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Sample records for arsenic exposure transforms

  1. Cryptic exposure to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossy, Kathleen M; Janusz, Christopher A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  2. Cryptic exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossy Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  3. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  4. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  5. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  6. EXAFS study on arsenic species and transformation in arsenic hyperaccumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Zechun; CHEN; Tongbin; LEI; Mei; HU; Tiandou; HUANG

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SR EXAFS) was employed to study the transformation of coordination environment and the redox speciation of arsenic in a newly discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Cretan brake (Pteris cretica L. var nervosa Thunb). It showed that the arsenic in the plant mainly coordinated with oxygen, except that some arsenic coordinated with S as As-GSH in root. The complexation of arsenic with GSH might not be the predominant detoxification mechanism in Cretan brake. Although some arsenic in root presented as As(V) in Na2HAsO4 treatments, most of arsenic in plant presented as As(III)-O in both treatments, indicating that As(V) tended to be reduced to As(III) after it was taken up into the root, and arsenic was kept as As(III) when it was transported to the above-ground tissues. The reduction of As(V) primarily proceeded in the root.

  7. Airborne exposure and estimated bioavailability of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yager, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Madison, WI (United States); Clewell, H.J. III [ICF Consulting, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hicks, J. [Geomatrix, (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A pilot group of workers were used in a study to determine the relationship between exposure to arsenic present in fly ash particles and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during full shift work schedules and daily urine samples were collected to determine the concentration of arsenic and its metabolites. Airborne particle size distribution samples were collected on six-stage personal cascade impactors. Previous studies of airborne exposure to arsenic in copper smelters predict urinary values nearly three times higher than those seen in exposure to arsenic in fly ash. The results suggest that differences in biological uptake of airborne arsenic probably depend on characteristics such as solubility, particle size and distribution and matrix composition of the arsenic compounds.

  8. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  9. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  10. Environmental arsenic exposure and sputum metalloproteinase concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Josyula, Arun B.; Poplin, Gerald S.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; McClellen, Hannah E.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Stürup, Stefan; Clark Lantz, R.; Jefferey L. Burgess

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: arsenic, creatinin, MMP levelsExposure/effect represented: arsenicStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 73 subjectsAnalytical technique: ELISA, HPLCTissue/biological material/sample size: urine samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response): inorganic arsenic positively correlated with logMMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in sputum (Pearson's r Ό 0:351, P Ό 0:009) and negatively correlated with the log of s...

  11. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  12. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  13. Association Between Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Plasma Levels of Cardiovascular Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Wójcik, Oktawia; Parvez, Faruque; Rahaman, Ronald; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relation between arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (matrix metalloproteinase-9, myeloperoxidase, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, soluble E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)) using baseline data from 668 participants (age, >30 years) in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh (2007–2008). Both well water arsenic and urinary arsenic were positively associated with plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1. For every 1-unit increase in log-transformed well water arsenic (ln μg/L) and urinary arsenic (ln μg/g creatinine), plasma soluble VCAM-1 was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.03) and 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07) times greater, respectively. There was a significant interaction between arsenic exposure and higher body mass index, such that the increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and soluble VCAM-1 associated with arsenic exposure were stronger among people with higher body mass index. The findings indicate an effect of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that could be modified by body mass index and also suggest a potential mechanism underlying the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22534204

  14. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous

  15. Population Based Exposure Assessment of Bioaccessible Arsenic in Carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two predominant arsenic exposure routes are food and water. Estimating the risk from dietary exposures is complicated, owing to the chemical form dependent toxicity of arsenic and the diversity of arsenicals present in dietary matrices. Two aspects of assessing dietary expo...

  16. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Gruber, Joann F.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L; Margaret R Karagas

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's ho...

  17. Arsenic Exposure and the Induction of Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid, that is, considered to be a human carcinogen. Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed through drinking water, with consequences ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies, such as skin and lung cancer. Despite well-known arsenic-related health effects, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood; however, the arsenic biotransformation process, which includes methylation changes, is thought to play a key role. This paper explores the relationship of arsenic exposure with cancer development and summarizes current knowledge of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to the neoplastic processes observed in arsenic exposed human populations.

  18. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G. White

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb. To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%, Proteobacteria (17% and Bacteriodetes (12% were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%, Prevotellaceae (12% and Veillonellacea (7% being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota.

  19. [Tracing for arsenic exposure--a differentiation of arsenic compounds is essential for the health assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Ochsmann, Elke; Drexler, Hans; Göen, Thomas; Klotz, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous and harmful to health in occupation and environment. Arsenic exposure is measured through analysis of arsenic compounds in urine. The identification of several arsenic species is necessary to understand the hazardous potential of the arsenic compounds which differ highly in their toxicity. To estimate the extent of an occupational exposure to arsenic, arsenic species were evaluated for the first time by the working group "Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Material" of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area and Biologische Arbeitsstoffreferenzwerte (BAR) of 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (III), 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (V), 2 μg / L urine for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and 10 μg / L urine for dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were set. If the reference value for total arsenic is exceeded, a further differentiation of arsenic species now enables to estimate the individual health risks taking into account special influences such as seafood consumption.

  20. Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Joyce S.; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Kaetzel, Rhonda; Scrafford, Carolyn; Mink, Pamela; Barraj, Leila M.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Goodman, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89?17.7 ?g/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91?19.9 ?g/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background.

  1. Silencing KRAS overexpression in arsenic-transformed prostate epithelial and stem cells partially mitigates malignant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngalame, Ntube N O; Tokar, Erik J; Person, Rachel J; Waalkes, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen that likely targets the prostate. Chronic arsenic exposure malignantly transforms the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial line to chronic arsenic exposed-prostate epithelial (CAsE-PE) cells, and a derivative normal prostate stem cell (SC) line, WPE-stem to arsenic-cancer SCs (As-CSCs). The KRAS oncogene is highly overexpressed in CAsE-PE cells and activation precedes transformation, inferring mechanistic significance. As-CSCs also highly overexpress KRAS. Thus, we hypothesize KRAS activation is key in causing and maintaining an arsenic-induced malignant phenotype, and hence, KRAS knockdown (KD) may reverse this malignant phenotype. RNA interference using shRNAmirs to obtain KRAS KD was used in CAsE-PE and As-CSC cells. Cells analyzed 2 weeks post transduction showed KRAS protein decreased to 5% of control after KD, confirming stable KD. KRAS KD decreased phosphorylated ERK, indicating inhibition of RAS/ERK signaling, a proliferation/survival pathway activated with arsenic transformation. Secreted metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was increased by arsenic-induced malignant transformation, but KRAS KD from 4 weeks on decreased secreted MMP-9 activity by 50% in As-CSCs. Colony formation, a characteristic of cancer cells, was decreased in both KRAS KD transformants. KRAS KD also decreased the invasive capacity of both cell types. KRAS KD decreased proliferation in As-CSCs, consistent with loss of rapid tumor growth. Genes predicted to impact cell proliferation (eg, Cyclin D1, p16, and p21) changed accordingly in both KD cell types. Thus, KRAS silencing impacts aspects of arsenic-induced malignant phenotype, inducing loss of many typical cancer characteristics particularly in As-CSCs.

  2. Effect of acute and chronic arsenic exposure on growth, structure and virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ramansu; Ghosh, Debabrata; Saha, Dhira Rani; Padhy, Pratap Kumar; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-02-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila being a ubiquitous bacterium is prone to arsenic exposure. The present study was designed to determine the role of arsenic on growth and virulence of A. hydrophila. Exposure to arsenic (1 mg L(-1) and 2 mg L(-1)) had no effect on growth but significantly inhibited the hemolytic and cytotoxic potential of exposed bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of membrane integrity and presence of condensed cytoplasm suggestive of acute stress in bacteria exposed to arsenic. Arsenic-adapted bacteria were developed by repeated sub-culturing in presence of arsenic. Arsenic-adaptation led to significant recovery in hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. The arsenic-adapted bacteria exhibited normal membrane integrity, decreased cytoplasmic condensation and possessed scattered polysome like structures in the cytoplasm. A positive correlation was observed between arsenic tolerance and resistance to several antimicrobials. Arsenic-adaptation failed to confer cross-protection to mercury and cadmium stress. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the expression of two new proteins of approximately 85 kDa and 79 kDa respectively in arsenic-adapted A. hydrophila. Plasmid-curing and transformation studies clearly indicate plasmid has no role on arsenic resistance trait of the bacteria. Our study, for the first time, reports a structure and function relationship of xenobiotics on bacteria.

  3. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  4. CHURCHILL COUNTY, NEVADA ARSENIC STUDY: WATER CONSUMPTION AND EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is required to reevaluate the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic in 2006. To provide data for reducing uncertainties in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels (<200 g/l) of arsenic, a large scale biomarker st...

  5. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies. PMID:26231509

  6. Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water, Arsenic Methylation Capacity, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010–2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: −0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  7. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes.

  8. Responses of Daphnia magna to pulsed exposures of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Gallagher, Jeffrey S; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-06-01

    Research on the toxicity of arsenic has focused on sublethal effects that do not provide sufficient information for risk estimation. While most studies have focused on organism response to constant arsenic exposures, organisms in nature are exposed to fluctuating As concentrations. Consequently, results obtained from standardized bioassays with constant exposures may not adequately characterize risk to indigenous biota. This research was designed to characterize the response of Daphnia magna to fluctuating arsenic exposures during 21-day experiments. At concentrations > or =3000 microg/L As, 21-day pulsed exposure mortality increased as a function of exposure concentration and duration. In addition, 21-day pulsed exposure mortality increased with increasing recovery time. Pulsed As exposure did not affect the growth of D. magna over 21 days. Twenty-one day accumulative reproduction of D. magna was only affected by pulsed exposures of high As concentration and long durations. PMID:17497644

  9. Cancer excess after arsenic exposure from contaminated milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki;

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic is related to increased risk of cancer in the lung, skin, bladder, and, possibly, other sites. However, little is known about the consequences of developmental exposures in regard to cancer risk. During early summer in 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of infant...... occurred in the western part of Japan because of contaminated milk powder. Okayama Prefecture was most severely affected. We examined whether the affected birth cohorts in this prefecture experienced increased cancer mortality....

  10. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  11. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J., E-mail: tokare@niehs.nih.gov

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  12. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  13. Influence of arsenic on iron sulfide transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Butler, I.B.; Rickard, D.

    2007-01-01

    The association of arsenate, As(V), and arsenite, As(III), with disordered mackinawite, FeS, was studied in sulfide-limited (Fe:S = 1:1) and excess-sulfide (Fe:S = 1:2) batch experiments. In the absence of arsenic, the sulfide-limited experiments produce disordered mackinawite while the excess-sulfi

  14. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Cai, Yong

    2003-12-15

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) is the first reported arsenic hyperaccumulator. To investigate the arsenic tolerance mechanism in this plant, reversed-phase HPLC with postcolumn derivatization was used to analyze the thiols induced under arsenic exposure. A major thiol in the plant leaflets was found to be responsive to arsenic exposure. The arsenic-induced compound was purified on a large scale by combining covalent chromatography and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. About 2 mg of this compound was isolated from 1 kg of fresh leaflets. The purified arsenic-induced compound was characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A molecular ion (M + 1) of 540 and fragments were obtained, which indicated that the arsenic-induced thiol was a phytochelatin with two subunits (PC(2)). Compared to the classical methods for purification of phytochelatins, this new method is more specific, simple, and rapid and is suitable for purification of PCs in a large scale as well as sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:14670068

  15. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Cai, Yong

    2003-12-15

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) is the first reported arsenic hyperaccumulator. To investigate the arsenic tolerance mechanism in this plant, reversed-phase HPLC with postcolumn derivatization was used to analyze the thiols induced under arsenic exposure. A major thiol in the plant leaflets was found to be responsive to arsenic exposure. The arsenic-induced compound was purified on a large scale by combining covalent chromatography and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. About 2 mg of this compound was isolated from 1 kg of fresh leaflets. The purified arsenic-induced compound was characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A molecular ion (M + 1) of 540 and fragments were obtained, which indicated that the arsenic-induced thiol was a phytochelatin with two subunits (PC(2)). Compared to the classical methods for purification of phytochelatins, this new method is more specific, simple, and rapid and is suitable for purification of PCs in a large scale as well as sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis.

  16. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-González, José Antonio; Del Razo, Luz María; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2007-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values > or = 126 mg/100 ml (> or = 7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 microg/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

  17. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to high levels of arsenic has been reported to increase adverse birth outcomes including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birthweight. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints (term birthweight, preterm ...

  18. A Case control study of cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of waterborne arsenic. Although the cardiovascular effects of high exposures to arsenic have been well documented, few individual level prospective studies have assessed cardiovascular risk at moderate exposures....

  19. Environmental arsenic exposure, selenium and sputum alpha-1 antitrypsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S;

    2014-01-01

    this relationship is modified by selenium. A total of 55 subjects were evaluated in Ajo and Tucson, Arizona. Tap water and first morning void urine were analyzed for arsenic species, induced sputum for AAT and toenails for selenium and arsenic. Household tap-water arsenic, toenail arsenic and urinary inorganic...... arsenic and metabolites were significantly higher in Ajo (20.6±3.5 μg/l, 0.54±0.77 μg/g and 27.7±21.2 μg/l, respectively) than in Tucson (3.9±2.5 μg/l, 0.16±0.20 μg/g and 13.0±13.8 μg/l, respectively). In multivariable models, urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) was negatively, and toenail selenium...... positively associated with sputum AAT (P=0.004 and P=0.002, respectively). In analyses stratified by town, these relationships remained significant only in Ajo, with the higher arsenic exposure. Reduction in AAT may be a means by which arsenic induces respiratory disease, and selenium may protect against...

  20. Arsenic transformation predisposes human skin keratinocytes to UV-induced DNA damage yet enhances their survival apparently by diminishing oxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark of UV-induced skin cancer. In the current work, inorganic arsenite exposure (100 nM) did not induce ODD during the 30 weeks required for malignant transformation. Although acute UV-treatment (UVA, 25 J/cm2) increased ODD in passage-matched control cells, once transformed by arsenic to As-TM cells, acute UV actually further increased ODD (> 50%). Despite enhanced ODD, As-TM cells were resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. The response of apoptotic factors and oxidative stress genes was strongly mitigated in As-TM cells after UV exposure including increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and reduced Caspase-3, Nrf2, and Keap1 expression. Several Nrf2-related genes (HO-1, GCLs, SOD) showed diminished responses in As-TM cells after UV exposure consistent with reduced oxidant stress response. UV-exposed As-TM cells showed increased expression of cyclin D1 (proliferation gene) and decreased p16 (tumor suppressor). UV exposure enhanced the malignant phenotype of As-TM cells. Thus, the co-carcinogenicity between UV and arsenic in skin cancer might involve adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure generally mitigating the oxidative stress response, allowing apoptotic by-pass after UV and enhanced cell survival even in the face of increased UV-induced oxidative stress and increased ODD. - Highlights: → Arsenic transformation adapted to UV-induced apoptosis. → Arsenic transformation diminished oxidant response. → Arsenic transformation enhanced UV-induced DNA damage.

  1. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in soil increases urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations of residents living in old mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2004-03-01

    The short term human exposure studies conducted on populations exposed to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil have been inconsistent in demonstrating a relationship between environmental concentrations and exposure measures. In Australia there are many areas with very high arsenic concentrations in residential soil most typically associated with gold mining activities in rural areas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental arsenic and urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations in a population living in a gold mining area (soil arsenic concentrations between 9 and 9900 mg kg(-1)), and a control population with low arsenic levels in soil (between 1 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Risk factors for increased urinary arsenic concentrations were also explored. There was a weak but significant relationship between soil arsenic concentrations and inorganic urinary arsenic concentration with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.39. When participants with greater than 100 mg kg(-1) arsenic in residential soil were selected, the coefficient increased to 0.64. The geometric mean urinary inorganic arsenic concentration for the exposed group was 1.64 microg L(-1) (risk factors. These results show that high concentrations of arsenic in soil can make a contribution to urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  2. Arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) speciation during transformation of lepidocrocite to magnetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuheng; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Brown, Gordon E

    2014-12-16

    Bioreduction of As(V) and As-bearing iron oxides is considered to be one of the key processes leading to arsenic pollution in groundwaters in South and Southeast Asia. Recent laboratory studies with simple aqueous media showed that secondary Fe(II)-bearing phases (e.g., magnetite and green rust), which commonly precipitate during bioreduction of iron oxides, captured arsenic species. The aim of the present study was to follow arsenic speciation during the abiotic Fe(II)-induced transformation of As(III)- and As(V)-doped lepidocrocite to magnetite, and to evaluate the influence of arsenic on the transformation kinetics and pathway. We found green rust formation is an intermediate phase in the transformation. Both As(III) and As(V) slowed the transformation, with the effect being greater for As(III) than for As(V). Prior to the formation of magnetite, As(III) adsorbed on both lepidocrocite and green rust, whereas As(V) associated exclusively with green rust, When magnetite precipitated, As(III) formed surface complexes on magnetite nanoparticles and As(V) is thought to have been incorporated into the magnetite structure. These processes dramatically lowered the availability of As in the anoxic systems studied. These results provide insights into the behavior of arsenic during magnetite precipitation in reducing environments. We also found that As(V) removal from solution was higher than As(III) removal following magnetite formation, which suggests that conversion of As(III) to As(V) is preferred when using As-magnetite precipitation to treat As-contaminated groundwaters.

  3. Genes involved in arsenic transformation and resistance associated with different levels of arsenic-contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Gejiao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is known as a toxic metalloid, which primarily exists in inorganic form [As(III and As(V] and can be transformed by microbial redox processes in the natural environment. As(III is much more toxic and mobile than As(V, hence microbial arsenic redox transformation has a major impact on arsenic toxicity and mobility which can greatly influence the human health. Our main purpose was to investigate the distribution and diversity of microbial arsenite-resistant species in three different arsenic-contaminated soils, and further study the As(III resistance levels and related functional genes of these species. Results A total of 58 arsenite-resistant bacteria were identified from soils with three different arsenic-contaminated levels. Highly arsenite-resistant bacteria (MIC > 20 mM were only isolated from the highly arsenic-contaminated site and belonged to Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium, Arthrobacter, Comamonas, Rhodococcus, Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas. Five arsenite-oxidizing bacteria that belonged to Achromobacter, Agrobacterium and Pseudomonas were identified and displayed a higher average arsenite resistance level than the non-arsenite oxidizers. 5 aoxB genes encoding arsenite oxidase and 51 arsenite transporter genes [18 arsB, 12 ACR3(1 and 21 ACR3(2] were successfully amplified from these strains using PCR with degenerate primers. The aoxB genes were specific for the arsenite-oxidizing bacteria. Strains containing both an arsenite oxidase gene (aoxB and an arsenite transporter gene (ACR3 or arsB displayed a higher average arsenite resistance level than those possessing an arsenite transporter gene only. Horizontal transfer of ACR3(2 and arsB appeared to have occurred in strains that were primarily isolated from the highly arsenic-contaminated soil. Conclusion Soils with long-term arsenic contamination may result in the evolution of highly diverse arsenite-resistant bacteria and such diversity was probably caused in

  4. RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, ChinaZhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford21) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

  5. On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershagen, G.; Wall, S.; Taube, A.; Linnman, L.

    1981-12-01

    The interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and tobacco smoking and its relationship to lung cancer mortality among 228 deceased Swedish copper smelter workers was studied with the case-referent technique. Arsenic exposure was assessed via detailed company records, and information on smoking habits was gathered from the next of kin. The age standardized rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for arsenic-exposed nonsmokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational arsenic exposure in relation to nonarsenic-exposed nonsmokers. For arsenic-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect of the two exposures. Eighty-five percent of all deaths from long cancer among the smelter workers could be explained by arsenic exposure and/or smoking. The interaction between arsenic and smoking suggests that a strong preventive effect on lung cancer incidence could be obtained by decreasing either one of the exposures or by disaggregating them.

  6. On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershagen, G; Wall, S; Taube, A; Linnman, L

    1981-12-01

    The interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and tobacco smoking and its relationship to lung cancer mortality among 228 deceased Swedish copper smelter workers was studied with the case-referent technique. Arsenic exposure was assessed via detailed company records, and information on smoking habits was gathered from the next of kin. The age standardized rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for arsenic-exposed nonsmokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational arsenic exposure in relation to nonarsenic-exposed nonsmokers. For arsenic-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect of the two exposures. Eighty-five percent of all deaths from long cancer among the smelter workers could be "explained" by arsenic exposure and/or smoking. The interaction between arsenic and smoking suggests that a strong preventive effect on lung cancer incidence could be obtained by decreasing either one of the exposures or by disaggregating them. PMID:7347915

  7. Biomarkers for assessing potential carcinogenic effects of chronic arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment. Chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water has been associated. with carcinogenic, cardiovascular, neurological and diabetic effects in humans and has been of great public health concern worldwide. In 2001, U.S. Environmental Protection ...

  8. Atmospheric Emissions, Depositions, and Transformations of Arsenic in Natural Ecosystem in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Arun B.; Prosun Bhattacharya

    2002-01-01

    For the last 2 decades, special attention has been paid to arsenic due to its high concentration in groundwater in many regions of the globe. There are not very many reports on arsenic concentration in the Finnish ecosystem, although the metal has been known to be highly toxic since ancient times. For the majority of people in Finland, the leading exposure route to arsenic is through food consumption.In this study, it has been observed that atmospheric emissions of arsenic from anthropogenic ...

  9. CD44v6 expression in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with chronic arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic is a well-known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various types of human skin lesions, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in arsenic-associated carcinogenesis, we repeatedly exposed the HaCaT cells line to an environmentally relevant level of arsenic (0.05 ppm in vitro for 18 weeks. Following sodium arsenic arsenite administration, cell cycle, colony-forming efficiency (CFE, cell tumorigenicity, and expression of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53, were analyzed at different time points (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 passages. We found that a chronic exposure of HaCaT cells to a low level of arsenic induced a cancer stem- like phenotype. Furthermore, arsenic-treated HaCaT cells also became tumorigenic in nude mice, their growth cycle was predominantly in G2/M and S phases. Relative to nontreated cells, they exhibited a higher growth rate and a significant increase in CFE. Western blot analysis found that arsenic was capable of increasing cell proliferation and sprouting of cancer stem-like phenotype. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that CD44v6 expression was up-regulated in HaCaT cells exposed to a low level of arsenic during early stages of induction. The expression of CD44v6 in arsenic-treated cells was positively correlated with their cloning efficiency in soft agar (r=0.949, P=0.01. Likewise, the expressions of activating transcription factor NF-κB and p53 genes in the arsenic-treated HaCaT cells were significantly higher than that in non-treated cells. Higher expressions of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53 were also observed in tumor tissues isolated from Balb/c nude mice. The present results suggest that CD44v6 may be a biomarker of arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation in human skin cells, and that arsenic promotes malignant transformation in human skin lesions through a NF-κB signaling pathway-stimulated expression of CD44v6.

  10. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US

  11. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F. [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu [Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Karagas, Margaret R., E-mail: margaret.r.karagas@dartmouth.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States)

    2015-09-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US.

  12. Arsenic exposure in multiple environmental media in children near a smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D L; Harrington, J M; Housworth, J; Landrigan, P J; Kelter, A

    1979-04-01

    A nationwide survey of heavy-metal exposure in children living near primary nonferrous metal smelters demonstrated high urine arsenic levels in children living near a copper smelter in Ajo, Arizona. Airborne smelter emissions and drinking water were the apparent sources of exposure. To determine whether increased arsenic absorption had produced adverse health effects, we conducted an evaluation of 132 Ajo children 5 to 18 years old and compared results with those of 47 children from a comparison town with low arsenic exposure. Environmental testing showed that Ajo's municipal water supply contained arsenic in concentrations of 0.09 mg/l (the EPA standard is 0.05 mg/l); arsenic concentrations in dust averaged 342.2 microgram/g. Urine arsenic levels in Ajo children correlated positively with amount of tap-water consumed (r = .32, p less than. 0002) and with distance of residence from the smelter (r = .20, p less than .02). Tap-water drinkers had significantly higher urine arsenic levels than bottled water drinkers (t = 4.21 p less than .001). Mean urine arsenic levels were significantly higher for children in Ajo (4.75 microgram/100 ml) than for children in the comparison town (1.17 microgram/100 ml). Hair arsenic levels correlated poorly with arsenic exposure. Despite the study population's chronic exposure to elevated environmental levels of arsenic, no clinical or hematologic abnormalities attributable to arsenic were found. PMID:466981

  13. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and dyspnoea risk in Araihazar, Bangladesh: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Gene R.; Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh has high well water arsenic exposure. Chronic arsenic ingestion may result in diseases that manifest as dyspnoea, although information is sparse. Baseline values were obtained from an arsenic study. Trained physicians ascertained data on dyspnoea among 11,746 subjects. Data were collected on demographic factors, including smoking, blood pressure and arsenic exposure. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals for the association between arsenic exposure and dyspnoea. The adjusted odds of having dyspnoea was 1.32-fold (95% CI 1.15–1.52) greater in those exposed to high well water arsenic concentrations (≥50 μg·L−1) compared with low-arsenic-exposed nonsmokers (p<0.01). A significant dose–response relationship was found for arsenic (as well as smoking) in relation to dyspnoea. In nonsmokers, the adjusted odds of having dyspnoea were 1.36, 1.96, 2.34 and 1.80-fold greater for arsenic concentrations of 7–38, 39–90, 91–178 and 179–864 μg·L−1, respectively, compared with the reference arsenic concentration of <7 μg·L−1 (p<0.01; Chi-squared test for trend). Arsenic exposure through well water is associated with dyspnoea, independently of smoking status. This study suggests that mandated well water testing for arsenic with reduction in exposure may significantly reduce diseases that manifest as dyspnoea, usually cardiac or pulmonary. PMID:22088973

  14. Well water arsenic exposure, arsenic induced skin-lesions and self-reported morbidity in Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure from contaminated well water is a cause of skin and bladder cancer and linked to numerous other adverse health effects. Residents of the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia, China, have been exposed to arsenic-contaminated well water for over 20 years but few s...

  15. Studies on arsenic transforming groundwater bacteria and their role in arsenic release from subsurface sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Angana; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2014-01-01

    Ten different Gram-negative arsenic (As)-resistant and As-transforming bacteria isolated from As-rich groundwater of West Bengal were characterized to assess their role in As mobilization. 16S rRNA gene analysis confirmed the affiliation of these bacteria to genera Achromobacter, Brevundimonas, Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, and Pseudoxanthomonas. Along with superior As-resistance and As-transformation abilities, the isolates showed broad metabolic capacity in terms of utilizing a variety of electron donors and acceptors (including As) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Arsenic transformation studies performed under various conditions indicated highly efficient As(3+) oxidation or As(5+) reduction kinetics. Genes encoding As(3+) oxidase (aioA), cytosolic As(5+) reductase (arsC), and As(3+) efflux pump (arsB and acr3) were detected within the test isolates. Sequence analyses suggested that As homeostasis genes (particularly arsC, arsB, and acr3) were acquired by most of the bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. A strong correlation between As resistance phenotype and the presence of As(3+) transporter genes was observed. Microcosm study showed that bacterial strain having cytosolic As(5+) reductase property could play important role in mobilizing As (as As(3+)) from subsurface sediment. PMID:24764001

  16. Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Pregnancy Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Jiang, Jieying; Liu, Mengling; Baker, Emily; Korrick, Susan A.; Margaret R Karagas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic exposure has been related to the risk of increased blood pressure based largely on cross-sectional studies conducted in highly exposed populations. Pregnancy is a period of particular vulnerability to environmental insults. However, little is known about the cardiovascular impacts of arsenic exposure during pregnancy. Objectives: We evaluated the association between prenatal arsenic exposure and maternal blood pressure over the course of pregnancy in a U.S. popul...

  17. The die is cast - Arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for development and progression of disease in bo...

  18. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T., E-mail: klimecki@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  19. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect

  20. Increased mortality associated with well-water arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Timothy J; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Li, Yanhong; Ning, Zhixiong; Le, X Chris; Lu, Xiufen; Feng, Yong; He, Xingzhou; Mumford, Judy L

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a retrospective mortality study in an Inner Mongolian village exposed to well water contaminated by arsenic since the 1980s. Deaths occurring between January 1, 1997 and December 1, 2004 were classified according to underlying cause and water samples from household wells were tested for total arsenic. Heart disease mortality was associated with arsenic exposure, and the association strengthened with time exposed to the water source. Cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were associated with well-water arsenic exposure among those exposed 10-20 years. This is the first study to document increased arsenic-associated mortality in the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia. PMID:19440436

  1. Increased Mortality Associated with Well-Water Arsenic Exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhou He

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective mortality study in an Inner Mongolian village exposed to well water contaminated by arsenic since the 1980s. Deaths occurring between January 1, 1997 and December 1, 2004 were classified according to underlying cause and water samples from household wells were tested for total arsenic. Heart disease mortality was associated with arsenic exposure, and the association strengthened with time exposed to the water source. Cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were associated with well-water arsenic exposure among those exposed 10-20 years. This is the first study to document increased arsenic-associated mortality in the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia.

  2. Vascular Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Arsenosis Can Be Reversed by Reduction of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Pi, Jingbo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sun, Guifan; Yoshida, Takahiko; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Wataru; Iso, Hiroyasu; Cui, Renzhe; Waalkes, Michael P.; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2004-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure causes vascular diseases associated with systematic dysfunction of endogenous nitric oxide. Replacement of heavily arsenic-contaminated drinking water with low-arsenic water is a potential intervention strategy for arsenosis, although the reversibility of arsenic intoxication has not established. In the present study, we examined urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), a second messenger of the vasoactive effects of nitric oxide, and signs an...

  3. Arsenic exposure, urinary arsenic speciation, and peripheral vascular disease in blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term exposure to ingested inorganic arsenic is associated with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in the blackfoot disease (BFD)-hyperendemic area in Taiwan. This study further examined the interaction between arsenic exposure and urinary arsenic speciation on the risk of PVD. A total of 479 (220 men and 259 women) adults residing in the BFD-hyperendemic area were studied. Doppler ultrasound was used to diagnose PVD. Arsenic exposure was estimated by an index of cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE). Urinary levels of total arsenic, inorganic arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) were determined. Primary methylation index [PMI = MMAV/(AsIII + AsV)] and secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV) were calculated. The association between PVD and urinary arsenic parameters was evaluated with consideration of the interaction with CAE and the confounding effects of age, sex, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results showed that aging was associated with a diminishing capacity to methylate inorganic arsenic and women possessed a more efficient arsenic methylation capacity than men did. PVD risk increased with a higher CAE and a lower capacity to methylate arsenic to DMAV. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for CAE of 0, 0.1-15.4, and >15.4 mg/L x year were 1.00, 3.41 (0.74-15.78), and 4.62 (0.96-22.21), respectively (P 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI > 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI ≤ 6.93, and PMI ≤ 1.77 and SMI ≤ 6.93 were 1.00, 2.93 (0.90-9.52), 2.85 (1.05-7.73), and 3.60 (1.12-11.56), respectively (P V have a higher risk of developing PVD in the BFD-hyperendemic area in Taiwan

  4. Urinary arsenic profiles reveal exposures to inorganic arsenic from private drinking water supplies in Cornwall, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D. R. S.; Watts, M. J.; Hamilton, E. M.; Ander, E. L.; Close, R. M.; Exley, K. S.; Crabbe, H.; Leonardi, G. S.; Fletcher, T.; Polya, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    Private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, South West England exceeded the current WHO guidance value and UK prescribed concentration or value (PCV) for arsenic of 10 μg/L in 5% of properties surveyed (n = 497). In this follow-up study, the first of its kind in the UK, volunteers (n = 207) from 127 households who used their PWS for drinking, provided urine and drinking water samples for total As determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary As speciation by high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS). Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L were found in the PWS of 10% of the volunteers. Unadjusted total urinary As concentrations were poorly correlated (Spearman’s ρ = 0.36 (P private water supplies as the dominant source of inorganic As exposure in the study population of PWS users.

  5. Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Alguacil, Juan; Lorca, Andres; Mendoza, Ramón; Gómez, Inmaculada; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Rohlman, Diane S; Lacasaña, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to metallic trace elements, including arsenic, because of their potential neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. This study assessed whether urinary arsenic (UA) levels are associated with attention performance and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children living in an area with high industrial and mining activities in Southwestern Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 children aged 6-9 years. Arsenic levels were determined in urine samples. Attention was measured by using 4 independent tools: a) tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) designed to measure attention function: Simple Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT); b) AULA Test, a virtual reality (VR)-based test that evaluates children's response to several stimuli in an environment simulating a classroom; c) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), administered to parents; and d) Teacher's Report Form (TRF), administered to teachers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between UA levels and attention performance scores. Higher UA levels were associated with an increased latency of response in RTT (β = 12.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-21.1) and SAT (β = 3.6; 95% CI: .4-6.8) as well as with worse performance on selective and focalized attention in the AULA test (β for impulsivity = .6; 95% CI: .1-1.1; β for inattention = .5; 95% CI: .03-1.0). A dose-response relationship was observed between UA levels and inattention and impulsivity scores. In contrast, results from the CBCL and TRF tests failed to show a significant association with UA levels. In conclusion, UA levels were associated with impaired attention/cognitive function, even at levels considered safe. These results provide

  6. Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Alguacil, Juan; Lorca, Andres; Mendoza, Ramón; Gómez, Inmaculada; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Rohlman, Diane S; Lacasaña, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to metallic trace elements, including arsenic, because of their potential neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. This study assessed whether urinary arsenic (UA) levels are associated with attention performance and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children living in an area with high industrial and mining activities in Southwestern Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 children aged 6-9 years. Arsenic levels were determined in urine samples. Attention was measured by using 4 independent tools: a) tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) designed to measure attention function: Simple Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT); b) AULA Test, a virtual reality (VR)-based test that evaluates children's response to several stimuli in an environment simulating a classroom; c) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), administered to parents; and d) Teacher's Report Form (TRF), administered to teachers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between UA levels and attention performance scores. Higher UA levels were associated with an increased latency of response in RTT (β = 12.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-21.1) and SAT (β = 3.6; 95% CI: .4-6.8) as well as with worse performance on selective and focalized attention in the AULA test (β for impulsivity = .6; 95% CI: .1-1.1; β for inattention = .5; 95% CI: .03-1.0). A dose-response relationship was observed between UA levels and inattention and impulsivity scores. In contrast, results from the CBCL and TRF tests failed to show a significant association with UA levels. In conclusion, UA levels were associated with impaired attention/cognitive function, even at levels considered safe. These results provide

  7. Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and QT-Interval Prolongation: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Eunus, Mahbub; McClintock, Tyler R.; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Islam, Tariqul; Ghosal, Anajan Kumar; Islam, Shahidul; Hasan, Rabiul; Levy, Diane; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure from drinking water has been associated with heart disease; however, underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Objective: We evaluated the association between a history of arsenic exposure from drinking water and the prolongation of heart rate–corrected QT (QTc), PR, and QRS intervals. Method: We conducted a study of 1,715 participants enrolled at baseline from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study. We assessed the relationship of arsenic exposure in well water and urine samples at baseline with parameters of electrocardiogram (ECG) performed during 2005–2010, 5.9 years on average since baseline. Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for QTc prolongation, defined as a QTc ≥ 450 msec in men and ≥ 460 msec in women, was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for a 1-SD increase in well-water arsenic (108.7 µg/L). The positive association appeared to be limited to women, with adjusted ORs of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.53) for a 1-SD increase in baseline well-water and urinary arsenic, respectively, compared with 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.33) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.49, 1.51) in men. There were no apparent associations of baseline well-water arsenic or urinary arsenic with PR or QRS prolongation in women or men. Conclusions: Long-term arsenic exposure from drinking water (average 95 µg/L; range, 0.1–790 µg/L) was associated with subsequent QT-interval prolongation in women. Future longitudinal studies with repeated ECG measurements would be valuable in assessing the influence of changes in exposure. PMID:23384555

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ARSENIC SPECIATION METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING BACKGROUND EXPOSURE LEVELS OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN DIETARY SAMPLES AND APPLICATION TO IN VITRO BIOACCESSIBILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingestion of arsenic is the primary route of exposure for most people, with dietary intake and drinking water as the primary sources of that exposure. Traditionally, measurements of arsenic dietary intake are based on food consumption data coupled with total arsenic data from a ...

  9. Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid present at low concentrations in rocks, soil and natural ground water. A total of 103 773 food samples (including drinking water were used to calculate dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs. Of these, 101 020 were based on total arsenic (tAs and 2 753 on iAs. Among the reported results on tAs, 66.1 % were below the limit of detection or quantification (left-censored; for the reported data on iAs the percentage of left-censored data was 41.9 %. Most of the data (92.5 % reported as tAs were converted to iAs using different approaches before calculating dietary exposure to iAs. The EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database was used to estimate chronic dietary exposure to iAs using 28 surveys from 17 European countries. According to the scenarios used for the treatment of left-censored data, mean dietary exposure among infants, toddlers and other children ranged from 0.20 to 1.37 μg/kg b.w. per day, while the 95th percentile dietary exposure estimates ranged from 0.36 to 2.09 μg/kg b.w. per day. Mean dietary exposure among the adult population (including adults, elderly and very elderly ranged from 0.09 to 0.38 μg/kg b.w. per day, and 95th percentile dietary exposure estimates ranged from 0.14 to 0.64 μg/kg b.w. per day. For all the age classes except infants and toddlers, the main contributor to dietary exposure to iAs was the food group ‘Grain-based processed products (non rice-based’, in particular, wheat bread and rolls. Other food groups that were important contributors to iAs exposure were rice, milk and dairy products (main contributor in infants and toddlers, and drinking water. The most important sources of uncertainty in the present assessment are related to the heterogeneity of the food consumption data, the conversion of tAs into iAs and to the treatment of the left-censored data.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Arsenic Mobility during Reductive Iron-Mineral Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Joey; Prommer, Henning; Siade, Adam; Carr, Jackson; Berg, Michael; Davis, James A; Fendorf, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed to hazardous concentrations of arsenic from contaminated drinking water. Despite massive efforts toward understanding the extent and underlying geochemical processes of the problem, numerical modeling and reliable predictions of future arsenic behavior remain a significant challenge. One of the key knowledge gaps concerns a refined understanding of the mechanisms that underlie arsenic mobilization, particularly under the onset of anaerobic conditions, and the quantification of the factors that affect this process. In this study, we focus on the development and testing of appropriate conceptual and numerical model approaches to represent and quantify the reductive dissolution of iron oxides, the concomitant release of sorbed arsenic, and the role of iron-mineral transformations. The initial model development in this study was guided by data and hypothesized processes from a previously reported,1 well-controlled column experiment in which arsenic desorption from ferrihydrite coated sands by variable loads of organic carbon was investigated. Using the measured data as constraints, we provide a quantitative interpretation of the processes controlling arsenic mobility during the microbial reductive transformation of iron oxides. Our analysis suggests that the observed arsenic behavior is primarily controlled by a combination of reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite, arsenic incorporation into or co-precipitation with freshly transformed iron minerals, and partial arsenic redox transformations. PMID:26835553

  11. Children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated wooden decks and playground structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, Harold F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2004-02-01

    CCA-treated wood is widely used in the fabrication of outdoor decks and playground equipment. Because arsenic can be removed from the surface of CCA-treated wood both by physical contact and by leaching, it is important to determine whether children who play on such structures may ingest arsenic in quantities sufficient to be of public health concern. Based on a review of existing studies, it is estimated that arsenic doses in amounts of tens of micrograms per day may be incurred by children having realistic levels of exposure to CCA-treated decks and playground structures. The most important exposure pathway appears to be oral ingestion of arsenic that is first dislodged from the wood by direct hand contact, then transferred to the mouth by children's hand-to-mouth activity. The next most important pathway appears to be dermal absorption of arsenic, while ingestion of soil that has become contaminated by leaching from CCA-treated structures appears to be of lesser importance, except possibly in the case of children with pica. Considerable uncertainty, however, is associated with quantitative estimates of children's arsenic exposure from CCA-treated wood. Priorities for refining estimates of arsenic dose include detailed studies of the hand-to-mouth transfer of arsenic, studies of the dermal and gastrointestinal absorption of dislodgeable arsenic, and studies in which doses of arsenic to children playing in contact with CCA-treated wood are directly determined by measurement of arsenic in their urine, hair, and nails.

  12. Atmospheric Emissions, Depositions, and Transformations of Arsenic in Natural Ecosystem in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun B. Mukherjee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last 2 decades, special attention has been paid to arsenic due to its high concentration in groundwater in many regions of the globe. There are not very many reports on arsenic concentration in the Finnish ecosystem, although the metal has been known to be highly toxic since ancient times. For the majority of people in Finland, the leading exposure route to arsenic is through food consumption.

  13. The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in α-helical and random coil structures and an increase in β-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

  14. Arsenic exposure and glutamate-induced gliotransmitter release from astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Fenghong Zhao; Yingjun Liao; Yaping Jin; Guifan Sun

    2012-01-01

    The present study used cultures of primary astrocytes, isolated from neonatal rats, to verify the hypothesis that arsenite-induced neurotoxicity can influence neuronal function by altering glutamate-induced gliotransmitter release. Primary astrocytes were exposed to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 or 30 μM arsenite for 24 hours. Cell viability and morphological observations revealed that 5 μM arsenic exposure could induce cytotoxicity. Cells were then cultured in the presence of 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 μM arsenite for 24 hours and stimulated with 25 μM glutamate for 10 minutes. Results showed that [Ca2+]i in astrocytes exposed to 5 and 10 μM arsenite was significantly increased and levels of D-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine in cultures exposed to 2.5–10 μM arsenite were also increased. However, glutamate levels in the media were significantly increased only after treatment with 10 μM arsenite. In conclusion, our findings suggest that arsenic exposure may affect glutamate-induced gliotransmitter release from astrocytes and further disturb neuronal function.

  15. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a ‘2-hit’ paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet (± arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: ► Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. ► Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. ► This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  16. Elevated mortality from lung cancer associated with arsenic exposure for a limited duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadaira, Hiroto; Endoh, Kazuo; Katagiri, Mikio; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2002-03-01

    In 1959, arsenic poisoning was detected in the town of Nakajo in Japan. The cause was exposure to inorganic arsenic in well water during 1954 to 1959. To examine the long-term effects of limited-duration arsenic exposure, we conducted mortality and survival studies for patients with chronic arsenic exposure and for control subjects from 1959 to 1992. The ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths from lung cancer was significantly high (7:0.64) for male patients. The lung cancer mortality rate was elevated markedly in subgroups with higher clinical severities of symptoms. Small cell carcinoma was specific to the exposed patients. The cumulative change of survival declined significantly in the exposed patients compared with the controls. The decline disappeared when lung cancer deaths were treated as lost to follow-up. The results showed that a 5-year period of arsenic exposure was associated with risk of lung cancer.

  17. Variation in arsenic speciation and concentration in paddy rice related to dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P N; Price, A H; Raab, A; Hossain, S A; Feldmann, J; Meharg, A A

    2005-08-01

    Ingestion of drinking water is not the only elevated source of arsenic to the diet in the Bengal Delta. Even at background levels, the arsenic in rice contributes considerably to arsenic ingestion in subsistence rice diets. We set out to survey As speciation in different rice varieties from different parts of the globe to understand the contribution of rice to arsenic exposure. Pot experiments were utilized to ascertain whether growing rice on As contaminated soil affected speciation and whether genetic variation accounted for uptake and speciation. USA long grain rice had the highest mean arsenic level in the grain at 0.26 microg As g(-1) (n = 7), and the highest grain arsenic value of the survey at 0.40 microg As g(-1). The mean arsenic level of Bangladeshi rice was 0.13 microg As g(-1) (n = 15). The main As species detected in the rice extract were AsIII, DMAV, and AsV. In European, Bangladeshi, and Indian rice 64 +/- 1% (n = 7), 80 +/- 3% (n = 11), and 81 +/- 4% (n = 15), respectively, of the recovered arsenic was found to be inorganic. In contrast, DMAV was the predominant species in rice from the USA, with only 42 +/- 5% (n = 12) of the arsenic being inorganic. Pot experiments show that the proportions of DMAV in the grain are significantly dependent on rice cultivar (p = 0.026) and that plant nutrient status is effected by arsenic exposure. PMID:16124284

  18. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate; Chen, Chi-Ling; Hsu, Lin-I; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality.

  19. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James; (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia); (UWO)

    2009-05-21

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

  20. Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic Is Associated with Increased Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Longer Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Syeda S.; Xu, YiYi; Engström, Karin; Li, Huiqi; Tallving, Pia; Nermell, Barbro; Boemo, Analia; Parada, Luis A.; Peñaloza, Lidia G.; Concha, Gabriela; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity. Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N = 264, 89% females) and one in Chaco (N = 169, 75% females). We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] in urine (U-As) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5–95 percentile: 21–537) μg/L in Andes and 80 (5–95 percentile: 15–1637) μg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity) in Chaco (β = 0.027 per 100 μg/L, p = 0.0085; adjusted for age and sex), but not in Andes (β = 0.025, p = 0.24). U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β = 0.016, p = 0.0066) and Andes (β = 0.0075, p = 0.029). In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer. PMID:27597942

  1. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population

  2. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Gordon, E-mail: gordon.gong@ttuhsc.edu [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Basom, Janet [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Mattevada, Sravan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Onger, Frederick [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2015-04-15

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population.

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  4. Effects of low arsenic concentration exposure on freshwater fish in the presence of fluvial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Bonet, Berta; Guasch, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element and its carcinogenic effect on living organisms is well known. However, predicting real effects in the environment requires an ecological approach since toxicity is influenced by many environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if environmentally-realistic arsenic exposure causes toxicity to fish. An experiment with four different treatments (control (C), biofilm (B), arsenic (+As) and biofilm with arsenic (B+As)) was conducted and each one included sediment to enhance environmental realism, allowing the testing of the interactive effects of biofilm and arsenic on the toxicity to fish. Average arsenic exposure to Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) was 40.5 ± 7.5 μg/L for +As treatment and 34.4 ± 1.4 μg/L for B+As treatment for 56 days. Fish were affected directly and indirectly by this low arsenic concentration since exposure did not only affect fish but also the function of periphytic biofilms. Arsenic effects on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of mosquitofish were ameliorated in the presence of biofilms at the beginning of exposure (day 9). Moreover, fish weight gaining was only affected in the treatment without biofilm. After longer exposure (56 days), effects of exposure were clearly seen. Fish showed a marked increase in the catalase (CAT) activity in the liver but the interactive influence of biofilms was not further observed since the arsenic-affected biofilm had lost its role in water purification. Our results highlight the interest and application of incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems in ecotoxicology and support the use of criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for arsenic lower than 150 μg/L and closer to the water quality criteria to protect aquatic life recommended by the Canadian government which is 5 μg As/L.

  5. Microbial transformations of arsenic: perspectives for biological removal of arsenic from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cavalca; A. Corsini; P. Zaccheo; V. Andreoni; G. Muyzer

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is present in many environments and is released by various natural processes and anthropogenic actions. Although arsenic is recognized to cause a wide range of adverse health effects in humans, diverse bacteria can metabolize it by detoxification and energy conservation reactions. This revie

  6. Considerations when using longitudinal cohort studies to assess dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and chronic health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Tsuji, Joyce S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal cohort studies could provide some evidence to evaluate associations of dietary patterns related to inorganic arsenic exposure with risk of arsenic-related diseases. However, currently available data from longitudinal cohort studies limit causal analyses regarding the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and health outcomes. Any conclusions should therefore be viewed with knowledge of the analytical and methodological limitations.

  7. Environmental arsenic exposure of children around a former copper smelter site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y H; Bornschein, R L; Grote, J; Menrath, W; Roda, S

    1997-01-01

    Arsenic residues in the communities surrounding former smelters remain a public health concern, especially for infants and children. To evaluate environmental exposure among these children, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the vicinity of a former copper smelter in Anaconda, Montana. A total of 414 children less than 72 months old were recruited. First morning voided urine samples and environmental samples were collected for arsenic measurements. The geometric mean of speciated urinary arsenic was 8.6 microg/liter (GSD = 1.7, N = 289). Average arsenic levels of different types of soil ranged from 121 to 236 microg/g and were significantly related to proximity and wind direction to the smelter site. The same significant relationship was observed for interior dust arsenic. Speciated urinary arsenic was found to be significantly related to soil arsenic in bare areas in residential yards (P arsenic was demonstrable and warranted parents' attention to reduce exposure of their children to environmental arsenic. PMID:9012374

  8. High exposure to inorganic arsenic by food: the need for risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Damm, Georg; Foth, Heidi; Freyberger, Alexius; Gebel, Thomas; Golka, Klaus; Röhl, Claudia; Schupp, Thomas; Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Hengstler, Jan Georg

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that occurs ubiquitously in soil and water. Based on epidemiological studies, a benchmark dose (lower/higher bound estimate) between 0.3 and 8 μg/kg bw/day was estimated to cause a 1 % increased risk of lung, skin and bladder cancer. A recently published study by EFSA on dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population reported 95th percentiles (lower bound min to upper bound max) for different age groups in the same range as the benchmark dose. For toddlers, a highly exposed group, the highest values ranged between 0.61 and 2.09 µg arsenic/kg bw/day. For all other age classes, the margin of exposure is also small. This scenario calls for regulatory action to reduce arsenic exposure. One priority measure should be to reduce arsenic in food categories that contribute most to exposure. In the EFSA study the food categories 'milk and dairy products,' 'drinking water' and 'food for infants' represent major sources of inorganic arsenic for infants and also rice is an important source. Long-term strategies are required to reduce inorganic arsenic in these food groups. The reduced consumption of rice and rice products which has been recommended may be helpful for a minority of individuals consuming unusually high amounts of rice. However, it is only of limited value for the general European population, because the food categories 'grain-based processed products (non rice-based)' or 'milk and dairy products' contribute more to the exposure with inorganic arsenic than the food category 'rice.' A balanced regulatory activity focusing on the most relevant food categories is required. In conclusion, exposure to inorganic arsenic represents a risk to the health of the European population, particularly to young children. Regulatory measures to reduce exposure are urgently required.

  9. High exposure to inorganic arsenic by food: the need for risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Damm, Georg; Foth, Heidi; Freyberger, Alexius; Gebel, Thomas; Golka, Klaus; Röhl, Claudia; Schupp, Thomas; Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Hengstler, Jan Georg

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that occurs ubiquitously in soil and water. Based on epidemiological studies, a benchmark dose (lower/higher bound estimate) between 0.3 and 8 μg/kg bw/day was estimated to cause a 1 % increased risk of lung, skin and bladder cancer. A recently published study by EFSA on dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population reported 95th percentiles (lower bound min to upper bound max) for different age groups in the same range as the benchmark dose. For toddlers, a highly exposed group, the highest values ranged between 0.61 and 2.09 µg arsenic/kg bw/day. For all other age classes, the margin of exposure is also small. This scenario calls for regulatory action to reduce arsenic exposure. One priority measure should be to reduce arsenic in food categories that contribute most to exposure. In the EFSA study the food categories 'milk and dairy products,' 'drinking water' and 'food for infants' represent major sources of inorganic arsenic for infants and also rice is an important source. Long-term strategies are required to reduce inorganic arsenic in these food groups. The reduced consumption of rice and rice products which has been recommended may be helpful for a minority of individuals consuming unusually high amounts of rice. However, it is only of limited value for the general European population, because the food categories 'grain-based processed products (non rice-based)' or 'milk and dairy products' contribute more to the exposure with inorganic arsenic than the food category 'rice.' A balanced regulatory activity focusing on the most relevant food categories is required. In conclusion, exposure to inorganic arsenic represents a risk to the health of the European population, particularly to young children. Regulatory measures to reduce exposure are urgently required. PMID:26586021

  10. Vascular dysfunction in patients with chronic arsenosis can be reversed by reduction of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jingbo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sun, Guifan; Yoshida, Takahiko; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Wataru; Iso, Hiroyasu; Cui, Renzhe; Waalkes, Michael P; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2005-03-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure causes vascular diseases associated with systematic dysfunction of endogenous nitric oxide. Replacement of heavily arsenic-contaminated drinking water with low-arsenic water is a potential intervention strategy for arsenosis, although the reversibility of arsenic intoxication has not established. In the present study, we examined urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine 3 ,5 -monophosphate (cGMP), a second messenger of the vasoactive effects of nitric oxide, and signs and symptoms for peripheral vascular function in 54 arsenosis patients before and after they were supplied with low-arsenic drinking water in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia, China. The arsenosis patients showed a marked decrease in urinary excretion of cGMP (mean +/- SEM: male, 37.0 +/- 6.1; female, 37.2 +/- 5.4 nmol/mmol creatinine), and a 13-month period of consuming low-arsenic drinking water reversed this trend (male, 68.0 +/- 5.6; female, 70.6 +/- 3.0 nmol/mmol creatinine) and improved peripheral vascular response to cold stress. Our intervention study indicates that peripheral vascular disease in arsenosis patients can be reversed by exposure cessation and has important implications for the public health approach to arsenic exposure.

  11. NEUROSENSORY EFFECTS OF CHRONIC HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC ASSOCIATED WITH BODY BURDEN AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is known to produce a variety of health problems including peripheral neuropathy. Auditory, visual and somatosensory impairments have been reported in Mongolian farmers living in the Yellow River Valley where drinking water is contami...

  12. Arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.): human exposure through food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizur Rahman, M; Hasegawa, H; Mahfuzur Rahman, M; Mazid Miah, M A; Tasmin, A

    2008-02-01

    Although human exposure to arsenic is thought to be caused mainly through arsenic-contaminated underground drinking water, the use of this water for irrigation enhances the possibility of arsenic uptake into crop plants. Rice is the staple food grain in Bangladesh. Arsenic content in straw, grain and husk of rice is especially important since paddy fields are extensively irrigated with underground water having high level of arsenic concentration. However, straw and husk are widely used as cattle feed. Arsenic concentration in rice grain was 0.5+/-0.02 mg kg(-1) with the highest concentrations being in grains grown on soil treated with 40 mg As kg(-1) soil. With the average rice consumption between 400 and 650 g/day by typical adults in the arsenic-affected areas of Bangladesh, the intake of arsenic through rice stood at 0.20-0.35 mg/day. With a daily consumption of 4 L drinking water, arsenic intake through drinking water stands at 0.2mg/day. Moreover, when the rice plant was grown in 60 mg of As kg(-1) soil, arsenic concentrations in rice straw were 20.6+/-0.52 at panicle initiation stage and 23.7+/-0.44 at maturity stage, whereas it was 1.6+/-0.20 mg kg(-1) in husk. Cattle drink a considerable amount of water. So alike human beings, arsenic gets deposited into cattle body through rice straw and husk as well as from drinking water which in turn finds a route into the human body. Arsenic intake in human body from rice and cattle could be potentially important and it exists in addition to that from drinking water. Therefore, a hypothesis has been put forward elucidating the possible food chain pathways through which arsenic may enter into human body. PMID:17346792

  13. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas.

  14. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  15. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Urinary 8-OHdG in Arizona and Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Meza, María M; Josyula, Arun B; Poplin, Gerald S; Kopplin, Michael J; McClellen, Hannah E; Stürup, Stefan; Lantz, R Clark

    2007-01-01

    Although at high levels arsenic exposure is associated with increased cancer incidence, information on the health effects of lower exposure levels is limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic at concentrations below 40 microg/L in drinking water is associated with increased urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage and repair. Urine samples were collected from 73 nonsmoking adults residing in two communities in Arizona (mean tap water arsenic (microg/L) 4.0 +/- 2.3 and 20.3 +/- 3.7), and 51 subjects in four communities in Sonora, Mexico (mean tap water arsenic (microg/L) ranging from 4.8 +/- 0.1 to 33.3 +/- 0.6). Although urinary arsenic concentration increased with higher exposure in tap water, urinary 8-OHdG concentration did not differ by community within Arizona or Sonora, and was not associated with urinary arsenic concentration. At the exposure levels evaluated in this study, drinking water arsenic was not associated with increased DNA oxidation as measured by urinary 8-OHdG.

  16. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  17. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Slavkovich, Vesna; Kalra, Tara; Argos, Maria; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease and to assess whether cigarette smoking influences the association. Design Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in drinking water from wells and urine. Setting General population in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Participants 11 746 men and women who provided urine samples in 2000 and were followed up for an average of 6.6 years. Main outcome measure Death from cardiovascular disease. Results 198 people died from diseases of circulatory system, accounting for 43% of total mortality in the population. The mortality rate for cardiovascular disease was 214.3 per 100 000 person years in people drinking water containing <12.0 µg/L arsenic, compared with 271.1 per 100 000 person years in people drinking water with ≥12.0 µg/L arsenic. There was a dose-response relation between exposure to arsenic in well water assessed at baseline and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and other heart disease; the hazard ratios in increasing quarters of arsenic concentration in well water (0.1-12.0, 12.1-62.0, 62.1-148.0, and 148.1-864.0 µg/L) were 1.00 (reference), 1.22 (0.65 to 2.32), 1.35 (0.71 to 2.57), and 1.92 (1.07 to 3.43) (P=0.0019 for trend), respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders including age, sex, smoking status, educational attainment, body mass index (BMI), and changes in urinary arsenic concentration since baseline. Similar associations were observed when baseline total urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable and for mortality from ischaemic heart disease specifically. The data indicate a significant synergistic interaction between arsenic exposure and cigarette smoking in mortality from ischaemic heart disease and other heart disease. In particular, the hazard ratio for the joint effect of a moderate level of arsenic exposure (middle third of well arsenic concentration 25.3-114.0 µg/L, mean 63.5 µg/L) and

  18. Paraoxonase 1 activity in subchronic low-level inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Olusegun K; Wusu, Adedoja D; Ogunrinola, Olufunmilayo O; Abam, Esther O; Babayemi, David O; Dosumu, Oluwatosin A; Onunkwor, Okechukwu B; Balogun, Elizabeth A; Odukoya, Olusegun O; Ademuyiwa, Oladipo

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidences indicate close association between inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water and cardiovascular diseases. While the exact mechanism of this arsenic-mediated increase in cardiovascular risk factors remains enigmatic, epidemiological studies indicate a role for paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases, rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (trivalent; 50, 100, and 150 ppm As) and sodium arsenate (pentavalent; 100, 150, and 200 ppm As) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. PON1 activity towards paraoxon (PONase) and phenylacetate (AREase) in plasma, lipoproteins, hepatic, and brain microsomal fractions were determined. Inhibition of PONase and AREase in plasma and HDL characterized the effects of the two arsenicals. While the trivalent arsenite inhibited PONase by 33% (plasma) and 46% (HDL), respectively, the pentavalent arsenate inhibited the enzyme by 41 and 34%, respectively. AREase activity was inhibited by 52 and 48% by arsenite, whereas the inhibition amounted to 72 and 67%, respectively by arsenate. The pattern of inhibition in plasma and HDL indicates that arsenite induced a dose-dependent inhibition of PONase whereas arsenate induced a dose-dependent inhibition of AREase. In the VLDL + LDL, arsenate inhibited PONase and AREase while arsenite inhibited PONase. In the hepatic and brain microsomal fractions, only the PONase enzyme was inhibited by the two arsenicals. The inhibition was more pronounced in the hepatic microsomes where a 70% inhibition was observed at the highest dose of pentavalent arsenic. Microsomal cholesterol was increased by the two arsenicals resulting in increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratios. Our findings indicate that decreased PON1 activity observed in arsenic exposure may be an incipient biochemical event in the cardiovascular effects of arsenic. Modulation of PON1 activity by arsenic may also be

  19. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of countries, including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, and the United States of America. Drinking-water, ... ingestion of inorganic arsenic include developmental effects, neurotoxicity, diabetes, pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Arsenic-induced myocardial ...

  20. Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Water Is Associated with Longer Telomeres in Peripheral Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a strong carcinogen, possibly by interaction with the telomere length. The aim of the study was to evaluate how chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water as well as the arsenic metabolism efficiency affect the individual telomere length and the expression of telomere-related genes. Two hundred two women with a wide range in exposure to arsenic via drinking water (3.5–200 μg/L) were recruited. Concentrations of arsenic metabolites in urine [inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were measured. The relative telomere length in blood was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Genotyping (N = 172) for eight SNPs in AS3MT and gene expression of telomere-related genes (in blood; N = 90) were performed. Urinary arsenic (sum of metabolites) was positively associated with telomere length (β = 0.65 × 10–4, 95% CI = 0.031 × 10–4–1.3 × 10–4, adjusted for age and BMI). Individuals with above median fractions of iAs and MMA showed significantly longer telomeres by increasing urinary arsenic (β = 1.0 × 10–4, 95% CI = 0.21 × 10–4–1.8 × 10–4 at high % iAs; β = 0.88 × 10–4 95% CI = 0.12 × 10–4–1.6 × 10–4 at high % MMA) than those below the median (p = 0.80 and 0.44, respectively). Similarly, carriers of the slow and more toxic metabolizing AS3MT haplotype showed stronger positive associations between arsenic exposure and telomere length, as compared to noncarriers (interaction urinary arsenic and haplotype p = 0.025). Urinary arsenic was positively correlated with the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT, Spearman r = 0.22, p = 0.037), but no association was found between TERT expression and telomere length. Arsenic in drinking water influences the telomere length, and this may be a mechanism for its carcinogenicity. A faster and less toxic arsenic metabolism diminishes arsenic-related telomere elongation. PMID:22917110

  1. ASSESSING ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND SKIN HYPERKERATOSIS IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen. The inorganic forms, especially arsenite (As+3), are believed to be the most toxic species. Methylation is often considered to be thedetoxification pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. The ground water in Ba Men, Inner Mo...

  2. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  3. HEALTH RISKS FROM CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER: FINDINGS FROM THE CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS DATA IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior studies have reported a large number of arsenicism cases in the Mongolia Autonomous Region of China due to drinking arsenic-contaminated water with concentrations up to 1.8 mg/L. However, the endemic health risks from chronic exposure to arsenic in this population have not...

  4. Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Plasma Levels of Soluble Cell Adhesion Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Santella, Regina M.; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Verret, Wendy J.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of cardiovascular disease risk factors and appropriate biomarkers in populations exposed to a wide range of arsenic levels are a public health research priority. Objective We investigated the relationship between inorganic arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), both markers of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation, in an arsenic-exposed population in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Methods The study participants included 115 individuals with arsenic-related skin lesions participating in a 2 × 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Arsenic exposure status and plasma levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were assessed at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. Results Baseline well arsenic, a long-term measure of arsenic exposure, was positively associated with baseline levels of both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and with changes in the two markers over time. At baseline, for every 1-μg/L increase in well arsenic there was an increase of 0.10 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.00–0.20] and 0.33 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.15–0.51) in plasma sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, respectively. Every 1-μg/L increase in well arsenic was associated with a rise of 0.11 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.01–0.22) and 0.17 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.00–0.35) in sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 from baseline to follow-up, respectively, in spite of recent changes in urinary arsenic as well as vitamin E and selenium supplementation during the study period. Conclusions The findings indicate an effect of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on vascular inflammation that persists over time and also suggest a potential mechanism underlying the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:17938729

  5. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClintock, Tyler R. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, NY (United States); United States Department of Veterans Affairs Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY (United States); New York University Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Ge, Wenzhen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Bjurlin, Marc A. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Graziano, Joseph H. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  6. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  7. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may

  8. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary

  9. CD44v6 expression in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with chronic arsenic exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, S.; Guo, S.; Guo, F; Yang, Q.; XIAO, X.; Murata, M.; Ohnishi, S.; Kawanishi, S; Ma, N

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a well-known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various types of human skin lesions, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in arsenic-associated carcinogenesis, we repeatedly exposed the human spontaneously immortalized skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell line to an environmentally relevant level of arsenic (0.05 ppm) in vitrofor 18 weeks. Following sodium arsenite administration, cell cycle, colo...

  10. Role of soil-derived dissolved substances in arsenic transport and transformation in laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangrong; Cai, Yong; Liu, Guangliang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Snyder, George H; Cisar, John L

    2008-11-15

    Dissolved substances derived from soil may interact with both soil surfaces and with arsenic and subsequently influence arsenic mobility and species transformation. The purpose of this study was to investigate arsenic transport and transformation in porous media with a specific focus on the impact of soil-derived dissolved substances, mainly consisting of inorganic colloids and dissolved organic matter (DOM), on these processes. Arsenic transport and transformation through columns, which were packed with uncoated sand (UC) or naturally coated sand (NC) and fed with arsenate (AsV) or monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) spiked influents, were investigated in the presence or absence of soil-derived dissolved substances. The presence of soil-derived inorganic colloids and/or DOM clearly enhanced As transport through the column, with the fraction of As leached out of column (referring to the total amount added) being increased from 23 to 46% (UC) and 21 to 50% (NC) in AsV experiments while 46 to 64% (UC) and 28 to 63% (NC) in MMA experiments. The association of arsenic with DOM and the competitive adsorption between arsenic and DOM could account for, at least partly, the enhanced As movement. Distinct species transformation of As during transport through soil columns was observed. When AsV was the initial species spiked in the influent solutions, only arsenite (AsIII) was detected in the effluents for UC columns; while both AsIII (dominant) and AsV were present for NC columns, with AsIII being the dominant species. When MMA was initially spiked in the influent solutions, all method detectable As species, AsIII, AsV, MMA, and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) were present in the effluents for both soil columns. These results indicate that risk assessment associated with As contamination, particularly due to previous organoarsenical pesticide applications, should take into account the role of soil-derived dissolved substances in promoting As transport and As species transformation.

  11. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  12. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: Review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 μg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 μg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominately at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 μg/L, mean 99 μg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention.

  13. The Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Abir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is inconclusive evidence from cross-sectional and cohort studies that arsenic exposure is a risk factor involved in the development of hypertension. Methods. A database search, using several keywords, was conducted to identify relevant studies. Separate odds ratio estimates for arsenic exposure with concentration only and arsenic exposure with duration, including biomarker, were extracted from studies that met all inclusion criteria. The extracted odds ratios (OR comparing the highest exposure categories with the lowest in each study were pooled using the random effects methods of meta-analysis. Heterogeneity of odds ratios in the included studies were analyzed using I2 statistics. Results. Eight studies were analyzed. Using the exposure as arsenic concentration in the drinking water, the OR estimate was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2–3.0, with the I2 = 92%, while using the exposure as concentration and duration, the OR estimate was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.95–2.0 with the I2 = 80%. Meta-regression was done and the quality of exposure measurement was found to be significantly associated with the effect measure. For a one unit increase in the score from exposure assessment, the odds ratio decreased by 6%. No publication bias was evident. The only major weaknesses of this study were heterogeneity across studies and small sample size. Conclusions. The study findings provide limited evidence for a relationship between arsenic and hypertension. In summary, the relationship between arsenic exposure and hypertension is still inconclusive and needs further validation through prospective cohort studies.

  14. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mRNA expression are altered by perinatal arsenic exposure in mice and restored by brief exposure to enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Tyler

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a common and pervasive environmental contaminant found in drinking water in varying concentrations depending on region. Exposure to arsenic induces behavioral and cognitive deficits in both human populations and in rodent models. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA standard for the allotment of arsenic in drinking water is in the parts-per-billion range, yet our lab has shown that 50 ppb arsenic exposure during development can have far-reaching consequences into adulthood, including deficits in learning and memory, which have been linked to altered adult neurogenesis. Given that the morphological impact of developmental arsenic exposure on the hippocampus is unknown, we sought to evaluate proliferation and differentiation of adult neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus after 50 ppb arsenic exposure throughout the perinatal period of development in mice (equivalent to all three trimesters in humans using a BrdU pulse-chase assay. Proliferation of the neural progenitor population was decreased by 13% in arsenic-exposed mice, but was not significant. However, the number of differentiated cells was significantly decreased by 41% in arsenic-exposed mice compared to controls. Brief, daily exposure to environmental enrichment significantly increased proliferation and differentiation in both control and arsenic-exposed animals. Expression levels of 31% of neurogenesis-related genes including those involved in Alzheimer's disease, apoptosis, axonogenesis, growth, Notch signaling, and transcription factors were altered after arsenic exposure and restored after enrichment. Using a concentration previously considered safe by the EPA, perinatal arsenic exposure altered hippocampal morphology and gene expression, but did not inhibit the cellular neurogenic response to enrichment. It is possible that behavioral deficits observed during adulthood in animals exposed to arsenic during development derive from the lack of differentiated neural

  15. A Prospective Study of Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Incidence of Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argos, Maria; Kalra, Tara; Pierce, Brandon L.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Hasan, Khaled; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide. The authors aimed to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesion incidence among participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). The analyses used data on 10,182 adults free of skin lesions at baseline through the third biennial follow-up of the cohort (2000–2009). Discrete-time hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident skin lesions. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for incident skin lesions comparing 10.1–50.0, 50.1–100.0, 100.1–200.0, and ≥200.1 μg/L with ≤10.0 μg/L of well water arsenic exposure were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.49), 1.69 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.14), 1.97 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.46), and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.40, 3.71), respectively (Ptrend = 0.0001). Results were similar for the other measures of arsenic exposure, and the increased risks remained unchanged with changes in exposure in recent years. Dose-dependent associations were more pronounced in females, but the incidence of skin lesions was greater in males and older individuals. Chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water was associated with increased incidence of skin lesions, even at low levels of arsenic exposure (<100 μg/L). PMID:21576319

  16. Cancer incidence and soil arsenic exposure in a historical gold mining area in Victoria, Australia: a geospatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dora Claire; Dowling, Kim; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2012-01-01

    Soil and mine waste around historical gold mining sites may have elevated arsenic concentrations. Recent evidence suggests some systemic arsenic absorption by residents in the goldfields region of Victoria, Australia. Victorian Cancer Registry and geochemical data were accessed for an ecological geographical correlation study, 1984-2003. Spatial empirical Bayes smoothing was applied when estimating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancers in 61 statistical local areas. The derived soil arsenic exposure metric ranged from 1.4 to 1857 mg/kg. Spatial autoregressive modelling detected increases in smoothed SIRs for all cancers of 0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.02-0.08) and 0.04 (0.01-0.07) per 2.7-fold increase in the natural log-transformed exposure metric for males and females, respectively, in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas; for melanoma in males (0.05 (0.01-0.08) adjusted for disadvantage) and females (0.05 (0.02-0.09) in disadvantaged areas). Excess risks were estimated for all cancers (relative risk 1.21 (95% CI, 1.15-1.27) and 1.08 (1.03-1.14)), and melanoma (1.52 (1.25-1.85) and 1.29 (1.08-1.55)), for males and females, respectively, in disadvantaged areas in the highest quintile of the exposure metric relative to the lowest. Our findings suggest small but significant increases in past cancer risk associated with increasing soil arsenic in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas and demonstrate the robustness of this geospatial approach.

  17. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-01

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among > or = 15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI Pakistan. Further investigations and focal mitigation measures for arsenic may be carried out alongside Indus River.

  18. Metallothionein blocks oxidative DNA damage induced by acute inorganic arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Wei, E-mail: qu@niehs.nih.gov; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-02-01

    We studied how protein metallothionein (MT) impacts arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage (ODD) using cells that poorly express MT (MT-I/II double knockout embryonic cells; called MT-null cells) and wild-type (WT) MT competent cells. Arsenic (as NaAsO{sub 2}) was less cytolethal over 24 h in WT cells (LC{sub 50} = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM; mean ± SEM) than in MT-null cells (LC{sub 50} = 5.6 ± 1.2 μM). ODD was measured by the immuno-spin trapping method. Arsenic (1 or 5 μM; 24 h) induced much less ODD in WT cells (121% and 141% of control, respectively) than in MT-null cells (202% and 260%). In WT cells arsenic caused concentration-dependent increases in MT expression (transcript and protein), and in the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is required to induce the MT gene. In contrast, basal MT levels were not detectable in MT-null cells and unaltered by arsenic exposure. Transfection of MT-I gene into the MT-null cells markedly reduced arsenic-induced ODD levels. The transport genes, Abcc1 and Abcc2 were increased by arsenic in WT cells but either showed no or very limited increases in MT-null cells. Arsenic caused increases in oxidant stress defense genes HO-1 and GSTα2 in both WT and MT-null cells, but to much higher levels in WT cells. WT cells appear more adept at activating metal transport systems and oxidant response genes, although the role of MT in these responses is unclear. Overall, MT protects against arsenic-induced ODD in MT competent cells by potential sequestration of scavenging oxidant radicals and/or arsenic. - Highlights: • Metallothionein blocks arsenic toxicity. • Metallothionein reduces arsenic-induced DNA damage. • Metallothionein may bind arsenic or radicals produced by arsenic.

  19. A Systematic Review of Arsenic Exposure and Its Social and Mental Health Effects with Special Reference to Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kraemer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Undergroundwater in many regions of the world is contaminated with high concentrations of arsenic and the resulting toxicity has created a major environmental and public health problem in the affected regions. Chronic arsenic exposure can cause many diseases, including various physical and psychological harms. Although the physical problems caused by arsenic toxicity are well reported in literature, unfortunately the consequences of arsenic exposure on mental health are not adequately studied. Therefore we conducted a review of the available literature focusing on the social consequences and detrimental effects of arsenic toxicity on mental health. Chronic arsenic exposures have serious implications for its victims (i.e. arsenicosis patients and their families including social instability, social discrimination, refusal of victims by community and families, and marriage-related problems. Some studies conducted in arsenic affected areas revealed that arsenic exposures are associated with various neurologic problems. Chronic arsenic exposure can lead to mental retardation and developmental disabilities such as physical, cognitive, psychological, sensory and speech impairments. As health is defined by the World Health Organization as “a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing”, the social dimensions have a large impact on individual’s mental health. Furthermore studies in China und Bangladesh have shown that mental health problems (e.g. depression are more common among the people affected by arsenic contamination. Our study indicates various neurological, mental and social consequences among arsenic affected victims. Further studies are recommended in arsenic-affected areas to understand the underlying mechanisms of poor mental health caused by arsenic exposure.

  20. Chronic Arsenic Exposure-Induced Oxidative Stress is Mediated by Decreased Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Chandra; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    The present study was executed to study the effect of chronic arsenic exposure on generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and biogenesis in rat liver. Chronic sodium arsenite treatment (25 ppm for 12 weeks) decreased mitochondrial complexes activity in rat liver. There was a decrease in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in arsenic-treated rats that might be responsible for increased protein and lipid oxidation as observed in our study. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits of complexes I (ND1 and ND2) and IV (COX I and COX IV) was downregulated in arsenic-treated rats only. The protein and mRNA expression of MnSOD was reduced suggesting increased mitochondrial oxidative damage after arsenic treatment. There was activation of Bax and caspase-3 followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria suggesting induction of apoptotic pathway under oxidative stress. The entire phenomenon was associated with decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis as evident by decreased protein and mRNA expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in arsenic-treated rat liver. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in rat liver that may present one of the mechanisms for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26767369

  1. Intra-specific variability in the response of maize to arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Raquel; Tena, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    The response of maize (Zea mays L.) to inorganic arsenic exposure was studied, at the seedling stage under hydroponic conditions, preliminarily in sixteen lines (fourteen hybrids and two inbred lines) and then, more deeply, in six of these lines, selected by showing contrasting differences in their sensitivity to the metalloid. The results indicated that (i) maize is rather tolerant to arsenic toxicity, (ii) arsenite is more phytotoxic than arsenate, (iii) roots are less sensitive than shoots to the metalloid, (iv) a great accumulation of non-protein thiols (probably phytochelatins), without substantial effect on the glutathione content, is produced in roots but not in shoots of arsenic-exposed plants and (v) maize is able to accumulate high levels of arsenic in roots with very low translocation to shoots. The study, thus, suggests that maize, for its very low rate of acropetal transport of arsenic from roots to shoots, may be a safe crop in relation to the risk of entry of metalloid in the food chain and, for being an important bioenergy crop capable of expressing high levels of arsenic tolerance and accumulation in roots, may represent an interesting opportunity for the exploitation of agricultural useless arsenic contaminated lands.

  2. Long-Term Exposure to Low-Level Arsenic in Drinking Water and Diabetes Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Established causes of diabetes do not fully explain the epidemic. High level arsenic exposure has been implicated in diabetes risk but the effect of low-level arsenic exposure in drinking water remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine if long-term exposure to low-level arsenic...... in drinking water in Denmark is associated with increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort. METHODS: During 1993-1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for diabetes occurrence from enrollment until 31 December 2006. We traced and geocoded residential addresses...... and diabetes incidence, separately for two definitions of diabetes: all cases and a more strict definition, where cases of diabetes based solely on blood glucose results were excluded. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 9.7 years of 52,931 eligible subjects, there were 4,304 (8.1%) diabetes cases in total...

  3. Sex-Specific Effects of Arsenic Exposure on the Trajectory and Function of the Gut Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Liang; Bian, Xiaoming; Gao, Bei; Ru, Hongyu; Tu, Pengcheng; Lu, Kun

    2016-06-20

    The gut microbiome is deeply involved in numerous aspects of human health; however, it can be readily perturbed by environmental toxicants, such as arsenic. Meanwhile, the interaction among host, gut microbiome, and xenobiotics is a very complex dynamic process. Previously, we have demonstrated that gut microbiome phenotypes driven by host genetics and bacterial infection affect the responses to arsenic exposure. The role of host sex in shaping the gut microbiome raises the question whether sex plays a role in exposure-induced microbiome responses. To examine this, we used 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomics sequencing to analyze the changes of the gut microbiome and its associated functional metagenome in both female and male C57/BL6 mice. Our results clearly demonstrated that arsenic exposure perturbed the trajectory and function of the gut microbiome in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27268458

  4. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V.; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7,843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and >41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by short-term changes in drinking water As. PMID:24486435

  5. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (<63μm), 5.71 (6.55)ppb for tap water, 14.0 (2.01)μg/L for specific gravity-corrected total urinary arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas. PMID:26803211

  6. The health effects of exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water: a review by global geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Haiyun; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water has been a vigorously studied and debated subject. However, the existing literature does not allow for a thorough examination of the potential regional discrepancies that may arise among arsenic-related health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated review of the literature on arsenic exposure and commonly discussed health effects according to global geographical distribution. This geographically segmented approach helps uncover the discrepancies in the health effects of arsenic. For instance, women are more susceptible than men to a few types of cancer in Taiwan, but not in other countries. Although skin cancer and arsenic exposure correlations have been discovered in Chile, Argentina, the United States, and Taiwan, no evident association was found in mainland China. We then propose several globally applicable recommendations to prevent and treat the further spread of arsenic poisoning and suggestions of future study designs and decision-making. PMID:25365079

  7. The health effects of exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water: a review by global geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Haiyun; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water has been a vigorously studied and debated subject. However, the existing literature does not allow for a thorough examination of the potential regional discrepancies that may arise among arsenic-related health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated review of the literature on arsenic exposure and commonly discussed health effects according to global geographical distribution. This geographically segmented approach helps uncover the discrepancies in the health effects of arsenic. For instance, women are more susceptible than men to a few types of cancer in Taiwan, but not in other countries. Although skin cancer and arsenic exposure correlations have been discovered in Chile, Argentina, the United States, and Taiwan, no evident association was found in mainland China. We then propose several globally applicable recommendations to prevent and treat the further spread of arsenic poisoning and suggestions of future study designs and decision-making.

  8. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN HEALTHY WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extremely high exposure levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower exposure levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on ...

  9. Arsenic exposure disrupts epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Katharine J. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Holloway, Adele [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Cook, Anthony L. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Chin, Suyin P. [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Snow, Elizabeth T., E-mail: elizabeth.snow@utas.edu.au [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin which increases skin cancer risk for exposed populations worldwide; however the underlying biomolecular mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is complex and poorly defined. Recent investigations show that histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase activity is impaired, and epigenetic patterns of gene regulation are consistently altered in cancers associated with arsenic exposure. Expression of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 is altered in solid tumours and haematological malignancies; however its role in arsenic-induced pathology is unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of arsenic on epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 and its targeting microRNA, miR-34a in primary human keratinocytes. Acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) increased in keratinocytes exposed to 0.5 μM arsenite [As(III)]; and this was associated with chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a promoter. Moreover, although SIRT1 protein initially increased in these As(III)-exposed cells, after 24 days expression was not significantly different from untreated controls. Extended exposure to low-dose As(III) (0.5 μM; > 5 weeks) compromised the pattern of CpG methylation at SIRT1 and miR-34a gene promoters, and this was associated with altered expression for both genes. We have found that arsenic alters epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 expression via structural reorganisation of chromatin at the miR-34a gene promoter in the initial 24 h of exposure; and over time, through shifts in miR-34a and SIRT1 gene methylation. Taken together, this investigation demonstrates that arsenic produces cumulative disruptions to epigenetic regulation of miR-34a expression, and this is associated with impaired coordination of SIRT1 functional activity. - Highlights: • Submicromolar arsenic concentrations disrupt SIRT1 activity and expression in human keratinocytes. • Arsenic-induced chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a gene promoter is associated with hyperacetylation

  10. Differential oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat brain regions and blood following chronic arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D; Flora, S J S

    2008-05-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning caused by contaminated drinking water is a wide spread and worldwide problem particularly in India and Bangladesh. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for arsenic toxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was planned 1) to evaluate if chronic exposure to arsenic leads to oxidative stress in blood and brain - parts of male Wistar rats and 2) to evaluate which brain region of the exposed animals was more sensitive to oxidative injury. Male Wistar rats were exposed to arsenic (50A ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water) for 10A months. The brain was dissected into five major parts, pons medulla, corpus striatum, cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. A number of biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress were studied in blood and different brain regions. Single-strand DNA damage using comet assay was also assessed in lymphocytes. We observed a significant increase in blood and brain ROS levels accompanied by the depletion of GSH/GSSG ratio and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in different brain regions of arsenic-exposed rats. Chronic arsenic exposure also caused significant single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes as depicted by comet with a tail in arsenic-exposed cells compared with the control cells. On the basis of results, we concluded that the cortex region of the brain was more sensitive to oxidative injury compared with the other regions studied. The present study, thus, leads us to suggest that arsenic induces differential oxidative stress in brain regions with cortex followed by hippocampus and causes single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes.

  11. Drinking-Water Arsenic Exposure Modulates Gene Expression in Human Lymphocytes from a U.S. Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Angeline S.; Jewell, David A.; Mason, Rebecca A.; Whitfield, Michael L.; Moore, Jason H.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure impairs development and can lead to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The mechanism underlying these effects remains unknown. Primarily because of geologic sources of contamination, drinking-water arsenic levels are above the current recommended maximum contaminant level of 10 μg/L in the northeastern, western, and north central regions of the United States. Objectives We investigated the effects of arsenic exposure, defined by internal biomarkers at levels relevant to the United States and similarly exposed populations, on gene expression. Methods We conducted separate Affymetrix microarray-based genomewide analyses of expression patterns. Peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from 21 controls interviewed (1999–2002) as part of a case–control study in New Hampshire were selected based on high- versus low-level arsenic exposure levels. Results The biologic functions of the transcripts that showed statistically significant abundance differences between high- and low-arsenic exposure groups included an overrepresentation of genes involved in defense response, immune function, cell growth, apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle, T-cell receptor signaling pathway, and diabetes. Notably, the high-arsenic exposure group exhibited higher levels of several killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors that inhibit natural killer cell activity. Conclusions These findings define biologic changes that occur with chronic arsenic exposure in humans and provide leads and potential targets for understanding and monitoring the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced diseases. PMID:18414638

  12. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and urothelial carcinoma risk in low arsenic exposure area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen and is known to cause oxidative stress in cultured cells and animals. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the levels of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the arsenic profile, and urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urinary 8-OHdG was measured by using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The urinary species of inorganic arsenic and their metabolites were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). This study showed that the mean urinary concentration of total arsenics was significantly higher, at 37.67 ± 2.98 μg/g creatinine, for UC patients than for healthy controls of 21.10 ± 0.79 μg/g creatinine (p < 0.01). Urinary 8-OHdG levels correlated with urinary total arsenic concentrations (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). There were significantly higher 8-OHdG levels, of 7.48 ± 0.97 ng/mg creatinine in UC patients, compared to healthy controls of 5.95 ± 0.21 ng/mg creatinine. Furthermore, female UC patients had higher 8-OHdG levels of 9.22 ± 0.75 than those of males at 5.76 ± 0.25 ng/mg creatinine (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that high urinary 8-OHdG levels were associated with increased total arsenic concentrations, inorganic arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsenate (DMA) as well as the primary methylation index (PMI) even after adjusting for age, gender, and UC status. The results suggest that oxidative DNA damage was associated with arsenic exposure, even at low urinary level of arsenic

  13. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  14. PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN RELATION TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN BAMEN, INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes in Relation to Drinking Water Arsenic Exposure in BaMen, Inner Mongolia, ChinaDanelle T. Lobdell, Zhixiong Ning, Richard K. Kwok, Judy Mumford, Zhi Yi Liu, Pauline MendolaIntroduction: Close to 40 million people worldwide are exposed t...

  15. Soil-Root Processes Responsible for Arsenic Uptake in Rice: A Route of Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is causing the largest mass poisoning in history, but we are only beginning to understand the extent of human exposure through contaminated food. Although second to drinking water in terms of human exposure, the consumption of As-laden food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily As exposure especially for populations already exposed through drinking water. Arsenic contamination of soils and groundwater is widespread In South and Southeast Asia, which is also one of the largest rice-growing regions of the world. As the demand for food has increased, so too has the use of irrigation practices to meet food demand, and much of this is via water contaminated with arsenic. In order to accurately predict human exposure to arsenic through rice consumption, we must first understand the processes that affect As dynamics in the rhizosphere and thus uptake by rice. Here, we examine As cycling in the rhizosphere, As distribution on and uptake by rice roots, the influence of Fe dynamics on As uptake, and mitigation strategies to reduce concentrations of As in rice grains.

  16. Association between Multi-level Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Skin Lesions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takesumi Yoshimura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most important toxicants in the environment. In Inner Mongolia of China, 300,000 residents are believed to be drinking water containing >50μg/liter. Skin lesions have been known as the most common consequences resulting from chronic exposure to arsenic. To clarify the prevalence of arsenic-induced skin lesions, it is important to assess the impact of this problem among the target population, and to make future planning. We evaluated the association between multi-levels inorganic arsenic exposure from drinking water and skin lesions in an arsenic-affected area in Inner Mongolia, China. One hundred nine and 32 subjects in high (>50μg/liter and low (150μg/liter were 33.3% (OR =15.50, 95% CI: 1.53-248.70, 46.7% (OR =16.10, 95% CI: 3.73-69.63 and 55.7% (OR= 25.70, 95% CI: 6.43-102.87, respectively. Duration of using well was not associated with increased risk of skin lesions in this population; (OR =1.68, 95% CI: 0.40-6.91 for 6-15 years, OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 0.58-9.14 for over 15 years compared with the duration of less than 5 years.

  17. Effects of microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial community on arsenic mobility in arsenic-rich deep aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvendu; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Elevated concentration of arsenic (As) prevailed in deep aquifers of Chianan Plain, Taiwan. Arsenic release in relation to microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial communities in deep aquifer sediments of Budai, southwestern Taiwan were investigated using microcosm experiments and substrate amendments over 90 days of anaerobic incubation. The results revealed that As reduction was independent of Fe reduction and a modest rate of sedimentary As release into aqueous phase occurred at the expense of the native organic carbon. Addition of lactate resulted in a parallel increase in As(III) (3.7-fold), Fe(II) (6.2-fold) and Mn (3.5 fold) in aqueous phase compared to un-amended slurries and the enrichment of sequences related to mostly Bacillus, Flavisolibacter, and Geobacter spp, suggesting the important role of these bacteria in As enrichment through reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe and Mn minerals. The increase in phosphate-extractable As in solid phase with concomitant rise in As in aqueous phase over the course of incubation further attested to the importance of reductive dissolution in promoting As release. Furthermore, the increase in arrA gene abundance with addition of labile carbon suggests that dissimilatory As reduction also may contribute to As enrichment in the water of the deep aquifer of Budai.

  18. Transformation of arsenic in the presence of cow dung and arsenic sludge disposal and management strategy in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Jalil, Md. Abdul; Ali, M. Ashraf

    2014-10-01

    With increasing use of arsenic (As) removal units for treatment of As-contaminated groundwater in rural Bangladesh, concerns have been raised regarding safe disposal of the As-rich wastes from such units and possible contamination of the environment. In the absence of any clear guideline for safe disposal of wastes generated from As removal units, the wastes are usually disposed of in the open environment, often on cow dung beds in the backyard. Short term (up to 6 weeks) batch experiments performed in this study suggest that bio-chemical (e.g., bio-methylation) processes in the presence of only fresh cow dung may lead to a significant removal of As, both from aqueous solution and As-rich treatment wastes. Arsenic removal appears to increase with decreasing As to cow dung weight ratio. This study also suggests that arsenate transforms to arsenite before removal from aqueous As solution in the presence of cow dung. In most cases majority of As removal takes place during first few days. Removal of As under cap-open (to facilitate aerobic condition) and cap-closed conditions (to facilitate aerobic condition) were found to be similar. No significant variation was observed in the removal As from aqueous solution and from treatment wastes (As bound to iron solids). This study concludes that disposal of As-rich treatment wastes to cow dung pits could be an effective option of As sludge disposal and management in rural areas of Bangladesh.

  19. Effects of microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial community on arsenic mobility in arsenic-rich deep aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvendu; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Elevated concentration of arsenic (As) prevailed in deep aquifers of Chianan Plain, Taiwan. Arsenic release in relation to microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial communities in deep aquifer sediments of Budai, southwestern Taiwan were investigated using microcosm experiments and substrate amendments over 90 days of anaerobic incubation. The results revealed that As reduction was independent of Fe reduction and a modest rate of sedimentary As release into aqueous phase occurred at the expense of the native organic carbon. Addition of lactate resulted in a parallel increase in As(III) (3.7-fold), Fe(II) (6.2-fold) and Mn (3.5 fold) in aqueous phase compared to un-amended slurries and the enrichment of sequences related to mostly Bacillus, Flavisolibacter, and Geobacter spp, suggesting the important role of these bacteria in As enrichment through reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe and Mn minerals. The increase in phosphate-extractable As in solid phase with concomitant rise in As in aqueous phase over the course of incubation further attested to the importance of reductive dissolution in promoting As release. Furthermore, the increase in arrA gene abundance with addition of labile carbon suggests that dissimilatory As reduction also may contribute to As enrichment in the water of the deep aquifer of Budai. PMID:26897570

  20. Respiratory Cancer and Inhaled Inorganic Arsenic in Copper Smelters Workers: A Linear Relationship with Cumulative Exposure that Increases with Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, Jay H.; Moore, Lee E.; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Cantor, Kenneth P

    2008-01-01

    Background Inhalation of high levels of airborne inorganic arsenic is a recognized cause of respiratory cancer. Although multiple epidemiologic studies have demonstrated this association, there have been few analyses of the mathematical relationship between cumulative arsenic exposure and risk of respiratory cancer, and no assessment as to whether and how arsenic concentration may modify this association. Objectives The objective is an evaluation of the shape of the relationship between respi...

  1. Infant Infections and Respiratory Symptoms in Relation to in Utero Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Li, Zhigang; Korrick, Susan A.; Spiegelman, Donna; Enelow, Richard; Nadeau, Kari; Baker, Emily; Margaret R Karagas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arsenic has been linked to disrupted immune function and greater infection susceptibility in highly exposed populations. Well arsenic levels above the U.S. EPA limit occur in our U.S. study area and are of particular concern for pregnant women and infants. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero arsenic exposure affects the risk of infections and respiratory symptoms over the first year of life. Methods: We prospectively obtained information on infant infections and symptoms,...

  2. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  3. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  4. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 μM) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge

  5. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  6. Human exposure to arsenic through foodstuffs cultivated using arsenic contaminated groundwater in areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Alok C; Kar, Sandeep; Bhattacharya, Piyal; Santra, Subhas C

    2011-01-01

    The widespread incidence of chronic arsenicosis in the Bengal Delta has led to intensive research on arsenic (As) enrichment in groundwater as well as accumulation in foodstuffs, as there are potential health risks associated with exposure to As from both sources. This study deals with human As exposure through the drinking of groundwater, consumption of locally grown foodstuffs (e.g., crops and vegetables) and cooked food in Nadia district, West Bengal. Groundwater and foodstuffs were collected and analyzed with FI-HG-AAS to estimate the total As content. Urine samples collected from human subjects were analyzed to assess the As exposure. Two major crops, boro and aman rice, showed a considerable amount of As, with mean values of 194 and 156 μg kg(-1), respectively. Significant levels of As were also found in other common crops and vegetables cultivated in this area (for example, the mean As in Arum and radish was 780 and 674 μg kg(-1), respectively). Total intake of As from foodstuffs by adults (560 μg day(-1)) and children (393 μg day(-1)) in the area was found to be at alarming levels. Arsenic exposure was demonstrated by the presence of As in urine (ranging between 154 and 276 μg L(-1)), with overall As retention of 50-60 %. The results of this study further indicate the potential risk of As exposure to local inhabitants through the food chain which is associated with continuous consumption of As-contaminated foodstuffs. Therefore, more action needs to be taken to control the contamination pathways (such as the water-soil-crop system) to protect humans from continuous ingestion of As through foodstuffs. PMID:21879858

  7. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and proteinuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Pesola, Gene R; Gamble, Mary V; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteinuria has been recognized as a marker for an increased risk of chronic renal disease. It is unclear whether arsenic (As) exposure from drinking water is associated with proteinuria. Methods We evaluated the association between As exposure from drinking water and proteinuria in 11 122 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Proteinuria was detected by urinary dipstick tests at baseline and at 2-year intervals. As exposure variables included baseline well As and changes in urinary As during follow-up modelled as time-dependent variables in the analyses. Results At baseline, well As was positively related to prevalence of proteinuria; prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for proteinuria in increasing quintiles of well As (≤7, 8–39, 40–91, 92–179 and 180–864 µg/l) were 1.00 (ref), POR 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–1.27], POR 1.23 (95% CI 0.97–1.57), POR 1.50 (95% CI 1.18–1.89) and POR 1.59 (95% CI 1.26–2.00) (P for trend 70 and 17–70 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, and were POR 1.17 (95% CI 0.97–1.42) and POR 1.42 (95% CI 1.16–1.73) for participants with an increasing level of 16–68 and >68 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, compared with the group with relatively little changes in urinary As as the reference group (urinary As −16 to 15 µg/l). Conclusion The findings suggest that there are adverse effects of As exposure on the risk of proteinuria and the effects are modifiable by recent changes in As exposure. PMID:21343184

  8. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents. PMID:27431456

  9. Association between Lifetime Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water and Coronary Heart Disease in Colorado Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Tim; Hokanson, John E.; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Zerbe, Gary O.; Marshall, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease (CHD), have been associated with ingestion of drinking water with high levels of inorganic arsenic (> 1,000 μg/L). However, associations have been inconclusive in populations with lower levels (< 100 μg/L) of inorganic arsenic exposure. Objectives: We conducted a case-cohort study based on individual estimates of lifetime arsenic exposure to examine the relationship between chronic low-level arsenic exposure and risk of CHD. Methods: This study included 555 participants with 96 CHD events diagnosed between 1984 and 1998 for which individual lifetime arsenic exposure estimates were determined using data from structured interviews and secondary data sources to determine lifetime residence, which was linked to a geospatial model of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. These lifetime arsenic exposure estimates were correlated with historically collected urinary arsenic concentrations. A Cox proportional-hazards model with time-dependent CHD risk factors was used to assess the association between time-weighted average (TWA) lifetime exposure to low-level inorganic arsenic in drinking water and incident CHD. Results: We estimated a positive association between low-level inorganic arsenic exposure and CHD risk [hazard ratio (HR): = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.78] per 15 μg/L while adjusting for age, sex, first-degree family history of CHD, and serum low-density lipoprotein levels. The risk of CHD increased monotonically with increasing TWAs for inorganic arsenic exposure in water relative to < 20 μg/L (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.6, 2.2 for 20–30 μg/L; HR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.0 for 30–45 μg/L; and HR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.1 for 45–88 μg/L). Conclusions: Lifetime exposure to low-level inorganic arsenic in drinking water was associated with increased risk for CHD in this population. Citation: James KA, Byers T, Hokanson JE, Meliker JR, Zerbe GO, Marshall JA. 2015. Association between lifetime exposure to

  10. Elevated ERCC-1 Gene Expression in blood cells associated with exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with human cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate arsenic effects on a DNA nucleotide excision repair gene, ERCC1, expression in human blood cells. Material and Methods: Water and toe nail samples were coll...

  11. Association between Hypertension and Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Drinking Water: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Hasnat Milton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic exposure and its association with hypertension in adults are inconclusive and this cross-sectional study investigated the association. The study was conducted between January and July 2009 among 1,004 participants from 1,682 eligible women and men aged ≥30 years living in rural Bangladesh who had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (systolic hypertension and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg (diastolic hypertension. Pulse pressure was calculated by deducting diastolic from systolic pressure and considered to be increased when the difference was ≥55 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.1–8.3%. After adjustment for other factors, no excess risk of hypertension was observed for arsenic exposure >50μg/L or to that of arsenic exposure as quartiles or as duration. Arsenic concentration as quartiles and >50 μg/L did show a strong relationship with increased pulse pressure (adjusted OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.46–8.57, as did arsenic exposure for ≥10 years (adjusted OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 1.41–19.51. Arsenic as quartiles showed a dose response relationship with increased pulse pressure. Our study suggests an association between higher drinking water arsenic or duration and pulse pressure, but not hypertension.

  12. Association between Hypertension and Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Drinking Water: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Khan, Ismail; Attia, John; Hassan, Sheikh Mohammad Nazmul; McEvoy, Mark; D’Este, Catherine; Azim, Syed; Akhter, Ayesha; Akter, Shahnaz; Shahidullah, Sheikh Mohammad; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure and its association with hypertension in adults are inconclusive and this cross-sectional study investigated the association. The study was conducted between January and July 2009 among 1,004 participants from 1,682 eligible women and men aged ≥30 years living in rural Bangladesh who had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (systolic hypertension) and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg (diastolic hypertension). Pulse pressure was calculated by deducting diastolic from systolic pressure and considered to be increased when the difference was ≥55 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.1–8.3%). After adjustment for other factors, no excess risk of hypertension was observed for arsenic exposure >50μg/L or to that of arsenic exposure as quartiles or as duration. Arsenic concentration as quartiles and >50 μg/L did show a strong relationship with increased pulse pressure (adjusted OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.46–8.57), as did arsenic exposure for ≥10 years (adjusted OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 1.41–19.51). Arsenic as quartiles showed a dose response relationship with increased pulse pressure. Our study suggests an association between higher drinking water arsenic or duration and pulse pressure, but not hypertension. PMID:23222207

  13. Drinking water arsenic in northern Chile: high cancer risks 40 years after exposure cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig M.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Romo, Johanna Acevedo; Yuan, Yan; Cortes, Sandra; Marshall, Guillermo; Moore, Lee E.; Balmes, John R.; Liaw, Jane; Golden, Todd; Smith, Allan H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. In the largest city in northern Chile (Antofagasta) >250,000 people were exposed to high arsenic drinking water concentrations from 1958 until 1970 when a water treatment plant was installed. Because of its unique geology, limited water sources, and good historical records, lifetime exposure and long-term latency patterns can be assessed in this area with better accuracy than in other arsenic-exposed areas worldwide. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study in northern Chile from October 2007 to December 2010 involving 232 lung and 306 bladder cancer cases and 640 age- and gender-matched controls, with detailed information on past exposure and potential confounders, including smoking and occupation. Results Bladder cancer odds ratios for quartiles of average arsenic concentrations in water before 1971 (335 µg/L) were 1.00, 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 2.37), 3.87 (2.25 to 6.64), and 6.50 (3.69 to 11.43), respectively. Corresponding lung cancer odds ratios were 1.00, 1.27 (0.81 to 1.98), 2.00 (1.24 to 3.24), and 4.32 (2.60 to 7.17). Bladder and lung cancer odds ratios in those highly exposed in Antofagasta during 1958–70 but not thereafter were 6.88 (3.84 to 12.32) and 4.35 (2.57 to 7.36), respectively. Conclusions The lung and bladder cancer risks that we found up to 40 years after high exposures have ended are very high. Impact Our findings suggest that prevention, treatment, and other mortality reduction efforts in arsenic-exposed countries will be needed for decades after exposure cessation. PMID:23355602

  14. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility to the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima-medial thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = -5.1 μm, 95% CI = -31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = -3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. PMID:24593923

  15. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = -5.1 μm, 95% CI = -31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = -3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings.

  16. No Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ahsan, Habibul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Peltier, Gretchen Loeffler; Gluskin, Rebecca T.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Xinhua; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water at levels < 300 μg/L and the risk of diabetes mellitus remains a controversial topic. Method We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using baseline data from 11,319 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to evaluate the associations of well water arsenic and total urinary arsenic concentration and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucosuria. We also assessed the concentrations of well water arsenic, total urinary arsenic, and urinary arsenic metabolites in relation to blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in subsets of the study population. Results More than 90% of the cohort members were exposed to drinking water with arsenic concentration < 300 μg/L. We found no association between arsenic exposure and the prevalence of diabetes. The adjusted odds ratios for diabetes were 1.00 (referent), 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90–2.02], 1.24 (0.82–1.87), 0.96 (0.62–1.49), and 1.11 (0.73–1.69) in relation to quintiles of time-weighted water arsenic concentrations of 0.1–8, 8–41, 41–91, 92–176, and ≥ 177 μg/L, respectively, and 1.00 (referent), 1.29 (0.87–1.91), 1.05 (0.69–1.59), 0.94 (0.61–1.44), and 0.93 (0.59–1.45) in relation to quintiles of urinary arsenic concentrations of 1–36, 37–66, 67–114, 115–204, and ≥ 205 μg/L, respectively. We observed no association between arsenic exposure and prevalence of glucosuria and no evidence of an association between well water arsenic, total urinary arsenic, or the composition of urinary arsenic metabolites and HbA1c level. Conclusions Our findings do not support an association of arsenic exposure from drinking water and a significantly increased risk of diabetes mellitus in the range of levels observed. Further prospective studies would be valuable in confirming the findings. PMID:20813654

  17. Association between type 2 diabetes and chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water: A cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to high level of inorganic arsenic in drinking water has been associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Most research has been ecological in nature and has focused on high levels of arsenic exposure with few studies directly measuring arsenic levels in drinking water as an index of arsenic exposure. The effect of low to moderate levels of arsenic exposure on diabetes risk is largely unknown thus our study is adding further knowledge over previous works. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 1004 consenting women and men from 1682 eligible participants yielding a participation rate of 60%. These participants are aged >30 years and were living in Bangladesh and had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. T2D cases were diagnosed using glucometer following the new diagnostic criteria (Fasting Blood Glucose > 126 mg/dl) from the WHO guideline (WHO 2006), or a self-reported physician diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Association between T2D and chronic arsenic exposure was estimated by multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, education, Body Mass Index (BMI) and family history of T2D. Results A total of 1004 individuals participated in the study. The prevalence of T2D was 9% (95% CI 7-11%). After adjustment for diabetes risk factors, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes was observed for arsenic exposure over 50 μg/L with those in the highest category having almost double the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR=1.9 ; 95% CI 1.1-3.5). For most levels of arsenic exposure, the risk estimates are higher with longer exposure; a dose–response pattern was also observed. Conclusions These findings suggest an association between chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and T2D. Risks are generally higher with longer duration of arsenic exposure. The risk of T2D is highest among those who were exposed to the highest concentration of arsenic for more than 10 years. PMID:22676249

  18. Association between type 2 diabetes and chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water: A cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exposure to high level of inorganic arsenic in drinking water has been associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D. Most research has been ecological in nature and has focused on high levels of arsenic exposure with few studies directly measuring arsenic levels in drinking water as an index of arsenic exposure. The effect of low to moderate levels of arsenic exposure on diabetes risk is largely unknown thus our study is adding further knowledge over previous works. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 1004 consenting women and men from 1682 eligible participants yielding a participation rate of 60%. These participants are aged >30 years and were living in Bangladesh and had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. T2D cases were diagnosed using glucometer following the new diagnostic criteria (Fasting Blood Glucose > 126 mg/dl from the WHO guideline (WHO 2006, or a self-reported physician diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Association between T2D and chronic arsenic exposure was estimated by multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, education, Body Mass Index (BMI and family history of T2D. Results A total of 1004 individuals participated in the study. The prevalence of T2D was 9% (95% CI 7-11%. After adjustment for diabetes risk factors, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes was observed for arsenic exposure over 50 μg/L with those in the highest category having almost double the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR=1.9 ; 95% CI 1.1-3.5. For most levels of arsenic exposure, the risk estimates are higher with longer exposure; a dose–response pattern was also observed. Conclusions These findings suggest an association between chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and T2D. Risks are generally higher with longer duration of arsenic exposure. The risk of T2D is highest among those who were exposed to the highest concentration of arsenic for more than 10 years.

  19. Persistent Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh Despite Major Mitigation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Renee; Hamadani, Jena; Grandér, Margaretha; Tofail, Fahmida; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Kippler, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Elevated arsenic levels in tube-well water in Bangladesh have prompted extensive mitigation projects. We evaluated the effectiveness of long-term mitigation efforts by longitudinally measuring arsenic exposure in pregnant women and their children, the most susceptible population groups. Methods. The study was nested in a population-based nutrition intervention in Matlab, Bangladesh. Mother–child pairs (n = 1951) were followed from 2001 to 2003, beginning in early gestation and continuing to 5 years postpartum. We measured arsenic concentrations in urine (U-As) of the 5-year-old children by using high-performance liquid chromatography online with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and compared them with earlier childhood U-As and maternal U-As during pregnancy. Results. Children had elevated U-As at 5 years old (median = 51 μg/L, 5th–95th percentiles = 16–355 μg/L), and U-As distribution was similar to that observed in the mothers during gestation. Children's U-As at 5 years old significantly correlated with their U-As at 1.5 years old and to maternal U-As during early and late gestation. Conclusions. Despite major mitigation efforts, arsenic exposure remains highly elevated in rural Bangladesh. Further mitigation strategies are required and must be rigorously evaluated for long-term efficacy. PMID:21778503

  20. Bhas 42 cell transformation activity of cigarette smoke condensate is modulated by selenium and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Gu; Pant, Kamala; Bruce, Shannon W; Gairola, C Gary

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health risk worldwide. Development of newer tobacco products requires the use of quantitative toxicological assays. Recently, v-Ha-ras transfected BALB/c3T3 (Bhas 42) cell transformation assay was established that simulates the two-stage animal tumorigenesis model and measures tumor initiating and promoting activities of chemicals. The present study was performed to assess the feasibility of using this Bhas 42 cell transformation assay to determine the initiation and promotion activities of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and its water soluble fraction. Further, the modulating effects of selenium and arsenic on cigarette smoke-induced cell transformation were investigated. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water extracts of CSC (CSC-D and CSC-W, respectively) were tested at concentrations of 2.5-40 µg mL(-1) in the initiation or promotion assay formats. Initiation protocol of the Bhas 42 assay showed a 3.5-fold increase in transformed foci at 40 µg mL(-1) of CSC-D but not CSC-W. The promotion phase of the assay yielded a robust dose response with CSC-D (2.5-40 µg mL(-1)) and CSC-W (20-40 µg mL(-1)). Preincubation of cells with selenium (100 nM) significantly reduced CSC-induced increase in cell transformation in initiation assay. Co-treatment of cells with a sub-toxic dose of arsenic significantly enhanced cell transformation activity of CSC-D in promotion assay. The results suggest a presence of both water soluble and insoluble tumor promoters in CSC, a role of oxidative stress in CSC-induced cell transformation, and usefulness of Bhas 42 cell transformation assay in comparing tobacco product toxicities and in studying the mechanisms of tobacco carcinogenesis.

  1. Elevated Human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression in blood cells associated with chronic and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure is associated with human cancer. Telomerase containing the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of chromosomes, delay senescence and promoting cell proliferation leading to tumorigenesis. OBJECTIVE:...

  2. MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Mehta, Ashish; Yadav, Abhishek [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior-474 002 (India); Binukumar, B.K.; Gill, Kiran Dip [Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh-160 012 (India); Flora, Swaran J.S., E-mail: sjsflora@hotmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior-474 002 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality. Arsenic induced free radicals generated are known to cause cellular apoptosis through mitochondrial driven pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenic interactions with various complexes of the electron transport chain and attempted to evaluate if there was any complex preference of arsenic that could trigger apoptosis. We also evaluated if chelation with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) could reverse these detrimental effects. Our results indicate that arsenic exposure induced free radical generation in rat neuronal cells, which diminished mitochondrial potential and enzyme activities of all the complexes of the electron transport chain. Moreover, these complexes showed differential responses towards arsenic. These early events along with diminished ATP levels could be co-related with the later events of cytosolic migration of cytochrome c, altered bax/bcl{sub 2} ratio, and increased caspase 3 activity. Although MiADMSA could reverse most of these arsenic-induced altered variables to various extents, DNA damage remained unaffected. Our study for the first time demonstrates the differential effect of arsenic on the complexes leading to deficits in bioenergetics leading to apoptosis in rat brain. However, more in depth studies are warranted for better understanding of arsenic interactions with the mitochondria. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic impairs mitochondrial energy metabolism leading to neuronal apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic differentially affects mitochondrial complexes, I - III and IV being more sensitive than complex II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic-induced apoptosis initiates through ROS generation or impaired [Ca{sup 2+}]i homeostasis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiADMSA reverses arsenic toxicity via intracellular arsenic- chelation, antioxidant

  3. In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water impairs early life lung mechanics in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a significant environmental issue affecting millions of people around the world. Exposure to arsenic during foetal development has been shown to impair somatic growth and increase the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine if in utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water is capable of altering lung growth and postnatal lung mechanics. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 10 (current World Health Organisation (WHO) maximum contaminant level) or 100μg/L arsenic from gestational day 8 to birth. Birth outcomes and somatic growth were monitored. Plethysmography and the forced oscillation technique were used to collect measurements of lung volume, lung mechanics, pressure-volume curves and the volume dependence of lung mechanics in male and female offspring at two, four, six and eight weeks of age. Results In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water resulted in low birth weight and impaired parenchymal lung mechanics during infancy. Male offspring were more susceptible to the effects of arsenic on growth and lung mechanics than females. All alterations to lung mechanics following in utero arsenic exposure were recovered by adulthood. Conclusions Exposure to arsenic at the current WHO maximum contaminant level in utero impaired somatic growth and the development of the lungs resulting in alterations to lung mechanics during infancy. Deficits in growth and lung development in early life may contribute to the increased susceptibility of developing chronic respiratory disease in arsenic exposed human populations. PMID:23419080

  4. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G. [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Paul-Brutus, Rachelle [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Jiang, Jieying [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Rundek, Tatjana [Department of Neurology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  5. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  6. Diabetes mellitus and arsenic exposure: a second look at case-control data from a Swedish copper smelter.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.; Axelson, O

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To find out whether a newly found association between diabetes mellitus and arsenic in drinking water in Taiwan could be reproduced in copper smelters with arsenic exposure. METHODS--Extended analysis of a previous case-control study from 1978 was based on death records and objective exposure information from the company. The final analysis included only those employed at the smelter. Cases were 12 people with diabetes mellitus on the death certificate and those for whom there was...

  7. Considerations in deriving quantitative cancer criteria for inorganic arsenic exposure via inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S; Beyer, Leslie A; Zu, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation unit risk (IUR) that currently exists in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Integrated Risk Information System was developed in 1984 based on studies examining the relationship between respiratory cancer and arsenic exposure in copper smelters from two US locations: the copper smelter in Anaconda, Montana, and the American Smelting And Refining COmpany (ASARCO) smelter in Tacoma, Washington. Since US EPA last conducted its assessment, additional data have become available from epidemiology and mechanistic studies. In addition, the California Air Resources Board, Texas Commission of Environmental Quality, and Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety have all conducted new risk assessments. All three analyses, which calculated IURs based on respiratory/lung cancer mortality, generated IURs that are lower (i.e., less restrictive) than the current US EPA value of 4.3×10(-3) (μg/m(3))(-1). The IURs developed by these agencies, which vary more than 20-fold, are based on somewhat different studies and use different methodologies to address uncertainties in the underlying datasets. Despite these differences, all were developed based on a cumulative exposure metric assuming a low-dose linear dose-response relationship. In this paper, we contrast and compare the analyses conducted by these agencies and critically evaluate strengths and limitations inherent in the data and methodologies used to develop quantitative risk estimates. In addition, we consider how these data could be best used to assess risk at much lower levels of arsenic in air, such as those experienced by the general public. Given that the mode of action for arsenic supports a threshold effect, and epidemiological evidence suggests that the arsenic concentration in air is a reliable predictor of lung/respiratory cancer risk, we developed a quantitative cancer risk analysis using a nonlinear threshold model. Applying a nonlinear model to occupational data, we

  8. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qiuling, E-mail: 924969007@qq.com [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293 (Japan); Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Mu, Jinjun [The Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Li, Yuanfei [The First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  9. Influence of glutathione chemical effectors in the response of maize to arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Raquel; Tena, Manuel

    2012-05-01

    To support the key role of glutathione (GSH) in the mechanisms of tolerance and accumulation of arsenic in plants, this work examines the impact of several effectors of GSH synthesis or action in the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to arsenic. Maize was exposed in hydroponics to iso-toxic rates of 150 μM arsenate or 75 μM arsenite for 9 days and GSH effectors, flurazole (an herbicide safener), l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a known inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis), and dimercaptosuccinate (DMS) and dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) (two thiols able to displace GSH from arsenite-GSH complexes) were assayed. The main responses of plants to arsenic exposure consisted of a biomass reduction (fresh weight basis) of about 50%, an increase of non-protein thiol (NPTs) levels (especially in the GSH precursor γ-glutamylcysteine and the phytochelatins PC₂ and PC₃) in roots, with little effect in shoots, and an accumulation of between 600 and 1000 ppm of As (dry weight basis) in roots with very little translocation to shoots. Growth inhibition caused by arsenic was partially or completely reversed in plants co-treated with flurazole and arsenate or arsenite, respectively, highly exacerbated in plants co-treated with BSO, and not modified in plants co-treated with DMS or DMPS. These responses correlated well with an increase of both NPTs levels in roots and glutathione transferase activity in roots and shoots due to flurazole treatment, the decrease of NPTs levels in roots caused by BSO and the lack of effect on NPT levels caused by both DMS and DMPS. Regarding to arsenic accumulation in roots, it was not modified by flurazole, highly reduced by BSO, and increased between 2.5- and 4.0-fold by DMS and DMPS. Therefore, tolerance and accumulation of arsenic by maize could be manipulated pharmacologically by chemical effectors of GSH.

  10. Association of Environmental Arsenic Exposure, Genetic Polymorphisms of Susceptible Genes, and Skin Cancers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-I Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency in the capability of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation may be correlated with individual susceptibility to arsenic-related skin cancers. We hypothesized that glutathione S-transferase (GST M1, T1, and P1, reactive oxygen species (ROS related metabolic genes (NQO1, EPHX1, and HO-1, and DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XPD, hOGG1, and ATM together may play a role in arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis. We conducted a case-control study consisting of 70 pathologically confirmed skin cancer patients and 210 age and gender matched participants with genotyping of 12 selected polymorphisms. The skin cancer risks were estimated by odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI using logistic regression. EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTT1 null genotypes were associated with skin cancer risk (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.01–8.83; OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.99–4.27; OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.00–3.02, resp.. However, none of these polymorphisms showed significant association after considering arsenic exposure status. Individuals carrying three risk polymorphisms of EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTs presented a 400% increased skin cancer risk when compared to those with less than or equal to one polymorphism. In conclusion, GSTs, EPHX1, and XPD are potential genetic factors for arsenic-induced skin cancers. The roles of these genes for arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis need to be further evaluated.

  11. Long-Term Low-Level Arsenic Exposure Is Associated with Poorer Neuropsychological Functioning: A Project FRONTIER Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Barber

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to elements in groundwater (toxic or beneficial is commonplace yet, outside of lead and mercury, little research has examined the impact of many commonly occurring environmental exposures on mental abilities during the aging process. Inorganic arsenic is a known neurotoxin that has both neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between current and long-term arsenic exposure and detailed neuropsychological functioning in a sample of rural-dwelling adults and elders. Data were analyzed from 434 participants (133 men and 301 women of Project FRONTIER, a community-based participatory research study of the epidemiology of health issues of rural-dwelling adults and elders. The results of the study showed that GIS-based groundwater arsenic exposure (current and long-term was significantly related to poorer scores in language, visuospatial skills, and executive functioning. Additionally, long-term low-level exposure to arsenic was significantly correlated to poorer scores in global cognition, processing speed and immediate memory. The finding of a correlation between arsenic and the domains of executive functioning and memory is of critical importance as these are cognitive domains that reflect the earliest manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease. Additional work is warranted given the population health implications associated with long-term low-level arsenic exposure.

  12. Exposure of soil microbial communities to chromium and arsenic alters their diversity and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody S Sheik

    Full Text Available Extensive use of chromium (Cr and arsenic (As based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI. Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways.

  13. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  14. Current status of arsenic exposure and social implication in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kongkea; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Huoy, Laingshun; Phan, Samrach; Se, Soknim; Capon, Anthony Guy; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the current status of arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia, field interview along with urine sample collection was conducted in the arsenic-affected area of Kandal Province, Cambodia. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As a result, arsenicosis patients (n = 127) had As in urine (UAs) ranging from 3.76 to 373 µg L(-1) (mean = 78.7 ± 69.8 µg L(-1); median = 60.2 µg L(-1)). Asymptomatic villagers (n = 108) had UAs ranging from 5.93 to 312 µg L(-1) (mean = 73.0 ± 52.2 µg L(-1); median = 60.5 µg L(-1)). About 24.7 % of all participants had UAs greater than 100 µg L(-1) which indicated a recent arsenic exposure. A survey found that females and adults were more likely to be diagnosed with skin sign of arsenicosis than males and children, respectively. Education level, age, gender, groundwater drinking period, residence time in the village and amount of water drunk per day may influence the incidence of skin signs of arsenicosis. This study suggests that residents in Kandal study area are currently at risk of arsenic although some mitigation has been implemented. More commitment should be made to address this public health concern in rural Cambodia. PMID:26298061

  15. Exposure of soil microbial communities to chromium and arsenic alters their diversity and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik, Cody S; Mitchell, Tyler W; Rizvi, Fariha Z; Rehman, Yasir; Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; McInerney, Michael J; Krumholz, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways. PMID:22768219

  16. Urinary and dietary analysis of 18,470 bangladeshis reveal a correlation of rice consumption with arsenic exposure and toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Melkonian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We utilized data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to evaluate the association of steamed rice consumption with urinary total arsenic concentration and arsenical skin lesions in the overall study cohort (N=18,470 and in a subset with available urinary arsenic metabolite data (N=4,517. METHODS: General linear models with standardized beta coefficients were used to estimate associations between steamed rice consumption and urinary total arsenic concentration and urinary arsenic metabolites. Logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the associations between rice intake and prevalent skin lesions at baseline. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate discrete time (HRs ratios and their 95% CIs for the associations between rice intake and incident skin lesions. RESULTS: Steamed rice consumption was positively associated with creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic (β=0.041, 95% CI: 0.032-0.051 and urinary total arsenic with statistical adjustment for creatinine in the model (β=0.043, 95% CI: 0.032-0.053. Additionally, we observed a significant trend in skin lesion prevalence (P-trend=0.007 and a moderate trend in skin lesion incidence (P-trend=0.07 associated with increased intake of steamed rice. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that rice intake may be a source of arsenic exposure beyond drinking water.

  17. Biochemical and histological alterations in liver following sub chronic exposure of arsenic

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    Madhuri Mehta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Contamination of groundwater with arsenic is of global concern. The present work was aimed to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes in liver of female rats induced by sodium arsenite at doses naturally found in groundwater of Punjab. Method: Twenty four female rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group I animals received distilled water and served as control; Group II-IV received arsenic at the dose of 10, 30 and 50 ppb (μg/L dissolved in distilled water ad libitum for 30 days. At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and liver was collected for biochemical and histological evaluation. Results: Biochemical analysis showed an increase in the activity of hepatic marker enzymes including transferases, phosphatases and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Also, the levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, reduced glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 in treated animals when compared to control. A significant (P<0.05 dose dependent increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and arsenic concentration in liver tissue was observed. Histological examination showed the presence of pyknotic bodies (necrosis and sinusoidal dilation in hepatocytes of treated groups. Conclusion: Sub chronic exposure of arsenic at these doses induces hepatotoxicity leading to oxidative stress.

  18. Arsenic exposure through drinking water increases the risk of liver and cardiovascular diseases in the population of West Bengal, India

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    Das Nandana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is a natural drinking water contaminant affecting 26 million people in West Bengal, India. Chronic arsenic exposure causes cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, neuropathies and ocular diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess bioindicators of hepatocellular injury as indicated by the levels of liver enzymes, to determine the auto immune status, as indicated by the amounts of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies in their serum, and to predict cardiovascular risk in the arsenic exposed population. Methods Effect of chronic arsenic exposure on liver was determined by liver function tests. Autoimmune status was measured by measuring ANA and anti-dsDNA in serum. Inflammatory cytokines associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, IL6, IL8 and MCP-1 were determined. Results Our results indicated that serum levels of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and ANA were increased in the arsenic exposed population. Serum levels of IL6 and IL8 also increased in the arsenic exposed group. Conclusions Chronic arsenic exposure causes liver injury, increases the serum levels of autoimmune markers and imparts increased cardiovascular risk.

  19. Arsenic exposure through drinking water increases the risk of liver and cardiovascular diseases in the population of West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a natural drinking water contaminant affecting 26 million people in West Bengal, India. Chronic arsenic exposure causes cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, neuropathies and ocular diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess bioindicators of hepatocellular injury as indicated by the levels of liver enzymes, to determine the auto immune status, as indicated by the amounts of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies in their serum, and to predict cardiovascular risk in the arsenic exposed population. Methods Effect of chronic arsenic exposure on liver was determined by liver function tests. Autoimmune status was measured by measuring ANA and anti-dsDNA in serum. Inflammatory cytokines associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, IL6, IL8 and MCP-1 were determined. Results Our results indicated that serum levels of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and ANA were increased in the arsenic exposed population. Serum levels of IL6 and IL8 also increased in the arsenic exposed group. Conclusions Chronic arsenic exposure causes liver injury, increases the serum levels of autoimmune markers and imparts increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:22883023

  20. Arsenic Transformation Predisposes Human Skin Keratinocytes To UV-induced DNA Damage Yet Enhances Their Survival Apparently by Diminishing Oxidant Response

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yang(Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China); Kojima, Chikara; Chignell, Colin; Mason, Ronald; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark o...

  1. Childhood cancer incidence and arsenic exposure in drinking water in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lee E; Lu, Meng; Smith, Allan H

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water causes cancer in adults; however, the carcinogenic potential in children remains unknown. A recent leukemia cluster in Churchill County, Nevada, where arsenic levels in water supplies are relatively high, has prompted concern. The authors investigated the incidence of childhood cancer between 1979 and 1999 in all 17 Nevada counties, grouped by low (i.e., water supplies. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for all childhood cancers combined were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94, 1.06), 0.72 (95% CI = 0.43, 1.12), and 1.25 (95% CI = 0.91, 1.69) for low-, medium-, and high-exposure counties, respectively. There was no relationship between arsenic levels in water and childhood leukemia (SIRs = 1.02, 0.61, and 0.86, respectively [95% CIIs = 0.90, 1.15; 0.12, 1.79; and 0.37, 1.70, respectively]). For all childhood cancers, excluding leukemias, the SIRs were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.92, 1.07), 0.82 (95% CI = 0.42, 1.22), and 1.37 (0.92, 1.83), respectively. The excess in 5- to 9-yr-old children and 10- to 14-yr-old children was in bone cancers, and the excess in 15- to 19-yr-old young adults was primarily in lymphomas. The findings in this study are reassuring in that leukemia risks were not increased at the concentrations of arsenic in water found in this study. Nonetheless, the results raise the possibility that there are increased risks for nonleukemic childhood cancers that require confirmation in other studies, particularly those in which higher exposures are addressed.

  2. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Induces Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Normal Mice and Enhances Depression-Like Behaviors in the Chemically Induced Mouse Model of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Yu Chang; How-Ran Guo; Wan-Chen Tsai; Kai-Lin Yang; Li-Chuan Lin; Tain-Junn Cheng; Jiunn-Jye Chuu

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates that subchronic arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration leading to behavioral disturbances relevant to psychiatric disorders. However, there is still little information regarding the influence of subchronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water on mood disorders and its underlying mechanisms in the cerebral prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of subchronic arsenic exposure (10 mg/LAs2O3 in drinking water) on t...

  3. Acetylated H4K16 by MYST1 protects UROtsa cells from arsenic toxicity and is decreased following chronic arsenic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic, a human carcinogen that is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, is commonly found in drinking water. An important mechanism by which arsenic is thought to be carcinogenic is through the induction of epigenetic changes that lead to aberrant gene expression. Previously, we reported that the SAS2 gene is required for optimal growth of yeast in the presence of arsenite (AsIII). Yeast Sas2p is orthologous to human MYST1, a histone 4 lysine 16 (H4K16) acetyltransferase. Here, we show that H4K16 acetylation is necessary for the resistance of yeast to AsIII through the modulation of chromatin state. We further explored the role of MYST1 and H4K16 acetylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis in human bladder epithelial cells. The expression of MYST1 was knocked down in UROtsa cells, a model of bladder epithelium that has been used to study arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Silencing of MYST1 reduced acetylation of H4K16 and induced sensitivity to AsIII and to its more toxic metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) at doses relevant to high environmental human exposures. In addition, both AsIII and MMAIII treatments decreased global H4K16 acetylation levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This indicates that acetylated H4K16 is required for resistance to arsenic and that a reduction in its levels as a consequence of arsenic exposure may contribute to toxicity in UROtsa cells. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role for the MYST1 gene in human sensitivity to arsenic.

  4. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae—a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    day−1) put down by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2009, for cancers of the lung, skin and bladder, as well as skin lesions. Hence, the results demonstrate that consumption of certain dietary supplements could contribute significantly to the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic at levels...

  5. Mortality in Young Adults following in Utero and Childhood Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Guillermo; Liaw, Jane; Yuan, Yan; Ferreccio, Catterina; Steinmaus, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beginning in 1958, the city of Antofagasta in northern Chile was exposed to high arsenic concentrations (870 µg/L) when it switched water sources. The exposure abruptly stopped in 1970 when an arsenic-removal plant commenced operations. A unique exposure scenario like this—with an abrupt start, clear end, and large population (125,000 in 1970), all with essentially the same exposure—is rare in environmental epidemiology. Evidence of increased mortality from lung cancer, bronchiectasis, myocardial infarction, and kidney cancer has been reported among young adults who were in utero or children during the high-exposure period. Objective: We investigated other causes of mortality in Antofagasta among 30- to 49-year-old adults who were in utero or ≤ 18 years of age during the high-exposure period. Methods: We compared mortality data between Antofagasta and the rest of Chile for people 30–49 years of age during 1989–2000. We estimated expected deaths from mortality rates in all of Chile, excluding Region II where Antofagasta is located, and calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Results: We found evidence of increased mortality from bladder cancer [SMR = 18.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 11.3, 27.4], laryngeal cancer (SMR = 8.1; 95% CI: 3.5, 16.0), liver cancer (SMR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6, 3.7), and chronic renal disease (SMR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5, 2.8). Conclusions: Taking together our findings in the present study and previous evidence of increased mortality from other causes of death, we conclude that arsenic in Antofagasta drinking water has resulted in the greatest increases in mortality in adults < 50 years of age ever associated with early-life environmental exposure. PMID:22949133

  6. Effects of low-level lead and arsenic exposure on copper smelter workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Malkin, J.; Weber, J.P.

    An analysis of reported symptoms and their relationship with indicators of lead absorption - blood lead (Pb-B) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) - and of arsenic absorption - urinary arsenic (As-U) - was undertaken among 680 active copper smelter workers. Lead and arsenic absorption in the copper smelter employees were characterized by the median values of 30.4 ..mu..g/dl for Pb-B, 41.5 ..mu..g/dl for ZPP, and 26 ..mu..g/L for As-U. Blood lead was 40 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 16.7% or cases, ZPP was 50 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 31.2%, and urinary arsenic was 50 ..mu..g/L or higher in 16.4% of currently active copper smelter workers. The number of reported symptoms (from a total of 14 symptoms) increased with ZPP levels; the relationship with Pb-B was less marked. Arsenic contributed relatively little. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, and As-U levels for subjects reporting each of the 14 symptoms were compared with those of subjects who did not report the symptoms. Mean Pb-B was found to differ significantly for one symptom, fatigue. Significant differences in mean ZPP levels were found for fatigue, sleep disturbances, weakness, paresthesia, and joint pain. Prevalence rates for these symptoms rose more markedly with increasing ZPP than with Pb-B levels. The results indicate a relationship between certain CNS and musculo-skeletal symptoms and increased lead absorption in this population. Adherence to exposure standards that preclude undue lead absorption and appropriate biological monitoring including ZPP levels, are necessary to prevent adverse, especially long-term, health effects.

  7. Chronic arsenic trioxide exposure leads to enhanced aggressiveness via Met oncogene addiction in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Pirker, Christine; Englinger, Bernhard; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Spitzwieser, Melanie; Mohr, Thomas; Körner, Wilfried; Weinmüllner, Regina; Tav, Koray; Grillari, Johannes; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    As an environmental poison, arsenic is responsible for many cancer deaths. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide (ATO) presents also a powerful therapy used to treat refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and is intensively investigated for treatment of other cancer types. Noteworthy, cancer therapy is frequently hampered by drug resistance, which is also often associated with enhancement of tumor aggressiveness. In this study, we analyzed ATO-selected cancer cells (A2780ATO) for the mechanisms underlying their enhanced tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. These cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and spheroid growth as well as increased tumorigenicity of xenografts in SCID mice. Noteworthy, subsequent studies revealed that overexpression of Met receptor was the underlying oncogenic driver of these effects, as A2780ATO cells were characterized by collateral sensitivity against Met inhibitors. This finding was also confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and whole genome gene expression arrays, which revealed that Met overexpression by chronic ATO exposure was based on the transcriptional regulation via activation of AP-1. Finally, it was shown that treatment with the Met inhibitor crizotinib was also effective against A2780ATO cell xenografts in vivo, indicating that targeting of Met presents a promising strategy for the treatment of Met-overexpressing tumors after either arsenic exposure or failure to ATO treatment. PMID:27036042

  8. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease in a case of chronic arsenic exposure

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    Somnath Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old housewife, the resident of rural part of West Bengal, presented with gradually progressive exertional dyspnea associated with a dry cough for last 3 years clinical features were suggestive of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD. Her chest X-ray posteroanterior view and high resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities and reticulonodular pattern. Search for the etiology revealed classical skin findings of chronic arsenic exposure in the form of generalized darkening and thickening of skin and keratotic lesions over the palms and soles and classical raindrop pigmentation over leg which was present for last 7 years subsequently her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hair, nail, and drinking water showed significant amount of arsenic contamination. By exclusion of all known causes of DPLD, we concluded that it was a case of DPLD due to chronic arsenic exposure. To the best of our knowledge, only few case report of DPLD in chronic arsenicosis has been reported till date.

  9. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease in a case of chronic arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Somnath; Dey, Atin; Saha, Sayantan; Kar, Saurav

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old housewife, the resident of rural part of West Bengal, presented with gradually progressive exertional dyspnea associated with a dry cough for last 3 years clinical features were suggestive of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD). Her chest X-ray posteroanterior view and high resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities and reticulonodular pattern. Search for the etiology revealed classical skin findings of chronic arsenic exposure in the form of generalized darkening and thickening of skin and keratotic lesions over the palms and soles and classical raindrop pigmentation over leg which was present for last 7 years subsequently her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hair, nail, and drinking water showed significant amount of arsenic contamination. By exclusion of all known causes of DPLD, we concluded that it was a case of DPLD due to chronic arsenic exposure. To the best of our knowledge, only few case report of DPLD in chronic arsenicosis has been reported till date. PMID:27625453

  10. Association between occupational exposure to arsenic and neurological, respiratory and renal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halatek, Tadeusz; Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Rabieh, Sasan; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    Occupational exposure by inhalation in copper smelter is associated with several subclinical health phenomena. The respiratory tract is usually involved in the process of detoxication of inhaled noxious agents which, as arsenic, can act as inductors of oxidative stress (Lantz, R.C., Hays, A.M., 2006. Role of oxidative stress in arsenic-induced toxicity. Drug Metab. Rev. 38, 791-804). It is also known that irritating fumes affect distal bronchioles of non-ciliated, epithelial Clara cells, which secrete anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive Clara cell protein (CC16) into the respiratory tract. The study group comprised 39 smelters employed at different workplaces in a copper foundry, matched for age and smoking habits with the control group (n=16). Subjective neurological symptoms (SNS), visual evoked potentials (VEP), electroneurographic (EneG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) results were examined in the workers and the relationships between As concentration in the air (As-Air) and urine (As-U) were assessed. Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarkers: CC16 as early pulmonary biomarker and beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M) in urine and serum and retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex immunoassay. The concentrations of arsenic exceeded about two times the Threshold Limit Values (TLV) (0.01 mg/m(3)). The contents of lead did not exceed the TLV (0.05 mg/m(3)). Low CC16 levels in serum (12.1 microg/l) of workers with SNS and VEP symptoms and highest level As-U (x(a) 39.0 microg/l) were noted earliest in relation to occupational time. Moreover, those effects were associated with increased levels of urinary and serum beta(2)M and urinary RBP. Results of our study suggested the initiative key role of oxidative stress in triggering the processes that eventually lead to the subclinical effects of arsenic on the nervous system. PMID:19410594

  11. Association between occupational exposure to arsenic and neurological, respiratory and renal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure by inhalation in copper smelter is associated with several subclinical health phenomena. The respiratory tract is usually involved in the process of detoxication of inhaled noxious agents which, as arsenic, can act as inductors of oxidative stress (Lantz, R.C., Hays, A.M., 2006. Role of oxidative stress in arsenic-induced toxicity. Drug Metab. Rev. 38, 791-804). It is also known that irritating fumes affect distal bronchioles of non-ciliated, epithelial Clara cells, which secrete anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive Clara cell protein (CC16) into the respiratory tract. The study group comprised 39 smelters employed at different workplaces in a copper foundry, matched for age and smoking habits with the control group (n = 16). Subjective neurological symptoms (SNS), visual evoked potentials (VEP), electroneurographic (EneG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) results were examined in the workers and the relationships between As concentration in the air (As-Air) and urine (As-U) were assessed. Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarkers: CC16 as early pulmonary biomarker and β2-microglobulin (β2M) in urine and serum and retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex immunoassay. The concentrations of arsenic exceeded about two times the Threshold Limit Values (TLV) (0.01 mg/m3). The contents of lead did not exceed the TLV (0.05 mg/m3). Low CC16 levels in serum (12.1 μg/l) of workers with SNS and VEP symptoms and highest level As-U (xa 39.0 μg/l) were noted earliest in relation to occupational time. Moreover, those effects were associated with increased levels of urinary and serum β2M and urinary RBP. Results of our study suggested the initiative key role of oxidative stress in triggering the processes that eventually lead to the subclinical effects of arsenic on the nervous system.

  12. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Cancer from Exposure Inorganic Arsenic in Duplicate Food by Villagers in Ronphibun, Thailand

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    Piyawat Saipan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ronphibun district is a district in Nakorn Si Thammarat province, within southern Thailand. This district is the site of several former tin mines that were in operation 100 years ago. Arsenic contamination caused by past mining activities remains in the area. The specific purpose of this study was conducted to assess cancer risk in people living within Ronphibun district from exposure to inorganic arsenic via duplicate food using probabilistic risk assessment. A hundred and fifty duplicate food samples were collected from participants. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Inorganic arsenic concentrations in duplicate food ranged from 0.16 to 0.42 μg/g dry weight. The probabilistic carcinogenic risk levels were 6.76 x 10-4 and 1.74 x 10-3 based on the 50th and 95th percentile, respectively. Risk values for people in Ronphibun from exposure to inorganic arsenic remained higher than the acceptable target risk. Sensitivity analysis indicted that exposure duration and concentrations of arsenic in food were the two most influential of cancer risk estimates.

  13. Risk Analysis of Acute Or Chronic Exposure to Arsenic of the Inhabitants in a District of Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Cristina Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic occurrence in the water constitutes a serious world health concern due to its toxicity. Depending on the intensity and duration of exposure, this element can be acutely lethal or may have a wide range of health effects in humans and animals. In Argentina, the origin of arsenic is mainly natural, and related to different geological processes. The Argentinean concern about arsenic and its influence on human health dates back to the previous century. The disease ascribed to arsenic contamination was called ‘chronic regional endemic hydroarsenism’. It is produced by the consumption of water with high levels of this element. In our study, we focused in La Matanza district, a very populated site in the Buenos Aires Province. An increasing concern of the inhabitants of the area regarding health problems was detected. In order to establish a full view of arsenic exposure in the area, several matrices and targets were analyzed. As matrices, water and soil samples were analyzed. As targets, canine and human hair was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronically exposure to arsenic of La Matanza inhabitants.

  14. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children following in utero and early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan H; Yunus, Mohammad; Khan, Al Fazal; Ercumen, Ayse; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Meera Hira; Liaw, Jane; Balmes, John; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Raqib, Rubhana; Kalman, David; Alam, Dewan S; Streatfield, Peter K; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure via drinking water increases the risk of chronic respiratory disease in adults. However, information on pulmonary health effects in children after early life exposure is limited. Methods This population-based cohort study set in rural Matlab, Bangladesh, assessed lung function and respiratory symptoms of 650 children aged 7–17 years. Children with in utero and early life arsenic exposure were compared with children exposed to less than 10 µg/l in utero and throughout childhood. Because most children drank the same water as their mother had drunk during pregnancy, we could not assess only in utero or only childhood exposure. Results Children exposed in utero to more than 500 µg/l of arsenic were more than eight times more likely to report wheezing when not having a cold [odds ratio (OR) = 8.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–42.6, P < 0.01] and more than three times more likely to report shortness of breath when walking on level ground (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.09–13.7, P = 0.02) and when walking fast or climbing (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.22–8.32, P < 0.01]. However, there was little evidence of reduced lung function in either exposure category. Conclusions Children with high in utero and early life arsenic exposure had marked increases in several chronic respiratory symptoms, which could be due to in utero exposure or to early life exposure, or to both. Our findings suggest that arsenic in water has early pulmonary effects and that respiratory symptoms are a better marker of early life arsenic toxicity than changes in lung function measured by spirometry. PMID:24062297

  15. Genetic variation in Glutathione S-Transferase Omega-1, Arsenic Methyltransferase and Methylene-tetrahydrofolate Reductase, arsenic exposure and bladder cancer: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beebe-Dimmer Jennifer L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of groundwater with high concentrations of inorganic arsenic has been linked to adverse health outcomes, including bladder cancer, however studies have not consistently observed any elevation in risk at lower concentrations. Genetic variability in the metabolism and clearance of arsenic is an important consideration in any investigation of its potential health risks. Therefore, we examined the association between genes thought to play a role in the metabolism of arsenic and bladder cancer. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GSTO-1, As3MT and MTHFR were genotyped using DNA from 219 bladder cancer cases and 273 controls participating in a case–control study in Southeastern Michigan and exposed to low to moderate ( Results While no single SNP in As3MT was significantly associated with bladder cancer overall, several SNPs were associated with bladder cancer among those exposed to higher arsenic levels. Individuals with one or more copies of the C allele in rs11191439 (the Met287Thr polymorphism had an elevated risk of bladder cancer (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04-1.32 per 1 μg/L increase in average exposure. However, no association was observed between average arsenic exposure and bladder cancer among TT homozygotes in the same SNP. Bladder cancer cases were also 60% less likely to be homozygotes for the A allele in rs1476413 in MTHFR compared to controls (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.18-0.88. Conclusions Variation in As3MT and MTHFR is associated with bladder cancer among those exposed to relatively low concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Low doses of arsenic, via perturbing p53, promotes tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Suthakar; Li, Ping; Fagman, Johan; Yu, Tianqi; Lafontant, Jean; Zhang, Guojun; Chen, Changyan

    2016-09-01

    In drinking water and in workplace or living environments, low doses of arsenic can exist and operate as a potent carcinogen. Due to insufficient understanding and information on the pervasiveness of environmental exposures to arsenic, there is an urgent need to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of arsenic regarding its carcinogenic effect on human health. In this study, we demonstrate that low doses of arsenic exposure mitigate or mask p53 function and further perturb intracellular redox state, which triggers persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activates UPR (unfolded protein response), leading to transformation or tumorigenesis. Thus, the results suggest that low doses of arsenic exposure, through attenuating p53-regulated tumor suppressive function, change the state of intracellular redox and create a microenvironment for tumorigenesis. Our study also provides the information for designing more effective strategies to prevent or treat human cancers initiated by arsenic exposure. PMID:27425828

  17. Induction of glutathione synthesis in human hepatocytes by acute and chronic arsenic exposure: Differential roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Arsenic exposure increased intracellular levels of glutathione. • Mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in glutathione homeostasis. • ERK contributed to glutathione synthesis during acute arsenic exposure. • Glutathione synthesis was regulated by p38 at least in part independent of NRF2 during chronic arsenic exposure. - Abstract: Glutathione (GSH) is a vital component of antioxidant defense which protects cells from toxic insults. Previously we found intracellular GSH was involved in cell resistance against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. However, molecular mechanisms of GSH homeostasis during arsenic exposure are largely undefined. Here, we investigated roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in GSH synthesis pathway with two arsenic exposure strategies by using Chang human hepatocytes. In one strategy, acute arsenic exposure (20 μM, 24 h) was applied, as MAPK signaling is generally considered to be transient. In the other one, chronic arsenic exposure (500 nM, 20 weeks) was applied, which mimicked the general human exposure to arsenic. We found that acute arsenic exposure activated extracellular signal-regulated 1/2 kinases (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in parallel with increased transcription and nuclear translocation of factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and enhanced expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), resulting in elevated intracellular GSH levels. Specific ERK inhibitor abolished arsenic-induced NRF2 nuclear translocation and GSH synthesis. During chronic arsenic exposure which induced a malignant cellular phenotype, continuous p38 activation and NRF2 nuclear translocation were observed with enhanced GSH synthesis. Specific p38 inhibitor attenuated arsenic-enhanced GSH synthesis without changing NRF2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicate MAPK pathways play an important role in cellular GSH homeostasis in response to arsenic. However, the

  18. A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen González-Horta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs and fluoride (F− are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F− in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F− concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F−/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs and urinary F− (U-F− levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F−/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F− concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741. Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F− concentrations (rs = 0.633. These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F−, raising questions about possible contribution of F− exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F− exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention.

  19. 一种新的砷暴露标志物-唾液砷%Salivary Arsenic, A New Biomarker of Arsenic Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大朋; 刘建; 安艳

    2011-01-01

    Arsenism is a serious public health hazard to human health. The mechanism for understanding arsenic toxicity remains vague and there is still no effective treatment for arsenism so far. Finding a quick and simple biomarker of arsenic exposure is crucial to the prevention of arsenism. Because saliva is easy to collect and store, noninvasive, suitable for all age groups, saliva has been widely used in recent years to diagnose various diseases and detect environmental pollutants, including arsenic exposure. This article reviewed the application of saliva testing and the feasibility of salivary arsenic as a biomarker of arsenic exposure.%慢性砷中毒是一种严重危害人类健康的公共卫生疾病,其中毒机制尚不明确且无有效的治疗手段,因此早期的砷暴露筛查尤为重要.找到一种快速、简便的砷暴露检测标志物是预防砷中毒的关键.由于唾液有采样方便,无创伤,易储存,对不同年龄段的人群均适合等一系列优点,近年来唾液标本已广泛的应用到各种疾病及有害因子的诊断和检测当中,包括砷暴露的检测.该文就近年来唾液检测的应用及唾液砷作为砷暴露标志物的可行性等方面研究做一综述.

  20. Arsenic in private well water part 3 of 3: Socioeconomic vulnerability to exposure in Maine and New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V; Spayd, Steven E; Procopio, Nicholas A; Marvinney, Robert G; Smith, Andrew E; Chillrud, Steven N; Braman, Stuart; Zheng, Yan

    2016-08-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic element often concentrated in groundwater at levels unsafe for human consumption. Private well water in the United States is mostly unregulated by federal and state drinking water standards. It is the responsibility of the over 13 million U.S. households regularly depending on private wells for their water to ensure it is safe for drinking. There is a consistent graded association with health outcomes at all levels of socioeconomic status (SES) in the U.S. Differential exposure to environmental risk may be contributing to this persistent SES-health gradient. Environmental justice advocates cite overwhelming evidence that income and other SES measures are consistently inversely correlated with exposure to suboptimal environmental conditions including pollutants, toxins, and their impacts. Here we use private well household surveys from two states to investigate the association between SES and risks for arsenic exposure, examining the potentially cumulative effects of residential location, testing and treatment behavior, and psychological factors influencing behavior. We find that the distribution of natural arsenic hazard in the environment is socioeconomically random. There is no evidence that higher SES households are avoiding areas with arsenic or that lower SES groups are disproportionately residing in areas with arsenic. Instead, disparities in exposure arise from differing rates of protective action, primarily testing well water for arsenic, and secondly treating or avoiding contaminated water. We observe these SES disparities in behavior as well as in the psychological factors that are most favorable to these behaviors. Assessment of risk should not be limited to the spatial occurrence of arsenic alone. It is important that social vulnerability factors are incorporated into risk modeling and identifying priority areas for intervention, which should include strategies that specifically target socioeconomically vulnerable

  1. Arsenic in private well water part 3 of 3: Socioeconomic vulnerability to exposure in Maine and New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V; Spayd, Steven E; Procopio, Nicholas A; Marvinney, Robert G; Smith, Andrew E; Chillrud, Steven N; Braman, Stuart; Zheng, Yan

    2016-08-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic element often concentrated in groundwater at levels unsafe for human consumption. Private well water in the United States is mostly unregulated by federal and state drinking water standards. It is the responsibility of the over 13 million U.S. households regularly depending on private wells for their water to ensure it is safe for drinking. There is a consistent graded association with health outcomes at all levels of socioeconomic status (SES) in the U.S. Differential exposure to environmental risk may be contributing to this persistent SES-health gradient. Environmental justice advocates cite overwhelming evidence that income and other SES measures are consistently inversely correlated with exposure to suboptimal environmental conditions including pollutants, toxins, and their impacts. Here we use private well household surveys from two states to investigate the association between SES and risks for arsenic exposure, examining the potentially cumulative effects of residential location, testing and treatment behavior, and psychological factors influencing behavior. We find that the distribution of natural arsenic hazard in the environment is socioeconomically random. There is no evidence that higher SES households are avoiding areas with arsenic or that lower SES groups are disproportionately residing in areas with arsenic. Instead, disparities in exposure arise from differing rates of protective action, primarily testing well water for arsenic, and secondly treating or avoiding contaminated water. We observe these SES disparities in behavior as well as in the psychological factors that are most favorable to these behaviors. Assessment of risk should not be limited to the spatial occurrence of arsenic alone. It is important that social vulnerability factors are incorporated into risk modeling and identifying priority areas for intervention, which should include strategies that specifically target socioeconomically vulnerable

  2. Arsenic levels in wipe samples collected from play structures constructed with CCA-treated wood: Impact on exposure estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraj, Leila M. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)], E-mail: lbarraj@exponent.com; Scrafford, Carolyn G. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Eaton, W. Cary [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rogers, Robert E.; Jeng, Chwen-Jyh [Toxcon Health Sciences Research Centre Inc., 9607 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 5X7 (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and playgrounds. The U.S. EPA has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated structures using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The EPA assessment relied on data from an experimental study using adult volunteers and designed to measure arsenic in maximum hand and wipe loadings. Analyses using arsenic handloading data from a study of children playing on CCA-treated play structures in Edmonton, Canada, indicate that the maximum handloading values significantly overestimate the exposure that occurs during actual play. The objective of our paper is to assess whether the dislodgeable arsenic residues from structures in the Edmonton study are comparable to those observed in other studies and whether they support the conclusion that the values derived by EPA using modeled maximum loading values overestimate hand exposures. We compared dislodgeable arsenic residue data from structures in the playgrounds in the Edmonton study to levels observed in studies used in EPA's assessment. Our analysis showed that the dislodgeable arsenic levels in the Edmonton playground structures are similar to those in the studies used by EPA. Hence, the exposure estimates derived using the handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures are more representative of children's actual exposures than the overestimates derived by EPA using modeled maximum values. Handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures should be used to reduce the uncertainty of modeled estimates derived using the SHEDS-Wood model.

  3. An assessment of health risks associated with arsenic exposure via consumption of homegrown vegetables near contaminated glassworks sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E; Gunnarsson, Sara J; Hogmalm, K Johan; Lindegård, M I Boel G; Augustsson, Anna L M

    2015-12-01

    The health risk posed by arsenic in vegetables grown in private gardens near 22 contaminated glassworks sites was investigated in this study. Firstly, vegetable (lettuce and potato) and soil samples were collected and arsenic concentrations measured to characterize the arsenic uptake in the selected crops. Secondly, a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the average daily intake (ADIveg), which was then evaluated against toxicological reference values by the calculation of hazard quotients (HQs) and cancer risks (CRs). The results show that elevated arsenic concentrations in residential garden soils are mirrored by elevated concentrations in vegetables, and that consumption of these vegetables alone may result in an unacceptable cancer risk; the calculated reasonable maximum exposure, for example, corresponded to a cancer incidence 20 times higher than the stated tolerance limit. However, the characterization of risk depends to a great extent on which toxicological reference value is used for comparison, as well as how the exposure is determined. Based on the assumptions made in the present study, the threshold levels for chronic non-carcinogenic or acute effects were not exceeded, but the cancer risks indicated highlight the need for further exposure studies, as dietary intake involves more than just homegrown vegetables and total exposure is a function of more than just one exposure pathway. In addition, glassworks sites--and contaminated sites in general--contain multiple contaminants, affecting the final and total risk.

  4. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  5. Indoor transformer stations and ELF magnetic field exposure: use of transformer structural characteristics to improve exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Roivainen, Päivi; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that populations of multiapartment buildings with indoor transformer stations may serve as a basis for improved epidemiological studies on the relationship between childhood leukaemia and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). This study investigated whether classification based on structural characteristics of the transformer stations would improve ELF MF exposure assessment. The data included MF measurements in apartments directly above transformer stations ("exposed" apartments) in 30 buildings in Finland, and reference apartments in the same buildings. Transformer structural characteristics (type and location of low-voltage conductors) were used to classify exposed apartments into high-exposure (HE) and intermediate-exposure (IE) categories. An exposure gradient was observed: both the time-average MF and time above a threshold (0.4 μT) were highest in the HE apartments and lowest in the reference apartments, showing a statistically significant trend. The differences between HE and IE apartments, however, were not statistically significant. A simulation exercise showed that the three-category classification did not perform better than a two-category classification (exposed and reference apartments) in detecting the existence of an increased risk. However, data on the structural characteristics of transformers is potentially useful for evaluating exposure-response relationship.

  6. Urinary total arsenic and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine are associated with renal cell carcinoma in an area without obvious arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chao-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jan-Show [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsiu-Yuan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical Universtiy-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most reliable and abundant markers of DNA damage. The study was designed to explore the relationship between urinary 8-OHdG and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to investigate whether individuals with a high level of 8-OHdG would have a modified odds ratio (OR) of arsenic-related RCC. This case–control study was conducted with 132 RCC patients and 245 age- and sex-matched controls from a hospital-based pool between November 2006 and May 2009. Pathological verification of RCC was completed by image-guided biopsy or surgical resection of renal tumors. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Concentrations of urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Level of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly associated with the OR of RCC in a dose–response relationship after multivariate adjustment. Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. The greatest OR (3.50) was seen in the individuals with high urinary 8-OHdG and high urinary total arsenic. A trend test indicated that the OR of RCC was increased with one of these factors and was further increased with both (p = 0.002). In conclusion, higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of the RCC. High levels of 8-OHdG combined with urinary total arsenic might be indicative of arsenic-induced RCC. -- Highlights: ► Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. ► Higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of RCC risk. ► Urinary 8-OHdG may modify arsenic related RCC risk.

  7. Urinary total arsenic and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine are associated with renal cell carcinoma in an area without obvious arsenic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most reliable and abundant markers of DNA damage. The study was designed to explore the relationship between urinary 8-OHdG and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to investigate whether individuals with a high level of 8-OHdG would have a modified odds ratio (OR) of arsenic-related RCC. This case–control study was conducted with 132 RCC patients and 245 age- and sex-matched controls from a hospital-based pool between November 2006 and May 2009. Pathological verification of RCC was completed by image-guided biopsy or surgical resection of renal tumors. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Concentrations of urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Level of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly associated with the OR of RCC in a dose–response relationship after multivariate adjustment. Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. The greatest OR (3.50) was seen in the individuals with high urinary 8-OHdG and high urinary total arsenic. A trend test indicated that the OR of RCC was increased with one of these factors and was further increased with both (p = 0.002). In conclusion, higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of the RCC. High levels of 8-OHdG combined with urinary total arsenic might be indicative of arsenic-induced RCC. -- Highlights: ► Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. ► Higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of RCC risk. ► Urinary 8-OHdG may modify arsenic related RCC risk.

  8. Arsenic as a pollutant of the environment: origins, repartition, bio-transformations and eco-toxicity; L'arsenic, polluant de l'environnement: origines, distribution, biotransformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenat, N.; Holeman, M.; Pinel, R. [Pau Univ., Lab. de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5034 du CNRS, 64 - Pau (France)

    2000-06-01

    The arsenic speciation in the environment and the study of its bio-transformations are actual research topics reported by numerous works. The aim of this present paper is to report a lot of recent selected research results concerning the arsenic compounds detected in the environment, their origins, their repartition in the different ecosystems and their bio-transformations. Their eco-toxicity will be developed in another paper. (authors)

  9. Bladder Cancer and Arsenic Exposure: Differences in the Two Populations Enrolled in A Study in Southwest Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEVEN H. LAMM; DANIEL M. BYRD; MICHAEL B. KRUSE; MANNING FEINLEIB; SHENG-HAN LAI

    2003-01-01

    Objective Analyses of bladder cancer mortality in the Black Foot Disease (BFD) endemic area of southwest Taiwan conducted by Morales et al. showed a discontinuity in risk at 400 μg/L arsenic in the drinking water in a stratified analysis and no discontinuity in a continuous analysis. As the continuous analysis presentation had been used by both the NRC and the EPA to assess the carcinogenic risk from arsenic ingestion, an explanation of the discontinuity was sought. Methods Review of 40 years of published health studies of the BFD-endemic area of SW Taiwan showed that earlier publications had limited their cancer associations with arsenic levels in artesian well waters and that the reports of Morales et al., NRC, and EPA failed to do so. Underlying data for the Morales et al.study were obtained from the appendix to the NRC report. Bladder cancer mortality rates werecalculated from case counts and person-years of observation for each study village. Villages werecategorized by water source according to the descriptions from the underlying study. Graphic and regression analyses were conducted of the bladder cancer mortality rates using exposure as a continuous variable and simultaneously stratifying by water source. Results The median village well arsenic levels ranged from 350 to 934 μg/L for villages solely dependent on artesian well water and from 10 to 717 μg/L for villages not solely dependent on artesian well water. Bladder cancer mortality rates were found to be dependent upon the arsenic level only for those villages that were solely dependent on artesian well water for their water source. Bladder cancer mortality rates were found to be independent of arsenic level for villages with non-artesian well water sources. Conclusions The data indicate that arsenic exposure levels do not explain the bladder cancer mortality risk in SW Taiwan among villages not dependent upon artesian well water. The association for villages dependent upon artesian well water may be

  10. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  11. Lifetime exposure to arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer: a population-based case–control study in Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Melissa J.; AvRuskin, Gillian A.; Schottenfeld, David; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Wilson, Mark L.; Goovaerts, Pierre; Franzblau, Alfred; Nriagu, Jerome O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Arsenic in drinking water has been linked with the risk of urinary bladder cancer, but the dose–response relationships for arsenic exposures below 100 µg/L remain equivocal. We conducted a population-based case–control study in southeastern Michigan, USA, where approximately 230,000 people were exposed to arsenic concentrations between 10 and 100 µg/L. Methods This study included 411 bladder cancer cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2004, and 566 controls recruited during the same period. Individual lifetime exposure profiles were reconstructed, and residential water source histories, water consumption practices, and water arsenic measurements or modeled estimates were determined at all residences. Arsenic exposure was estimated for 99% of participants’ person-years. Results Overall, an increase in bladder cancer risk was not found for time-weighted average lifetime arsenic exposure >10 µg/L when compared with a reference group exposed to 10 µg/L were similarly not elevated when compared to the reference group (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.50, 1.78). Conclusions We did not find persuasive evidence of an association between low-level arsenic exposure and bladder cancer. Selecting the appropriate exposure metric needs to be thoughtfully considered when investigating risk from low-level arsenic exposure. PMID:20084543

  12. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Induces Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Normal Mice and Enhances Depression-Like Behaviors in the Chemically Induced Mouse Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates that subchronic arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration leading to behavioral disturbances relevant to psychiatric disorders. However, there is still little information regarding the influence of subchronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water on mood disorders and its underlying mechanisms in the cerebral prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of subchronic arsenic exposure (10 mg/LAs2O3 in drinking water on the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in normal mice and in the chemically induced mouse model of depression by reserpine pretreatment. Our findings demonstrated that 4 weeks of arsenic exposure enhance anxiety-like behaviors on elevated plus maze (EPM and open field test (OFT in normal mice, and 8 weeks of arsenic exposure augment depression-like behaviors on tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST in the reserpine pretreated mice. In summary, in this present study, we demonstrated that subchronic arsenic exposure induces only the anxiety-like behaviors in normal mice and enhances the depression-like behaviors in the reserpine induced mouse model of depression, in which the cerebral prefrontal cortex BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway is involved. We also found that eight weeks of subchronic arsenic exposure are needed to enhance the depression-like behaviors in the mouse model of depression. These findings imply that arsenic could be an enhancer of depressive symptoms for those patients who already had the attribute of depression.

  13. [Studies on markers of exposure and early effect in areas with arsenic pollution: methods and results of the project SEpiAs. Epidemiological studies on population exposed to low-to-moderate arsenic concentration in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustaffa, Elisa; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic and its inorganic compounds are classified as human carcinogens. Several epidemiological studies conducted in areas of the world characterized by high arsenic concentration in drinking water, even up to 3,000 μg/l, report associations between arsenic exposure and skin, bladder, lung, liver and kidney cancer as well as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and reproductive and developmental effects. Since general population is not exposed to these high arsenic concentrations in the last years attention focused on adverse health effects that low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations (0-150 μg/l) in drinking water could induce. The World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 μg/l for arsenic in drinking water. Almost all epidemiological studies conducted on populations exposed to low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water are limited due to problems arising from both individual exposure assessment and low subjects number. The aim of the present review is to collect literature-based evidences regarding adverse health effects associated with exposure to low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water (10-150 μg/l) in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the health outcomes that such exposure can have on general population.

  14. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  15. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO3, MMAIII or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1+/+ and Ogg1−/− genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1+/+ and Ogg1−/− cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1−/− cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1−/− cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency—exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell

  16. Arsenic (As Contamination in Different Food and Dietary Samples from Several Districts of Bangladesh and Arsenic (As Detection, Mitigation and Toxicity Measurement and impact of Dietary Arsenic Exposure on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Awal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the level of arsenic concentration in vegetables and other food categories in three selected areas of Pabna district and to estimate quantitatively the dietary arsenic exposure in one of the arsenic contaminated areas of Bangladesh.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in CharRuppur, Char mirkamari and Lakshmikunda village of IshwardiUpzila in Pabna district. Ishwardi (Town consists of 12 wardsand 37 mahallas. Arsenic was detected in the ADM Lab,Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh with Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HG-AAS; PG-990, PG Instruments Ltd. UK. Arsenic was detected by forming AsH3 at below pH 1.0 after the reaction of As with a solution of sodiumborohydride (NaBH4, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, M=40,000g/mol, and 10% HCl. In this test, standard was maintained asAsV ranging from 0 to 12.5 μg/L.Results: A total of 120 vegetable samples, 15 rice samples and15 fish samples were collected from five different markets ofthree different villages of Pabna district and were tested forarsenic concentration. Findings demonstrated that the mean concentration of As in leafy vegetables (0.52 μg g-1 was significantly higher compared to those found in fruity (0.422μg g-1 and root & tuber vegetables (0.486 μg g-1.Conclusion: Underground Contaminated water was the major source for the As contamination of various products in Pabna.The arsenic levels were found higher among the leafy vegetables samples in comparison to fruit and root & tuber vegetables. Further studies will be conducted to search the genetic risk factors of arsenic toxicity in the population of the mostly affected people.

  17. Monitoring arsenic exposure in the population of the Notre-Dame district : December 2005 to October 2006; Surveillance de l'impregnation a l'arsenic chez la population du Quartier Notre Dame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, D. (ed.)

    2006-04-24

    A copper smelter has been in operation within the city limits of Rouyn-Noranda since the 1920s. Its supply of copper concentrates contains various heavy metals, including lead and arsenic. These metals can be found in the ambient air and the soils within the town of Rouyn-Noranda, particularly in the old Notre-Dame district which is affected by diffuse emissions. For a few years, the measured arsenic levels in the ambient air in that district have caused concern to Quebec authorities. In 2004, the Government of Quebec announced its recommendation to reduce the average arsenic concentrations in the district to levels near to those found in other Quebec cities where there are not point sources of arsenic dust. This recommendation was to reduce arsenic levels by May 2006. The recommendation was based on 2 reports. The first was based on calculations that the average ambient arsenic concentration increased by a factor of more than 5 between 1991 and 2000. The second report was based on the increased risk of lung cancer associated with arsenic concentrations even at very low ambient levels. In October 2005, Quebec's Public Health Administration measured the public's exposure to arsenic and will continue monitoring the levels of arsenic found in the urine of Notre Dame residents in order to establish a possible link between the arsenic rates observed in the ambient air with the quantity absorbed by the population. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. SPECIES SPECIFIC DIETARY ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: THE NEED TO ESTIMATE BIOACCESSIBILITY AND ASSESSING THE IMPLIED PRESYSTEMIC METABOLISM IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical form specific toxicity of arsenic dictates the need for species specific quantification in order to accurately assess the risk from an exposure. The literature has begun to produce preliminary species specific databases for certain dietary sources, but a quantitativ...

  19. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE, AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND HPLC-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes from poultry houses is currently unregulated and poses a potential environmental concern. Determination of roxarsone and its transformation products in chicken manure is necessary to understand their possible impacts on human health and ...

  20. Systems-level modeling the effects of arsenic exposure with sequential pulsed and fluctuating patterns for tilapia and freshwater clam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to use quantitative systems-level approach employing biotic ligand model based threshold damage model to examine physiological responses of tilapia and freshwater clam to sequential pulsed and fluctuating arsenic concentrations. We tested present model and triggering mechanisms by carrying out a series of modeling experiments where we used periodic pulses and sine-wave as featured exposures. Our results indicate that changes in the dominant frequencies and pulse timing can shift the safe rate distributions for tilapia, but not for that of freshwater clam. We found that tilapia increase bioenergetic costs to maintain the acclimation during pulsed and sine-wave exposures. Our ability to predict the consequences of physiological variation under time-varying exposure patterns has also implications for optimizing species growing, cultivation strategies, and risk assessment in realistic situations. - Systems-level modeling the pulsed and fluctuating arsenic exposures.

  1. Arsenic exposure levels in relation to different working departments in a copper mining and smelting plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingshan; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Lin; Xi, Shuhua; Sun, Guifan

    2015-10-01

    The investigation was carried out to evaluate arsenic exposure and the urine metabolite profiles of workers with different working departments, including administration (Group1), copper ore mining (Group2), copper ore grinding (Group3), electrolytic procession (Group4) and copper smelting (Group5) in a Copper mining and processing plant in China. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The highest urinary levels of iAs, MMA and DMA all were found in the Group 5. Group 4 workers had a higher iAs% and a lower PMI compared to Group 3. The urinary total As (TAs) levels of 54.7% subjects exceeded 50 μg/g Cr, and the highest percentage (93.3%) was found in Group 5, smelters. The results of the present study indicate that workers in copper production plant indeed exposed to As, especially for smelters and workers of electrolytic process.

  2. Prenatal exposure to arsenic impairs behavioral flexibility and cortical structure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Htet eAung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to arsenic from well water in developing countries is suspected to cause developmental neurotoxicity. Although it has been demonstrated that exposure to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 suppresses neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons in vitro, it is largely unknown how developmental exposure to NaAsO2 impairs higher brain function and affects cortical histology. Here, we investigated the effect of prenatal NaAsO2 exposure on the behavior of mice in adulthood, and evaluated histological changes in the prelimbic cortex (PrL, which is a part of the medial prefrontal cortex that is critically involved in cognition. Drinking water with or without NaAsO2 (85 ppm was provided to pregnant C3H mice from gestational days 8 to 18, and offspring of both sexes were subjected to cognitive behavioral analyses at 60 weeks of age. The brains of female offspring were subsequently harvested and used for morphometrical analyses. We found that both male and female mice prenatally exposed to NaAsO2 displayed an impaired adaptation to repetitive reversal tasks. In morphometrical analyses of Nissl- or Golgi-stained tissue sections, we found that NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant increase in the number of pyramidal neurons in layers V and VI of the PrL, but not other layers of the PrL. More strikingly, prenatal NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant decrease in neurite length but not dendrite spine density in all layers of the PrL. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to NaAsO2 leads to behavioral inflexibility in adulthood and cortical disarrangement in the PrL might contribute to this behavioral impairment.

  3. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  4. The nature and significance of public exposure to arsenic: a review of its relevance to South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P; Barre, D

    1995-06-01

    contaminated soils and humans appears to be contaminated food stuffs. In absolute terms, such exposure is low due to the natural constraints on arsenic uptake by herbage, cereal crops and vegetables, and the food chain does not appear to have been significantly compromised in South West England. Chronic health effects are unlikely as excessive arsenic concentrations in locally grown food crops remain rare.With the problems of confounding medical and social factors, it is not surprising that studies in South West England have failed to identify chronic exposure to arsenic at very low concentrations as a significant health risk. Those studies that indicate otherwise do not stand up to close scrutiny. It appears that the number of additional deaths arising from the widespread arsenic contamination in South West England is small. The relative benefits of a costly statistical study to actually determine the number of additional deaths might be considered minimal, but one major area could benefit from further studies: the sensitivity of certain population sub-groups to environmental arsenic exposure. Of particular interest are children, for whom significant exposure to arsenic via soil ingestion may be occurring.Based on available information, there appears to be no justification for a large programme of site remediation. Resources should, however, be expended on enlightening the general public, and private and governmental organisations as regards the gap between the perceived and actual significance of arsenic contamination in South West England. PMID:24194119

  5. Significance of exposure assessment to analysis of cancer risk from inorganic arsenic in drinking water in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Chen, C.J. [Institute of Public Health, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China)

    1995-08-01

    The primary source of evidence that inorganic arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased mortality from cancer at internal sites (bladder, liver, lung, and other organs) is a large ecologic study conducted in regions of Southwest Taiwan endemic to Blackfoot disease. The dose-response patterns for lung, liver, and bladder cancers display a nonlinear dose-response relationship with arsenic exposure. The data do not appear suitable, however, for the more refined task of dose-response assessment, particularly for inference of risk at the low arsenic concentrations found in some U.S. water supplies. The problem lies in variable arsenic concentrations between the wells within a village, largely due to a mix of shallow wells and deep artesian wells, and in having only one well test for 24 (40%) of the 60 villages. The current analysis identifies 14 villages where the exposure appears most questionable, based on criteria described in the test. The exposure values were then changed for seven of the villages, from the median well test being used as a default to some other point in the village`s range of well tests that would contribute to smoothing the appearance of a dose-response curve. The remaining seven villages, six of which had only one well test, were deleted as outliers. The resultant dose-response patterns showed no evidence of excess risk below arsenic concentrations of 0.1 mg/l. Of course, that outcome is dependent on manipulation of the data, as described. Inclusion of the seven deleted villages would make estimates of risk much higher at low doses. In those seven villages the cancer mortality rates are significantly high for their exposure levels, suggesting that their exposure values may be too low or that other etiological factors need to be taken into account. 10 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Arsenic Transport and Transformation Associated with MSMA Application on a Golf Course Green

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Min; SCHRLAU, JILL E.; Snyder, Raymond; Snyder, George H.; Chen, Ming; Cisar, John L.; Cai, Yong

    2005-01-01

    The impact of extensively used arsenic-containing herbicides on groundwater beneath golf courses has become a topic of interest. Although currently used organoarsenicals are less toxic, their application into the environment may produce the more toxic inorganic arsenicals. The objective of this work was to understand the behavior of arsenic species in percolate water from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) applied golf course greens, as well as to determine the influences of root-zone media fo...

  7. Influence of prenatal arsenic exposure and newborn sex on global methylation of cord blood DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Richard Pilsner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As exposure may influence the trajectory of health outcomes later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal As exposure on global methylation of cord blood DNA in a study of mother/newborn pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh. DESIGN: Maternal and cord blood DNA were available from a convenience sample of 101 mother/newborn pairs. Measures of As exposure included maternal urinary As (uAs, maternal blood As (mbAs and cord blood As (cbAs. Several measures of global DNA methylation were assessed, including the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay and three Pyrosequencing assays: Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA. RESULTS: In the total sample, increasing quartiles of maternal uAs were associated with an increase in covariate-adjusted means of newborn global DNA methylation as measured by the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay (quartile 1 (Q1 and Q2 vs. Q4; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively. Sex-specific linear regression analyses, while not reaching significance level of 0.05, indicated that the associations between As exposures and Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA were positive among male newborns (N = 58 but negative among female newborns (N = 43; tests for sex differences were borderline significant for the association of cbAs and mbAs with Alu (p = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively and for the association between maternal uAs and LINE-1 (p = 0.07. Sex-specific correlations between maternal urinary creatinine and newborn methyl-incorporation, Alu and LINE-1 were also evident (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prenatal As exposure is associated with global DNA methylation in cord blood DNA, possibly in a sex-specific manner. Arsenic-induced epigenetic modifications in utero may potentially influence disease outcomes later in life. Additional studies are needed to confirm

  8. Nonmalignant Respiratory Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water among Never-Smokers in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.; Bernard, Alfred; Dumont, Xavier; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; D’Armiento, Jeanine; Foronjy, Robert; Hasan, M. Rashidul; Eunus, HEM Mahbubul; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic from drinking water has been associated with malignant and nonmalignant respiratory illnesses. The association with nonmalignant respiratory illnesses has not been well established because the assessments of respiratory symptoms may be influenced by recall bias or interviewer bias because participants had visible skin lesions. Objectives We examined the relationship of the serum level of Clara cell protein CC16—a novel biomarker for respiratory illnesses—with well As, total urinary As, and urinary As methylation indices. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in nonsmoking individuals (n = 241) selected from a large cohort with a wide range of As exposure (0.1–761 μg/L) from drinking water in Bangladesh. Total urinary As, urinary As metabolites, and serum CC16 were measured in urine and serum samples collected at baseline of the parent cohort study. Results We observed an inverse association between urinary As and serum CC16 among persons with skin lesions (β = −0.13, p = 0.01). We also observed a positive association between secondary methylation index in urinary As and CC16 levels (β = 0.12, p = 0.05) in the overall study population; the association was stronger among people without skin lesions (β = 0.18, p = 0.04), indicating that increased methylation capability may be protective against As-induced respiratory damage. In a subsample of study participants undergoing spirometric measures (n = 31), we observed inverse associations between urinary As and predictive FEV1 (forced expiratory volume measured in 1 sec) (r = −0.37; FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio and primary methylation index (r = −0.42, p = 0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that serum CC16 may be a useful biomarker of epithelial lung damage in individuals with arsenical skin lesions. Also, we observed the deleterious respiratory effects of As exposure at concentrations lower than reported in earlier studies. PMID:18288317

  9. Long-Term Exposure to Low-Level Arsenic in Drinking Water and Diabetes Incidence: A Prospective Study of the Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Tjønneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background: Established causes of diabetes do not fully explain the present epidemic. High-level arsenic exposure has been implicated in diabetes risk, but the effect of low-level arsenic exposure in drinking water remains unclear. Objective: We sought to determine whether long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997, we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed eac...

  10. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  11. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibol, Sao [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Management, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Hashim, Jamal Hisham, E-mail: jamalhas@hotmail.com [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarmani, Sukiman [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  12. Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Nutritional Status among the Women of Child Bearing Age: A Case-Control Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul H. Milton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 µg/L through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI < 18.5 and 360 controls (BMI 18.5–24.99 were recruited from a baseline survey conducted among 2,341 women. An excess risk for malnutrition was observed among the participants chronically exposed to higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water after adjusting for potential confounders such as participant’s age, religion, education, monthly household income and history of oral contraceptive pills. Women exposed to arsenic >50 µg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.6 increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20–45 years.

  13. Arsenic in the groundwater of Majuli - The largest river island of the Brahmaputra: Magnitude of occurrence and human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ritusmita; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Sarma, Kali Prasad; Thakur, Ritu; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in tube-well water, sediment, and biological samples, including hair, nail and urine were measured to determine the degree of contamination in groundwater and its impact on local inhabitants in the largest populated riverine island Majuli, Assam, India. Arsenic in the groundwater (n = 380) ranged from Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra Plain. Significant positive correlations were observed between As in drinking water and As concentrations in hair, nail and urine samples (r = 0.71-0.78). The range of As concentration in bore-hole sediment was 0.29-1.44 mg/kg. The correlation between As and iron in sediment was found to be very poor. Hydrogeological studies are required to understand the source and mobilization process of As in groundwater of Majuli. Early mitigation measures are urgently needed to save the inhabitants of Majuli from arsenic exposure and possible health effects.

  14. Biomonitoring of Occupational Exposure to Total Arsenic and Total Mercury in Urine of Goldmine Workers in Southwestern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Gyeabour Abrefah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of total arsenic and total mercury in the urine of goldmine workers in south-western Ghana due to occupational exposure was conducted to determine whether occupational exposure substantially contributes to their overall exposure to arsenic and mercury. The urine was collected after 2-day abstinence from sea foods by the workers and from those with no dental amalgam fillings. Total arsenic and total mercury were simultaneously determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA. After 1-hour irradiation of the urine in Ghana's miniature neutron source reactor (GHARR-1 to induce 76As and 197Hg radionuclides through nuclear reactions 75As(n, γ76As, and 196Hg(n, γ197Hg, the γ-radiation intensity of the induced 76As and 197Hg radionuclides were measured by γ-spectrometry. The validity of the INAA technique for As and Hg determination was checked by analyses of NIST SRM 3103a (As standard solution and NIST SRM 3133 (Hg standard solution, respectively. The mean mass fractions of arsenic in the urine are 6.76 µg/L ± 1.43, 7.78 µg/L ± 1.33, 8.03 µg/L ± 1.75, 10.44 µg/L ± 1.88, and 14.75 µg/L ± 1.62 for workers in offices 10 km from the mine, 2 km from the mine, 0.5 km from the mine, casual mine workers, and gold ore processing workers, respectively. The levels of arsenic in the urine are all within the 5 to 40 µg As L-1 day-1 normal range for excretion of arsenic. The observed mass fraction of As was higher in high exposure workers. The mean mass fraction of Hg in the urine are 0.36 µg/L ± 0.11, 0.47 µg/L ± 0.12, 0.51 µg/L ± 0.16, 0.57 µg/L ± 0.14, and 0.56 µg/L ± 0.21 for workers in offices 10 km from the mine, 2 km from the mine, 0.5 km from the mine, casual mine workers, and gold ore processing workers, respectively. The high Hg exposed workers engage in small scale gold mining using mercury. The exposure of the different categories of workers to both total arsenic and total mercury are safe.

  15. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreccio Catterina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  16. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, and all-cause and chronic-disease mortalities in Bangladesh (HEALS): a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argos, Maria; Kalra, Tara; Rathouz, Paul J; Chen, Yu; Pierce, Brandon; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Millions of people worldwide are chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water, including 35–77 million people in Bangladesh. The association between arsenic exposure and mortality rate has not been prospectively investigated by use of individual-level data. We therefore prospectively assessed whether chronic and recent changes in arsenic exposure are associated with all-cause and chronic-disease mortalities in a Bangladeshi population. Methods In the prospective cohort Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), trained physicians unaware of arsenic exposure interviewed in person and clinically assessed 11 746 population-based participants (aged 18–75 years) from Araihazar, Bangladesh. Participants were recruited from October, 2000, to May, 2002, and followed-up biennially. Data for mortality rates were available throughout February, 2009. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality, with adjustment for potential confounders, at different doses of arsenic exposure. Findings 407 deaths were ascertained between October, 2000, and February, 2009. Multivariate adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in a comparison of arsenic at concentrations of 10·1–50·0 μg/L, 50·1–150·0 μg/L, and 150·1–864·0 μg/L with at least 10·0 μg/L in well water were 1·34 (95% CI 0·99–1·82), 1·09 (0·81–1·47), and 1·68 (1·26–2·23), respectively. Results were similar with daily arsenic dose and total arsenic concentration in urine. Recent change in exposure, measurement of total arsenic concentrations in urine repeated biennially, did not have much effect on the mortality rate. Interpretation Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water was associated with an increase in the mortality rate. Follow-up data from this cohort will be used to assess the long-term effects of arsenic exposure and how they might be affected by changes in exposure. However, solutions and resources are urgently

  17. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content 63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (parsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure.

  18. Arsenic-induced QT dispersion is associated with atherosclerotic diseases and predicts long-term cardiovascular mortality in subjects with previous exposure to arsenic: A 17-Year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chi-Ling; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Hsu, Ling-I; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2010-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is a major worldwide public health problem. Recently, we had reported chronic arsenic poisoning was dose-dependently associated with ventricular abnormalities quantified by electrocardiographic QT prolongation linking to atherosclerotic diseases. An association of chronic arsenic poisoning with ventricular repolarization inhomogeneity quantified by QT dispersion (QTD) is of particular interest from a theoretical and practical perspective. We aimed to further elucidate (1) the association of chronic arsenic exposure with ventricular abnormalities quantified by QTD, (2) the association of QTD with atherosclerotic diseases and (3) the predictability of QTD for long-term mortality in subjects with chronic arsenic poisoning. We followed up 280 men and 355 women living in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast in Taiwan for 17 years. QTD in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasonography were measured. Coronary artery disease was diagnosed by an abnormal electrocardiogram and a definite history. Cumulative arsenic exposure was significantly associated with QTD showing a dose-response relationship (P cause mortality were 3.9 (2.1-6.2, P = 0.002) and 1.4 (0.9-2.3, P = 0.10), respectively, for QTD > or = 65 ms compared with QTD arsenic exposure.

  19. The polymorphisms of P53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP309 and renal cell carcinoma risk in a low arsenic exposure area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our recent study demonstrated the increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with high urinary total arsenic levels among people living in a low arsenic exposure area. Genomic instability is important in arsenic carcinogenesis. This study evaluated the relationship between the polymorphisms of p53, p21, and MDM2, which plays a role in gene stability, and the arsenic-related RCC risk. Here, we found that p53 Pro/Pro genotype and MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype significantly increased RCC risk compared to the p53 Arg/Arg genotype and MDM2 SNP309 TT genotype. RCC patients with the p53Arg/Arg genotype had a signicantly low percentage of inorganic arsenic, a low percentage of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and a high percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which indicates efcient arsenic methylation capacity. Subjects with the p53 Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro genotype or MDM2 SNP309 TG + GG genotype, in conjunction with high urinary total arsenic (≥ 14.02 μg/L), had a signicantly higher RCC risk than those with the p53 Arg/Arg or MDM2 SNP309 TT genotypes and low urinary total arsenic. Taken together, this is the first study to show that a variant genotype of p53 Arg72Pro or MDM2 SNP309 may modify the arsenic-related RCC risk even in a non-obvious arsenic exposure area. -- Highlights: ► Subjects with p53 Pro/Pro or MDM2 GG genotype significantly increased RCC risk. ► A significant multiplicative joint effect of p53 and p21 on RCC risk. ► RCC patients with p53 Arg/Arg genotype had efficient arsenic methylation capacity. ► Joint effect of p53 or MDM2 genotype and high urinary total arsenic on RCC risk.

  20. Arsenic Exposure on Cardiovascular System%砷暴露对心血管系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫红; 夏雅娟

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is one of metalloid elements, widely distributed in soil, air and water. Long-term chronic exposure to arsenic can cause multi-system lesions in human. In recent year, cardiovascular system damages caused by chronic exposure to arsenic have received widespread social concern. This paper reviewed the recent studies of epidemiology and mechanism, and presented the adverse effects of arsenic on cardiovascular system, and the further researches on prevention of endemic arsenism were proposed also.%砷是一种类金属元素,广泛分布于土壤、空气和水中,长期慢性砷暴露可以引起全身多系统的病变,严重危害人类的健康。近年来,慢性砷暴露导致心血管系统的损伤引起了社会广泛的关注,该文从流行病学及机制研究方面出发,对砷造成的心血管系统的危害做一综述,并为今后砷中毒的防治和研究工作提出了建议。

  1. Arsenic exposure in drinking water: an unrecognized health threat in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Laura; Arias, M Helena Jahuira; Mihalic, Jana; Cabrera, Lilia Z; Danz, David; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the extent of arsenic contamination of groundwater and surface water in Peru and, to evaluate the accuracy of the Arsenic Econo-Quick™ (EQ) kit for measuring water arsenic concentrations in the field. Methods Water samples were collected from 151 water sources in 12 districts of Peru, and arsenic concentrations were measured in the laboratory using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The EQ field kit was validated by comparing a subset of 139 water samples analysed by laboratory measurements and the EQ kit. Findings In 86% (96/111) of the groundwater samples, arsenic exceeded the 10 µg/l arsenic concentration guideline given by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. In 56% (62/111) of the samples, it exceeded the Bangladeshi threshold of 50 µg/l; the mean concentration being 54.5 µg/l (range: 0.1–93.1). In the Juliaca and Caracoto districts, in 96% (27/28) of groundwater samples arsenic was above the WHO guideline; and in water samples collected from the section of the Rímac river running through Lima, all had arsenic concentrations exceeding the WHO limit. When validated against laboratory values, the EQ kit correctly identified arsenic contamination relative to the guideline in 95% (106/111) of groundwater and in 68% (19/28) of surface water samples. Conclusion In several districts of Peru, drinking water shows widespread arsenic contamination, exceeding the WHO arsenic guideline. This poses a public health threat requiring further investigation and action. For groundwater samples, the EQ kit performed well relative to the WHO arsenic limit and therefore could provide a vital tool for water arsenic surveillance. PMID:25177071

  2. Concentrations of Inorganic Arsenic in Milled Rice from China and Associated Dietary Exposure Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yatao; Wang, Min; Mao, Xuefei; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-23

    Total arsenic (As) and inorganic As (Asi) in milled rice (n = 1653) collected from China were studied to evaluate the contamination level, distribution, and health risks. The mean concentrations of the total As and Asi were 116.5 and 90.9 μg/kg, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the 11 provinces, and 1.1% of samples exceeded the maximum contaminant level established by Chinese legislation. According to the exposure assessment method of probabilistic simulation, all values of the target hazard quotients (THQs) for chronic noncarcinogenic risks (skin lesions as the point of departure) were below 1, suggesting that the Chinese population will not encounter a significant noncarcinogenic risk. However, the mean values of margin of exposure (MOE) for lung cancer risks ranging from 3.86 to 8.54 were under 100 for all age groups and genders of the Chinese population; moreover, MOE values for some major rice-producing and -consuming countries, such as Japan, Thailand, Bangladesh, and the United States, were all also below 100. More attention should be paid to carcinogenic risks from rice Asi intake, and some control measures to reduce rice Asi intake should be taken.

  3. Shotgun metabolomic approach based on mass spectrometry for hepatic mitochondria of mice under arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Navarro, F; Montero-Lobato, Z; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2015-04-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based toxicometabolomics requires analytical approaches for obtaining unbiased metabolic profiles. The present work explores the general application of direct infusion MS using a high mass resolution analyzer (a hybrid systems triple quadrupole-time-of-flight) and a complementary gas chromatography-MS analysis to mitochondria extracts from mouse hepatic cells, emphasizing on mitochondria isolation from hepatic cells with a commercial kit, sample treatment after cell lysis, comprehensive metabolomic analysis and pattern recognition from metabolic profiles. Finally, the metabolomic platform was successfully checked on a case-study based on the exposure experiment of mice Mus musculus to inorganic arsenic during 12 days. Endogenous metabolites alterations were recognized by partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Subsequently, metabolites were identified by combining MS/MS analysis and metabolomics databases. This work reports for the first time the effects of As-exposure on hepatic mitochondria metabolic pathways based on MS, and reveals disturbances in Krebs cycle, β-oxidation pathway, amino acids degradation and perturbations in creatine levels. This non-target analysis provides extensive metabolic information from mitochondrial organelle, which could be applied to toxicology, pharmacology and clinical studies.

  4. Arsenic redox transformation by Pseudomonas sp. HN-2 isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhennan; Yin, Naiyi; Cai, Xiaolin; Wang, Zhenzhou; Cui, Yanshan

    2016-09-01

    A mesophilic, Gram-negative, arsenite[As(III)]-oxidizing and arsenate[As(V)]-reducing bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp. HN-2, was isolated from an As-contaminated soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the strain was closely related to Pseudomonas stutzeri. Under aerobic conditions, this strain oxidized 92.0% (61.4μmol/L) of arsenite to arsenate within 3hr of incubation. Reduction of As(V) to As(III) occurred in anoxic conditions. Pseudomonas sp. HN-2 is among the first soil bacteria shown to be capable of both aerobic As(III) oxidation and anoxic As(V) reduction. The strain, as an efficient As(III) oxidizer and As(V) reducer in Pseudomonas, has the potential to impact arsenic mobility in both anoxic and aerobic environments, and has potential application in As remediation processes. PMID:27593283

  5. DUAL ION EXPOSURE VS. SPLIT-DOSE EXPOSURES IN HUMAN CELL NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENNETT, P.V.; CUTTER, N.C.; SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2006-06-05

    Since radiation fields of space contain many-fold more protons than high atomic number, high energy (HZE) particles, cells in astronaut crews will experience on average several proton hits before an HZE hit. Thus radiation regimes of proton exposure before HZE particle exposure simulate space radiation exposure, and measurement of the frequency of neoplastic transformation of human primary cells to anchorage-independent growth simulates in initial step in cancer induction. Previously our group found that exposure to 20 cGy 1 GeV/n protons followed within about 1 hr by a HZE ion (20 cGy 1 GeV/n Fe or Ti ions) hit gave about a 3-fold increase in transformation frequency ([1]). To provide insight into the H-HZE induced increased transformation frequencies, we asked if split doses of the same ion gave similar increased transformation frequencies. However, the data show that the split dose of 20 cGy plus 20 cGy of either H or HZE ions gave about the same effect as the 40 cGy uninterrupted dose, quite different from the effect of the mixed ion H + HZE irradiation. We also asked if lower proton doses than 20 cGy followed 15 minutes later by 20 cGy of HZE ions gave greater than additive transformation frequencies. Substantial increases in transformation levels were observed for all proton doses tested, including 1 cGy. These results point to the signal importance of protons in affecting the effect of space radiation on human cells.

  6. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S.; Dumitrascu, Irina; Roba, Carmen A.; Pop, Cristian; Ordeanu, Claudia; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Gurzau, Eugen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates). However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP), a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019). Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation. PMID:27652000

  7. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in pregnancy and metabolism-nutrition interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is metabolized by most mammals, including humans, via alternating reduction and oxidative methylation with S-adenosylmethionine as main methyl donor. Thus, it seems likely that it is influenced by the availability of methyl groups. The main arsenic metabolites excreted in human urine are monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), besides un-methylated inorganic arsenic (arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)]). The aim of the present study wa...

  8. Identification of antimycotic drugs transformation products upon UV exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, Jorge; Rodríguez, Isaac, E-mail: isaac.rodriguez@usc.es; Ramil, María; Cela, Rafael

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Evaluation of antimycotic drugs UV stabilities in model supports. • Simultaneous detection of precursor drugs and transformation products. • Transformation products identification from their scan, accurate MS/MS spectra. • Directed search of identified transformation products in sand and soil samples. • Preliminary toxicity estimations. - Abstract: The reactivity of three imidazolic, environmental persistent antimycotic drugs (clotrimazole, CTZ; ketoconazole, KTZ; and miconazole, MCZ) upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is discussed. First, precursor compounds were immobilized in a silicone support which was further exposed to UV light at two different wavelengths: 254 and 365 nm. After solvent desorption, degradation kinetics of the precursor pharmaceuticals, identification of the arising transformation products (TPs) and evaluation of their time-course were investigated by liquid chromatography (LC) with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) detection. The three antimycotics displayed similar stabilities when exposed to 254 nm light; however, CTZ was significantly more stable than MCZ and KTZ when irradiated with the 365 nm lamp. TPs identified in silicone supports resulted from de-chlorination, cleavage, intra-molecular cyclization and hydroxylation reactions. Many of these species were also detected when exposing other solid matrices, such as sand and agricultural soil, previously spiked with target compounds, to UV light. The 50% estimated lethal concentration, calculated using the 48-h Daphnia magna test, for the two main TPs of CTZ and MCZ, at both wavelengths, were lower than those corresponding to the precursor drugs.

  9. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues. PMID:8344231

  10. Analysis of the risk of disease associated with arsenic exposure in water supply systems for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of disease associated with arsenic exposure is analyzed in water supply systems for human consumption, as well as the control of pollution and effects on health, in the community known as Barrio Hotel of Canas in comparison with the community of San Miguel in Canas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. A spatial analysis, temporal and classification are realized by an ecological design of the country in the following zones of exposure: without exposure, low (≥3 μg/L and ≤10 μg/L) and medium to high (≥11 μg/L and ≤187 μg/L). The transversal design is tackled through the perceived morbidity. Spatial analysis has found in the districts of Bebedero, Los Chiles, Bagaces and Canas with Standardized Morbidity Index (EMI) by age in the the greatest national range of chronic renal failure (CRF). The protection of skin cancer risk is observed in the communities of Bagaces, Canas, El Amparo and La Cruz. A temporal trend of increase in IME of CRF and skin cancer is identified in Los Chiles. The classification by zone of exposure, the unexposed areas have been protected of kidney cancer, lung and bronchus, bladder and skin. The of low exposure have presented excess risk of CRF and have been protected of skin cancer. The of medium to high are protected of bladder cancer and have maintained the trend of excess in CRF and protection of skin cancer. The transversal design has found in the exposed community the risk to suffer kidneys diseases. Arsenic exposure has increased in men the risk of renal failure and anemia, in women the decrease of vision, and age groups under of 10 years and of 40-69 years of hypopigmentation and keratoses respectively. Multivariate analysis has showed a weak association of arsenic exposure time with the risk of hypertension

  11. Arsenic exposure in Latin America: biomarkers, risk assessments and related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R; Chen, Yu; Bundschuh, Jochen; Oliver, John T; Navoni, Julio; Olmos, Valentina; Lepori, Edda Villaamil; Ahsan, Habibul; Parvez, Faruque

    2012-07-01

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50 μg/L), some to as high as 2000 μg/L--200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between the high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America--including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts.

  12. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens after dietborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lizhao; Zhou, Yanyan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is well known to be biodiminished along marine food chains. The marine herbivorous fish at a lower trophic level are expected to accumulate more As. However, little is known about how marine herbivorous fish biotransform the potential high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, the present study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens following dietborne exposure. The fish were fed on As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 400 and 1500 μg As(III) or As(V) g(-1) (dry weight) for 21 d and 42 d. After exposure, As concentrations in intestine, liver, and muscle tissues of rabbitfish increased significantly and were proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentrations. The present study demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne phases were able to be biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) (63.3-91.3% in liver; 79.0%-95.2% in muscle). The processes of As biotransformation in rabbitfish could include oxidation of As(III) to As(V), reduction of As(V) to As(III), methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to AsB. These results also demonstrated that AsB synthesis processes were diverse facing different inorganic As species in different tissues. In summary, the present study elucidated that marine herbivorous fish had high ability to biotransform inorganic As to the organic forms (mainly AsB), resulting in high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, marine herbivorous fish could detoxify inorganic As in the natural environment. PMID:26766368

  13. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens after dietborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lizhao; Zhou, Yanyan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is well known to be biodiminished along marine food chains. The marine herbivorous fish at a lower trophic level are expected to accumulate more As. However, little is known about how marine herbivorous fish biotransform the potential high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, the present study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens following dietborne exposure. The fish were fed on As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 400 and 1500 μg As(III) or As(V) g(-1) (dry weight) for 21 d and 42 d. After exposure, As concentrations in intestine, liver, and muscle tissues of rabbitfish increased significantly and were proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentrations. The present study demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne phases were able to be biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) (63.3-91.3% in liver; 79.0%-95.2% in muscle). The processes of As biotransformation in rabbitfish could include oxidation of As(III) to As(V), reduction of As(V) to As(III), methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to AsB. These results also demonstrated that AsB synthesis processes were diverse facing different inorganic As species in different tissues. In summary, the present study elucidated that marine herbivorous fish had high ability to biotransform inorganic As to the organic forms (mainly AsB), resulting in high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, marine herbivorous fish could detoxify inorganic As in the natural environment.

  14. Prenatal arsenic exposure alters gene expression in the adult liver to a proinflammatory state contributing to accelerated atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Christopher States

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which environmental toxicants alter developmental processes predisposing individuals to adult onset chronic disease are not well-understood. Transplacental arsenic exposure promotes atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/- mice. Because the liver plays a central role in atherosclerosis, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that accelerated atherosclerosis may be linked to altered hepatic development. This hypothesis was tested in ApoE(-/- mice exposed to 49 ppm arsenic in utero from gestational day (GD 8 to term. GD18 hepatic arsenic was 1.2 µg/g in dams and 350 ng/g in fetuses. The hepatic transcriptome was evaluated by microarray analysis to assess mRNA and microRNA abundance in control and exposed pups at postnatal day (PND 1 and PND70. Arsenic exposure altered postnatal developmental trajectory of mRNA and microRNA profiles. We identified an arsenic exposure related 51-gene signature at PND1 and PND70 with several hubs of interaction (Hspa8, IgM and Hnf4a. Gene ontology (GO annotation analyses indicated that pathways for gluconeogenesis and glycolysis were suppressed in exposed pups at PND1, and pathways for protein export, ribosome, antigen processing and presentation, and complement and coagulation cascades were induced by PND70. Promoter analysis of differentially-expressed transcripts identified enriched transcription factor binding sites and clustering to common regulatory sites. SREBP1 binding sites were identified in about 16% of PND70 differentially-expressed genes. Western blot analysis confirmed changes in the liver at PND70 that included increases of heat shock protein 70 (Hspa8 and active SREBP1. Plasma AST and ALT levels were increased at PND70. These results suggest that transplacental arsenic exposure alters developmental programming in fetal liver, leading to an enduring stress and proinflammatory response postnatally that may contribute to early onset of atherosclerosis. Genes

  15. Fluoride and arsenic exposure impairs learning and memory and decreases mGluR5 expression in the hippocampus and cortex in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufang Jiang

    Full Text Available Fluoride and arsenic are two common inorganic contaminants in drinking water that are associated with impairment in child development and retarded intelligence. The present study was conducted to explore the effects on spatial learning, memory, glutamate levels, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs expression in the hippocampus and cortex after subchronic exposure to fluoride, arsenic, and a fluoride and arsenic combination in rats. Weaned male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups. The control rats drank tap water. Rats in the three exposure groups drank water with sodium fluoride (120 mg/L, sodium arsenite (70 mg/L, and a sodium fluoride (120 mg/L and sodium arsenite (70 mg/L combination for 3 months. Spatial learning and memory was measured in Morris water maze. mGluR1 and mGluR5 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex was detected using RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Compared with controls, learning and memory ability declined in rats that were exposed to fluoride and arsenic both alone and combined. Combined fluoride and arsenic exposure did not have a more pronounced effect on spatial learning and memory compared with arsenic and fluoride exposure alone. Compared with controls, glutamate levels decreased in the hippocampus and cortex of rats exposed to fluoride and combined fluoride and arsenic, and in cortex of arsenic-exposed rats. mGluR5 mRNA and protein expressions in the hippocampus and mGluR5 protein expression in the cortex decreased in rats exposed to arsenic alone. Interestingly, compared with fluoride and arsenic exposure alone, fluoride and arsenic combination decreased mGluR5 mRNA expression in the cortex and protein expression in the hippocampus, suggesting a synergistic effect of fluoride and arsenic. These data indicate that fluoride and arsenic, either alone or combined, can decrease learning and memory ability in rats. The mechanism may be associated with changes of

  16. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna

    2009-01-07

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate?bottom ash from coal fired power plants?is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts ofBangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, andcontinues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA?s arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentrationof the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  17. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-01-09

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of Bangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, and continues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentration of the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  18. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg-1) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg-1) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg-1), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg-1 (SD 0.02 mg kg-1). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg-1) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg-1), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  19. Impact on arsenic exposure of a growing proportion of untested wells in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Christine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many areas of Bangladesh, it has been more than six years since a national campaign to test tubewells for arsenic (As was conducted. Many households therefore draw their water for drinking and cooking from untested wells. Methods A household drinking water survey of 6646 households was conducted in Singair upazilla of Bangladesh. A subset of 795 untested wells used by 1000 randomly selected households was tested in the field by trained village workers with the Hach EZ kit, using an extended reaction time of 40 min, and in the laboratory by high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS. Results The household survey shows that more than 80% of the wells installed since the national testing campaign in this area were untested. Less than 13% of the households with untested wells knew where a low-As well was located near their home. Village workers using the Hach EZ kit underestimated the As content of only 4 out of 795 wells relative to the Bangladesh standard. However, the As content of 168 wells was overestimated relative to the same threshold. Conclusion There is a growing need for testing tubewells in areas of Bangladesh where As concentrations in groundwater are elevated. This could be achieved by village workers trained to use a reliable field kit. Such an effort would result in a considerable drop in As exposure as it increases the opportunities for well switching by households.

  20. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  1. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals.

  2. Efflux of glutathione and glutathione complexes from human erythrocytes in response to inorganic arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Deniz; Cakir, Yeliz

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if arsenic exposure results in glutathione efflux from human erythrocytes. Arsenite significantly depleted intracellular nonprotein thiol level in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The intracellular nonprotein thiol level was decreased to 0.767 ± 0.0017 μmol/ml erythrocyte following exposure to 10 mM of arsenite for 4 h. Extracellular nonprotein thiol level was increased concomitantly with the intracellular decrease and reached to 0.481 ± 0.0005 μmol/ml erythrocyte in 4 h. In parallel with the change in extracellular nonprotein thiol levels, significant increases in extracellular glutathione levels were detected. Extracellular glutathione levels reached to 0.122 ± 0.0013, 0.226 ± 0.003, and 0.274 ± 0.004 μmol/ml erythrocyte with 1, 5, and 10 mM of arsenite, respectively. Dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment of supernatants significantly increased the glutathione levels measured in the extracellular media. Utilization of MK571 and verapamil, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and Pgp inhibitors, decreased the rate of glutathione efflux from erythrocytes suggesting a role for these membrane transporters in the process. The results of the present study indicate that human erythrocytes efflux glutathione in reduced free form and in conjugated form or forms that can be recovered with dimercaptosuccinic acid when exposed to arsenite. PMID:22890881

  3. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  4. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R.; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg⋅mL−1 Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg⋅mL−1) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is. PMID:24167266

  5. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg · mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg · mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is.

  6. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J. [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Merrick, B. Alex [Molecular Toxicology and Informatics Group, Biomolecular Screening Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Morrisville, NC 27560 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P., E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  7. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  8. A Case of Bowen’s Disease and Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Long-Term Consequences of Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Chinese Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda; Bebb, Gwyn

    2004-01-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity occurs primarily through inadvertent ingestion of contaminated water and food or occupational exposure, but it can also occur through medicinal ingestion. This case features a 53-year-old lifetime nonsmoker with chronic asthma treated for 10 years in childhood with Chinese traditional medicine containing arsenic. The patient was diagnosed with Bowen’s disease and developed extensive-stage small-cell carcinoma of the lung 10 years and 47 years, respectively, after the ...

  9. HEALTH EFFECTS FROM CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenite and arsenate are widely present in natural waters. The inorganic forms , especially arsenite, are believed to be the most toxic species. Methylation is often considered to be the primary detoxification pathway for the metaboliism of inorganic arsenic. Recently studi...

  10. Exposure of children to arsenic in drinking water in the Tharparkar region of Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif Gul; Ali, Jamshed; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2016-02-15

    Humans can be exposed to arsenic (As) through air, drinking water, and food. The aim of this study was to calculate the hazard quotient (HQ) of As, based on its concentration in drinking water and the scalp hair of children (males) belonging to two age groups (5-10 and 11-14 years) who consumed water contaminated with different concentrations of As. The water samples were collected from As-exposed and nonexposed areas, which were classified as low-exposed (LE), high-exposed (HE), and nonexposed (NE) areas. The total concentration of inorganic As (iAs) and its species (As(III) and As(V)) in water samples of all selected areas was determined by advanced extraction methods. For purposes of comparison, the total As level was also determined in all water samples. The resulting data indicated that the predominant inorganic As species in groundwater samples was arsenate (As(V)). The As concentrations in drinking water of LE and HE areas were found to be 2.6-230-fold higher than the permissible limit for drinking water established by the World Health Organization (2004). However, the As levels in drinking water of the NE area was within the permissible limit (0.01). The As toxicity risk assessment based on HQ for the NE, LE, and HE areas corresponded to 10, respectively. These HQ values indicated the noncarcinogenic, less carcinogenic, and highly carcinogenic exposure risks faced by children from the NE, LE, and HE areas, respectively. It can be concluded that children consuming the groundwater of the LE (Khairpur Mir's) and HE (Tharparkar) areas of Pakistan are at a potential risk of chronic As toxicity. PMID:26674695

  11. Exposure to inorganic arsenic can lead to gut microbe perturbations and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Choiniere

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a carcinogenic environmental factor found in food and drinking water around the world. The mechanisms in which arsenic alters homeostasis are not fully understood. Over the past few decades, light has been shed on varying mechanisms in which arsenic induces cancer. Such mechanisms include gut microbe perturbations, genotoxic effects, and epigenetic modification. Gut microbe perturbations have been shown to increase the level of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS leading to uncontained inflammation. Increase in inflammation is the major factor in cirrhosis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. Alterations in gut permeability and metabolites have also been observed as a fallout of arsenic induced gut microbe modification. The guts proximity and interaction through portal flow make the liver susceptible to gut perturbations and ensuing inflammatory responses. Genotoxic and epigenetic dysregulation induced by arsenic and its toxic metabolites present a more direct mechanism that works synergistically with gut microbe perturbations to induce the incidence of cancers. These pathways combined could be some of the main causes of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

  12. Interaction between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Genetic Polymorphisms on Cardiovascular Disease in Bangladesh: A Prospective Case-Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Jiang, Jieying; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Levy, Diane; VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic data on genetic susceptibility to cardiovascular effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water are limited. Objective: We investigated whether the association between well-water arsenic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) differed by 170 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Method: We conducted a prospective case-cohort study nested in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study, with a random subcohort of 1,375 subjects and 447 incident fatal and nonfatal cases of CVD. Well-water arsenic was measured in 2000 at baseline. The CVD cases, 56 of which occurred in the subcohort, included 238 coronary heart disease cases, 165 stroke cases, and 44 deaths due to other CVD identified during follow-up from 2000 to 2012. Results: Of the 170 SNPs tested, multiplicative interactions between well-water arsenic and two SNPs, rs281432 in ICAM1 (padj = 0.0002) and rs3176867 in VCAM1 (padj = 0.035), were significant for CVD after adjustment for multiple testing. Compared with those with GC or CC genotype in rs281432 and lower well-water arsenic, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for CVD was 1.82 (95% CI: 1.31, 2.54) for a 1-SD increase in well-water arsenic combined with the GG genotype, which was greater than expected given aHRs of 1.08 and 0.96 for separate effects of arsenic and the genotype alone, respectively. Similarly, the joint aHR for arsenic and the rs3176867 CC genotype was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.87), greater than expected given aHRs for their separate effects of 1.02 and 0.84, respectively. Conclusions: Associations between CVD and arsenic exposure may be modified by genetic variants related to endothelial dysfunction. Citation: Wu F, Jasmine F, Kibriya MG, Liu M, Cheng X, Parvez F, Islam T, Ahmed A, Rakibuz-Zaman M, Jiang J, Roy S, Paul-Brutus R, Slavkovich V, Islam T, Levy D, VanderWeele TJ, Pierce BL, Graziano JH, Ahsan H, Chen Y. 2015

  13. Expression of the sFLT1 gene in cord blood cells is associated to maternal arsenic exposure and decreased birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Remy

    Full Text Available There is increasing epidemiologic evidence that arsenic exposure in utero is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and may contribute to long-term health effects. These effects may occur at low environmental exposures but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. We collected cord blood samples of 183 newborns to identify associations between arsenic levels and birth anthropometric parameters in an area with very low arsenic exposure. Our core research aim was to screen for transcriptional marks that mechanistically explain these associations. Multiple regression analyses showed that birth weight decreased with 47 g (95% CI: 16-78 g for an interquartile range increase of 0.99 μg/L arsenic. The model was adjusted for child's sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, and parity. Higher arsenic concentrations and reduced birth weight were positively associated with changes in expression of the sFLT1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 gene in cord blood cells in girls. The protein product of sFLT1 is a scavenger of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the extracellular environment and plays a key role in the inhibition of placental angiogenesis. In terms of fetal development, inhibition of placental angiogenesis leads to impaired nutrition and hence to growth retardation. Various genes related to DNA methylation and oxidative stress showed also changed expression in relation to arsenic exposure but were not related to birth outcome parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that increased expression of sFLT1 is an intermediate marker that points to placental angiogenesis as a pathway linking prenatal arsenic exposure to reduced birth weight.

  14. Micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal mucosa cells of copper smelter workers, with special regard to arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewińska, D; Palus, J; Stepnik, M; Dziubałtowska, E; Beck, J; Rydzyński, K; Natarajan, A T; Nilsson, R

    2007-04-01

    Occupational exposure in copper smelters may produce various adverse health effects including cancer which, according to available epidemiologic data, is associated mainly with exposure to arsenic. Despite a number of well-documented studies reporting an increased risk of cancer among copper smelters workers, the data on genotoxic effects in this industry are scarce. In view of the above, an assessment of micronuclei (MN) frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells from copper smelter workers was undertaken. Additionally, the clastogenic/aneugenic effect in lymphocytes was assessed with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The study was conducted in three copper smelters in southwestern Poland. The subjects (n = 72) were enrolled among male workers at departments where As concentration in the air was up to at 80 microg/m(3). Exposure was assessed by measurement of arsenic concentration in urine and toenail samples. The control group (n = 83) was recruited from healthy male individuals living in central Poland who did not report any exposure to known genotoxins. The results of our study showed a significant increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in buccal epithelial cells of smelter workers, compared to the controls (7.96 +/- 4.28 vs. 3.47 +/- 1.70 and 0.98 +/- 0.76 vs. 0.50 +/- 0.52, respectively). The FISH technique revealed the presence of clastogenic and aneugenic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes in both groups. The clastogenic effect was slightly more pronounced in the smelter workers; however, the difference was not statistically significant. The mean arsenic concentrations in urine (total arsenic species) and in toenail samples in the exposed group were 54.04 +/- 42.26 microg/l and 7.63 +/- 7.24 microg/g, respectively, being significantly different from control group 11.01 +/- 10.84 microg/l and 0.51 +/- 0.05 microg/g. No correlation between As content in urine or toenail samples and the

  15. Maternal arsenic exposure and DNA damage biomarkers, and the associations with birth outcomes in a general population from Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Chou

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs is an established transplacental agent known to affect fetal development in animal studies. However, iAs has not been adequately studied in the general population with respect to iAs exposure during pregnancy and its impact on the health status of newborns. The aims of this study were to 1 elucidate the association between arsenic exposure and oxidative/methylated DNA damage in pregnant women, and 2 determine the association with birth outcomes. A birth cohort study of 299 pregnant mother-newborn pairs was recruited during 2001-2002 in Taiwan. We collected maternal urine samples during the 3(rd trimester for measuring iAs and its metabolites. We used high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS for quantifications of the arsenic species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS was used to measure the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG and N(7-methylguanosine (N(7-MeG DNA damage biomarkers. Birth outcomes were collected to assess the associations with maternal arsenic exposure and the DNA damage biomarkers. Multiple regression analyses showed that maternal urinary iAs had positive associations with the methylated N(7-MeG (beta = 0.35, p<0.001 and oxidative 8-oxodG (beta = 0.24, p<0.001 DNA damage biomarkers, and a decreased one-minute (1-min Apgar score (beta = -0.23, p = 0.041. Maternal N(7-MeG was also associated with a decreased 1-min Apgar score (beta = -0.25, p = 0.042. Mutual adjustment for iAs and N(7-MeG showed an independent and significant prediction for a decreased 1-min Apgar score of iAs (beta = -0.28, p = 0.036. Maternal iAs exposure was associated with both maternal DNA damage and adverse newborn health. Maternal N(7-MeG levels might be a novel biomarker for monitoring fetal health related to iAs.

  16. Concurrent subacute exposure to arsenic through drinking water and malathion via diet in male rats: effects on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naraharisetti, Suresh Babu [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh (India); University of Washington, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Seattle, WA (United States); Aggarwal, Manoj [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh (India); Institut fuer Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universitaet Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Sarkar, S.N.; Malik, J.K. [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2008-08-15

    Arsenic is a known global groundwater contaminant, while malathion is one of the most widely used pesticides in agriculture and public health practices in the world. Here, we investigated whether repeated exposure to arsenic at the groundwater contamination levels and to malathion at sublethal levels exerts adverse effects on the hepatic drug-metabolizing system in rats, and whether concurrent exposure is more hazardous than the single agent. Male Wistar rats were exposed daily to 4 or 40 ppm of arsenic via drinking water, 50 or 500 ppm of malathion-mixed feed and in a similar fashion co-exposed to 4 ppm of arsenic and 50 ppm of malathion or 40 ppm of arsenic and 500 ppm of malathion for 28 days. At term, toxicity was assessed by evaluating changes in body weight, liver weight, levels of cytochrome P{sub 450} (CYP), cytochrome b{sub 5} and microsomal and cytosolic proteins, and activities of aminopyrine-N-demethylase (ANDM), aniline-P-hydroxylase (APH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in liver. Arsenic and malathion alone did not alter body weight and liver weight, but these were significantly decreased in both the co-exposed groups. These treatments decreased the activities of ANDM and APH and the levels of liver microsomal and cytosolic proteins, increased GST activity and had no effect on UGT activity. The effects of exposure to low-dose and high-dose combinations on the activities of either phase I or phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes and protein content were mostly similar to that produced by the respective low and high dose of either arsenic or malathion, except APH activity. The effect of arsenic (40 ppm) on APH activity was partially, but significantly, inhibited by malathion (500 ppm). Results indicate that the body or liver weights and the biochemical parameters were differentially affected in male rats following concurrent subacute exposure to arsenic and malathion, with the co-exposure appearing

  17. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  18. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was proposed to all inhabitants. Those with urinary cadmium levels over 1 μg/g creatinine were then tested for kidney damage. Urinary cadmium and arsenic levels were compared between participants with non-occupational exposure from Viviez and Montbazens, a nearby town not exposed to these two pollutants, in order to identify environmental factors contributing to impregnation. No case of lead poisoning was detected in Viviez, but 23 % of adults had urinary cadmium over 1 μg/g creatinine, 14 % of whom having markers of kidney damage. Viviez adults had higher levels of urinary cadmium, and to a lesser extent, higher levels of urinary arsenic than those from Montbazens. Consumption of local produce (vegetables and animals) and length of residence in Viviez were associated with higher urinary cadmium levels, independently of known confounding factors, suggesting persisting environmental exposure to contaminated soil. To conclude, health risks related to cadmium exposure were identified in the Viviez population living on contaminated soils. Lead and arsenic exposure did not pose health concerns. Interventions were proposed to reduce exposure and limit health consequences.

  19. Arsenic Exposure in Children through Drinking Water in Different Districts of Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Mustafa, Muhammad Ayaz; Solangi, Imam Bakhsh; Mughal, Mirza Junaid; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2016-09-01

    A cross sectional study has been conducted during 2007-2010 for the assessment of arsenic (As) contamination in drinking water, and its impact on the health of local public belongs to five districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The toxic risk assessment of As in different areas of Sindh province based upon its concentration in drinking water and scalp hair of boys and girls of age group 5-10 and 11-15 years. The total and inorganic As species in drinking water samples of four districts Hyderabad, Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah, and Dadu were determined by advance pre-concentration methodologies. The resulting data indicated that the dominant inorganic As species in municipal treated (Hyaderabad) and hand pumps (Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah and Dadu) water samples were arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), respectively. The total As concentrations in hand pumps water samples of Dadu district were 6.0- to 35-fold higher than the World Health Organization permissible limit of (10 μg/L) for drinking water. Whereas, total As in hand pump water samples of Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, and Nawab shah were found in the range of 26.0-98.2, 18.0-50.6, and 52.3-85.2 μg/L, respectively. However, municipal treated water samples of Hyderabad were within recommended level (As <10 μg/L). The content of total As in children of both genders and age group belonging to Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah, and Dadu was found to be significantly high as compared to those children residing in Hyderabad district. The Pearson coefficient of correlation r values between As levels in hand pump water and scalp hair samples of children belonging to Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah, and Dadu were observed in the range of 0.65-0.75, 0.75-0.82, 0.80-0.90, and 0.95-0.98, respectively. The results of As toxicity risk assessment based on hazard quotient indicated that Dadu district has high carcinogenic exposure risk for children. Moreover, it is concluded that the children

  20. Does apartment's distance to an in-built transformer room predict magnetic field exposure levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Goris, Kelly; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that magnetic field exposure in apartments located directly on top or adjacent to transformer rooms is higher compared with exposure in apartments located further away from the transformer rooms. It is unclear whether this also translates into exposure contrast among individuals living in these apartments. We performed spot measurements of magnetic fields in 35 apartments in 14 apartment buildings with an in-built transformer and additionally performed 24-h personal measurements in a subsample of 24 individuals. Apartments placed directly on top of or adjacent to a transformer room had on average exposures of 0.42 μT, apartments on the second floor on top of a transformer room, or sharing a corner or edge with the transformer room had 0.11 μT, and apartments located further away from the transformer room had levels of 0.06 μT. Personal exposure levels were approximately a factor 2 lower compared with apartment averages, but still showed exposure contrasts, but only for those individuals who live in the apartments directly on top or adjacent to a transformer room compared with those living further away, with 0.23 versus 0.06 μT for personal exposure when indoors, respectively. A classification of individuals into 'high' and 'low' exposed based on the location of their apartment within a building with an in-built transformer is possible and could be applied in future epidemiological studies.

  1. Arsenic Speciation in Plankton Organisms from Contaminated Lakes: Transformations at the Base of the Freshwater Food Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caumette, Guilhem; Koch, Iris; Estrada, Esteban; Reimer, Ken J. (Royal)

    2012-02-06

    The two complementary techniques high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis were used to assess arsenic speciation in freshwater phytoplankton and zooplankton collected from arsenic-contaminated lakes in Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada). Arsenic concentrations in lake water ranged from 7 {micro}g L{sup -1} in a noncontaminated lake to 250 {micro}g L{sup -1} in mine-contaminated lakes, which resulted in arsenic concentrations ranging from 7 to 340 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in zooplankton organisms (Cyclops sp.) and from 154 to 894 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in phytoplankton. The main arsenic compounds identified by HPLC-ICP-MS in all plankton were inorganic arsenic (from 38% to 98% of total arsenic). No other arsenic compounds were found in phytoplankton, but zooplankton organisms showed the presence of organoarsenic compounds, the most common being the sulfate arsenosugar, up to 47% of total arsenic, with traces of phosphate sugar, glycerol sugar, methylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). In the uncontaminated Grace Lake, zooplankton also contained arsenobetaine (AB). XANES characterization of arsenic in the whole plankton samples showed AsV-O as the only arsenic compound in phytoplankton, and AsIII-S and AsV-O compounds as the two major inorganic arsenic species in zooplankton. The proportion of organoarsenicals and inorganic arsenic in zooplankton depends upon the arsenic concentration in lakes and shows the impact of arsenic contamination: zooplankton from uncontaminated lake has higher proportions of organoarsenic compounds and contains arsenobetaine, while zooplankton from contaminated area contains mostly inorganic arsenic.

  2. Long-Term Exposure to Low-Level Arsenic in Drinking Water and Diabetes Incidence: A Prospective Study of the Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Tjønneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Established causes of diabetes do not fully explain the present epidemic. High-level arsenic exposure has been implicated in diabetes risk, but the effect of low-level arsenic exposure in drinking water remains unclear. Objective: We sought to determine whether long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997, we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for diabetes occurrence from enrollment until 31 December 2006. We traced and geocoded residential addresses of the cohort members and used a geographic information system to link addresses with water-supply areas. We estimated individual exposure to arsenic using all addresses from 1 January 1971 until the censoring date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model the association between arsenic exposure and diabetes incidence, separately for two definitions of diabetes: all cases and a more strict definition in which cases of diabetes based solely on blood glucose results were excluded. Results: Over a mean follow-up period of 9.7 years for 52,931 eligible participants, there were a total of 4,304 (8.1%) diabetes cases, and 3,035 (5.8%) cases of diabetes based on the more strict definition. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 1-μg/L increment in arsenic levels in drinking water were as follows: IRR = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.06) and IRR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.05) for all and strict diabetes cases, respectively. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water may contribute to the development of diabetes. Citation: Bräuner EV, Nordsborg RB, Andersen ZJ, Tjønneland A, Loft S, Raaschou-Nielsen O. 2014. Long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and diabetes incidence: a prospective study of the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Environ Health Perspect 122:1059–1065; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408198

  3. Tracking the transformation and transport of arsenic sulfide pigments in paints : synchrotron-based X-ray micro-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, Katrien; Mass, Jennifer; Meirer, Florian; Pottasch, Carol; van Loon, Annelies; Hull, Alyssa; Church, Jonathan; Pouyet, Emeline; Cotte, Marine; Mehta, Apurva

    2015-01-01

    Realgar and orpiment, arsenic sulfide pigments used in historic paints, degrade under the influence of light, resulting in transparent, whitish, friable and/or crumbling paints. So far, para-realgar and arsenic trioxide have been identified as the main oxidation products of arsenic sulfide pigments.

  4. Tracking the transformation and transport of arsenic sulfide pigments in paints: synchrotron-based X-ray micro-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Keune; J. Mass; F. Meirer; C. Pottasch; A. van Loon; A. Hull; J. Church; E. Pouyet; M. Cotte; A. Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Realgar and orpiment, arsenic sulfide pigments used in historic paints, degrade under the influence of light, resulting in transparent, whitish, friable and/or crumbling paints. So far, para-realgar and arsenic trioxide have been identified as the main oxidation products of arsenic sulfide pigments.

  5. Exposure assessment of organochlorine pesticides, arsenic, and lead in children from the major agricultural areas in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Balderas-Cortés, José J; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6-12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17-9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies.

  6. Phytoremediation of arsenic by Trapa natans in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Sangita; Borgohain, Jayasree; Sarma, K P

    2014-05-01

    Phytoremediation of arsenic (As) by water chestnut (Trapa natans) in a hydroponic system was studied. Plants were grown at two concentrations of arsenic, 1.28 mg/L and 10.80 mg/L, in a single metal solution. Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) confirmed highest arsenic concentration in the roots, followed by shoots and leaves. SEM-EDX also confirmed internalization of arsenic in T. natans and the damage caused due to arsenic exposure. Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IRS) indicated that the binding characteristics of the arsenic ions involved the hydroxyl, amide, amino, and thiol groups in the biomass. Chlorophyll concentration decreased with increasing metal concentration and duration of exposure, but proline content increases with increasing concentration in the plant. Morphological changes were studied on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day. Unhealthy growth and chlorosis were found to be related with arsenic toxicity. From the above studies it is clear that T. natans can be used successfully for the removal of arsenic ions by a phytoremediation process.

  7. ARSENIC SPECIATION IN CARROT EXTRACTS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE DETECTION OF MMA(III) AND MMTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two predominant routes of arsenic exposure are dietary ingestion and drinking water consumption. Dietary arsenic, unlike drinking water arsenic, contains a variety of arsenicals with dramatically different toxicities. The list of arsenicals detected in dietary samples conti...

  8. Arsenic Reduction in Drinking Water and Improvement in Skin Lesions: A Follow-Up Study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Pan, Wen-Chi; Kile, Molly L.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Lin, Xihong

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with skin lesions. However, it is not known whether reducing arsenic exposure will improve skin lesions. Objective: We evaluated the association between reduced arsenic exposures and skin lesion recovery over time. Methods: A follow-up study of 550 individuals was conducted in 2009–2011 on a baseline population of skin lesion cases (n = 900) previously enrolled in Bangladesh in 2001–2003. Arsenic in drinking water and toenails, and skin lesion status and severity were ascertained at baseline and follow-up. We used logistic regression and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to evaluate the association between log10-transformed arsenic exposure and skin lesion persistence and severity. Results: During the study period, water arsenic concentrations decreased in this population by 41% overall, and 65 individuals who had skin lesions at baseline had no identifiable lesions at follow-up. In the adjusted models, every log10 decrease in water arsenic and toenail arsenic was associated with 22% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.78] and 4.5 times (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.94, 11.1) relative increase in skin lesion recovery, respectively. In addition, lower baseline arsenic levels were significantly associated with increased odds of recovery. A log10 decrease in toenail arsenic from baseline to follow-up was also significantly associated with reduced skin lesion severity in cases over time (mean score change of –5.22 units; 95% CI: –8.61, –1.82). Conclusions: Reducing arsenic exposure increased the odds that an individual with skin lesions would recover or show less severe lesions within 10 years. Reducing arsenic exposure must remain a public health priority in Bangladesh and in other regions affected by arsenic-contaminated water. PMID:23060367

  9. Incorporating Individual-level Distributions of Exposure Error in Epidemiologic Analyses: An Example Using Arsenic in Drinking Water and Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliker, Jaymie R; Goovaerts, Pierre; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic analyses traditionally rely on point estimates of exposure for assessing risk despite exposure error. We present a strategy that produces a range of risk estimates reflecting distributions of individual-level exposure. Methods Quantitative estimates of exposure and its associated error are used to create for each individual a normal distribution of exposure estimates which is then sampled using Monte Carlo simulation. After the exposure estimate is sampled, the relationship between exposure and disease is evaluated; this process is repeated 99 times generating a distribution of risk estimates and confidence intervals. This is demonstrated in a bladder cancer case-control study using individual-level distributions of exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Results Sensitivity analyses indicate similar performance for categorical or continuous exposure estimates, and that increases in exposure error translate into a wider range of risk estimates. Bladder cancer analyses yield a wide range of possible risk estimates, allowing quantification of exposure error in the association between arsenic and bladder cancer, typically ignored in conventional analyses. Conclusions Incorporating distributions of individual-level exposure error results in a more nuanced depiction of epidemiologic findings. This approach can be readily adopted by epidemiologists assuming distributions of individual-level exposure. PMID:20816314

  10. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooki...

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Arsenic and Cadmium Impacts Infectious Disease-Related Genes within the Glucocorticoid Receptor Signal Transduction Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Rager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that environmental agents mediate susceptibility to infectious disease. Studies support the impact of prenatal/early life exposure to the environmental metals inorganic arsenic (iAs and cadmium (Cd on increased risk for susceptibility to infection. The specific biological mechanisms that underlie such exposure-mediated effects remain understudied. This research aimed to identify key genes/signal transduction pathways that associate prenatal exposure to these toxic metals with changes in infectious disease susceptibility using a Comparative Genomic Enrichment Method (CGEM. Using CGEM an infectious disease gene (IDG database was developed comprising 1085 genes with known roles in viral, bacterial, and parasitic disease pathways. Subsequently, datasets collected from human pregnancy cohorts exposed to iAs or Cd were examined in relationship to the IDGs, specifically focusing on data representing epigenetic modifications (5-methyl cytosine, genomic perturbations (mRNA expression, and proteomic shifts (protein expression. A set of 82 infection and exposure-related genes was identified and found to be enriched for their role in the glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction pathway. Given their common identification across numerous human cohorts and their known toxicological role in disease, the identified genes within the glucocorticoid signal transduction pathway may underlie altered infectious disease susceptibility associated with prenatal exposures to the toxic metals iAs and Cd in humans.

  12. The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene–environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene–environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene–environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination. -- Highlights: ► Subjects with GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. ► UC patients had poor arsenic metabolic ability compared to controls. ► GSTM1 null genotype may modify arsenic related UC risk.

  13. The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene–environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene–environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene–environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination. -- Highlights: ► Subjects with GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. ► UC patients had poor arsenic metabolic ability compared to controls. ► GSTM1 null genotype may modify arsenic related UC risk.

  14. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  15. Maternal arsenic exposure and birth outcomes: A comprehensive review of the epidemiologic literature focused on drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S.; Surdu, Simona; Neamtiu, Iulia A.; Gurzau, Eugen S.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human toxicant to which populations may be exposed through consumption of geogenically contaminated groundwater. A growing body of experimental literature corroborates the reproductive toxicity of iAs; however, the results of human studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies focused on drinking water iAs exposure and birth outcomes to assess the evidence for causality and to make recommendations for future study. We reviewed 18 English language papers assessing birth weight, gestational age, and birth size. Thirteen of the studies were conducted among populations with frequent exposure to high-level groundwater iAs contamination (>10 μg/L) and five studies were conducted in areas without recognized contamination. Most studies comprised small samples and used cross-sectional designs, often with ecologic exposure assessment strategies, although several large prospective investigations and studies with individual-level measurements were also reported. We conclude that: 1) the epidemiologic evidence for an increased risk of low birth weight (<2,500 grams) is insufficient, although there exists limited evidence for birth weight decreases; 2) the evidence for increased preterm delivery is insufficient; and, 3) there exists minimal evidence for decreased birth size. In further investigation of birth weight and size, we recommend incorporation of individual susceptibility measures using appropriate biomarkers, with collection timed to windows of vulnerability and speciated arsenic analysis, as well as consideration of populations exposed primarily to drinking water iAs contamination <10 μg/L. Given the large potential public health impact, additional, high quality epidemiologic studies are necessary to more definitively assess the risk. PMID:24713268

  16. 砷暴露与肝损伤关系的 Meta分析%META analysis of arsenic exposure relation with Liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊洋; 李静; 吴顺华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there is correlation between the endemic arsenic poisoning and liver injury ,especially drinking water arsenic exposure .Methods Use Meta-analysis methods analyse 6 literatures which were retrieved about the arsenic exposure with liver injury in domestic and foreign endemic arsenic poisoning . Use fixed effects model and random effects model for comprehensive quantitative analysis and calculate pooled OR and OR values 95% confidence interval .The funnel plot statutory apply to assess the publication bias .Results Het-erogeneity test χ2 =8 .01 ,P=0 .16 ;fixed effects model Meta-analysis revealed the combined OR=3 .72 (95% CI 3.08~4 .49);Meta-analysis showed that arsenic exposure group having higher possibility incidence of liver damage than the control group .Conclusion Arsenic exposure in the endemic arsenic poisoning area may cause high inci-dence of liver disease to exposed populations ,long-term arsenic exposure to local residents also caused damage to liv-er function and physical .%目的:探讨地方性砷中毒尤其是饮水型砷暴露与肝损伤是否有相关性。方法检索纳入了国内外有关地方性砷中毒中砷暴露与肝损伤的文献6篇,采用M eta分析的方法,应用固定效应模型和随机效应模型进行综合的定量分析,计算合并OR值及95%可信区间,利用漏斗图法定性评价发表偏倚。结果异质性检验χ2=8.01,P=0.16,采用固定效应模型进行M eta分析,合并OR=3.72,95% C I为3.08~4.49,表明M eta分析砷暴露组的肝损害发病可能性高于对照组。结论地方性砷中毒病区的砷暴露可能会引起暴露人群的肝脏疾病损伤高发,长期砷暴露会对当地居民的肝功能或器质性损伤存在一定程度的不良影响。

  17. Transformation and removal of arsenic in groundwater by sequential anodic oxidation and electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu; Liao, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) is generally essential for the efficient remediation of As(III)-contaminated groundwater. The performance and mechanisms of As(III) oxidation by an as-synthesized active anode, SnO2 loaded onto Ti-based TiO2 nanotubes (Ti/TiO2NTs/Sb-SnO2), were investigated. The subsequent removal of total arsenic by electrocoagulation (EC) was further tested. The Ti/TiO2NTs/Sb-SnO2 anode showed a high and lasting electrochemical activity for As(III) oxidation. 6.67 μM As(III) in synthetic groundwater was completely oxidized to As(V) within 60 min at 50 mA. Direct electron transfer was mainly responsible at the current below 30 mA, while hydroxyl radicals contributed increasingly with the increase in the current above 30 mA. As(III) oxidation was moderately inhibited by the presence of bicarbonate (20 mM), while was dramatically increased with increasing the concentration of chloride (0-10 mM). After the complete oxidation of As(III) to As(V), total arsenic was efficiently removed by EC in the same reactor by reversing electrode polarity. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the current but decreased by the presence of phosphate and silica. Anodic oxidation represents an effective pretreatment approach to increasing EC removal of As(III) in groundwater under O2-limited conditions.

  18. Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui Huy, Tung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-01-01

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8–579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10−5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10−5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed. PMID:25062276

  19. Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung Bui Huy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8–579 ppb (mean 301 ppb before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10−5 (using only well water and 7.6 × 10−5 (using both well and rain water. The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed.

  20. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  1. Arsenic compounds and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, O

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic compounds has been epidemiologically associated with various types of cancers, particularly cancer of the lung among copper smelters and pesticide workers, whereas skin cancers and liver angiosarcomas have been associated with ingestion of arsenic for treatment of skin disorders, especially psoriasis. Attempts to reproduce cancer in animals have been mainly unsuccessful, however. Experimental evidence suggests that arsenic inhibits DNA repair; this might help to explain the somewhat conflicting observations from epidemiologic studies and animal experiments with regard to carcinogenicity, and perhaps also cardiovascular morbidity related to arsenic exposure. PMID:7463514

  2. 砷暴露对女性月经的影响%Influence of arsenic exposure on menstruation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫红; 郭志伟; 韩晓红; 夏雅娟; 武克恭; 李艳红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of arsenic exposure on menstruation.Methods A cluster sampling method was applied to select the subjects of women aged 10 to 65 from Linhe,Hangjinhouqi and Wuyuan counties in Inner Mongolia in 2004.Drinking water samples were collected to detect arsenic levels,and menstrual related situation was surveyed.The subjects were divided into four groups according to drinking water arsenic concentration:control(≤0.01 mg/L),low(> 0.01-0.10 mg/L),moderate(> 0.10-0.20 mg/L) and high(> 0.20mag/L).Results A total of 602 women were surveyed.There were 83 subjects exposed to arsenic before menarche and their menarche age was (14.37 ± 1.54) years old.There were 90 people exposed to arsenic before menopause and the menopause age was (48.13-0.41) years old.The age of menarche and menopause were positively related to the years of arsenic exposure,and correlation coefficients were 0.268 and 0.278 (all P < 0.05).Compared to control group(14.0%,16/112),menstrual abnormality rate decreased in low(12.1%,21/173) and high dose groups(10.2%,19/186),while increased in the moderate dose group(18.2%,16/88),but the differences were not statistically significant(x2 =3.664,P > 0.05).Conclusions Long-term arsenic exposure delays the menarche and menopause age,suggesting that arsenic has certain endocrine disruption or estrogen-like effects.%目的 探讨砷暴露对女性月经情况的影响.方法 2004年,采用整群抽样方法,对内蒙古巴彦淖尔市临河区、杭锦后旗和五原县5个乡10个社的所有10 ~ 65岁的女性,采集家中饮用水水样检测水砷,并按照水砷不同,调查对象分为对照组(≤0.01 mg/L)、低砷组(>0.01~0.10 mg/L)、中砷组(>0.10~0.20 mg/L)和高砷组(> 0.20 mg/L)进行月经相关情况调查.结果 共计调查602名女性,其中月经初潮前有砷暴露者83人,其月经初潮年龄为(14.37±1.54)岁;停经前有砷暴露者90人,停经年龄为(48.13±0.41)岁.经过

  3. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furr, A.

    1977-01-01

    The route of arsenic exposure is usually by ingestion, thus the veterinarian is concerned with treating either an acute or a peracute condition. The arsenic compounds are considered to be highly toxic with a rapid onset of clinical signs. The toxicity and rapidity of onset are variable, depending upon the age and the species of animal. The chemical form and solubility of the toxicant also play a role in the course of the clinical syndrome. Inorganic arsenicals inhibit the sulfhydryl enzyme systems which are essential for normal cellular respiration and for metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Therapeutic measures are intended to either remove or inactivate the unabsorbed material in the intestine, protect the alimentary tract, reverse the toxic syndrome and restore the homeostatic equilibrium of the animal. 5 references.

  4. Arsenic cardiotoxicity: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamolhodaei, Nafiseh Sadat; Shirani, Kobra; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic, a naturally ubiquitous element, is found in foods and environment. Cardiac dysfunction is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Arsenic exposure is associated with various cardiopathologic effects including ischemia, arrhythmia and heart failure. Possible mechanisms of arsenic cardiotoxicity include oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, apoptosis and functional changes of ion channels. Several evidences have shown that mitochondrial disruption, caspase activation, MAPK signaling and p53 are the pathways for arsenic induced apoptosis. Arsenic trioxide is an effective and potent antitumor agent used in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and produces dramatic remissions. As2O3 administration has major limitations such as T wave changes, QT prolongation and sudden death in humans. In this review, we discuss the underlying pathobiology of arsenic cardiotoxicity and provide information about cardiac health effects associated with some medicinal plants in arsenic toxicity.

  5. Mechanism of erythrocyte death in human population exposed to arsenic through drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is one of the biggest natural calamities, which has become an imperative threat to human health throughout the world. Abbreviation of erythrocyte lifespan leading to the development of anemia is a common sequel in arsenic exposed population. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanism of cell death in human erythrocytes during chronic arsenic exposure. Results revealed transformation of smooth discoid red cells into evaginated echinocytic form in the exposed individuals. Further distortion converted reversible echinocytes to irreversible spheroechinocytes. Arsenic toxicity increased membrane microviscosity along with an elevation of cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, which hampered the flexibility of red cell membrane and made them less deformable. Significant increase in the binding of merocyanine 540 with erythrocyte membrane due to arsenic exposure indicated disruption of lipid packing in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane resulting from altered transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry. Arsenic induced eryptosis was characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface. Furthermore, metabolic starvation with depletion of cellular ATP triggered apoptotic removal of erythrocytes from circulation. Significant decrease in reduced glutathione content indicating defective antioxidant capacity was coupled with enhancement of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, which pointed to oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane. Arsenic toxicity intervened into red cell membrane integrity eventually leading to membrane destabilization and hemoglobin release. The study depicted the involvement of both erythrophagocytosis and hemolysis in the destruction of human erythrocytes during chronic arsenic exposure

  6. A prospective cohort study of the association between drinking water arsenic exposure and self-reported maternal health symptoms during pregnancy in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic, a common groundwater pollutant, is associated with adverse reproductive health but few studies have examined its effect on maternal health. Methods A prospective cohort was recruited in Bangladesh from 2008–2011 (N = 1,458). At enrollment (<16 weeks gestational age [WGA]), arsenic was measured in personal drinking water using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Questionnaires collected health data at enrollment, at 28 WGA, and within one month of delivery. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for self-reported health symptoms were estimated for each arsenic quartile using logistic regression. Results Overall, the mean concentration of arsenic was 38 μg/L (Standard deviation, 92.7 μg/L). A total of 795 women reported one or more of the following symptoms during pregnancy (cold/flu/infection, nausea/vomiting, abdominal cramping, headache, vaginal bleeding, or swollen ankles). Compared to participants exposed to the lowest quartile of arsenic (≤0.9 μg/L), the aOR for reporting any symptom during pregnancy was 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88) in the second quartile, 1.83 (95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in the third quartile, and 2.11 (95% CI = 1.42-3.13) in the fourth quartile where the mean arsenic concentration in each quartile was 1.5 μg/L, 12.0 μg/L and 144.7 μg/L, respectively. Upon examining individual symptoms, only nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramping showed consistent associations with arsenic exposure. The odds of self-reported nausea/vomiting was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.41), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.18), and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.26, 2.60) in the second, third and fourth quartile of arsenic relative to the lowest quartile after adjusting for age, body mass index, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, educational status, parity, anemia, ferritin, medication usage, type of sanitation at home, and household income. A positive trend was also observed for abdominal cramping (P for trend <0.0001). A

  7. Disruption of Mitotic Progression by Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic is an enigmatic xenobiotic that causes a multitude of chronic diseases including cancer and also is a therapeutic with promise in cancer treatment. Arsenic causes mitotic delay and induces aneuploidy in diploid human cells. In contrast, arsenic causes mitotic arrest followed by an apoptotic death in a multitude of virally transformed cells and cancer cells. We have explored the hypothesis that these differential effects of arsenic exposure are related by arsenic disruption of mitosis and are differentiated by the target cell's ability to regulate or modify cell cycle checkpoints. Functional p53/CDKN1A axis has been shown to mitigate the mitotic block and to be essential to induction of aneuploidy. More recent preliminary data suggest that microRNA modulation of chromatid cohesion also may play a role in escape from mitotic block and in generation of chromosomal instability. Other recent studies suggest that arsenic may be useful in treatment of solid tumors when used in combination with other cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin.

  8. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Liebeke

    Full Text Available Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  9. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeke, Manuel; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Anderson, Craig J; Lawlor, Alan J; Bennett, Mark H; Morris, Ceri A; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J; Bundy, Jacob G

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  10. Optical Image Addition and Encryption by Multi-Exposure Based on Fractional Fourier Transform Hologram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin-Fei; ZHAO Dao-Mu

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose a new method to add different images together by optical implementation that is realized by the multi-exposure based on fractional Fourier transform hologram. Partial image fusion is proposed and realized by this method. Multiple images encryption can also be implemented by the multi-exposure of the hologram based on fractional Fourier transform. Computer simulations prove that this method is valid.

  11. Therapeutic profile of T11TS vs. T11TS+MiADMSA: a hunt for a more effective therapeutic regimen for arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Acharya, Sagar; Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Kumar, Pankaj; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Basu, Anjan Kumar; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Flora, S J S; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic exposure is a serious health hazard worldwide. We have previously established that it may result in immune suppression by upregulating Th2 cytokines while downregulating Th1 cytokines and causing lymphocytic death. Treatment modalities for arsenic poisoning have mainly been restricted to the use of chelating agents in the past. Only recently have combination therapies using a chelating agent in conjunction with other compounds such as anti-oxidants, micronutrients and various plant products, been introduced. In the present study, we used T11TS, a novel immune potentiating glycopeptide alone and in combination with the sulfhydryl-containing chelator, mono-iso-amyl-dimarcaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) as a therapeutic regimen to combat arsenic toxicity in a mouse model. Results indicated that Th1 cytokines such as TNF-α, IFNγ, IL12 and the Th2 cytokines such as IL4, IL6, IL10 which were respectively downregulated and upregulated following arsenic induction were more efficiently restored to their near normal levels by T11TS alone in comparison with the combined regimen. Similar results were obtained with the apoptotic proteins studied, FasL, BAX, BCL2 and the caspases 3, 8 and 9, where again T11TS proved more potent than in combination with MiADMSA in preventing lymphocyte death. The results thus indicate that T11TS alone is more efficient in immune re-establishment after arsenic exposureas compared to combination therapy with T11TS+MiADMSA.

  12. Accurate quantification and transformation of arsenic compounds during wet ashing with nitric acid and microwave assisted heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessler, W; Pavkov, M

    2003-06-01

    Arsenous acid, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), methylarsonic acid (MA), arsenic acid, arsenobetaine bromide (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine iodide (AC), and tetramethylarsonium iodide (TETRA) were heated in a microwave autoclave with nitric acid to 100-300 degrees C. The arsenic compounds in the digests were separated with anion- and cation-exchange chromatography and determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer as arsenic-specific detector. Arsenous acid was completely oxidized to arsenic acid at 100 degrees C. For a complete oxidation of MA and DMA to arsenic acid temperatures > 220 degrees C and > 280 degrees C were necessary. AB decomposed to arsenic acid via TMAO. Complete conversion was only obtained after heating the sample for 90 min to 300 degrees C. For a complete conversion of TMAO similar harsh conditions were necessary. AC was already substantially degraded to TMAO, TETRA and two unknown compounds at 100 degrees C. The unknown arsenic compounds were found only in the digests up to 160 degrees C. Quantitative conversion of AC to arsenic acid went also via TMAO. At temperatures above 220 degrees C TETRA started to convert to TMAO, which then was further converted to arsenic acid. To investigate whether the results obtained for the arsenic standards are transferable to real samples, the certified reference material DORM-2 was also heated in nitric acid with variable digestion temperatures and times. For an almost complete conversion of the AB present in DORM-2 90 min at 300 degrees C were necessary. Total organic carbon (TOC) was less or = 260 degrees C for 60 min. UV photo-oxidation of DORM-2 was investigated as an alternative sample decomposition. Only 6% of AB was converted to arsenic acid when DORM-2 was irradiated for 2 h at 1000 W. In contrast to microwave heating substantial amounts of MA were observed as degradation product.

  13. Resveratrol, a Natural Antioxidant, Has a Protective Effect on Liver Injury Induced by Inorganic Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (Rev can ameliorate cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3 is a known cytotoxic environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanisms by which resveratrol protects the liver against the cytotoxic effects of As2O3 are not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the action of resveratrol using a cat model in which hepatotoxicity was induced by means of As2O3 treatment. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol, administered using a clinically comparable dose regimen, reversed changes in As2O3-induced morphological and liver parameters and resulted in a significant improvement in hepatic function. Resveratrol treatment also improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuated As2O3-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the As2O3-induced reduction in the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione and the retention of arsenic in liver tissue. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby resveratrol modulates As2O3-induced changes in liver function and tissue morphology. They also provide a stronger rationale for the clinical utilization of resveratrol for the reduction of As2O3-induced hepatotoxicity.

  14. Short-term arsenic exposure reduces diatom cell size in biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral-Fraga, Laura; Morin, Soizic; Rovira, Marona D M; Urrea, Gemma; Magellan, Kit; Guasch, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) pollution in water has important impacts for human and ecosystem health. In freshwaters, arsenate (As(V)) can be taken up by microalgae due to its similarity with phosphate molecules, its toxicity being aggravated under phosphate depletion. An experiment combining ecological and ecotoxicological descriptors was conducted to investigate the effects of As(V) (130 μg L(-1) over 13 days) on the structure and function of fluvial biofilm under phosphate-limiting conditions. We further incorporated fish (Gambusia holbrooki) into our experimental system, expecting fish to provide more available phosphate for algae and, consequently, protecting algae against As toxicity. However, this protection role was not fully achieved. Arsenic inhibited algal growth and productivity but not bacteria. The diatom community was clearly affected showing a strong reduction in cell biovolume; selection for tolerant species, in particular Achnanthidium minutissimum; and a reduction in species richness. Our results have important implications for risk assessment, as the experimental As concentration used was lower than acute toxicity criteria established by the USEPA.

  15. Estimate of exposure impact to fission product transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials on transmutation radionuclides - method of processing of radionuclides, which recently acquires a greater importance for the countries developing nuclear power engineering are presented. characterization of waste products of nuclear power engineering and a forecast of their accumulation during operation of atomic power station are made. Streams are estimated and the choice of response of action of irradiation on transformation of fission products is discussed. Some regularities are considered during utilization of fission debris in neutron and gamma-fields. Feasibility of creation of powerful neutron fields and principles of transformation of fission products and other radionuclides in neutron fields are discussed. 21 refs., 2 tab., 14 figs

  16. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  17. One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: a review of history and occurrence from 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta I; Parvez, Faruque; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Nicolli, Hugo B; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chen-Wuing; López, Dina; Armienta, María A; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Cuevas, Alina Gomez; Cornejo, Lorena; Cumbal, Luis; Toujaguez, Regla

    2012-07-01

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 10 μg/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Córdoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rímac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V, Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem. PMID:21959248

  18. One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: a review of history and occurrence from 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta I; Parvez, Faruque; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Nicolli, Hugo B; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chen-Wuing; López, Dina; Armienta, María A; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Cuevas, Alina Gomez; Cornejo, Lorena; Cumbal, Luis; Toujaguez, Regla

    2012-07-01

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 10 μg/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Córdoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rímac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V, Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem.

  19. Quantification of inorganic arsenic exposure and cancer risk via consumption of vegetables in southern selected districts of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Qin, Kun; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Din, Islamud

    2016-04-15

    Human exposures to arsenic (As) through different pathways (dietary and non-dietary) are considered to be one of the primary worldwide environmental health risks to humans. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of As in soil and vegetable samples collected from agricultural lands located in selected southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province, Pakistan. We examined the concentrations of total arsenic (TAs), organic species of As such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid (DMA), and inorganic species including arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) in both soil and vegetables. The data were used to determine several parameters to evaluate human health risk, including bioconcentration factor (BCF) from soil to plant, average daily intake (ADI), health risk index (HRI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILTCR), and hazard quotient (HQ). The total As concentration in soil samples of the five districts ranged from 3.0-3.9mgkg(-1), exhibiting minimal variations from site to site. The mean As concentration in edible portions of vegetable samples ranged from 0.03-1.38mgkg(-1). It was observed that As concentrations in 75% of the vegetable samples exceeded the safe maximum allowable limit (0.1mgkg(-1)) set by WHO/FAO. The highest value of ADI for As was measured for Momordica charantia, while the lowest was for Allium chinense. The results of this study revealed minimal health risk (HIvegetables for the local inhabitants. The ILTCR values for inorganic As indicated a minimal potential cancer risk through ingestion of vegetables. In addition, the HQ values for total As were <1, indicating minimal non-cancer risk.

  20. Quantification of inorganic arsenic exposure and cancer risk via consumption of vegetables in southern selected districts of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Qin, Kun; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Din, Islamud

    2016-04-15

    Human exposures to arsenic (As) through different pathways (dietary and non-dietary) are considered to be one of the primary worldwide environmental health risks to humans. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of As in soil and vegetable samples collected from agricultural lands located in selected southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province, Pakistan. We examined the concentrations of total arsenic (TAs), organic species of As such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid (DMA), and inorganic species including arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) in both soil and vegetables. The data were used to determine several parameters to evaluate human health risk, including bioconcentration factor (BCF) from soil to plant, average daily intake (ADI), health risk index (HRI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILTCR), and hazard quotient (HQ). The total As concentration in soil samples of the five districts ranged from 3.0-3.9mgkg(-1), exhibiting minimal variations from site to site. The mean As concentration in edible portions of vegetable samples ranged from 0.03-1.38mgkg(-1). It was observed that As concentrations in 75% of the vegetable samples exceeded the safe maximum allowable limit (0.1mgkg(-1)) set by WHO/FAO. The highest value of ADI for As was measured for Momordica charantia, while the lowest was for Allium chinense. The results of this study revealed minimal health risk (HI<1) associated with consumption of vegetables for the local inhabitants. The ILTCR values for inorganic As indicated a minimal potential cancer risk through ingestion of vegetables. In addition, the HQ values for total As were <1, indicating minimal non-cancer risk. PMID:26820935

  1. Education, fish consumption, well water, chicken coops, and cooking fires: Using biogeochemistry and ethnography to study exposure of children from Yucatan, Mexico to metals and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Fargher, Lane F

    2016-10-15

    Around the world, the nocuous health effects of exposure to environmental contaminants, especially metals and Arsenic, are a growing health concern. This is especially the case in Mexico, where corruption and ineffective political administration are contributing to increasing deterioration in the environment. Importantly, shallow soils and the karstic nature of bedrock in Yucatan, Mexico make the subterranean aquifer especially susceptible to contamination because contaminates are carried to it with little resistance. Given these environmental conditions, we developed a multi/interdisciplinary project to evaluate the impact of metal and Arsenic pollution on a sample of 107 children, ages 6 to 9years, living in the urban areas of Progreso, Merida, and Ticul, in the State of Yucatan using urine and blood samples. In addition, ethnographic research was carried out in the homes of the children that participated in the study to identify potential exposure pathways. This research proved invaluable because the complexity of human social organization, lifestyles, and geographical patterning create an intricate array of exposure pathways that vary across social sectors and geographic space. In the following article, we use nonparametric univariate statistical analysis to reveal potential exposure pathways among sub-populations included in our sample. These analyses show that children from poor/marginal families tend to be exposed to Copper, Lead, and Nickel; whereas, children, from wealthier families, tend to be exposed to Cadmium, Arsenic, and inorganic Copper (Copper Sulfate). PMID:27288762

  2. Education, fish consumption, well water, chicken coops, and cooking fires: Using biogeochemistry and ethnography to study exposure of children from Yucatan, Mexico to metals and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Fargher, Lane F

    2016-10-15

    Around the world, the nocuous health effects of exposure to environmental contaminants, especially metals and Arsenic, are a growing health concern. This is especially the case in Mexico, where corruption and ineffective political administration are contributing to increasing deterioration in the environment. Importantly, shallow soils and the karstic nature of bedrock in Yucatan, Mexico make the subterranean aquifer especially susceptible to contamination because contaminates are carried to it with little resistance. Given these environmental conditions, we developed a multi/interdisciplinary project to evaluate the impact of metal and Arsenic pollution on a sample of 107 children, ages 6 to 9years, living in the urban areas of Progreso, Merida, and Ticul, in the State of Yucatan using urine and blood samples. In addition, ethnographic research was carried out in the homes of the children that participated in the study to identify potential exposure pathways. This research proved invaluable because the complexity of human social organization, lifestyles, and geographical patterning create an intricate array of exposure pathways that vary across social sectors and geographic space. In the following article, we use nonparametric univariate statistical analysis to reveal potential exposure pathways among sub-populations included in our sample. These analyses show that children from poor/marginal families tend to be exposed to Copper, Lead, and Nickel; whereas, children, from wealthier families, tend to be exposed to Cadmium, Arsenic, and inorganic Copper (Copper Sulfate).

  3. Neurological effects of inorganic arsenic exposure: altered cysteine/glutamate transport, NMDA expression and spatial memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio A Ramos-Chávez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Chronic exposure to iAs has been associated with lower IQ and learning disabilities as well as memory impairment. iAs is methylated in tissues such as the brain generating mono and dimethylated species. iAs methylation requires cellular glutathione (GSH, which is the main antioxidant in the central nervous system. In humans, As species cross the placenta and are found in cord blood. A CD1 mouse model was used to investigate effects of gestational iAs exposure which can lead to oxidative damage, disrupted cysteine/glutamate transport and its putative impact in learning and memory. On postnatal days (PNDs 1, 15 and 90, the expression of membrane transporters related to GSH synthesis and glutamate transport and toxicity, such as xCT, EAAC1, GLAST and GLT1, as well as LAT1, were analyzed. Also, the expression of the glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR subunits NR2A and B as well as the presence of As species in cortex and hippocampus were investigated. On PND 90, an object location task was performed to associate exposure with memory impairment. Gestational exposure to iAs affected the expression of cysteine/glutamate transporters in cortex and hippocampus and induced a negative modulation of NMDAR NR2B subunit in the hippocampus. Behavioral tasks showed significant spatial memory impairment in males while the effect was marginal in females.

  4. Exposure of Brassica juncea (L) to arsenic species in hydroponic medium: comparative analysis in accumulation and biochemical and transcriptional alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohd Anwar; Gupta, Meetu

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in the environment has attracted considerable attention worldwide. The objective of the present study was to see the comparative effect of As species As(III) and As(V) on accumulation, biochemical responses, and gene expression analysis in Brassica juncea var. Pusa Jaganath (PJn). Hydroponically grown 14-day-old seedlings of B. juncea were treated with different concentrations of As(III) and As(V). Accumulation of total As increased with increasing concentration of both As species and exposure time, mainly in roots. Reduction in seed germination, root-shoot length, chlorophyll, and protein content were observed with increasing concentration and exposure time of both As species, being more in As(III)-treated leaves. PJn variety showed that antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) and stress-related parameters (cysteine, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were stimulated and allows plant to tolerate both As species. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis in leaves showed significant changes in protein profile with more stringent effect with As(III) stress. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed regulation in expression of phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothionine-2 (MT-2), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione synthetase (GS) genes under both As(III) and As(V) stresses. Results suggested that accumulation and inhibition on physiological parameters differ according to the As species, while molecular and biochemical parameters showed a combinatorial type of tolerance mechanism against As(III) and As(V) stresses.

  5. Effect of Exposure to Electrical Discharge on Transformer Oil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. S. N'Cho; I. Fofana; T. Aka-Ngnui; A. Beroual

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum based oils, the so-called mineral oils, are used for impregnating solid insulations or filling products of very large number of electric materials: transformers, reactors, cables, bushings, circuit breakers, tap changers, etc. In these equipments, oil is exposed to electrical stress and may experience electrical discharges under certain circumstances. Since the electrical stress is unavoidable in power equipments, the ability of oil to resist decomposition under electrical stress is of great importance for the safety of these devices. Electrical stress together with heat and moisture, in the presence of oxygen, oxidises the oil producing free radicals, acids and sludge that are deleterious to the transformer. In this paper, the effect of electrical discharges on oil properties is reported. The results indicate that quality of oil is considerably affected with increasing voltage stress. Comparing oil properties before and after voltage application allows assessing the outcome of random secondary chemical reactions between large oil born free radicals.

  6. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H.; Giordano., Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica M.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced h...

  7. Research Progress in the Mutual Transformation of Different Arsenic Speciation in Metabolic Pathways%不同形态的As在代谢途径中相互转化的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱美霖; 姜阳; 曹红斌

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination occurs in many regions. It produces toxic effects to humans mainly through groundwater and food chain. Due to the different toxicity of different arsenic speciation, the toxic harms of arsenic can be reduced through transforming its speciation. Based on the understanding about the mechanism and influencing factors of mutual transformation of arsenic speciation, the arsenic speciation can be transformed through a certain method. In this paper, the transformation of arsenic speciation in metabolic pathways was introduced.%环境中的As污染问题在很多国家和地区都存在,As通过地下水和食物链进入人体造成毒害作用.由于不同形态的As毒性差别很大,因此可以通过调控其存在形态减少其对人或其他生物造成的毒害;了解不同形态的As在生物体中的转化机理和影响因素,就可以采取一定的方法促使其形态发生转化.在此对生物体代谢途径中不同形态As的转化进行了综述.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in transformer repair workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Emmett, E A

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-five present and past transformer repair workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 56 unexposed comparison workers were evaluated in a clinical-epidemiologic study. The groups were similar in most demographic variables. Adipose tissue lipid and serum PCBs concentrations were higher in current exposed workers (geometric means adipose 2.1 ppm, serum 12.2 ppb). Concentrations in comparison (0.6 ppm and 4.6 ppb) and previously exposed (0.83 ppm and 5.9 ppb) workers were lower....

  9. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in the Drinking Water Alters the Expression of Immune Response Genes in Mouse Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozul, Courtney D.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Davey, Jennifer C.; Gosse, Julie A.; Nomikos, Athena P.; Eisenhauer, Phillip L.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Thorpe, Jessica E.; Ihnat, Michael A.; Hamilton, Joshua W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to drinking water arsenic is a significant worldwide environmental health concern. Exposure to As is associated with an increased risk of lung disease, which may make it a unique toxicant, because lung toxicity is usually associated with inhalation rather than ingestion. Objectives The goal of this study was to examine mRNA and protein expression changes in the lungs of mice exposed chronically to environmentally relevant concentrations of As in the food or drinking water, specifically examining the hypothesis that As may preferentially affect gene and protein expression related to immune function as part of its mechanism of toxicant action. Methods C57BL/6J mice fed a casein-based AIN-76A defined diet were exposed to 10 or 100 ppb As in drinking water or food for 5–6 weeks. Results Whole genome transcriptome profiling of animal lungs revealed significant alterations in the expression of many genes with functions in cell adhesion and migration, channels, receptors, differentiation and proliferation, and, most strikingly, aspects of the innate immune response. Confirmation of mRNA and protein expression changes in key genes of this response revealed that genes for interleukin 1β, interleukin 1 receptor, a number of toll-like receptors, and several cytokines and cytokine receptors were significantly altered in the lungs of As-exposed mice. Conclusions These findings indicate that chronic low-dose As exposure at the current U.S. drinking-water standard can elicit effects on the regulation of innate immunity, which may contribute to altered disease risk, particularly in lung. PMID:19654921

  10. Geochemistry and health risk assessment of arsenic exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sujuan; Zheng, Na; Liu, Jingshuang; Wang, Yang; Chang, Shouzhi

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate arsenic (As) accumulation in street dust and health risk of population. The investigation concentrated on: a. pollution levels of As in street dust; b. spatial distribution of As in street dust; c. physicochemical properties analysis of street dust; and d. assessment of population health risk due to As exposure to street dust. As concentration in street dust ranged from 3.33 to 185.1 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 33.10 mg kg(-1), which was higher than the background value of Liaoning soil. As contamination level of the area closing to Huludao Zinc Plant (HZP) was highest. Spatial variation showed that the pollution center was close to HZP, formed radial distribution pattern and extended to the northeast and southwest of HZP. The pH and organic matter of street dust were both higher than the background values of soil in Liaoning. There was significantly negative correlation between As concentration and the pH. The mass percentages of particles 180-100, 63, and 63 μm were 29.8, 3.7, 21.3, and 4.2 %, respectively. The highest of As concentration was found in the smallest particle size (63 μm). As loadings in the particles of grain size 180-100 and 63 μm were higher than other particle fractions. Results of the risk assessment indicated that the highest risk was associated with the ingestion of street dust particles. Health risk for different use scenarios to human decreased in the order of HZP > Industrial district > School > Commercial center > Residential area. Around HZP, Hazard Index (HI) for children and cancer risk of As by street dust exposure exceeded the acceptable values. It indicated that there was a potential adverse effect on children health by As exposure to the street dust of Huludao.

  11. 砷形态转化及其环境效应研究%Transformation of arsenic species and its environmental effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永炳; 王丽丽; 李晓娟; 柳秀颖; 涂书新; 李晔

    2013-01-01

    砷在水环境中的形态转化受到许多物理化学因素的制约,并产生毒害程度不同的环境效应.对多种因素进行研究,寻找将高毒的As(Ⅲ)向低毒的As(Ⅴ)转化的有利条件,并控制As(Ⅴ)向As(Ⅲ)的转化.结果表明,自然敞口放置3d的As(Ⅲ)溶液中没有As(Ⅴ)的出现,As(Ⅲ)向As(Ⅴ)的转化是一个缓慢的过程.锰矿、粉煤灰等天然矿物能氧化As(Ⅲ),从而降低毒性.酸性或碱性条件都有利于As(Ⅲ)向As(Ⅴ)的转化,转化率超过90%.温度、可见光、超声波等外界条件对砷形态转化有一定影响.紫外光照射3d后的As(Ⅲ)完全转化成As(Ⅴ),且As(Ⅴ)没有向As(Ⅲ)转化,因此紫外光是降低砷毒性的有利条件.Fe2+能将As(Ⅴ)还原,升高水体砷的毒性;而Fe3+能将As(Ⅲ)氧化,并生成氢氧化物将砷吸附.%Transformation of arsenic species in aquatic environment is controlled by many physical-chemical factors, and it can results in different toxic effects to environment. This paper studied many factors which affect arsenic species transformation, and discussed the method to decrease toxicity, such as found the conditions beneficial for the transformation from high-toxic As( Ⅲ ) to low-toxic As( V ) and control the conversion from As( V ) to As( Ⅲ ). The results showed that there was no As( V ) found in As( Ⅲ ) solution after 3 d of placement, indicated that the transformation of As( Ⅲ ) to As( V ) was very slow under the natural condition. Manganese ore and fly ash were both beneficial to transformation of As( Ⅲ ) to As( V ). The conversion rate of As( Ⅲ ) to As( V ) was above 90% both in the a-cidic and alkaline condition. Temperature, visible light and ultrasonic all had little effect on the arsenic species transformation. UV-light made As( Ⅲ ) completely transformed into As( V ) after 3 d of illumination, and the conversion was nonreversible. Fe2+ in water body could restore As( V ), and increased the arsenic toxicity

  12. Arsenic and Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water: Children’s IQ and Growth in Shanyin County, Shanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Xiang; Wang, Zheng-Hui; Cheng, Xiao-Tian; Li, Jun; Sang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Han, Ling-Ling; Qiao, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, in a cross-sectional study of 201 children in Araihazar, Bangladesh, exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water has been shown to lower the scores on tests that measure children’s intellectual function before and after adjustment for sociodemographic features. Objectives We investigated the effects of As and fluoride exposure on children’s intelligence and growth. Methods We report the results of a study of 720 children between 8 and 12 years of age in rural villages in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. The children were exposed to As at concentrations of 142 ± 106 μg/L (medium-As group) and 190 ± 183 μg/L (high-As group) in drinking water compared with the control group that was exposed to low concentrations of As (2 ± 3 μg/L) and low concentrations of fluoride (0.5 ± 0.2 mg/L). A study group of children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride (8.3 ± 1.9 mg/L) but low concentrations of As (3 ± 3 μg/L) was also included because of the common occurrence of elevated concentrations of fluoride in groundwater in our study area. A standardized IQ (intelligence quotient) test was modified for children in rural China and was based on the classic Raven’s test used to determine the effects of these exposures on children’s intelligence. A standardized measurement procedure for weight, height, chest circumference, and lung capacity was used to determine the effects of these exposures on children’s growth. Results The mean IQ scores decreased from 105 ± 15 for the control group, to 101 ± 16 for the medium-As group (p < 0.05), and to 95 ± 17 for the high-As group (p < 0.01). The mean IQ score for the high-fluoride group was 101 ± 16 and significantly different from that of the control group (p < 0.05). Children in the control group were taller than those in the high-fluoride group (p < 0.05); weighed more than the those in the high-As group (p < 0.05); and had higher lung capacity than those in the medium-As group (p < 0

  13. Arsenic microdistribution and speciation in toenail clippings of children living in a historic gold mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dora C; Dowling, Kim; Gerson, Andrea R; Sim, Malcolm R; Sutton, Stephen R; Newville, Matthew; Russell, Robert; McOrist, Gordon

    2010-05-15

    Arsenic is naturally associated with gold mineralisation and elevated in some soils and mine waste around historical gold mining activity in Victoria, Australia. To explore uptake, arsenic concentrations in children's toenail clippings and household soils were measured, and the microdistribution and speciation of arsenic in situ in toenail clipping thin sections investigated using synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe techniques. The ability to differentiate exogenous arsenic was explored by investigating surface contamination on cleaned clippings using depth profiling, and direct diffusion of arsenic into incubated clippings. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 2.1 microg/g (n=29) in clipping samples and from 3.3 to 130 microg/g (n=22) in household soils, with significant correlation between transformed arsenic concentrations (Pearson's r=0.42, P=0.023) when household soil was treated as independent. In clipping thin sections (n=2), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping showed discrete layering of arsenic consistent with nail structure, and irregular arsenic incorporation along the nail growth axis. Arsenic concentrations were heterogeneous at 10x10 microm microprobe spot locations investigated (XRF and XANES analyses of thin sections of clippings incubated in dry or wet mine waste, or untreated, suggested direct diffusion of arsenic occurred under moist conditions. These findings suggest that arsenic in soil contributes to some systemic absorption associated with periodic exposures among children resident in areas of historic gold mining activity in Victoria, Australia. Future studies are required to ascertain if adverse health effects are associated with current levels of arsenic uptake. PMID:20067849

  14. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-02-06

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (parsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; parsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  15. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-02-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (parsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; parsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  16. 慢性砷暴露人骨髓间充质干细胞的生物学特性观察%Biological characteristics of arsenic resistance cell chronic arsenic exposure human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉玉琴; 冯丽娜; 徐燕; 唐琪; 慕晓玲

    2010-01-01

    arsenic [0(control),0.25,0.50,1.00,2.00,4.00,8.00,20.00,40.00,80.00,120.00 μmol/L]of the fist 2-generation(P2). According to the test results,1.00 μmol/L sodium arsenite was chosen to stimulate hFBMSCs for 14 weeks as experimental group,simultaneous 0 μmol/L sodium arsenite as the control group. And then,the phenotype was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting,and the cell cycle by flow cytometry. Finally,the cell malignant transformation was detected by soft-agar assay. Results Arsenite low than 10 μmol/L promoted cell proliferation,but inhibited cell proliferation when exceeding 10 μmol/L. Half of the lethal dose (LC_(50)) in experimental and control groups were (89.42±0.64),(52.48±0.71)μmol/L. The difference between two groups was statistically significant(t = 123.89,P < 0.05). The phenotype of CAsE-hFBMSCs was CD29,CD90,CD166 positive and CD34,CD45 negative. The phenotype of CAsE-hFBMSCs was the same as the control. Comparing to control group[(8.44±0.45)%,(9.14μ0.14)%,(82.42±0.60)%],G2/M phage[(17.72±5.47)%]and S phage [(25.34±3.36)%]cell increased,G0/G1 phage[(56.96±8.83)%]cell decreased in P2 CAsE-hFBMSCs. The cell cycle became nearly the same as the control group after adaption. CAsE-hFBMSCs did not show clone formation in soft agar clone formation assay. Conclusion Long last and low level exposure to arsenite does not influence the biologic features of hFBMSCs.

  17. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-04-30

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040-0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398-0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents' addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources. PMID:24607528

  18. Dynamic flow-through sequential extraction for assessment of fractional transformation and inter-element associations of arsenic in stabilized soil and sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buanuam, Janya, E-mail: b_janya@hotmail.com [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wennrich, Rainer [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    A dynamic flow-through extraction system was applied for the first time to ascertain the fractional transformation and inter-element associations of arsenic in stabilized environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of soil and sludge stabilized with three additives, namely MnO{sub 2}, Ca(OH){sub 2} and FeSO{sub 4}. The extraction system used not only gave fractionation data, but also the extraction profiles (extractograms) which were used for investigation of the breaking down of phases, kinetic releasing of As and elemental association between As and inorganic additives. Five geochemical fractions of As were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of a modified Wenzel's sequential extraction scheme, well established for fractionation of arsenic. The results revealed that MnO{sub 2} and FeSO{sub 4} have a slight effect on As phase transformation for soil and sludge samples amended for one week whereas the addition of Ca(OH){sub 2} increases As mobility due to the desorption of As from the solid Fe-oxides phase. The significant change in fractional transformation after 8 weeks of incubation can be seen in MnO{sub 2}-treated soil. There was an increase of 17% in the non-mobilizable As fraction in MnO{sub 2}-treated soil. From extractograms, arsenic in untreated soil was found to be rapidly leached and concurrently released with Fe. This may be evidence that the release of As is dependent on the dissolution of amorphous Fe oxides. In MnO{sub 2}-treated soil, a strong affinity was observed between Mn and As in the amorphous Fe/Al oxides fraction, and this plays an important role in slowing down the kinetics of As releasing.

  19. Evaluation of a novel portable x-ray fluorescence screening tool for detection of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, David J; VanLeeuwen, John A; Knafla, Anthony L; Campbell, Jillian A; Alexander, Kevin M; Gherase, Mihai R; Guernsey, Judith R; Fleming, David E B

    2015-12-01

    A new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) screening tool was evaluated for its effectiveness in arsenic (As) quantification in human finger and toe nails ([Formula: see text]). Nail samples were measured for total As concentration by XRF and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), kappa, diagnostic sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp), and linear regression analyses, the concentration of As measured by XRF was compared to ICP-MS. The CCC peaked for scaled values of fingernail samples, at 0.424 (95% CI: 0.065-0.784). The largest kappa value, 0.400 (95% CI:  -0.282-1.000), was found at a 1.3 μg g(-1) cut-off concentration, for fingernails only, and the largest kappa at a clinically relevant cut-off concentration of 1.0 μg g(-1) was 0.237 (95% CI:  -0.068-0.543), again in fingernails. Analyses generally showed excellent XRF Sn (up to 100%, 95% CI: 48-100%), but low Sp (up to 30% for the same analysis, 95% CI: 14-50%). Portable XRF shows some potential for use as a screening tool with fingernail samples. The difference between XRF and ICP-MS measurements decreased as sample mass increased to 30 mg. While this novel method of As detection in nails has shown relatively high agreement in some scenarios, this portable XRF is not currently considered suitable as a substitute for ICP-MS.

  20. Evaluation of a novel portable x-ray fluorescence screening tool for detection of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, David J; VanLeeuwen, John A; Knafla, Anthony L; Campbell, Jillian A; Alexander, Kevin M; Gherase, Mihai R; Guernsey, Judith R; Fleming, David E B

    2015-12-01

    A new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) screening tool was evaluated for its effectiveness in arsenic (As) quantification in human finger and toe nails ([Formula: see text]). Nail samples were measured for total As concentration by XRF and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), kappa, diagnostic sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp), and linear regression analyses, the concentration of As measured by XRF was compared to ICP-MS. The CCC peaked for scaled values of fingernail samples, at 0.424 (95% CI: 0.065-0.784). The largest kappa value, 0.400 (95% CI:  -0.282-1.000), was found at a 1.3 μg g(-1) cut-off concentration, for fingernails only, and the largest kappa at a clinically relevant cut-off concentration of 1.0 μg g(-1) was 0.237 (95% CI:  -0.068-0.543), again in fingernails. Analyses generally showed excellent XRF Sn (up to 100%, 95% CI: 48-100%), but low Sp (up to 30% for the same analysis, 95% CI: 14-50%). Portable XRF shows some potential for use as a screening tool with fingernail samples. The difference between XRF and ICP-MS measurements decreased as sample mass increased to 30 mg. While this novel method of As detection in nails has shown relatively high agreement in some scenarios, this portable XRF is not currently considered suitable as a substitute for ICP-MS. PMID:26536141

  1. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ruei-Hao [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chang-Chuan, E-mail: ccchan@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage dispersion models can estimate exposures to hazardous air pollutants. • Spatial distribution of V levels is derived for sources without known emission rates. • A distance-to-source gradient is found for V levels from a petrochemical complex. • Two-stage dispersion is useful for modeling air pollution in resource-limited areas. - Abstract: The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM{sub 10} filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040–0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398–0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents’ addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources.

  2. Subchronic Exposure to Arsenic Represses the TH/TRβ1-CaMK IV Signaling Pathway in Mouse Cerebellum

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    Huai Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that arsenic (As impaired learning and memory by down-regulating calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV in mouse cerebellum. It has been documented that the thyroid hormone receptor (TR/retinoid X receptor (RXR heterodimer and thyroid hormone (TH may be involved in the regulation of CaMK IV. To investigate whether As affects the TR/RXR heterodimer and TH, we determined As concentration in serum and cerebellum, 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxin (T4 levels in serum, and expression of CaMK IV, TR and RXR in cerebellum of mice exposed to As. Cognition function was examined by the step-down passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM tests. Morphology of the cerebellum was observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining under light microscope. Our results showed that the concentrations of As in the serum and cerebellum of mice both increased with increasing As-exposure level. A significant positive correlation was found between the two processes. Adeficit in learning and memory was found in the exposed mice. Abnormal morphologic changes of Purkinje cells were observed in cerebellum of the exposed mice. Moreover, the cerebellar expressions of CaMK IV protein and the TRβ gene, and TRβ1 protein were significantly lower in As-exposed mice than those in controls. Subchronic exposure to As appears to increase its level in serum and cerebella of mice, impairing learning and memory and down-regulating expression of TRβ1 as well as down-stream CaMK IV. It is also suggested that the increased As may be responsible for down-regulation of TRβ1 and CaMK IV in cerebellum and that the down-regulated TRβ1 may be involved in As-induced impairment of learning and memory via inhibiting CaMK IV and its down-stream pathway.

  3. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two-stage dispersion models can estimate exposures to hazardous air pollutants. • Spatial distribution of V levels is derived for sources without known emission rates. • A distance-to-source gradient is found for V levels from a petrochemical complex. • Two-stage dispersion is useful for modeling air pollution in resource-limited areas. - Abstract: The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040–0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398–0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents’ addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources

  4. The distance-to-source trend in vanadium and arsenic exposures for residents living near a petrochemical complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Chio, Chia-Pin; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Pien, Wei-Hsu; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Biological monitoring of vanadium (V) and arsenic (As) for residents living near a big petrochemical complex has not been previously studied. This study aims to investigate distance-to-source trends in urinary levels and dispersion-estimated concentrations of V and As in areas surrounding a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan. Our study subjects were 1424 residents living in the townships up to ~40 km from the petrochemical complex, and categorized as near (Zone A), further (Zone B) and furthest (Zone C) from the complex. Urinary and ambient V and As levels were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Two-stage dispersion model was used to estimate V and As concentrations at each study subject's address. Multiple linear regression models were used to study the effects of distance-to-source and estimated air concentrations of V and As on the urinary V and As levels of study subjects. Area-wide levels of both V and As showed a high-to-low trend in urinary levels (μg/g-creatinine) from Zone A (V with 2.86±2.30 and As with 104.6±147.9) to Zone C (V with 0.73±0.72 and As with 73.8±90.8). For study subjects, urinary V and As levels were decreased by 0.09 and 1.17 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, with 1 km away from the emission source of the petrochemical complex, and urinary V levels were significantly elevated by 0.38 μg/g-creatinine with a 1 ng/m(3) increase in estimated ambient V concentrations at their addresses. Our study concludes a distance-to-source gradient in V and As exposures exists for residents living near a petrochemical complex with oil refineries and coal-fired power plants and two-stage dispersion model can predict such a trend for V when inhalation is the major exposure route, but not for As that exposure may be from multiple sources and exposure routes. PMID:25690586

  5. Exposure to low level of arsenic and lead in drinking water from Antofagasta city induces gender differences in glucose homeostasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Javier; Roman, Domingo; Cifuentes, Fredi

    2012-08-01

    Populations chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water often have increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the glucose homeostasis of male and female rats exposed to low levels of heavy metals in drinking water. Treated groups were Sprague-Dawley male and female rats exposed to drinking water from Antofagasta city, with total arsenic of 30 ppb and lead of 53 ppb for 3 months; control groups were exposed to purified water by reverse osmosis. The two treated groups in both males and females showed arsenic and lead in the hair of rats. The δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was used as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic toxicity and lead. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was reduced only in treated male rats, compared to the control group. Treated males showed a significantly sustained increase in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test compared to control group. The oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated that male rats were insulin resistant, and females remained sensitive to insulin after treatment. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol increased in treated male rats vs. the control, and triglyceride increased in treated female rats vs. the control. The activity of intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter in male rats increased compared to female rats, suggesting a significant increase in intestinal glucose absorption. The findings indicate that exposure to low levels of arsenic and lead in drinking water could cause gender differences in insulin resistance.

  6. Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications. PMID:24472185

  7. Novel Plasmid Transformation Method Mediated by Chrysotile, Sliding Friction, and Elastic Body Exposure

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    Naoto Yoshida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli as a plasmid recipient cell was dispersed in a chrysotile colloidal solution, containing chrysotile adsorbed to plasmid DNA (chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture. Following this, the chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture was dropped onto the surface of an elastic body, such as agarose, and treated physically by sliding a polystyrene streak bar over the elastic body to create friction. Plasmid DNA was easily incorporated into E. coli, and antibiotic resistance was conferred by transformation. The transformation efficiency of E. coli cultured in solid medium was greater than that of E. coli cultured in broth. To obtain greater transformation efficiency, we attempted to determine optimal transformation conditions. The following conditions resulted in the greatest transformation efficiency: the recipient cell concentration within the chrysotileplasmid cell mixture had an optical density greater than or equal to 2 at 550 nm, the vertical reaction force applied to the streak bar was greater than or equal to 40 g, and the rotation speed of the elastic body was greater than or equal to 34 rpm. Under these conditions, we observed a transformation efficiency of 107 per μg plasmid DNA. The advantage of achieving bacterial transformation using the elastic body exposure method is that competent cell preparation of the recipient cell is not required. In addition to E. coli, other Gram negative bacteria are able to acquire plasmid DNA using the elastic body exposure method.

  8. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  9. Measurement of Microscopic Deformations Using Double-Exposure Holographic Interferometry and the Fourier Transform Method

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    Percival Almoro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic deformations on the surface of a circular diaphragm were measured using double exposure holographic interferometry and Fourier transform method (FTM. The three-dimensional surface deformations were successfully visualized by applying FTM to holographic interferogram analysis. The minimum surface displacement measured was 0.317 µm. This was calibrated via the Michelson interferometry technique.

  10. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urina...

  11. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Madhurima Pandey; Sushma Yadav; Piyush Kant Pandey

    2007-01-01

    The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically ...

  12. Arsenic-induced Aurora-A activation contributes to chromosome instability and tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Han; Tseng, Ya-Shih; Yang, Chao-Chun; Kao, Yu-Ting; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic may cause serious environmental pollution and is a serious industrial problem. Depending on the dosage, arsenic may trigger the cells undergoing either proliferation or apoptosis-related cell death. Because of lack of the proper animal model to study arsenic induced tumorigenesis, the accurate risk level of arsenic exposure has not been determined. Arsenic shows genotoxic effect on human beings who uptake water contaminated by arsenic. Chromosome aberration is frequently detected in arsenic exposure-related diseases and is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased DNA repairing activity, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Aurora-A is a mitotic kinase, over-expression of Aurora-A leads to centrosome amplification, chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We revealed that Aurora-A is over-expressed in the skin and bladder cancer patients from blackfoot-disease endemic areas. Our cell line studies reveal that arsenic exposure between 0.5 μM and 1 μM for 2-7 days are able to induce Aurora-A expression and activation based on promoter activity, RNA and protein analysis. Aurora-A overexpression further increases the frequency of unsymmetrical chromosome segregation through centrosome amplification followed by cell population accumulated at S phase in immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) and uroepithelial cells (E7). Furthermore, Aurora-A over-expression was sustained for 1-4 weeks by chronic treatment of immortalized bladder and skin cells with NaAsO2. Aurora-A promoter methylation and gene amplification was not detected in the long-term arsenic treated E7 cells. Furthermore, the expression level of E2F1 transcription factor (E2F1) is increased in the presence of arsenic, and arsenic-related Aurora-A over-expression is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1. We further demonstrated that overexpression of Aurora-A and mutant Ha-ras or Aurora-A and mutant p53 may act additively to trigger arsenic-related bladder and skin cancer

  13. Transforming an Exposure trip to Botanical Expedition: Introducing Ecological Research thru Exposure Trip in an Eco-tourism Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.

  14. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Klimecki, Walter T.; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08), water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03), house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04), and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  15. Chronic exposure to low levels of inorganic arsenic causes alterations in locomotor activity and in the expression of dopaminergic and antioxidant systems in the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge Humberto; Carrizales, Leticia; Mendoza-Trejo, María Soledad; Giordano, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated chronic arsenicism with decreases in IQ and sensory and motor alterations in humans. Likewise, studies of rodents exposed to inorganic arsenic ((i)As) have found changes in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, oxidative stress, and in sensory and motor nerves. In the current study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of (i)As (0.05, 0.5 mg (i)As/L) and to a high dose (50 mg (i)As/L) in drinking water for one year. Hypoactivity and increases in the striatal dopamine content were found in the group treated with 50 mg (i)As/L. Exposure to 0.5 and 50 mg (i)As/L increased the total brain content of As. Furthermore, (i)As exposure produced a dose-dependent up-regulation of mRNA for Mn-SOD and Trx-1 and a down-regulation of DAR-D₂ mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. DAR-D₁ and Nrf2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in nucleus accumbens in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. Trx-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the cortex in an (i)As dose-dependent manner, while DAR-D₁ mRNA expression was increased in striatum in the 0.5 mg (i)As/L group. These results show that chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic causes subtle but region-specific changes in the nervous system, especially in antioxidant systems and dopaminergic elements. These changes became behaviorally evident only in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L.

  16. Health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dusts from arsenic-rich sediment at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jamie; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Hu, Qing; Chow, Rebecca; David, Winnie; Young, Sharon; Teng, Yuanxin; Leetham-Spencer, Mallory; Murphy, Lacey; Pollard, James; McLaurin, Brett; Gerads, Russell; Keil, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Geogenic dust from arid environments is a possible inhalation hazard for humans, especially when using off-road vehicles that generate significant dust. This study focused on immunotoxicological and neurotoxicological effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust generated from sediments in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area near Las Vegas, Nevada that are particularly high in arsenic; the naturally-occurring arsenic concentrations in these surficial sediments ranged from 4.8 to 346μg/g. Dust samples from sediments used in this study had a median diameter of 4.5μm and also were a complex mixture of naturally-occurring metals, including aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, strontium, cesium, lead, uranium, and arsenic. Adult female B6C3F1 mice exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to 0.01 to 100mg dust/kg body weight, four times, a week apart, for 28days, were evaluated 24h after the last exposure. Peripheral eosinophils were increased at all concentrations, serum creatinine was dose responsively increased beginning at 1.0mg/kg/day, and blood urea nitrogen was decreased at 10 and 100mg/kg/day. Antigen-specific IgM responses and natural killer cell activity were dose-responsively suppressed at 0.1mg/kg/day and above. Splenic CD4+CD25+ T cells were decreased at 0.01, 0.1, 10, and 100mg/kg/day. Antibodies against MBP, NF-68, and GFAP were selectively reduced. A no observed adverse effect level of 0.01mg/kg/day and a lowest observed adverse effect level of 0.1mg/kg/day were determined from IgM responses and natural killer cell activity, indicating that exposure to this dust, under conditions similar to our design, could affect these responses. PMID:27221630

  17. Identification and quantification of phytochelatins in roots of rice to long-term exposure: evidence of individual role on arsenic accumulation and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Bruno Lemos; Nigar, Meher; Mestrot, Adrien; Rocha, Bruno Alves; Barbosa Júnior, Fernando; Price, Adam H; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Rice has the predilection to take up arsenic in the form of methylated arsenic (o-As) and inorganic arsenic species (i-As). Plants defend themselves using i-As efflux systems and the production of phytochelatins (PCs) to complex i-As. Our study focused on the identification and quantification of phytochelatins by HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS, relating them to the several variables linked to As exposure. GSH, 11 PCs, and As-PC complexes from the roots of six rice cultivars (Italica Carolina, Dom Sofid, 9524, Kitrana 508, YRL-1, and Lemont) exposed to low and high levels of i-As were compared with total, i-As, and o-As in roots, shoots, and grains. Only Dom Sofid, Kitrana 508, and 9524 were found to produce higher levels of PCs even when exposed to low levels of As. PCs were only correlated to i-As in the roots (r=0.884, P <0.001). However, significant negative correlations to As transfer factors (TF) roots-grains (r= -0.739, P <0.05) and shoots-grains (r= -0.541, P <0.05), suggested that these peptides help in trapping i-As but not o-As in the roots, reducing grains' i-As. Italica Carolina reduced i-As in grains after high exposure, where some specific PCs had a special role in this reduction. In Lemont, exposure to elevated levels of i-As did not result in higher i-As levels in the grains and there were no significant increases in PCs or thiols. Finally, the high production of PCs in Kitrana 508 and Dom Sofid in response to high As treatment did not relate to a reduction of i-As in grains, suggesting that other mechanisms such as As-PC release and transport seems to be important in determining grain As in these cultivars.

  18. Biological exposure limit in bone metabolism damage induced by co-exposure to fluorine and arsenic from coal burning%燃煤氟砷致骨代谢损伤的生物暴露限值初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾奇兵; 喻仙; 杨鋆; 洪峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the biological exposure limit in bone metabolism damage caused by coexposure to fluorine and arsenic from coal burning in exposed population.Methods One hundred and ninety-eight cases of fluoride and arsenic co-exposed people from Liuchang village,Qinzhen city,Guizhou province were enrolled in the study.Urinary fluorine (UF),urinary arsenic (UAs),urinary hydroxyproline (UHYP),ross-linked Ntelopeptides of type Ⅰ collagen(UNTX) and bone strength index(STI) were detected.BMDS Version 2.1 software was used to calculate UF,UAs benchmark dose (BMD) and its lower confidence limit (BMDL) on the damage of bone metabolism caused by co-exposure to fluorine and arsenic from coal burning.Results The BMD and BMDL range of UF caused by co-exposure to fluorine and arsenic from coal burning were 0.68-1.35 mg/g Cr,0.57-1.11 mg/g Cr.The BMD and BMDL range of UAs caused by co-exposure to fluorine and arsenic from coal burning were 8.36-18.77 μg/g Cr,7.12-15.40 μg/g Cr.Conclusion The biological exposure limits of UF and UAs for bone metabolism toxicity are proposed as 0.57 mg/g Cr and 7.12 μg/g Cr in co-exposure to fluoride and arsenic from coal burning,respectively.%目的 探讨燃煤氟砷致暴露人群骨代谢损伤的生物暴露限值(BEL).方法 2009年选择贵州省清镇市流长乡198例氟砷联合暴露者作为调查对象,分别检测尿氟、尿砷及骨代谢效应标志尿羟脯氨酸(UHYP)和尿Ⅰ型胶原交联氨基末端肽(UNTX)、骨强度指数(STI).应用BMDS Version 2.1软件计算燃煤氟砷致骨代谢损伤的尿氟、尿砷基准剂量(BMD)及其可信限下限(BMDL).结果 氟、砷混合暴露引起骨代谢损伤的尿氟BMD及BMDL范围分别为0.68 ~ 1.35 mg/g Cr和0.57 ~ 1.11 mg/g Cr;尿砷BMD及BMDL范围分别为8.36 ~ 18.77 μg/g Cr和7.12 ~ 15.40 μg/g Cr.结论 建议燃煤氟砷混合暴露引起骨代谢损伤的生物暴露限值,尿氟为0.57 mg/g Cr,尿砷为7.12 μg/g Cr.

  19. Study on morphological transformation of the arsenic migration process in tungsten mine tailings%钨矿尾矿砂中砷迁移过程中的形态转化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永红; 曹鑫康; 周丹; 张静

    2013-01-01

    In order to master the arsenic contamination status and migration or transformation rules in the mining areas, experiments including the total quantity analysis and morphological analysis for arsenic in tailings and surrounding soil were carried out for tungsten mining area in Gannan District. Research shows that the content of arsenic in tailings and surrounding soil are significantly higher than that in the background soil. In tailings, the arsenic mainly exists in formation of organic compound and the residual; however, it mainly exists as the compound linked to oxides of Fe-Mn in the soil. The morphology of the arsenic is transformable in the migration process.%  对赣南某钨矿区堆积的尾砂以及其周围土壤中的As进行了全量和形态分析,以期掌握矿区砷污染现状及其迁移转化规律。研究表明,尾矿砂和土壤中的As明显高于当地的土壤背景值;尾矿砂中As主要以有机结合态和残渣态的形式存在,土壤中As主要以铁-锰氧化物结合态的形式存在;As在迁移过程中各形态间可能发生转化。

  20. Epidemiologic evidence of diabetogenic effect of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chong, Choon-Khim; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2002-07-01

    It is well documented that arsenic can lead to skin lesions, atherosclerotic diseases and cancers. The association between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus is a relatively new finding. Up to now, there are six epidemiologic reports linking diabetes mellitus with arsenic exposure from environmental and occupational sources. Two reports in Taiwan carried out in the blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages, one cross-sectional and one prospective follow-up of the same cohort, indicate that arsenic exposure from drinking artesian well water is associated with prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in a dose-responsive pattern. The observation of the relation between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus is further supported by studies carried out in Sweden and Bangladesh. In Sweden, case-control analyses of death records of copper smelters and glass workers revealed a trend of increasing diabetes mellitus with increasing arsenic exposure from inhalation. In Bangladesh, prevalence of diabetes mellitus among arsenic-exposed subjects with keratosis was about five times higher than unexposed subjects. Increasing trends of diabetes mellitus with indices of arsenic exposure in drinking water seems to be independent of the presence of skin lesions associated with arsenic exposure. Although these studies consistently show an association between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus, the weak study designs of cross-sectional or case-control, the use of glucosuria or diabetes death as diagnostic criteria and the lack of adjustment for possible confounders in some studies, are major limitations that may reduce the strength of the evidence. PMID:12076511

  1. INFLUENCE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA (DRUM-STICK FRUIT EXTRACT ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE FOLLOWING REPEATED EXPOSURE TO LOW LEVELS OF ARSENIC THROUGH FEED ON RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav R. Pachade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Moringa oleifera fruits hot methanolic extract (MFE, if any, in minimizing the adverse reactions of repeated exposure to arsenic trioxide (AT in feed was investigated in Wistar rats with reference to haematological profile. Three groups of rats each containing 10 (5male+5female were used. The group I served as negative control. Rats of group II were fed arsenic trioxide (AT alone @ 100 ppm in feed while those of group III simultaneously received AT (@100 ppm and MFE (50 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Blood samples were collected from retroorbital plexus for estimation of hematological parameters (haemoglobin, PCV, TEC, MCH, MCHC, MCV of different groups on 0 day, 15th day and 29th day respectively. Exposure to AT through feed in group II resulted in significant (P<0.05 decrease in haemoglobin, TEC and MCHC, accompanied by increased MCV, with no significant alteration of PCV or MCH of the rats. While rats of group III treated with AT (@100 ppm and MFE (50 mg/kg/day also resulted in same consequences as it was in group II but it was slightly less than that of group II suggesting of mild non significant protective effect.

  2. Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile; Grosche, Bernd

    2006-06-01

    Arsenic, one of the most significant hazards in the environment affecting millions of people around the world, is associated with several diseases including cancers of skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Groundwater contamination by arsenic is the main route of exposure. Inhalation of airborne arsenic or arsenic-contaminated dust is a common health problem in many ore mines. This review deals with the questions raised in the epidemiological studies such as the dose-response relationship, putative confounders and synergistic effects, and methods evaluating arsenic exposure. Furthermore, it describes the metabolic pathways of arsenic, and its biological modes of action. The role of arsenic in the development of cancer is elucidated in the context of combined epidemiological and biological studies. However, further analyses by means of molecular epidemiology are needed to improve the understanding of cancer aetiology induced by arsenic.

  3. Review of arsenic contamination, exposure through water and food and low cost mitigation options for rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Tjell, Jens Christian; Sloth, Jens Jørgen;

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid found to be an important groundwater contaminant of mainly natural geogenic origin worldwide particularly in large deltas and along major rivers in poor regions of South- and East-Asia. Excessive and long-term human intake of toxic inorganic As with food and water...

  4. Systematic review of differential inorganic arsenic exposure in minority, low-income, and indigenous populations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is carcinogenic in humans and also associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, and skin diseases. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to low concentrations of iAs in water, food, soil, and air. Minority and low income populations are often at hig...

  5. ARSENIC - SUSCEPTIBILITY & IN UTERO EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic remains a serious public health problem at many locations worldwide. If has often been noted that prevalences of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning differ among various populations. For example, skin lesions or peripheral vascular dis...

  6. Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California’s San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA’s 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. Methods We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs) serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL) violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005–2007 in California’s San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Results Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= −0.27 μg As/L, 95% (CI), -0.5, -0.05). This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient= −0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03). CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67); those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4) of an MCL violation. Conclusions We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges. PMID:23151087

  7. Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California’s San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Carolina L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA’s 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. Methods We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005–2007 in California’s San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Results Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= −0.27 μg As/L, 95% (CI, -0.5, -0.05. This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient= −0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03. CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67; those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4 of an MCL violation. Conclusions We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges.

  8. Feasibility study on blood sample investigations from former Wismut employees with respect to possible biomarkers for arsenic or radiation exposure using proteomics and cDNA microarray technologies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report on the feasibility of blood sample investigations from former Wismut employees with respect to possible biomarkers for arsenic or radiation exposure using proteomics and cDNA microarray technologies covers the following topics: blood samples; methodologies: 2D gel electrophoresis; protein identification using MALDI-MS; accomplishment and evaluation of the proteomics and cDNA microarray analysis.

  9. Atrazine is primarily responsible for the toxicity of long-term exposure to a combination of atrazine and inorganic arsenic in the nigrostriatal system of the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardullas, Ulises; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya

    2013-01-01

    Chronic and simultaneous exposure to a variety of chemicals present in the environment is an unavoidable fact. However, given the complexity of studying chemical mixtures, most toxicological studies have focused on the effects of short-term exposure to single substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the nigrostriatal system of the chronic, simultaneous exposure to two widely distributed substances that have been identified as potential dopaminergic system toxicants, inorganic arsenic (iAs) and atrazine (ATR). Six groups of rats were treated daily for one year with atrazine (10mg ATR/kg), inorganic arsenic (0.5 or 50mgiAs/L of drinking water), or a combination of ATR+0.5mgiAs/L or ATR+50mgiAs/L. The 50mgiAs/L group showed locomotor hypoactivity, while all treatments decreased motor coordination in contrast no effects of treatment were found on the place and response learning tasks. Regarding markers for liver and muscle damage, there were no differences between groups in creatine kinase (CK) or aspartate transaminase (AST) activities, while decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were found in some exposed groups. The striatal DA content was significantly reduced in ATR, 0.5mgiAs/L, ATR+0.5mgiAs/L, and ATR+50mgiAs/L groups, in comparison to the control group. The number of mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells decreased in the ATR and ATR+0.5mgiAs/L groups compared to the control. In contrast, immunoreactivity to cytochrome oxidase was reduced compared to the control in all treated groups, except for the group treated with 0.5iAsmg alone. Our results indicate that ATR has deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons and that the combination of ATR and iAs does not exacerbate these effects.

  10. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, B.S.; Aposhian, H.V.; Zhou, Y.S.; Chen, M.L.; Zhang, A.H.; Waalkes, M.P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China was investigated. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such over exposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  11. Structural transformation of CsI thin film photocathodes under exposure to air and UV irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W

    2000-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been employed to study the structure of polycrystalline CsI thin films and its transformation under exposure to humid air and UV irradiation. The catastrophic degradation of CsI thin film photocathode performance is shown to be associated with the film dissolving followed by its re-crystallization. This results in the formation of large lumps of CsI crystal on the substrate surface, so that the film becomes discontinuous and its performance as a photocathode is permanently degraded. No change in the surface morphology and the film crystalline structure was observed after the samples were UV irradiated.

  12. Study on the relationships between external and internal exposure biomarkers of arsenic%低砷暴露人群内外暴露指标间的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 胡晓抒; 刘湘玲; 向全永

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationships between external and internal exposure biomarkers of arsenic. Methods 250 families were random collected from the village with lower level of arsenic in drinking water. The samples of drinking water were collected from the household shallow well and the arsenic was detected by atomic fluorophotometer. The random method of KISH was used to select a subject ( >30 year old) from each family for our study. The basically information (such as age, sex, lifestyle, family income, and so on) of the subjects were surveyed using questionnaires. Fasting venous blood and first urina sangui-nis were taken from each subject. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) , monomethylated arsenic ( MMA) , and dimethylated arsenic ( DMA) in serum and urine were detected using the methods of cold trap hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrometry ( HG -AFS). Results The correlation analysis indicated that the arsenic in the water had a positive correlation with total arsenic in u-rine (Tasu) , total arsenic in serum (Tasb). After adjusted age and gender using multiple linear regressions, the iAs, MMA, DMA in the urine was increased with the increasing of arsenic in the water. Conclusion Arsenic in drinking water, arsenic and its products of methylation in urine are the sensitively exposure biomarkers of arsenic for the exposure subjects with lower level arsenic in their drinking water.%目的 了解低砷暴露人群的内外暴露指标之间的关系.方法 从低砷暴露地区随机抽取250户家庭,收集家庭手压井的饮用水,用原子荧光光度法测定水中砷含量.用KISH表法从每户家庭中随机抽取1名30岁以上调查对象,用调查表收集被调查对象的基本情况,如年龄、性别、生活习惯和家庭收入等.并收集调查对象的空腹血样及首次晨尿,利用氢化物发生-冷井捕集-原子吸收分光光度计法测定尿液及血清中的总砷、无机砷、一甲基砷酸、二甲基砷酸含量.结果

  13. Arsenic--state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, P J

    1981-01-01

    Approximately 1.5 million workers in the United States are exposed to arsenic. Occupational exposure is primarily by inhalation. NIOSH recommends that time-integrated exposure to arsenic in air not exceed 2 micrograms/m3. Recent exposure is accurately measured by urine assay; urine arsenic concentrations above 50 micrograms/liter indicate increased absorption. Hair assay is a semiquantitative index of past exposure. Toxicity is associated primarily with the trivalent (3+) form of arsenic. Acute poisoning is caused most commonly by contaminated food or drink; it is rarely occupational. Chronic intoxication is characterized by dermatitis, hyperpigmentation, keratoses, peripheral neuropathy (primarily sensory), irritation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and occasionally by hepatic toxicity and peripheral vasculopathy (blackfoot disease). Arsenic is not carcinogenic in animal species, but is mutagenic in Syrian hamster cells. In man, arsenic is known definitely to cause cancer of skin, lung, and liver (angiosarcoma) and possibly to cause lymphoma.

  14. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries.

  15. Arsenic removal via electrocoagulation from heavy metal contaminated groundwater in La Comarca Lagunera Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parga, Jose R. [Institute Technology of Saltillo, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, V. Carranza 2400, C.P. 25280, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: drjrparga@hotmail.com; Cocke, David L. [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Valenzuela, Jesus L. [University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico (Mexico); Gomes, Jewel A. [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Kesmez, Mehmet [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Irwin, George [Lamar University, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Moreno, Hector [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Weir, Michael [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States)

    2005-09-30

    Arsenic contamination is an enormous worldwide problem. A large number of people dwelling in Comarca Lagunera, situated in the central part of northern Mexico, use well water with arsenic in excess of the water standard regulated by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico (SEMARNAT), to be suitable for human health. Individuals with lifetime exposure to arsenic develop the classic symptoms of arsenic poisoning. Among several options available for removal of arsenic from well water, electrocoagulation (EC) is a very promising electrochemical treatment technique that does not require the addition of chemicals or regeneration. First, this study will provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts of the EC method. In this study, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed at iron electrodes during the EC process. The results suggest that magnetite particles and amorphous iron oxyhydroxides present in the EC products remove arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with an efficiency of more than 99% from groundwater in a field pilot scale study.

  16. Arsenic ototoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulin Gokçen Kesici

    2016-01-01

    High levels of arsenic are found in many parts of the world and more than 100 million people may have been exposed to it. There is growing evidence to indicate that arsenic has a deleterious effect on the auditory system. This paper provides the general information of arsenic and its ototoxic effects.

  17. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic a...

  18. 饮水砷暴露对子代大鼠体内砷代谢的影响%Metabolism and distribution of arsenic in offspring rats after exposure to arsenic via drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席淑华; 孙贵范; 金亚平; 孙文娟

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the metabolism and distribution of arsenic in liver and brain of offspring rata by exposure to arsenic of pregnant rats or lactation dams and weaned pups,and explore if arsenic could penetrate the placental barrier,lactation barrier and blood brain barrier. Methods The Wistar female rots were randomly divided into four groups according to body weights,12 in each group,and were fed with drinking water that contained arsenic(NaAsO_2) 0,10,50,100 mg/L beginning from the gestafional day 6 until pups 42 days old. Pups were separately sacrificed on postnatal day(PND) 0,15,28,42. Arsenic in liver and brain of offspring rots and in breast milk was examined by atomic absorption speetrophotometer with an arsenic speeiation pretreatment system. Results Concentration of iAs,MMA,DMA of brain in 50,100 mg/L groups were higher than that of 0 mg/L group[0,0,0,(7.3±6.6),0,(44.2±27.4)ng/g]on PND 0,42[iAs: (120.0±46.0),(195.5±125.3),(216.5±278.4),(176.6±151.8) ng/g; M MA: (47.2±18.1),(199.6±389.1),(47.4±55.2),(82.7±79.2) ng/g; DMA: (984.3±377.4),(2222.1±1433.2),(998.1±368.3),(1781.3±715.7)ng/g,all P < 0.05]. Concentration of DMA of brain in 50,100 mg/L groups were higher than that of 0 mg/L group[(13.9±18.1),(50.6±98.3)ng/g]on PND 15,28 [(270.3±73.1),(323.9±72.7),(758.7±245.9),(1020.6±383.6) ng/g,all P < 0.05]. Concentration of iAs,DMA of liver in 10,50,100 mg/L groups were higher than that of 0 mg/L group [(1.4±3.5),(49.7± 47.1),0,(100.4±30.2)ng/g]on PND 28,42 [iAs: (37.5±28.1),(268.8±246.4),(307.2±339.9),(15.4±9.4),(479.1±161.1),(408.4±51.9)ng/g;DMA: (594.5±148.8),(3181.9±519.0),(4834.2±2568.4),(1061.8± 85.2),(3697.1±553.7),(4120.0±732.8) ng/g,all P < 0.05]. Concentration of DMA of liver in 10,50,100 mg/L groups were higher than that of 0 mg/L group[(13.2±20.5)ng/g]on PND 15[(182.0±60,2),(637.6±90.0),(1458.7±196.3)ng/g,all P < 0.05]. Concentration of arsenicals of liver and brain showed a dose-dependent increase. The

  19. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  20. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; FABIANOVA, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic a...

  1. Effect of iron oxide reductive dissolution on the transformation and immobilization of arsenic in soils: New insights from X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jian-Xin [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); School of River and Ocean Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Wang, Yu-Jun, E-mail: yjwang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Liu, Cun [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang, Li-Hua; Yang, Ke [Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); Zhou, Dong-Mei, E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Wei; Sparks, Donald L. [Environmental Soil Chemistry Group, Delaware Environmental Institute and Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717-1303 United States (United States)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Immobility and transformation of As on different Eh soils were investigated. • μ-XRF, XANES, and XPS were used to gain As distribution and speciation in soil. • Sorption capacity of As on anaerobic soil was much higher than that on oxic soil. • Fe oxides reductive dissolution is a key factor for As sorption and transformation. - Abstract: The geochemical behavior and speciation of arsenic (As) in paddy soils is strongly controlled by soil redox conditions and the sequestration by soil iron oxyhydroxides. Hence, the effects of iron oxide reductive dissolution on the adsorption, transformation and precipitation of As(III) and As(V) in soils were investigated using batch experiments and synchrotron based techniques to gain a deeper understanding at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. The results of batch sorption experiments revealed that the sorption capacity of As(V) on anoxic soil was much higher than that on control soil. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping studies indicated that As was heterogeneously distributed and was mainly associated with iron in the soil. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the primary speciation of As in the soil is As(V). These results further suggested that, when As(V) was introduced into the anoxic soil, the rapid coprecipitation of As(V) with ferric/ferrous ion prevented its reduction to As(III), and was the main mechanism controlling the immobilization of As. This research could improve the current understanding of soil As chemistry in paddy and wetland soils.

  2. Health effects three years after potential exposure to the toxic contaminants of an electrical transformer fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E F; Weinstein, A L; Youngblood, L G; Standfast, S J; Melius, J M

    1989-01-01

    A medical surveillance program has been established for 482 persons who were potentially exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans from an electrical transformer fire in a Binghamton, NY office building in 1981. Vital Record and Cancer Registry data, medical records, and mail questionnaires were used to assess mortality, symptomatology, cancer incidence, and reproductive events through 1984. The numbers of deaths, cancers, fetal deaths, and infants with low birth weight or congenital malformations were similar to those expected on the basis of age- and sex-specific rates for upstate New York and other comparison populations. Two suicides were observed compared with 0.31 expected, but the difference was not statistically significant. After adjustment for possible confounders, persons with the greatest degree of potential exposure were significantly more likely than those with less exposure to report unexplained weight loss (relative risk [RR] = 12.80), muscle pain (RR = 5.07), frequent coughing (RR = 4.14), skin color changes (RR = 3.49), and nervousness or sleep problems (RR = 3.19). The possibility of recall bias and the intervening effects of stress, however, weaken the conclusion that toxic chemicals caused the symptomatology. Exposure-related systemic disorders, e.g., chloracne or peripheral neuropathy, were not diagnosed by personal physicians; however, some persons refused to release their medical records because of ongoing litigation. The findings are consistent with those of our earlier assessment. PMID:2506840

  3. Arsenic and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of epidemiologic, experimental and clinical evidence shows that arsenic may exert relevant cardiovascular effects with early damage such as endothelial dysfunction. Early biomarkers of cardiovascular damage together with markers of exposure, genetic and epigenetic effects, DNA damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress remain unexplored and a study is ongoing in Italy.

  4. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  5. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  6. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  7. Arsenic Exposure and Calpain-10 Polymorphisms Impair the Function of Pancreatic Beta-Cells in Humans: A Pilot Study of Risk Factors for T2DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Cruz, Laura; Cebrián, Arturo; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Hiriart, Marcia; García-Vargas, Gonzálo; Bassol, Susana; Sordo, Monserrat; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Klimecki, Walter T.; López-Carillo, Lizbeth; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10), which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function) and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2) in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function. PMID:23349674

  8. Arsenic exposure and calpain-10 polymorphisms impair the function of pancreatic beta-cells in humans: a pilot study of risk factors for T2DM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor

    Full Text Available The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10, which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2 in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function.

  9. Arsenic on the Hands of Children after Playing in Playgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Elena; Zhang, Hongquan; Wang, Zhongwen; Jhangri, Gian S; Lu, Xiufen; Fok, Nelson; Gabos, Stephan; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Increasing concerns over the use of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in playground structures arise from potential exposure to arsenic of children playing in these playgrounds. Limited data from previous studies analyzing arsenic levels in sand samples collected from CCA playgrounds are inconsistent and cannot be directly translated to the amount of children’s exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to determine the quantitative amounts of arsenic on the hands of...

  10. 厌氧微生物作用下沉积物中砷的形态转化与环境行为研究%Transformation and Environmental Behavior of Arsenic in Sediments Under Microbial Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 许丽英; 王新; 贾永锋

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to find out the fate of arsenic in reductive environments like sediment environment where the fate of arsenic is strongly influenced by microbial activities.A clean sediment loaded with arsenic was use in this experiment to simulate the transformation of arsenic under activities of microbial in the reductive environment.The concen-tration fluctuation of aqueous arsenic,P-extraction arsenic and the HCl-extraction arsenic were observed.Arsenic,iron ox-ides and sulfate were reduced strongly.More than 97% arsenic as well as iron oxides were reduced and 26% dissoluble ar-senic turned into insoluble forms after 3 ~7days.Meanwhile the sediment system became more complex with the participa-tion of produced sulfides.Based on evidences,we concluded that the fate of arsenic is strongly impacted by products of Fe and S.The reductions of Fe,As and S were happened simultaneously,S 2-controls the environmental behaviors of Fe,the ferric form FeS is the main species of S,and AsS is the main destination of arsenic.%为了研究厌氧微生物作用下沉积物中砷的形态转化及固液界面的分配过程对砷的环境行为与归趋的影响,通过采集锦州湾清洁沉积物进行负载砷,利用微生物培养与非生物培养实验,对比研究厌氧微生物作用下砷铁硫共还原条件下污染体系中砷的环境行为与归趋。实验结果表明在培养的42 d 周期内,液相的总砷量首先砷浓度保持降低趋势,而后再次升高。在培养第3~7 d 时液相的 As5+迅速被还原,约26%的溶解态砷从液相移除,97%以上的 As5+被还原为 As3+。同时微生物作用下固相中90%以上铁氧化物矿物逐渐转化为次生的亚铁矿物,固相中结晶态铁氧化物发生明显活化,而硫酸盐还原产物硫离子综合调控体系中游离的亚铁离子和 As3+。因此,厌氧微生物还原条件下,砷,铁,硫同步发生还原,硫离子调控体系中砷

  11. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  12. Arsenic-cadmium interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Llamas, E; Mejía, J J; Carrizales, L; Santoyo, M E; Vega-Vega, L; Yáñez, L

    1990-11-01

    Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and arsenic is highly probable in the urban area of San Luis Potosi, Mexico due to common localization of copper and zinc smelters. Therefore, in this work, rats were intraperitoneally exposed either to cadmium or arsenic alone, or simultaneously to both metals. The effects of these treatments on three different toxicological parameters were studied. Cadmium modified the LD50 of arsenic and conversely arsenic modified the LD50 for cadmium. At the histopathological level, arsenic appeared to protect against the cadmium effects, especially on testes. This protective effect seemed to be related to the glutathione levels found in this tissue: rats exposed to both arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values intermediate to those observed after exposure to either metal alone; arsenic had the highest value and cadmium the lowest. In liver, rats exposed to arsenic, cadmium or arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values below those in the saline group, with the lowest value corresponding to the arsenic and cadmium treatment. The results appear to support the proposed interaction between arsenic and cadmium and coexposure to both metals seems to alter certain effects produced by either metal alone. PMID:2219140

  13. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels. PMID:27460822

  14. Arsenic transforming abilities of groundwater bacteria and the combined use of Aliihoeflea sp. strain 2WW and goethite in metalloid removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Corsini; P. Zaccheo; G. Muyzer; V. Andreoni; L. Cavalca

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been developed for lowering arsenic in drinking waters below the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. When in the presence of the reduced form of inorganic arsenic, i.e. arsenite, one options is pre-oxidation of arsenite to arsenate and adsorption on iron-based mater

  15. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (arsenic present in soils or rice paddies is released via volatilization. Additionally, past studies often have not monitored arsenic release in the aqueous phase. Two main pathways for microbial arsenic volatilization are known and include methylation of arsenic during methanogenesis and methylation by arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase. In this study, we compare the roles of these two pathways in arsenic volatilization and aqueous mobilization through mesocosm experiments with cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to

  16. Arsenic exposure through drinking water leads to senescence and alteration of telomere length in humans: A case-control study in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debmita; Bhattacharjee, Pritha; Sau, Tanmoy J; Das, Jayanta K; Sarma, Nilendu; Bandyopadhyay, Apurba K; Roy, Sib Sankar; Giri, Ashok K

    2015-09-01

    Arsenic (As) induces pre-malignant and malignant dermatological lesions, non-dermatological health effects and cancers in humans. Senescence involves telomere length changes and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which promotes carcinogenesis. Though in vitro studies have shown that As induces senescence, population based studies are lacking. We investigated the arsenic-induced senescence, telomere length alteration and its contribution towards development of As-induced skin cancer. The study participants included 60 each of As-exposed individuals with skin lesion (WSL), without skin lesions (WOSL) and 60 unexposed controls. Exposure assessment of drinking water and urine was done. SA β-gal activity, ELISA, and quantification of senescence proteins, alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) associated proteins and telomerase activity were performed. Relative telomere length (RTL) was determined by qPCR. A significantly higher number of senescent cells, over-expression of p53 and p21 were observed in the As-exposed individuals when compared to unexposed. SASP markers, MMP-1/MMP-3 were significantly higher in the WSL but not IL-6/IL-8. A significant increase of RTL was observed in the WSL group, which was telomerase-independent but exhibited an over-expression of ALT associated proteins TRF-1 and TRF-2 with higher increase in TRF-2. An increased risk for developing As-induced skin lesions was found for individuals having RTL greater than 0.827 (odds ratio, 13.75; 95% CI: 5.66-33.41; P telomere length might be useful for predicting the risk of development of As-induced skin lesions. PMID:24665044

  17. Correlation of in vivo relative bioavailability to in vitro bioaccessibility for arsenic in household dust from China and its implication for human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Li, Jie; Juhasz, Albert L; Ma, Lena Q

    2014-12-01

    Incidental ingestion of household dust is an important arsenic (As) exposure pathway for children. However, compared to soils, assessment of As relative bioavailability (RBA) in household dust is limited. In this study, As-RBA in 12 household dust samples (7–38 mg kg(–1)) was measured using an in vivo mouse model and compared to As bioaccessibility determined using 4 assays [Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium method (SBRC), in vitro gastrointestinal method (IVG), Deutsches Institut für Normunge.V. method (DIN), and physiologically based extraction test (PBET)]. Arsenic RBA ranged from 21.8 ± 1.6 to 85.6 ± 7.2% with samples containing low Fe and high total organic carbon content having higher As-RBA. Strong in vivo–in vitro correlations (IVIVC) were found between As-RBA and As bioaccessibility for SBRC and DIN (r2 = 0.63–0.85), but weaker ones were obtained for IVG and PBET (r2 = 0.29–0.55). The developed IVIVC for SBRC and DIN were used to calculate As-RBA based on As bioaccessibility for an additional 12 household dust samples. Although As bioaccessibility differed significantly (up to 7.7-fold) based on in vitro methods, predicted As-RBA was less variable (up to 3.0-fold) when calculated using As bioaccessibility data and the corresponding IVIVC. Our data suggested that both SBRC and DIN had potential to assess As bioavailability in household dust samples; however, additional research is needed.

  18. Arsenic exposure through drinking water leads to senescence and alteration of telomere length in humans: A case-control study in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debmita; Bhattacharjee, Pritha; Sau, Tanmoy J; Das, Jayanta K; Sarma, Nilendu; Bandyopadhyay, Apurba K; Roy, Sib Sankar; Giri, Ashok K

    2015-09-01

    Arsenic (As) induces pre-malignant and malignant dermatological lesions, non-dermatological health effects and cancers in humans. Senescence involves telomere length changes and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which promotes carcinogenesis. Though in vitro studies have shown that As induces senescence, population based studies are lacking. We investigated the arsenic-induced senescence, telomere length alteration and its contribution towards development of As-induced skin cancer. The study participants included 60 each of As-exposed individuals with skin lesion (WSL), without skin lesions (WOSL) and 60 unexposed controls. Exposure assessment of drinking water and urine was done. SA β-gal activity, ELISA, and quantification of senescence proteins, alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) associated proteins and telomerase activity were performed. Relative telomere length (RTL) was determined by qPCR. A significantly higher number of senescent cells, over-expression of p53 and p21 were observed in the As-exposed individuals when compared to unexposed. SASP markers, MMP-1/MMP-3 were significantly higher in the WSL but not IL-6/IL-8. A significant increase of RTL was observed in the WSL group, which was telomerase-independent but exhibited an over-expression of ALT associated proteins TRF-1 and TRF-2 with higher increase in TRF-2. An increased risk for developing As-induced skin lesions was found for individuals having RTL greater than 0.827 (odds ratio, 13.75; 95% CI: 5.66-33.41; P telomere length might be useful for predicting the risk of development of As-induced skin lesions.

  19. Carbon deposition and phase transformations in red mud on exposure to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushil, S. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Alabdulrahman, A.M. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Petroleum and Petrochemical Research Institute (PAPRI), PO Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Balakrishnan, M. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Batra, V.S., E-mail: vidyasb@teri.res.in [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Blackley, R.A. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Clapp, J.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Monaghan, A.; Pulford, I.D. [WestCHEM, Department of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Rico, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catalisis, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio E, CU, Morelia, Mich. C.P. 58060 (Mexico); Zhou, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    A characterization study detailing the phase transformations and microstructural nature of the carbon deposited during methane decomposition over red mud has been undertaken. In situ XRD was carried out to study the phase transformation sequences of red mud during the reaction. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET surface area determination and CHN analysis were carried out to investigate the properties of the post-reaction samples. Exposure to methane with increasing temperature caused a stepwise reduction of iron oxides in red mud and promoted methane cracking leading to carbon deposition. The presence of carbon nanostructures was confirmed by HRTEM observations. The carbon formed was graphitic in nature and the spent red mud, rich in Fe and Fe{sub 3}C formed as a result of the reduction of the iron oxide, was magnetic in nature. The surface area of the material was enhanced upon reaction. In addition, reactivity comparisons between goethite and red mud were carried out to study the formation of carbon oxides during reaction.

  20. Ana insect model for assessing arsenic toxicity: Arsenic elevated glutathione content in the musca domestica and trichoplusia ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, K.; Pardini, R.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Throughout history, arsenic has acquired an unparalled reputation as a poison. Arsenic was used as a poison as early as 2000 B.C. The toxicity of arsenic (As) extends to mammals, fish, insects, plants and fungi. According to epidemiological evidence, inorganic arsenic compounds have been strongly suggested as human carcinogens. Human exposure to arsenic through various means is correlated with an increased incidence of skin, lung, and possibly liver cancers. Inorganic trivalent arsenic is systematically more poisonous than the pentavalent form and it is possible that pentavalent arsenic is reduced to the trivalent form before exerting any toxic effects. This study focuses on the potential to use two insect species, the housefly, Musca domestica and the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni, and a model for the study of arsenic toxicity. After 48 hours of exposure to Arsenic, a significant induction of Glutathione level and subsequent decrease in the level of GSSG in both species were observed. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pablo Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked to the total (t-As and inorganic (i-As arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9. Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1 by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  2. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  3. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lu [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan Xiulan [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Liao Xiaoyong, E-mail: liaoxy@igsnrr.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Wen Yi; Chong Zhongyi; Liang Tao [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on plant uptake and antioxidative response of Pteris vitatta L. were studied hydroponically. The combination of arsenic and phenanthrene decreased arsenic contents in fronds by 30-51%, whereas increased arsenic concentrations 1.2-1.6 times in roots, demonstrating the suppression of arsenic translocation compared to the corresponding treatment without phenanthrene. Under the co-exposure, As(III) concentrations in fronds deceased by 12-73%, and at higher arsenic exposure level ({>=}10 mg/L), As(V) in fronds and As(III) in roots increased compared to the single arsenic treatment. Arsenic exposure elevated phenanthrene concentrations in root by 39-164%. The co-existence of arsenic and phenanthrene had little impact on plant arsenic accumulation, although synergistic effect on antioxidants was observed, suggesting the special physiological process of P. vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination. - Highlights: > Pteris vitatta L. show tolerance to the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure. > P. vitatta efficiently accumulate arsenic and simultaneously enhance phenanthrene dissipation. > Phenanthrene suppresses arsenic translocation from roots to fronds. > Phenanthrene causes As(III) elevation in roots while reduction in fronds. > Synergistic effect potentiates the toxicity and antioxidants in plant. - Pteris vitatta L. not only efficiently accumulate arsenic but also enhance phenanthrene dissipation under the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure.

  4. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  5. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to increase arsenic mobilization in the aqueous phase, raising concerns with this approach.

  6. Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity and Genetic Susceptibility to Arsenic-Related Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bianchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic (As exposure represents an important problem in many parts of the World. Indeed, it is estimated that over 100 million individuals are exposed to arsenic, mainly through a contamination of groundwaters. Chronic exposure to As is associated with adverse effects on human health such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases and the rate of morbidity and mortality in populations exposed is alarming. The purpose of this review is to summarize the genotoxic effects of As in the cells as well as to discuss the importance of signaling and repair of arsenic-induced DNA damage. The current knowledge of specific polymorphisms in candidate genes that confer susceptibility to arsenic exposure is also reviewed. We also discuss the perspectives offered by the determination of biological markers of early effect on health, incorporating genetic polymorphisms, with biomarkers for exposure to better evaluate exposure-response clinical relationships as well as to develop novel preventative strategies for arsenic- health effects.

  7. 外源砷在3类土壤转化形态及其烟株中的分布%Form Transformation of Added Arsenic in Three Types of Soils and Distribution in the Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 赵阿娟; 杨虹琦; 李晓忠; 汤若云; 肖海强

    2013-01-01

      为探索外源砷在不同类型土壤中的形态转化状况以及对烟株吸收砷的影响,采用盆栽试验和化学分析相结合的方法,研究外源砷在红壤、紫色土、水稻土3种土壤中形态转化、分布特征以及烟株中砷的分布情况。研究结果表明,不同类型土壤中烟株对砷的吸附量具有显著差异性,说明土壤性质差异对烟株吸收富集砷具有较大影响。其中,红壤中烟株各个部位对砷的吸附率均最高,紫色土最低,说明砷在红壤中具有较高的活性。砷在烟株中的分布趋势为根>下部叶>中部叶>上部叶>茎。外源砷进入不同类型土壤后,残渣晶格态为主要赋存形态,与植物可吸收态比例相差不大,红壤中可交换态比例最高,紫色土最低;而紫色土碳酸盐结合态比例最高。各个形态分布在15天基本稳定,随着时间累积其他形态会有部分向残渣晶格态转移。%In order to research the speciation transformation of added arsenic and the influence on the adsorption of arsenic by the tobacco in different types of soils, using the method combined pot experiment with chemical analysis to research the speciation transformation and distribution characteristics of added arsenic, and the distribution of the added arsenic in tobacco in red soil, purple soil and paddy soil. The results showed, there were significant differences in the adsorption of tobacco to the arsenic in different types of soils, to indicate the differences of the soil had great influence on the utilization of the tobacco to arsenic enriched. Among the results, all the arsenic adsorption was the highest to each parts of the tobacco in red soil;it’s the lowest in purple soil. Further to say, arsenic had higher activity in the red soil. The trend of arsenic’s distribution in the tobacco was root>lower leaves>middle leaves>upper leaves>stems. After added arsenic stayed in different types of soil

  8. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  9. Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine

    1999-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

  10. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  11. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  12. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  13. The Arsenic Project: A multidisciplinary Project in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, M.; Couasnon, A.; Huijzenveld, T.; Hutten, R.; Schölvinck, O.; Van Veen, N.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicaragua, active research for arsenic started in 1996, after the first case of arsenic poisoning was reported in a rural community. Arsenic concentrations present in drinking water cause chronic poisoning, which depending on the exposure, lead to several life-threatening long term effects. It i

  14. Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased prevalence of diabetes: a cross-sectional study in the Zimapán and Lagunera regions in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Del Razo Luz M; García-Vargas Gonzalo G; Valenzuela Olga L; Castellanos Erika; Sánchez-Peña Luz C; Currier Jenna M; Drobná Zuzana; Loomis Dana; Stýblo Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Human exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been linked to an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Recent laboratory studies showed that methylated trivalent metabolites of iAs may play key roles in the diabetogenic effects of iAs. Our study examined associations between chronic exposure to iAs in drinking water, metabolism of iAs, and prevalence of diabetes in arsenicosis-endemic areas of Mexico. Methods We used fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI...

  15. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation.

  16. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation. PMID:26469935

  17. Home gardening near a mining site in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona: assessing arsenic exposure dose and risk via ingestion of home garden vegetables, soils, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M

    2013-06-01

    The human-health risk posed by gardening near a legacy mine and smelter in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their home gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water>garden soils>homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener's daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10(-8) to 10(-4), 10(-6) to 10(-4), and 10(-5) to 10(-2), respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae≫Fabaceae>Amaranthaceae>Liliaceae>Brassicaceae>Solanaceae≫Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10(-6). The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg(-1), 5.39 mg kg(-1), 11.6 mg kg(-1) and 12.4 mg kg(-1) for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities. PMID:23562690

  18. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  19. History of Arsenic as a Poison and Medicinal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since ancient times, human exposure to the metalloid arsenic has been both intentional and unintentional. The intentional exposure to arsenic has been to inflict harm on others as well as to be a curative agent for those who are ill. The unintentional exposure has either been f...

  20. PEPTIDE BINDING AS A MODE OF ACTION FOR THE CARCINOGENICITY AND TOXICITY OF ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure leads to tumors in human skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Three likely initial stages of arsenical-macromolecular interaction are (1) binding of trivalent arsenicals to the sulfhydryl groups of peptides and proteins, (2) arsenical-induced generation...

  1. Microbial responses to environmental arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Espino, David; Tamames, Javier; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Cánovas, David

    2009-02-01

    Microorganisms have evolved dynamic mechanisms for facing the toxicity of arsenic in the environment. In this sense, arsenic speciation and mobility is also affected by the microbial metabolism that participates in the biogeochemical cycle of the element. The ars operon constitutes the most ubiquitous and important scheme of arsenic tolerance in bacteria. This system mediates the extrusion of arsenite out of the cells. There are also other microbial activities that alter the chemical characteristics of arsenic: some strains are able to oxidize arsenite or reduce arsenate as part of their respiratory processes. These type of microorganisms require membrane associated proteins that transfer electrons from or to arsenic (AoxAB and ArrAB, respectively). Other enzymatic transformations, such as methylation-demethylation reactions, exchange inorganic arsenic into organic forms contributing to its complex environmental turnover. This short review highlights recent studies in ecology, biochemistry and molecular biology of these processes in bacteria, and also provides some examples of genetic engineering for enhanced arsenic accumulation based on phytochelatins or metallothionein-like proteins.

  2. Risk of human exposure to arsenic and other toxic elements from geophagy: trace element analysis of baked clay using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geophagy or earth-eating is common amongst some Bangladeshi women, especially those who are pregnant, both in Bangladesh and in the United Kingdom. A large proportion of the population in Bangladesh is already exposed to high concentrations of arsenic (As and other toxic elements from drinking contaminated groundwater. Additional exposure to As and other toxic elements from non-food sources has not been adequately addressed and here we present the first study to monitor As levels in baked clay (known as sikor. Methods Sikor samples originating from Bangladesh were digested using a microwave digester and analysed for their As, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe and Zn levels using ICP-MS. Detailed As speciation analysis was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. Results Of particular concern were the levels of As (3.8-13.1 mg kg-1, Cd (0.09-0.4 mg kg-1 and Pb (21-26.7 mg kg-1 present in the sikor samples and their possible impact on human health. Speciation analysis revealed that sikor samples contained mainly inorganic As. Modest consumption of 50 g of sikor is equivalent to ingesting 370 μg of As and 1235 μg of Pb per day, based on median concentration values. This level of sikor consumption exceeds the permitted maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI of inorganic As by almost 2-fold. Conclusion We conclude that sikor can be a significant source of As, Cd and Pb exposure for the Bangladeshi population consuming large quantities of this material. Of particular concern in this regard is geophagy practiced by pregnant women concurrently exposed to As contaminated drinking water. Future studies needs to evaluate the bioavailability of As and other elements from sikor and their impact on human health.

  3. Analytical Strategies for the Determination of Arsenic in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno E. S. Costa; Luciana M. Coelho; Cleide S. T. Araújo; Rezende, Helen C.; Coelho, Nívia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is an element of concern given its toxicological significance, even at low concentrations. Food is a potential route of exposure to inorganic arsenic and in this regard arsenic in rice is associated with soil contamination, fertilizer application, and the use of arsenic-containing irrigation water. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the regional rice crops with a view to future discussions on the need for possible regulatory measures. Several studies have reported high concentr...

  4. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Leticia Moreno Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system.

  5. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica M

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system. PMID:27375740

  6. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system. PMID:27375740

  7. Exposure to arsenic in relation with DNA damage in adolescents of the 3rd Flemish environment and health study (2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Franken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a compound naturally present in the environment. Recent studies have shown detectable levels of As in rice, rice food products, and apple juice. As is a well known carcinogen and is related to multiple health effects, for example dermal and kidney toxicity. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that As exposure is also a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the exposure to As in a sample of 408 adolescents that were recruited from the general population in Flanders as part of the third Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS3. We tested whether the current levels of As exposure were associated with oxidative stress biomarkers or biomarkers for DNA damage. In this study, the individual exposure to As was estimated by measuring total As in whole blood and different toxic As metabolites in urine: As III, As V, mono-methylarsonous acid (MMA, dimethylarsinous acid (DMA, and the non-toxic, organic compound arsenobetaine. The sum of the toxic compounds was defined as toxic relevant As (TRA. DNA damage was measured using the alkaline comet assay and the micronucleus test in whole blood samples, and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Gentaur quantifying 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG in urine. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the change of effect for an increase of the exposure from P25 to P75 (P25-P75. All models were adjusted for gender, age, smoking status and statistically significant (p<0.05 covariates. The exposure biomarker As III was categorised due to the large number values below the quantification limit (LOQ. The effect estimate was given for the group with the highest As III exposure versus the group with values below LOQ. Multiple regression analysis showed significant positive associations of urinary inorganic As III (iAsIII and MMA with DNA breaks measured by the comet assay (iAsIII: β=0.333, 95% CI=0.061-0.605; MMA: β=0.090, 95% CI=0.014-0.166. Urinary i

  8. Planktonic Co-selection of Oxytetracycline Resistance via Arsenic pre-exposure in E. coli O55

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    With increased antibiotics usage over recent decades, there has been an emerging concern about the accelerated development of antibiotics resistance in the environment. This development poses several public health concerns, such as, the higher frequency of multiple drug resistant bacteria both in the environment and in clinical settings. Exposure to metals can increase antibiotic resistance through co-selective pressure; however, this non-traditional route of antibiotic resistance acquisition...

  9. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-02-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  10. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Piyush Kant; Yadav, Sushma; Pandey, Madhurima

    2007-01-01

    The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations. PMID:17431310

  11. Human arsenic poisoning issues in central-east Indian locations: biomarkers and biochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Piyush Kant; Yadav, Sushma; Pandey, Madhurima

    2007-03-01

    The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on th