WorldWideScience

Sample records for arsonates

  1. Spatio-Temporal Wildland Arson Crime Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Butry, David T.; Prestemon, Jeffrey P.

    2005-01-01

    Wildland arson creates damages to structures and timber and affects the health and safety of people living in rural and wildland urban interface areas. We develop a model that incorporates temporal autocorrelations and spatial correlations in wildland arson ignitions in Florida. A Poisson autoregressive model of order p, or PAR(p) model, is estimated for six high arson Census tracts in the state for the period 1994-2001. Spatio-temporal lags of wildland arson ignitions are introduced as dummy...

  2. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature.

  3. A home-made SPME fiber coating for Arson Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of adsorbents are available commercially as coatings for SPME fibers but some analytical methodologies might demand specific properties for the extraction of selected compounds, special coatings that have particular volume and a selectivity towards particular analytes. This paper presents a simple, fast, effective and environmental friendly methodology for the determination of accelerants in arson samples using headspace solid-phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography. A new fiber prepared by sol-gel method, containing 1:1 molar ratio of octyltriethoxysilane (C8-TEOS): methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) was employed in this technique. The efficiency of the new fiber coating prepared by sol-gel technology for the determination of accelerants was compared to that of commercial PDMS/ DVB fibers. Poly dimethylsiloxane divinylbenzene (PDMS/ DVB) is the most common fiber coating for the extraction of hydrocarbon compounds. Compared with commercial PDMS/ DVB fiber, the new homemade fiber exhibited higher extraction capability and good selectivity for accelerants. The homemade fiber was also applied for the simulated arson samples. The home-made SPME adsorbent was shown to be a good alternative to commercially available fiber for the determination of accelerants in arson cases. (author)

  4. Whose crime? Arson, class warfare and traders in Nairobi, 1940-20001

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Claire C.

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns the crime of arson at Nairobi (Kenya), which became common in the 1950s Mau Mau Emergency when the British colonial government was attempting to control a growing insurgent movement, the Land and Freedom Army, which used urban African markets as one of its key loci for organization. Many traders were involved in the insurgency and the government used arson to burn them out, before deporting most of them to the reserves in Operation Anvil. The constant struggle over urban...

  5. Inquiry-Based Arson Investigation for General Chemistry Using GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Marta K.; Bukowski, Michael R.; Menachery, Mary D.; Zatorsky, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a two-week guided-inquiry laboratory in which first-semester general chemistry students investigate a suspected arson using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and paper chromatography. In the process of evaluating evidence from the crime scene, students develop and test hypotheses and learn the fundamentals of chromatography,…

  6. An autopsy case of a charred body which committed suicide after arson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, S; Noda, H; Sugiyama, S

    2000-08-01

    A severely burned body was found lying on its right side at the scene of the fire in a 2-story wooden apartment house. The presence of a ligature (an electrical cord) running horizontally around the neck aroused suspicion of arson after homicidal strangulation (murder-arson). The entire body was severely burned and partly charred. The head and neck were severely charred, and the left temporal bone had been consumed exposing the brain. Around the neck was looped an electrical cord, which ran horizontally and canted downward toward the nape, leaving a furrow resulting from the knot being tightened up. No other injuries or pathologic lesions suggestive of the cause of death were noted. No drug, poison or alcohol was detectable in the blood or urine. The peculiar method of making a noose of the ligature around the neck is called clove hitch, which makes the noose tighten further with increased load. The fallen curtain rod had a bend with an acute angle, which was considered to have been the point of suspension in hanging. In addition, a lighter was found under the corpse, which was presumably used to ignite the gasoline that the deceased sprinkled. We speculate, therefore, that the deceased hanged himself by placing the electrical cord around his neck (by clove hitch), suspending it from the curtain rod, sprinkling gasoline in his room, igniting it with a lighter, executing suicidal hanging after the start of the fire. Probably the body was wrapped in flames while dangling, then fell to the floor together with the collapsing curtain rod. PMID:12935453

  7. INCENDIARIOS "Es preferible morir por el fuego, en combate, que morir en casa, por el hambre: Fidel Castro" Arson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Elaine de BorbaTelles

    2012-09-01

    and destruction. Deliberately setting fire to something/someone is an easily executed crime (arson, though difficult to research. This crime has 1.13% prevalence and its incidence is growing around the world, provoking an important social impact due to its victims' financial loss, death, physical lesions and emotional aftermath. Arsonist-type behaviour can be observed from infancy onwards, as more than half the people imprisoned for arson are adolescents. Consuming alcohol has been associated with arsonist-type conduct in half the individuals committing such crime who were motived by revenge. Objective. Reviewing the most recent studies concerning an arsonis's profile, the diagnostic characteristics, the risk factors, neurobiological treatment, recidivism and prognosis. Materials and Methods. A literature review revealed that arsonists represent a heterogeneous criminal category. The development of classification for them thus becomes interesting, considering the aggressor's characteristics, the presence of eventual mental disease, aspects regarding the crime and motivation. Conclusion. The population of arsonists studied has been underrepresented to date, as just a small percentage is sent for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Incongruence thus arises between the great emotional and financial damage caused by this crime, and the attention given it by the scientific community.

  8. Crystal structure and hydrogen bonding in the water-stabilized proton-transfer salt brucinium 4-amino­phenyl­arsonate tetra­hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2016-01-01

    In the structure of the brucinium salt of 4-amino­phenyl­arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid), systematically 2,3-dimeth­oxy-10-oxostrychnidinium 4-amino­phenyl­ar­son­ate tetra­hydrate, (C23H27N2O4)[As(C6H7N)O2(OH)]·4H2O, the brucinium cations form the characteristic undulating and overlapping head-to-tail layered brucine substructures packed along [010]. The arsanilate anions and the water mol­ecules of solvation are accommodated between the layers and are linked to them through a primary cation N—H⋯O(anion) hydrogen bond, as well as through water O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to brucinium and arsanilate ions as well as bridging water O-atom acceptors, giving an overall three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27308034

  9. Crystal structure and hydrogen bonding in the water-stabilized proton-transfer salt brucinium 4-amino-phenyl-arsonate tetra-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2016-05-01

    In the structure of the brucinium salt of 4-amino-phenyl-arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid), systematically 2,3-dimeth-oxy-10-oxostrychnidinium 4-amino-phenyl-ar-son-ate tetra-hydrate, (C23H27N2O4)[As(C6H7N)O2(OH)]·4H2O, the brucinium cations form the characteristic undulating and overlapping head-to-tail layered brucine substructures packed along [010]. The arsanilate anions and the water mol-ecules of solvation are accommodated between the layers and are linked to them through a primary cation N-H⋯O(anion) hydrogen bond, as well as through water O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to brucinium and arsanilate ions as well as bridging water O-atom acceptors, giving an overall three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27308034

  10. Wildland Arson as Clandestine Resource Management: A Space-Time Permutation Analysis and Classification of Informal Fire Management Regimes in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Michael R.

    2016-05-01

    Forest managers are increasingly recognizing the value of disturbance-based land management techniques such as prescribed burning. Unauthorized, "arson" fires are common in the southeastern United States where a legacy of agrarian cultural heritage persists amidst an increasingly forest-dominated landscape. This paper reexamines unauthorized fire-setting in the state of Georgia, USA from a historical ecology perspective that aims to contribute to historically informed, disturbance-based land management. A space-time permutation analysis is employed to discriminate systematic, management-oriented unauthorized fires from more arbitrary or socially deviant fire-setting behaviors. This paper argues that statistically significant space-time clusters of unauthorized fire occurrence represent informal management regimes linked to the legacy of traditional land management practices. Recent scholarship has pointed out that traditional management has actively promoted sustainable resource use and, in some cases, enhanced biodiversity often through the use of fire. Despite broad-scale displacement of traditional management during the 20th century, informal management practices may locally circumvent more formal and regionally dominant management regimes. Space-time permutation analysis identified 29 statistically significant fire regimes for the state of Georgia. The identified regimes are classified by region and land cover type and their implications for historically informed disturbance-based resource management are discussed.

  11. 心理障碍患者纵火行为的特点和刑事责任能力%Characteristics and criminal responsibility of arson behavior of mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成文; 魏庆平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the behavior characteristics of a variety of psychological disorders arson and criminal responsibility , for the prevention of psychological disorders arson behavior in the future to provide clinical data. Methods A retrospective analysis of hospital 32 years, 146 cases of psychological disorders arson offenses forensic psychiatric data. Results We found that a variety of psychological disorders can occur arson violations, including schizophrenia, mental retardation, alcoholism and personality disorders mainly; their low educational level, primary school education account for the majority, occupation of peasants, workers, up to; arson before treatment, irregularity or psychiatric treatment is not carried out; select committed crimes in the night no one present at up to most of the first time crime, all cases are separate crime; crime locations in order to burn the room mostly of his own room and neighbors. Their criminal responsibility for the characteristics of different psychological disorders arson behavior. Conclusion Mental disorders occurred once the act of arson, the loss is big;it is a great danger to patients with psychological disorders. In order to reduce this kind of cases, one should strengthen the mental disorder patients in the treatment and management of work.%目的 研究各种心理障碍患者纵火行为的特点和刑事责任能力,为今后预防心理障碍患者纵火行为的发生提供临床资料.方法 回顾性分析我院32年来进行的146例心理障碍患者发生纵火违法行为的司法精神医学鉴定资料.结果 发现各种心理障碍患者均可发生纵火违法行为,其中以精神分裂症、精神发育迟滞、酒精中毒和人格障碍为主;他们的文化程度较低,小学以下文化程度占大多数;职业以农民、工人最多;纵火前均治疗不正规或未进行精神科治疗;作案时间选择在晚上无人在场最多,大多数是第一次作案,所有案例均为单独作

  12. [Arson and pyromania, update 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palix, J

    2015-09-16

    While the fire constitutes a threat and provokes avoidance by the entire animal world, its control as lighting and maintenance is inseparable from the history of humankind. For 1% of the population that use is turned to harm, repeatedly and without objective reason, responding to the historical definition of pyromania. The profile of arsonists does not appear to be different from that of the general criminal population: alcohol abuse, nicotine, marijuana and antisocial personality do not make fire setters a special case. However positive fire experience lived in childhood, emotional avoidance and expertise in fire settings' control seems to be specific, as recidivism risk below that of the general criminal population. PMID:26591081

  13. Investigation of a murder case involving arson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaroom, S

    1996-11-01

    In some religious societies, the value of life seems to be different from that in western nonreligious societies. Violating the family honor could result in killing. This article presents a case in which a Moslem Israeli citizen killed his daughter. Professional field work, together with forensic laboratory examinations, led to life imprisonment of the father. PMID:8914297

  14. Idiotypic analysis of potential and available repertoires in the arsonate system

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    We have shown that, by suitable idiotypic manipulation, BALB/c mice can express the major cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) of A/J mice in response to azophenylarsonate (Ars). In order to know if the CRIA idiotype is present in the potential repertoire of BALB/c before any intentional selection, we used polyclonal activation in vitro and limiting dilution analysis. The readout was done with two monoclonal anti-CRIA antibodies that recognize distinct idiotopes on a CRIA+ A/J germline-encoded monoc...

  15. Idiotypic analysis of potential and available repertoires in the arsonate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaoui, M; Leo, O; Marvel, J; Moser, M; Hiernaux, J; Urbain, J

    1984-07-01

    We have shown that, by suitable idiotypic manipulation, BALB/c mice can express the major cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) of A/J mice in response to azophenylarsonate (Ars). In order to know if the CRIA idiotype is present in the potential repertoire of BALB/c before any intentional selection, we used polyclonal activation in vitro and limiting dilution analysis. The readout was done with two monoclonal anti-CRIA antibodies that recognize distinct idiotopes on a CRIA+ A/J germline-encoded monoclonal antibody. We studied the frequency of CRIA+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-reactive cells in the spleens of nonimmune and immune A/J mice and in the spleens of naive and manipulated (i.e., producing CRIA+ antibodies) BALB/c mice. A/J and BALB/c naive individuals presented very high frequencies of Ars-specific B cells while the frequency of CRIA+ B cells was only a minor subset (0.5%) of the total Ars-specific subset in the two strains. When A/J mice were immunized with Ars-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, a clear preferential expansion of the CRIA+ minor subset of A/J mice was observed (100x). No such enhancement was observed in BALB/c mice similarly treated. Manipulated BALB/c mice presented a higher frequency of CRIA+ anti-Ars B cells than naive or antigen-immunized BALB/c individuals. PMID:6610720

  16. Synthesis of 3-[3H]-5-(4'-azobenzene arsonic acid)-L-tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title compound (ABA-Tyr) was prepared by direct radiochemical synthesis from tritiated tert.-butoxycarbonyl-L-tyrosine and diazotised arsanilic acid followed by acidolytic deprotection and isolation by preparative high pressure liquid chromatography. The product had a specific activity of 9 Ci mmol-1 and a radiochemical purity of 90-95%. (author)

  17. INCENDIARIOS "Es preferible morir por el fuego, en combate, que morir en casa, por el hambre: Fidel Castro" Arson

    OpenAIRE

    Lisieux Elaine de BorbaTelles; Helena Dias de Castro Bins; Alcina Juliana Soares Barros; Franklin Escobar Córdoba

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes. El concepto de fuego siempre ha atraído la atención del hombre. En la literatura abundan referencias a este término, que tanto puede representar poder y pasión como terror y destrucción. El incendio es un delito de fácil ejecución, pero de difícil investigación. La prevalencia de este delito es de 1,13%. La incidencia de este crimen está creciendo alrededor del mundo, provocando un impacto social importante por las pérdidas financieras, muertes, lesiones físicas y secuelas emoci...

  18. Violenze e incendi nella realtà italiana e francese / Violence and arson in Italy and France / Violence et incendies en Italie et en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Sette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the difference between two European realities (Italy and France concerning fire related damage.In particular, we will focus on the Italian criminal organizations of today which acquire their wealth in an illicit way by blackmailing the owners of commercial activities and which, if the latter refuse to pay, inflict severe punishments on the shopkeeper or the entrepeneur, for example systematic destruction, even with fire, of the store or the industrial plant. On this subject, we will analyze the fundamental role played by the victims.Violence and destruction also characterize the riots in the French suburbs, particularly in the autumn 2005. On this subject, thanks to the various points of view, the article is a reflection of why “ordinary” young people of the “inner cities” have taken part in these events.Cet article a pour objectif d'analyser la différence entre deux contextes européens (l'Italie et la France en ce qui concerne le choix du feu dans le but de provoquer des dégâts.Il prend tout particulièrement en considération les organisations criminelles italiennes actuelles qui arrivent à acquérir des richesses de façon illicite en faisant du chantage aux patrons des activités productives et qui, si ces derniers refusent de payer, punissent sévèrement le commerçant ou l'entrepeneur, en détruisant systématiquement par le feu le magasin ou l'établissement industriel. À ce propos, l'article analysera le rôle fondamental joué par les victimes.Violence et destruction caractérisent aussi les émeutes dans les banlieues françaises, comme en automne 2005. À ce sujet, partant de différents points de vue, l'article propose une réflexion sur ce qui a poussé des jeunes "ordinaires" des banlieues dites "sensibles" à y participer.

  19. Looking for pyromania: Characteristics of a consecutive sample of Finnish male criminals with histories of recidivist fire-setting between 1973 and 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Tani Pekka; Holi Matti M; Lindberg Nina; Virkkunen Matti

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background As pyromania is a rare diagnosis with questionable validity, we aimed to describe a forensic psychiatric population of arson recidivists. Methods The medical records as well as the forensic psychiatric examination statements of 90 arson recidivists referred for pretrial psychiatric assessment in Helsinki University Hospital Department of Forensic Psychiatry between 1973 and 1993 were reviewed. Results The most important diagnostic categories of arson recidivists were perso...

  20. 28 CFR 33.30 - Program criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... homicide, robbery, assault, arson, residential burglary, child abuse and molestation, sexual assault... program and violent crime, the victims of violent crime, serious offenders and their acts, and...

  1. Acceptance of TEL: Key Success Factors and Reasons of Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnscher, Patrick; Kelle, Sebastian; Sigurðarson, Steinn

    2009-01-01

    Johnscher, P., Kelle, S., & Sigurðarson, S. (2008). Acceptance of TEL: Key Success Factors and Reasons of Failure. Presentation at the Prolearn Summer School on Technology Enhanced Learning & Knowledge Management 2008. March, 28, 2008, Ohrid, Fyr of Macedonia.

  2. 76 FR 6149 - National Fire Academy Board of Visitors; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... revisions in the following curriculum areas: Executive Fire Officer Program; Management Science; Fire, Arson... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Fire Academy Board of Visitors; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Open...

  3. Looking for pyromania: Characteristics of a consecutive sample of Finnish male criminals with histories of recidivist fire-setting between 1973 and 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani Pekka

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As pyromania is a rare diagnosis with questionable validity, we aimed to describe a forensic psychiatric population of arson recidivists. Methods The medical records as well as the forensic psychiatric examination statements of 90 arson recidivists referred for pretrial psychiatric assessment in Helsinki University Hospital Department of Forensic Psychiatry between 1973 and 1993 were reviewed. Results The most important diagnostic categories of arson recidivists were personality disorders, psychosis and mental retardation, often with comorbid alcoholism. In all, 68% of arsonists were under alcohol intoxication during the index crime. Psychotic as well as mentally retarded persons with repeated fire-setting behaviour were mostly "pure arsonists"- persons guilty only of arsons during their criminal careers. Arson recidivists with personality disorder, in contrast, often exhibited various types of criminal behaviour and arson appeared to be only one expression of a wide range of criminal activity. Comorbid alcoholism was apparently a more rarely observed phenomenon among pure arsonists than in "nonpure arsonists". We found only three subjects fulfilling the present diagnostic criteria for pyromania. Conclusion Using the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR, pyromania must be regarded as an extremely rare phenomenon. Especially the question of substance intoxication as an exclusion criterion for pyromania should be reconsidered.

  4. Looking for pyromania: Characteristics of a consecutive sample of Finnish male criminals with histories of recidivist fire-setting between 1973 and 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Holi, Matti M; Tani, Pekka; Virkkunen, Matti

    2005-01-01

    Background As pyromania is a rare diagnosis with questionable validity, we aimed to describe a forensic psychiatric population of arson recidivists. Methods The medical records as well as the forensic psychiatric examination statements of 90 arson recidivists referred for pretrial psychiatric assessment in Helsinki University Hospital Department of Forensic Psychiatry between 1973 and 1993 were reviewed. Results The most important diagnostic categories of arson recidivists were personality disorders, psychosis and mental retardation, often with comorbid alcoholism. In all, 68% of arsonists were under alcohol intoxication during the index crime. Psychotic as well as mentally retarded persons with repeated fire-setting behaviour were mostly "pure arsonists"- persons guilty only of arsons during their criminal careers. Arson recidivists with personality disorder, in contrast, often exhibited various types of criminal behaviour and arson appeared to be only one expression of a wide range of criminal activity. Comorbid alcoholism was apparently a more rarely observed phenomenon among pure arsonists than in "nonpure arsonists". We found only three subjects fulfilling the present diagnostic criteria for pyromania. Conclusion Using the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR, pyromania must be regarded as an extremely rare phenomenon. Especially the question of substance intoxication as an exclusion criterion for pyromania should be reconsidered. PMID:16351734

  5. Criminality in men with Klinefelter's syndrome and XYY syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Bojesen, Anders; Jensen, Anne Skakkebæk;

    2012-01-01

    - and calendar-matched samples of the general population. Crime was classified into eight types (sexual abuse, homicide, burglary, violence, traffic, drug-related, arson and ‘others’). Setting Denmark 1978–2006. Participants All men diagnosed with KS (N=934) or 47,XYY (N=161) at risk and their age- and...... variables (education, fatherhood, retirement and cohabitation) reduced the total HR for both KS and 47,XYY to levels similar to controls, while some specific crime types (sexual abuse, arson, etc) remained increased. Conclusion The overall risk of conviction (excluding traffic offenses) was moderately...... calendar-time-matched controls (N=88 979 and 15 356, respectively). Results The incidence of convictions was increased in men with KS (omitting traffic offenses) compared to controls with a HR of 1.40 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.59, p<0.001), with significant increases in sexual abuse, burglary, arson and ‘others...

  6. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are…

  7. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  8. Game-Based Life-Long Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kelle, Sebastian; Sigurðarson, Steinn; WESTERA, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Kelle, S., Sigurðarson, S., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2011). Game-Based Life-Long Learning. In G. D. Magoulas (Ed.), E-Infrastructures and Technologies for Lifelong Learning: Next Generation Environments (pp. 337-349). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

  9. DETERMINATION ROXARSONE AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS USING CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED TO ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is one of the most widely used growthpromoting and disease-controlling feed additives in the United States. Most broiler chickens are fed roxarsone to promote weight gain and control parasites. Most of the roxarsone is believed to ...

  10. Got a Match? Ion Extraction GC-MS Characterization of Accelerants Adsorbed in Charcoal Using Negative Pressure Dynamic Headspace Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzivino, Barbara; Tilley, Leon J.; Ingalls, Laura R.; Hall, Adam B.; Drugan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment demonstrating real-life application of GC-MS to arson accelerant identification is described. Students are given the task of comparing a sample recovered from a "crime scene" to that from a "suspect's clothing". Accelerants subjected to different conditions are recovered using a quick and simple…

  11. 28 CFR 0.130 - General functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including those authorities set forth in 27 CFR part 47; and (d) Perform any other function related to the...; (vii) 18 U.S.C. 1961 insofar as the offense is an act or threat involving arson that is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year; and (viii) Any offense...

  12. Generation of antibody and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for the feed additive roxarsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxy-phenyl arsonic acid) has been used in the poultry and swine industries as a feed additive to treat coccidiosis and other intestinal disorders as well as to improve feed efficiencies and weight gain. In animals, roxarsone is eliminated mostly as parent compound which may ...

  13. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  14. Editoriale/Editorial/Éditorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Balloni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction concerning forensic and psychiatric aspects of intentional arson, the article points out that this phenomenon is not univocal because it is connected to different psychopatological conditions.The article also examines arson in a criminological perspective pointing out some aspects of this particular kind of victimization.Après un aperçu de quelques aspects psychiatriques-forensiques relatifs à l'incendie volontaire, l'article souligne le fait que ce phénomène n'est pas univoque et qu'il peut être associé à des conditions psychopathologiques spécifiques.Ensuite, l'article traite de l'incendie en termes criminologiques et il donne quelques précisions sur les processus de victimation liés à cette forme de criminalité.

  15. Learning Disabilities and Serious Crime – Sex Offences

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Fiona; Read, Elspeth

    2009-01-01

    This review paper follows on from two previous reviews of the literature with regard to, firstly, learning disability and murder and, secondly, learning disability and arson. This paper, in turn, examines the relationship, if any, between learning disability and sexual offence. The approach taken in all these papers involves the concept of Disruptive Behaviour Disorder as being the group of behaviour and personality disorders most involved in the aetiology of these criminal and anti-social...

  16. Gas residues of engine starting fluid in postmortem sample from an arsonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, J

    1997-01-01

    Diethyl ether was found in samples of the blood, urine, and lung from a fire victim. Because the lung also carried a number of low-boiling paraffins, it was inferred that the detected compounds came from engine starting fluid, which the victim apparently had been exposed to while be intentionally used it as an accelerant to start the fire. The reported death illustrates the value of searching post mortem samples for highly volatile residues of possible arson accelerants. PMID:8988590

  17. Beyond #refugeeswelcome: The Spectre of Racist Violence and Lessons from Refugee Resistance in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Aikins, Joshua Kwesi; Bendix, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The text reframes the current debate about refugees in Germany by contrasting Germany’s recent history of racist violence and limitations of asylum laws with the resistance and agency of refugee movements across Germany. Both provide an important lens to re-examine the simultaneous heralding of „welcome culture“, a sharp rise in arson attacks on asylum centres and the current legislative roll-back of refugee rights in Germany.

  18. Khomeini and Sufism : Ayatollah Khomeini’s influence on the oppression against Sufi Orders in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Taffazoli, Parasto

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran many Shia Sufi Orders, who are religious groups that exercise the mystical and spiritual elements of Shia Islam, have been forced to exile due to oppression from the government. The largest Sufi Order, The Nematollahi Soltan Alishahi Gonabadi are still in the country, but are oppressed by the Islamic regime; From an arson attack in central Tehran in 1980; The Iranian government being blamed to have imprisoned 11 members of the Soltan Alishahi Order fo...

  19. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  20. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC-June 30, 1985. Revision 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSRL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels. 12 figs

  1. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1983. Rev. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing/allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms-related, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  2. New Concepts in Modern Policing – Criminal Personality Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan TASU

    2010-01-01

    The importance of criminal profiling is widely accepted. As an investigative tool, this method of crime scene approach may provide useful information in serious crimes management, including homicide, rape, arson or burglary. Based on crime scene data and personality theories, rofiling may be seen as a deductive inferring process which can help police officers to apprehend a serial offender. Although in most modern police agencies the use of criminal profiling is mandatory, Romanian police has...

  3. Analysis of forest fires causes and their motivations in northern Algeria: the Delphi method

    OpenAIRE

    Meddour-Sahar O; Meddour R; Leone V; Lovreglio R; Derridj A

    2013-01-01

    Forest fires in Algeria are mostly human-caused and result from local social behavior, whether voluntary (arson) or involuntary (negligence). Understanding the reasons why fires start is, therefore, a crucial factor in preventing or reducing their incidence, developing significant prevention efforts and designing specific fire prevention campaigns. The Delphi method is a promising tool for improving knowledge about how fire starts and why, and above all helps reduce the number of fires starte...

  4. Palestine Authorities:Trouble within

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Zhichao

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Palestine Authorities (PA) is now plagued with an internal crisis ever seen over the past dozen years. A string of kidnappings, gun battles, cases of arson and demonstrations resorted to by some hotheads since mid-July has thrown Gaza Strip into utter chaos, triggering off a political crisis with many high-ranking officials including Prime Minister Kurile tendering their resignations to President Yasser Arafat.

  5. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  6. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through December 31, 1984. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions in derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  8. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  9. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  10. The political theology of violence in contemporary India

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Blom Hansen

    2008-01-01

    What are we to make of the fact that most violence in India rarely has any visible or clear actors? Why is most violence represented as 'pure events' without identifiable actors - but as 'mobs', as spontaneous combustion, as spontaneous rage that arises from perceived collective grievances and insults? Why in a country saturated in political rhetoric is it that acts of violence have acquired their own semiotic register, a singular form of 'political communication'? Fire and incidents of arson...

  11. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  12. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  13. New methods for testing fire resistance of wood façade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson August

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arson in schools has been a huge problem in Sweden over the last fifteen years. The average amount of school arsons between 2000 and 2014 was 285 cases each year which corresponds to 50% of the total amount of reported fires in school buildings. This is a well-known problem and a lot of research has been done in this area. Investigations has been done about fire and heat detection systems, different technical factors significance in fire scenarios and how to prevent adolescents from starting fires. Another part of the problem that partly been investigated is how the schools are constructed. Roughly 50% of the arsons are outside of the school building. In Sweden one and two storey buildings are allowed to be built with wooden façades in accordance with the building code, which is one of the reasons many schools are built with wooden façade systems. The most critical part in a wood façade system from a fire safety perspective is concluded to be the eaves because of how they usually are built to let air pass through. Even though a wood façade isn't as well resistant to fire compared to a concrete façade, three versions of new test methods for combustible façades have been developed to make it possible to make sure in advance that a construction is resistant enough. The new test methods are focused on specific details and parts of a façade system to provide a more informative and useful result compared to SP Fire 105. Observations and measurements of flame spread and temperature changes in the eave, over the window joints and in the air gap are made. With these parameters in consideration criteria's has been chosen for a critical temperature of 280 ∘C at a critical time of 20 minutes.

  14. Motion Blobs as a Feature for Detection on Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Nazim S. A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance that is caused due to visual perception with the atmosphere is coined as smoke, but the major problem is to quantify the detected smoke that is made up of small particles of carbonaceous matter in the air, resulting mainly from the burning of organic material. The present work focuses on the detection of smoke immaterial it being accidental, arson or created one and raise an alarm through an electrical device that senses the presence of visible or invisible particles or in simple terms a smoke detector issuing a signal to fire alarm system / issue a local audible alarm from detector itself.

  15. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List provides brief summaries of hundreds of safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Events are described under the categories: Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing/Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms-related, Radiological Sabotage, Non-radiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. Because of the public interest, the Miscellaneous category also includes events reported involving source material, byproduct material, and natural uranium, which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Information in the event descriptions was obtained from official NRC sources

  16. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). January 1, 1990--December 31, 1994, Volume 2, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List provides brief summaries of hundreds of safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Events are described under the categories: Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing/Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms-related, Radiological Sabotage, Non-radiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. Because of the public interest, the Miscellaneous category also includes events reported involving source material, byproduct material, and natural uranium, which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Information in the event descriptions was obtained from official NRC sources

  17. Chelation behaviour of lanthanons with o-arsonodibenzoylmethanephenlylhydrazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chelate formation reaction of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Gd(III), Ho(III), and Er(III) with o-arsonodibenzoylmethanephenylhydrazone has been investigated potentiometrically and conductometrically in 40 % (ν/ν) aqueous ethanol, ionic strength 0,1 M. The order of stability constants was found to be La Gd 3+: L). The complexes have been isolated in solid state and have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and IR data. Coordination occurs through - NH of the hydrazo and - OH of the arsonic groups. (Authors)

  18. Idiotypic manipulation in mice: BALB/c mice can express the crossreactive idiotype of A/J mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, M.; Leo, O.; Hiernaux, J.; Urbain, J

    1983-01-01

    The response of A/J mice to arsonate-coupled keyhole limpet hemocyanin is characterized by a crossreactive idiotype (CRIA). CRIA+ antibodies are restricted to the Igh-Ic haplotype and are never expressed in BALB/c mice after immunization with antigen. Studies at the DNA level suggest that the gene encoding the CRIA heavy chain in A/J mice is probably absent in the genome of BALB/c mice. Despite this, using the immunization cascade tool, we have been able to induce the expression of CRIA+ anti...

  19. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  20. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC trhough December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees are included. As additional information is obtained on an event, it will be incorporated in future editions. The list contains incidents as well as less significant events. The nine categories are: bomb-related (divided into two sections: (a) those events in which a bomb or explosive material was located or an explosion occurred at or in the vicinity of a licensed facility, (b) a complete chronological list), intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation-related, vandalism, arson, firearms-related, sabotage, and miscellaneous

  1. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, also included are events reported involving byproduct material which is exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  2. Evil Bands and Violent Narratives in Thirteenth-Century Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2010-01-01

    During the second half of the thirteenth century in Japan, different actors in local power struggles, primarily landholding temples, would increasingly recite incidents involving so-called ‘akutô’ (‘evil bands’) in their appeals to the government for armed assistance. Through references to specific...... crimes associated with banditry and ‘evil bands’ in general, such as murder, theft and arson, the temples aimed to show the negative impact the conflicts could possibly have on temple economy and estate control. Simultaneously they could emphasize the political and social danger posed by their legal...

  3. Development of Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A

    2016-07-19

    Gas chromatographic mass spectrometry is now widely used for the quantitation and identification of organic compounds in almost any imaginable sample. These applications include the measurement of chlorinated dioxins in soil samples, the identification of illicit drugs in human blood, and the quantitation of accelerants in arson investigations, to name just a few. How did GC/MS get so popular? It turns out that it required parallel developments in mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, and computing and that no one person "invented" the technique. This Perspective traces this history from the 1950s until today. PMID:27384908

  4. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  5. RESEARCH: Triage Law Enforcement: Societal Impacts on National Forests in the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez; Tynon

    2000-10-01

    / Uses of outdoor natural areas, like National Forests in the United States, have been undergoing change. Some changes, including criminal activities and domestic terrorism, may have quite important impacts to outdoor enthusiasts and managers. Activities include some relatively traditional management challenges, like arson and thefts, and newer challenges, such as domestic violence and murder. To better understand the prevalence and impacts of these activities, selected managers in the western United States were interviewed in summer and fall 1998. Results indicate criminal activities and domestic terrorism are found in both urban-interface and rural sites. The most prevalent challenges were arson, criminal damage, domestic violence, dumping of household trash and landscape materials, marijuana cultivation, satanic cult activity, and thefts. Not as prevalent but found in almost all study sites were body dumping, extremist group activity, gang activity, murders, and suicides. Managers felt that most outdoor recreationists were unaffected by the activities. Most managers noted the increasing prevalence and the costs to management in time, personnel, and in other ways. They noted that their job had ceased being one of natural resources law enforcement and became one of "city" law enforcement. The findings of the study raise serious issues that require additional research. PMID:10954803

  6. Wildfire cause analysis: four case-studies in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovreglio R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Italy are mainly caused by humans, and directly depend on social behavior, whether voluntary (arson or involuntary (negligence. Despite the progress in knowledge made with studying the physical facets of the phenomenon, causes and motives of human-related fire remain mostly unknown. This paper proposes the implementation of the Delphi method (an interactive expert-questionnaire process in order to assess why fires are ignited. In four study cases, within a high fire incidence area (southern Italy, the Delphi technique identified as major cause of negligence the use of fire in agriculture and, as major causes of voluntary fires, motives related to seasonal labor. The main results in terms of frequency are: (i for involuntary events (negligence, experts unanimously identified the relevant importance of negligent use of agricultural fires, particularly stubble burning (13.99% of responses. For (ii voluntary fires (arson, results highlight the relative importance of fires ignited by seasonal workers as an instrument to force or maintain employment (8.41% of responses.

  7. [Expert evaluation by forensic psychiatrists of aged delinquents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemańczyk, W; Kordacka, M

    1989-01-01

    In the period from 1970 till 1987 forensic psychiatric certification of 1333 delinquents war made in Regional Psychiatric Hospital in Cibórz. Forty experts (3%) regarded subjects aged 60 years or more. The most common crimes were those against life and health--62.5%; predominantly homicides, assaults and assaults on public functioning, as well as arson--10%. Among male delinquents 68% were under the influence of alcohol at the time of crime of arson and assaults. Other common crime were establish in 15%. Only 1 patient was accused of sexual child abuse (2.5%). Women made 20% of offenders; one half of them committed the crime against life and health, mainly menace. Mental disturbances were found in 90% of patients. Dementia was diagnosed in 20%, organic personality disorder in 30%, and pseudoneurotic syndrome in 15%. Delusional syndrome was diagnosed in 15% while 5% of patients had long history of psychiatric disorders. 35% of expertise were made during single psychiatric interview. It is our opinion that a single examination of aged delinquent does not allow the correct evaluation of the influence of complex relations between possible mental disturbances, somatic illness, drugs (often various pathology and polytherapy) and alcohol, on delinquent's soundness of mind. Taking into consideration the widespread of above mentioned disturbances in the aged population we think that every person in the age above 60 suspected of crime should undergo psychiatric evaluation and hospital observation. PMID:2631130

  8. Forensic science: the truth is out there

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Lynne D.

    2002-06-01

    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  9. Speciation neutron activation analysis for arsenic in marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods involving chemical separations prior to irradiations can be developed to determine the species of an element. The technique can be called speciation NAA (SNAA). We have developed SNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. The method involves extraction by a methanol-MIBK-water system, cation exchange chromatography, and HPLC followed by NAA. The detection limits for various arsenic species are around 20 ng g-1 of fish under the experimental conditions of 2-h irradiation in a neutron flux of 5x1011 cm-2 s-1 at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 facility. Details of the methods and results are presented

  10. Identification and Discrimination of Brands of Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Neural Networks Algorithm in Forensic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugena, L.; Moncayo, S.; Manzoor, S.; Rosales, D.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of adulteration of fuels and its use in criminal scenes like arson has a high interest in forensic investigations. In this work, a method based on gas chromatography (GC) and neural networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the identification and discrimination of brands of fuels such as gasoline and diesel without the necessity to determine the composition of the samples. The study included five main brands of fuels from Spain, collected from fifteen different local petrol stations. The methodology allowed the identification of the gasoline and diesel brands with a high accuracy close to 100%, without any false positives or false negatives. A success rate of three blind samples was obtained as 73.3%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of this methodology to help in resolving criminal situations. PMID:27375919

  11. Identification and Discrimination of Brands of Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Neural Networks Algorithm in Forensic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugena, L; Moncayo, S; Manzoor, S; Rosales, D; Cáceres, J O

    2016-01-01

    The detection of adulteration of fuels and its use in criminal scenes like arson has a high interest in forensic investigations. In this work, a method based on gas chromatography (GC) and neural networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the identification and discrimination of brands of fuels such as gasoline and diesel without the necessity to determine the composition of the samples. The study included five main brands of fuels from Spain, collected from fifteen different local petrol stations. The methodology allowed the identification of the gasoline and diesel brands with a high accuracy close to 100%, without any false positives or false negatives. A success rate of three blind samples was obtained as 73.3%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of this methodology to help in resolving criminal situations. PMID:27375919

  12. Anti-discrimination Philosophy and the Decline of Post-capitalist Democracies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author is trying to explain the contrasts existing between the expanding universe of anti-discrimination sanctions and the decline in legitimacy of democracy. The declining legitimacy affects both consolidated democracies, and newborn democracies. Inequality in the USA, but also at global level is illustrated with relevant statistics. The convergence between the crisis of democracy and the financial and economic global crisis is a major social and political threat. At the global level, after the Arab Spring, the third wave of democratization continued, while the quality of democracy substantially diminished. In the newborn Islamic democracies, discrimination against women, Christians, Jews, gay & lesbians, etc. continued, leading to arson, torture and killings.

  13. The use of liquid latex for soot removal from fire scenes and attempted fingerprint development with Ninhydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutter, Susan Wright; Bailey, Robert; Everly, Jeff C; Mercer, Karl

    2009-11-01

    Throughout the United States, clearance rates for arson cases remain low due to fire's destructive nature, subsequent suppression, and a misconception by investigators that no forensic evidence remains. Recent research shows that fire scenes can yield fingerprints if soot layers are removed prior to using available fingerprinting processes. An experiment applying liquid latex to sooted surfaces was conducted to assess its potential to remove soot and yield fingerprints after the dried latex was peeled. Latent fingerprints were applied to glass and drywall surfaces, sooted in a controlled burn, and cooled. Liquid latex was sprayed on, dried, and peeled. Results yielded usable prints within the soot prior to removal techniques, but no further fingerprint enhancement was noted with Ninhydrin. Field studies using liquid latex will be continued by the (US) Virginia Fire Marshal Academy but it appears that liquid latex application is a suitable soot removal method for forensic applications. PMID:19732277

  14. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  15. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1996, Vol. 2, Rev. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 5, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1996. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  16. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, pre-1990 alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  17. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1991. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  18. The use of L-ascorbic acid in speciation of arsenic compounds in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Nikola J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic speciation, besides total arsenic content determination, is very important in analysis of water, foodstuffs, and environmental samples, because of varying degrees of toxicity of different species. For such purpose hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry can be used based on the generation of certain types of hydride, depending on the pH value and pretreatment in different reaction media. In this study, we have investigated the effect of L-ascorbic acid as the reaction medium as well as the pre-reducing agent in speciation of arsenic by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry in order to determine monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA in the presence of inorganic forms of arsenic.

  19. Prosperity Will Prevail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    "Social stability is the precondition for prosperity. Who wants to trade a peaceful and prosperous life for turmoil?"-Tanzen Lhundup, Research Fellow and Vice Director at the Social and Economics Institute,China Tibetology Research Center Tranquility was smashed in Lhasa,capital city of Tibet Autonomous Region on March 14. Armed with stones, bricks and sticks,the rioters left a trail of crimes,including beatings,smashings,Iootings and arson,victimizing or- dinary residents in the city. How did the violence happen? And what was the impact? On March 24,Beijing Review Feng Jianghua interviewed Tanzen Lhundup,Research Fellow and Vice Director at the Social and Economics Institute,China Tibetology Research Center.

  20. X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: Phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, H.G.; Nelen, M.R.; Zandvoort, P. van; Abeling, N.G.G.M.; Gennip, A.H. van; Ropers, H.H.; Oost, B.A. van (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Wolters, E.C.; Kuiper, M.A. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-06-01

    The authors have identified a large Dutch kindred with a new form of X-linked nondysmorphic mild mental retardation. All affected males in this family show very characteristic abnormal behavior, in particular aggressive and sometimes violent behavior. Other types of impulsive behavior include arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Attempted suicide has been reported in a single case. The locus for this disorder could be assigned to the Xp11-21 interval between DXS7 and DXS77 by linkage analysis using markers spanning the X chromosome. A maximal multipoint lod score of 3.69 was obtained at the monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) monoamine metabolism. These data are compatible with a primary defect in the structural gene for MAOA and/or monoamine oxidase type B (MAOB). Normal platelet MAOB activity suggests that the unusual behavior pattern in this family may be caused by isolated MAOA deficiency. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  2. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  3. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow-up was...... between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n=86) and Asperger's syndrome (n=114) the percentages were 8.1% and 18.......4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (p= .0009)....

  4. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.;

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow-up was...... between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8.1% and...... 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (P = .0009) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  5. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  6. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1996, Vol. 2, Rev. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 5, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1996. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 1, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from pre-NRC through December 31, 1989. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) characterization of trace organoarsenic antimicrobials using silver/polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olavarría-Fullerton, Jenifier; Wells, Sabrina; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Sepaniak, Michael J; De Jesús, Marco A

    2011-04-01

    Organoarsenic drugs such as roxarsone and 4-arsanilic acid are poultry feed additives widely used in US broilers to prevent coccidosis and to enhance growth and pigmentation. Despite their veterinary benefits there has been growing concern about their use because over 90% of these drugs are released intact into litter, which is often sold as a fertilizing supplement. The biochemical degradation of these antimicrobials in the litter matrix can release significant amounts of soluble As(III) and As(V) to the environment, representing a potential environmental risk. Silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag/PDMS) nanocomposites are a class of surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates that have proven effective for the sensitive, reproducible, and field-adaptable detection of aromatic acids in water. The work presented herein uses for the first time Ag/PDMS nanocomposites as substrates for the detection and characterization of trace amounts of roxarsone, 4-arsanilic acid, and acetarsone in water. The results gathered in this study show that organoarsenic species are distributed into the PDMS surface where the arsonic acid binds onto the embedded silver nanoparticles, enhancing its characteristic 792 cm(-1) stretching band. The chemisorption of the drugs to the metal facilitates its detection and characterization in the parts per million to parts per billion range. An extensive analysis of the distinct spectroscopic features of each drug is presented with emphasis on the interactions of the arsonic acid, amino, and nitro groups with the metal surface. The benefits of SERS based methods for the study of arsenic drugs are also discussed. PMID:21396190

  9. Public Health Concerns Associated with the New York City Blackout of 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2016-08-01

    The 1977 New York City blackout began at 9:36 p.m. on 13 July and lasted some 25 h until 10:39 p.m. on 14 July. The New York City Department of Health rapidly set up a Blackout Contingency Plan, established priorities, and mobilized its staff to address remedial interventions. Top priorities included water supplies, sewage disposal, perishable food supplies, hospital and emergency room services, solid waste disposal, beach contamination with untreated sewage , and assisting those on electrically powered home life support systems. The 1977 blackout occurred during an extended heat wave. An analysis of total deaths and deaths due to pulmonary and cardiovascular/renal diseases by day correlated with temperatures. However, there was no direct correlation with the blackout itself, in part perhaps because of the confounding influence of high temperatures. The increase of deaths on very hot days outside of the blackout period lends strong support to the relationship between increased deaths and high ambient temperatures. The 1977 New York City blackout was distinguished from those of 1965 and 2003 by violence, arson, and looting that occurred in several areas. These acts resulted in 204 civilian injuries, 436 police injuries, 80 firefighter injuries, and 1037 fires. The violence, arson, and looting caused extensive long-term physical and functional damage to certain areas of two boroughs of the city, Brooklyn and the Bronx. Although the New York City Department of Health had not previously established a disaster preparedness plan, its professionals quickly rose to the occasion because they were able to draw upon vast public health practice experience and ingenuity. PMID:27220853

  10. Recommendations on the use of prescribed burning practices in grassland conservation - An evidence-based study from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthmérész, Béla; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Péter; Végvári, Zsolt; Deák, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Fire as a natural disturbance has been present in most European grasslands. In parallel controlled use of burning was an important part of the traditional landscape management for millennia. It was used to reduce litter and suppress woody vegetation as well as to maintain open landscapes suitable for farming. Recently, human activities have a considerable impact on natural fire regimes through habitat fragmentation, cessation of traditional grassland management and climate change. Nowadays the majority of human-ignited fires are uncontrolled burnings and arson, which have serious negative impacts on human life, property and can be detrimental also from the nature conservation point of view. Despite fire was widely applied in the past and the considerable extension and frequency of current grassland fires, the impact of fire on the grassland biodiversity is still scarcely documented in Europe. The aim of our study was to gather practical knowledge and experiences from Hungary concerning the effects of fire on grasslands. To fulfil this aim we sent questionnaires to experts from Hungarian national park directorates to gather unpublished data and field observations concerning the effects of burning on grasslands. Based on the answers for the questionnaires fire regularly occur in almost every grassland types in Hungary. We found that effects of fire are habitat-specific. One hand uncontrolled burning and arson have serious detrimental impacts on many endangered species (ground-dwelling birds, such as Asio flammeus, Tringa totanus and Vanellus vanellus; or lizards, such as Ablepharus kitaibelii). On the other hand in several cases fire has a positive effect on the habitat structure and favours species of high nature conservation interest (plant species, such as Adonis volgensis, Chamaecytisus supinus and Pulsatilla grandis; butterflies, such as Euphydryas aurinia; bird species such as Circus aeruginosus and Larus cachinnans). Our results suggest that even uncontrolled

  11. Sorptive Uptake Studies of an Aryl-Arsenical with Iron Oxide Composites on an Activated Carbon Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H. Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorption uptake kinetics and equilibrium studies for 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzene arsonic acid (roxarsone was evaluated with synthetic magnetite (Mag-P, commercial magnetite (Mag-C, magnetite 10%, 19%, and 32% composite material (CM-10, -19, -32 that contains granular activated carbon (GAC, and synthetic goethite at pH 7.00 in water at 21 °C for 24 h. GAC showed the highest sorptive removal of roxarsone and the relative uptake for each sorbent material with roxarsone are listed in descending order as follows: GAC (471 mg/g > goethite (418 mg/g > CM-10 (377 mg/g CM-19 (254 mg/g > CM-32 (227 mg/g > Mag-P (132 mg/g > Mag-C (29.5 mg/g. The As (V moiety of roxarsone is adsorbed onto the surface of the iron oxide/oxyhydrate and is inferred as inner-sphere surface complexes; monodentate-mononuclear, bidentate-mononuclear, and bidentate-binuclear depending on the protolytic speciation of roxarsone. The phenyl ring of roxarsone provides the primary driving force for the sorptive interaction with the graphene surface of GAC and its composites. Thus, magnetite composites are proposed as multi-purpose adsorbents for the co-removal of inorganic and organic arsenicals due to the presence of graphenic and iron oxide active adsorption sites.

  12. The influence of fire on the assemblage structure of foraging birds in grasslands of the Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Matheus G; Fieker, Carolline Z; Dias, Manoel M

    2016-05-13

    Grasslands are the most threatened physiognomies of the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna), a biodiversity hotspot with conservation as a priority. The Serra da Canastra National Park protects the most important remnants of the Cerrado's southern grasslands, which are under strong anthropogenic pressure. The present study describes the structure of bird assemblages that directly use food resources in burned areas, comparing areas affected by natural fire to the areas where controlled fires were set (a management strategy to combat arson). The tested null hypothesis was that different bird assemblages are structured in a similar manner, regardless of the post-fire period or assessed area. Between December/2012 and January/2015, 92 species were recorded foraging in the study areas. The results indicate that both types of burnings triggered profound and immediate changes in bird assemblages, increasing the number of species and individuals. Natural fires exhibited a more significant influence on the structure (diversity and dominance) than prescribed burnings. Nevertheless, all the differences were no longer noticeable after a relatively short time interval of 2-3 months after prescribed burnings and 3-4 after natural fires. The findings may help the understanding of prescribed burnings as a management strategy for bird conservation in grasslands. PMID:27192195

  13. Biosorption of inorganic and organic arsenic from aqueous solution by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans BY-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional techniques for removing low concentration arsenic are unsuitable. The biosorption characteristics of arsenite (iAsIII) and monomethyl arsonate (MMAV) from aqueous solution by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans BY-3 (At. f BY-3) were investigated as a function of pH, contact time, initial arsenic concentration, biomass dosage and temperature in this study. Results indicated that Langmuir isotherm model fitted better than Freundlich model to the equilibrium data. Analysis of kinetic data showed that the biosorption processes of both iAsIII and MMAV involved pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo of the biosorption process showed that the adsorption of iAsIII and MMAV onto At. f BY-3 was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under the examined conditions. The competitive biosorption of iAsIII and MMAV in binary mixture system was evaluated, and the results indicated that At. f BY-3 favored MMAV biosorption. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed -OH and -NH groups were involved in the biosorption process.

  14. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin. PMID:17714900

  15. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry in forensic science and food adulteration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (SIRMS) is an established technique for the determination of origin of geological, biological, chemical and physio-chemical samples/materials. With the development of highly precise mass spectrometers, the stable isotope ratio determination of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have gained considerable interest in the fields of forensic science and food authentication. Natural variations in the isotopic composition of lighter elements occur due to fractionation effects, resulting in the finger printing of specific isotope ratio values that are characteristic of the origin, purity, and manufacturing processes of the products and their constituents. Forensic science uses scientific and technical methods to investigate traceable evidence of criminal acts. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has been applied to numerous aspects of the forensic science. The analysis of explosives such as ammonium nitrate, gun powder and tri-nitro-toluene (TNT), cases of murder, armed robbery, drug smuggling, terrorism, arson and hit and run traffic accidents are a few of them. The main types of geological evidences in such cases are mud, soil, rocks, sand, gravel, dust particles, biological materials, organic particles and anthropogenic components. Stable isotopes are used as tools to corroborate and confirm the evidential leads in the investigation of such crimes. The variation in natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen and their isotopic ratios δ13C and δ15N can identify links between items found at crime scene with those of suspect. The paper discusses the applications of SIRMS in the field of forensic science and food adulteration research

  16. Development of a software for predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop a new software system that can directly display the predicted results on an electronic map, in order to get a directly perceived understanding of the affected areas of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. Methods: Three scenarios of events including spreading radioactive materials, dirty bomb attack, and explosion or arson attacks on the radiation facilities were assumed. Gaussian diffusion model was employed to predict the spread and deposition of radioactive pollutants, and both the internal and external doses were estimated for the representative person by using the corresponding dose conversion factors. Through integration of the computing system and Mapinfo geographic information system (GIS), the predicted results were visually displayed on the electronic maps of a city. Results: The new software system could visually display the predicted results on the electronic map of a city, and the predicted results were consistent with those calculated by the similar software Hotspot®. The deviation between this system and Hotspot was less than 0.2 km for predicted isoplethic curves of dose rate downwind. Conclusions: The newly developed software system is of the practical value in predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. (authors)

  17. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  18. Reconstructing Salah Al-din Minbar of Al-Aqsa Mosque: Challenges and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid H. ABWEINI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah Al-Din Minbar (pulpit has a distinguished value in Islamic art, which is originated from its historical value of being constructed 800 years ago representing a symbol of dignified historical era; and to its political value as this Minbar had formed an emotional spur during the Crusades; and above all it is considered as one of the most beautiful and finest pieces of Islamic decoration art. After a devastating arson blaze nothing was left of the Minbar except some wooden pieces and few photographs that had been taken at previous periods of time. The need to rebuild and renovate Salah Al-Din Minbar of the Aqsa Mosque as similar to the original Minbar has arisen and met the Jordanian Royal mandate. This paper documents reconstructing the model Minbar to be exactly like the original one which was a sole job until the time, especially because of the decorations' diversity and the need to adopt the traditional craft techniques which require deliberate synthesized studies to prepare the drawings and construct the Minbar. The model Minbar was totally completed within 14 years.

  19. Digital Inventory and Documentation of Korea's Important Cultural Properties Using 3D Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongseok, K.; Gyesoo, K.; Siro, K.; Eunhwa, K.

    2015-08-01

    As a country with 11 properties included on the World Heritage List and approximately 12,000 important cultural properties, Korea has been continuously carrying out the inventory and documentation of cultural properties to conserve and manage them since the 1960s. The inventory of cultural properties had been carried out by making and managing a register which recorded basic information mainly on state-designated cultural properties such as their size, quantity, and location. The documentation of cultural properties was also carried out by making measured drawings. However, the inventory and documentation done under the previous analog method had a limit to the information it could provide for the effective conservation and management of cultural properties. Moreover, in recent times important cultural properties have frequently been damaged by man-made and natural disasters such as arson, forest fires, and floods, so an alternative was required. Accordingly, Korea actively introduced digital techniques led by the government for the inventory and documentation of important cultural properties. In this process, the government established the concept of a digital set, built a more efficie nt integrated data management system, and created standardized guidelines to maximize the effectiveness of data acquisition, management, and utilization that greatly increased the level of digital inventory, documentation, and archiving.

  20. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  1. Impact assessment of the 1977 New York City blackout. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, J. L.; Miles, W. T.

    1978-07-01

    This study was commissioned by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES), Department of Energy (DOE) shortly after the July 13, 1977 New York City Blackout. The objectives were two-fold: to assess the availability and collect, where practical, data pertaining to a wide variety of impacts occurring as a result of the blackout; and to broadly define a framework to assess the value of electric power reliability from consideration of the blackout and its effects on individuals, businesses, and institutions. The impacts were complex and included both economic and social costs. In order to systematically classify the most significant of these impacts and provide guidance for data collection, impact classification schemes were developed. Major economic impact categories examined are business; government; utilities (Consolidated Edison); insurance industry; public health services; and other public services. Impacts were classified as either direct or indirect depending upon whether the impact was due to a cessation of electricity or a response to that cessation. The principal economic costs of the blackout are shown. Social impacts, i.e., the changes in social activities and adaptations to these changes were particularly significant in New York due to its unique demographic and geographic characteristics. The looting and arson that accompanied the blackout set aside the NYC experience from other similar power failures. (MCW)

  2. Direct surface analysis of pesticides on soil, leaves, grass, and stainless steel by static secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, J.C.; Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E.; Olson, J.E.; Miller, D.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Direct surface analyses by static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed for the following pesticides adsorbed on dandelion leaves, grass, soil, and stainless steel samples: alachlor, atrazine, captan, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorosulfuron, chlorthal-dimethyl, cypermethrin, 2,4-D, diuron, glyphosate, malathion, methomyl, methyl arsonic acid, mocap, norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, paraquat, temik, and trifluralin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate static SIMS as a tool for pesticide analysis, principally for use in screening samples for pesticides. The advantage of direct surface analysis compared with conventional pesticide analysis methods is the elimination of sample pretreatment including extraction, which streamlines the analysis substantially; total analysis time for SIMS analysis was ca. 10 min/sample. Detection of 16 of the 20 pesticides on all four substrates was achieved. Of the remaining four pesticides, only one (trifluralin) was not detected on any of the samples. The minimum detectable quantity was determined for paraquat on soil in order to evaluate the efficacy of using SIMS as a screening tool. Paraquat was detected at 3 pg/mm{sup 2} (c.a. 0.005 monolayers). The results of these studies suggest that SIMS is capable of direct surface detection of a range of pesticides, with low volatility, polar pesticides being the most easily detected. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Eco-Terrorism? Countering Dominant Narratives of Securitisation: a Critical, Quantitative History of the Earth Liberation Front (1996-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loadenthal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Earth Liberation Front (ELF has carried out acts of political violence and ‘economic sabotage’ characterized by a pattern of behaviour reflecting tactical and targeting selections, communications strategies, and geographic location. The movement’s attacks typically focus on the destruction of property located in ‘soft targets’ associated with commercial and residential construction, the automotive industry, and a variety of local, national and multinational business interests. These sites are routinely targeted through a variety of means ranging from graffiti to sabotage to arson. Geographically, the movement has focused its attacks in the United States and Mexico, and, to a limited extent, countries on the European, South American and Australian continents. The findings presented in this article were developed through a statistical analysis of the movement’s attack history as presented through its above-ground support network. This is discussed in critical contrast to assertions about the movement’s alleged terrorist behaviour found in most academic and government literature. This study seeks to present an incident-based historical analysis of the ELF that is not situated within a logic of securitization. In doing so, it challenges traditional scholarship based on statistical findings.

  4. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1-Induced Fe(III) Reduction Facilitates Roxarsone Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guowei; Ke, Zhengchen; Liang, Tengfang; Liu, Li; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although microbial activity and associated iron (oxy)hydroxides are known in general to affect the environmental dynamics of 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid (roxarsone), the mechanistic understanding of the underlying biophysico-chemical processes remains unclear due to limited experimental information. We studied how Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 –a widely distributed metal-reducing bacterium, in the presence of dissolved Fe(III), affects roxarsone transformations and biogeochemical cycling in a model aqueous system. The results showed that the MR-1 strain was able to anaerobically use roxarsone as a terminal electron acceptor and to convert it to a single product, 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzene arsonic acid (AHBAA). The presence of Fe(III) stimulated roxarsone transformation via MR-1-induced Fe(III) reduction, whereby the resulting Fe(II) acted as an efficient reductant for roxarsone transformation. In addition, the subsequent secondary Fe(III)/Fe(II) mineralization created conditions for adsorption of organoarsenic compounds to the yielded precipitates and thereby led to arsenic immobilization. The study provided direct evidence of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1-induced direct and Fe(II)-associated roxarsone transformation. Quantitative estimations revealed a candidate mechanism for the early-stage environmental dynamics of roxarsone in nature, which is essential for understanding the environmental dynamics of roxarsone and successful risk assessment. PMID:27100323

  5. The Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Steppe Fires in Lake Elton’s Area Based on RSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkarenko Stanislav Sergeevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the satellite imagery for the period of 1985-2014 in order to identify the causes of wildfires in Lake Elton’s surroundings. It was found that in the early 21st century fires have the greatest impact on the landscape, which is caused by the decrease in the number of livestock grazing and reduced steppe loads in the late 1990s. The map of the fire frequency in the researched area, and t he map of areas recovering from fires in different years were developed on the basis of remote sensing data (RSD. The investigation of Landsat space imagery found that 54 % of the territory since 2004 has been subject to a prairie fire at least once. The maximum frequency of occurrence is marked for the southern area of Buluhta-Lake where eight fires were registered for the last decad. Most fires are caused by human factors: deliberate or spontaneous arson, military trials. The factors limiting the fires are: degraded pastures, roads, landforms and the elements of the hydrological network. The resulting materials allow to effectively organize further ground survey of these areas for a complete description and assessment of revegetation and their relation to the duration of pyrogenic successions.

  6. MSMA resistance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camper, N D; Keese, R J; Coker, P S

    2004-05-01

    Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic from the parent pentavalent form present in MSMA to the trivalent form was detected. Arginine, glutamic acid, and glutamine content increased in tissue three days after MSMA treatment. Glutathione content decreased during the first three days after treatment; however, five days after treatment the resistant biotype of cocklebur and cotton had elevated glutathione levels (8-20 times greater, respectively). Glutathione Synthetase activity was higher in cotton than in either of the cocklebur biotypes; MSMA did not affect its activity in cotton or either cocklebur biotype. Resistant biotypes have a slightly higher activity than the susceptible biotype. Tolerance of cotton to MSMA may be related to glutathione synthetase activity and possibly to the presence of phytochelatins. Also, increased glutathione levels in the resistant biotype may implicate phytochelatin involvement in the resistance mechanism. PMID:15473645

  7. Elections and Political Violence in Nigeria: Past Mistakes and Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi, M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Elections in Nigeria over the years have become much more than a democratic process of acquiring political power. We have for some time now witnessed escalating political violence in different parts of the country, with increasing loss of faith between the electorates and political leaders. During the last general elections of April 2011, there were charges and counter charges by the political parties of rigging and general abuse of power at the federal and states level. Riot, arson, murder and looting became widespread in many states particularly in the northern part of the country. This paper intends to look at the process of conducting elections in Nigeria and how it caused political violence and make recommendations on how to bring to an end the increasing wave of violence in the electoral system. This is significant because as 2015 draws nearer, there is increasing fear and apprehension about possible political violence across the country. Fundamentally, there is need for political education and youth’s empowerment to convert election violence in our polity.

  8. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

  9. The Effect of Preparation Design on the Fracture Resistance of Zir-Conia Crown Copings (Computer Associated Design/Computer Associated Machine, CAD/CAM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Atashkar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the major problems of all ceramic restorations is their probable fracture against the occlusal force. The aim of the present in-vitro study is was to compare the effect of two marginal designs (chamfer & shoulder on the fracture resistance of zirconia copings, CERCON (CAD/CAM.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro study was done with single blind experimental technique. One stainless steel dye with 50’ chamfer finish line design (0.8 mm depth was prepared using milling machine. Ten epoxy resin dyes were made, The same dye was retrieved and 50' chamfer was converted into shoulder (1 mm.again ten epoxy resin dyes were made from shoulder dyes. Zirconia cores with 0.4 mm thickness and 35 µm cement Space fabricated on the20 epoxy resin dyes (10 samples chamfer and 10 samples shoulder in a dental laboratory. Then the zirconia cores were cemented on the epoxy resin dyes and underwent a fracture test with a universal testing machine (GOTECH AI-700LAC, Arson, USA and samples were investigated from the point of view of the origin of the failure.RESULT: The mean value of fracture resistance for shoulder margins were 788.90±99.56 N and for the chamfer margins were 991.75±112.00 N. The student’s T-test revealed a statistically significant difference between groups (P=0.001.CONCLUSION: The result of this study indicates that marginal design of the zirconia cores effects on their fracture resistance. A chamfer margin could improve the biomechanical performance of posterior single zirconia crown restorations. This may be because of strong unity and round internal angle in chamfer margin.

  10. The Effect of Preparation Design on the Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Crown Copings (Computer Associated Design/Computer Associated Machine, CAD/CAM System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, E.; Atashkar, B.; Rostami, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective One of the major problems of all ceramic restorations is their probable fracture against the occlusal force. The aim of the present in-vitro study is was to compare the effect of two marginal designs (chamfer & shoulder) on the fracture resistance of zirconia copings, CERCON (CAD/CAM). MATERIALS AND METHODS This in vitro study was done with single blind experimental technique. One stainless steel dye with 50′ chamfer finish line design (0.8 mm depth) was prepared using milling machine. Ten epoxy resin dyes were made, The same dye was retrieved and 50′ chamfer was converted into shoulder (1 mm).again ten epoxy resin dyes were made from shoulder dyes. Zirconia cores with 0.4 mm thickness and 35 μm cement Space fabricated on the 20 epoxy resin dyes (10 samples chamfer and 10 samples shoulder) in a dental laboratory. Then the zirconia cores were cemented on the epoxy resin dyes and underwent a fracture test with a universal testing machine (GOTECH AI-700LAC, Arson, USA) and samples were investigated from the point of view of the origin of the failure. RESULT The mean value of fracture resistance for shoulder margins were 788.90±99.56 N and for the chamfer margins were 991.75±112.00 N. The student’s T-test revealed a statistically significant difference between groups (P=0.001). CONCLUSION The result of this study indicates that marginal design of the zirconia cores effects on their fracture resistance. A chamfer margin could improve the biomechanical performance of posterior single zirconia crown restorations. This may be because of strong unity and round internal angle in chamfer margin. PMID:22457839

  11. Daphnia HR96 is a promiscuous xenobiotic and endobiotic nuclear receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimullina, Elina [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Yekaterinburg 620144 (Russian Federation); Li Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam K. [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Baldwin, William S., E-mail: baldwin@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Daphnia pulex is the first crustacean to have its genome sequenced. The genome project provides new insight and data into how an aquatic crustacean may respond to environmental stressors, including toxicants. We cloned Daphnia pulex HR96 (DappuHR96), a nuclear receptor orthologous to the CAR/PXR/VDR group of nuclear receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, (hormone receptor 96) HR96 responds to phenobarbital exposure and has been hypothesized as a toxicant receptor. Therefore, we set up a transactivation assay to test whether DappuHR96 is a promiscuous receptor activated by xenobiotics and endobiotics similar to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X-receptor (PXR). Transactivation assays performed with a GAL4-HR96 chimera demonstrate that HR96 is a promiscuous toxicant receptor activated by a diverse set of chemicals such as pesticides, hormones, and fatty acids. Several environmental toxicants activate HR96 including estradiol, pyriproxyfen, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and methane arsonate. We also observed repression of HR96 activity by chemicals such as triclosan, androstanol, and fluoxetine. Nearly 50% of the chemicals tested activated or inhibited HR96. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids were common activators or inhibitors of HR96 activity, indicating a link between diet and toxicant response. The omega-6 and omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids linoleic and oleic acid activated HR96, but the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibited HR96, suggesting that these two distinct sets of lipids perform opposing roles in Daphnia physiology. This also provides a putative mechanism by which the ratio of dietary unsaturated fats may affect the ability of an organism to respond to a toxic insult. In summary, HR96 is a promiscuous nuclear receptor activated by numerous endo- and xenobiotics.

  12. Antigovernment Groups. A Growing Threat to US Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Alicia L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-25

    Domestic terrorism is a growing threat in the United States, particularly from the 998 right-wing antigovernment (AG) groups in existence in 2015. In the years since the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City, right-wing anti-government acts have oc- curred more often and killed more people in the United States than Muslim extremists. Such AG group members are often in uenced by racist, anti-Semitic, or anti-Islamic views, believe conspiracy theories about the government, and often refuse to pay taxes or participate in frivolous lawsuits in order to intentionally waste the government's time. There is, however, a violent element to these groups which participates in events ranging from the armed take-over of federal land in Oregon, to an armed stand-o with federal agents in Nevada, to the bombing of the Oklahoma City building which killed 168 people. Such acts may be conducted by a few individuals, as is the case of the Oklahoma City bombing, or an entire group. Such groups have a wide range of capabilities, with typical weapons including legal and illegal rearms, with a focus on purchasing fully automatic weapons; hand grenades, with some homemade; deadly tox- ins, like ricin (in multiple cases) and sodium cyanide (in one case); transportation, such as all-terrain vehicles (ATVs); arson, with the intent of destroying federal property; and explosives, often in large numbers and including pipe bombs, truck bombs, IEDs, and other homemade explosives. The growing acceptance of these violent methods by Republican congressmen and governors, however, only increases visibility of such groups and encourages their behavior. Coupled with the removal of the Department of Homeland Security's division responsible for monitoring such groups, the result could prove disastrous for the safety of United States citizens.

  13. Pathological Fire Setting Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmagul Helvaci Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fire setting behavior is characterized by various types of fire setting behavior that lasts at least 6 months. This behavior can be observed both during childhood and adolescence and it develops as a result of the complex interaction between individual, social and environmental factors. Sample population based studies show that fire setting behavior occurs in children and adolescents by 5-10%. The studies that have been conducted have yielded to various theories and findings concerning the mechanism of occurrence of pathological fire setting behavior, the factors that affect this behavior and the demographic, individual, family and environmental characteristics of the children and adolescents who engage in such behavior. The objectives of effective treatment strategies are reducing fire setting behavior as well as making significant changes in the causes underlying the psychopathology. Outpatient care is the preferred method. In addition, there are some inpatient treatment programs designed especially for young people who set fires. The two most common approaches in intervention concerning fire setting behavior are firefighting (fire service based training interventions and mental health based psycho-social interventions. Even though numerous studies have been conducted in the world concerning pathological fire setting behavior from the 19th century onwards, no epidemiological data or study on pathological fire setting behavior exists in Turkey. This seems to be the case in our country despite the fact that fire setting behavior at various degrees and even arson occurs in children and adolescents and results in material damage as well as serious injury and even death especially in the context of children who are pushed into crime. Our objective is to discuss pathological fire setting behavior in line with the literature on the subject, to increase the awareness of the fire service institutions and to shed light on further studies to

  14. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Nina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R. Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  15. Prediction of fire smoke exposure and air quality degradation: toward a high resolution coupled fire-atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Céline; Strada, Susanna; Filippi, Jean-Baptiste; Bosseur, Frederic; Pialat, Xavier; Humberto Amorin, Jorge; Borrego, Carlos; Freitas, Saulo; Longo, Karla; Martins, Vera; Miranda, Ana Isabel; Monteiro, Alexandra; Paugam, Ronan

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires release significant amounts of trace gas and aerosols into the atmosphere. Firefighters are exposed to wildland fire smoke with adverse health effects. At larger scale, depending on meteorological conditions and fire characteristics, fire emissions can efficiently reduce air quality and visibility, even far away from emission sources. Uncertainties in fire emissions and fire plume dynamics are two important factors which substantially limit the capability of current models to predict smoke exposure and air quality degradation. A collaborative effort recently started in France to develop a coupled fire-atmosphere model based on the fire propagation model ForeFire, developed at the University of Corsica, and the mesoscale non-hydrostatic meteorological model Meso-NH, developed by the University of Toulouse and Meteo-France. ForeFire is a semi-physical model based on an analytical estimation of the rate of spread and an integration with a front tracking method. The fire model is used to provide gridded heating, water vapor and chemical fluxes at high temporal and spatial resolutions to Meso-NH. The coupled model was used in two configurations depending on the spatial resolution: with or without the feedback of the atmosphere on the fire propagation. At kilometric resolution, the model is used off-line to simulate two Mediterranean fires: an arson wildfire that burned in 2005 near Lancon-de-Provence, south-eastern France, and a well documented episode of the Lisbon 2003 fires (in collaboration with the University of Aveiro, Portugal). The question of the injection height is treated with an adaptation of the eddy-diffusivity/mass flux approach for convective boundary layer and compared to the 1D Plume Rise Model (developed at INPE) in contrasted meteorological scenarios. At higher resolution, the two-way coupled model is tested on idealized and real fire cases including ozone chemistry. Future required developments on surface emissions and combustion chemistry

  16. Increased frequency of brain pathology in inmates of a high-security forensic institution: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Joachim G; Bogerts, Bernhard; Schiltz, Kolja

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess whether brain pathology might be more abundant in forensic inpatients in a high-security setting than in non-criminal individuals. By using a previously used reliable approach, we explored the frequency and extent of brain pathology in a large group of institutionalized offenders who had not previously been considered to be suffering from structural brain damage and compare it to healthy, non-offending subjects. MRI and CT brain scans from 148 male inpatients of a high-security mental health institution (offense type: 51 sex, 80 violent, 9 arson, and 8 nonviolent) that were obtained due to headache, vertigo, or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal healthy controls. Brain scans were assessed qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1), or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex, and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Forensic inpatients displayed signs of brain damage to a significantly higher degree than healthy controls (p < 0.001). Even after adjustment for age, in the patients, being younger than the controls (p < 0.05), every offender type group displayed a higher proportion of subjects with brain regions categorized as definitely abnormal than the non-criminal controls. Within the forensic inpatients, offense type groups did not significantly differ in brain pathology. The astonishingly high prevalence of brain pathology in institutionalized inmates of a high-security mental health institution who previously had not been considered to be suffering from an organic brain syndrome raises questions on whether such neuroradiological assessment might be considered as a routine procedure in newly admitted patients. Furthermore, it highlights that organic changes, detectable under clinical routine

  17. A Review of the Main Driving Factors of Forest Fire Ignition Over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, Anne; Camia, Andrea; Jappiot, Marielle; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Long-Fournel, Marlène; Lampin, Corinne

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with a special focus on North America (US and Canada) where a significant number of studies has been carried out on this topic. The causes of forest fires are varied and their distribution differs among countries, but may also differ spatially and temporally within the same country. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, fires are mostly human-caused mainly due arson. The distance to transport networks and the distance to urban or recreation areas are among the most frequently used human factors in modelling exercises and the Wildland-Urban Interface is increasingly taken into account in the modelling of fire occurrence. Depending on the socio-economic context of the region concerned, factors such as the unemployment rate or variables linked to agricultural activity can explain the ignition of intentional and unintentional fires. Regarding environmental factors, those related to weather, fuel and topography are the most significant drivers of ignition of forest fires, especially in Mediterranean-type regions. For both human and lightning-caused fires, there is a geographical gradient of fire ignition, mainly due to variations in climate and fuel composition but also to population density for instance. The timing of fires depends on their causes. In populated areas, the timing of human-caused fires is closely linked to human activities and peaks in the afternoon whereas, in remote areas, the timing of lightning-caused fires is more linked to

  18. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully. PMID:20375436

  19. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis. PMID:17662159

  20. An investigation into effective methodologies for latent fingerprint enhancement on items recovered from fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sarah Jane; Cordingley, Thomas H; Francis, Sean C

    2016-07-01

    A common assumption is that fire destroys fingerprint evidence. Recent studies have sought to challenge this assumption. This study presents a comparative evaluation of soot removal and fingerprint enhancement techniques, following fire(s) to ascertain optimal process efficacy for recovering fingerprints. Two car burns and a cremation oven were used to determine the temperature range. Temperatures of 300, 450 and 600°C were used in simulated, controlled fires wherein cars had prints deposited on rear view mirrors. Burning occurred in a shipping container designed to approximate the variables relating to car arson. Soot removal was undertaken by tape lifting, sodium hydroxide solution, or liquid latex casting. The fingerprint enhancement techniques comprised black magnetic, aluminium and black suspension powders, or cyanoacrylate fuming with BY40 dye. A fingerprint expert classified prints as un/identifiable according to standards to be submitted as evidence in court. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed on the data using a p value of <0.05 to determine statistical significance. Temperature was the biggest factor affecting fingerprint recovery. There were no statistically significant differences found between any of the soot removal methods used. Higher counts of identifiable prints were recovered with black magnetic powder and cyanoacrylate/BY40 compared to the other methods used but these findings were not statistically significant. It is recommended that recovery of fire-exposed fingerprints (which are not protected) is undertaken where suspected maximum temperatures are <450°C. Evaluation of optimal soot removal and fingerprint enhancement techniques should be conducted on a case by case basis. PMID:27320395

  1. Forest Fire Prevention Measures and Countermeasures of Field Fire Source Management in Yinjie Township%寅街镇森林火灾预防措施及野外火源管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳华; 毕劲荣

    2013-01-01

    在“被动扑救森林火灾”向“以预防为主”的森林火灾预防机制转变过程中,通过对寅街镇20年来森林火灾发生规律、起火原因、地域和时间分布进行分析,指出93%属人为野外用火引起,森林火灾造成的经济损失主要为非生产性用火中故意纵火、外区烧入、上坟等造成的,野外火源是导致寅街镇森林火灾的主要原因。提出落实责任,加强宣传,完善巡查力度,实施计划烧除,抓好森林火灾保险,严格火源管理等寅街镇森林火灾预防对策及加强野外火源管理的几点建议。%In the forest fire prevention mechanism change process of "passive fighting forest fires"to "prevention first", the analysis of forest fires occurrence , cause of the fire , the geographical and temporal distribution in Yinjie township in 20 years are made , results shown that field fire source are consider as main cause of forest fire which 93%are caused by human activity including deliberately arson in non-pro-ductive use of fire, burned from the outer zone, visit grave, etc.Suggestions to implement the responsi-bility, enhance publicity , to improve the inspection , to implement prescribed burning , to set up forest fires insurance , strengthen forest fire prevention measures are proposed .

  2. FOREST FIRES SUPRESSED BY KLABIN OF PARANA IN THE PERIOD 1965 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre França Tetto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The records of fire occurrence enables planning for prevention and control, minimizing the damages. The objectives of this study were: determine the number of fires attended by fire brigades of Klabin in the period of 1965 to 2009, determine the fires temporal distribution, identify the probable causes, and identify the main classes of affected vegetation. To do so, records of fire occurrence provided by Klabin, as well as IAPAR meteorological data for the period were analyzed. The results showed that in the period of 1965 to 2009, there were 2,313 occurrences that affected 6,197 ha, with a reduction of the affected area over the period. The months of July, August and September presented the highest number of occurrence, totaling 1,183 (51.2% fires. The events were uniformly distributed throughout the week, concentrated from 11 to 18 hours (72.8% of total. The main causes of fires were arson (54.2%, followed by cleaning burns (16.2%. The pine was the more susceptible vegetation, with 41.3% of the occurrences and 22.5% of the affected area. Although a large number of events occurred in eucalyptus (22.2%, the affected area was smaller than that “other planted species” (20.4% and secondary forest (19.3%. In conclusion, there was an improvement of the protection system, considering the increase of the protected area and the decrease in the area affected by fires. Preventive actions directed to arsonists and agricultural burning, especially in periods of danger are needed.

  3. [The "forty-nine" and "seventeen" problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The single most common age of murderers in Japan is 49. Individuals aged between 45 and 54 are, however, likely to commit not offences but suicides comparing with other generations. One factor behind this phenomenon is the trend toward company downsizing, which is thought to affect the mental attitude of workers. This trend is destroying the Japanese lifetime employment system and undermining worker's loyalty to the company. On the other hand, in the broader category of felony crimes (assault, burglary, arson, murder), offenders aged 17 are the most common in Japan. This is thought to be partly due to the effect of so-called "school collapse" (school system failure) on the mental attitude of students. "School collapse" implies dysfunction of educational practice as a result of chattering, bullying and violence in the classroom. It is the reflection of students' dissatisfaction with the group-oriented school system. Therefore, students are unable to find any purposes in school and exhibit aggressive behaviours. In terms of mental health for both middle-age and teenage generations, it is necessary to devise new strategies whereby people can break away from the pressure of loyalty to the group. For both "normal" and "disabled" workers, rights of recuperations, adequate unemployment benefits policy, and support system for occupational change should be established. Simultaneously, for both "normal" and "disabled" students, reform of the school system under the concepts of diversity of education, rights of selection, and rights of refusal is urgently necessary. With respect to forensic psychiatry, without the provision of social supports, labeling of conduct disorder as well as other disorders should be avoided. In particular, instead of introducing security hospitals, drastic improvements of medical reformatories and medical prisons are necessary to provide adequate medical and social supports for offenders with psychiatric disorders. PMID:14560634

  4. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS. eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. Conclusion The fire-setting behavior and Todd’s paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  5. Case study the Cs-137 Zea mays grown at a semi arid ecosystem the Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of 137Cs in soil and Maize plants, (Zea mays) has been performed at the confined Storage Centre for Radioactive Waste from Mexico. The site is located in a semiarid region with a vegetation characteristic of a temperature sub humid zone. Under field conditions the site was divided in four zones 20x30 m, with different soil contamination characteristics, the zones 1 to 4 in lines separated 50 cm between them. The maize plants in the lines were separated 40 cm between them. The plants were grown 'in situ' reproducing the local agricultural. The soil and plant (root, stem, leaves, and grains) samples were analysed for 137Cs . The specific activities were determined in a dry weight (d.w.) basis by low background gamma spectrometry with a 29.7% relative efficiency HPGe detector . The geometry used was a 500 ml Marinelli beaker and the measurement time was 60.000 s per sample, to achieve a detection limit of 1 Bq.kg-1 for 137Cs. The counting errors for the measurements were usually lower than 10% The results indicate that one of the zones had a striking 137Cs contamination in the soil and the uptake by the grown plants showed the highest specific activities at the root. For The results from 1991 to 1994 of the yearly average values for 137Cs in soil samples from the four zones. A striking contamination is evident in zone 1.The transfer factors ranges for the different parts of the maize plants was from 0.001 in the grain to 0.6 in the root. Statistical analyses were based on the mean values of the determination performed from each sampling zone. Pe arson's correlation coefficients were calculated, principal components were obtained, based on the correlation matrix of the measured, or calculated from them

  6. Daphnia HR96 is a promiscuous xenobiotic and endobiotic nuclear receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daphnia pulex is the first crustacean to have its genome sequenced. The genome project provides new insight and data into how an aquatic crustacean may respond to environmental stressors, including toxicants. We cloned Daphnia pulex HR96 (DappuHR96), a nuclear receptor orthologous to the CAR/PXR/VDR group of nuclear receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, (hormone receptor 96) HR96 responds to phenobarbital exposure and has been hypothesized as a toxicant receptor. Therefore, we set up a transactivation assay to test whether DappuHR96 is a promiscuous receptor activated by xenobiotics and endobiotics similar to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X-receptor (PXR). Transactivation assays performed with a GAL4-HR96 chimera demonstrate that HR96 is a promiscuous toxicant receptor activated by a diverse set of chemicals such as pesticides, hormones, and fatty acids. Several environmental toxicants activate HR96 including estradiol, pyriproxyfen, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and methane arsonate. We also observed repression of HR96 activity by chemicals such as triclosan, androstanol, and fluoxetine. Nearly 50% of the chemicals tested activated or inhibited HR96. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids were common activators or inhibitors of HR96 activity, indicating a link between diet and toxicant response. The omega-6 and omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids linoleic and oleic acid activated HR96, but the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibited HR96, suggesting that these two distinct sets of lipids perform opposing roles in Daphnia physiology. This also provides a putative mechanism by which the ratio of dietary unsaturated fats may affect the ability of an organism to respond to a toxic insult. In summary, HR96 is a promiscuous nuclear receptor activated by numerous endo- and xenobiotics.

  7. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The

  8. Risk of violent crime in individuals with epilepsy and traumatic brain injury: a 35-year Swedish population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seena Fazel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epilepsy and traumatic brain injury are common neurological conditions, with general population prevalence estimates around 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Although both illnesses are associated with various adverse outcomes, and expert opinion has suggested increased criminality, links with violent behaviour remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We combined Swedish population registers from 1973 to 2009, and examined associations of epilepsy (n = 22,947 and traumatic brain injury (n = 22,914 with subsequent violent crime (defined as convictions for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, or illegal threats or intimidation. Each case was age and gender matched with ten general population controls, and analysed using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for socio-demographic factors. In addition, we compared cases with unaffected siblings. Among the traumatic brain injury cases, 2,011 individuals (8.8% committed violent crime after diagnosis, which, compared with population controls (n = 229,118, corresponded to a substantially increased risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.3, 95% CI: 3.1-3.5; this risk was attenuated when cases were compared with unaffected siblings (aOR = 2.0, 1.8-2.3. Among individuals with epilepsy, 973 (4.2% committed a violent offense after diagnosis, corresponding to a significantly increased odds of violent crime compared with 224,006 population controls (aOR = 1.5, 1.4-1.7. However, this association disappeared when individuals with epilepsy were compared with their unaffected siblings (aOR = 1.1, 0.9-1.2. We found heterogeneity in violence risk by age of disease onset, severity, comorbidity with substance abuse, and clinical subgroups. Case ascertainment was restricted to patient registers. CONCLUSIONS: In this longitudinal population-based study, we found that, after adjustment for familial confounding, epilepsy was not associated with increased risk of

  9. Numerical simulation of damage for unsaturated porous media in Θ-stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The purpose of this study is to predict the behavior of the Excavation Damage Zone surrounding nuclear waste disposals. The geological barriers, often made of quasi-brittle material like granite or clay-rock, undergo damage during the excavation phase. Hydro-mechanical interaction may occur in the neighborhood of the engineered barrier, which is generally made of unsaturated compacted clay. A representation of damage is required to predict the evolution of fracturing in the neighboring of excavated galleries. In Continuum Damage Mechanics, almost all models developed for unsaturated media are based on Bishop's definition of stress. Some important aspects of the behavior of unsaturated soils, like wetting collapse, cannot be represented by this theoretical frame. Alternatively, the THHMD model developed by Arson and Gatmiri, involves independent state variables (net stress, suction and thermal stress), in order to emphasize the role of suction rigidity. Damage is assumed to grow with tensile strains due to net stress with tensile strains due to net stress, with pore shrinkage due to suction and with thermal dilatation. Correspondingly, the strain tensor is split into two independent thermodynamic strain components. The behaviour law stems from both micromechanical and phenomenological concepts. Damage rigidities associated with the state variables are computed by applying the principal of equivalent elastic energy, which is widely used in micro-mechanics. Homogenized cracking parameters are also included in the expression of the intrinsic liquid permeability of the medium, in order to represent the intrinsic liquid permeability of fluid transfers. Saturation variations around galleries influence the Excavation Damaged Zone by changing permeabilities. That is why damage has to be included in hydraulic transfer models and mechanical damage theories have to be extended to unsaturated porous media. Waste is a heat

  10. Voxelwise comparison of perfusion parameters estimated using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) computed tomography and DCE-magnetic resonance imaging in locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging has gained interest as an imaging modality for assessment of tumor characteristics and response to cancer treatment. However, for DCE-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue contrast enhancement may vary depending on imaging sequence and temporal resolution. The aim of this study is to compare DCE-MRI to DCE-computed tomography (DCE-CT) as the gold standard. Material and methods: Thirteen patients with advanced cervical cancer were scanned once prior to chemo-radiation and during chemo-radiation with DCE-CT and -MRI in immediate succession. A total of 22 paired DCE-CT and -MRI scans were acquired for comparison. Kinetic modeling using the extended Tofts model was applied to both image series. Furthermore the similarity of the spatial distribution was evaluated using a G analysis. The correlation between the two imaging techniques was evaluated using Pe arson's correlation and the parameter means were compared using a Student's t-test (p trans (r = 0.9), flux rate constant kep (r = 0.77), extracellular volume fraction ve (r = 0.58) and blood plasma volume fraction vp (r = 0.83). All quantitative parameters were found to be significantly different as estimated by DCE-CT and -MRI. The G analysis in normalized maps revealed that 45 % of the voxels failed to find a voxel with the corresponding value allowing for an uncertainty of 3 mm in position and 3 % in value (G3,3). By reducing the criteria, the G-failure rates were: G3,5 (37 % failure), G3,10 (26% failure) and at G3,15 (19 % failure). Conclusion: Good to excellent correlations but significant bias was found between DCE-CT and -MRI. Both the Pearson's correlation and the G analysis proved that the spatial information was similar when analyzing the two sets of DCE data using the extended Tofts model. Improvement of input function sampling is needed to improve kinetic quantification using DCE-MRI

  11. One-dimensional simulation of fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios with PRM and Meso-NH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild-fires release huge amounts of aerosol and hazardous trace gases in the atmosphere. The residence time and the dispersion of fire pollutants in the atmosphere can range from hours to days and from local to continental scales. These various scenarios highly depend on the injection height of smoke plumes. The altitude at which fire products are injected in the atmosphere is controlled by fire characteristics and meteorological conditions. Injection height however is still poorly accounted in chemistry transport models for which fires are sub-grid scale processes which need to be parametrised. Only recently, physically-based approaches for estimating the fire injection heights have been developed which consider both the convective updrafts induced by the release of fire sensible heat and the impact of background meteorological environment on the fire convection dynamics. In this work, two different models are used to simulate fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios: a Mediterranean arson fire and two Amazonian deforestation fires. A Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach, formerly developed to reproduce convective boundary layer in the non-hydrostatic meteorological model Meso-NH, is compared to the 1-D Plume Rise Model. For both models, radiosonde data and re-analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF have been used as initial conditions to explore the sensitivity of the models responses to different meteorological forcings. The two models predict injection heights for the Mediterranean fire between 1.7 and 3.3 km with the Meso-NH/EDMF model systematically higher than the 1-D PRM model. Both models show a limited sensitivity to the meteorological forcings with a 20–30% difference in the injection height between radiosondes and ECMWF data for this case. Injection heights calculated for the two Amazonian fires ranges from 5 to 6.5 km for the 1-D PRM model and from 2 to 4 km for the Meso

  12. Schizophrenia, Substance Abuse, and Violent Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Context Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. Objective To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Main Outcome Measure Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). Results In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1

  13. Precursory signals preceding by a few months a major Vrancea earthquake: their possible role in devising a risk-preparedness strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, M. A.; Chitea, F.; Marin, C.; Tudorache, A.; Mitrofan, H.

    2010-05-01

    to develop a response plan addressing emergency protection methods (e.g.: shoring the valuable moveable heritage objects, propping equipment and materials which are liable to overturn etc). Security measures should also imply the training in counter theft, arson or any other criminal activity. Acknowledgements: The research was performed with financial support from the CNMP within 31036/ 2007 and 31024/2007 scientific projects.

  14. Forest Intervention Areas (ZIF): a new approach for forest management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, S.; Coelho, C.; Soares, J.

    2012-04-01

    Portugal is the EU eighth country with more forest and other wooded area cover by surface area. However, it is also at the top of the EU countries most affected by forest fires. Several factors have been launched as possible causes, namely arson and negligence, which has been combined with harsh climate, steep slopes and a weakened rural context, characterized by depopulation and ageing, forest mismanagement, farmland abandonment and absence of an effective spatial planning. Forest fires of 2003 and 2005, which were particularly severe and intense, highlighted the need to restructure the legal and institutional setting of forest management in Portugal. These events proved to be very harmful, not only for the socio-economic context, but also in terms of desertification, soil erosion, loss of water supply and losses on soil organic matter. The EU funded DESIRE project (1) aimed to established promising sustainable land management (SLM) conservation strategies in several areas throughout the world affected by desertification, promoting joint work between scientists and local stakeholders. Forest fires are one of the major causes of desertification in Portugal and Mação and Góis municipalities were selected as DESIRE study sites. The decision support methodology developed under DESIRE was based on the notion that stakeholder participation in decision-making will develop more legitimate, effective and successful decisions. The reduction of burned area was the goal defined in the Portuguese stakeholder workshops and the Forest Intervention Area (ZIF) was selected as the needed approach towards SLM. The aim of this communication is to present the outline and context of ZIF approach in Portugal and to explore the social perception over the success or failure of this approach at Mação municipality. ZIF is a territorial unit where the main land use is forestry. This approach assembles and organizes small forest holders and defines a joint intervention for forest

  15. Homicide followed by suicide: Paris and its suburbs, 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, D; Fornes, P

    1998-07-01

    Homicide-suicides (HS) are relatively infrequent events. Yet, they are of great concern because they often result in the death of family members, young children, and cause additional morbidity, family disruption and childhood psychological trauma. The aims of our study were (a) to examine the sociodemographic, clinical, and autopsy characteristics of HS in Paris and its suburbs from 1991 through 1996, and (b) to analyze the psychodynamic determinants leading up to the onset of HS. Our findings are compared with those obtained in other international studies. For the purpose of the present study. HS was defined as a violent event in which an individual committed homicide and subsequently committed suicide within a few hours. The main results are as follows. During the six-year study period, 56 HS involving 133 victims were investigated at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Paris. Seventeen events occurred in Paris and 39 in its suburbs. Paris has a population of approximately 2,200,000 while its suburbs are home to another 8,5000,000. Of the 56 offenders, 48 (85%) were males. The mean age of offenders was 51 years in males (range, 24 to 83) and 40.5 years in females (range, 33 to 56). In 45 events (80%), the offenders used a gun for both the homicide and suicide. A knife was used in only 4 murders, strangulation in 4 other cases, with poisoning, arson, or beating occurring in one case each. In 9 cases, the offender used a different weapon for homicide and suicide. Among firearms, handguns were more likely to be used (26 cases) than shotguns (6 cases) or rifles (13 cases). In 40 cases the offender killed one victim, in 11 cases 2 victims, and in 5 cases 3 victims. The homicide victims consisted of 34 children (21 boys), mean age 8 years (range, 1 to 16), 29 spouses (26 females), 2 girlfriends, 10 strangers, and 2 relatives. Five pets were killed. HS were most likely to be committed in the home. A suicide note was found near the victims in 29 cases (50% of events

  16. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    enforcement standards and guides identified the following four guides as having content that supports incident management: • TE-02-02 Guide to Radio Communications Interoperability Strategies and Products • OSHA 335-10N Preparing and Protecting Security Personnel in Emergencies • NIJ 181584 Fire and Arson Scene Evidence: A Guide for Public Safety Personnel • NIJ 181869 A Guide for Explosion and Bombing Scene Investigation In conversations with various state and local law enforcement officials, it was determined that the following National Fire Protection Association (NPFA) standards are generally recognized and tend to be universally used by law enforcement organizations across the country: • NFPA 1600 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs • NFPA 1561 Standard on Fire Department Incident Management Systems • NFPA 472 Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents (2008 Edition) • NFPA 473 Standard for Competencies for EMS Personnel Responding to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents (2008 Edition)

  17. Individuare gli incendiari. Fermare i piromani. Una professione / Identify the arsonists. Detain the pyromaniacs. A profession / Identifier les incendiaires. Arrêter les pyromanes. Un métier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vadalà

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the Second World War onwards, at an international level we witness an increasing development of the so called environmental emergency. The environment has become that immaterial resource that must assure all citizens well-being and renewable basic life resources for the coming generation, but globalization has produced a remarkable growth of negative results resulting in new types of menace.Forest fires directly represent one of these threats causing the destruction of both forest patrimony and natural ecosystems worldwide, contributing to an increase in the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere. The Act n. 353/2000 concerning forest fires reorganized the whole sector. The aim of the law is to control and to fight the risk of forest fires thanks to the implementation of a synergic system.The criminal system of sanctions represents another type of enforcing action in order to protect woods from fires, but it can not be the only solution to this problem assuming that we have to face a very complex and multifaceted event which causes should be to identify any widespread illegal phenomena or any extremely superficial behaviour as well as in criminal ones, which take on specific characteristics when occurring in a rural context. The identification of a solution for this intricate problem could be research, both at a preventive and at a control level, into activities able to operate on the many different causes that are at the origin of that behaviour which is the cause of forest fires and arson.Depuis la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale, la prétendue émergence des questions environnementales au niveau international s'est développée de façon exponentielle. L'environnement est ainsi devenu ce bien immatériel qui doit assurer aux citoyens la salubrité et les ressources vitales renouvelables pour les générations futures. Toutefois, la mondialisation a provoqué une forte augmentation des effets dangereux pour l'environnement et

  18. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  19. La teoria della letteratura di Nicolas Calas. Surrealismo, marxismo e psicanalisi in Foyers d’incendie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D'Urso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ENThis contribution – probably the first specifically concerning Nicolas Calas to be published in Italian – intends to examine some particular topics of Foyers d’incendie [Hearths of Arson] (1938, a work that hardly can be found, by now. So this study will try to partially fill the absence at an international level of a detailed analysis of this book which is usually considered to be ‘difficult’ and therefore often hastily put under the label of ‘Freudo-Marxism’. Not only does this label appear confusing when we look more care-fully at the historical context of the Thirties, but it also does not allow to understand in what both Marxism and Freudism are criticized indeed, this aspect defining more clearly the surrealist character – eluded or taken for granted by critics – of Foyers d’incendie. In the first half of this paper, we will underline the role of Surrealism in Calas’ critical evolution in relation to orthodox Communism, whose language he still used before becoming indubitably a Surrealist. Then we will show the enthusiastic reception of Foyers d’incendie among the Surrealists and also the reasons of their appreciation. In the second half, we will go deep inside some pages of this book which concern more spe-cifically the theory of literature and the critique of ideology we can draw from Foyers d’incendie. This is why – for the first time – we will summarize Calas’ understanding of the literary and philosophical history, and show the role that Dialectical Materialism (chiefly that of Engels’ Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State and psychoanalysis (as it is considered by Surrealism play in his analysis.>>Questo contributo – apparentemente il primo studio specificamente dedicato a Nicolas Calas ad essere pubblicato in italiano – intende affrontare alcuni particolari contenuti dell’ormai quasi introvabile Foyers d’incendie (1938, tentando così di colmare, almeno parzialmente, l

  20. Studies on the speciation analysis of As in poultry excreta after being fed with roxarsone and its photodegradation%鸡饲喂洛克沙胂后排泄物中 As 的形态分析及光降解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 严楚; 卓家珍; 曾婧; 陈杖榴; 孙永学

    2014-01-01

    degradation of roxarsone in poultry ex-creta was evaluated .[Result and conclusion]The excreted amount of roxarsone reached a steady-state concentration at 108 h after administration ( the range of roxarsone concentration was 31.62 -35.87 mg/kg; the range of total arsenic concentration was 16.75-21.48 mg/kg) .Roxarsone was undetectable in poultry excreta at 120 h after withdrawal, and the total arsenic was down to 3.89 mg/kg.The quantity of As(Ⅲ) and As (Ⅴ) slightly fluctuated and the peaks were 0.38 and 1.81 mg/kg correspondingly . There was a significant effect of light on the degradation of roxarsone .The results indicated that most of roxarsone was not absorbable and can quickly be eliminated with no change .The degradation rate of rox-arsone can increase the effect of photolysis .

  1. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    extremely useful to anyone who wants to adopt this approach. Maier (page 643) describes a pilot program in polymer science designed to interest minority students in polymer science and chemistry. This is a modular program that could be incorporated into a variety of curricula. A different approach to curriculum and outreach is the combined biology/chemistry van program described by Craney, Mazzeo, and Lord (page 646). And yet more outreach for younger children is described by Nolan and Gish (page 651). Information technology can support and aid curriculum reform. The abstract from JCE: Software is for a CD-ROM that summarizes the work of an NSF-supported materials science curriculum development project carried out by Lisensky and Ellis (page 667). The Computer Series includes a proposed addition to the typical physical chemistry curriculum by Williams, Minarik, and Nibler (page 608); it is possible because microcomputers can now do ab initio molecular orbital calculations with reasonable speed. Demonstrations have long been a part of the curriculum. They are always popular and usually instructive. Beall (page 641) reports on a conference that considered the pros and cons of demonstrations as a teaching tool. Tested Demonstrations includes a means for estimating equilibrium constants based on the odor of a solution by Anderson, Buckley, and Niewahner (page 639) as well as a way of making ion exchange visible devised by Driscoll and Villaescuesa (page 640). A very important and time consuming aspect of curriculum development is incorporation of new laboratory experiences for students. Mabrouk (page A 149) describes a laboratory that brings biochemistry to the fore. Sundback (page 669) shows how high school students can test for lead in the environment, and Rees (page 670) shows how homeowners can easily test for lead in paint. Elderd, Kildahy, and Berka (page 675) provide a way to use modern GC equipment to show students how to determine whether a fire may have been arson. In