WorldWideScience

Sample records for arsonates

  1. Arson: a growing inferno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anand; Frazer, John

    2006-10-01

    In a series of 34 arsonists, our survey compares the changing trends in arson to an earlier study carried out ten years ago in the same region in the UK by Rix (1994). The survey is based on pre-trial court reports done by the second author only. Fire-setting offending was predominantly seen in the young male (18-32). Fire-setting started as early as age seven and was seen as late as 63 years of age. More than half of the subjects received some form of family support. At least one third had an ICD-10 (WHO, 1992) diagnosable mental disorder and more than half were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder during the time of reporting. A third of the subjects had a personality disorder diagnosis prior to reporting and another third had disordered personality traits established during the time of reporting. More than half had a psychological motive. Eleven per cent started a fire for excitement with only one for revenge. A third of the subjects were first time arsonists. Sixty-five per cent of arson involved building damage and all the 34 subjects were under the influence of alcohol prior to and during the act of arson. Additionally, there was cannabis use in nearly half of the subjects. Opioids and poly substance abuse were seen in a third of subjects. With the extent of financial and social burden along with risks, attention should be focused on accessing these individuals early to preventing recidivism. More research needs to be undertaken to identify the psychological motives behind fire-setting and to look into the drugs and alcohol problems amongst the younger age groups.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Wildland Arson Crime Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Butry, David T.; Prestemon, Jeffrey P.

    2005-01-01

    Wildland arson creates damages to structures and timber and affects the health and safety of people living in rural and wildland urban interface areas. We develop a model that incorporates temporal autocorrelations and spatial correlations in wildland arson ignitions in Florida. A Poisson autoregressive model of order p, or PAR(p) model, is estimated for six high arson Census tracts in the state for the period 1994-2001. Spatio-temporal lags of wildland arson ignitions are introduced as dummy...

  3. Arson in review. From profit to pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, J L

    1992-09-01

    Arson is a crime committed by thousands of people throughout our nation for nearly every reason, justification or excuse known to mankind ... Arson is one of the easiest crimes to commit but the hardest to prevent or prove ... Arson is a crime which involves little skill, as the weapon used is legally carried and too readily available ... Unlike many other covert criminal activities, the impact of increased major arsons has a direct visible effect on the lives of the average citizen. Insurance premiums are raised, property is destroyed, people are killed or maimed, and the quality of life in the area affected by arson is diminished considerably. These statements, taken from US Senate hearings on arson in the late 1970s, are as true and as troubling today as they were over a decade ago. Many who set fires need mental health services of some kind, a fact alluded to even in popular literature. Dick Francis, a well-known author of British mysteries, writes, "There are people in this world who cause trouble because it makes them feel important. They're ineffectual, eh? in their lives. So they burn things ..." But nobody wants these arsonists in their midst. Psychiatric facilities do not want them so they end up in prison: Yet another case has been reported of a mentally disordered person being sent to prison because there is no other institution willing to receive her ... a severely mentally disordered woman aged 22 [was sentenced] to life imprisonment for arson ... in default of other appropriate facilities ... to protect the public. And general hospital emergency rooms cannot find anyplace to send them: "The hardest patients to sell are the repeaters with bad reputations, the firesetters and those who are potentially violent." Any arson episode is an act the magnitude of which the perpetrator cannot predict accurately. Once set, the fire is no longer responsive to the desires or dictates of the firesetter. To address the problem of arson in our times, arson

  4. An Economical Method for Static Headspace Enrichment for Arson Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Static headspace analysis of accelerants from suspected arsons is accomplished by placing an arson sample in a sealed container with a carbon strip suspended above the sample. The sample is heated, cooled to room temperature, and then the organic components are extracted from the carbon strip with carbon disulfide followed by gas chromatography…

  5. Review of analytical techniques for arson residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pert, Alastair D; Baron, Mark G; Birkett, Jason W

    2006-09-01

    Arson is a serious crime that affects society through cost, property damage, and loss of life. It is important that the methods and technologies applied by fire investigators in detection of evidence and subsequent analyses have a high degree of reliability, sensitivity, and be subject to rigorous quality control and assurance. There have been considerable advances in the field of arson investigation since the 1950s. Classification of ignitable liquids has been updated to include many new categories due to developments in the petroleum industry. Techniques such as steam or vacuum distillation and gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection that may have been considered acceptable--even a benchmark--40 years ago, are nowadays generally disfavored, to the extent that their implementation may almost be considered as ignorance in the field. The advent of readily available mass spectrometric techniques has revolutionized the field of fire debris analysis, increasing the degree of sensitivity and discrimination possible considerably. Multi-dimensional GC--particularly GC x GC--while not yet widely applied, is rapidly gaining recognition as an important technique. This comprehensive review focuses on techniques and practices used in fire investigation, from scene investigation to analysis.

  6. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature.

  7. Inquiry-Based Arson Investigation for General Chemistry Using GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Marta K.; Bukowski, Michael R.; Menachery, Mary D.; Zatorsky, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a two-week guided-inquiry laboratory in which first-semester general chemistry students investigate a suspected arson using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and paper chromatography. In the process of evaluating evidence from the crime scene, students develop and test hypotheses and learn the fundamentals of chromatography,…

  8. From stack-firing to pyromania: medico-legal concepts of insane arson in British, US and European contexts, c. 1800-1913. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jonathan

    2010-09-01

    This article surveys evolving and competing medico-legal concepts of pyromania and insane arson. Exploiting evidence from medical jurisprudence, medico-legal publications, medical lexicography and case histories, it seeks to explicate the key positions in contemporary professional debates concerning arson and mental derangement. A major focus is the application of the doctrines of moral and partial insanity, monomania, instinctive insanity and irresistible impulse to understandings of pyromania and insane arson. The limited extent to which mental defect provided a satisfactory diagnosis and exculpatory plea for morbid arson is also explored. Additionally, this article compares and contrasts contemporary debates about other special manias, especially kleptomania. Part 2 will be published in the next issue, History of Psychiatry 21 (4).

  9. Fire investigation and experience on arson case%一起放火案件的调查认定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德利; 林福林

    2011-01-01

    通过分析福建省三明市“2·2”放火案件的调查认定及侦破过程,提出对火灾调查的几点体会,包括放火行为动机与受害人之间不一定有必然的联系,第一时间开展调查对火灾调查的重要性,公安、消防的密切协作是放火案件成功侦破的保证等.%By analyzing the process of fire investigation and detection on Fujian Sanming "2. 2" arson, some experience was proposed as there is not a definite link between arson motive and the victim, the importance of fire investigation at first time, and the assurance of detection is close collaboration of public security and fire service.

  10. INCENDIARIOS "Es preferible morir por el fuego, en combate, que morir en casa, por el hambre: Fidel Castro" Arson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Elaine de BorbaTelles

    2012-09-01

    and destruction. Deliberately setting fire to something/someone is an easily executed crime (arson, though difficult to research. This crime has 1.13% prevalence and its incidence is growing around the world, provoking an important social impact due to its victims' financial loss, death, physical lesions and emotional aftermath. Arsonist-type behaviour can be observed from infancy onwards, as more than half the people imprisoned for arson are adolescents. Consuming alcohol has been associated with arsonist-type conduct in half the individuals committing such crime who were motived by revenge. Objective. Reviewing the most recent studies concerning an arsonis's profile, the diagnostic characteristics, the risk factors, neurobiological treatment, recidivism and prognosis. Materials and Methods. A literature review revealed that arsonists represent a heterogeneous criminal category. The development of classification for them thus becomes interesting, considering the aggressor's characteristics, the presence of eventual mental disease, aspects regarding the crime and motivation. Conclusion. The population of arsonists studied has been underrepresented to date, as just a small percentage is sent for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Incongruence thus arises between the great emotional and financial damage caused by this crime, and the attention given it by the scientific community.

  11. Discussion of fast solving of a arson case%一起放火案件快速侦破工作的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵学民

    2011-01-01

    介绍对一起放火案件调查和处理情况,说明了现场勘验工作对火灾认定的重要性.结合火灾原因认定过程的液体助燃剂的发现、提取、送检等情况,对调查工作中的经验进行总结.%The investigation of a arson cae was introduced, as well as the importance of on-the-spot inquisition to fire investigation. The discovery, collection and examination of liquid combustion promoter were analysed during fire cause identification and experience of fire investigation was concluded.

  12. Crystal structure and hydrogen bonding in the water-stabilized proton-transfer salt brucinium 4-amino­phenyl­arsonate tetra­hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2016-01-01

    In the structure of the brucinium salt of 4-amino­phenyl­arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid), systematically 2,3-dimeth­oxy-10-oxostrychnidinium 4-amino­phenyl­ar­son­ate tetra­hydrate, (C23H27N2O4)[As(C6H7N)O2(OH)]·4H2O, the brucinium cations form the characteristic undulating and overlapping head-to-tail layered brucine substructures packed along [010]. The arsanilate anions and the water mol­ecules of solvation are accommodated between the layers and are linked to them through a primary cation N—H⋯O(anion) hydrogen bond, as well as through water O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to brucinium and arsanilate ions as well as bridging water O-atom acceptors, giving an overall three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27308034

  13. Crystal structure and hydrogen bonding in the water-stabilized proton-transfer salt brucinium 4-amino-phenyl-arsonate tetra-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2016-05-01

    In the structure of the brucinium salt of 4-amino-phenyl-arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid), systematically 2,3-dimeth-oxy-10-oxostrychnidinium 4-amino-phenyl-ar-son-ate tetra-hydrate, (C23H27N2O4)[As(C6H7N)O2(OH)]·4H2O, the brucinium cations form the characteristic undulating and overlapping head-to-tail layered brucine substructures packed along [010]. The arsanilate anions and the water mol-ecules of solvation are accommodated between the layers and are linked to them through a primary cation N-H⋯O(anion) hydrogen bond, as well as through water O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to brucinium and arsanilate ions as well as bridging water O-atom acceptors, giving an overall three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27308034

  14. Study on fire scenarios characteristic for Subway trunk arson simulation test%地铁车厢纵火模拟试验火灾特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅秀娟

    2011-01-01

    在考虑人为恐怖袭击行为情况下,采用地铁车厢实体模型研究了地铁车厢在纵火情况下的火灾场景特性,得出了地铁车厢在模拟火灾中的热释放速率、烟气浓度、温度、烟密度的变化规律.试验结果表明,一节车厢最大热释放速率为5MW左右,如果两侧沙发同时引燃,其最大热释放速率可达10MW.在纵火试验中,火灾发生、发展和蔓延速度明显较快,燃烧较猛烈,高峰瞬时释放出的CO、CO2浓度及试验过程中的总浓度明显较高;NO、SO2、HCN集中在瞬间释放出来而造成瞬时浓度较高.烟气主流是沿着而不贴着屋顶向外蔓延的.因此火灾危险性很高.%Taking into account the arson terrorism, the fire scenarios characteristic of subway fire had been studied by substantiality model of grocery booth of subway platform. The change rule of heat release rate, smoke concentration, temperature and smoke density had been educed. Experimental results show that, a section train trunk maximum heat release rate for 5MW around, if both sides sofa also ignition, its biggest heat release rate can reach 10MW. In the arson trials, fire occurrence, development and spread speed greatly faster, more fierce, burning the instantaneous release of peak CO and CO2 concentration and test process of total concentration significantly higher;NO, SO2, HCN concentrated in an instant cast out and cause instantaneous high concentration. Smoke mainstream is along without stick roof outward spreads. So fire hazard is very high.

  15. Wildland Arson as Clandestine Resource Management: A Space-Time Permutation Analysis and Classification of Informal Fire Management Regimes in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Michael R.

    2016-05-01

    Forest managers are increasingly recognizing the value of disturbance-based land management techniques such as prescribed burning. Unauthorized, "arson" fires are common in the southeastern United States where a legacy of agrarian cultural heritage persists amidst an increasingly forest-dominated landscape. This paper reexamines unauthorized fire-setting in the state of Georgia, USA from a historical ecology perspective that aims to contribute to historically informed, disturbance-based land management. A space-time permutation analysis is employed to discriminate systematic, management-oriented unauthorized fires from more arbitrary or socially deviant fire-setting behaviors. This paper argues that statistically significant space-time clusters of unauthorized fire occurrence represent informal management regimes linked to the legacy of traditional land management practices. Recent scholarship has pointed out that traditional management has actively promoted sustainable resource use and, in some cases, enhanced biodiversity often through the use of fire. Despite broad-scale displacement of traditional management during the 20th century, informal management practices may locally circumvent more formal and regionally dominant management regimes. Space-time permutation analysis identified 29 statistically significant fire regimes for the state of Georgia. The identified regimes are classified by region and land cover type and their implications for historically informed disturbance-based resource management are discussed.

  16. 心理障碍患者纵火行为的特点和刑事责任能力%Characteristics and criminal responsibility of arson behavior of mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成文; 魏庆平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the behavior characteristics of a variety of psychological disorders arson and criminal responsibility , for the prevention of psychological disorders arson behavior in the future to provide clinical data. Methods A retrospective analysis of hospital 32 years, 146 cases of psychological disorders arson offenses forensic psychiatric data. Results We found that a variety of psychological disorders can occur arson violations, including schizophrenia, mental retardation, alcoholism and personality disorders mainly; their low educational level, primary school education account for the majority, occupation of peasants, workers, up to; arson before treatment, irregularity or psychiatric treatment is not carried out; select committed crimes in the night no one present at up to most of the first time crime, all cases are separate crime; crime locations in order to burn the room mostly of his own room and neighbors. Their criminal responsibility for the characteristics of different psychological disorders arson behavior. Conclusion Mental disorders occurred once the act of arson, the loss is big;it is a great danger to patients with psychological disorders. In order to reduce this kind of cases, one should strengthen the mental disorder patients in the treatment and management of work.%目的 研究各种心理障碍患者纵火行为的特点和刑事责任能力,为今后预防心理障碍患者纵火行为的发生提供临床资料.方法 回顾性分析我院32年来进行的146例心理障碍患者发生纵火违法行为的司法精神医学鉴定资料.结果 发现各种心理障碍患者均可发生纵火违法行为,其中以精神分裂症、精神发育迟滞、酒精中毒和人格障碍为主;他们的文化程度较低,小学以下文化程度占大多数;职业以农民、工人最多;纵火前均治疗不正规或未进行精神科治疗;作案时间选择在晚上无人在场最多,大多数是第一次作案,所有案例均为单独作

  17. [Arson and pyromania, update 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palix, J

    2015-09-16

    While the fire constitutes a threat and provokes avoidance by the entire animal world, its control as lighting and maintenance is inseparable from the history of humankind. For 1% of the population that use is turned to harm, repeatedly and without objective reason, responding to the historical definition of pyromania. The profile of arsonists does not appear to be different from that of the general criminal population: alcohol abuse, nicotine, marijuana and antisocial personality do not make fire setters a special case. However positive fire experience lived in childhood, emotional avoidance and expertise in fire settings' control seems to be specific, as recidivism risk below that of the general criminal population.

  18. [Arson and pyromania, update 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palix, J

    2015-09-16

    While the fire constitutes a threat and provokes avoidance by the entire animal world, its control as lighting and maintenance is inseparable from the history of humankind. For 1% of the population that use is turned to harm, repeatedly and without objective reason, responding to the historical definition of pyromania. The profile of arsonists does not appear to be different from that of the general criminal population: alcohol abuse, nicotine, marijuana and antisocial personality do not make fire setters a special case. However positive fire experience lived in childhood, emotional avoidance and expertise in fire settings' control seems to be specific, as recidivism risk below that of the general criminal population. PMID:26591081

  19. Europe on fire three thousand years ago: Arson or climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, Piero; Kehrwald, Natalie; Marlon, Jennifer; Ruddiman, William F.; Brücher, Tim; Agostinelli, Claudio; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Zangrando, Roberta; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    The timing of initiation of human impacts on the global climate system is actively debated. Anthropogenic effects on the global climate system are evident since the Industrial Revolution, but humans may have altered biomass burning, and hence the climate system, for millennia. We use the specific biomarker levoglucosan to produce the first high-temporal resolution hemispheric reconstruction of Holocene fire emissions inferred from ice core analyses. Levoglucosan recorded in the Greenland North Greenland Eemian ice core significantly increases since the last glacial, resulting in a maximum around ~2.5 ka and then decreasing until the present. Here we demonstrate that global climate drivers fail to explain late Holocene biomass burning variations and that the levoglucosan maximum centered on ~2.5 ka may be due to anthropogenic land clearance.

  20. INCENDIARIOS "Es preferible morir por el fuego, en combate, que morir en casa, por el hambre: Fidel Castro" Arson

    OpenAIRE

    Lisieux Elaine de BorbaTelles; Helena Dias de Castro Bins; Alcina Juliana Soares Barros; Franklin Escobar Córdoba

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes. El concepto de fuego siempre ha atraído la atención del hombre. En la literatura abundan referencias a este término, que tanto puede representar poder y pasión como terror y destrucción. El incendio es un delito de fácil ejecución, pero de difícil investigación. La prevalencia de este delito es de 1,13%. La incidencia de este crimen está creciendo alrededor del mundo, provocando un impacto social importante por las pérdidas financieras, muertes, lesiones físicas y secuelas emoci...

  1. The Arson of Bailudong Academy in 1921%1921年的白鹿洞书院纵火案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄林燕; 吴国富

    2014-01-01

    1921年,白鹿洞书院发生一场火灾,藏书楼被焚.经查系有人盗卖藏书,故而纵火灭迹.此事引发公愤,社会舆论的矛头指向北洋军阀执掌下的江西省政府,但藏书最终还是下落不明.

  2. Violenze e incendi nella realtà italiana e francese / Violence and arson in Italy and France / Violence et incendies en Italie et en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Sette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the difference between two European realities (Italy and France concerning fire related damage.In particular, we will focus on the Italian criminal organizations of today which acquire their wealth in an illicit way by blackmailing the owners of commercial activities and which, if the latter refuse to pay, inflict severe punishments on the shopkeeper or the entrepeneur, for example systematic destruction, even with fire, of the store or the industrial plant. On this subject, we will analyze the fundamental role played by the victims.Violence and destruction also characterize the riots in the French suburbs, particularly in the autumn 2005. On this subject, thanks to the various points of view, the article is a reflection of why “ordinary” young people of the “inner cities” have taken part in these events.Cet article a pour objectif d'analyser la différence entre deux contextes européens (l'Italie et la France en ce qui concerne le choix du feu dans le but de provoquer des dégâts.Il prend tout particulièrement en considération les organisations criminelles italiennes actuelles qui arrivent à acquérir des richesses de façon illicite en faisant du chantage aux patrons des activités productives et qui, si ces derniers refusent de payer, punissent sévèrement le commerçant ou l'entrepeneur, en détruisant systématiquement par le feu le magasin ou l'établissement industriel. À ce propos, l'article analysera le rôle fondamental joué par les victimes.Violence et destruction caractérisent aussi les émeutes dans les banlieues françaises, comme en automne 2005. À ce sujet, partant de différents points de vue, l'article propose une réflexion sur ce qui a poussé des jeunes "ordinaires" des banlieues dites "sensibles" à y participer.

  3. Looking for pyromania: Characteristics of a consecutive sample of Finnish male criminals with histories of recidivist fire-setting between 1973 and 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Tani Pekka; Holi Matti M; Lindberg Nina; Virkkunen Matti

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background As pyromania is a rare diagnosis with questionable validity, we aimed to describe a forensic psychiatric population of arson recidivists. Methods The medical records as well as the forensic psychiatric examination statements of 90 arson recidivists referred for pretrial psychiatric assessment in Helsinki University Hospital Department of Forensic Psychiatry between 1973 and 1993 were reviewed. Results The most important diagnostic categories of arson recidivists were perso...

  4. 76 FR 39900 - Agency Information Collection Activities: A National Repository for the Collection and Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... relating to arson and the criminal misuse of explosives in a national repository database maintained by the... Repository for the Collection and Inventory of Information Related to Arson and the Criminal Misuse of... currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: A National Repository for the...

  5. Acceptance of TEL: Key Success Factors and Reasons of Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnscher, Patrick; Kelle, Sebastian; Sigurðarson, Steinn

    2009-01-01

    Johnscher, P., Kelle, S., & Sigurðarson, S. (2008). Acceptance of TEL: Key Success Factors and Reasons of Failure. Presentation at the Prolearn Summer School on Technology Enhanced Learning & Knowledge Management 2008. March, 28, 2008, Ohrid, Fyr of Macedonia.

  6. 20 CFR 404.1325 - Separation from active service under conditions other than dishonorable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States, or by the active service of an allied country during the World War II period; (c) A dishonorable... by a civil court for treason, sabotage, espionage, murder, rape, arson, burglary, robbery,...

  7. Looking for pyromania: Characteristics of a consecutive sample of Finnish male criminals with histories of recidivist fire-setting between 1973 and 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani Pekka

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As pyromania is a rare diagnosis with questionable validity, we aimed to describe a forensic psychiatric population of arson recidivists. Methods The medical records as well as the forensic psychiatric examination statements of 90 arson recidivists referred for pretrial psychiatric assessment in Helsinki University Hospital Department of Forensic Psychiatry between 1973 and 1993 were reviewed. Results The most important diagnostic categories of arson recidivists were personality disorders, psychosis and mental retardation, often with comorbid alcoholism. In all, 68% of arsonists were under alcohol intoxication during the index crime. Psychotic as well as mentally retarded persons with repeated fire-setting behaviour were mostly "pure arsonists"- persons guilty only of arsons during their criminal careers. Arson recidivists with personality disorder, in contrast, often exhibited various types of criminal behaviour and arson appeared to be only one expression of a wide range of criminal activity. Comorbid alcoholism was apparently a more rarely observed phenomenon among pure arsonists than in "nonpure arsonists". We found only three subjects fulfilling the present diagnostic criteria for pyromania. Conclusion Using the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR, pyromania must be regarded as an extremely rare phenomenon. Especially the question of substance intoxication as an exclusion criterion for pyromania should be reconsidered.

  8. Looking for pyromania: Characteristics of a consecutive sample of Finnish male criminals with histories of recidivist fire-setting between 1973 and 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Holi, Matti M; Tani, Pekka; Virkkunen, Matti

    2005-01-01

    Background As pyromania is a rare diagnosis with questionable validity, we aimed to describe a forensic psychiatric population of arson recidivists. Methods The medical records as well as the forensic psychiatric examination statements of 90 arson recidivists referred for pretrial psychiatric assessment in Helsinki University Hospital Department of Forensic Psychiatry between 1973 and 1993 were reviewed. Results The most important diagnostic categories of arson recidivists were personality disorders, psychosis and mental retardation, often with comorbid alcoholism. In all, 68% of arsonists were under alcohol intoxication during the index crime. Psychotic as well as mentally retarded persons with repeated fire-setting behaviour were mostly "pure arsonists"- persons guilty only of arsons during their criminal careers. Arson recidivists with personality disorder, in contrast, often exhibited various types of criminal behaviour and arson appeared to be only one expression of a wide range of criminal activity. Comorbid alcoholism was apparently a more rarely observed phenomenon among pure arsonists than in "nonpure arsonists". We found only three subjects fulfilling the present diagnostic criteria for pyromania. Conclusion Using the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR, pyromania must be regarded as an extremely rare phenomenon. Especially the question of substance intoxication as an exclusion criterion for pyromania should be reconsidered. PMID:16351734

  9. Game-Based Life-Long Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Sigurðarson, Steinn; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Kelle, S., Sigurðarson, S., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2011). Game-Based Life-Long Learning. In G. D. Magoulas (Ed.), E-Infrastructures and Technologies for Lifelong Learning: Next Generation Environments (pp. 337-349). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

  10. 28 CFR 0.130 - General functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including those authorities set forth in 27 CFR part 47; and (d) Perform any other function related to the...; (vii) 18 U.S.C. 1961 insofar as the offense is an act or threat involving arson that is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year; and (viii) Any offense...

  11. Generation of antibody and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for the feed additive roxarsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxy-phenyl arsonic acid) has been used in the poultry and swine industries as a feed additive to treat coccidiosis and other intestinal disorders as well as to improve feed efficiencies and weight gain. In animals, roxarsone is eliminated mostly as parent compound which may ...

  12. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 99 - Crimes of Violence Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crimes of Violence Definitions A Appendix A to Part 99.... A Appendix A to Part 99—Crimes of Violence Definitions Arson Any willful or malicious burning or... circumstances from the control, custody, or care of a person or persons by force or threat of force or...

  13. Crime and Disruption in Schools. A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Robert, Comp.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography about crime and disruption in schools has been assembled from academic, professional, and government sources. The citations are organized into four major parts. "Overview: Nature and Extent of the Problem" contains studies that describe the cost of school crimes, primarily vandalism and arson, both in dollars and in…

  14. DETERMINATION ROXARSONE AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS USING CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED TO ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is one of the most widely used growthpromoting and disease-controlling feed additives in the United States. Most broiler chickens are fed roxarsone to promote weight gain and control parasites. Most of the roxarsone is believed to ...

  15. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  16. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are…

  17. 28 CFR 550.55 - Eligibility for early release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... included within the definition of “crime of violence” in D.C. Code § 23-1331(4); and (2) Successfully...; (v) Arson; (vi) Kidnaping; or (vii) An offense that by its nature or conduct involves sexual abuse offenses committed upon minors; (5) Inmates who have a current felony conviction for: (i) An offense...

  18. Editoriale/Editorial/Éditorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Balloni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction concerning forensic and psychiatric aspects of intentional arson, the article points out that this phenomenon is not univocal because it is connected to different psychopatological conditions.The article also examines arson in a criminological perspective pointing out some aspects of this particular kind of victimization.Après un aperçu de quelques aspects psychiatriques-forensiques relatifs à l'incendie volontaire, l'article souligne le fait que ce phénomène n'est pas univoque et qu'il peut être associé à des conditions psychopathologiques spécifiques.Ensuite, l'article traite de l'incendie en termes criminologiques et il donne quelques précisions sur les processus de victimation liés à cette forme de criminalité.

  19. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  20. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  1. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  2. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  3. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through December 31, 1984. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions in derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  4. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  5. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC-June 30, 1985. Revision 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSRL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels. 12 figs

  6. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1983. Rev. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing/allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms-related, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  8. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  9. Palestine Authorities:Trouble within

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Zhichao

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Palestine Authorities (PA) is now plagued with an internal crisis ever seen over the past dozen years. A string of kidnappings, gun battles, cases of arson and demonstrations resorted to by some hotheads since mid-July has thrown Gaza Strip into utter chaos, triggering off a political crisis with many high-ranking officials including Prime Minister Kurile tendering their resignations to President Yasser Arafat.

  10. Beyond #refugeeswelcome: The Spectre of Racist Violence and Lessons from Refugee Resistance in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Aikins, Joshua Kwesi; Bendix, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The text reframes the current debate about refugees in Germany by contrasting Germany’s recent history of racist violence and limitations of asylum laws with the resistance and agency of refugee movements across Germany. Both provide an important lens to re-examine the simultaneous heralding of „welcome culture“, a sharp rise in arson attacks on asylum centres and the current legislative roll-back of refugee rights in Germany.

  11. Analysis of forest fires causes and their motivations in northern Algeria: the Delphi method

    OpenAIRE

    Meddour-Sahar O; Meddour R; Leone V; Lovreglio R; Derridj A

    2013-01-01

    Forest fires in Algeria are mostly human-caused and result from local social behavior, whether voluntary (arson) or involuntary (negligence). Understanding the reasons why fires start is, therefore, a crucial factor in preventing or reducing their incidence, developing significant prevention efforts and designing specific fire prevention campaigns. The Delphi method is a promising tool for improving knowledge about how fire starts and why, and above all helps reduce the number of fires starte...

  12. New methods for testing fire resistance of wood façade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson August

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arson in schools has been a huge problem in Sweden over the last fifteen years. The average amount of school arsons between 2000 and 2014 was 285 cases each year which corresponds to 50% of the total amount of reported fires in school buildings. This is a well-known problem and a lot of research has been done in this area. Investigations has been done about fire and heat detection systems, different technical factors significance in fire scenarios and how to prevent adolescents from starting fires. Another part of the problem that partly been investigated is how the schools are constructed. Roughly 50% of the arsons are outside of the school building. In Sweden one and two storey buildings are allowed to be built with wooden façades in accordance with the building code, which is one of the reasons many schools are built with wooden façade systems. The most critical part in a wood façade system from a fire safety perspective is concluded to be the eaves because of how they usually are built to let air pass through. Even though a wood façade isn't as well resistant to fire compared to a concrete façade, three versions of new test methods for combustible façades have been developed to make it possible to make sure in advance that a construction is resistant enough. The new test methods are focused on specific details and parts of a façade system to provide a more informative and useful result compared to SP Fire 105. Observations and measurements of flame spread and temperature changes in the eave, over the window joints and in the air gap are made. With these parameters in consideration criteria's has been chosen for a critical temperature of 280 ∘C at a critical time of 20 minutes.

  13. Evil Bands and Violent Narratives in Thirteenth-Century Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2010-01-01

    crimes associated with banditry and ‘evil bands’ in general, such as murder, theft and arson, the temples aimed to show the negative impact the conflicts could possibly have on temple economy and estate control. Simultaneously they could emphasize the political and social danger posed by their legal...... opponents as enemies of the Imperial Court and the Buddhist faith, since a decrease in temple income would jeopardize their religious services and the divine protection of the country and the Imperial House. Formulaic descriptions of illegalities thus became increasingly important in invoking state justice...

  14. Development of Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A

    2016-07-19

    Gas chromatographic mass spectrometry is now widely used for the quantitation and identification of organic compounds in almost any imaginable sample. These applications include the measurement of chlorinated dioxins in soil samples, the identification of illicit drugs in human blood, and the quantitation of accelerants in arson investigations, to name just a few. How did GC/MS get so popular? It turns out that it required parallel developments in mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, and computing and that no one person "invented" the technique. This Perspective traces this history from the 1950s until today. PMID:27384908

  15. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List provides brief summaries of hundreds of safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Events are described under the categories: Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing/Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms-related, Radiological Sabotage, Non-radiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. Because of the public interest, the Miscellaneous category also includes events reported involving source material, byproduct material, and natural uranium, which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Information in the event descriptions was obtained from official NRC sources

  16. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). January 1, 1990--December 31, 1994, Volume 2, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List provides brief summaries of hundreds of safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Events are described under the categories: Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing/Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms-related, Radiological Sabotage, Non-radiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. Because of the public interest, the Miscellaneous category also includes events reported involving source material, byproduct material, and natural uranium, which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Information in the event descriptions was obtained from official NRC sources

  17. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  18. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, also included are events reported involving byproduct material which is exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  19. New Concepts in Modern Policing – Criminal Personality Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan TASU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of criminal profiling is widely accepted. As an investigative tool, this method of crime scene approach may provide useful information in serious crimes management, including homicide, rape, arson or burglary. Based on crime scene data and personality theories, rofiling may be seen as a deductive inferring process which can help police officers to apprehend a serial offender. Although in most modern police agencies the use of criminal profiling is mandatory, Romanian police has his first step in it. This article will provide the general principles of the method.

  20. Chelation behaviour of lanthanons with o-arsonodibenzoylmethanephenlylhydrazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chelate formation reaction of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Gd(III), Ho(III), and Er(III) with o-arsonodibenzoylmethanephenylhydrazone has been investigated potentiometrically and conductometrically in 40 % (ν/ν) aqueous ethanol, ionic strength 0,1 M. The order of stability constants was found to be La Gd 3+: L). The complexes have been isolated in solid state and have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and IR data. Coordination occurs through - NH of the hydrazo and - OH of the arsonic groups. (Authors)

  1. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    -up was between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n=86) and Asperger's syndrome (n=114) the percentages were 8.1% and 18.......4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (p= .0009)....

  2. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.;

    2008-01-01

    -up was between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8.......1% and 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (P = .0009) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  3. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  4. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC trhough December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees are included. As additional information is obtained on an event, it will be incorporated in future editions. The list contains incidents as well as less significant events. The nine categories are: bomb-related (divided into two sections: (a) those events in which a bomb or explosive material was located or an explosion occurred at or in the vicinity of a licensed facility, (b) a complete chronological list), intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation-related, vandalism, arson, firearms-related, sabotage, and miscellaneous

  5. Arsenic speciation by hydride generation-quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Optimization of analytical parameters and application to environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenat, N.; Astruc, A.; Holeman, M.; Pinel, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bioinorganique et Environnement, Dept. de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 64 - Pau (France); Maury, G. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Dept. de Chimie Organique Fine

    1999-11-01

    Analytical parameters of hydride generation, trapping, gas chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry detection in a quartz cell furnace (HG/GC/QFAAS) device have been optimized in order to develop an efficient and sensitive method for arsenic compounds speciation. Good performances were obtained with absolute detection limits in the range of 0.1 - 0.5 ng for arsenite, arsenate, mono-methyl-arsonic acid (MMAA), dimethyl-arsinic acid (DMAA) and trimethyl-arsine oxide (TMAO). A pH selective reduction for inorganic arsenic speciation was successfully reported. Application to the accurate determination of arsenic compounds in different environmental samples was performed. (authors)

  6. [Expert evaluation by forensic psychiatrists of aged delinquents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemańczyk, W; Kordacka, M

    1989-01-01

    In the period from 1970 till 1987 forensic psychiatric certification of 1333 delinquents war made in Regional Psychiatric Hospital in Cibórz. Forty experts (3%) regarded subjects aged 60 years or more. The most common crimes were those against life and health--62.5%; predominantly homicides, assaults and assaults on public functioning, as well as arson--10%. Among male delinquents 68% were under the influence of alcohol at the time of crime of arson and assaults. Other common crime were establish in 15%. Only 1 patient was accused of sexual child abuse (2.5%). Women made 20% of offenders; one half of them committed the crime against life and health, mainly menace. Mental disturbances were found in 90% of patients. Dementia was diagnosed in 20%, organic personality disorder in 30%, and pseudoneurotic syndrome in 15%. Delusional syndrome was diagnosed in 15% while 5% of patients had long history of psychiatric disorders. 35% of expertise were made during single psychiatric interview. It is our opinion that a single examination of aged delinquent does not allow the correct evaluation of the influence of complex relations between possible mental disturbances, somatic illness, drugs (often various pathology and polytherapy) and alcohol, on delinquent's soundness of mind. Taking into consideration the widespread of above mentioned disturbances in the aged population we think that every person in the age above 60 suspected of crime should undergo psychiatric evaluation and hospital observation. PMID:2631130

  7. Wildfire cause analysis: four case-studies in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovreglio R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Italy are mainly caused by humans, and directly depend on social behavior, whether voluntary (arson or involuntary (negligence. Despite the progress in knowledge made with studying the physical facets of the phenomenon, causes and motives of human-related fire remain mostly unknown. This paper proposes the implementation of the Delphi method (an interactive expert-questionnaire process in order to assess why fires are ignited. In four study cases, within a high fire incidence area (southern Italy, the Delphi technique identified as major cause of negligence the use of fire in agriculture and, as major causes of voluntary fires, motives related to seasonal labor. The main results in terms of frequency are: (i for involuntary events (negligence, experts unanimously identified the relevant importance of negligent use of agricultural fires, particularly stubble burning (13.99% of responses. For (ii voluntary fires (arson, results highlight the relative importance of fires ignited by seasonal workers as an instrument to force or maintain employment (8.41% of responses.

  8. Analysis of forest fires causes and their motivations in northern Algeria: the Delphi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meddour-Sahar O

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Algeria are mostly human-caused and result from local social behavior, whether voluntary (arson or involuntary (negligence. Understanding the reasons why fires start is, therefore, a crucial factor in preventing or reducing their incidence, developing significant prevention efforts and designing specific fire prevention campaigns. The Delphi method is a promising tool for improving knowledge about how fire starts and why, and above all helps reduce the number of fires started by unknown causes, the majority type in Algeria. The Delphi method uses a set of procedures for eliciting and refining the opinions of a panel of experts on a particular subject of interest. This method was used in three case studies, in coastal or inner wilayas (provinces selected from a highly fire-prone area in north-central Algeria. Results showed the traditional use of fire in agriculture and forestry, in situations related to land use changes and in interpersonal conflicts are the major causes of voluntary fires. For involuntary events (negligence, experts unanimously identified the importance of the restart of fire, caused by fire crews who do not ensure the mopping up of controlled fires (91.49% and the negligent use of agricultural fires, particularly stubble burning (80.14%. For voluntary fires (arson, results highlight the importance of fires set for land use changes (77.30%, pyromania (67.38% and honey gathering (62.41%. Illegal dumping and burning of garbage was also mentioned by responders in all study-areas.

  9. Prosperity Will Prevail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    "Social stability is the precondition for prosperity. Who wants to trade a peaceful and prosperous life for turmoil?"-Tanzen Lhundup, Research Fellow and Vice Director at the Social and Economics Institute,China Tibetology Research Center Tranquility was smashed in Lhasa,capital city of Tibet Autonomous Region on March 14. Armed with stones, bricks and sticks,the rioters left a trail of crimes,including beatings,smashings,Iootings and arson,victimizing or- dinary residents in the city. How did the violence happen? And what was the impact? On March 24,Beijing Review Feng Jianghua interviewed Tanzen Lhundup,Research Fellow and Vice Director at the Social and Economics Institute,China Tibetology Research Center.

  10. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  11. The use of L-ascorbic acid in speciation of arsenic compounds in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Nikola J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic speciation, besides total arsenic content determination, is very important in analysis of water, foodstuffs, and environmental samples, because of varying degrees of toxicity of different species. For such purpose hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry can be used based on the generation of certain types of hydride, depending on the pH value and pretreatment in different reaction media. In this study, we have investigated the effect of L-ascorbic acid as the reaction medium as well as the pre-reducing agent in speciation of arsenic by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry in order to determine monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA in the presence of inorganic forms of arsenic.

  12. Identification and Discrimination of Brands of Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Neural Networks Algorithm in Forensic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugena, L.; Moncayo, S.; Manzoor, S.; Rosales, D.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of adulteration of fuels and its use in criminal scenes like arson has a high interest in forensic investigations. In this work, a method based on gas chromatography (GC) and neural networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the identification and discrimination of brands of fuels such as gasoline and diesel without the necessity to determine the composition of the samples. The study included five main brands of fuels from Spain, collected from fifteen different local petrol stations. The methodology allowed the identification of the gasoline and diesel brands with a high accuracy close to 100%, without any false positives or false negatives. A success rate of three blind samples was obtained as 73.3%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of this methodology to help in resolving criminal situations. PMID:27375919

  13. Southeast U.S. burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Human beings were responsible for most of 12,000 forest fires in the southeastern United States that burned for 10 days in late October and early November 1987. 910 km2, mostly hardwood forest, were destroyed in the fires, with arson and carelessness as the primary causes, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Measured in monetary terms, the toll was more than $40 million in resource and property damage. While the amount of forest burned did not rival the 3390 km2 lost to fires in the western United States last summer, the human impact was severe in the southeast and all along the East Coast. Favorable winds blew smoke from the southern and central Appalachians as far north as New England and as far east as Delaware, and cool fall air close to the ground prevented the smoke from rising, thickening the air in many northeastern cities on November 8 and 9.

  14. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  15. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1996, Vol. 2, Rev. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 5, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1996. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  16. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, pre-1990 alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  17. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1991. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  18. Stereolithographic models of the solvent-accessible surface of biopolymers. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, J. [Olathe South High School, KS (United States); Noel, P. [Center High School, Kansas City, MO (United States); Emery, J.D. [and others

    1996-11-01

    The solvent-accessible surfaces of several biopolymers were calculated. As part of the DOE education outreach activity, two high school students participated in this project. Computer files containing sets of triangles were produced. These files are called stl files and are the ISO 9001 standard. They have been written onto CD-ROMs for distribution to American companies. Stereolithographic models were made of some of them to ensure that the computer calculations were done correctly. Stereolithographic models were made of interleukin 1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), three antibodies (an anti-p-azobenzene arsonate, an anti-Brucella A cell wall polysaccharide, and an HIV neutralizing antibody), a triple stranded coiled coil, and an engrailed homeodomain. Also, the biopolymers and their files are described.

  19. Forensic science: the truth is out there

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Lynne D.

    2002-06-01

    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  20. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 1, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from pre-NRC through December 31, 1989. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  1. Anti-discrimination Philosophy and the Decline of Post-capitalist Democracies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author is trying to explain the contrasts existing between the expanding universe of anti-discrimination sanctions and the decline in legitimacy of democracy. The declining legitimacy affects both consolidated democracies, and newborn democracies. Inequality in the USA, but also at global level is illustrated with relevant statistics. The convergence between the crisis of democracy and the financial and economic global crisis is a major social and political threat. At the global level, after the Arab Spring, the third wave of democratization continued, while the quality of democracy substantially diminished. In the newborn Islamic democracies, discrimination against women, Christians, Jews, gay & lesbians, etc. continued, leading to arson, torture and killings.

  2. Identification and Discrimination of Brands of Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Neural Networks Algorithm in Forensic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugena, L; Moncayo, S; Manzoor, S; Rosales, D; Cáceres, J O

    2016-01-01

    The detection of adulteration of fuels and its use in criminal scenes like arson has a high interest in forensic investigations. In this work, a method based on gas chromatography (GC) and neural networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the identification and discrimination of brands of fuels such as gasoline and diesel without the necessity to determine the composition of the samples. The study included five main brands of fuels from Spain, collected from fifteen different local petrol stations. The methodology allowed the identification of the gasoline and diesel brands with a high accuracy close to 100%, without any false positives or false negatives. A success rate of three blind samples was obtained as 73.3%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of this methodology to help in resolving criminal situations. PMID:27375919

  3. Discovery of a new family of carbonic anhydrases in the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum--the η-carbonic anhydrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Fisher, Gillian M; Andrews, Katherine T; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-09-15

    The genome of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most lethal type of human malaria, contains a single gene annotated as encoding a carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) thought to belong to the α-class, PfCA. Here we demonstrate the kinetic properties of PfCA for the CO2 hydration reaction, as well as an inhibition study of this enzyme with inorganic and complex anions and other molecules known to interact with zinc proteins, including sulfamide, sulfamic acid, and phenylboronic/arsonic acids, detecting several low micromolar inhibitors. A closer examination of the sequence of this and the CAs from other Plasmodium spp., as well as a phylogenetic analysis, revealed that these protozoa encode for a yet undisclosed, new genetic family of CAs termed the η-CA class. The main features of the η-CAs are described in this report. PMID:25168745

  4. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  5. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1996, Vol. 2, Rev. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 5, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1996. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  6. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  7. Public Health Concerns Associated with the New York City Blackout of 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2016-08-01

    The 1977 New York City blackout began at 9:36 p.m. on 13 July and lasted some 25 h until 10:39 p.m. on 14 July. The New York City Department of Health rapidly set up a Blackout Contingency Plan, established priorities, and mobilized its staff to address remedial interventions. Top priorities included water supplies, sewage disposal, perishable food supplies, hospital and emergency room services, solid waste disposal, beach contamination with untreated sewage , and assisting those on electrically powered home life support systems. The 1977 blackout occurred during an extended heat wave. An analysis of total deaths and deaths due to pulmonary and cardiovascular/renal diseases by day correlated with temperatures. However, there was no direct correlation with the blackout itself, in part perhaps because of the confounding influence of high temperatures. The increase of deaths on very hot days outside of the blackout period lends strong support to the relationship between increased deaths and high ambient temperatures. The 1977 New York City blackout was distinguished from those of 1965 and 2003 by violence, arson, and looting that occurred in several areas. These acts resulted in 204 civilian injuries, 436 police injuries, 80 firefighter injuries, and 1037 fires. The violence, arson, and looting caused extensive long-term physical and functional damage to certain areas of two boroughs of the city, Brooklyn and the Bronx. Although the New York City Department of Health had not previously established a disaster preparedness plan, its professionals quickly rose to the occasion because they were able to draw upon vast public health practice experience and ingenuity. PMID:27220853

  8. Recommendations on the use of prescribed burning practices in grassland conservation - An evidence-based study from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthmérész, Béla; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Péter; Végvári, Zsolt; Deák, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Fire as a natural disturbance has been present in most European grasslands. In parallel controlled use of burning was an important part of the traditional landscape management for millennia. It was used to reduce litter and suppress woody vegetation as well as to maintain open landscapes suitable for farming. Recently, human activities have a considerable impact on natural fire regimes through habitat fragmentation, cessation of traditional grassland management and climate change. Nowadays the majority of human-ignited fires are uncontrolled burnings and arson, which have serious negative impacts on human life, property and can be detrimental also from the nature conservation point of view. Despite fire was widely applied in the past and the considerable extension and frequency of current grassland fires, the impact of fire on the grassland biodiversity is still scarcely documented in Europe. The aim of our study was to gather practical knowledge and experiences from Hungary concerning the effects of fire on grasslands. To fulfil this aim we sent questionnaires to experts from Hungarian national park directorates to gather unpublished data and field observations concerning the effects of burning on grasslands. Based on the answers for the questionnaires fire regularly occur in almost every grassland types in Hungary. We found that effects of fire are habitat-specific. One hand uncontrolled burning and arson have serious detrimental impacts on many endangered species (ground-dwelling birds, such as Asio flammeus, Tringa totanus and Vanellus vanellus; or lizards, such as Ablepharus kitaibelii). On the other hand in several cases fire has a positive effect on the habitat structure and favours species of high nature conservation interest (plant species, such as Adonis volgensis, Chamaecytisus supinus and Pulsatilla grandis; butterflies, such as Euphydryas aurinia; bird species such as Circus aeruginosus and Larus cachinnans). Our results suggest that even uncontrolled

  9. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.

  10. The influence of fire on the assemblage structure of foraging birds in grasslands of the Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Matheus G; Fieker, Carolline Z; Dias, Manoel M

    2016-05-13

    Grasslands are the most threatened physiognomies of the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna), a biodiversity hotspot with conservation as a priority. The Serra da Canastra National Park protects the most important remnants of the Cerrado's southern grasslands, which are under strong anthropogenic pressure. The present study describes the structure of bird assemblages that directly use food resources in burned areas, comparing areas affected by natural fire to the areas where controlled fires were set (a management strategy to combat arson). The tested null hypothesis was that different bird assemblages are structured in a similar manner, regardless of the post-fire period or assessed area. Between December/2012 and January/2015, 92 species were recorded foraging in the study areas. The results indicate that both types of burnings triggered profound and immediate changes in bird assemblages, increasing the number of species and individuals. Natural fires exhibited a more significant influence on the structure (diversity and dominance) than prescribed burnings. Nevertheless, all the differences were no longer noticeable after a relatively short time interval of 2-3 months after prescribed burnings and 3-4 after natural fires. The findings may help the understanding of prescribed burnings as a management strategy for bird conservation in grasslands. PMID:27192195

  11. Biosorption of inorganic and organic arsenic from aqueous solution by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans BY-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional techniques for removing low concentration arsenic are unsuitable. The biosorption characteristics of arsenite (iAsIII) and monomethyl arsonate (MMAV) from aqueous solution by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans BY-3 (At. f BY-3) were investigated as a function of pH, contact time, initial arsenic concentration, biomass dosage and temperature in this study. Results indicated that Langmuir isotherm model fitted better than Freundlich model to the equilibrium data. Analysis of kinetic data showed that the biosorption processes of both iAsIII and MMAV involved pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo of the biosorption process showed that the adsorption of iAsIII and MMAV onto At. f BY-3 was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under the examined conditions. The competitive biosorption of iAsIII and MMAV in binary mixture system was evaluated, and the results indicated that At. f BY-3 favored MMAV biosorption. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed -OH and -NH groups were involved in the biosorption process.

  12. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin. PMID:17714900

  13. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry in forensic science and food adulteration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (SIRMS) is an established technique for the determination of origin of geological, biological, chemical and physio-chemical samples/materials. With the development of highly precise mass spectrometers, the stable isotope ratio determination of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have gained considerable interest in the fields of forensic science and food authentication. Natural variations in the isotopic composition of lighter elements occur due to fractionation effects, resulting in the finger printing of specific isotope ratio values that are characteristic of the origin, purity, and manufacturing processes of the products and their constituents. Forensic science uses scientific and technical methods to investigate traceable evidence of criminal acts. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has been applied to numerous aspects of the forensic science. The analysis of explosives such as ammonium nitrate, gun powder and tri-nitro-toluene (TNT), cases of murder, armed robbery, drug smuggling, terrorism, arson and hit and run traffic accidents are a few of them. The main types of geological evidences in such cases are mud, soil, rocks, sand, gravel, dust particles, biological materials, organic particles and anthropogenic components. Stable isotopes are used as tools to corroborate and confirm the evidential leads in the investigation of such crimes. The variation in natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen and their isotopic ratios δ13C and δ15N can identify links between items found at crime scene with those of suspect. The paper discusses the applications of SIRMS in the field of forensic science and food adulteration research

  14. Impact assessment of the 1977 New York City blackout. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, J. L.; Miles, W. T.

    1978-07-01

    This study was commissioned by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES), Department of Energy (DOE) shortly after the July 13, 1977 New York City Blackout. The objectives were two-fold: to assess the availability and collect, where practical, data pertaining to a wide variety of impacts occurring as a result of the blackout; and to broadly define a framework to assess the value of electric power reliability from consideration of the blackout and its effects on individuals, businesses, and institutions. The impacts were complex and included both economic and social costs. In order to systematically classify the most significant of these impacts and provide guidance for data collection, impact classification schemes were developed. Major economic impact categories examined are business; government; utilities (Consolidated Edison); insurance industry; public health services; and other public services. Impacts were classified as either direct or indirect depending upon whether the impact was due to a cessation of electricity or a response to that cessation. The principal economic costs of the blackout are shown. Social impacts, i.e., the changes in social activities and adaptations to these changes were particularly significant in New York due to its unique demographic and geographic characteristics. The looting and arson that accompanied the blackout set aside the NYC experience from other similar power failures. (MCW)

  15. Forensic science information needs of patrol officers: The perceptions of the patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Eyup

    Thanks to the rapid developments in science and technology in recent decades, especially in the past two decades, forensic sciences have been making invaluable contributions to criminal justice systems. With scientific evaluation of physical evidence, policing has become more effective in fighting crime and criminals. On the other hand, law enforcement personnel have made mistakes during the detection, protection, collection, and evaluation of physical evidence. Law enforcement personnel, especially patrol officers, have been criticized for ignoring or overlooking physical evidence at crime scenes. This study, conducted in a large American police department, was aimed to determine the perceptions of patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians about the forensic science needs of patrol officers. The results showed no statistically significant difference among the perceptions of the said groups. More than half of the respondents perceived that 14 out of 16 areas of knowledge were important for patrol officers to have: crime scene documentation, evidence collection, interviewing techniques, firearm evidence, latent and fingerprint evidence, blood evidence, death investigation information, DNA evidence, document evidence, electronically recorded evidence, trace evidence, biological fluid evidence, arson and explosive evidence, and impression evidence. Less than half of the respondents perceived forensic entomology and plant evidence as important for patrol officers.

  16. An investigation into effective methodologies for latent fingerprint enhancement on items recovered from fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sarah Jane; Cordingley, Thomas H; Francis, Sean C

    2016-07-01

    A common assumption is that fire destroys fingerprint evidence. Recent studies have sought to challenge this assumption. This study presents a comparative evaluation of soot removal and fingerprint enhancement techniques, following fire(s) to ascertain optimal process efficacy for recovering fingerprints. Two car burns and a cremation oven were used to determine the temperature range. Temperatures of 300, 450 and 600°C were used in simulated, controlled fires wherein cars had prints deposited on rear view mirrors. Burning occurred in a shipping container designed to approximate the variables relating to car arson. Soot removal was undertaken by tape lifting, sodium hydroxide solution, or liquid latex casting. The fingerprint enhancement techniques comprised black magnetic, aluminium and black suspension powders, or cyanoacrylate fuming with BY40 dye. A fingerprint expert classified prints as un/identifiable according to standards to be submitted as evidence in court. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed on the data using a p value of fingerprint recovery. There were no statistically significant differences found between any of the soot removal methods used. Higher counts of identifiable prints were recovered with black magnetic powder and cyanoacrylate/BY40 compared to the other methods used but these findings were not statistically significant. It is recommended that recovery of fire-exposed fingerprints (which are not protected) is undertaken where suspected maximum temperatures are fingerprint enhancement techniques should be conducted on a case by case basis.

  17. Visualization of latent fingerprint corrosion of metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, John W

    2008-07-01

    Chemical reactions between latent fingerprints and a variety of metal surfaces are investigated by heating the metal up to temperatures of approximately 600 degrees C after deposition of the fingerprint. Ionic salts present in the fingerprint residue corrode the metal surface to produce an image of the fingerprint that is both durable and resistant to cleaning of the metal. The degree of fingerprint enhancement appears independent of the elapsed time between deposition and heating but is very dependent on both the composition of the metal and the level of salt secretion by the fingerprint donor. Results are presented that show practical applications for the enhancement to fingerprints deposited in arson crime scenes, contaminated by spray painting, or deposited on brass cartridge cases prior to discharge. The corrosion of the metal surface is further exploited by the demonstration of a novel technique for fingerprint enhancement based on the electrostatic charging of the metal and then the preferential adherence of a metallic powder to the corroded part of the metal surface.

  18. Elections and Political Violence in Nigeria: Past Mistakes and Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi, M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Elections in Nigeria over the years have become much more than a democratic process of acquiring political power. We have for some time now witnessed escalating political violence in different parts of the country, with increasing loss of faith between the electorates and political leaders. During the last general elections of April 2011, there were charges and counter charges by the political parties of rigging and general abuse of power at the federal and states level. Riot, arson, murder and looting became widespread in many states particularly in the northern part of the country. This paper intends to look at the process of conducting elections in Nigeria and how it caused political violence and make recommendations on how to bring to an end the increasing wave of violence in the electoral system. This is significant because as 2015 draws nearer, there is increasing fear and apprehension about possible political violence across the country. Fundamentally, there is need for political education and youth’s empowerment to convert election violence in our polity.

  19. Eco-Terrorism? Countering Dominant Narratives of Securitisation: a Critical, Quantitative History of the Earth Liberation Front (1996-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loadenthal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Earth Liberation Front (ELF has carried out acts of political violence and ‘economic sabotage’ characterized by a pattern of behaviour reflecting tactical and targeting selections, communications strategies, and geographic location. The movement’s attacks typically focus on the destruction of property located in ‘soft targets’ associated with commercial and residential construction, the automotive industry, and a variety of local, national and multinational business interests. These sites are routinely targeted through a variety of means ranging from graffiti to sabotage to arson. Geographically, the movement has focused its attacks in the United States and Mexico, and, to a limited extent, countries on the European, South American and Australian continents. The findings presented in this article were developed through a statistical analysis of the movement’s attack history as presented through its above-ground support network. This is discussed in critical contrast to assertions about the movement’s alleged terrorist behaviour found in most academic and government literature. This study seeks to present an incident-based historical analysis of the ELF that is not situated within a logic of securitization. In doing so, it challenges traditional scholarship based on statistical findings.

  20. MSMA resistance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camper, N D; Keese, R J; Coker, P S

    2004-05-01

    Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic from the parent pentavalent form present in MSMA to the trivalent form was detected. Arginine, glutamic acid, and glutamine content increased in tissue three days after MSMA treatment. Glutathione content decreased during the first three days after treatment; however, five days after treatment the resistant biotype of cocklebur and cotton had elevated glutathione levels (8-20 times greater, respectively). Glutathione Synthetase activity was higher in cotton than in either of the cocklebur biotypes; MSMA did not affect its activity in cotton or either cocklebur biotype. Resistant biotypes have a slightly higher activity than the susceptible biotype. Tolerance of cotton to MSMA may be related to glutathione synthetase activity and possibly to the presence of phytochelatins. Also, increased glutathione levels in the resistant biotype may implicate phytochelatin involvement in the resistance mechanism.

  1. Effect and mechanism of diphosphonic acid on flotation characteristic of fersmite and intergrowth gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任暤; 纪绯绯; 张书香

    2003-01-01

    The effect of several collectors and their dosage on the flotation characteristics of the synthetical fersmite at different pH values, the collecting strength and selectivity of several representative collectors were investigated. The experimental results indicate that diphosphonic acid is a good collector for fersmite and recovery of fersmite ranges from 83.27% to 85.10% when the pulp pH value is at 2.5-5.0 and the dosage is 20 mg/L. The rank sequence of selectivity for several collectors is as follows: diphosphonic acid > benzyl arsonic acid >α-styrolphosphonic acid>alkyl hydroximic acid (C7-9) > cyclic alkyl hydroximic acid. At the same time, Infrared Absorption Spectrum (IAS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were used to detect and analyze the action mechanism of diphosphonic acid on fersmite. IAS results show that the characteristic absorption peak relating to PO as well as P-O vibration occurs between wave number 1 178 cm-1, 1 142 cm-1, 1 087 cm-1 and 934 cm-1, and diphosphonic acid is adsorbed on the surface of fersmite. XPS results indicate that the binding energy of P 2p peak of fersmite treated by diphosphonic acid is increased by 3.85 eV. It is proved that the adsorption is mainly chemical adsorption.

  2. Sorptive Uptake Studies of an Aryl-Arsenical with Iron Oxide Composites on an Activated Carbon Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H. Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorption uptake kinetics and equilibrium studies for 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzene arsonic acid (roxarsone was evaluated with synthetic magnetite (Mag-P, commercial magnetite (Mag-C, magnetite 10%, 19%, and 32% composite material (CM-10, -19, -32 that contains granular activated carbon (GAC, and synthetic goethite at pH 7.00 in water at 21 °C for 24 h. GAC showed the highest sorptive removal of roxarsone and the relative uptake for each sorbent material with roxarsone are listed in descending order as follows: GAC (471 mg/g > goethite (418 mg/g > CM-10 (377 mg/g CM-19 (254 mg/g > CM-32 (227 mg/g > Mag-P (132 mg/g > Mag-C (29.5 mg/g. The As (V moiety of roxarsone is adsorbed onto the surface of the iron oxide/oxyhydrate and is inferred as inner-sphere surface complexes; monodentate-mononuclear, bidentate-mononuclear, and bidentate-binuclear depending on the protolytic speciation of roxarsone. The phenyl ring of roxarsone provides the primary driving force for the sorptive interaction with the graphene surface of GAC and its composites. Thus, magnetite composites are proposed as multi-purpose adsorbents for the co-removal of inorganic and organic arsenicals due to the presence of graphenic and iron oxide active adsorption sites.

  3. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1-Induced Fe(III) Reduction Facilitates Roxarsone Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guowei; Ke, Zhengchen; Liang, Tengfang; Liu, Li; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although microbial activity and associated iron (oxy)hydroxides are known in general to affect the environmental dynamics of 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid (roxarsone), the mechanistic understanding of the underlying biophysico-chemical processes remains unclear due to limited experimental information. We studied how Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 –a widely distributed metal-reducing bacterium, in the presence of dissolved Fe(III), affects roxarsone transformations and biogeochemical cycling in a model aqueous system. The results showed that the MR-1 strain was able to anaerobically use roxarsone as a terminal electron acceptor and to convert it to a single product, 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzene arsonic acid (AHBAA). The presence of Fe(III) stimulated roxarsone transformation via MR-1-induced Fe(III) reduction, whereby the resulting Fe(II) acted as an efficient reductant for roxarsone transformation. In addition, the subsequent secondary Fe(III)/Fe(II) mineralization created conditions for adsorption of organoarsenic compounds to the yielded precipitates and thereby led to arsenic immobilization. The study provided direct evidence of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1-induced direct and Fe(II)-associated roxarsone transformation. Quantitative estimations revealed a candidate mechanism for the early-stage environmental dynamics of roxarsone in nature, which is essential for understanding the environmental dynamics of roxarsone and successful risk assessment. PMID:27100323

  4. Digital Inventory and Documentation of Korea's Important Cultural Properties Using 3D Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongseok, K.; Gyesoo, K.; Siro, K.; Eunhwa, K.

    2015-08-01

    As a country with 11 properties included on the World Heritage List and approximately 12,000 important cultural properties, Korea has been continuously carrying out the inventory and documentation of cultural properties to conserve and manage them since the 1960s. The inventory of cultural properties had been carried out by making and managing a register which recorded basic information mainly on state-designated cultural properties such as their size, quantity, and location. The documentation of cultural properties was also carried out by making measured drawings. However, the inventory and documentation done under the previous analog method had a limit to the information it could provide for the effective conservation and management of cultural properties. Moreover, in recent times important cultural properties have frequently been damaged by man-made and natural disasters such as arson, forest fires, and floods, so an alternative was required. Accordingly, Korea actively introduced digital techniques led by the government for the inventory and documentation of important cultural properties. In this process, the government established the concept of a digital set, built a more efficie nt integrated data management system, and created standardized guidelines to maximize the effectiveness of data acquisition, management, and utilization that greatly increased the level of digital inventory, documentation, and archiving.

  5. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  6. Reconstructing Salah Al-din Minbar of Al-Aqsa Mosque: Challenges and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid H. ABWEINI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah Al-Din Minbar (pulpit has a distinguished value in Islamic art, which is originated from its historical value of being constructed 800 years ago representing a symbol of dignified historical era; and to its political value as this Minbar had formed an emotional spur during the Crusades; and above all it is considered as one of the most beautiful and finest pieces of Islamic decoration art. After a devastating arson blaze nothing was left of the Minbar except some wooden pieces and few photographs that had been taken at previous periods of time. The need to rebuild and renovate Salah Al-Din Minbar of the Aqsa Mosque as similar to the original Minbar has arisen and met the Jordanian Royal mandate. This paper documents reconstructing the model Minbar to be exactly like the original one which was a sole job until the time, especially because of the decorations' diversity and the need to adopt the traditional craft techniques which require deliberate synthesized studies to prepare the drawings and construct the Minbar. The model Minbar was totally completed within 14 years.

  7. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  8. Adjunctive role of dental restorations in personal identification of burnt victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrangi, Sameer Kumar; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Reshma, V; Sudhakara, M; Hosthor, Sreelatha S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fire remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and identification of a body from the fatal fire remains a daunting task. Several forensic cases involve interpretation of burnt human bodies from airline and automobile accidents, bombings and unlawful cremation. Fire is also involved in homicides, suicides, accidental death, arson and in attempts to destroy forensic evidence in criminal cases. Soft tissue destruction from fire can be so extensive that conventional methods of identification may be impossible. However, teeth survive even high temperatures due to their resistant composition and so, obviously, the restorative material housed in the teeth are even more secure and can yield valuable information in personal identification. Aim: To assess the usefulness of most common restorations in personal identification in burnt cases. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 40 extracted teeth which were divided into four groups (Group 1 - Unrestored teeth, Group 2 - Amalgam restored, Group 3 - Glass ionomer restored and Group 4 - Composite resin restored teeth. The effect of incineration at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C, 1000°C for 15 min at each target temperature followed by subsequent cooling was studied. Results: Amalgam restoration was resistant and intact even at 1000°C, whereas GIC and composite restoration are identifiable till 600°C, the residual cavity preparation leaves a clue for narrowing down the spectrum of identification. PMID:27194881

  9. Adjunctive role of dental restorations in personal identification of burnt victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Kumar Vandrangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fire remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and identification of a body from the fatal fire remains a daunting task. Several forensic cases involve interpretation of burnt human bodies from airline and automobile accidents, bombings and unlawful cremation. Fire is also involved in homicides, suicides, accidental death, arson and in attempts to destroy forensic evidence in criminal cases. Soft tissue destruction from fire can be so extensive that conventional methods of identification may be impossible. However, teeth survive even high temperatures due to their resistant composition and so, obviously, the restorative material housed in the teeth are even more secure and can yield valuable information in personal identification. Aim: To assess the usefulness of most common restorations in personal identification in burnt cases . Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 40 extracted teeth which were divided into four groups (Group 1 - Unrestored teeth, Group 2 - Amalgam restored, Group 3 - Glass ionomer restored and Group 4 - Composite resin restored teeth. The effect of incineration at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C, 1000°C for 15 min at each target temperature followed by subsequent cooling was studied. Results: Amalgam restoration was resistant and intact even at 1000°C, whereas GIC and composite restoration are identifiable till 600°C, the residual cavity preparation leaves a clue for narrowing down the spectrum of identification.

  10. Direct surface analysis of pesticides on soil, leaves, grass, and stainless steel by static secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, J.C.; Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E.; Olson, J.E.; Miller, D.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Direct surface analyses by static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed for the following pesticides adsorbed on dandelion leaves, grass, soil, and stainless steel samples: alachlor, atrazine, captan, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorosulfuron, chlorthal-dimethyl, cypermethrin, 2,4-D, diuron, glyphosate, malathion, methomyl, methyl arsonic acid, mocap, norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, paraquat, temik, and trifluralin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate static SIMS as a tool for pesticide analysis, principally for use in screening samples for pesticides. The advantage of direct surface analysis compared with conventional pesticide analysis methods is the elimination of sample pretreatment including extraction, which streamlines the analysis substantially; total analysis time for SIMS analysis was ca. 10 min/sample. Detection of 16 of the 20 pesticides on all four substrates was achieved. Of the remaining four pesticides, only one (trifluralin) was not detected on any of the samples. The minimum detectable quantity was determined for paraquat on soil in order to evaluate the efficacy of using SIMS as a screening tool. Paraquat was detected at 3 pg/mm{sup 2} (c.a. 0.005 monolayers). The results of these studies suggest that SIMS is capable of direct surface detection of a range of pesticides, with low volatility, polar pesticides being the most easily detected. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. MSMA resistance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camper, N D; Keese, R J; Coker, P S

    2004-05-01

    Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic from the parent pentavalent form present in MSMA to the trivalent form was detected. Arginine, glutamic acid, and glutamine content increased in tissue three days after MSMA treatment. Glutathione content decreased during the first three days after treatment; however, five days after treatment the resistant biotype of cocklebur and cotton had elevated glutathione levels (8-20 times greater, respectively). Glutathione Synthetase activity was higher in cotton than in either of the cocklebur biotypes; MSMA did not affect its activity in cotton or either cocklebur biotype. Resistant biotypes have a slightly higher activity than the susceptible biotype. Tolerance of cotton to MSMA may be related to glutathione synthetase activity and possibly to the presence of phytochelatins. Also, increased glutathione levels in the resistant biotype may implicate phytochelatin involvement in the resistance mechanism. PMID:15473645

  12. Anion inhibition studies of the α-carbonic anhydrase from the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Peiwen; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Scozzafava, Andrea; Parkkila, Seppo; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-08-01

    The protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, encodes an α-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), TcCA, which was recently shown to be crucial for its life cycle. Thiols, a class of strong TcCA inhibitors, were also shown to block the growth of the pathogen in vitro. Here we report the inhibition of TcCA by inorganic and complex anions and other molecules interacting with zinc proteins, such as sulfamide, sulfamic acid, phenylboronic/arsonic acids. TcCA was inhibited in the low micromolar range by iodide, cyanate, thiocyanate, hydrogensulfide and trithiocarbonate (KIs in the range of 44-93 μM), but the best inhibitor was diethyldithiocarbamate (KI=5 μM). Sulfamide showed an inhibition constant of 120 μM, but sulfamic acid was much less effective (KI of 10.6 mM). The discovery of diethyldithiocarbamate as a low micromolar TcCA inhibitor may be useful to detect leads for developing anti-Trypanosoma agents with a diverse mechanism of action compared to clinically used drugs (benznidazole, nifurtimox) for which significant resistance emerged. PMID:23790722

  13. Development of off-line layer chromatographic and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods for arsenic speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Moricz, Agnes M. [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Kroepfl, Krisztina [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Szikora, Szilvia [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Parra, Lue Meru Marco [Universidad Centro-occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Departamento de Quimica y Suelos Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Apartado Postal 4076, Cabudare 3023 (Venezuela); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary) and Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary) and L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: zaray@ludens.elte.hu

    2006-11-15

    Rapid and low cost off-line thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods have been developed for separation of 25 ng of each As(III), As(V), monomethyl arsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid applying a PEI cellulose stationary phase on plastic sheets and a mixture of acetone/acetic acid/water = 2:1:1 (v/v/v) as eluent system. The type of eluent systems, the amounts (25-1000 ng) of As species applied to PEI cellulose plates, injection volume, development distance, and flow rate (in case of overpressured thin layer chromatography) were taken into consideration for the development of the chromatographic separation. Moreover, a microdigestion method employing nitric acid for the As spots containing PEI cellulose scratched from the developed plates divided into segments was developed for the subsequent total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. The method was applied for analysis of root extracts of cucumber plants grown in As(III) containing modified Hoagland nutrient solution. Both As(III) and As(V) were detected by applying the proposed thin layer chromatography/overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods.

  14. Women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor are different from women convicted of traditional sexual offenses: a brief research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortoni, Franca; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2015-06-01

    Some jurisdictions have legally decreed that certain nonsexual offenses (e.g., promoting prostitution of a minor, arson, burglary) can be considered sexual offenses. Offenders convicted of these crimes can be subjected to sexual offender-specific social control policies such as registration, as well as be included in sexual offender research such as recidivism studies. No studies, however, have systematically examined differences and similarities between this new class of sexual offenders and more traditional sexual offenders. The current study used a sample of 94 women convicted of sexual offenses to investigate whether women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor differed on demographic and criminogenic features from those convicted of more traditional sexual offenses. Results show that women convicted of promoting prostitution offenses have criminal histories more consistent with general criminality and exhibit more general antisocial features than women convicted of traditional sexual offenses. These results support the notion that the inclusion of legally defined sexual offenders with traditional ones obscures important differences in criminogenic features among these women.

  15. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully.

  16. Antigovernment Groups. A Growing Threat to US Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Alicia L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-25

    Domestic terrorism is a growing threat in the United States, particularly from the 998 right-wing antigovernment (AG) groups in existence in 2015. In the years since the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City, right-wing anti-government acts have oc- curred more often and killed more people in the United States than Muslim extremists. Such AG group members are often in uenced by racist, anti-Semitic, or anti-Islamic views, believe conspiracy theories about the government, and often refuse to pay taxes or participate in frivolous lawsuits in order to intentionally waste the government's time. There is, however, a violent element to these groups which participates in events ranging from the armed take-over of federal land in Oregon, to an armed stand-o with federal agents in Nevada, to the bombing of the Oklahoma City building which killed 168 people. Such acts may be conducted by a few individuals, as is the case of the Oklahoma City bombing, or an entire group. Such groups have a wide range of capabilities, with typical weapons including legal and illegal rearms, with a focus on purchasing fully automatic weapons; hand grenades, with some homemade; deadly tox- ins, like ricin (in multiple cases) and sodium cyanide (in one case); transportation, such as all-terrain vehicles (ATVs); arson, with the intent of destroying federal property; and explosives, often in large numbers and including pipe bombs, truck bombs, IEDs, and other homemade explosives. The growing acceptance of these violent methods by Republican congressmen and governors, however, only increases visibility of such groups and encourages their behavior. Coupled with the removal of the Department of Homeland Security's division responsible for monitoring such groups, the result could prove disastrous for the safety of United States citizens.

  17. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS. eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. Conclusion The fire-setting behavior and Todd’s paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  18. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

  19. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Nina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R. Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  20. Increased frequency of brain pathology in inmates of a high-security forensic institution: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Joachim G; Bogerts, Bernhard; Schiltz, Kolja

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess whether brain pathology might be more abundant in forensic inpatients in a high-security setting than in non-criminal individuals. By using a previously used reliable approach, we explored the frequency and extent of brain pathology in a large group of institutionalized offenders who had not previously been considered to be suffering from structural brain damage and compare it to healthy, non-offending subjects. MRI and CT brain scans from 148 male inpatients of a high-security mental health institution (offense type: 51 sex, 80 violent, 9 arson, and 8 nonviolent) that were obtained due to headache, vertigo, or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal healthy controls. Brain scans were assessed qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1), or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex, and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Forensic inpatients displayed signs of brain damage to a significantly higher degree than healthy controls (p < 0.001). Even after adjustment for age, in the patients, being younger than the controls (p < 0.05), every offender type group displayed a higher proportion of subjects with brain regions categorized as definitely abnormal than the non-criminal controls. Within the forensic inpatients, offense type groups did not significantly differ in brain pathology. The astonishingly high prevalence of brain pathology in institutionalized inmates of a high-security mental health institution who previously had not been considered to be suffering from an organic brain syndrome raises questions on whether such neuroradiological assessment might be considered as a routine procedure in newly admitted patients. Furthermore, it highlights that organic changes, detectable under clinical routine

  1. Daphnia HR96 is a promiscuous xenobiotic and endobiotic nuclear receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimullina, Elina [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Yekaterinburg 620144 (Russian Federation); Li Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam K. [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Baldwin, William S., E-mail: baldwin@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Daphnia pulex is the first crustacean to have its genome sequenced. The genome project provides new insight and data into how an aquatic crustacean may respond to environmental stressors, including toxicants. We cloned Daphnia pulex HR96 (DappuHR96), a nuclear receptor orthologous to the CAR/PXR/VDR group of nuclear receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, (hormone receptor 96) HR96 responds to phenobarbital exposure and has been hypothesized as a toxicant receptor. Therefore, we set up a transactivation assay to test whether DappuHR96 is a promiscuous receptor activated by xenobiotics and endobiotics similar to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X-receptor (PXR). Transactivation assays performed with a GAL4-HR96 chimera demonstrate that HR96 is a promiscuous toxicant receptor activated by a diverse set of chemicals such as pesticides, hormones, and fatty acids. Several environmental toxicants activate HR96 including estradiol, pyriproxyfen, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and methane arsonate. We also observed repression of HR96 activity by chemicals such as triclosan, androstanol, and fluoxetine. Nearly 50% of the chemicals tested activated or inhibited HR96. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids were common activators or inhibitors of HR96 activity, indicating a link between diet and toxicant response. The omega-6 and omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids linoleic and oleic acid activated HR96, but the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibited HR96, suggesting that these two distinct sets of lipids perform opposing roles in Daphnia physiology. This also provides a putative mechanism by which the ratio of dietary unsaturated fats may affect the ability of an organism to respond to a toxic insult. In summary, HR96 is a promiscuous nuclear receptor activated by numerous endo- and xenobiotics.

  2. The Countermeasures against the Public Security Problems Brought about by the Introduction of Halloween to China%万圣节传入与我国社会治安的应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立伟

    2013-01-01

    在我国一些大城市,未成年人过万圣节的气氛越来越浓,与万圣节相伴的“捣乱文化”也传入进来。鉴于西方很多国家在万圣节期间经常发生骚乱、纵火、抢劫、性侵儿童等严重破坏社会治安的行为,我国公安机关应当未雨绸缪,对万圣节期间可能出现的危害行为予以充分的估计,在万圣节前做好相应的安全宣传和处置预案,并采取管控有性侵儿童前科的人员,管控相关重点场所,动态监控网络虚拟社会等治安应对措施,主动防范可能出现的危害。%In some big cities of China, the atmosphere of celebrating Halloween is becoming increasingly strong among juveniles. At the same time,“the culture of making troubles”accompanying Halloween is also introduced to China. Considering the fact that in western countries, riots, arsons, robberies and sexual assaults of children take place very often and sometimes the public order is broken during Halloween, Chinese public security organs should prepare in advance to take full account of the possible harmful behaviors during Halloween, carry out the work of safety publicity and make plans before Halloween. Furthermore, several countermeasures, such as controlling persons who have a criminal record of assaulting child sexually, maintaining the public order of relevant areas and constantly monitoring the virtual society of cyberspace, should be taken to prevent possible harmfulness.

  3. The Effect of Preparation Design on the Fracture Resistance of Zir-Conia Crown Copings (Computer Associated Design/Computer Associated Machine, CAD/CAM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Atashkar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the major problems of all ceramic restorations is their probable fracture against the occlusal force. The aim of the present in-vitro study is was to compare the effect of two marginal designs (chamfer & shoulder on the fracture resistance of zirconia copings, CERCON (CAD/CAM.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro study was done with single blind experimental technique. One stainless steel dye with 50’ chamfer finish line design (0.8 mm depth was prepared using milling machine. Ten epoxy resin dyes were made, The same dye was retrieved and 50' chamfer was converted into shoulder (1 mm.again ten epoxy resin dyes were made from shoulder dyes. Zirconia cores with 0.4 mm thickness and 35 µm cement Space fabricated on the20 epoxy resin dyes (10 samples chamfer and 10 samples shoulder in a dental laboratory. Then the zirconia cores were cemented on the epoxy resin dyes and underwent a fracture test with a universal testing machine (GOTECH AI-700LAC, Arson, USA and samples were investigated from the point of view of the origin of the failure.RESULT: The mean value of fracture resistance for shoulder margins were 788.90±99.56 N and for the chamfer margins were 991.75±112.00 N. The student’s T-test revealed a statistically significant difference between groups (P=0.001.CONCLUSION: The result of this study indicates that marginal design of the zirconia cores effects on their fracture resistance. A chamfer margin could improve the biomechanical performance of posterior single zirconia crown restorations. This may be because of strong unity and round internal angle in chamfer margin.

  4. Pathological Fire Setting Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmagul Helvaci Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fire setting behavior is characterized by various types of fire setting behavior that lasts at least 6 months. This behavior can be observed both during childhood and adolescence and it develops as a result of the complex interaction between individual, social and environmental factors. Sample population based studies show that fire setting behavior occurs in children and adolescents by 5-10%. The studies that have been conducted have yielded to various theories and findings concerning the mechanism of occurrence of pathological fire setting behavior, the factors that affect this behavior and the demographic, individual, family and environmental characteristics of the children and adolescents who engage in such behavior. The objectives of effective treatment strategies are reducing fire setting behavior as well as making significant changes in the causes underlying the psychopathology. Outpatient care is the preferred method. In addition, there are some inpatient treatment programs designed especially for young people who set fires. The two most common approaches in intervention concerning fire setting behavior are firefighting (fire service based training interventions and mental health based psycho-social interventions. Even though numerous studies have been conducted in the world concerning pathological fire setting behavior from the 19th century onwards, no epidemiological data or study on pathological fire setting behavior exists in Turkey. This seems to be the case in our country despite the fact that fire setting behavior at various degrees and even arson occurs in children and adolescents and results in material damage as well as serious injury and even death especially in the context of children who are pushed into crime. Our objective is to discuss pathological fire setting behavior in line with the literature on the subject, to increase the awareness of the fire service institutions and to shed light on further studies to

  5. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis. PMID:17662159

  6. The Effect of Preparation Design on the Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Crown Copings (Computer Associated Design/Computer Associated Machine, CAD/CAM System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, E.; Atashkar, B.; Rostami, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective One of the major problems of all ceramic restorations is their probable fracture against the occlusal force. The aim of the present in-vitro study is was to compare the effect of two marginal designs (chamfer & shoulder) on the fracture resistance of zirconia copings, CERCON (CAD/CAM). MATERIALS AND METHODS This in vitro study was done with single blind experimental technique. One stainless steel dye with 50′ chamfer finish line design (0.8 mm depth) was prepared using milling machine. Ten epoxy resin dyes were made, The same dye was retrieved and 50′ chamfer was converted into shoulder (1 mm).again ten epoxy resin dyes were made from shoulder dyes. Zirconia cores with 0.4 mm thickness and 35 μm cement Space fabricated on the 20 epoxy resin dyes (10 samples chamfer and 10 samples shoulder) in a dental laboratory. Then the zirconia cores were cemented on the epoxy resin dyes and underwent a fracture test with a universal testing machine (GOTECH AI-700LAC, Arson, USA) and samples were investigated from the point of view of the origin of the failure. RESULT The mean value of fracture resistance for shoulder margins were 788.90±99.56 N and for the chamfer margins were 991.75±112.00 N. The student’s T-test revealed a statistically significant difference between groups (P=0.001). CONCLUSION The result of this study indicates that marginal design of the zirconia cores effects on their fracture resistance. A chamfer margin could improve the biomechanical performance of posterior single zirconia crown restorations. This may be because of strong unity and round internal angle in chamfer margin. PMID:22457839

  7. Westernized diets lower arsenic gastrointestinal bioaccessibility but increase microbial arsenic speciation changes in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Pradeep; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip; De Ryck, Tine; Van De Wiele, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is an important contaminant present in food and water. Several studies have indicated that the occurrence of As based skin lesions is significantly different when root and gourd rich diets are consumed compared to meat rich diets. Additionally, urinary As speciation from orally exposed individuals appears to depend on the composition of the diet. These observations imply that diet composition can affect both the bioavailable As fraction as the As speciation in the body. In this study, we used the in vitro gastrointestinal method (IVG) to evaluate how an Asian type diet (fiber rich) and a Western type diet (fat and protein rich), differ in their capability to release inorganic As (iAs(V)) and dimethyl arsinate (DMA(V)) from a rice matrix following gastrointestinal digestion. Moreover, we used a validated dynamic gut simulator to investigate whether diet background affects As metabolism by gut microbiota in a colon environment. An Asian diet background resulted in a larger As bioaccessibility (81.2%) than a Western diet background (63.4%). On the other hand, incubation of As contaminated rice with human colon microbiota in the presence of a Western type diet resulted in a larger amount of hazardous As species - monomethyl arsonite and monomethylmonothio arsonate - to be formed after 48 h. The permeability of these As species (60.5% and 50.5% resp.) across a Caco-2 cell line was significantly higher compared to iAs(V) and DMA(V) (46.5% and 28% resp.). We conclude that dietary background is a crucial parameter to incorporate when predicting bioavailability with bioaccessibility measurements and when assessing health risks from As following oral exposure.

  8. FOREST FIRES SUPRESSED BY KLABIN OF PARANA IN THE PERIOD 1965 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre França Tetto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The records of fire occurrence enables planning for prevention and control, minimizing the damages. The objectives of this study were: determine the number of fires attended by fire brigades of Klabin in the period of 1965 to 2009, determine the fires temporal distribution, identify the probable causes, and identify the main classes of affected vegetation. To do so, records of fire occurrence provided by Klabin, as well as IAPAR meteorological data for the period were analyzed. The results showed that in the period of 1965 to 2009, there were 2,313 occurrences that affected 6,197 ha, with a reduction of the affected area over the period. The months of July, August and September presented the highest number of occurrence, totaling 1,183 (51.2% fires. The events were uniformly distributed throughout the week, concentrated from 11 to 18 hours (72.8% of total. The main causes of fires were arson (54.2%, followed by cleaning burns (16.2%. The pine was the more susceptible vegetation, with 41.3% of the occurrences and 22.5% of the affected area. Although a large number of events occurred in eucalyptus (22.2%, the affected area was smaller than that “other planted species” (20.4% and secondary forest (19.3%. In conclusion, there was an improvement of the protection system, considering the increase of the protected area and the decrease in the area affected by fires. Preventive actions directed to arsonists and agricultural burning, especially in periods of danger are needed.

  9. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully. PMID:20375436

  10. An investigation into effective methodologies for latent fingerprint enhancement on items recovered from fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sarah Jane; Cordingley, Thomas H; Francis, Sean C

    2016-07-01

    A common assumption is that fire destroys fingerprint evidence. Recent studies have sought to challenge this assumption. This study presents a comparative evaluation of soot removal and fingerprint enhancement techniques, following fire(s) to ascertain optimal process efficacy for recovering fingerprints. Two car burns and a cremation oven were used to determine the temperature range. Temperatures of 300, 450 and 600°C were used in simulated, controlled fires wherein cars had prints deposited on rear view mirrors. Burning occurred in a shipping container designed to approximate the variables relating to car arson. Soot removal was undertaken by tape lifting, sodium hydroxide solution, or liquid latex casting. The fingerprint enhancement techniques comprised black magnetic, aluminium and black suspension powders, or cyanoacrylate fuming with BY40 dye. A fingerprint expert classified prints as un/identifiable according to standards to be submitted as evidence in court. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed on the data using a p value of <0.05 to determine statistical significance. Temperature was the biggest factor affecting fingerprint recovery. There were no statistically significant differences found between any of the soot removal methods used. Higher counts of identifiable prints were recovered with black magnetic powder and cyanoacrylate/BY40 compared to the other methods used but these findings were not statistically significant. It is recommended that recovery of fire-exposed fingerprints (which are not protected) is undertaken where suspected maximum temperatures are <450°C. Evaluation of optimal soot removal and fingerprint enhancement techniques should be conducted on a case by case basis. PMID:27320395

  11. Forest Fire Prevention Measures and Countermeasures of Field Fire Source Management in Yinjie Township%寅街镇森林火灾预防措施及野外火源管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳华; 毕劲荣

    2013-01-01

    在“被动扑救森林火灾”向“以预防为主”的森林火灾预防机制转变过程中,通过对寅街镇20年来森林火灾发生规律、起火原因、地域和时间分布进行分析,指出93%属人为野外用火引起,森林火灾造成的经济损失主要为非生产性用火中故意纵火、外区烧入、上坟等造成的,野外火源是导致寅街镇森林火灾的主要原因。提出落实责任,加强宣传,完善巡查力度,实施计划烧除,抓好森林火灾保险,严格火源管理等寅街镇森林火灾预防对策及加强野外火源管理的几点建议。%In the forest fire prevention mechanism change process of "passive fighting forest fires"to "prevention first", the analysis of forest fires occurrence , cause of the fire , the geographical and temporal distribution in Yinjie township in 20 years are made , results shown that field fire source are consider as main cause of forest fire which 93%are caused by human activity including deliberately arson in non-pro-ductive use of fire, burned from the outer zone, visit grave, etc.Suggestions to implement the responsi-bility, enhance publicity , to improve the inspection , to implement prescribed burning , to set up forest fires insurance , strengthen forest fire prevention measures are proposed .

  12. Location, timing and extent of wildfire vary by cause of ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing extent of wildfires has prompted investigation into alternative fire management approaches to complement the traditional strategies of fire suppression and fuels manipulation. Wildfire prevention through ignition reduction is an approach with potential for success, but ignitions result from a variety of causes. If some ignition sources result in higher levels of area burned, then ignition prevention programmes could be optimised to target these distributions in space and time. We investigated the most common ignition causes in two southern California sub-regions, where humans are responsible for more than 95% of all fires, and asked whether these causes exhibited distinct spatial or intra-annual temporal patterns, or resulted in different extents of fire in 10-29-year periods, depending on sub-region. Different ignition causes had distinct spatial patterns and those that burned the most area tended to occur in autumn months. Both the number of fires and area burned varied according to cause of ignition, but the cause of the most numerous fires was not always the cause of the greatest area burned. In both sub-regions, power line ignitions were one of the top two causes of area burned: the other major causes were arson in one sub-region and power equipment in the other. Equipment use also caused the largest number of fires in both sub-regions. These results have important implications for understanding why, where and how ignitions are caused, and in turn, how to develop strategies to prioritise and focus fire prevention efforts. Fire extent has increased tremendously in southern California, and because most fires are caused by humans, ignition reduction offers a potentially powerful management strategy, especially if optimised to reflect the distinct spatial and temporal distributions in different ignition causes.

  13. 试论城市地下公共空间的反恐问题%On Anti-terrorist Attack in Urban Underground Public Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿玺

    2012-01-01

    Urban underground public space is the place with a variety of public underground commercial facilities , underground entertainment facilities, underground parking, subway and other transportation facilities, as well as underground plaza with the people gathered. The inherent threat to the urban underground public space may be from the terrorism including the complexity of on-ground space environment and lack of external security. The external factors include high staff-intensity within the space, space-specific functionality and their own vulnerability. The main form of the terrorist threat is the explosion, arson, assassination and hostage taking, biochemical or radioactive material attacks. The protection includes enhancing access control, environmental prevention, eliminating the structural " crime corners" of underground public space and establishing the security evacuation mechanism.%城市地下公共空间是指城市各种公共地下商业设施、地下娱乐设施、地下停车场和地铁等交通设施、地下广场等具有聚集性人流的地下公共空间场所.城市地下公共空间可能遭受恐怖威胁的内在因素包括地上空间环境复杂和外部安全保障缺失,外在因素包括内部人员密集性、空间的特定功能性和空间自身的脆弱性,面临的恐怖威胁形式主要有爆炸、纵火、暗杀与人质劫持、生化或放射性物质攻击等.反恐预防措施包括地下公共空间的入口控制,引入地下公共空间的情景预防,消除空间的结构性“犯罪死角”以及建立安全疏散机制等措施.

  14. Population and individual elephant response to a catastrophic fire in Pilanesberg National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Leigh-Ann; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Woods, Rami J; van Rensburg, Samantha Janse; Mackey, Robin L; Page, Bruce; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    -free large ungulate populations, i.e. mainly involving juveniles. Fire therefore functions in a similar manner to other environmental catastrophes and may be a natural mechanism contributing to population limitation. Welfare concerns of arson fires, burning during "hot-fire" conditions and the conservation implications of fire suppression (i.e. removal of a potential contributing factor to natural population regulation) should be integrated into fire management strategies for conservation areas. PMID:18797503

  15. Precursory signals preceding by a few months a major Vrancea earthquake: their possible role in devising a risk-preparedness strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, M. A.; Chitea, F.; Marin, C.; Tudorache, A.; Mitrofan, H.

    2010-05-01

    to develop a response plan addressing emergency protection methods (e.g.: shoring the valuable moveable heritage objects, propping equipment and materials which are liable to overturn etc). Security measures should also imply the training in counter theft, arson or any other criminal activity. Acknowledgements: The research was performed with financial support from the CNMP within 31036/ 2007 and 31024/2007 scientific projects.

  16. Risk of violent crime in individuals with epilepsy and traumatic brain injury: a 35-year Swedish population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seena Fazel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epilepsy and traumatic brain injury are common neurological conditions, with general population prevalence estimates around 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Although both illnesses are associated with various adverse outcomes, and expert opinion has suggested increased criminality, links with violent behaviour remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We combined Swedish population registers from 1973 to 2009, and examined associations of epilepsy (n = 22,947 and traumatic brain injury (n = 22,914 with subsequent violent crime (defined as convictions for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, or illegal threats or intimidation. Each case was age and gender matched with ten general population controls, and analysed using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for socio-demographic factors. In addition, we compared cases with unaffected siblings. Among the traumatic brain injury cases, 2,011 individuals (8.8% committed violent crime after diagnosis, which, compared with population controls (n = 229,118, corresponded to a substantially increased risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.3, 95% CI: 3.1-3.5; this risk was attenuated when cases were compared with unaffected siblings (aOR = 2.0, 1.8-2.3. Among individuals with epilepsy, 973 (4.2% committed a violent offense after diagnosis, corresponding to a significantly increased odds of violent crime compared with 224,006 population controls (aOR = 1.5, 1.4-1.7. However, this association disappeared when individuals with epilepsy were compared with their unaffected siblings (aOR = 1.1, 0.9-1.2. We found heterogeneity in violence risk by age of disease onset, severity, comorbidity with substance abuse, and clinical subgroups. Case ascertainment was restricted to patient registers. CONCLUSIONS: In this longitudinal population-based study, we found that, after adjustment for familial confounding, epilepsy was not associated with increased risk of

  17. One-dimensional simulation of fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios with PRM and Meso-NH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild-fires release huge amounts of aerosol and hazardous trace gases in the atmosphere. The residence time and the dispersion of fire pollutants in the atmosphere can range from hours to days and from local to continental scales. These various scenarios highly depend on the injection height of smoke plumes. The altitude at which fire products are injected in the atmosphere is controlled by fire characteristics and meteorological conditions. Injection height however is still poorly accounted in chemistry transport models for which fires are sub-grid scale processes which need to be parametrised. Only recently, physically-based approaches for estimating the fire injection heights have been developed which consider both the convective updrafts induced by the release of fire sensible heat and the impact of background meteorological environment on the fire convection dynamics. In this work, two different models are used to simulate fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios: a Mediterranean arson fire and two Amazonian deforestation fires. A Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach, formerly developed to reproduce convective boundary layer in the non-hydrostatic meteorological model Meso-NH, is compared to the 1-D Plume Rise Model. For both models, radiosonde data and re-analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF have been used as initial conditions to explore the sensitivity of the models responses to different meteorological forcings. The two models predict injection heights for the Mediterranean fire between 1.7 and 3.3 km with the Meso-NH/EDMF model systematically higher than the 1-D PRM model. Both models show a limited sensitivity to the meteorological forcings with a 20–30% difference in the injection height between radiosondes and ECMWF data for this case. Injection heights calculated for the two Amazonian fires ranges from 5 to 6.5 km for the 1-D PRM model and from 2 to 4 km for the Meso

  18. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The

  19. Population and individual elephant response to a catastrophic fire in Pilanesberg National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh-Ann Woolley

    seen in predator-free large ungulate populations, i.e. mainly involving juveniles. Fire therefore functions in a similar manner to other environmental catastrophes and may be a natural mechanism contributing to population limitation. Welfare concerns of arson fires, burning during "hot-fire" conditions and the conservation implications of fire suppression (i.e. removal of a potential contributing factor to natural population regulation should be integrated into fire management strategies for conservation areas.

  20. Development of a software for predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas%城市核与辐射恐怖事件的辐射影响预测软件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丽娟; 陈波; 卓维海; 陆书玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a new software system that cau directly display the predicted results on an electronic map,in order to get a directly perceived understanding of the affected areas of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas.Methods Three scenarios of events including spreading radioactive materials, dirty bomb attack,and explosion or arson attacks on the radiation facilities were assumed.Gaussian diffusion model was employed to predict the spread and deposition of radioactive pollutants,and both the internal and external doses were estimated for the representative person by using the corresponding dose conversion factors.Through integration of the computing system and Mapinfo geographic information system(GIS),the predicted results were visually displayed on the electronic maps of a city.Results The new software system could visually display the predicted results on the electronic map of a city, and the predicted results were consistent with those calculated by the similar software Hotspot(R)The deviation between this system and Hotspot was less than 0.2 km for predicted isoplethic curves of dose rate downwind.Conclusions The newly developed software system is of the practical value in predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas.%目的 为更加直观了解核与辐射恐怖事件在城市地区的辐射影响范围,开发可将预测结果直接显示在城市电子地图上的系统软件.方法 针对放射性物质散布、脏弹袭击、辐射设施爆炸或纵火袭击3种场景,采用高斯扩散模型,预测污染物在大气中的扩散与沉降.结合相应的剂量转换因子,估算"代表人"的内、外照射剂量.集成计算系统与Mapinfo(R)地理信息系统,将相应的预测结果直观显示于城市电子地图.结果 该软件可实现预测结果在城市电子地图上的直接显示.其预测结果与国外类似软件Hotspot(R)的计算结果比较,对于主要污染区域的

  1. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    enforcement standards and guides identified the following four guides as having content that supports incident management: • TE-02-02 Guide to Radio Communications Interoperability Strategies and Products • OSHA 335-10N Preparing and Protecting Security Personnel in Emergencies • NIJ 181584 Fire and Arson Scene Evidence: A Guide for Public Safety Personnel • NIJ 181869 A Guide for Explosion and Bombing Scene Investigation In conversations with various state and local law enforcement officials, it was determined that the following National Fire Protection Association (NPFA) standards are generally recognized and tend to be universally used by law enforcement organizations across the country: • NFPA 1600 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs • NFPA 1561 Standard on Fire Department Incident Management Systems • NFPA 472 Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents (2008 Edition) • NFPA 473 Standard for Competencies for EMS Personnel Responding to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents (2008 Edition)

  2. Individuare gli incendiari. Fermare i piromani. Una professione / Identify the arsonists. Detain the pyromaniacs. A profession / Identifier les incendiaires. Arrêter les pyromanes. Un métier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vadalà

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the Second World War onwards, at an international level we witness an increasing development of the so called environmental emergency. The environment has become that immaterial resource that must assure all citizens well-being and renewable basic life resources for the coming generation, but globalization has produced a remarkable growth of negative results resulting in new types of menace.Forest fires directly represent one of these threats causing the destruction of both forest patrimony and natural ecosystems worldwide, contributing to an increase in the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere. The Act n. 353/2000 concerning forest fires reorganized the whole sector. The aim of the law is to control and to fight the risk of forest fires thanks to the implementation of a synergic system.The criminal system of sanctions represents another type of enforcing action in order to protect woods from fires, but it can not be the only solution to this problem assuming that we have to face a very complex and multifaceted event which causes should be to identify any widespread illegal phenomena or any extremely superficial behaviour as well as in criminal ones, which take on specific characteristics when occurring in a rural context. The identification of a solution for this intricate problem could be research, both at a preventive and at a control level, into activities able to operate on the many different causes that are at the origin of that behaviour which is the cause of forest fires and arson.Depuis la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale, la prétendue émergence des questions environnementales au niveau international s'est développée de façon exponentielle. L'environnement est ainsi devenu ce bien immatériel qui doit assurer aux citoyens la salubrité et les ressources vitales renouvelables pour les générations futures. Toutefois, la mondialisation a provoqué une forte augmentation des effets dangereux pour l'environnement et

  3. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  4. La teoria della letteratura di Nicolas Calas. Surrealismo, marxismo e psicanalisi in Foyers d’incendie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D'Urso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ENThis contribution – probably the first specifically concerning Nicolas Calas to be published in Italian – intends to examine some particular topics of Foyers d’incendie [Hearths of Arson] (1938, a work that hardly can be found, by now. So this study will try to partially fill the absence at an international level of a detailed analysis of this book which is usually considered to be ‘difficult’ and therefore often hastily put under the label of ‘Freudo-Marxism’. Not only does this label appear confusing when we look more care-fully at the historical context of the Thirties, but it also does not allow to understand in what both Marxism and Freudism are criticized indeed, this aspect defining more clearly the surrealist character – eluded or taken for granted by critics – of Foyers d’incendie. In the first half of this paper, we will underline the role of Surrealism in Calas’ critical evolution in relation to orthodox Communism, whose language he still used before becoming indubitably a Surrealist. Then we will show the enthusiastic reception of Foyers d’incendie among the Surrealists and also the reasons of their appreciation. In the second half, we will go deep inside some pages of this book which concern more spe-cifically the theory of literature and the critique of ideology we can draw from Foyers d’incendie. This is why – for the first time – we will summarize Calas’ understanding of the literary and philosophical history, and show the role that Dialectical Materialism (chiefly that of Engels’ Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State and psychoanalysis (as it is considered by Surrealism play in his analysis.>>Questo contributo – apparentemente il primo studio specificamente dedicato a Nicolas Calas ad essere pubblicato in italiano – intende affrontare alcuni particolari contenuti dell’ormai quasi introvabile Foyers d’incendie (1938, tentando così di colmare, almeno parzialmente, l

  5. Homicide followed by suicide: Paris and its suburbs, 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, D; Fornes, P

    1998-07-01

    Homicide-suicides (HS) are relatively infrequent events. Yet, they are of great concern because they often result in the death of family members, young children, and cause additional morbidity, family disruption and childhood psychological trauma. The aims of our study were (a) to examine the sociodemographic, clinical, and autopsy characteristics of HS in Paris and its suburbs from 1991 through 1996, and (b) to analyze the psychodynamic determinants leading up to the onset of HS. Our findings are compared with those obtained in other international studies. For the purpose of the present study. HS was defined as a violent event in which an individual committed homicide and subsequently committed suicide within a few hours. The main results are as follows. During the six-year study period, 56 HS involving 133 victims were investigated at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Paris. Seventeen events occurred in Paris and 39 in its suburbs. Paris has a population of approximately 2,200,000 while its suburbs are home to another 8,5000,000. Of the 56 offenders, 48 (85%) were males. The mean age of offenders was 51 years in males (range, 24 to 83) and 40.5 years in females (range, 33 to 56). In 45 events (80%), the offenders used a gun for both the homicide and suicide. A knife was used in only 4 murders, strangulation in 4 other cases, with poisoning, arson, or beating occurring in one case each. In 9 cases, the offender used a different weapon for homicide and suicide. Among firearms, handguns were more likely to be used (26 cases) than shotguns (6 cases) or rifles (13 cases). In 40 cases the offender killed one victim, in 11 cases 2 victims, and in 5 cases 3 victims. The homicide victims consisted of 34 children (21 boys), mean age 8 years (range, 1 to 16), 29 spouses (26 females), 2 girlfriends, 10 strangers, and 2 relatives. Five pets were killed. HS were most likely to be committed in the home. A suicide note was found near the victims in 29 cases (50% of events

  6. Forest Intervention Areas (ZIF): a new approach for forest management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, S.; Coelho, C.; Soares, J.

    2012-04-01

    Portugal is the EU eighth country with more forest and other wooded area cover by surface area. However, it is also at the top of the EU countries most affected by forest fires. Several factors have been launched as possible causes, namely arson and negligence, which has been combined with harsh climate, steep slopes and a weakened rural context, characterized by depopulation and ageing, forest mismanagement, farmland abandonment and absence of an effective spatial planning. Forest fires of 2003 and 2005, which were particularly severe and intense, highlighted the need to restructure the legal and institutional setting of forest management in Portugal. These events proved to be very harmful, not only for the socio-economic context, but also in terms of desertification, soil erosion, loss of water supply and losses on soil organic matter. The EU funded DESIRE project (1) aimed to established promising sustainable land management (SLM) conservation strategies in several areas throughout the world affected by desertification, promoting joint work between scientists and local stakeholders. Forest fires are one of the major causes of desertification in Portugal and Mação and Góis municipalities were selected as DESIRE study sites. The decision support methodology developed under DESIRE was based on the notion that stakeholder participation in decision-making will develop more legitimate, effective and successful decisions. The reduction of burned area was the goal defined in the Portuguese stakeholder workshops and the Forest Intervention Area (ZIF) was selected as the needed approach towards SLM. The aim of this communication is to present the outline and context of ZIF approach in Portugal and to explore the social perception over the success or failure of this approach at Mação municipality. ZIF is a territorial unit where the main land use is forestry. This approach assembles and organizes small forest holders and defines a joint intervention for forest

  7. Studies on the speciation analysis of As in poultry excreta after being fed with roxarsone and its photodegradation%鸡饲喂洛克沙胂后排泄物中 As 的形态分析及光降解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 严楚; 卓家珍; 曾婧; 陈杖榴; 孙永学

    2014-01-01

    degradation of roxarsone in poultry ex-creta was evaluated .[Result and conclusion]The excreted amount of roxarsone reached a steady-state concentration at 108 h after administration ( the range of roxarsone concentration was 31.62 -35.87 mg/kg; the range of total arsenic concentration was 16.75-21.48 mg/kg) .Roxarsone was undetectable in poultry excreta at 120 h after withdrawal, and the total arsenic was down to 3.89 mg/kg.The quantity of As(Ⅲ) and As (Ⅴ) slightly fluctuated and the peaks were 0.38 and 1.81 mg/kg correspondingly . There was a significant effect of light on the degradation of roxarsone .The results indicated that most of roxarsone was not absorbable and can quickly be eliminated with no change .The degradation rate of rox-arsone can increase the effect of photolysis .

  8. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    extremely useful to anyone who wants to adopt this approach. Maier (page 643) describes a pilot program in polymer science designed to interest minority students in polymer science and chemistry. This is a modular program that could be incorporated into a variety of curricula. A different approach to curriculum and outreach is the combined biology/chemistry van program described by Craney, Mazzeo, and Lord (page 646). And yet more outreach for younger children is described by Nolan and Gish (page 651). Information technology can support and aid curriculum reform. The abstract from JCE: Software is for a CD-ROM that summarizes the work of an NSF-supported materials science curriculum development project carried out by Lisensky and Ellis (page 667). The Computer Series includes a proposed addition to the typical physical chemistry curriculum by Williams, Minarik, and Nibler (page 608); it is possible because microcomputers can now do ab initio molecular orbital calculations with reasonable speed. Demonstrations have long been a part of the curriculum. They are always popular and usually instructive. Beall (page 641) reports on a conference that considered the pros and cons of demonstrations as a teaching tool. Tested Demonstrations includes a means for estimating equilibrium constants based on the odor of a solution by Anderson, Buckley, and Niewahner (page 639) as well as a way of making ion exchange visible devised by Driscoll and Villaescuesa (page 640). A very important and time consuming aspect of curriculum development is incorporation of new laboratory experiences for students. Mabrouk (page A 149) describes a laboratory that brings biochemistry to the fore. Sundback (page 669) shows how high school students can test for lead in the environment, and Rees (page 670) shows how homeowners can easily test for lead in paint. Elderd, Kildahy, and Berka (page 675) provide a way to use modern GC equipment to show students how to determine whether a fire may have been arson. In

  9. Performance evaluation of six homocysteine cycle enzymatic detection systems%六种同型半胱氨酸循环酶法检测系统的分析性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安崇文; 李海霞

    2014-01-01

    measure homocysteine has good precision,linear range,and anti-interference ability.But it is noticeable that the results of cycle enzymatic was higher than those of CMIA.Meanwhile,the six systems do not apply to measuring urine samples.%目的 评估6种同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)循环酶法检测系统的分析性能.方法 方法学评价研究.应用美国临床和实验室标准化协会(CLSI) EP5-A2、EP15-A2、EP7-A2、EP6-A 、EP9-A2方法验证6种甲基转移酶循环法检测系统的精密度、正确度、抗干扰性、分析测量范围(AMR)、以及其与雅培(Abbott)化学发光微粒子免疫检测系统(CMIA)的相关性和偏差.采用美国国家标准技术研究所(NIST)有证参考物质SRM 1955、美国病理学家协会(CAP)发放的室间质评物(CR-B和CR-A)以及卫生部临床检验中心发放的室间质评物验证不同系统检测Hcy正确度.回归分析采用PassingBablok,回归线性检测采用Cusum方法,相关分析采用Pearson,偏差分析应用Bland-Altman.结果 Hcy浓度(10~ 22 μmol/L)时除A1系统低水平外,其他批内均<5%,批间均<6.7%.正确度验证显示A1 ~ D2、CMIA系统测定NIST SRM 1955在低、中、高水平的最大绝对偏倚分别为-3.36、1.43、2.24 μmol/L.测定CAP和卫生部临检中心室间质评物显示除A1系统外,其他系统偏倚均<总允许误差(TEa)2.50 μmol/L或靶值±20%.干扰分析显示Hb和TBil对测定干扰较明显.A1~D2系统AMR上限分别为47.30、69.76、72.10、73.96、46.23、48.98 μtmol/L.相关分析显示6种系统与CMIA系统检测结果间相关性较好,r均>0.975(P <0.01,n>40).6种系统与CMIA系统的平均绝对偏差最大为2.9 μmol/L.结论 应用自动生化仪的循环酶法检测Hcy具有良好的精密度、线性范围和抗干扰能力,但部分检测系统性能需要进一步改进,且与CMIA系统间存在一定偏差,同时循环酶法检测系统不适用于尿液样本.