in the roots, shoots and leaves of A. ordosica, and the indices in enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. Based on the statistics, we discussed the water physiology mechanism around the soil drought threshold. The results show that, around the soil drought threshold, besides absorbing and transporting water, the roots could serve as temporary water reservoirs that enable A. ordosica to continue to transport the SPAC water and survive severe drought. As drought becomes more severe, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increases and they have significant correlations with the tissue water content. The activity of peroxidase (POD) decreases and it has no significant correlation with the tissue water content. During daytime, when temperature is high, the soluble sugar does not participate in the osmotic adjustment but eliminate the active oxygen free radicals. Thus, around the soil threshold of drought, A. ordosica maintains a physiological water metabolism by harmo-nizing water itself and eliminate the active oxygen and the free radicals by the joint efforts of enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems.

  17. Effects of soil nitrogen:phosphorus ratio on growth rate of Artemisia ordosica seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To address how the ratios of nitrogen and phosphorus (N:P ratios) in soil affect plant growth, we performed a two-factor (soil available N:P ratios and plant density) randomized block pot experiment to examine the relationships between soil N:P ratios, and the N:P ratios and growth rate of Artemisia ordosica seedlings. Under moderate water stress and adequate nutrient status, both soil N:P and plant density influenced the N:P ratios and growth rates of A. ordosica. With the increase of soil N:P ratios, the growth rates of A. ordosica seedlings decreased significantly. With the increase of soil N:P ratios, N:P ratios in A. ordosica seedlings increased significantly. While the nitrogen concentrations in the plant increased slightly, the phosphorus concentrations significantly decreased. With the increase of plant density, the shoot N:P ratios and growth rates significantly decreased, which resulted from soil N:P ratios. Thus, soil N:P ratios influenced the N:P ratios in A. ordosica seedlings, and hence, influenced its growth. Our results suggest that, under adequate nutrient environment, soil N:P ratios can be a limiting factor for plant growth.

  18. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  19. Effects of Artemisia lanata Extract on Reproductive Parameters of Female Rats

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    Ainehchi Nava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Until date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia lanata. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. lanata on reproduction of female rats. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400mg/kg of A. lanata hydroalcoholic extract from the 2-8 day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and Chinese hamster ovary (Cho cell lines. Results: The A. lanata had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥ 200 μg/ml significantly (P < 0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/ml (P < 0.010. Conclusion: Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. lanata in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  20. Functional and chemical stability of a medicinal herb, Artemisia capillaris, following gamma sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Bae, Mun Hyoung; Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Sung Kee [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The stability of functional and chemical properties of gamma-irradiated (10 kGy) Artemisia capillaris, a widely used herb in the traditional Oriental medicine, was investigated. Functional properties of the extracts of gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris were compared in antioxidant activities, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and protection of lymphocyte and plasmid DNA. Their chemical properties were assessed by HPLC analysis, comparing with chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, which were isolated from ethylacetate fraction as major compounds with strong antioxidant activities. No significant difference in functional properties between irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris was found in all antioxidant assays. Also HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate fractions of irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris revealed the preservation of chlorogenic acid ({sub t}R=3.124 min) and caffeic acid ({sub t}R=3.672 min), and showed almost the same pattern in the general peaks. These results suggest that the chemical components and antioxidant properties of A. capillaris are not affected largely by gamma-ray irradiation. Therefore, this study may provide evidence that the irradiated herbs retain their potential functional properties.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahameethunisa Abdul R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs.

  2. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alberto Martínez-Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use of A. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs. The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthium Spanish population (T2-11 against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9. The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence of trans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of the Essential Oil Extracted from Artemisia Absinthium

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    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils are found to have multiple active components which can show in vitro cytotoxic action against various cancerous cell lines. This study reports the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae growing wild in Iran. Methods: Water-distilled essential oil of A. absinthium collected from Ardabil, north-western Iran, was examined for its cytotoxic effects using a modified MTT assay. Air-dried aerial parts of A. absinthium was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus. Cytotoxicity of the essential oil was measured against Hela and human healthy peripheral blood cells. Results: The 50% cytotoxic concentrations were found to be 48.59 µg/ml and 5456.07 µg/ml for Hela cells and human lymphocytes, respectively. The volatile oil displayed good cytotoxic action against the human tumor cell line. Conclusion: The IC50 shows that cytotoxicity of the oil against human tumor cell line is much higher than that required for healthy human cells. These results indicate low adverse effects for this oil. The findings of this study necessitate the need for further consideration of this essential oil in anti-neoplastic chemotherapy.

  4. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

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    Luísa Maria Silveira de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA and T. parthenium (TP and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound.

  5. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivatedArtemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alberto Martínez-Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthiumbased on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs. The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11 against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9. The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Nine lignans from Artemisia absinthium L.%苦艾中的九个木脂素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿不拉江·图拉克; 姜勇; 屠鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Nine lignans were isolated and purified by silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies,preparative HPLC and recrystallization from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium L.,and identified as follows:diayangambin (1),sesartemin (2),epiyangambin (3),(+)arborone (4),(-)syringaresinol (5),epiashchantin (6),caruilignan C (7),7β-caruilignan C (8),yangambin (9).Compounds 4,5,7,8 were isolated from this plant for the first time.%从苦艾的地上部分通过硅胶、反相、凝胶柱层析,制备高效液相色谱和重结晶于段分离纯化得到九个木脂素,分别为diayangambin (1),sesartemin (2),epiyangambin (3),(+)arborone (4),(-)syringaresinol(5),epiashchantin (6),caruiligan C(7),7β-caruilignanC(8),yangambin (9).其中化合物4,5,7,8为首次从苦艾中分离得到.

  7. Tissue culture and regeneration of an antimalarial plant, Artemisia sieberi Besser

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    A. Sharafi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available WHO recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs as the most effective choice to treat malaria. For developing transgenic plants with high accumulation of artemisinin (by introducing genes encoding enzymes which regulate the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, an efficient protocol for tissue culture and plant regeneration is necessary. In the present study, leaf explants of Artemisia sieberi were cultivated in Murashige & Skoog based medium supplemented by combination of different plant growth regulators including 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BA, α-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, picloram (Pic and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The highest frequency of shoot induction was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA plus 0.05 mg/L NAA (95% regeneration and MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA plus 0.5 mg/L IAA (85% regeneration. Rooting was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg/L NAA. The present study has revealed a simple, reliable, rapid and high efficient regeneration system for A. sieberi Besser as a source of artemisinin in short period via adventitious shoot induction procedure.

  8. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil From the Aerial Parts of Artemisia Herba

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    A. Nezhadali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of the plant artemisia herba were collected in the May 2007 from Babaaman (North Khorassan Province of Iran. The plant was isolated by hydro distillation. A total of 61 constituents, representing more than 98% of the oil were identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main compounds, were alpha-pinene (3.28%, champhene (4.8%, sabinen (5.18%, beta-myrcene (3.04, cis,beta-terpineol (11.31%, camphor (6.11%, 8-hydroxylinalool (2.64%, L-4-terpineol ( 2.5%, alpha- therpineol (2.33%, myrtenol (3.27%, bornyl acetate (6.2%, alpha-terpinol acetate (3.06%, germacrene (2.06%, davanone (8.49%, trans-farnesol (4.27%, cis-fernesol (2.07% and 1,3,dicyclopentyl cyclopentane (2.29%. This herbal medicine traditionally uses as anti-infectious, anti-bacterial, emmenagogue, parasiticide, digestive and stomachic and gastric tonic in Iran.

  9. Antimicrobial, antioxidative, and insect repellent effects of Artemisia absinthium essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Jovanović, Boris; Jović, Jovana; Ilić, Budimir; Miladinović, Dragoljub; Matejić, Jelena; Rajković, Jelena; Dorđević, Ljubiša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Zlatković, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ethnopharmacological uses of this plant species in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and wounds, and as an insect repellent. The aerial part of the plant was hydrodistilled, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty-seven compounds, corresponding to 94.65 % of the total oil, were identified, with the main constituents being sabinene (24.49 %), sabinyl acetate (13.64 %), and α-phellandrene (10.29 %). The oil yield was 0.23 % (v/w). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated against ten bacterial isolates (from patients wounds and stools) and seven American Type Culture Collection strains using a microwell dilution assay. The minimal inhibitory/bactericidal concentration of the oil ranged from insect larvae. Starting with the concentration of 0.38 % of essential oil in medium, significant mortality of larvae exposed to the oil was noted when compared to the control. Probit analysis revealed that the LC50 value of A. absinthium essential oil for D. melanogaster larvae after 15 days of exposure was 6.31 % (49 mg/mL). The essential oil also affected the development of D. melanogaster larvae and significantly delayed achievement of the pupa stadium.

  10. Artemisia tilesii Ledeb hairy roots establishment using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvieieva, N A; Shakhovsky, A M; Belokurova, V B; Drobot, K O

    2016-05-18

    An efficient and rapid protocol for the establishment of Artemisia tilesii "hairy" root culture is reported. Leaf explants of aseptically growing plants were cocultured with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 wild strain or A. rhizogenes carrying the plasmids with nptII and ifn-α2b genes. Root formation on the explants started in 5-6 days after their cocultivation with bacterial suspension. Prolongation of explant cultivation time on the medium without cefotaxime led to stimulation of root growth. The effects of sucrose concentration as well as of the levels of synthetic indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and native growth regulator Emistim on the stimulation of A. tilesii "hairy" root growth were studied. Maximum stimulating effect both for the control and for transgenic roots was observed in case of root cultivation on the media supplemented with IBA-up to 7.95- and 9.1-fold biomass increase, respectively. Cultivation on the medium with 10 μl/L Emistime has also led to the control roots growth stimulation (up to 2.75-fold). Emistime at 5 μl/L concentration led to 5.46-fold mass increase in only one "hairy" root line. Higher sucrose content (40 g/L) stimulated growth of two hairy root lines but had no effect on growth of the control roots.

  11. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county.

  12. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Solution conformation and antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Tang, YinYing; Xu, Qing; Huang, Shengli; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2016-01-20

    Regioselective modification is an effective approach to synthesize polysaccharides with different structure features and improved properties. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. The decrease in fractal dimension (df) values (1.56-2.04) of SRSASP was observed in size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis. Compared to sample substituted at C-6, SRSASP showed a more expanded conformation of random coil, which was attributed to the breakup of hydrogen bonds and elastic contributions. Circular dichroism (CD), methylene blue (MB) and congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed the conformational transition and stiffness of the chains after sulfation. SRSASP exhibited enhanced antioxidant activities in the DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Sulfation at C-2 or C-3 was favorable for the chelation which might prevent the generation of hydroxyl radicals. It concluded that the degree of substitution and substitution position were the factors influencing biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides.

  13. Terpenes and polyacetylenes from cultivated Artemisia granatensis boiss (Royal chamomile) and their defensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Herrador del Pino, M Mar; Portero, Adriana González; Burón, Pilar Arteaga; Arteaga, Jesús F; Alquézar, Jesús Burillo; Díaz, Carmen Elisa; Coloma, Azucena González

    2013-10-01

    Artemisia granatensis, an endemic endangered plant species from Sierra Nevada (Spain) has been successfully cultivated in artificial systems (plants in artificial soil and transformed in vitro roots) to generate enough plant biomass (aerial and root) to allow for its chemical and biological study and at the same time to provide with methods for the sustainable production of the plant and its metabolites. A eudesmanolide (17) along with six sesquiterpenes (11-16), nine monoterpenes (2-10), one nor-monoterpene (1), three acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters (18-20) and one coumarin (21) have been identified from the aerial plant ethanolic extract. Acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters 18-19 and coumarins 21-23 have been isolated from the transformed root ethanolic extract. These extracts and some isolated compounds or mixtures of them have been tested for their insect antifeedant effects against Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi. Significant antifeedant properties were determined for the aerial plant extract, spiroacetals 19-20 and secoguaianolides 13+14 and 16.

  14. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  15. Mean Glandular dose coefficients (DgN) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients DgN for a range of anode–filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Methods Previously published mono-energetic DgN values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute DgN coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; Molybdenum and Rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPx Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial HVL calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, DgN coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Results Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published DgN values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values. Conclusion Over 200-pages of DgN coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values. PMID:26348995

  16. Mean glandular dose coefficients (D(g)N) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z; Yaffe, Martin J; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

    2015-09-21

    To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients D(g)N for a range of anode-filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Previously published mono-energetic D(g)N values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute D(g)N coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; molybdenum and rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial half value layer (HVL) calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, D(g)N coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (D(g)N) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published D(g)N values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values.Over 200 pages of D(g)N coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values.

  17. The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage.

  18. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  19. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality.

  20. Micromorphology of glandular hairs, biological activity and composition of the essential oil of Tanacetum fisherae (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Peyman; Nejadsattari, Taher; Maassoumi, Ali Asghar; Mozaffarian, Valiollah; Sonboli, Ali

    2011-02-01

    The essential oil was obtained from the aerial flowering parts of Tanacetum fisherae, a new record from Iran, by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Eleven components representing 99.9% of the total oil were identified. 1,8-Cineole (79.9%) was characterized as the principal compound. The essential oil and its main component were tested against nine microbial strains. The result of the bioassays revealed that the oil possess potent antimicrobial property. This may be associated due to the presence of 1,8-cineole in the oil which tested individually and its high activity was observed. Micromorphological studies of hairs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibited the presence of abundant sessile capitate glandular and medifixed T-shaped eglandular trichomes on the leaves, flowers and achene, giving useful diagnostic characters for identification of this medicinal plant.

  1. Intracellular Propionibacterium acnes infection in glandular epithelium and stromal macrophages of the prostate with or without cancer.

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    Yuan Bae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes suggest that this bacterium is prevalent in the prostate, is associated with acute and chronic prostatic inflammation, and might have a role in prostate carcinogenesis. METHODS: To evaluate the pathogenic role of this indigenous bacterium, we screened for the bacterium in radical prostatectomy specimens using enzyme immunohistochemistry with a novel P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody, together with an anti-nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB antibody. We examined formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of radical prostatectomy specimens from 28 patients with prostate cancer and 18 age-matched control patients with bladder cancer, but without prostate cancer. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry with the PAL antibody revealed small round bodies within some non-cancerous glandular epithelium and stromal macrophages in most prostate samples. Prostate cancer samples had higher frequencies of either cytoplasmic P. acnes or nuclear NF-κB expression of glandular epithelium and higher numbers of stromal macrophages with P. acnes than control samples. These parameters were also higher in the peripheral zone than in the transitional zone of the prostate, especially in prostate cancer samples. Nuclear NF-κB expression was more frequent in glands with P. acnes than in glands without P. acnes. The number of stromal macrophages with the bacterium correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation in both the PZ and TZ areas and with the grade of acute inflammation in the TZ area. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis with a novel monoclonal antibody for detecting P. acnes in the prostate suggested that intraepithelial P. acnes infection in non-cancerous prostate glands and inflammation caused by the bacterium may contribute to the development of prostate cancer.

  2. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

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    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  3. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David

    2014-01-01

    the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase...

  4. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of Artemisia absinthium essential oils

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    A Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene. Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC 50 . Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium.

  5. Effects of sand burial on survival and growth of Artemisia halodendron and its physiological response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaLin Zhao; Hao Qu; RuiLian Zhou; JianYing Yun; Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of literature on the effects of sand burial upon the survival and growth of desert plants, but the physiological adaption mechanisms of desert plants to sand burial have as yet rarely been studied. Artemisia halodendron is widely distributed in the semi-arid deserts of China and is a dominant species in semi-moving dune vegetation. The growth and physiological properties of A. halodendron seedlings under different sand burial depths were studied in 2010 and 2011 in the Horqin Sand Land, Inner Mongolia, to better understand the ability and physiological mechanism by which desert plants withstand sand burial. The results showed that A. halodendron as a prammophyte species had a stronger ability to withstand sand burial compared to non-prammophytes, with some plants still surviving even if buried to a depth reaching 225% of seedling height. Although seedling growth was inhibited significantly once the depth of sand burial reached 50%of the seedling height, seedling survival did not decrease significantly until the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. Sand burial did not result in significant water stress or MDA (Malondialdehyde) accumulation in the seedlings, but membrane permeability increased significantly when the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. After being subjected to sand burial stress, POD (Peroxidase) activity and proline content increased significantly, but SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) and POD activities and soluble sugar content did not. The primary mechanism resulting in in-creased mortality and growth inhibition were that cell membranes were damaged and photosynthetic area decreased when subjected to the severe stress of sand burial, while proline and POD played key roles in osmotic adjustment and protecting cell membranes from damage, respectively.

  6. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534 543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47 29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  7. Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

    2013-11-01

    Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craciunescu Oana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  9. Estragole and methyl-eugenol-free extract of Artemisia dracunculus possesses immunomodulatory effects

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    Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon, may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS. The estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract was characterized and used for evaluation of immunity in NMRI mice after challenging with sheep red blood cells. Results: It was shown that the aqueous extract of tarragon was free from potentially harmful estragole or methyl-eugenol. Moreover, the immunomodulatory effect of the aqueous extract of tarragon (100 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days was investigated. The extract significantly increased the level of anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC (antibody and simultaneously decreased the level of cellular immunity in the treatment group. Moreover, tarragon caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ in parallel with a reduction in the ratio of INF-γ to Il-10 or IL-17 to IL-10 in the splenocytes. In addition, the levels of the respiratory burst and nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages were significantly decreased. Additionally, the phagocytosis potential of macrophages was significantly increased in treated mice. Conclusion: These data showed that the aqueous extract of tarragon may be used as a natural source to modulate the immune system, because it can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce anti-inflammatory macrophages.

  10. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate.

  11. Clinical cross-reactivity between Artemisia vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Morín, F; Sánchez Machín, I; García Robaina, J C; Fernández-Caldas, E; Sánchez Triviño, M

    2001-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris is a common weed and an important source of allergens on the subtropical island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It pollinates mainly from July to September, although, due to some local climatic conditions, it may flower throughout the year. Cross-reactivity with hazelnut, kiwi, birch, several Compositae (Ambrosia, Chrysanthemum, Matricaria, Solidago) and grass allergens has been suggested. Few studies have addressed the issue of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla. The objective of this study was to perform conjunctival and bronchial challenges with A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla and oral challenge with chamomile in 24 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized primarily to A. vulgaris. Skin prick tests with M. chamomilla were positive in 21 patients. Eighteen patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a A. vulgaris pollen extract and 13 patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a M. chamomilla pollen extract. Bronchial provocation tests with A. vulgaris were positive in 15 patients and with M. chamomilla pollen in another 16 individuals. Oral provocation tests, conducted with a commercial chamomile infusion were positive in 13 patients. Nine of these individuals were skin test positive to food allergens and 17 to others pollens of the Compositae family. This study confirms a high degree of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla. Sensitization to A. vulgaris seems to be a primary risk factor for experiencing symptoms after the ingestion of chamomile infusions. Based on the results of bronchial provocation tests, M. chamomilla pollen could be a relevant inhalant allergen.

  12. Metabolic engineering of biosynthesis and sequestration of artemisinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, B.

    2016-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoid artemisinin (AN) is the most important medicine for the treatment of malaria in humans. The industrial production of AN still mainly depends on extraction from the plant Artemisia annua. However, the concentration of AN in A. annua is low. Although different engineering strategie

  13. Randomized comparative clinical trial of artemisia sieberi 5% lotion and clotrimazole 1% lotion for the treatment of pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rad Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the therapeutic effects of topical Artremisia sieberi 5% lotion with topical clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor and microscopic identification of Malassezia furfur were randomly assigned to treatment with either topical Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion (group 1 or topical clotrimazole 1% lotion (group 2 for 2 weeks. Group 1 and group 2 consisted of 51 and 49 patients respectively. The patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically at baseline and every 2 weeks for a period of 4 weeks. Results: At the end of the second week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 65.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively ( P < 0.01, but at the same time mycological cure rate was 92.2% for group 1 and 73.5% for group 2 ( P < 0.05. At the end of the fourth week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 59.2% for group 1 and group 2 respectively ( P < 0.01, and at the same time mycologic cure rate was 96.1% for group 1 and 65.3% for group 2 ( P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion was more effective than clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.

  14. Essential oil compositions, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of various populations of Artemisia chamaemelifolia at two phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghasemi Pirbalouti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia chamaemelifolia Vill., Asteraceae, has been used as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antitumor. This study determined the variation in chemical composition, and antibacterial and antioxidant activity of A. chamaemelifolia collected at two phenological stages within five natural habitats in northern Iran.The highest oil yield was obtained from the Shahkoh population with 1.10 ml/100g dry matter harvested at the 50% flowering stage. The highest values of 1,8-cineole (31.82% was obtained from the Pelor population at the 50% flowering stage.The highest percentages of artemisia ketone (12.27%, camphor (17.21%, and borneol (13.50% were obtained from the Kandovan population, harvested before flowering. The highest content of chrysanthenone (18.14% was obtained from the Gadok population before flowering. The essential oil of the Kandovan population harvested at the 50% flowering stage had the highest percentages of Davanone D (28.44% and Davanone (28.88%. The A. chamaemelifolia oils inhibited the growth of four bacterial pathogens, while these same oils exhibit weak antioxidant (DPPH activity. The results indicated A. chamaemelifolia contained three chemotypes: 1,8-cineole, davanone and/or Davanone D, and chrysanthenone. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils obtained from various populations of A. chamaemelifolia at two phenological stages may be significant from a pharmaceutical stand point.

  15. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  16. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life.

  17. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  18. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and free radical scavenging effects of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus-An in-vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arokiyaraj S; Sripriya N; Bhagya R; Radhika B; Prameela L; Udayaprakash NK

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate methanolic extracts of leaves of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus for phytochemical analysis, antibacterial activity and free radical scavenging activity. Methods: Antibacterial activity was performed by disc diffusion method against two gram positive and four gram negative strains. Free radical scavenging potential was evaluated using total antioxidant activity (thiocyanate method) and diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: Results of the present study showed that Clerodendrum siphonanthus exhibited significant antibacterial effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae (30 mm), Proteus mirabilis (16 mm), Salmonella typhi (16 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (12 mm), Escherichia coli (11.5 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm). Mimosa pudica and Artemisia nilagirica showed good antibacterial effects. Clerodendrum siphonanthus was found to be extremely effective in scavenging lipid peroxide (IC50 8 mg/mL) and DPPH radicals (IC50 7 mg/mL), whereas Artemisia nilagirica andMimosa pudica showed moderate activity. Phytochemical analysis of these plants revealed presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids and glycosides. Conclusions: This study showed that Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus may serve as a potential agent for new therapeutics.

  19. Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of A rtemisia annua L%青蒿花粉活力及柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 杨水平; 崔广林; 张雪; 刘芸; 陈阳

    2015-01-01

    以野生青蒿中形态差异较为明显的绿秆(品系Y03)和紫红秆(品系Y07)为材料,分别以碘碘化钾染色法、T TC染色法、联苯胺甲萘酚染色法和离体萌发法测定其花粉活力,并从中选取较适宜的检测方法研究其贮藏特性,采用联苯胺过氧化氢法测定其柱头的可授性.结果表明,碘碘化钾和 TTC染色法不适宜青蒿的花粉活力检测,联苯胺甲萘酚染色法可以用于快速测定青蒿花粉活力,但测定值偏高,离体萌发法能准确可靠地反应花粉活力;两个品系的新鲜花粉在室温条件下只能贮藏2d,4℃,-19℃条件下可以贮藏3d,干燥处理显著加快了花粉活力的丧失;联苯胺过氧化氢法测得两个品系青蒿柱头可授期为8~10 d ,边缘雌花可授性比中央两性花的强,且其可授期比中央两性花长1~2d.%The pollen viability of two accessions of wild A rtemisia annua L. ,Y03 with green stem stem and Y07 with purple‐red ,was tested with the methods of I2‐KI (iodine‐potassium iodide dyeing method) , TTC (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining) ,benzidine‐α‐naphthol coloring and pollen germination in vitro ,respectively ,and suitable detection methods were selected from them for determining the storage characteristics of pollen .Then stigma receptivity of the species was evaluated with the benzidine‐H2 O2 method .The results indicated that I2‐KI and TTC were unsuitable for the test of pollen viability of A. an‐nua ;benzidine‐α‐naphthol coloring could be used to measure pollen viability ,but the measured value was a bit too high ;the method of germination in vitro proved to be most desirable ,and it could accurately and reliably reflect pollen viability .The appropriate storage time of the pollen was 2 days at room temperature , and 3 days at 4 ℃ or at -19 ℃ .Drying treatment significantly accelerated the loss of pollen vitality .De‐termined with the

  20. Effect of glandular kallikrein on distal bicarbonate transport. Role of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucha, W; Vallés, P

    1999-12-01

    The luminal membrane of collecting duct cells, specially the intercalated cells, is normally exposed to active kallikrein. This is due to the specific localization of renal kallikrein in the connecting tubule cells. We have previously reported inhibition of distal bicarbonate secretion by renal kallikrein. The present study was performed to evaluate the participation of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and luminal H(+)-ATPase activity of cortical collecting duct segments (CCD) in the mechanism involved in the inhibition of bicarbonate secretion induced by the enzyme. The effect of orthograde injections of 1 microgram/ml (250 U/6.3 mg) pig pancreatic kallikrein, in the absence and presence of 1 mM DIDS (stilbene-disulfonic acid) in the renal tubule system, was evaluated. Urine fractions were collected after two-minutes stop-flow. Changes in the urine fraction (Fr) related to those in free-flow urine samples (Ff) were related to the respective polyfructosan (Inutest) ratio. Renal kallikrein activity (Fr:Ff kallikrein/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) increased significantly in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected after glandular 1 microgram/ml kallikrein, P Bicarbonate secretion rate (Fr:Ff HCO3-/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) of collecting ducts was significantly reduced in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected, related to control, during the first and second stop-flow periods. No difference was shown in bicarbonate excretion between the first 120 microliters urine fractions collected after administration of glandular kallikrein and glandular kallikrein plus DIDS. To measure H(+)-ATPase activity, rat microdissected cortical collector tubules (CCD) were incubated in the presence of increasing glandular kallikrein doses (A: 93, B: 187 and C: 375 mU/200 microL) in the presence of ouabain (4 microM) and omeprazole (100 microM) to inhibit Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-K(+)-ATPase, respectively. In CCD, bafilomycin-sensitive H(+)-ATPase activity (pmol/mm/min) after

  1. Structure and Development of Glandular Trichomes in Pelargonium fragrans%肉豆蔻天竺葵腺毛结构及其发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷

    2005-01-01

    肉豆蔻天竺葵是一种含有精油的植物,其精油被广泛应用于香料与化妆品.然而其精油的产生部位腺毛的结构与发育过程尚未有研究,本文应用光学显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、透视电子显微镜对肉豆蔻天竺葵腺毛结构及其发育过程进行了研究.结果表明:在肉豆蔻天竺葵叶的表皮上具有腺体毛和非腺体毛两种结构形态.在研究中发现,肉豆蔻天竺葵只有头状腺毛(由头细胞、柄细胞和基细胞三个部分组成),其头状腺毛可以分为两种类型:类型Ⅰ和类型Ⅱ.肉豆蔻天竺葵腺毛是由表皮细胞发育而来.%Pelargoniumfragrans is cultivated as a source of essential oil as well as used for food flavouring or cosmetics. However, the structure and development of the organ that produce essential oil, glandular hair, in Pelargonium fragrans is still unknown. In this study, the structure and development of the glandular trichomes in the epidermis of Pelargonium fragrans were studied by light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The surfaces of young leaves were only covered by small number of non-glandular trichomes. As the leaf fully expanding, the amount of the non-glandular trichomes increased. The glandular trichomes are cspitate ones and two morphological types could be distinguished, type Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Development of the glandular trichome started with an outgrowth of an epidermal cell.

  2. 蒌蒿(Artemisia selengensis L.)修复洞庭湖土壤Cd污染的强化措施研究%STRENGTHEN MEASURES USED FOR ARTEMISIA SELENGENSIS L.TO REPAIR Cd CONTAMINATED SOIL OF DONGTING LAKE WETLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董萌; 赵运林; 库文珍; 周小梅; 李燕子; 陈小玲

    2013-01-01

    洞庭湖土壤镉污染严重,蒌蒿(Artemisia selengensis L.)是在洞庭湖湿地新发现的一种对镉具有较强富集能力的优势植物,已证实该种植物对土壤中的镉具有较好的修复效果和潜能,将来可作为洞庭湖土壤镉污染的理想修复材料.以南洞庭湖Cd污染土壤为栽培基质,分别在蒌蒿幼苗期、成株期添加EDTA等7种螯合剂和调控物质,研究了不同添加物对蒌蒿生长状况及Cd富集效果的影响.结果表明,HEDTA、EDTA、DTPA等3种螯合剂不同程度地降低了蒌蒿地上部分的生物量,但增加了土壤中有效态Cd的含量,使蒌蒿茎叶中Cd的富集浓度分别上升了35.5%、98.4%、42.1%,可显著提高萎蒿的修复效果;生石灰的添加则使土壤有效态Cd明显减少,抑制了蒌蒿对Cd的富集;有机腐殖质和复合肥的施加虽促进了蒌蒿生长,但未对其富集效果产生显著影响;幼苗期施加调控物质,在植株生物量、Cd富集浓度及土壤有效态Cd含量等方面造成的影响均大于成株期.%Based on the serious situation of Cd pollution in the wetland of the Dongting Lake,a series of studies were conducted to evaluate the Cd enrichment characteristics and repairing effects of kinds of plants growing in the Dongting Lake area.The results show that Artemisia selengensis is an outstanding species to repair Cd pollution for its remarkable capacity to accumulate Cd from lake soil.Artemisia verlotorum shows a good capacity to absorb Cd and could be selected as a potential candidate to treat Cd pollution.Because of their higher Cd accumulation in the root parts and their higher biomass of stem and leave which could be harvested every year,Phragmites australis and Miscanthus lutarioriparius could also play a role in controlling Cd pollution in the wetland of the Dongting Lake.In this study,a pot experiment was conducted to study the biological traits and the Cd accumulation characteristics of Artemisia selengensis to

  3. The Studies of Artemisia ordosica Silage%油蒿的可青贮性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    Arternisia ordosica was used as silage with and without additives. Results showed that showed that the properties of silage were marked as 17 and 18 by sensory evaluations without additives and with additives, respectively. The pH value of silage without additives and silage adding additives were 5.15 and 4.59 respectively. Additives can increase pH value, lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) contents. Silage without additives has less propionic acid (PA) and butyric acid (BA) than those with additives. The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage with no additive was qualified silage. Comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality indicate that Arternisia ordosica can make silage without additive.%以油蒿(Artemisia ordosica)为原料,通过加入添加剂采禾青贮和直接青贮,探讨油蒿的可青贮性.结果表明:直接青贮和添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为17和18分,达到了优良等级.添加剂青贮pH为4.59,直接青贮pH为5.15,直接青贮乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比高于添加剂青贮,而丙酸和丁酸占总酸的百分比为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮,氨态氮占总氮的百分比也表现为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮.通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为41分合格,而添加剂青贮为39分不合格.综合感官性状、发酵品质,油蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,且直接青贮更好.

  4. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1, 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2, scopoletin (3, α-amyrin (4, phytol (5, and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans, Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1–6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC50 value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC50 of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

  5. Modeling regeneration responses of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to abiotic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), which are the most widespread ecosystems in semiarid western North America, have been affected by land use practices and invasive species. Loss of big sagebrush and the decline of associated species, such as greater sage-grouse, are a concern to land managers and conservationists. However, big sagebrush regeneration remains difficult to achieve by restoration and reclamation efforts and there is no regeneration simulation model available. We present here the first process-based, daily time-step, simulation model to predict yearly big sagebrush regeneration including relevant germination and seedling responses to abiotic factors. We estimated values, uncertainty, and importance of 27 model parameters using a total of 1435 site-years of observation. Our model explained 74% of variability of number of years with successful regeneration at 46 sites. It also achieved 60% overall accuracy predicting yearly regeneration success/failure. Our results identify specific future research needed to improve our understanding of big sagebrush regeneration, including data at the subspecies level and improved parameter estimates for start of seed dispersal, modified wet thermal-time model of germination, and soil water potential influences. We found that relationships between big sagebrush regeneration and climate conditions were site specific, varying across the distribution of big sagebrush. This indicates that statistical models based on climate are unsuitable for understanding range-wide regeneration patterns or for assessing the potential consequences of changing climate on sagebrush regeneration and underscores the value of this process-based model. We used our model to predict potential regeneration across the range of sagebrush ecosystems in the western United States, which confirmed that seedling survival is a limiting factor, whereas germination is not. Our results also suggested that modeled

  6. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  7. Flowering phenology and potential pollen emission of three Artemisia species in relation to airborne pollen data in Poznań (Western Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogawski, Paweł; Grewling, Łukasz; Frątczak, Agata

    Artemisia pollen is an important allergen in Europe. In Poznań (Western Poland), three Artemisia species, A. vulgaris, A. campestris and A. absinthium, are widely distributed. However, the contributions of these species to the total airborne pollen are unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the flowering phenology and pollen production of the three abovementioned species and to construct a model of potential Artemisia pollen emission in the study area. Phenological observations were conducted in 2012 at six sites in Poznań using a BBCH phenological scale. Pollen production was estimated by counting the pollen grains per flower and recalculating the totals per inflorescence, plant and population in the study area. Airborne pollen concentrations were obtained using a Hirst-type volumetric trap located in the study area. Artemisia vulgaris began to flower the earliest, followed by A. absinthium and then A. campestris. The flowering of A. vulgaris corresponded to the first peak in the airborne pollen level, and the flowering of A. campestris coincided with the second pollen peak. The highest amounts of pollen per single plant were produced by A. vulgaris and A. absinthium. A. campestris produced considerably less pollen, however, due to its common occurrence, it contributed markedly (30 %) to the summation of total of recorded pollen. A. vulgaris is the most important pollen source in Poznań, but the roles of two other Artemisia species cannot be ignored. In particular, A. campestris should be considered as an important pollen contributor and likely might be one of the main causes of allergic reactions during late summer.

  8. Loss of vitamin D receptor signaling from the mammary epithelium or adipose tissue alters pubertal glandular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Abby L; Zinser, Glendon M; Waltz, Susan E

    2014-10-15

    Vitamin D₃ receptor (VDR) signaling within the mammary gland regulates various postnatal stages of glandular development, including puberty, pregnancy, involution, and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D₃ treatment induces cell-autonomous growth inhibition and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Furthermore, mammary adipose tissue serves as a depot for vitamin D₃ storage, and both epithelial cells and adipocytes are capable of bioactivating vitamin D₃. Despite the pervasiveness of VDR in mammary tissue, individual contributions of epithelial cells and adipocytes, as well as the VDR-regulated cross-talk between these two cell types during pubertal mammary development, have yet to be investigated. To assess the cell-type specific effect of VDR signaling during pubertal mammary development, novel mouse models with mammary epithelial- or adipocyte-specific loss of VDR were generated. Interestingly, loss of VDR in either cellular compartment accelerated ductal morphogenesis with increased epithelial cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within terminal end buds. Conversely, VDR signaling specifically in the mammary epithelium modulated hormone-induced alveolar growth, as ablation of VDR in this cell type resulted in precocious alveolar development. In examining cellular cross-talk ex vivo, we show that ligand-dependent VDR signaling in adipocytes significantly inhibits mammary epithelial cell growth in part through the vitamin D₃-dependent production of the cytokine IL-6. Collectively, these studies delineate independent roles for vitamin D₃-dependent VDR signaling in mammary adipocytes and epithelial cells in controlling pubertal mammary gland development.

  9. Mining the mouse transcriptome of receptive endometrium reveals distinct molecular signatures for the luminal and glandular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklaus, Andrea L; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2006-07-01

    Epithelia coat most tissues where they sense and respond to the environment and participate in innate immune responses. In the adult mouse uterus, columnar epithelium lines the central lumen and the glands that penetrate the underlying stroma. A nidatory surge of estrogen causes differentiation of the luminal epithelium to the receptive state that permits blastocyst attachment and allows subsequent implantation. Here, using laser-capture microdissection to isolate the luminal and glandular epithelia separately, we have profiled gene expression 2 h before embryo attachment to determine whether there are unique roles for these two epithelial structures in this process. Although most genes were expressed in both compartments, there was greater expression of 153 and 118 genes in the lumen and glands, respectively. In the luminal epithelium, there is enrichment in lipid, metal-ion binding, and carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, whereas in the glands, immune response genes are emphasized. In situ hybridization to uterine sections obtained from mice during the preimplantation period validated these data and indicated an array of previously undocumented genes expressed with unique patterns in these epithelia. The data show that each epithelial compartment has a distinct molecular signature and that they act differentially and synergistically to permit blastocyst implantation.

  10. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase.

  11. 冷蒿的青贮特性研究%The Studies on Character of ArtemisiaFrigida Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 米艳杰; 陈士超; 孙启忠; 王田歌

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia frigida was used as material to make silage without adding additive and make silage adding additive. The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages were nice and good , the mark were 16 and 13 respectively in silage without adding additive and in silage adding additive .The pH value of silage without adding additive and silage adding additive were 5.20 and 5.22 respectively. The addition of the additive can’t increase content of LA and AA . Content of BA and PA in silage without adding additive less than in the silage adding additive. The results of Flieg’s evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was an excellent silage, the silage adding additive was a bad silage. Comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, we found that Artemisia scoparia can make silage, makingArtemisia frigida silage without adding additive was the best way.%以冷蒿(Artemisiafrigida)为原料,通过直接青贮和使用添加剂青贮,研究其青贮特性。研究结果表明:直接青贮冷蒿的pH值为5.20,感官品质达到优良等级,感官评分为16分;使用添加剂青贮冷蒿的pH值为5.22,感官质量尚好,感官评分为13分。直接青贮的乳酸和乙酸含量高于添加剂青贮,丙酸和丁酸占总酸的百分比、氨态氮占总氮的百分比低于添加添加剂青贮。通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮冷蒿为65分,质量良好,而使用添加剂青贮冷蒿为37分,青贮质量达到合格。综合感官性状和发酵品质的评定,结论为冷蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,且直接青贮的方法更好。

  12. Polyploidization in the trophoblast and uterine glandular epithelium of the endotheliochorial placenta of silver fox (Vulpes fulvus Desm.), as revealed by the DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybina, T G; Zybina, E V; Kiknadze, I I; Zhelezova, A I

    2001-05-01

    Dynamics of genome multiplication during establishment of interrelations between trophoblast and glandular epithelium of the endometrium has been studied in the course of formation of placenta in the silver fox. During formation of the placenta, penetration of the trophoblast into the zone of the endometrial glandular epithelium and of endometrial blood vessels into the zone of expanding trophoblast occurs. The trophoblast, which gradually replaces epithelium and a part of the stroma of the endometrium, closely adjoins endometrial vessels but does not disrupt them, thereby the endotheliochorial placenta is formed. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in trophoblast nuclei have shown that most of them are polyploid: predominantly 4-64c, occasionally 128c and 256c. Polyploidy of the trophoblast may be a consequence of various types of polyploidizing mitoses. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in mitotic figures have revealed the presence of mitoses of diploid cells, i.e. with the DNA amount of 4c (2n), and polyploid cells, i.e. 8c (4n), and 16c (8n), therefore trophoblast cells in the silver fox placenta are able to enter mitosis up to the octaploid level. Higher degrees of polyploidy in the trophoblast cells seem to be achieved by endoreduplication. Polyploidization of the uterine glandular epithelial cells during placentation in the silver fox occurs until the level of 8c. Thus, the tissue-specific response of the uterus to the implanting embryo consists of active proliferation and polyploidization of the glandular epithelium, which may compensate formation of prominent population of decidual cells (i.e., connective tissue cells). In the endotheliochorial placenta of the silver fox the regularity is confirmed that cells of both maternal and fetal origin are, as a rule, polyploid in sites of their contact in placenta, which may be of protective significance in the contact of allogenic organisms.

  13. Inhibition of regrowth of prostatic glandular cells by epristeride%爱普列特抑制大鼠前列腺细胞的再生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立晖; 王晓麟; 屠曾宏

    2001-01-01

    目的:评价爱普列特抑制前列腺细胞重新生长的能力.方法:正常大鼠去势后注射丙酸睾丸酮刺激前列腺重新生长.HE染色进行形态学观察.测量前列腺上皮细胞高度及腺腔面积.免疫组化测定DHT浓度.结果:大鼠口服爱普列特10 mg/kg前列腺上皮高度和腺腔面积分别仅为对照组的48%和55%.免疫组化表明,大鼠口服爱普列特30天后,DHT浓度显著下降.结论:爱普列特通过降低DHT浓度来抑制前列腺细胞的重新生长.%AIM: To evaluate the ability of epristeride to inhibit the prostatic glandular regrowth. METHODS: Normal rots were castrated. Testosterone was injected to induce the regrowth of glandular cells. HE staining was performed.The height of the glandular epithelium and the acinar luminal areas were determined, and dihydrotestosterone ( DHT ) was detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Both the height and the acinar luminal areas were reduced by 48 % and 55 % in epristeride-treated group compared with control group respectively. The staining of DHT was comparatively strong in the control group. After 30-d of treatment, it turned much weaker.CONCLUSION: The regrowth of glandular cells was inhibited by epristeride via declining of the DHT concentration in the rat prostate.

  14. Ultrastructural changes in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during the oestrous cycle of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Regula; Kress, Annetrudi

    2002-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in the endometrium associated with the oestrous cycle were studied in the South American marsupial Monodelphis domestica. The most conspicuous changes include the height and the differentiation of the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium, which consists of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. The glandular epithelium attains its maximum development during oestrus, the luminal epithelium at postoestrus. A distinct increase in the number of ciliated cells can be observed during pro-oestrus, reaching a maximum number at oestrus; this is followed by a process of deciliation. The presence of solitary cilia on the apices of non-ciliated cells is very conspicuous during all oestrous stages and can best be seen on the luminal epithelium. These findings differ from the observations in eutherian mammals, where solitary cilia are only found in the immature uterus or after ovariectomy. The secretory activity of non-ciliated cells of the luminal epithelium is hardly noticeable along the apical membrane and stains only very faintly with Alcian blue. The glandular epithelium cells are filled apically with exocytotic vesicles at oestrus and early postoestrus. However, in contrast to the cervical gland cells, they hardly stain with Alcian blue, indicating that mucins of a different type must be present. Mechanisms for the remodelling of the luminal and glandular epithelium are especially conspicuous at metoestrus and early pro-oestrus and include the presence of autolysosomes, residual bodies and apoptotic bodies. In the endometrial stroma, around the uterine glands, macrophages accumulate and attain a typical oestrous stage-dependent appearance during their phagocytotic activities.

  15. Human glandular organoid formation in murine engineering chambers after collagenase digestion and flow cytometry isolation of normal human breast tissue single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Cecilia W; Huang, Dexing; Chew, Grace L; Hill, Prue; Vohora, Ambika; Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Godde, Nathan; Henderson, Michael A; Thompson, Erik W; Britt, Kara L

    2016-11-01

    Women with high mammographic density (MD) are at increased risk of breast cancer (BC) after adjustment for age and body mass index. We have developed a murine biochamber model in which both high MD (HMD) and low MD (LMD) tissue can be propagated. Here, we tested whether cells isolated by collagenase digestion and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from normal breast can be reconstituted in our biochamber model, which would allow cell-specific manipulations to be tested. Fresh breast tissue was collected from women (n = 7) undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. The tissue underwent collagenase digestion overnight and, in some cases, additional FACS enrichment to obtain mature epithelial, luminal progenitor, mammary stem, and stromal cells. Cells were then transferred bilaterally into biochambers in SCID mice (n = 5-7) and incubated for 6 weeks, before harvesting for histological analyses, and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, Ki-67, murine macrophages, and Cleaved Caspase-3. Biochambers inoculated with single cells after collagenase digestion or with flow cytometry contained glandular structures of human origin (human vimentin-positive), which expressed CK-14 and pan-CK, and were proliferating (Ki-67-positive). Glandular structures from the digested tissues were smaller than those in chambers seeded with finely chopped intact mammary tissue. Mouse macrophage infiltration was higher in the chambers arising from digested tissues. Pooled single cells and FACS fractionated cells were viable in the murine biochambers and formed proliferating glandular organoids of human origin. This is among the first report to demonstrate the success of formed human glandular organoids from isolated primary mammary cells in the murine biochamber model.

  16. Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; May, Bianca; Lankes, Christa; Wüst, Matthias

    2014-03-19

    The biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol glycosides rebaudioside A and stevioside in nonrooted cuttings of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated by feeding experiments using the labeled key precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). Labeled glycosides were extracted from the leaves and stems and were directly analyzed by LC-(-ESI)-MS/MS and by GC-MS after hydrolysis and derivatization of the resulting isosteviol to the corresponding TMS-ester. Additionally, the incorporation of the proffered d2-MVL and d2-DOX into volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes on leaves and stems was investigated by headspace-solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Incorporation of the labeled precursors indicated that diterpenes in leaves and monoterpenes and diterpenes in glandular trichomes are predominately biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas both the MEP and mevalonate (MVA) pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes at equal rates in glandular trichomes. These findings give evidence for a transport of MEP pathway derived farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol. Contrarily, the transport of MVA pathway derived geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursors from the cytosol to the plastid is limited.

  17. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth.

  18. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  19. Preparative isolation of guaipyridine sesquiterpene alkaloid from Artemisia rupestris L. flowers using high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen; Wu, Hankui; Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Slukhan, Usmanova; Aripova, Salimakhon

    2008-07-01

    Although the medicinal plant Artemisia rupestris L. has been widely researched for several decades, its alkaloids have never been isolated before. To our surprise, the alkaloids in the plant were not detected in the stems but detected in the flowers. Herein, a novel and strange guaipyridine sesquiterpene alkaloid with a carboxyl group named rupestine was purified successfully from the total alkaloids extracted from the flowers by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The two-phase solvent system used was composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water (8:1:7, v/v/v). Fifty six milligrams of rupestine was obtained at over 97% purity and 95% recovery from 200 mg of the total alkaloids in one-step separation. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods including high resolution ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC), Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC), and Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy (NOESY).

  20. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Pateraki, Irini; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric C H; Kanellis, Angelos K; Tissier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split.

  1. CYTO - HISTO CORRELATION OF ATYPICAL GLANDULAR CELLS OF ENDOMETRIAL ORIGIN ON CERVICAL CYTOLOGY IN ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopa Mudra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association has been reported with presence of endometrial cells on cervical smears and clinically significant uterine lesions. Hence for early detection of endometrial pathology , t he 2001 Bethesda system has suggested the mandatory reporting of presence of any atypical endometrial cells regardless of age and menstrual status and out of phase normal looking endometrial cells in women aged 40 years or more. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between atypical glandular cells of endometrial origin in cervical cytology and histopathological findings in abnormal uterine bleeding cases . SETTINGS AND DESIGN : The study was conducted at JSS hospital , Mysore in the department of pathology. This was a descriptive type of study. The sample was collected fro m patients attending the gynecology OPD with the complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding in JSS hospital . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Smears for cervical cytology are collected using either pap smear or manual liquid based smear from 82 patients in the age grou p of 20 - 75 years with complaints of abnormal bleeding history. The results of cervical cytology were compared and confirmed with the endometrial pathology. RESULTS : Out of 82 abnormal uterine bleeding cases 14 showed atypical endometrial cells. On follow u p of these cases , the results indicated an association between atypical endometrial cells in cervical cytology with endometrial carcinoma in 8 cases (60% , 1 case with complex hyperplasia with atypia (10% . CONCLUSION : Presence of atypical endometrial cell s in all women with abnormal uterine bleeding has considerable clinical implications & further diagnostic evaluation by endometrial sampling is of utmost importance.

  2. 东北桤木叶表皮盾状腺毛的形态及其变化过程%The Morphology and Process Changes of Peltate Glandular hairs in Alnus mandshurica Leaf Epidermis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊义; 刘秀岩; 梁宇

    2009-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy techniques to observe the leaves surface of Alnus mandshurica and find it far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs. It made up of two-cells, four stem cells and 20~25 head-cells, with the accumulation of secretion material, cells rupture, finally disappear. Theree is no peltate glandu-lar hairs far axial epidermis, in young leawes only has stoma distribution. The cross section of A. mandshurica leaves showed it belongs to bifacial leaf, cells of far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs connect with leaf vein vascular tissue, the author consider this peltate glandular hairs shoule belong to " Peltate glandular hairs" , and suggest that the nouns of " Glandular scales" , " Peltate gland" , " Peltate scale" , " Peltate glandular hairs" should be normalized. The process of shields-glandular in A. mandshurica leaf epidermis and the component of se-cretion material need to be further studied.%利用电镜扫描技术,观察东北桤木叶片表面,发现其远轴面表皮上具有盾状腺毛.其由2个基细胞、4个柄细胞和20~25个头部细胞组成,随着分泌物质的积累,细胞逐渐破裂.幼叶远轴面表皮无盾状腺毛,仅有气孔分布.观察东北桤木叶片横切面,发现其为异面叶,远轴面表皮上的盾状腺毛细胞与叶脉维管组织相连.外文资料显示用于表述桤木属表皮上的盾状腺毛的名词较多,该毛状体应为"Peltate glandular hairs".同时建议对"Glan-dular scales"、"Peltate gland"、"Peltate scale"、"Peltate glandular hairs"等名词进行规范统一.另外有关东北桤木叶表皮上毛状体从原表皮细胞的发生过程及其分泌物的成份,需进一步研究.

  3. Evolución de la agregación y separación de sexos: ¿Qué hemos aprendido de las poblaciones ibéricas de Mercurialis annua?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pannell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de las especies de plantas son hermafroditas, en las que las funciones reproductivas tanto femenina como masculina son llevadas a cabo por los mismos individuos. Sin embargo, la separación de los sexos en diferentes individuos (dioecia ha evolucionado independientemente en numerosas ocasiones, probablemente en respuesta a la selección para evitar la depresión por endogamia o porque es beneficioso para los individuos especializarse en uno de los dos sexos. Aunque la evolución de la dioecia a partir del hermafroditismo tiende a ser considerada en este único sentido, la dioecia ha revertido en varias ocasiones para dar lugar a hermafroditismo. Uno de esos casos lo encontramos en el género Mercurialis (Euphorbiaceae, el cual es principalmente dioico. En el complejo de especies M. annua, las poblaciones diploides son dioicas, pero las poliploides pueden ser monoicas o androdioicas (coexistencia de machos junto con hermafroditas funcionales. Este complejo de especies ofrece múltiples posibilidades a la hora de abordar cuestiones relativas a la evolución y la ecología de la agregación frente a la separación de los sexos; la evolución del dimorfismo sexual secundario, que probablemente contribuye a la estabilización de la dioecia en el género; y la evolución y la genética de la determinación sexual y los cromosomas sexuales. M. annua también se presenta como una valiosa herramienta docente para tratar temas que van desde la selección en ratios de sexo hasta la competencia entre sexos.

  4. Treatment with eCG decreases the vascular density and increases the glandular density of the bovine uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona e Pinto, J; Pavanelo, V; Alves de Fátima, L; Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, L M; Pacheco Mendes, G; Machado Ferreira, R; Ayres, H; Sampaio Baruselli, P; Palma Rennó, F; de Carvallo Papa, P

    2014-06-01

    The uterus plays an essential role in mammalian reproduction and is a target of several hormonal protocols used to improve fertility in cattle. Many studies highlighted the importance of eCG treatment following fixed-time artificial insemination in improving follicular growth, ovulation and pregnancy rates in cattle. Moreover, eCG has been implicated in angiogenesis, leading to important changes in uterine blood flow and vascularisation. However, there is still a lack of information regarding the specific alterations induced by eCG upon glandular and vascular characteristics of bovine uterus. To investigate the influence of eCG on: uterine thickness and area; uterine artery diameter and area; uterine vascular and gland density; and the expression of the VEGFA-system, the uteri of crossbred beef cows were collected. All cows were submitted to follicular wave emergence synchronization. On day four of protocol, cows submitted to superovulation (n = 6) received 2000 IU eCG, on day eight, after expected follicular deviation, cows submitted to stimulatory treatment (n = 5) received 400 IU eCG. Control cows (n = 5) did not receive eCG. On day five po cows were subjected to ultrassonographic evaluation and slaughtered for uterine tissue sampling on day six po. Uterine vessels and glands were quantified by the counting point stereological method. The VEGFA-system was localized in different cellular types, showing no qualitative or quantitative differences in the site of expression or the intensity of the positive signal among the groups. Vascular density was decreased in the endometrium of stimulated and myometrium of superovulated cows compared with the control ones, which showed higher vascular density in the myometrium and endometrium of the ipsilateral uterine horn. The uterine gland density was higher in superovulated compared with stimulated and control cows. Thus, we can infer that stimulatory or superovulatory treatments with eCG influence the vascular

  5. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  6. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma. Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhang; Nobutaka Yamada; Yun-Lin Wu; Min Wen; Takeshi Matsuhisa; Norio Matsukura

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis,gastric ulcer.METHODS: The biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus and upper angulus of all the patients.Giemsa staining, improved toluidine-blue staining, and H pylori-specific antibody immune staining were performed as appropriate for the histological diagnosis of H pylori infection. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for the histological diagnosis of gastric mucosa inflammation, gastric glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia and scored into four grades according to the Updated Sydney System.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H pylori infection in superficial gastritis was 28.7%, in erosive gastritis 57.7%,in gastric erosion 63.3%, in gastric ulcer 80.8%, in early gastric cancer 52.4%. There was significant difference (P<0.05), except for the difference between early gastric cancer and erosive gastritis. H pylori infection rate in antrum, corpus, angulus of patients with superficial gastritis was 25.9%, 26.2%, 25.2%, respectively; in patients with erosive gastritis 46.9%, 53.5%, 49.0%,respectively; in patients with gastric erosion 52.4%, 61.5%,52.4%, respectively; in patients with gastric ulcer 52.4%,61.5%, 52.4%, respectively; in patients with early gastric cancer 35.0%, 50.7%, 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference was found among the different site biopsies in superficial gastritis, but in the other diseases the detected rates were higher in corpus biopsy (P<0.05). The grades of mononuclear cell infiltration and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, in early gastric cancer patients, were significantly higher than that in superficial gastritis patients, lower than that in gastric erosion and gastric ulcer patients (P<0.01);however, there was no significant difference compared with erosive gastritis. The grades

  8. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Wang, Guo-Dong; Sun, Gui-Ling; Grant, Marcus; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms.

  9. Apoptotic depletion of infiltrating mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosal epithelium: human glandular stomach as a site of immune privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S

    2000-04-01

    H. pylori infection almost invariably results in chronic gastritis, but only a proportion of patients develops severe destruction of epithelial glandular structure or peptic ulcer. To confirm the recent data obtained in testis and eye, showing that Fas ligand is involved in the phenomenon of "immune privilege," expression of Fas receptor and its ligand of the stomach was investigated in a panel of gastric biopsies obtained from patients H. pylori-positive (N = 42) and with H. pylori-negative (N = 18) by two-color flow cytometry. The results show that membrane-bound Fas ligand protein is constitutively expressed on freshly isolated human gastric mucosal epithelium coupled with infiltrating lymphocytes. There was significant overexpression of Fas receptor and its ligand, and a higher frequency of apoptotic cell death detected by TUNEL in epithelium and infiltrating lymphocytes in H. pylori-infected patients. These findings suggest that involvement of Fas receptor and its ligand system contributes to some extent to mucosal damage in H. pylori-associated gastritis. However, the more specific findings are apoptotic depletion of invading mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by gastric epithelium. These provide the first direct quantitative evidence to support Fas receptor counterattack and/or paracrine fratricide as a mechanism of immune privilege in vivo in the H. pylori-infected glandular stomach.

  10. Chemical constituents from the Folium Artemisiae Argyi(Ⅱ)%艾叶的化学成分(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉双; 卢桂荣; 孟大利; 李宁; 李铣

    2010-01-01

    目的 对中药艾叶(Folium Artemisiae Argyi)的化学成分进行分离鉴定.方法 采用反复硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱、制备TLC、重结晶等方法进行分离纯化,通过理化常数测定和波谱分析等手段鉴定其化学结构.结果 分离得到10个化合物,分别鉴定为isotanciloide(1)、伞形花内酯(umbelliferone,2)、瑞香素(daphnetin,3)、圣草酚(eriodictyol,4)、鼠李素(rhamnetin,5)、高车前素(hispidulin,6)、L-2-O-甲基-手-肌醇(L-2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol,7)、豆甾醇(stigmasterol,8)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,9)、4-甲氧基-3-羟基苯酚(4-methoxyl-3-hydroxyphenol,10).结论 其中,化合物10为新天然产物,化合物1-5、7为首次从艾叶中分离得到.

  11. Habitat Effect on Allometry of a Xeric Shrub (Artemisia ordosica Krasch in the Mu Us Desert of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei She

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models are useful for assessment of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP and aboveground biomass (AGB of forests and shrubs, and are widely implemented in forest inventory and management. Multiple forms of allometric models have been used to estimate vegetation carbon storage for desert shrubland, but their validity for biomass estimation has not been tested at a region scale with different habitats. To verify the validity of habitat-specific models, general models (combining data from all habitats/sites, and previously developed models for biomass prediction, we developed both general models and habitat-specific models for aboveground biomass and ANPP of Artemisia ordosica Krasch, a dominant shrub of the Mu Us Desert. Our results showed that models based on crown area or canopy volume consistently explained large parts of the variations in aboveground biomass and ANPP. Model fitting highlighted that general allometric models were inadequate across different habitats, and habitat-specific models were useful for that specific habitat. Previous models might be inappropriate for other sites because of site quality differences. There was a strong habitat effect on the allometric relationships of A. ordosica. Although our study is a case in point, the results indicate that allometric models for desert shrubs should be used with caution and require robust validation if adopted from other studies or applied to different sites/habitats.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding RING zinc finger ankyrin protein from drought-tolerant Artemisia desertorum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiuhong Yang; Chao Sun; Yuanlei Hun; Zhongping Lin

    2008-03-01

    A RING zinc finger ankyrin protein gene, designated AdZFP1, was isolated from drought-tolerant Artemisia desertorum Spreng by mRNA differential display and RACE. Its cDNA was 1723 bp and encoded a putative protein of 445 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 7.49. A typical C3HC4-type RING finger domain was found at the C-terminal region of the AdZFP1 protein, and several groups of ankyrin repeats were found at the N-terminal region. Alignments of amino acid sequence showed that AdZFP1 was 66% identical to the Arabidopsis thaliana putative RING zinc finger ankyrin protein AAN31869. Transcriptional analysis showed that AdZFP1 was inducible under drought stress in root, stem and leaf of the plant. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the transcript of AdZFP1 was strongly induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and also by salinity, cold and heat to some extent. Overexpression of the AdZFP1 gene in transgenic tobacco enhanced their tolerance to drought stress.

  13. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  14. Inhibition of Phytophthora parasitica and P. capsici by Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Aqueous Extract of Artemisia absinthium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2015-09-01

    Application of nanoparticles for controlling plant pathogens is a rapidly emerging area in plant disease management, and nanoparticles synthesis methods that are economical and ecofriendly are extensively investigated. In this project, we investigated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized with aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium against several Phytophthora spp., which cause many economically important crop diseases. In in vitro dose-response tests conducted in microtiter plates, 10 µg ml⁻¹ of AgNPs inhibited mycelial growth of P. parasitica, P. infestans, P. palmivora, P. cinnamomi, P. tropicalis, P. capsici, and P. katsurae. Detailed in vitro dose-response analyses conducted with P. parasitica and P. capsici revealed that AgNPs synthesized with A. absinthium extract were highly potent (IC50: 2.1 to 8.3 µg ml⁻¹) and efficacious (100%) in inhibiting mycelial growth, zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, and zoospore production. Interestingly, AgNP treatment accelerated encystment of zoospores. Consistent with in vitro results, in planta experiments conducted in a greenhouse revealed that AgNP treatments prevented Phytophthora infection and improved plant survival. Moreover, AgNP in in planta experiments did not produce any adverse effects on plant growth. These investigations provide a simple and economical method for controlling Phytophthora with AgNP without affecting normal plant physiology.

  15. Efficient In Vitro Propagation by Ex Vitro Rooting Methods of Artemisia absinthium L., an Ethnobotanically Important Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahipal S. Shekhawat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an important medicinal plant. Owing to the increasing anthropogenic activities and demand from the pharmaceutical industry, this plant species is overexploited; thereby this endangered its genetic stock in the wild. Therefore, it is urgently needed to develop nonconventional methods for conservation of A. absinthium. Nodal segments obtained from the field grown 2-month-old plants were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.25 mg/L kinetin (Kn were reported to be optimum for induction of shoots (6.0 ± 0.52 shoots per explant. The shoots were multiplied by repeated transfer of original explants and by subculturing of in vitro raised shoots on MS medium augmented with 1.0 mg/L each of BAP and Kn and 0.1 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. All in vitro regenerated shoots (100% were rooted (4.4 ± 0.35 roots on one-fourth strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. Cent percentage shoots rooted ex vitro on sterile Soilrite under the greenhouse conditions when the shoots were treated with 200 mg/L of IBA for 5 min. Plantlets rooted in vitro and ex vitro were acclimatized successfully in the greenhouse and exhibited 87% and 95% survival rate.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05. The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus.

  17. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p=0.004 to 34.6% (p=0.05 in the APAP and 46.3% (p<0.001 to 29.9% (p=0.02 in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  18. An ethanol extract of Artemisia iwayomogi activates PPARδ leading to activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Young Cho

    Full Text Available Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPARδ-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4, and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPARδ-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity.

  19. Methanol Extract of Artemisia apiacea Hance Attenuates the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators via NF-κB Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Choul Ryu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia apiacea Hance is one of the most widely used herbs for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, and dyspeptic complaint in oriental medicine. This study investigated the effects of methanol extracts of A. apiacea Hance (MEAH on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and proinflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in Raw264.7 macrophage cells and also evaluated the in vivo effect of MEAH on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. MEAH treatment in Raw264.7 cells significantly decreased LPS-inducible nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, while MEAH (up to 100 μg/mL had no cytotoxic activity. Results from immunoblot analyses and ELISA revealed that MEAH significantly inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in LPS-activated cells. As a plausible molecular mechanism, increased degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory-κBα and nuclear factor-κB accumulation in the nucleus by LPS were partly blocked by MEAH treatment. Finally, MEAH treatment decreased the carrageenan-induced formation of paw edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats. These results demonstrate that MEAH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential that may result from the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation, subsequently decreasing the expression of proinflammatory mediators.

  20. Discussion of Detection Method for Cervical Glandular Intraepithelial Neoplasia%宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变检测方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红荣; 马成斌; 王忠英

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨宫颈涂片、宫颈活检等的筛选方法在宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变术前检测中的作用。方法对2007.1~2013.6在我院做过宫颈锥切和全子宫切除诊断为宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变(CGIN)的患者进行鉴别。收集宫颈锥切和子宫切除前来自宫颈涂片、宫颈组织活检、颈管搔刮的结果。 Fisher确切概率法用于统计分析。结果经宫颈组织病理证实的67例CGIN患者宫颈细胞学涂片中,23例有细胞病变,未见上皮内瘤样病变44例。宫颈涂片腺体病变检出灵敏度34.3%。23例涂片异常结果中异型的腺上皮有8例(11.9%),高度鳞状上皮内瘤样病变1例(1.5%),低度鳞状上皮瘤样病变的5例(7.5%),不典型鳞状上皮9例(13.4%),。腺上皮异常组与鳞状上皮异常组对单纯性CGIN的检出率无统计学差异(P=0.379)。结论在CGIN锥切前,宫颈涂片检测腺体病变异常的敏感度较低,但加上宫颈组织活检和宫颈管搔刮则明显提高,宫颈疾病的术前精确预测对怀疑有宫颈腺体病变患者治疗计划的制定具有重要意义。%Objective Discuss the role of screening method for cervical smear, cervical biopsy and etc in preoperative detecting of cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN). Methods: Patients with a cervical biopsy or hysterectomy diagnosis of CGIN from 2007.1 to 2013.6 at our institution were identified. Results from Papanicolaou smears or TCT、cervical biopsies and endocervical curet age (ECC) preceding the cone excision or hysterectomy were col ected from medical records. Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The pathology confirmed of 67, found a total of 23 cases had untypical cells, negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) 44 patients (65.7%). Positive predictive value of cervical smear for glandular lesion is 34.3%. Atypical glandular epithelium has 8 cases (11.9%), high-grade squamous intraepithelial

  1. In vivo rat glandular stomach and colon micronucleus tests: Kinetics of micronucleated cells, apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the target tissues after a single oral administration of stomach- or colon-carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Wakako; Okada, Emiko; Fujiishi, Yohei; Narumi, Kazunori; Yasutake, Nobuyoshi

    2013-08-15

    We have developed in vivo micronucleus (MN) tests by using an epithelial cell suspension isolated from the glandular stomach and colon of rodents. In the present study, our aim was to demonstrate the characteristics of the glandular stomach and colon MN tests by analyzing time-related changes in MN frequencies, apoptosis and cell proliferation in the target tissues of male CD (SD) rats that were orally administered a single dose of a stomach- or colon-targeted carcinogen, i.e., N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) for the stomach and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) for the colon. After treatment, the MN frequencies significantly increased in the respective target tissues, peaking at 48-96h and decreasing afterwards. The time-response pattern could be explained by the epithelial cell turnover confirmed with a labeling experiment using the thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). In the study with MNU and DMH, we also prepared paraffin sections of the respective target tissues for the immunohistochemical evaluation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. The incidence of apoptosis increased in the early phase (6 and/or 24h) after treatment, and then decreased. Cell proliferation was depressed when a high incidence of apoptosis was observed, and then it recovered until 72h. MN frequencies increased with the recovery of cell proliferation occurring later than the peak apoptosis response. These results indicated that micronuclei were induced in the glandular stomach and colon epithelial cells by administration of the model chemicals. On the other hand, MNU induced significant increases of MNed cells in both the glandular stomach and bone marrow in the same rats, while MNNG did only in the glandular stomach when administered orally up to 1/4 of the LD50. These results suggest that the glandular stomach- and colon-MN tests would be useful for evaluating the genotoxicity of agents in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Plasminogen-independent initiation of the pro-urokinase activation cascade in vivo. Activation of pro-urokinase by glandular kallikrein (mGK-6) in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Bugge, T H;

    2000-01-01

    kallikrein). The pro-uPA converting activity of the mGK-6 enzyme, as well as its ability to cleave a synthetic substrate for glandular kallikrein, was inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor leupeptin but not by other serine proteinase inhibitors such as aprotinin, antithrombin III, or alpha(1...... the cascade by activating pro-uPA. The urine from Plg -/- mice contained active two-chain uPA as well as a proteinase capable of activating exogenously added pro-uPA. The active component was purified and identified by mass spectrometry-based peptide mapping as mouse glandular kallikrein mGK-6 (true tissue...

  3. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  4. 大籽蒿花粉过敏原的分离、鉴定与纯化%Identification and purification of major allergens in Artemisia sieversiana pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴永; 肖小军; 孙宏治; 何韶衡; 杨平常; 刘志刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To isolate,identify and purify the Artemisia sieversiana pollen ,the mostly widespread pollen among the Artemisia pollens in China.Methods: Artemisia sieversiana extract was precipitated by saturated ammonium sulfate and then electrophoresed by SDS-PAGE.The molecular mass of each protein band was determined by gel media system.The primary allergen proteins were identified by Western blot.Allergen proteins were purified and identified by DEAE-cellulose DE-52 ion exchange chroma-tography ( IEC) and Western blot.Results: We isolated more than twenty protein bands from Artemisia sieversiana pollen extract , including the most abundant six bands whose Mr were 62 kD,57 kD,38 kD,29 kD,25 kD,14 kD espectively.The protein bands with Mr were 62 kD and 16 kD had the highest binding capacity with the specific IgE from Artemisia pollen allergic patients.The DEAE-cellulose DE-32 IEC was used to purify the primary allergen proteins with Mr 62 kD and 16 kD.Conclusion:The primary allergens of Artemisia sieversiana include the allergen proteins whose Mr are 62 kD,16 kD and the allergen of Mr 62 kD and 16 kD can be purified by chromatography.%目的:对我国蒿属花粉中常见的大籽蒿花粉进行分离、鉴定与纯化。方法:提取大籽蒿花粉粗浸液,通过聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分离蛋白质组分,并用凝胶成像系统测定各组分的相对分子质量(Mr);免疫印迹(Western blot)鉴定花粉主要过敏原;通过DEAE-Cellulose DE-52离子交换层析( Ion exchange chromatography ,IEC)对大籽蒿花粉过敏原进行纯化和免疫印迹鉴定。结果:分离后得到20多种蛋白组分,其中分子量( Mr)为62、57、38、29、25、14 kD 6个条带蛋白含量最丰富,其中Mr为62 kD和16 kD的蛋白条带与确诊的蒿属花粉过敏患者血清特异性IgE结合率最高(均>50%),为其主要过敏原,离子交换层析纯化后可得到Mr为62、16 kD的过敏原。结论

  5. 不同萃取技术获得的Artemisia sp的甲醇提取物其抗氧化和抗菌活性的比较%Comparison of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of the Artemisia sp.Recovered by Different Extraction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivana Karabegovi(c); Milena Nikolova; Dragan Veli(c)kovi(c); Sa(s)a Stoji(c)evi(c); Vlada Veljkovi(c); Miodrag Lazi(c)

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts obtained by classical,ultrasonic and Soxhlet extractions from dry aerial parts of two Artemisia species (Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia campestris) were compared. Ultrasound positively affected the yield of extractive substance and the kinetics of extraction, but the extract obtained by the classical extraction showed the highest antioxidant activities and contained higher total contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids than the extracts obtained by two other extraction techniques. Both flavonoid aglycones (apigenin, quercetin, quercetin 3,3'-dimethyl ether) and flavonoid glycosides (rutin, hyperoside and kaempferol 3-rhamnoside) were identified by thin layer chromatograph (TLC) analysis in the extracts from both species. A. campestris extracts were richer in quercetin than A. vulgaris and its antimicrobial activity was also better than A. vulgaris. Extracts obtained from both species were found to be more effective on the tested yeasts than bacteria. The kinetics of the total extractive substances, such as phenolic, flavonoids and quercetin extraction, was successfully described by the model of unsteady-state diffusion.

  6. A Carbohydrate Fraction, AIP1, from Artemisia Iwayomogi Reduces the Action Potential Duration by Activation of Rapidly Activating Delayed Rectifier K+ Channels in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Won Sun; Son, Youn Kyoung; Ko, Eun A.; Choi, Seong Woo; Kim, Nari; Choi, Tae-Hoon; Youn, Hyun Joo; Jo, Su-Hyun; Hong, Da Hye; Han, Jin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a hot-water extract of Artemisia iwayomogi, a plant belonging to family Compositae, on cardiac ventricular delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) using the patch clamp technique. The carbohydrate fraction AIP1 dose-dependently increased the heart rate with an apparent EC50 value of 56.1±5.5 µg/ml. Application of AIP1 reduced the action potential duration (APD) in concentration-dependent fashion by activating IK without significantly altering the resting membrane pote...

  7. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  8. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soheil Salehi,1 Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz,2 Farinaz Ghanbar,3 Mohammad Raouf Darvish,4 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,5 Amir Mirzaie,2 Mohsen Jafari6 1Department of Phytochemistry and Essential Oils Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (IAUPS, 2Young Researchers and Elite Club, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 3Department of Biology, Tehran North Branch, 4Department of Chemistry, Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 5Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 6Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract: A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose

  9. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  10. N and P resorption in a pioneer shrub (Artemisia halodendron) inhabiting severely desertified lands of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLin LI; Chen JING; Wei MAO; Duo CUI; XinYuan WANG; XueYong ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient resorption is an important conservation mechanism for plants to overcome nutrient limitation in the less fertile area of desertified land. In the semi-arid Horqin Sandy Land of Northern China, the shrub Artemisia halodendron usually colonizes into the bare ground of severely desertified land as a pioneer species. It is, therefore, expected that A. halodendron will be less dependent on current nutrient uptake through efficient and proficient re-sorption of nutrients. In this study, we found that averaged nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in se-nesced leaves significantly varied from 12.3 and 1.2 mg/g in the shifting sand dune to 15.9 and 1.9 mg/g in the fixed sand dune, respectively, suggesting that foliar N and P resorption of A. halodendron were more proficient in the shifting sand dune. In particular, positive relationships between nutrient concentrations in senesced leaves and soil nutrient availability indicate that A. halodendron in infertile habitats is more likely to manage with a low level of nu-trients in senesced leaves, giving this species an advantage in infertile soil. Moreover, foliar N- and P-resorption efficiencies and proficiencies showed limited inter-annual variability although annual precipitation varied greatly among 2007-2009. However, N and P resorption of A. halodendron were not more efficient and proficient than those previously reported for other shrubs, indicating that the pioneer shrub in sand dune environments does not rely more heavily than other plants on the process of resorption to conserve nutrients. Incomplete resorption of nutrients in A. halodendron suggests that senesced-leaf fall would return litter with high quality to the soil, and thereby would indirectly improve soil nutrient availability. The restoration of desertified land, therefore, may be ac-celerated after A. halodendron pioneers into shifting sand dunes.

  11. Effects of Sand Dune Stabilization on the Spatial Pattern of Artemisia ordosica Population in Mu Us Desert, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachen; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Dongqing; Qin, Shugao; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by sand mobility in desert ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial patterns of Artemisia ordosica, a dominant shrub in the Mu Us desert of Northwest China, in relation to sand fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate and contrast the effects of sand dune stabilization on the population and spatial distribution of this desert shrub. Spatial autocorrelation, semi-variance analysis, and point-pattern analysis were used jointly in this study to investigate the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations on dunes in Yanchi County of Ningxia, China. The results showed that the spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity declined gradually, and the distance between the clustered individuals shortened following sand dune fixation. Seedlings were more aggregated than adults in all stage of dune stabilization, and both were more aggregated on shifting sand dunes separately. Spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were mostly positive at distances of 0-5 m in shifting sand dunes, and the spatial association changed from positive to neutral in semi-fixed sand dunes. The seedlings were spaced in an almost random pattern around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations in semi-fixed sand dunes. Furthermore, spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were negative in the fixed sand dune. These findings demonstrate that sand stabilization is an important factor affecting the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations in the Mu Us desert. These findings suggest that, strong association between individuals may be the mechanism to explain the spatial pattern formation at preliminary stage of dune fixation. Sand dune stabilization can change the spatial pattern of shrub population by weakening the spatial association between native shrub individuals, which may affect the development direction of desert shrubs.

  12. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Artemisia lancea against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Dai, J L; Yang, L; Qiu, J

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged use of chemical anthelmintics has been found to result in anthelmintic resistance and environmental issues, thereby limiting the application of these drugs in domestic animals and prompting interest in the study of plant extracts as alternative sources thereof. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of the essential oil (EO) of Artemisia lancea against the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay, larval development assay, and larval migration inhibition assay. The EO yield of extraction was 0.63% (w/w), and the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (34.56%) and camphor (16.65%). In the egg hatch assay, an inhibition greater than 99% was observed with the EO at 10 mg mL(-1) and the LC50 was 1.82 mg mL(-1). 1,8-Cineole demonstrated moderate ovicidal activity with a LC50 of 4.64 mg mL(-1), whereas camphor did not show enough activity to have its LC50 determined. In the larval development assay, the EO, 1,8-cineole, and camphor inhibited 93.6%, 65.2%, and 57% of larval development at 10 mg mL(-1) and exhibited dose-dependent responses with LC50 values of 1.66, 5.07, and 7.80 mg mL(-1), respectively. In the migration inhibition assay, the EO and 1,8-cineole at best inhibited 77% and 60.3% of larval migration at 10 mg mL(-1), respectively. Camphor showed low inhibition capacity, and its efficacy was not dose dependent. The results indicate that the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the EO of A. lancea may be associated with the additive action of the two major constituents, as well as other more minor terpenoid components.

  13. Investigation of the Antiproliferative Properties of Natural Sesquiterpenes from Artemisia asiatica and Onopordum acanthium on HL-60 Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Molnár

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants and plant extracts play a crucial role in the research into novel antineoplastic agents. Four sesquiterpene lactones, artecanin (1, 3β-chloro-4α,10α-dihydroxy-1α,2α-epoxy-5α,7αH-guaia-11(13-en-12,6α-olide (2, iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ether (3 and 4β,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (4, were isolated from two traditionally used Asteraceae species (Onopordum acanthium and Artemisia asiatica. When tested for antiproliferative action on HL-60 leukemia cells, these compounds exhibited reasonable IC50 values in the range 3.6–13.5 μM. Treatment with the tested compounds resulted in a cell cycle disturbance characterized by increases in the G1 and G2/M populations, while there was a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, 1–3 elicited increases in the hypodiploid (subG1 population. The compounds elicited concentration-dependent chromatin condensation and disruption of the membrane integrity, as revealed by Hoechst 33258–propidium staining. Treatment for 24 h resulted in significant increases in activity of caspases-3 and -9, indicating that the tested sesquiterpenes induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The proapoptotic properties of the sesquiterpene lactones were additionally demonstrated withannexin V staining. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the Bax/Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expressions of CDK1 and cyclin B2, as determined at the mRNA level by means of RT-PCR. These experimental results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones may be regarded as potential starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents.

  14. Antimicrobial and efflux pump inhibitory activity of caffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia absinthium against gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis C Fiamegos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional antibiotics are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance amongst pathogenic bacteria leading to a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections being investigated as potential alternative treatments. One plausible antimicrobial alternative could be the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents/antibiotics with small molecules which block multidrug efflux systems known as efflux pump inhibitors. Bioassay-driven purification and structural determination of compounds from plant sources have yielded a number of pump inhibitors which acted against gram positive bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report the identification and characterization of 4',5'-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4',5'-ODCQA from Artemisia absinthium as a pump inhibitor with a potential of targeting efflux systems in a wide panel of gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, 3',5'-ODCQA, 4',5'-ODCQA was based on hyphenated chromatographic techniques such as liquid chromatography with post column solid-phase extraction coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. Microbial susceptibility testing and potentiation of well know pump substrates revealed at least two active compounds; chlorogenic acid with weak antimicrobial activity and 4',5'-ODCQA with pump inhibitory activity whereas 3',5'-ODCQA was ineffective. These initial findings were further validated with checkerboard, berberine accumulation efflux assays using efflux-related phenotypes and clinical isolates as well as molecular modeling methodology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These techniques facilitated the direct analysis of the active components from plant extracts, as well as dramatically reduced the time needed to analyze the compounds, without the need for prior isolation. The calculated energetics of the docking poses supported the

  15. Clinal adaptation and adaptive plasticity in Artemisia californica: implications for the response of a foundation species to predicted climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jessica D; Mooney, Kailen A

    2013-08-01

    Local adaptation and plasticity pose significant obstacles to predicting plant responses to future climates. Although local adaptation and plasticity in plant functional traits have been documented for many species, less is known about population-level variation in plasticity and whether such variation is driven by adaptation to environmental variation. We examined clinal variation in traits and performance - and plastic responses to environmental change - for the shrub Artemisia californica along a 700 km gradient characterized (from south to north) by a fourfold increase in precipitation and a 61% decrease in interannual precipitation variation. Plants cloned from five populations along this gradient were grown for 3 years in treatments approximating the precipitation regimes of the north and south range margins. Most traits varying among populations did so clinally; northern populations (vs. southern) had higher water-use efficiencies and lower growth rates, C : N ratios and terpene concentrations. Notably, there was variation in plasticity for plant performance that was strongly correlated with source site interannual precipitation variability. The high-precipitation treatment (vs. low) increased growth and flower production more for plants from southern populations (181% and 279%, respectively) than northern populations (47% and 20%, respectively). Overall, precipitation variability at population source sites predicted 86% and 99% of variation in plasticity in growth and flowering, respectively. These striking, clinal patterns in plant traits and plasticity are indicative of adaptation to both the mean and variability of environmental conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of long-term coastal climate data in turn indicates an increase in interannual precipitation variation consistent with most global change models and, unexpectedly, this increased variation is especially pronounced at historically stable, northern sites. Our findings demonstrate the

  16. Phytochemical screening of Artemisia arborescens L. by means of advanced chromatographic techniques for identification of health-promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Ragusa, Salvatore; Russo, Marina; Certo, Giovanna; Franchina, Flavio A; Zanotto, Antonio; Grasso, Elisa; Mondello, Luigi; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2016-01-05

    Artemisia arborescens, also known as tree wormwood, is a typical species of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used in folk medicine for its antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient properties. In the current study, the application of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC), allowed to obtain a detailed fingerprint of the essential oil from A. arborescens aerial parts, highlighting an abundant presence of chamazulene followed by camphor, β-thujone, myrcene, and α-pinene. Moreover, flavonoids in the dichloromethane extract were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography with photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detections (HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS). Six polymethoxyflavones were identified and three of them, including chrysosplenetin, eupatin, and cirsilineol, were described in this species for the first time. The anti-angiogenic activity was investigated in the dichloromethane extract by two in vivo models, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and zebrafish embryos. Results showed that this extract produced a strong reduction on vessel formation, both on zebrafish (57% of inhibition, 0.1 mg/mL) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (58% of inhibition, 0.8 mg/mL). The high separation power and sensitivity of the analytical methodology applied confirmed the safety of A. arborescens essential oil for human consumption, due to the very low level of the psychotrope α-thujone determined. Moreover, the knowledge of the flavonoidic profile holds a great significance for the use of A. arborescens as a valuable source of anti-angiogenic compounds that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant.

  17. EFFECTS OF SELENIUM ON GLANDULAR STOMACHCARCINOMA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON GLANDULAR STOMACH AND PANCREAS POSITIVE CGRP CELLS IN RATS%硒对大鼠腺胃癌的作用及其对腺胃、胰CGRP阳性细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏衍萍; 唐军民; 唐岩; 朴建华; 夏弈明; 邓大君

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨硒在机体自然抗肿瘤发生过程中的作用。方法:用MNNG(20 mgkg)灌胃诱导大鼠腺胃粘膜异倍体形成(大鼠腺胃癌模型形成)。用流式细胞仪测定硒对大鼠腺胃幽门粘膜异倍体形成的影响,用免疫组织化学ABC法观察硒在大鼠腺胃粘膜异倍体形成过程中,大鼠腺胃、胰CGRP阳性细胞的变化。并对以上结果进行图像分析及统计学处理。结果:((1)硒能抑制MNNG所致大鼠腺胃粘膜细胞异倍体的形成。(2)在MNNG所致大鼠异倍体的形成过程中,其腺胃、胰CGRP阳性细胞的免疫组织化学反应与正常组大鼠相比较均增强(P<0.05,P<0.01);而在加硒饲料组大鼠腺胃、胰中CGRP阳性细胞的免疫组织化学反应与正常组大鼠相比较无显著性差异,但与实验对照组大鼠相比较则分别减弱(P>0.05)和明显减弱(P<0.01)。结论:硒和CGRP阳性细胞可能参与了预防和抑制MNNG所致胃粘膜细胞异倍体的形成。%Objective: To investigate the role of dietary selenium in natural carcinogenesis-resistanta-nce. Methods: In the experiment, Wistar rats stomach carcinogenesis (formation of aneuploidcells in the glandular stomach mucosa) was induced by MNNG (N-methyl-N-nitroso-guanidine,20 mg/kg) gavage. The inhibitory effect of dietary selenium on incidence of aneuploid cells inmucosal epithelium of gastric antrum was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Immunohis-tochemical changes of positive CGRP cells in Wistar rats glandular stomach and pancreas were de-tected by immunohistochemical ABC method in the course of selenium preventing gastric carcino-genesis. Image analysis and statistical analysis were carrived out with all results above. Results:(1)Dietary selenium might inhibit the formation of aneuploid cells in Wistar rats glandular stom-ach. (2)The immunohistochemical reaction of Wistar rat glandular stomach and pancreas positiveCGRP cells were both significantly stronger in

  18. Mean glandular doses in mammography: a comparison of values displayed by a mammography unit with in-house values, both using the method proposed by Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasicz, Katarzyna; Fabiszewska, Ewa; Grabska, Iwona; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the mean glandular dose (MGD) displayed by the mammography system and the MGD calculated according to the method proposed by Dance for women. This study also attempts to analyse whether the relationship between the calculated and the displayed values is constant and what factors influence this relationship. Material for this study included data from 1200 exposures (i.e. six series; each series consisting of 200 exposures) performed with one full-field digital mammography unit. Based on collected parameters of exposures, values of the MGD for individual mammography examinations were calculated according to the methods proposed by Dance. Obtained values of the MGD were compared with the values displayed by the mammography system. The MGD displayed by the mammography system and the MGD calculated according to the method proposed by Dance for women are significantly different. This result emphasises the importance of verifying MGD values for patient radiation protection, particularly after machine servicing.

  19. [Ultrastructural changes and regeneration of the endocrine apparatus of the human gastric mucosal glandular epithelium in patients with chronic erosive gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V F; Puzyrev, A A; Draĭ, R V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the structure and regeneration of the endocrine apparatus of the human gastric mucosal glandular epithelium. Using electron microscopy, the mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from 14 patients with chronic erosive Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, were studied. The most pronounced changes were seen both in the numbers and ultrastructure of G- and P-endocrinocytes. The changes were detected in the nucleus structure, endocrine granule and polysome content, and he mitochondrial structure. The regeneration of the endocrine cells took place through the differentiation of the committed precursors via the "agranular" cell stage, transformation of the exocrine cells into the endocrine ones, and as a result of the formation of the epithelial cords on the erosion surfaces that consisted of the cells in diverse differentiation stages (from the undifferentiated to specialized cells of all the endocrine and exocrine types).

  20. Composition and anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifi, Daycem; Sghaier, Rabiaa Manel; Amouri, Sameh; Laouini, Dhafer; Hamdi, Mokhtar; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2013-05-01

    In this study, biological activities of methanolic extracts from Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L. plants, collected in Centre of Tunisia, were investigated. Results showed an important phenolic composition of Artemisia herba-alba (123.95±4.3g GAE/kg of dry mass). The extract of this plant showed, using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and AAPH/linoleic acid methods) and an IFN-γ/LPS induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages' assay, the highest antioxidant (IC50 (DPPH assay) 20.64±0.84mg/L) and anti-inflammatory (72% inhibition at 150mg/L) activities, respectively. Excepting Peganum harmala L. extract, the two other extracts showed a high anticancer activity against several cell lines (human bladder carcinoma RT112, human laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 and human myelogenous leukemia K562), for A. herba-laba IC50=81.59±4.4, 59.05±3.66 and 90.96mg/L respectively, but not on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All these biological activities are well correlated with the phenolic contents of these extracts. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of these plants as valuable source of antioxidants with exhibit original and interesting anti-inflammatory and anticancer capacities.

  1. Effects of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils on survival stored cereal pests: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Trogoderma granarium (Everst (Coleoptera, Dermestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Slimane Badreddine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the chemical components and toxicity of Artemisia herba-alba (A. herbaalba essential oil against two major stored cereal pests, Tribolium castaneum (T. castaneum and Trogoderma granarium (T. granarium. Methods: Two bioassay actions were tasted: repellent and fumigant actions against adult and larvae, respectively, to assess the effect of A. herba-alba essential oil. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses of the essential oil contained β-thujone (12.50%, α-thujone (8.78%, sabinyl acetate (8.56%, terpinene-4-ol (8.51%, α-terpineol (3.35%, 1,8-cineol (5.45%, γ-terpene (4.82%, camphor (4.52%, dimethylethylbenzene (3.93% and α-terpinene (3.35% as the major components. Fumigant toxicity tests showed that A. herba-alba oil was more toxic than T. granarium (LC50 = 2.09 mg/mL, LC90 = 4.12 mg/mL and T. castaneum (LC50 = 6.39 mg/mL, LC90 = 10.10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study has highlighted a bioinsecticide activity of A. herba-alba against two insect pests of stored foodstuffs (T. castaneum and T. granarium. The Artemisia essential oil offers an interesting potential insecticide that could be studied more deeply to isolate and identify the active substances, to study their physiological impact on other insects

  2. 青蒿蛀虫——白钩小卷蛾初步研究%Prelimary study of the Artemisia apiacea stem borer :Epiblema foenella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾爱平; 陈永年; 曾颖

    2012-01-01

    Epiblema foenella L. Is a stem borer of Artemisia apiacea Hance. Through a systematic survey at fixed spotsand times we determined that E. Foenella had three generations per year in Changsha, and overwintered as old instar larvaein the stumps and hollowed out roots of its host. The effective accumulated temperature of a generation for E. Foenella is726. 52 degree-days and the threshold temperature for development is 12. ℃. The morphological characters and habitsof the different life-stages and larval instars of E, foenella are described and forecasting techniques and control methodspresented.%白钩小卷蛾Epiblema foenella L.是药用植物青蒿(Artemisia apiacea Hance)的蛀干害虫,通过田间定点定时系统调查,得出该虫在长沙地区田间1年发生3代,以高龄幼虫在寄主残株及根部蛀洞内越冬,世代发育起点温度为12.122℃,有效积温为726.52日·度.描述了白钩小卷蛾各虫态及各龄幼虫的形态特征及生活习性,提出了有关预测技术及防治措施的建议.

  3. Evaluation of anti-malarial activity of Artemisia turcomanica and A. kopetdaghensis by cell-free β-hematin formation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mojarrab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:The plants of genus Artemisia (Asteraceae have been conventionally used for prevention and medication of a number of ailments. In the present research, ten extracts with different polarities from aerial parts of two Artemisia species, A. kopetdaghensis and A. turcomanica were evaluated for their potential anti-malarial properties. Methods: The plant materials were extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAC, ethanol, and ethanol-water (1:1 v/v  by cold maceration method. Cell free β-hematin formation assay were used for assessing anti-malarial activity of obtained extracts. Results: DCM extract of A. kopetdaghensis and PE extract of A. turcomanica showed remarkable anti-malarial activity with IC50 values of 1.04±0.02 mg/mL and 0.90±0.27 mg/mL, respectively, compared to positive control (chloroquine, IC50 0.04±0.01 mg/mL. Conclusion:  It seems that the anti-malarial activity of these extracts might be bound up with the presence of compounds with low or medium polarity; hence, this preliminary test indicated that these potent extracts could be considered for further investigations to find new sources of anti-malarial phytochemicals.

  4. 不同产地差不嘎蒿的质量对比研究%Study on quality contrast of Artemisia halodendron Turcz.from different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琰; 刘辉; 辛艳; 黄胜阳; 周海燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:考察不同产地差不嘎蒿药材的各项质量指标,为其质量标准建立及优质产地的筛选提供一定的实验依据。方法:采用 HPLC 法,流动相:乙腈-0.2%甲酸水(35∶65)流量:0.8ml /min;检测波长:288nm;柱温:30℃,测定指标性成分异樱花素、圣草酚-7-甲醚的含量;按照2010年版《中国药典》(一部)附录方法测定其醇溶性浸出物、水分、杂质、灰分含量及其酸败度,综合评定药材质量。结果:不同产地的药材之间有一定的差异,其中异樱花素、圣草酚-7-甲醚含量差异较为明显,水分随保藏年份的增加而减少,其他项的差异保持在一定范围内。结论:不同产地的差不嘎蒿药材的质量有所不同,内蒙古自治区赤峰市可作为优质种源。%Objective Study the quality indicators of Artemisia halodendron Turcz.In different areas,to provide some academic basis for quality criterion and origin select of Artemisia halodendron.Method The methods of HPLC (mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.2% formic acid water (35:65);The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min,the detection wavelength was 288 nm,column temperature 30℃)was used to determine the content of the signature ingredients -Isosakuranetin and Eriodictyol -7 -methyl ether.According to the 2010 pharmacopoeia appendix method for determining the ethanol - soluble,moisture,impurities,ash content and its degree of rancidity.To evaluate the quality of Artemisia halodendron in a comprehensive way.Results There are many differences between all the medicines,especially the content of Isosakuranetin and Eriodictyol -7 -methyl ether .Moisture content decreased with the increase of the preservation time,and other quality indexs remain within a certain range of differences.Conclusion The content of chemical com-positions in Artemisia halodendron from different place has a significant difference and and Artemisia halodendron in Chifeng

  5. Genetic Differentiation of Artemisia ordosica Populations in Different Types of Sandy Land of Maowusu Based on ISSR%毛乌素不同类型沙地油蒿种群遗传分化的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤月; 朴顺姬; 王大川; 包萨如拉; 许庆杰; 高占成

    2012-01-01

    利用12对微卫星引物对毛乌素沙地油蒿种群的遗传分化、基因流进行分析,采用Nei's指数和Shannon指数估算3个不同类型沙地种群的遗传多样性,计算种群相似系数和遗传距离,利用遗传距离构建系统树.结果表明:(1)种群遗传多样性分析显示,油篙种群多态位点百分率为100%,说明油蒿种群基因组ISSR具有较高的多样性.(2)在遗传距离为6.0处可将184个样株大致分为三类,涵盖了135个样株,占采样总量的73.34%.结合样地定位记录,聚类结果与样株空间分布具有一致性,即可分为流动沙地、固定沙地、半固定沙地油蒿种群.(3)流动沙地与固定、半固定沙地油蒿种群间的基因流较小,分别为0.7929和0.6848,半固定与固定沙地油蒿种群间存在着较高的基因流,为6.2930.半固定与固定沙地种群间的遗传一致度较高,为93.77%;流动沙地种群Shannon指数低.%The level of genetic differentiation, gene flow among three Artemisia ordosica populations in Maowusu sandy land were analyzed using 12 pair of microsatellite primers. Similarity and genetic distance matrices were established based on the ISSR data on the basis of Nei's and Shannon's estimates of ' similarity indices and genetic distance. The results showed that: 1. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 100%, which meant that they own high genetic diversity. 2. At genetic distance of 6. 0, 184 samples can be divided into three groups, covering the 135 sample plants, accounting for 73. 34% of total sample. Combined with locating records, clustering results was in accordance with the spatial distribution, I. E. They can be divided into Artemisia ordosica population in moving sandy land, Artemisia ordosica population in fixed sandy land and Artemisia ordosica population in semi-fixed sandy land. 3. There was lower gene communication between Artemisia ordosica population in moving sandy land and Artemisia ordosica population in fixed

  6. Discussion on the rational water content for restoring semi - shrub Artemisia in desert grassland%温性荒漠草地蒿类半灌木合理需水量探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶茂; 徐海量; 乔木; 任铭

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the status of the severe degeneration of desert grassland in Yili fiver valley, different water irrigation for semi - shrub Artemisia experiment were conducted for two years. The variation of aboveground bio- mass per square of semi - shrub Artemisia with different water content was studied. The results showed that with increasing water content, aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia increased distinctly firstly and then declined. The regression relationship between water content and aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia was: Y = 0. 00000001x^3 -0. 0002x^2 + 0. 795x + 138.28 ( P 〈 0.001, R2 = 0. 962). Based on the result of the sensitivity index, the variation ratio of the aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia was maximum, namely SK = 0.624 when the irrigated water content was 433kg/(m^2·a) while SK was 〈 0 at irrigated water content of more than 1498kg/( m^2·a). This indicated that the aboveground biomass of semi -shrub Artemisia began to decline with increasing water content of more than1498kg/(m^2·a). According to the change of the sensitivity curve with different irrigated water content, variation of aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia could be divided into three ranges. The variation ratio of aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia was greatly signif- icant and the increased degree of the aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia exceeded more than that of the irrigated water content at the water content range of 226kg/(m^2·a) - 778kg/(m^2·a). Therefore the rational range of the irrigated water content for restoring the local grassland was 226kg/( m^2·a) - 778kg/(m^2·a). From the water utilization efficiency, it is reasonable that irrigated water content of 228kg/(m^2·a) is regarded as the minimum water demand for restoring semi -shrub Artemisia in the study area.%文中对新疆伊犁河流域温性荒漠草地蒿类半灌木生物量随水分条件的

  7. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2-4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter

  8. Ecophysiological Evidence for the Competition Strategy of Two Psammophytes Artemisia halodendron and A. frigida in Horqin Sandy Land, Nei Mongol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUHai-Yan; LISheng-Gong; LIXin-Rong; ZHAOAi-Fen; ZHAOHa-Lin; FANHeng-Wen; WANGGang

    2004-01-01

    Gas exchange, water relations and leaf chemical characteristics were examined of twodominant psammophytes: Artemisia frigida Willd and A halodendron Turcz. ex Bess in Horqin sandy land, NeiMongol, China under different water regimes. The measurements were conducted by submitting the plantsto five different irrigation levels. A. fTigida was characterized by lower photosynthetic rate (Pn), lowertranspiration rate ( TR and lower shoot water potential (ψuw) relative to A. halodendron. Foliage of A frigdahad higher values of relative water deficit (RWD), bound water content (BWC), ratio of bound water contentto free water content (BWC/FWC) and integrated drought-resistant index (DI than that of A. halodendron.Water relations differed significantly between two species in response to soil water availability. ψw, BWCand BWC/FWC ratio of A halodendron exhibited large variation with gradual decrease of soil moisture.However, in terms of these parameters, A. fRIGIDA was characterized by higher capacity of water holding anddrought tolerance relative to A halodendron. Proline and total soluble sugar contents of A frigida and Ahalodendron tended to increase with decrease of soil moisture and the former had a larger increaseamplitude than the latter. This shows that A frigida has a higher osmotic regulation ability than A halodendron.Under the extreme drought conditions, ψw, RWD, BWC and BWC/FWC of two species were approximate,but soluble proteins degraded largely. A large amount of accumulation of organic matter, proline and totalsoluble sugars were observed in both A halodendron and A frigida. The increase in proline and total solublesugar contents and soluble protein degradation of A frigida far exceeded those of A. halodendron. Webelieve that the accumulated materials at this moment are mostly of nutrient substances available for therecovery of plants after the drought. This is one of the reasons why A halodendron plants died while Afrigida plants survived under extremely

  9. 沙蒿木蠹蛾生物学特性研究%Bionomics of the sand sagebrush carpenterworm, Holcocerus artemisiae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建伟; 骆有庆; 宗世祥

    2011-01-01

    沙蒿木蠹蛾Holcocerus artemisiae Chou et Hua是危害油蒿Artemisia ordosica Krasch和籽蒿A.sphaerocephala Krasch的重要钻蛀性害虫,以幼虫蛀食根部,导致寄主植物长势衰弱甚至死亡.为有效控制其危害,我们对该虫形态和生物学特征结合野外调查和室内饲养观察进行了研究.结果表明:在宁夏,该虫2年发生1代,以幼虫在被害油蒿根部越冬;老熟幼虫于5月中旬从受害根部钻出,在周围的沙土里结茧化蛹,蛹期平均19.5±3.5 d;成虫始见于6月初,终见于8月末,期间经历3次羽化高峰,分别为6,7,8月的上旬.成虫羽化主要在14:00-17:00,整个过程持续30~45 min;羽化当日即可交配,交配时间为20:00-21:00,高峰期为20:30左右;雄虫有2次交尾现象.雄虫寿命2~3 d,雌虫寿命1~3 d,极少4 d.雌雄性比约为1∶2.16.卵初见于6月中旬,初孵幼虫初见于6月下旬.幼虫常单独危害,且具有转移危害的习性,蛀食坑道不规则.5-9月,油蒿受害率为11%~44%,平均24%,株虫口密度为0.13头/株.幼虫对油蒿的树龄和地径有较明显的选择性,主要危害1~4年生、地径16~34mm的油蒿.沙蒿木蠹蛾生物学特征的系统研究为其控制措施的制定提供了科学依据.%The sand sagebrush carpenterworm, Holcocerus artemisiae Chou et Hua, is a severe pest of Artemisia ordosica and A.sphaerocephala, with the larval stages boring into the roots of the host plants.Morphological and biological characteristics of H.artemisiae in Ningxia were studied through field survey and laboratory breeding and observation.The results showed that a generation takes two years in fields of Ningxia.Larvae of all instars were found to overwinter in the host plant roots.Mature larvae begin to pupate in mid May in the soil around the base of plant stems, with the average pupal stage lasting 19.5 ±3.5 d.Moths emerge from the beginning of June to the end of August, with three peaks of eclosion observed in the early June

  10. Study on structure and function of apricot leaf glandular trichomes%杏叶腺毛的结构和功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林

    2012-01-01

    植物腺毛通常分化出柄部和头部,为了解杏叶腺毛柄部和头部的结构与功能,对杏叶腺毛做半薄和超薄切片,用光学与透射电子显微镜观察。结果表明,杏叶腺毛柄部和头部都是多细胞结构,在超微结构水平上柄部与头部有三方面显著区别:(1)柄部质体分化成具发达类囊体和基粒的叶绿体,积累淀粉,而头部质体不分化,为原质体,含大量管状内膜结构,不积累淀粉或其他贮藏物质;(2)柄部液泡少而体积大,液泡内没有可见物质积累,相反,头部液泡多而体积小,液泡内积累电子染色深的酚类物质;(3)与柄部相比,头部具更多内质网。显然,杏叶腺毛柄部和头部有不同的超微结构和生化功能,包括柄部进行光合作用,头部负责酚类物质的合成与积累。%Glandular trichomes of plants usually consist of a stalk and a head. In order to understand the structural and functional features of the two parts, glandular triehomes of apricot leaves were investigated by means of both light and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that both the stem and the head of the glandular triehome were multieellular and eontained rieh organelles. Comparisons revealed differences between the two parts in three aspects: (1) the plastids differentiated into chloroplasts in the stem, whereas remained as proplastids in the head, the chloroplasts contained rieh thylakoids, grana and starch grains, while the proplastids contained numerous tubules without any visual storage; (2) vaeuoles were less in number but larger in size in the stem than in the head, vaeuoles in the stem did not accumulate electron-dense substances, while electron-dense phenolic aceumulation oecurred in vaeuoles in the head; (3) endoplasmic reticula were much rieher in the head than in the stem. It is coneluded that the ultrastruetures of the stem and head are distinct and the

  11. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vallejo-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion.

  12. Development of an Expert System as a Diagnostic Support of Cervical Cancer in Atypical Glandular Cells, Based on Fuzzy Logics and Image Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem R. Domínguez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest preve