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Sample records for arsenic 75 target

  1. Candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Arsenic Responsiveness of Protein Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Evans, Barbara E.; Udensi, Udensi K.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Rajendram V. Rajnarayanan; Anyanwu, Matthew N; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that causes skin cancer and binds to cysteine residues—a property that could be used to infer arsenic responsiveness of a target protein. Non-synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (nsSNPs) result in amino acid substitutions and may alter arsenic binding with cysteine residues. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to identify and analyze nsSNPs that lead to substitutions to or from cysteine residues as an indication of increased or decreased arsenic r...

  2. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of countries, including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, and the United States of America. Drinking-water, ... ingestion of inorganic arsenic include developmental effects, neurotoxicity, diabetes, pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Arsenic-induced myocardial ...

  3. Targeting Low-arsenic Groundwater with Mobile-phone Technology in Araihazar, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    van Geen, A.; Trevisani, M.; Immel, J.; Jakariya, Md.; Osman, N.; Cheng, Z; Gelman, A; Ahmed, K M

    2006-01-01

    The Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation and Water Supply Program (BAMWSP) has compiled field-kit measurements of the arsenic content of groundwater for nearly five million wells. By comparing the spatial distribution of arsenic inferred from these field-kit measurements with geo-referenced laboratory data in a portion of Araihazar upazila, it is shown here that the BAMWSP data could be used for targeting safe aquifers for the installation of community wells in many villages of Bangladesh. Recent ex...

  4. Microtubules as a Critical Target for Arsenic Toxicity in Lung Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzhi Zhao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand mechanisms for arsenic toxicity in the lung, we examined effects of sodium m-arsenite (As3+ on microtubule (MT assembly in vitro (0–40 µM, in cultured rat lung fibroblasts (RFL6, 0–20 µM for 24 h and in the rat animal model (intratracheal instillation of 2.02 mg As/kg body weight, once a week for 5 weeks. As3+ induced a dose-dependent disassembly of cellular MTs and enhancement of the free tubulin pool, initiating an autoregulation of tubulin synthesis manifest as inhibition of steady-state mRNA levels of βI-tubulin in dosed lung cells and tissues. Spindle MT injuries by As3+ were concomitant with chromosomal disorientations. As3+ reduced the binding to tubulin of [3H]N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, an -SH group reagent, resulting in inhibition of MT polymerization in vitro with bovine brain tubulins which was abolished by addition of dithiothreitol (DTT suggesting As3+ action upon tubulin through -SH groups. In response to As3+, cells elevated cellular thiols such as metallothionein. Taxol, a tubulin polymerization agent, antagonized both As3+ and NEM induced MT depolymerization. MT–associated proteins (MAPs essential for the MT stability were markedly suppressed in As3+-treated cells. Thus, tubulin sulfhydryls and MAPs are major molecular targets for As3+ damage to the lung triggering MT disassembly cascades.

  5. Dynamics of arsenic adsorption in the targeted arsenic-safe aquifers in Matlab, south-eastern Bangladesh: Insight from experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Clare, E-mail: crobinson@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 5B9 (Canada)] [NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation, Lalmatia, Dhaka 1207 (Bangladesh); Broemssen, Mattias von [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Ramboell Sweden AB, Box 4205, SE-102 65 Stockholm (Sweden); Bhattacharya, Prosun; Haeller, Sara; Biven, Annelie [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Hossain, Mohammed [NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation, Lalmatia, Dhaka 1207 (Bangladesh)] [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Jacks, Gunnar [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Hasan, M. Aziz [Department of Geology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Thunvik, Roger [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Adsorption behaviour of shallow oxidized sediments from Matlab Region in SE Bangladesh is investigated. {yields} Oxidized sediments have a high capacity to adsorb arsenic. {yields} Adsorption capacity will be reduced by high concentration of reactive organic C. {yields} Monitoring of groundwater quality over 5 year period shows relatively stable water chemistry. - Abstract: Targeting shallow low-As aquifers based on sediment colour may be a viable solution for supplying As-safe drinking water to rural communities in some regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. The sustainability of this solution with regard to the long-term risk of As-safe oxidized aquifers becoming enriched with As needs to be assessed. This study focuses on the adsorption behaviour of shallow oxidized sediments from Matlab Region, Bangladesh, and their capacity to attenuate As if cross-contamination of the oxidized aquifers occurs. Water quality analyses of samples collected from 20 tube-wells in the region indicate that while there may be some seasonal variability, the groundwater chemistry in the reduced and oxidized aquifers was relatively stable from 2004 to 2009. Although sediment extractions indicate a relatively low amount of As in the oxidized sediments, below 2.5 mg kg{sup -1}, batch isotherm experiments show that the sediments have a high capacity to adsorb As. Simulations using a surface complexation model that considers adsorption to amorphous Fe(III) oxide minerals only, under-predict the experimental isotherms. This suggests that a large proportion of the adsorption sites in the oxidized sediments may be associated with crystalline Fe(III) oxides, Mn(IV) and Al(III) oxides, and clay minerals. Replicate breakthrough column experiments conducted with lactose added to the influent solution demonstrate that the high adsorption capacity of the oxidized sediments may be reduced if water drawn down into the oxidized aquifers contains high levels of

  6. Dynamics of arsenic adsorption in the targeted arsenic-safe aquifers in Matlab, south-eastern Bangladesh: Insight from experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Adsorption behaviour of shallow oxidized sediments from Matlab Region in SE Bangladesh is investigated. → Oxidized sediments have a high capacity to adsorb arsenic. → Adsorption capacity will be reduced by high concentration of reactive organic C. → Monitoring of groundwater quality over 5 year period shows relatively stable water chemistry. - Abstract: Targeting shallow low-As aquifers based on sediment colour may be a viable solution for supplying As-safe drinking water to rural communities in some regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. The sustainability of this solution with regard to the long-term risk of As-safe oxidized aquifers becoming enriched with As needs to be assessed. This study focuses on the adsorption behaviour of shallow oxidized sediments from Matlab Region, Bangladesh, and their capacity to attenuate As if cross-contamination of the oxidized aquifers occurs. Water quality analyses of samples collected from 20 tube-wells in the region indicate that while there may be some seasonal variability, the groundwater chemistry in the reduced and oxidized aquifers was relatively stable from 2004 to 2009. Although sediment extractions indicate a relatively low amount of As in the oxidized sediments, below 2.5 mg kg-1, batch isotherm experiments show that the sediments have a high capacity to adsorb As. Simulations using a surface complexation model that considers adsorption to amorphous Fe(III) oxide minerals only, under-predict the experimental isotherms. This suggests that a large proportion of the adsorption sites in the oxidized sediments may be associated with crystalline Fe(III) oxides, Mn(IV) and Al(III) oxides, and clay minerals. Replicate breakthrough column experiments conducted with lactose added to the influent solution demonstrate that the high adsorption capacity of the oxidized sediments may be reduced if water drawn down into the oxidized aquifers contains high levels of electron donors such as

  7. Nuclear matrix associated protein PML: an arsenic trioxide apoptosis therapeutic target protein in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鼎; 王子慧; 朱立元; 邱殷庆

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced apoptosis and the effects on cell nuclear matrix related protein promyelocytic leukaemia (PML). Methods HepG2 cells were cultured in MEM medium and treated with 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 μmol/L As2O3 for either 24 h or 96 h at each concentration. In situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) labeling (TUNEL) and DNA ladders were used to detect apoptosis. Confocal microscopy and Western blotting were used to observe the expression of PML. Results The growth rates of HepG2 cells were slower in the As2O3 treated than the untreated control group. DNA ladder and TUNEL positive apoptotic cells could be detected in As2O3 treated groups. The expression of PML decreased in HepG2 cells with 2 μmol/L As2O3 treatment. Confocal images demonstrated that the expression of PML protein in HepG2 cell nuclei decreased after treatment with 2 μmol/L As2O3, and micropunctates characteristic of PML protein in HepG2 cell nuclei disappeared after treatment with 5 μmol/L As2O3.Conclusions Our results show that arsenic trioxide can significantly inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells in vitro. As2O3 induces apoptosis in HepG2 tumor cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. As2O3 may degrade the PML protein in HepG2 cell nuclei. The decreased expression of PML in As2O3 treated tumor cells is most likely to be caused by apoptosis. Nuclear matrix associated protein PML could be the target of As2O3 therapy.

  8. The effect of arsenic and vitamin E on the uptake and distribution in the rat of 75Se-labelled sodium selenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of arsenic and vitamin E was determined on the level of selenium and uptake of Na275SeO3 in heart, testis, liver and kidney of rats given 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 ppm of selenium. In vitamin E-deficient rats, arsenite caused a significant lowering of the 75Se content of all the tissues, but this effect was not seen in the tissues of vitamin E-supplemented rats. The results are discussed in the light of present knowledge of selenium metabolism. (author)

  9. Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammed; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Frape, Shaun K; Jacks, Gunnar; Islam, M Mainul; Rahman, M Moklesur; von Brömssen, Mattias; Hasan, M Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin

    2014-09-15

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 μg/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 μg/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments. PMID:24984232

  10. Arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid target NPM1 mutant oncoprotein levels and induce apoptosis in NPM1-mutated AML cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Maria Paola; Gionfriddo, Ilaria; Mezzasoma, Federica; Milano, Francesca; Pierangeli, Sara; Mulas, Floriana; Pacini, Roberta; Tabarrini, Alessia; Pettirossi, Valentina; Rossi, Roberta; Vetro, Calogero; Brunetti, Lorenzo; Sportoletti, Paolo; Tiacci, Enrico; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Falini, Brunangelo

    2015-05-28

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations represent an attractive therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) because they are common (∼30% AML), stable, and behave as a founder genetic lesion. Oncoprotein targeting can be a successful strategy to treat AML, as proved in acute promyelocytic leukemia by treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO), which degrade the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor fusion protein. Adjunct of ATRA to chemotherapy was reported to be beneficial for NPM1-mutated AML patients. Leukemic cells with NPM1 mutation also showed sensibility to ATO in vitro. Here, we explore the mechanisms underlying these observations and show that ATO/ATRA induce proteasome-dependent degradation of NPM1 leukemic protein and apoptosis in NPM1-mutated AML cell lines and primary patients' cells. We also show that PML intracellular distribution is altered in NPM1-mutated AML cells and reverted by arsenic through oxidative stress induction. Interestingly, similarly to what was described for PML, oxidative stress also mediates ATO-induced degradation of the NPM1 mutant oncoprotein. Strikingly, NPM1 mutant downregulation by ATO/ATRA was shown to potentiate response to the anthracyclin daunorubicin. These findings provide experimental evidence for further exploring ATO/ATRA in preclinical NPM1-mutated AML in vivo models and a rationale for exploiting these compounds in chemotherapeutic regimens in clinics. PMID:25795919

  11. Arsenic trioxide inhibits tumor cell growth in malignant rhabdoid tumors in vitro and in vivo by targeting overexpressed Gli1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerl, Kornelius; Moreno, Natalia; Holsten, Till; Ahlfeld, Julia; Mertins, Julius; Hotfilder, Marc; Kool, Marcel; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert; Schüller, Ulrich; Meisterernst, Michael; Frühwald, Michael C

    2014-08-15

    Rhabdoid tumors are highly aggressive tumors occurring in infants and very young children. Despite multimodal and intensive therapy prognosis remains poor. Molecular analyses have uncovered several deregulated pathways, among them the CDK4/6-Rb-, the WNT- and the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathways. The SHH pathway is activated in rhabdoid tumors by GLI1 overexpression. Here, we demonstrate that arsenic trioxide (ATO) inhibits tumor cell growth of malignant rhabdoid tumors in vitro and in a mouse xenograft model by suppressing Gli1. Our data uncover ATO as a promising therapeutic approach to improve prognosis for rhabdoid tumor patients. PMID:24420698

  12. Neutrons produced by 75MeV/u 12C—ion on thick targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGisheng; ZHANGTianmei; 等

    1999-01-01

    Fluence rates and angular distributions of the neutron emitted by 75MeV/u 12C-ion bombardment on thick Be and Au targets have been measured by means of the threshold detector activation method.Based on that,the neutron yields,emission rates in the forward direction and neutron dose equivalent rate distributions were deduced.

  13. Neutrons produced by 75 MeV/u 12C-ion on thick targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Fluence rates and angular distributions of the neutronemitted by 75 MeV/u 12C-ion bombardment on thick Be and Au targets havebeen measured by means of the threshold detector activation method.Based on that, the neutron yields, emission rates in the forward direction and neutron dose equivalent rate distributions werededuced.

  14. Arsenic trioxide stimulates SUMO-2/3 modification leading to RNF4-dependent proteolytic targeting of PML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Stefan R; Keusekotten, Kirstin; Krause, Anke; Horst, Christiane; Springer, Helen M; Göttsche, Kerstin; Dohmen, R Jürgen; Praefcke, Gerrit J K

    2008-09-22

    We have recently reported that poly-SUMO-2/3 conjugates are subject to a ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic control in human cells. Here we show that arsenic trioxide (ATO) increases SUMO-2/3 modification of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) leading to its subsequent ubiquitylation in vivo. The SUMO-binding ubiquitin ligase RNF4 mediates this modification and causes disruption of PML nuclear bodies upon treatment with ATO. Reconstitution of SUMO-dependent ubiquitylation of PML by RNF4 in vitro and in a yeast trans vivo system revealed a preference of RNF4 for chain forming SUMOs. Polysumoylation of PML in response to ATO thus leads to its recognition and ubiquitylation by RNF4. PMID:18708055

  15. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  16. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qiuling, E-mail: 924969007@qq.com [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293 (Japan); Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Mu, Jinjun [The Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Li, Yuanfei [The First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  17. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T., E-mail: klimecki@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  18. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect

  19. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  20. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology ...

  1. Cryptic exposure to arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Rossy Kathleen; Janusz Christopher; Schwartz Robert

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving ne...

  2. Trivalent arsenic inhibits the functions of chaperonin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuewen; Reissman, Stefanie; Douglas, Nick R; Huang, Zhiwei; Yuan, Daniel S; Wang, Xiaoling; McCaffery, J Michael; Frydman, Judith; Boeke, Jef D

    2010-10-01

    The exact molecular mechanisms by which the environmental pollutant arsenic works in biological systems are not completely understood. Using an unbiased chemogenomics approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that mutants of the chaperonin complex TRiC and the functionally related prefoldin complex are all hypersensitive to arsenic compared to a wild-type strain. In contrast, mutants with impaired ribosome functions were highly arsenic resistant. These observations led us to hypothesize that arsenic might inhibit TRiC function, required for folding of actin, tubulin, and other proteins postsynthesis. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that arsenic treatment distorted morphology of both actin and microtubule filaments. Moreover, arsenic impaired substrate folding by both bovine and archaeal TRiC complexes in vitro. These results together indicate that TRiC is a conserved target of arsenic inhibition in various biological systems. PMID:20660648

  3. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  4. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic trioxide is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL; a type of cancer in which there ... worsened following treatment with other types of chemotherapy. Arsenic trioxide is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Elaboration and characterization of bimetallic nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation of Ni75Pd25 and Au75Ag25 targets in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A YAG laser operating at the second harmonic wavelength (532 nm, 10 Hz, 8 ns and 40 mJ) was used to elaborate bimetallic nanoparticles by laser ablation of Ni75Pd25 and Au75Ag25 targets in water. TEM-EDX, UV-Vis spectroscopy and PIXE measurements were performed to obtain information on their mean sizes, size distributions and chemical composition as a function of the time of laser ablation. The surface of the laser impacted regions of the targets were characterized by RBS in order to check their composition after the laser ablation. The so-obtained bimetallic nanoparticles always show a homogeneous composition. However, while the composition of Au-Ag nanoparticles was found to be very similar to the one of the alloy target, the composition of the Ni-Pd nanoparticles can be different from the nominal composition of the alloy target. Segregation phenomena can be invoked to explain the difference between the Ni-Pd nanoparticles and the Au-Ag nanoparticles compositions obtained in the same conditions. However, an influence of chemical reactions occurring in the high pressure plasma created locally at liquid-solid interface (called 'reactive quenching') cannot be completely ruled out.

  6. Production and separation of no-carrier-added 73As and 75Se from 7Li irradiated germanium oxide target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports for the first time 7Li-induced accelerator based production of 71,72,73,74As, 75,76,77Br and 73,75Se radionuclides in their no-carrier-added (nca) state. After the decay of all short-lived radionuclides 75Se and 73As were only existing radionuclides in germanium oxide target, which were subsequently separated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) using trioctylamine (TOA) dissolved in cyclohexane as liquid ion exchanger. The presence of stable germanium in various fractions was examined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Spectrometry (ICP-OES). At 0.1 M TOA and 10 M HCl concentration, 75Se and stable Ge were extracted into the organic phase leaving 73As in the aqueous phase. The bulk Ge was stripped back to the aqueous phase by 1 M NaOH, keeping 75Se in the organic phase. Therefore complete separation between 73As, 75Se and bulk Ge was achieved. (orig.)

  7. Individual Differences in Arsenic Metabolism and Lung Cancer in a Case-Control Study in Cordoba, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmaus, Craig; Yuan, Yan; Kalman, Dave; Rey, Omar A.; Skibola, Christine F.; Dauphine, Dave; Basu, Anamika; Porter, Kristin E.; Hubbard, Alan; Bates, Michael N.; Smith, Martyn T.; Smith, Allan H.

    2010-01-01

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although in most people this process is not complete. Previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary MMA (%MMA) and increased risks of several arsenic-related diseases, although none of these reported on lung cancer. In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were assessed in 45 lung cancer cases and 75 controls from arsenic-exposed areas in Cordoba, ...

  8. Arsenic removal from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  9. Arsenic, reactive oxygen, and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinsworth, David C

    2015-06-01

    Human exposure to drinking water contaminated with arsenic is a serious global health concern and predisposes to cardiovascular disease states, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and microvascular disease. The most sensitive target of arsenic toxicity in the vasculature is the endothelium, and incubation of these cells with low concentrations of arsenite, a naturally occurring and highly toxic inorganic form of arsenic, rapidly induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation via activation of a specific NADPH oxidase (Nox2). Arsenite also induces ROS accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells, but this is relatively delayed because, depending on the vessel from which they originate, these cells often lack Nox2 and/or its essential regulatory cytosolic subunits. The net effect of such activity is attenuation of endothelium-dependent conduit artery dilation via superoxide anion-mediated scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) and inhibition and downregulation of endothelial NO synthase, events that are temporally matched to the accumulation of oxidants across the vessel wall. By contrast, ROS induced by the more toxic organic trivalent arsenic metabolites (monomethylarsonous and dimethylarsinous acids) may originate from sources other than Nox2. As such, the mechanisms through which vascular oxidative stress develops in vivo under continuous exposure to all three of these potent arsenicals are unknown. This review is a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms that mediate arsenic effects associated with Nox2 activation, ROS activity, and endothelial dysfunction, and also considers future avenues of research into what is a relatively poorly understood topic with major implications for human health. PMID:25788710

  10. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  11. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Robin B; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro; Luis Enrique Gutiérrez-Millán; Mary Kay O’Rourke; Jason Roberge

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and...

  12. Analytical strategy for the determination of various arsenic species in landfill leachate containing high concentrations of chlorine and organic carbon by HPLC-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, J.; An, J.; Kim, J.; Jung, H.; Kim, K.; Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2012-12-01

    As a variety of wastes containing arsenic are disposed of in landfills, such facilities can play a prominent role in disseminating arsenic sources to the environment. Since it is widely recognized that arsenic toxicity is highly dependent on its species, accurate determination of various arsenic species should be considered as one of the essential goals to properly account for the potential health risk of arsenic in human and the environment. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry linked to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ICPMS) is acknowledged as one of the most important tools for the trace analysis of metallic speciation because of its superior separation capability and detectability. However, the complexity of matrices can cause severe interferences in the analysis results, which is the problem often encountered with HPLC-ICPMS system. High concentration of organic carbon in a sample solution causes carbon build-up on the skimmer and sampling cone, which reduces analytical sensitivity and requires a high maintenance level for its cleaning. In addition, argon from the plasma and chlorine from the sample matrix may combine to form 40Ar35Cl, which has the same nominal mass to charge (m/z) ratio as arsenic. In this respect, analytical strategy for the determination of various arsenic species (e.g., inorganic arsenite and arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, dimethyldithioarsinic acid, and arsenobetaine) in landfill leachate containing high concentrations of chlorine and organic carbon was developed in the present study. Solid phase extraction disk (i.e., C18 disk), which does not significantly adsorb any target arsenic species, was used to remove organic carbon in sample solutions. In addition, helium (He) gas was injected into the collision reaction cell equipped in ICPMS to collapse 40Ar35Cl into individual 40Ar and 35Cl. Although He gas also decreased arsenic intensity by blocking 75As, its signal to noise ratio

  13. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III and As(V from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration.

  14. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about arsenic in drinking water. It includes sections about what arsenic is, where it comes from, health concerns from exposure, drinking water standards, how to know if there is arsenic in a water supply and how to reduce arsenic in drinking water.

  15. Arsenic in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants Metals Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... and previous or current use of arsenic-containing pesticides. Are there ... compounds in water, food, air, and soil: organic and inorganic (these together ...

  16. 75 FR 35919 - Investment Company Advertising: Target Date Retirement Fund Names and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Lifetime Income Options for Participants and Beneficiaries in Retirement Plans, 75 FR 5253, 5253-54 (Feb. 2...\\ See Default Investment Alternatives Under Participant Directed Individual Account Plans, 72 FR 60452...-280. \\20\\ See QDIA Adopting Release, supra note 19, 72 FR at 60452- 53. As an alternative to a...

  17. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  18. Spectral reflectance as an indicator of foliar concentrations of arsenic in common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Yuridia Patricia Peralta De

    Studies were conducted to investigate the use of spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination of soil. Germination method was developed for sunflower seeds, and cohorts of sunflower seedlings in hydroponic tanks were established. The cohorts were exposed to 0 ppm, 5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, and 10 ppm treatments of As (V) and reflectance measurements of foliage were collected using a spectroradiometer during two experiments. Results demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination. In both experiments, arsenic concentrations in leaf tissues were directly proportional to arsenic concentrations in hydroponic solutions in which such plants were grown. Although the effect(s) of arsenic accumulation had minimal impact on reflectance of visible wavelengths, the effects on NIR reflectance were substantial and resulted in a progressive decrease in reflectance as arsenic concentrations in foliage increased.

  19. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: Review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 μg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 μg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominately at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 μg/L, mean 99 μg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention.

  20. USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides background information on the USEPA arsenic removal program. The summary includes information on the history of the program, sites and technology selected, and a summary of the data collected from two completed projects.

  1. Arsenic responsive microRNAs in vivo and their potential involvement in arsenic-induced oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xuefeng, E-mail: xuefengr@buffalo.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Gaile, Daniel P. [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Health Professions, the State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Gong, Zhihong [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Qiu, Wenting [School of Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Ge, Yichen [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Zhang, Chuanwu; Huang, Chenping; Yan, Hongtao [School of Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Olson, James R. [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Wu, Hongmei, E-mail: hongmeiwwu@hotmail.com [School of Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Arsenic exposure is postulated to modify microRNA (miRNA) expression, leading to changes of gene expression and toxicities, but studies relating the responses of miRNAs to arsenic exposure are lacking, especially with respect to in vivo studies. We utilized high-throughput sequencing technology and generated miRNA expression profiles of liver tissues from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats exposed to various concentrations of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) for 60 days. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the miRNA expression profiles clustered the SD rats into different groups based on the arsenic exposure status, indicating a highly significant association between arsenic exposure and cluster membership (p-value of 0.0012). Multiple miRNA expressions were altered by arsenic in an exposure concentration-dependent manner. Among the identified arsenic-responsive miRNAs, several are predicted to target Nfe2l2-regulated antioxidant genes, including glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) which are involved in glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Exposure to low concentrations of arsenic increased mRNA expression for Gclc and Gclm, while high concentrations significantly reduced their expression, which were correlated to changes in hepatic GCL activity and GSH level. Moreover, our data suggested that other mechanisms, e.g., miRNAs, rather than Nfe2l2-signaling pathway, could be involved in the regulation of mRNA expression of Gclc and Gclm post-arsenic exposure in vivo. Together, our findings show that arsenic exposure disrupts the genome-wide expression of miRNAs in vivo, which could lead to the biological consequence, such as an altered balance of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure induces changes of hepatic miRNA expression profiles. • Hepatic GCL activity and GSH level in rats are altered following arsenic exposure. • Arsenic induced GCL expression change is

  2. Arsenic responsive microRNAs in vivo and their potential involvement in arsenic-induced oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic exposure is postulated to modify microRNA (miRNA) expression, leading to changes of gene expression and toxicities, but studies relating the responses of miRNAs to arsenic exposure are lacking, especially with respect to in vivo studies. We utilized high-throughput sequencing technology and generated miRNA expression profiles of liver tissues from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats exposed to various concentrations of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) for 60 days. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the miRNA expression profiles clustered the SD rats into different groups based on the arsenic exposure status, indicating a highly significant association between arsenic exposure and cluster membership (p-value of 0.0012). Multiple miRNA expressions were altered by arsenic in an exposure concentration-dependent manner. Among the identified arsenic-responsive miRNAs, several are predicted to target Nfe2l2-regulated antioxidant genes, including glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) which are involved in glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Exposure to low concentrations of arsenic increased mRNA expression for Gclc and Gclm, while high concentrations significantly reduced their expression, which were correlated to changes in hepatic GCL activity and GSH level. Moreover, our data suggested that other mechanisms, e.g., miRNAs, rather than Nfe2l2-signaling pathway, could be involved in the regulation of mRNA expression of Gclc and Gclm post-arsenic exposure in vivo. Together, our findings show that arsenic exposure disrupts the genome-wide expression of miRNAs in vivo, which could lead to the biological consequence, such as an altered balance of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure induces changes of hepatic miRNA expression profiles. • Hepatic GCL activity and GSH level in rats are altered following arsenic exposure. • Arsenic induced GCL expression change is

  3. EXAFS study on arsenic species and transformation in arsenic hyperaccumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zechun; CHEN Tongbin; LEI Mei; HU Tiandou; HUANG Qifei

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SR EXAFS) was employed to study the transformation of coordination environment and the redox speciation of arsenic in a newly discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Cretan brake (Pteris cretica L. var nervosa Thunb). It showed that the arsenic in the plant mainly coordinated with oxygen, except that some arsenic coordinated with S as As-GSH in root. The complexation of arsenic with GSH might not be the predominant detoxification mechanism in Cretan brake. Although some arsenic in root presented as As(V) in Na2HAsO4 treatments, most of arsenic in plant presented as As(III)-O in both treatments, indicating that As(V) tended to be reduced to As(III) after it was taken up into the root, and arsenic was kept as As(III) when it was transported to the above-ground tissues. The reduction of As(V) primarily proceeded in the root.

  4. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  5. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  6. Arsenic: The Silent Killer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Andrea (USGS)

    2006-02-28

    Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

  7. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris Vittata L. and its arsenic accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) was first discovered in China by means of field survey and greenhouse cultivation. Field survey showed that Chinese brake had large accumulating capacity to arsenic; the orders of arsenic content in different parts of the fern were as follows: leaves>leafstalks>roots, which is totally different from that of ordinary plants; bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts of the fern decreased as a power function of soil arsenic contents. In the control of pot trials with normal unpolluted soil containing 9 mg/kg of arsenic, the bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts and rhizoids of Chinese brake were as high as 71 and 80 respectively. Greenhouse cultivation in the contaminated soil from mining areas has shown that more than 1 times greater arsenic can be accumulated in the leaves of the fern than that of field samples with the largest content of 5070 mg/kg As on a dry matter basis. During greenhouse cultivation, arsenic content in the leaves of the fern increased linearly with time prolonging. Not only has Chinese brake extraordinary tolerance and accumulation to arsenic, but it grew rapidly with great biomass, wide distribution and easy adaptation to different environmental conditions as well. Therefore, it has great potential in future remediation of arsenic contamination. It also demonstrates important value for studies of arsenic physiology and biochemistry such as arsenic absorption, translocation and detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  8. Simulation of Neutron Production in Selected Targets by Proton and Deuteron Beam in Energy Range from 10 MeV to 75 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial inter-comparison study of simulation of neutron production by beam of protons and deuterons in different target materials, in energy range from 10 MeV to 75 MeV, is shown in the paper. An idealised cylindrical (diameter = height = 2.5 cm) target is bombarded, along the central axis, perpendicularly at target base, by an infinite thin particle beam. Simulation is carried out for the target surrounded by void, i.e., the 'return effect' from surrounding materials in a real system is not encountered. The study is carried out using Monte Carlo based computer codes for intermediate and high-energy nucleon transport: LCS, ver.2.7 (LANL, USA) and SHIELD (INR, Russia). Yield (total number of neutrons in 4 , per incident particle) and spectrum of neutrons escaping the target surfaces are determined for different targets made from 208Pb/Pb, 238U/U, 184W/W, Be and 7Li. Maximum neutron yield, near 30%, is calculated for proton beam energy of 75 MeV bombarding 238U/U target, shaped as mentioned above. Generally, neutron yield for deuteron beam is less than neutron yield for proton beam of the same energy for targets made from high-Z nuclides. The opposite conclusion is derived for targets made from low-Z nuclides. (author)

  9. Role of mitochondria, ROS, and DNA damage in arsenic induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) declared arsenic a class I carcinogen. Arsenic exposure induces several forms of human cancers, including cancers of skin, lung, liver, and urinary bladder. The majority of the arsenic-induced cancers occur in skin. Among these, the most common is Bowen's disease, characterized by epidermal hyperplasia, full layer epidermal dysplasia, leading to intraepidermal carcinoma as well as apoptosis, and moderate dermal infiltrates, which require the participation of mitochondria. The exact mechanism underlying arsenic induced carcinogenesis remains unclear, although increased reactive oxidative stresses, leading to chromosome abnormalities and uncontrolled growth, and aberrant immune regulations might be involved. Here, we highlight how increased mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress lead to mitochondrial DNA damage and mutation in arsenic induced cancers. We also provide therapeutic rationale for targeting mitochondria in the treatment of arsenic induced cancers. PMID:27100709

  10. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tao, Shasha [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lian, Fangru [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chau, Binh T. [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fang, Deyu [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Zhang, Donna D., E-mail: dzhang@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ► Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ► Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ► Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  11. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Ma Jose, E-mail: pmedrano@isciii.es [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Palau, Margarita [Subdireccion General de Sanidad Ambiental y Salud Laboral, Direccion General de Salud Publica y Sanidad Exterior, Ministerio de Sanidad y Politica Social, Madrid (Spain); Damian, Javier [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ramis, Rebeca [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Barrio, Jose Luis del [Departamento de Salud Publica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Background: High-chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. At low-chronic levels, as those present in Spain, evidence is scarce. In this ecological study, we evaluated the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations during the period 1998-2002 with cardiovascular mortality in the population of Spain. Methods: Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were available for 1721 municipalities, covering 24.8 million people. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cardiovascular (361,750 deaths), coronary (113,000 deaths), and cerebrovascular (103,590 deaths) disease were analyzed for the period 1999-2003. Two-level hierarchical Poisson models were used to evaluate the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations with mortality adjusting for social determinants, cardiovascular risk factors, diet, and water characteristics at municipal or provincial level in 651 municipalities (200,376 cardiovascular deaths) with complete covariate information. Results: Mean municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from <1 to 118 {mu}g/L. Compared to the overall Spanish population, sex- and age-adjusted mortality rates for cardiovascular (SMR 1.10), coronary (SMR 1.18), and cerebrovascular (SMR 1.04) disease were increased in municipalities with arsenic concentrations in drinking water >10 {mu}g/L. Compared to municipalities with arsenic concentrations <1 {mu}g/L, fully adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates were increased by 2.2% (-0.9% to 5.5%) and 2.6% (-2.0% to 7.5%) in municipalities with arsenic concentrations between 1-10 and>10 {mu}g/L, respectively (P-value for trend 0.032). The corresponding figures were 5.2% (0.8% to 9.8%) and 1.5% (-4.5% to 7.9%) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 0.3% (-4.1% to 4.9%) and 1.7% (-4.9% to 8.8%) for cerebrovascular disease mortality. Conclusions: In this ecological study, elevated low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking

  12. Arsenic inhibits hedgehog signaling during P19 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jui Tung [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Bain, Lisa J., E-mail: lbain@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Arsenic is a toxicant found in ground water around the world, and human exposure mainly comes from drinking water or from crops grown in areas containing arsenic in soils or water. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure during development decreased intellectual function, reduced birth weight, and altered locomotor activity, while in vitro studies have shown that arsenite decreased muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays an important role during the differentiation of both neurons and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether arsenic can disrupt Shh signaling in P19 mouse embryonic stem cells, leading to changes muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. P19 embryonic stem cells were exposed to 0, 0.25, or 0.5 μM of sodium arsenite for up to 9 days during cell differentiation. We found that arsenite exposure significantly reduced transcript levels of genes in the Shh pathway in both a time and dose-dependent manner. This included the Shh ligand, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, the Gli2 transcription factor, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, and its downstream target gene Ascl1, which was decreased 5-fold. GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity were also reduced. However, arsenic did not alter GLI2 primary cilium accumulation or nuclear translocation. Moreover, additional extracellular SHH rescued the inhibitory effects of arsenic on cellular differentiation due to an increase in GLI binding activity. Taken together, we conclude that arsenic exposure affected Shh signaling, ultimately decreasing the expression of the Gli2 transcription factor. These results suggest a mechanism by which arsenic disrupts cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Arsenic exposure decreases sonic hedgehog pathway-related gene expression. • Arsenic decreases GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity in P19 cells. • Arsenic exposure does not alter the levels of SHH

  13. Arsenic inhibits hedgehog signaling during P19 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is a toxicant found in ground water around the world, and human exposure mainly comes from drinking water or from crops grown in areas containing arsenic in soils or water. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure during development decreased intellectual function, reduced birth weight, and altered locomotor activity, while in vitro studies have shown that arsenite decreased muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays an important role during the differentiation of both neurons and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether arsenic can disrupt Shh signaling in P19 mouse embryonic stem cells, leading to changes muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. P19 embryonic stem cells were exposed to 0, 0.25, or 0.5 μM of sodium arsenite for up to 9 days during cell differentiation. We found that arsenite exposure significantly reduced transcript levels of genes in the Shh pathway in both a time and dose-dependent manner. This included the Shh ligand, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, the Gli2 transcription factor, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, and its downstream target gene Ascl1, which was decreased 5-fold. GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity were also reduced. However, arsenic did not alter GLI2 primary cilium accumulation or nuclear translocation. Moreover, additional extracellular SHH rescued the inhibitory effects of arsenic on cellular differentiation due to an increase in GLI binding activity. Taken together, we conclude that arsenic exposure affected Shh signaling, ultimately decreasing the expression of the Gli2 transcription factor. These results suggest a mechanism by which arsenic disrupts cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Arsenic exposure decreases sonic hedgehog pathway-related gene expression. • Arsenic decreases GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity in P19 cells. • Arsenic exposure does not alter the levels of SHH

  14. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ((Simon)); ((Royal))

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  15. Low level arsenic promotes progressive inflammatory angiogenesis and liver blood vessel remodeling in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vascular effects of arsenic in drinking water are global health concerns contributing to human disease worldwide. Arsenic targets the endothelial cells lining blood vessels, and endothelial cell activation or dysfunction may underlie the pathogenesis of both arsenic-induced vascular diseases and arsenic-enhanced tumorigenesis. The purpose of the current studies was to demonstrate that exposing mice to drinking water containing environmentally relevant levels of arsenic promoted endothelial cell dysfunction and pathologic vascular remodeling. Increased angiogenesis, neovascularization, and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in Matrigel plugs implanted in C57BL/6 mice following 5-week exposures to 5-500 ppb arsenic [Soucy, N.V., Mayka, D., Klei, L.R., Nemec, A.A., Bauer, J.A., Barchowsky, A., 2005. Neovascularization and angiogenic gene expression following chronic arsenic exposure in mice. Cardiovasc.Toxicol 5, 29-42]. Therefore, functional in vivo effects of arsenic on endothelial cell function and vessel remodeling in an endogenous vascular bed were investigated in the liver. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) became progressively defenestrated and underwent capillarization to decrease vessel porosity following exposure to 250 ppb arsenic for 2 weeks. Sinusoidal expression of PECAM-1 and laminin-1 proteins, a hallmark of capillarization, was also increased by 2 weeks of exposure. LSEC caveolin-1 protein and caveolae expression were induced after 2 weeks of exposure indicating a compensatory change. Likewise, CD45/CD68-positive inflammatory cells did not accumulate in the livers until after LSEC porosity was decreased, indicating that inflammation is a consequence and not a cause of the arsenic-induced LSEC phenotype. The data demonstrate that the liver vasculature is an early target of pathogenic arsenic effects and that the mouse liver vasculature is a sensitive model for investigating vascular health effects of arsenic

  16. Virtual-screening targeting Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 integrase-lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75 interaction for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wan-Gang; Liu, Bai-Nan; Yuan, Jun-Fa

    2015-02-01

    Three integrase (IN) inhibitors have been approved by FDA for clinical treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This stimulates more researchers to focus their studies on this target for anti-HIV drug development. Three steps regarding of IN activity have been validated for inhibitor discovery: strand transfer, 3'-terminal processing, and IN-lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 interaction. Among them, IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction is a new target validated in recent years. Emergence of drug-resistant virus strains makes this target appealing to pharmacologists. Compared with the traditional screening methods such as AlphaScreen and cell-based screening developed for IN inhibitor discovery, virtual screening is a powerful technique in modern drug discovery. Here we summarized the recent advances of virtual-screening targeting IN-LEDFG/p75 interaction. The combined application of virtual screening and experiments in drug discovery against IN-LEDFG/p75 interaction sheds light on anti-HIV research and drug discovery. PMID:25230778

  17. ARSENIC REMOVAL TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR SINGLE FAMILY HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides information on POU and POE arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems. The presentation provides information on the arsenic rule, arsenic chemistry and arsenic treatment. The arsenic treatment options proposed for POU and POE treatment consist prim...

  18. Rural methods to mitigate arsenic contaminated water

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water is one of the burning issues in the rural world. Poor public awareness program about health effects of drinking arsenic contaminated water and the rural methods to mitigate this problem poses a great threat of arsenic poisoning many people of the rural world. In this thesis, arsenic removal efficiency and the working mechanism of four rural and economical arsenic mitigation technologies i.e. solar oxidation and reduction of arsenic (SORAS), Bucket tr...

  19. Comparative toxicity of trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylated arsenicals in rat and human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomethylation is considered a major detoxification pathway for inorganic arsenicals (iAs). According to the postulated metabolic scheme, the methylation of iAs yields methylated metabolites in which arsenic is present in both pentavalent and trivalent forms. Pentavalent mono- and dimethylated arsenicals are less acutely toxic than iAs. However, little is known about the toxicity of trivalent methylated species. In the work reported here the toxicities of iAs and trivalent and pentavalent methylated arsenicals were examined in cultured human cells derived from tissues that are considered a major site for iAs methylation (liver) or targets for carcinogenic effects associated with exposure to iAs (skin, urinary bladder, and lung). To characterize the role of methylation in the protection against toxicity of arsenicals, the capacities of cells to produce methylated metabolites were also examined. In addition to human cells, primary rat hepatocytes were used as methylating controls. Among the arsenicals examined, trivalent monomethylated species were the most cytotoxic in all cell types. Trivalent dimethylated arsenicals were at least as cytotoxic as trivalent iAs (arsenite) for most cell types. Pentavalent arsenicals were significantly less cytotoxic than their trivalent analogs. Among the cell types examined, primary rat hepatocytes exhibited the greatest methylation capacity for iAs followed by primary human hepatocytes, epidermal keratinocytes, and bronchial epithelial cells. Cells derived from human bladder did not methylate iAs. There was no apparent correlation between susceptibility of cells to arsenic toxicity and their capacity to methylate iAs. These results suggest that (1) trivalent methylated arsenicals, intermediary products of arsenic methylation, may significantly contribute to the adverse effects associated with exposure to iAs, and (2) high methylation capacity does not protect cells from the acute toxicity of trivalent arsenicals. (orig.)

  20. The metabolism of inorganic arsenic oxides, gallium arsenide, and arsine: a toxicochemical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review is to compare the metabolism, chemistry, and biological effects to determine if either of the industrial arsenicals (arsine and gallium arsenide) act like the environmental arsenic oxides (arsenite and arsenate). The metabolism of the arsenic oxides has been extensively investigated in the past 4 years and the differences between the arsenic metabolites in the oxidation states +III versus +V and with one or two methyl groups added have shown increased importance. The arsenic oxide metabolism has been compared with arsine (oxidation state -III) and arsenide (oxidation state between 0 to -III). The different metabolites appear to have different strengths of reaction for binding aresenic (III) to thiol groups, their oxidation-reduction reactions and their forming an arsenic-carbon bond. It is unclear if the differences in parameters such as the presence or absence of methyl metabolities, the rates of AsV reduction compared to the rates of AsIII oxidation, or the competition of phosphate and arsenate for cellular uptake are large enough to change biological effects. The arsine rate of decomposition, products of metabolism, target organ of toxic action, and protein binding appeared to support an oxidized arsenic metabolite. This arsine metabolite was very different from anything made by the arsenic oxides. The gallium arsenide had a lower solubility than any other arsenic compound and it had a disproportionate intensity of lung damage to suggest that the GaAs had a site of contact interaction and that oxidation reactions were important in its toxicity. The urinary metabolites after GaAs exposure were the same as excreted by arsenic oxides but the chemical compounds responsible for the toxic effects of GaAs are different from the aresnic oxides. The review concludes that there is insufficient evidence to equate the different arsenic compounds. There are several differences in the toxicity of the arsenic compounds that will require substantial

  1. Atmospheric emissions, depositions, and transformations of arsenic in natural ecosystem in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun B; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2002-06-20

    For the last 2 decades, special attention has been paid to arsenic due to its high concentration in groundwater in many regions of the globe. There are not very many reports on arsenic concentration in the Finnish ecosystem, although the metal has been known to be highly toxic since ancient times. For the majority of people in Finland, the leading exposure route to arsenic is through food consumption. In this study, it has been observed that atmospheric emissions of arsenic from anthropogenic sources have decreased by 90%, which is due to better control technology and strict regulation. Aquatic discharge also was attenuated from 7.1 metric tons (t) in 1990 to 0.7 t in 1999. The concentration of arsenic aerosols in the atmosphere in Finland varies between 0.46 to 0.75 ng m(-3). Its use in pesticides and insecticides also has been phased out in Finland. There is no information available regarding arsenic species in the Finnish environment. Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater has been reported for many countries. In Finland two hot spots are reported--one in the south of Finland and the second in Lapland. In these areas, arsenic concentration in well water is greater than 10 microg l(-1) (WHO recommended value: groundwater is geogenic. PMID:12806160

  2. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooki...

  3. Transplacental Arsenic Carcinogenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation,...

  4. Production and separation of carrier-free lutetium, ytterbium and thulium radionuclides from 75 MeV 12C6+ irradiated terbium foil target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion activation of natural terbium foil with 75 MeV 12C6+ results in the formation of carrier-free lutetium isotopes, 165-167Lu, and their corresponding decay products, 165-167YB and 165-167Tm, in the matrix. Carrier-free lutetium and ytterbium isotopes have been separated quantitatively from terbium bulk target matrix using HDEHP liquid cation exchanger. Radiochemically pure thulium radionuclides have been obtained after the decay of ytterbium radionuclides. (author)

  5. D77, one benzoic acid derivative, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular LEDGF/p75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of viral-DNA into host chromosome mediated by the viral protein HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. In this process, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is discovered to function as a cellular co-factor for integration. Since LEDGF/p75 plays an important role in HIV integration, disruption of the LEDGF/p75 interaction with IN has provided a special interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that a benzoic acid derivative, 4-[(5-bromo-4-{[2,4-dioxo-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl) -1,3-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]benzoic acid (D77) could potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution thus exhibiting antiretroviral activity. Molecular docking with site-directed mutagenesis analysis and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays has clarified possible binding mode of D77 against HIV-1 integrase. As the firstly discovered small molecular compound targeting HIV-1 integrase interaction with LEDGF/p75, D77 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery

  6. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground

  7. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered. PMID:25417842

  8. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  9. Effects of low arsenic concentration exposure on freshwater fish in the presence of fluvial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Bonet, Berta; Guasch, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element and its carcinogenic effect on living organisms is well known. However, predicting real effects in the environment requires an ecological approach since toxicity is influenced by many environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if environmentally-realistic arsenic exposure causes toxicity to fish. An experiment with four different treatments (control (C), biofilm (B), arsenic (+As) and biofilm with arsenic (B+As)) was conducted and each one included sediment to enhance environmental realism, allowing the testing of the interactive effects of biofilm and arsenic on the toxicity to fish. Average arsenic exposure to Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) was 40.5±7.5μg/L for +As treatment and 34.4±1.4μg/L for B+As treatment for 56days. Fish were affected directly and indirectly by this low arsenic concentration since exposure did not only affect fish but also the function of periphytic biofilms. Arsenic effects on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of mosquitofish were ameliorated in the presence of biofilms at the beginning of exposure (day 9). Moreover, fish weight gaining was only affected in the treatment without biofilm. After longer exposure (56days), effects of exposure were clearly seen. Fish showed a marked increase in the catalase (CAT) activity in the liver but the interactive influence of biofilms was not further observed since the arsenic-affected biofilm had lost its role in water purification. Our results highlight the interest and application of incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems in ecotoxicology and support the use of criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for arsenic lower than 150μg/L and closer to the water quality criteria to protect aquatic life recommended by the Canadian government which is 5μg As/L. PMID:26657392

  10. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  11. Arsenic-induced cutaneous hyperplastic lesions are associated with the dysregulation of Yap, a Hippo signaling-related protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh; Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Arsenic activates canonical Hippo signaling pathway and up-regulates αCatenin in the skin. •Arsenic activates transcriptional activity of Yap by its nuclear translocation. •Yap is involved in the disruption of tight/adherens junctions in arsenic-exposed animals. -- Abstract: Arsenic exposure in humans causes a number of toxic manifestations in the skin including cutaneous neoplasm. However, the mechanism of these alterations remains elusive. Here, we provide novel observations that arsenic induced Hippo signaling pathway in the murine skin. This pathway plays crucial roles in determining organ size during the embryonic development and if aberrantly activated in adults, contributes to the pathogenesis of epithelial neoplasm. Arsenic treatment enhanced phosphorylation-dependent activation of LATS1 kinase and other Hippo signaling regulatory proteins Sav1 and MOB1. Phospho-LATS kinase is known to catalyze the inactivation of a transcriptional co-activator, Yap. However, in arsenic-treated epidermis, we did not observed its inactivation. Thus, as expected, unphosphorylated-Yap was translocated to the nucleus in arsenic-treated epidermis. Yap by binding to the transcription factors TEADs induces transcription of its target genes. Consistently, an up-regulation of Yap-dependent target genes Cyr61, Gli2, Ankrd1 and Ctgf was observed in the skin of arsenic-treated mice. Phosphorylated Yap is important in regulating tight and adherens junctions through its binding to αCatenin. We found disruption of these junctions in the arsenic-treated mouse skin despite an increase in αCatenin. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced canonical Hippo signaling pathway and Yap-mediated disruption of tight and adherens junctions are independently regulated. These effects together may contribute to the carcinogenic effects of arsenic in the skin.

  12. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Linsheng Yang; Jianwei Gao; Jiangping Yu

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to arsenic (As) poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP) induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions), who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the ...

  13. Preparation of Metal Immobilized Orange Waste Gel for Arsenic(V Removal From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplob Kumar Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The toxicity of arsenic is known to be a risk to aquatic flora and fauna and to human health even in relatively low concentration. In this research an adsorption gel was prepared from agricultural waste material (orange waste through simple chemical modification in the view to remove arsenic (V from water. Orange waste was crushed into small particles and saponified with Ca(OH2 to prepare saponified orange waste, which was further modified by immobilizing gadolinium(III to obtain desired adsorption material (Gd(III-immobilized SOW gel. The effective pH range for arsenic adsorption was found to be 7.5 – 8.5. Adsorption capacity of the gel was evaluated to be 0.45 mol-arsenic (V/kg. Dynamic adsorption of arsenic (V in column-mode was conducted and a dynamic capacity was found to be 0.39 mol/kg. Elution of arsenate was tested after complete saturation of the column packed with gadolinium-immobilized orange waste adsorption gel. A complete elution of arsenate was achieved with the help of 1 M HCl and 28 times pre-concentration factor was attained. This study showed that a cheap and abundant agro-industrial waste material could be successfully employed for the remediation of arsenic pollution in aquatic environment. Keywords: Arsenic; Orange waste; Gadolinium(III; Adsorption; Elution.

  14. Arsenic-induced toxicity and the protective role of ascorbic acid in mouse testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to be a major cause of male reproductive failure. Here, we investigated whether arsenic, which impairs male reproductive functions in rodent models, acts by inducing oxidative stress. Male 8-week-old ICR mice were given drinking water containing 20 or 40 mg/l sodium arsenite with or without 0.75 or 1.5 g/l of the antioxidant ascorbic acid for 5 weeks. The arsenic-treated mice showed decreased epididymidal sperm counts and testicular weights compared to untreated mice. These effects were reversed in mice that were co-treated with ascorbic acid. Similarly, arsenic treatment lowered the activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD, which play important roles in steroidogenesis, and this was reversed by co-treatment with ascorbic acid. The testicles of arsenic-treated mice had decreased glutathione (GSH) levels (which correlate inversely with the degree of cellular oxidative stress) and elevated levels of protein carbonyl (a marker of oxidative damage to tissue proteins). Ascorbic acid co-treatment reversed both of these effects. Thus, ascorbic acid blocks both the adverse effects of arsenic on male reproductive functions and the arsenic-induced testicular oxidative changes. These observations support the notion that arsenic impairs male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress

  15. Bystander autophagy mediated by radiation-induced exosomal miR-7-5p in non-targeted human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Man; Wang, Yu; Shang, Zeng-Fu; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Xie, Da-Fei; Wang, Qi; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) describes a set of biological effects in non-targeted cells that receive bystander signals from the irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to adjacent normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk than previously thought. Excessive release of some substances from irradiated cells into extracellular microenvironment has a deleterious effect. For example, cytokines and reactive oxygen species have been confirmed to be involved in RIBE process via extracellular medium or gap junctions. However, RIBE-mediating signals and intercellular communication pathways are incompletely characterized. Here, we first identified a set of differentially expressed miRNAs in the exosomes collected from 2 Gy irradiated human bronchial epithelial BEP2D cells, from which miR-7-5p was found to induce autophagy in recipient cells. This exosome-mediated autophagy was significantly attenuated by miR-7-5p inhibitor. Moreover, our data demonstrated that autophagy induced by exosomal miR-7-5p was associated with EGFR/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Together, our results support the involvement of secretive exosomes in propagation of RIBE signals to bystander cells. The exosomes-containing miR-7-5p is a crucial mediator of bystander autophagy. PMID:27417393

  16. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic. -- Highlights: ► High soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth. ► A delayed flowering time was observed in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Total grain arsenic increased in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Percentage organic arsenic in the grain altered in arsenic and organic matter soil. -- The addition of high amounts of organic matter to soils led to an increase in total rice grain arsenic, as well as alteration in the percentage arsenic species in the rice grains

  17. A direct determination of a glucose-arsenic complex by electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M

    2011-10-01

    Electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) was used to identify elemental ions from the glucose-arsenic interaction in the aqueous phase. In glucose solution, the most abundant ions were m/z 203, m/z 163, m/z 158, m/z 145 and m/z 115, whereas some additional arsenic bearing ions, m/z 271, m/z 235 and m/z 213 were observed from a glucose-arsenic solution in alkaline pH (≥ 7.5) at 37 °C. The binding was best fitted to 1:1 isotherm model and the value of the dissociation constant (K(d)) was 39.8 μM. Results suggest that the polyatomic ions derived from glucose interact with the available arsenic ions in blood and form a complex which might play a role in diseases caused by arsenic exposure. PMID:21779593

  18. LEDGF/p75 as a target for treatment of MLL-dependent leukemia and HIV infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, K.; Těšina, Petr; Demeulemeester, J.; El Ashkar, S.; Méreau, H.; Schwaller, J.; Christ, F.; Debyser, Z.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Veverka, Václav; De Rijck, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 30. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology . Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : LEDGF/p75 * leukemia * MLL Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  19. Cytotoxicity and gene expression changes induced by inorganic and organic trivalent arsenicals in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Human urothelial, skin and bronchial epithelial cells treated with trivalent arsenicals. • Determined cytotoxicity (LC50) and gene expression changes. • Each trivlaent had LC50s at similar ranges in all the cell types. • Minor differences in gene expression changes observed between trivalent arsenicals. • Overall trivalent arsenicals induced similar gene changes between the cell types. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human urinary bladder, skin and lung carcinogen. iAs is metabolized to methylated arsenicals, with trivalent arsenicals more cytotoxic than pentavalent forms in vitro. In this study, cytotoxicity and gene expression changes for arsenite (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) were evaluated in three human cell types, urothelial (1T1), keratinocyte (HEK001) and bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, corresponding to target organs for iAs-induced cancer. Cells were exposed to arsenicals to determine cytotoxicity and to study gene expression changes. Affymetrix chips were used to determine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by statistical analysis. Lethal concentrations (LC50) for trivalent arsenicals in all cells ranged from 1.6 to 10 μM. MMAIII and DMAIII had 4–12-fold greater potency compared to iAs. Increasing concentrations of iAsIII induced more genes and additional signaling pathways in HBE cells. At equivalent cytotoxic concentrations, greater numbers of DEGs were induced in 1T1 cells compared to the other cells. Each arsenical altered slightly different signaling pathways within and between cell types, but when altered pathways from all three arsenicals were combined, they were similar between cell types. The major signaling pathways altered included NRF2-mediated stress response, interferon, p53, cell cycle regulation and lipid peroxidation. These results show a similar process qualitatively and quantitatively for all three cell types, and support a mode of action involving

  20. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress

  1. 75 FR 13127 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Exposure Reduction. In the Federal Register dated April 22, 2008 (73 FR 21692), EPA promulgated final TSCA... are conducted in target housing and child-occupied facilities: 1. Establish the discipline of lead... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child...

  2. 75 FR 51808 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... April 22, 2008, (73 FR 21692), EPA promulgated final TSCA section 402(c)(3) regulations governing... in target housing and child-occupied facilities. These rules: 1. Establish the discipline of lead... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child...

  3. Excitation functions and production of arsenic radioisotopes for environmental toxicology and biomedical purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, D.; Birattari, C.; Bonard, M.; Salomone, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)); Goetz, L.; Sabbioni, E. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre)

    1981-06-01

    Many arsenic radionuclides have come to be used as tracers in biology and in the study of environmental pollution of both water and soil. In nuclear medicine, radioactive /sup 74/As has been employed as a positron emitter for the localization of brain tumors, cerebral occlusive vascular lesions, arterious-venous malformations, etc. The aim of the work described was to study the excitation functions for the production of the arsenic radioisotopes from targets of natural germanium via nuclear reactions (p, xn).

  4. Discovery of the Arsenic Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    SHORE, A.; A. Fritsch; Heim, M.; Schuh, A.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine arsenic isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. Identification of the third binding site of arsenic in human arsenic (III methyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangli Li

    Full Text Available Arsenic (III methyltransferase (AS3MT catalyzes the process of arsenic methylation. Each arsenite (iAs(3+ binds to three cysteine residues, methylarsenite (MMA(3+ binds to two, and dimethylarsenite (DMA(3+ binds to one. However, only two As-binding sites (Cys156 and Cys206 have been confirmed on human AS3MT (hAS3MT. The third As-binding site is still undefined. Residue Cys72 in Cyanidioschyzon merolae arsenite S-adenosylmethyltransferase (CmArsM may be the third As-binding site. The corresponding residue in hAS3MT is Cys61. Functions of Cys32, Cys61, and Cys85 in hAS3MT are unclear though Cys32, Cys61, and Cys85 in rat AS3MT have no effect on the enzyme activity. This is why the functions of Cys32, Cys61, and Cys85 in hAS3MT merit investigation. Here, three mutants were designed, C32S, C61S, and C85S. Their catalytic activities and conformations were determined, and the catalytic capacities of C156S and C206S were studied. Unlike C85S, mutants C32S and C61S were completely inactive in the methylation of iAs(3+ and active in the methylation of MMA(3+. The catalytic activity of C85S was also less pronounced than that of WT-hAS3MT. All these findings suggest that Cys32 and Cys61 markedly influence the catalytic activity of hAS3MT. Cys32 and Cys61 are necessary to the first step of methylation but not to the second. Cys156 and Cys206 are required for both the first and second steps of methylation. The S(C32 is located far from arsenic in the WT-hAS3MT-SAM-As model. The distances between S(C61 and arsenic in WT-hAS3MT-As and WT-hAS3MT-SAM-As models are 7.5 Å and 4.1 Å, respectively. This indicates that SAM-binding to hAS3MT shortens the distance between S(C61 and arsenic and promotes As-binding to hAS3MT. This is consistent with the fact that SAM is the first substrate to bind to hAS3MT and iAs is the second. Model of WT-hAS3MT-SAM-As and the experimental results indicate that Cys61 is the third As-binding site.

  6. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  7. Arsenic-resistant bacteria solubilized arsenic in the growth media and increased growth of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Piyasa; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2011-10-01

    The role of arsenic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in arsenic solubilization from growth media and growth enhancement of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. was examined. Seven ARB (tolerant to 10 mM arsenate) were isolated from the P. vittata rhizosphere and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas sp., Comamonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. During 7-d hydroponic experiments, these bacteria effectively solubilized arsenic from the growth media spiked with insoluble FeAsO₄ and AlAsO₄ minerals (from organic C) by P. vittata may be responsible for As solubilization. Increase in P. vittata root biomass from 1.5-2.2 to 3.4-4.2 g/plant dw by ARB and by arsenic was associated with arsenic-induced plant P uptake. Arsenic resistant bacteria may have potential to enhance phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils by P. vittata. PMID:21840210

  8. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic and cognitive problems. Recent emerging evidences suggest that arsenic exposure affects the reproductive and developmental toxicity. Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and children's health problems. Some epidemiological studies have reported that arsenic exposure induces premature delivery, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. In animal studies, inorganic arsenic also causes fetal malformation, growth retardation, and fetal death. These toxic effects depend on dose, route and gestation periods of arsenic exposure. In males, inorganic arsenic causes reproductive dysfunctions including reductions of the testis weights, accessory sex organs weights, and epididymal sperm counts. In addition, inorganic arsenic exposure also induces alterations of spermatogenesis, reductions of testosterone and gonadotrophins, and disruptions of steroidogenesis. However, the reproductive and developmental problems following arsenic exposure are poorly understood, and the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we further investigated several possible mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26973968

  9. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  10. Arsenic speciation and bioaccessibility in arsenic-contaminated soils: Sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a combination of sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed in order to evaluate arsenic solid-state speciation and bioaccessibility in soils highly contaminated with arsenic from mining and smelting. Combination of these techniques indicated that iron oxides and the weathering products of sulfide minerals played an important role in regulating the arsenic retention in the soils. Higher bioaccessibility of arsenic was observed in the following order; i) arsenic bound to amorphous iron oxides (smelter-2), ii) arsenic associated with crystalline iron oxides and arsenic sulfide phase (smelter-1), and iii) arsenic associated with the weathering products of arsenic sulfide minerals, such as scorodite, orpiment, jarosite, and pyrite (mine). Even though the bioaccessibility of arsenic was very low in the mine soil, its environmental impact could be significant due to its high arsenic concentration and mobility. Highlights: • Combination of sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation was employed. • Arsenic was primarily associated with iron oxides and sulfide minerals in soils. • Bioaccessibility of arsenic was affected by arsenic solid-phase speciation. -- We investigated arsenic solid-state speciation in soils, which is crucial for risk assessment and developing suitable remediation strategies in arsenic contaminated sites

  11. Arsenic speciation in saliva of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients undergoing arsenic trioxide treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baowei; Cao, Fenglin; Yuan, Chungang; Lu, Xiufen; Shen, Shengwen; Zhou, Jin; Le, X Chris

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide has been successfully used as a therapeutic in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Detailed monitoring of the therapeutic arsenic and its metabolites in various accessible specimens of APL patients can contribute to improving treatment efficacy and minimizing arsenic-induced side effects. This article focuses on the determination of arsenic species in saliva samples from APL patients undergoing arsenic treatment. Saliva samples were collected from nine APL pa...

  12. Arsenic Exposure and Toxicology: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael F.; Beck, Barbara D.; Chen, Yu; Lewis, Ari S.; Thomas, David J

    2011-01-01

    The metalloid arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed in food, water, air, and soil. Arsenic has a long history of use as a homicidal agent, but in the past 100 years arsenic, has been used as a pesticide, a chemotherapeutic agent and a constituent of consumer products. In some areas of the world, high levels of arsenic are naturally present in drinking water and are a toxicological concern. There are several structural forms and oxidation states o...

  13. Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombach, G. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Pierra, A. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Klemm, W. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble arsenic, the several oxidation states (As[sup 3+], As[sup 5+]) and the bonding types have been analyzed. (orig.)

  14. Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble arsenic, the several oxidation states (As3+, As5+) and the bonding types have been analyzed. (orig.)

  15. A medical geology study of an arsenic-contaminated area in Kouhsorkh, NE Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasi, Samira; Abedi, Arezoo

    2012-04-01

    High concentrations of arsenic were determined in sediments from the Kouhsorkh area, Khorasan province, NE Iran. The main rock formations in the area consist of Tertiary volcanic rocks as Tuffaceous sandstone, polymictic conglomerate and andesite. Furthermore, some As-Sb-Au mineralization occurred in this area. Concentrations of arsenic in sediments were determined to range between 4.2 and 268.2 ppm, exceeding US EPA (2004) limits. It seems that young volcanic activity is one of the most important factors for arsenic contamination in this area. The first stage of this medical geology study was done at 2 villages in the Kouhsorkh area in which the arsenic concentration in water is high. People in this residential area suffer from skin diseases including hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, keratosis on head, hands, and feet. The 24-h urine specimens were tested for arsenic, the level of total arsenic in urine were determined to range between 13.66 and 75.92 μg/l day, exceeding permissible limits from 5 to 40 μg/day. More systematic studies are needed to determine the link between As exposure and its related diseases. PMID:21960314

  16. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as...

  17. Arsenic removal from industrial effluent through electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, N. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Dept. of Pollution Control; Madhavan, K. [Coimbatore Inst. of Technology, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-05-01

    In the present investigation, it is attempted to remove arsenic from smelter industrial wastewater through electro-coagulation. Experiments covering a wide range of operating conditions for removal of the arsenic present in the smelter wastewater are carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor. It has been observed from the present work that arsenic can be removed effectively through electrocoagulation. (orig.)

  18. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  19. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and urothelial carcinoma risk in low arsenic exposure area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen and is known to cause oxidative stress in cultured cells and animals. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the levels of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the arsenic profile, and urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urinary 8-OHdG was measured by using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The urinary species of inorganic arsenic and their metabolites were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). This study showed that the mean urinary concentration of total arsenics was significantly higher, at 37.67 ± 2.98 μg/g creatinine, for UC patients than for healthy controls of 21.10 ± 0.79 μg/g creatinine (p < 0.01). Urinary 8-OHdG levels correlated with urinary total arsenic concentrations (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). There were significantly higher 8-OHdG levels, of 7.48 ± 0.97 ng/mg creatinine in UC patients, compared to healthy controls of 5.95 ± 0.21 ng/mg creatinine. Furthermore, female UC patients had higher 8-OHdG levels of 9.22 ± 0.75 than those of males at 5.76 ± 0.25 ng/mg creatinine (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that high urinary 8-OHdG levels were associated with increased total arsenic concentrations, inorganic arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsenate (DMA) as well as the primary methylation index (PMI) even after adjusting for age, gender, and UC status. The results suggest that oxidative DNA damage was associated with arsenic exposure, even at low urinary level of arsenic

  20. Individual differences in arsenic metabolism and lung cancer in a case-control study in Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although in most people this process is not complete. Previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary MMA (%MMA) and increased risks of several arsenic-related diseases, although none of these reported on lung cancer. In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were assessed in 45 lung cancer cases and 75 controls from arsenic-exposed areas in Cordoba, Argentina. Folate has also been linked to arsenic-disease susceptibility, thus an exploratory assessment of associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes, arsenic methylation, and lung cancer was also conducted. In analyses limited to subjects with metabolite concentrations above detection limits, the mean %MMA was higher in cases than in controls (17.5% versus 14.3%, p = 0.01). The lung cancer odds ratio for subjects with %MMA in the upper tertile compared to those in the lowest tertile was 3.09 (95% CI, 1.08-8.81). Although the study size was too small for a definitive conclusion, there was an indication that lung cancer risks might be highest in those with a high %MMA who also carried cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) rs234709 and rs4920037 variant alleles. This study is the first to report an association between individual differences in arsenic metabolism and lung cancer, a leading cause of arsenic-related mortality. These results add to the increasing body of evidence that variation in arsenic metabolism plays an important role in arsenic-disease susceptibility.

  1. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its induced health effects in Shahpur block, Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India: risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ahamed, Sad; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shyamapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Shahpur block of Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India and its health effects such as dermal, neurological, obstetric effects, and cancer risk. The School of Environmental Studies (SOES) collected 4704 tube-well water samples from all 88 villages of Shahpur, which were analyzed for arsenic. We found 40.3 and 21.1 % of the tube-wells had arsenic above 10 and 50 μg/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1805 μg/l. The study shows that 75,000, 39,000, and 10,000 people could be exposed to arsenic-contaminated water greater than 10, 50, and 300 μg/l, respectively. Our medical team examined 1422 villagers from Shahpur and registered 161 (prevalence rate, 11.3 %) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical skin lesions were also observed in 29 children of 525 screened. We analyzed 579 biological samples (hair, nail, and urine) from Shahpur and found that 82, 89, and 91 % of hair, nail, and urine, respectively, had arsenic above the normal levels, indicating many people in the study area are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 48 % of 102 arsenicosis patients. The study also found that arsenic exposed women with severe skin lesions had adversely affected their pregnancies. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were also estimated based on the generated data. Safe drinking water supply is urgently required to combat arsenic situation in affected villages of Shahpur. PMID:26838039

  2. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  3. Determination of arsenic in ground water using external irradiation of liquid sample by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charged particle activation analysis (CPAA), a sensitive analytical technique for the determination of elemental concentration at trace levels, is ideally suited for solid samples with high melting points. In order to extend the application of CPAA in liquid sample, a programme has been taken to determine total As along with As(III) and As(V) speciation in ground water. A target assembly has been fabricated with Liebig condenser for on-line cooling for external irradiation of water sample with higher beam current to enhance the sensitivity. Arsenic can be determined by producing a suitable activation product 75Se (T1/2 = 119.8 d, Eγ = 136.0, 264.6 keV) by 75As(p,n)75Se reaction. The 18 MeV proton beam is found to be the most suitable as per the published cross section data having maximum cross section ∼ 750 mb at 9 MeV. In this paper, we report the possibility of determination of As by CPAA at trace and ultra trace levels in water sample by calibration with As standard solution in water and standardization work for the separation of As(III) and As(V) from water solutions for speciation study using 74As radiotracers

  4. Arsenic metabolism by microbial communities from an arsenic-rich shallow-water hydrothermal system in Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Chancho, M.; Pichler, T.; Amend, J. P.; Akerman, N. H.

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic, although toxic, is used as an energy source by certain microbes, some of which can catalyse the reduction of arsenate by using different electron donors, while others oxidize arsenite with oxygen or nitrate as electron acceptors. The marine shallow-water hydrothermal system in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea is ideal for investigating the metabolism of microbes involved in arsenic cycling, because there hydrothermal vents discharge fluids with arsenite concentrations as high as 950 μg/L. Vent fluids are hot (˜100°C), slightly acidic (pH˜6) and reducing. Upon mixing with colder and oxygen-rich seawater the fluid chemistry changes rapidly within a few meters from the hydrothermal source. The objective of this work was to study arsenic metabolism due to microbial activity in Tutum Bay. Sediments collected at 7.5 and 30 m along a transect beginning at a hydrothermal vent were used as inocula in the microbial culturing experiments. Media were designed using chemical analyses of the hydrothermal fluids. Following culture experiments, arsenic species identification and quantification were performed for the growth media with HPLC-ICP(HR)MS, using anion exchange and reversed phase chromatography. Quality control included mass balance calculations and spiking experiments. A fast reduction of arsenate to arsenite was observed in the first 24 hours leading to the conclusion that the microbial communities were capable of reducing arsenic. However, mass balance calculations revealed that more than 30% of the arsenic had been transformed to one or more unknown species, which could not be detected by ion exchange chromatography. The addition of peroxide combined with reversed phase chromatography revealed the presence of several unknown species. Following the addition of peroxide some of the unknown species were identified to be thio-arsenic compounds, because they were oxidized to their oxo-analogues. Nevertheless, a significant fraction of unknown

  5. Whole-house arsenic water treatment provided more effective arsenic exposure reduction than point-of-use water treatment at New Jersey homes with arsenic in well water

    OpenAIRE

    Spayd, Steven E.; Robson, Mark G.; Buckley, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the effectiveness of whole house (point-of-entry) and point-of-use arsenic water treatment systems in reducing arsenic exposure from well water was conducted. The non-randomized observational study recruited 49 subjects having elevated arsenic in their residential home well water in New Jersey. The subjects obtained either point-of-entry or point-of-use arsenic water treatment. Prior ingestion exposure to arsenic in well water was calculated by measuring arsenic concentrations...

  6. Arsenic mobility in contaminated lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arsenic contaminated lake sediment near a landfill in Maine was used to characterize the geochemistry of arsenic and assess the influence of environmental conditions on its mobility. A kinetic model was developed to simulate the leaching ability of arsenic in lake sediments under different environmental conditions. The HM1D chemical transport model was used to model the column experiments and determine the rates of arsenic mobility from the sediment. Laboratory studies provided the information to construct a conceptual model to demonstrate the mobility of arsenic in the lake sediment. The leaching ability of arsenic in lake sediments greatly depends on the flow conditions of ground water and the geochemistry of the sediments. Large amounts of arsenic were tightly bound to the sediments. The amount of arsenic leaching out of the sediment to the water column was substantially decreased due to iron/arsenic co-precipitation at the water-sediment interface. Overall, it was found that arsenic greatly accumulated at the ground water/lake interface and it formed insoluble precipitates. - Arsenic accumulates at the ground water/lake interface, where it forms insoluble precipitates

  7. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is considered a toxic trace element for plant, animal, and human organisms. Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic is emitted in appreciable quantities into the atmosphere by coal combustion and the production of cement. Arsenic enters the aquatic environment through industrial activities such as smelting of metallic ores, metallurgical glassware, and ceramics as well as insecticide production and use. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining arsenic. This paper is a review of research studies of arsenic in the Greek environment by NAA performed at our radioanalytical laboratory. The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine levels of arsenic concentrations in environmental materials, (b) to pinpoint arsenic pollution sources and estimate the extent of arsenic pollution, and (c) to find out whether edible marine organisms from the gulfs of Greece receiving domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes have elevated concentrations of arsenic in their tissues that could render them dangerous for human consumption

  8. Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama A, Katherine; Fletcher, Tim D; Sun, Guangzhi

    2011-08-01

    Arsenic pollution in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. This concern has generated increasing interest in the use of different treatment technologies to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Constructed wetlands are a cost-effective natural system successfully used for removing various pollutants, and they have shown capability for removing arsenic. This paper reviews current understanding of the removal processes for arsenic, discusses implications for treatment wetlands, and identifies critical knowledge gaps and areas worthy of future research. The reactivity of arsenic means that different arsenic species may be found in wetlands, influenced by vegetation, supporting medium and microorganisms. Despite the fact that sorption, precipitation and coprecipitation are the principal processes responsible for the removal of arsenic, bacteria can mediate these processes and can play a significant role under favourable environmental conditions. The most important factors affecting the speciation of arsenic are pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, the presence of other chemical species--iron, sulphur, phosphate--,a source of carbon, and the wetland substrate. Studies of the microbial communities and the speciation of arsenic in the solid phase using advanced techniques could provide further insights on the removal of arsenic. Limited data and understanding of the interaction of the different processes involved in the removal of arsenic explain the rudimentary guidelines available for the design of wetlands systems. PMID:21549410

  9. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin–vascular endothelial growth factor pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic exposure represents a major health concern increasing cancer risks, yet the mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis has not been elucidated. We and others recently reported that cell malignant transformation by arsenic is accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of EMT in arsenic carcinogenesis is not well understood. Although previous studies showed that short term exposure of endothelial cells to arsenic stimulated angiogenesis, it remains to be determined whether cells that were malignantly transformed by long term arsenic exposure have a pro-angiogenic effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of arsenic-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells that underwent EMT on angiogenesis and the underlying mechanism. It was found that the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells strongly stimulated tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, enhanced angiogenesis was detected in mouse xenograft tumor tissues resulting from inoculation of arsenic-transformed cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that β-catenin was activated in arsenic-transformed cells up-regulating its target gene expression including angiogenic-stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Stably expressing microRNA-200b in arsenic-transformed cells that reversed EMT inhibited β-catenin activation, decreased VEGF expression and reduced tube formation by HUVECs. SiRNA knockdown β-catenin decreased VEGF expression. Adding a VEGF neutralizing antibody into the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells impaired tube formation by HUVECs. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of canonical Wnt ligands were not increased in arsenic-transformed cells. These findings suggest that EMT in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin–VEGF pathway. - Highlights: • Arsenic-transformed cells that underwent EMT displayed a pro

  10. Arsenic Specitation in Multiple Metal Environments: II. Micro-Spectroscopic Investigation of a CCA Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe,M.; Tappero, R.; Marcus, M.; Sparks, D.

    2008-01-01

    The speciation of arsenic (As) in a copper-chromated-arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil was investigated using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (microXRF) and micro-focused X-ray absorption fine structure (microXAFS) spectroscopies to determine if and how the co-contaminating metal cations (Cu, Zn, Cr) influenced the speciation of As. 15 microXRF images were collected on 30-mum polished thin sections and powder-on-tape samples from which Pearson correlation coefficients (rho) between As and various metal species were determined based on the fluorescence intensity of each element in each image pixel. 29 microXAFS and two bulk-XAFS spectra were collected from depths of 0-20 cm (LM-A) and 20-40 cm (LM-B) to determine the chemical speciation of As in the soil by target analyses of principal components with circa 52 reference spectra and linear least-square combination fitting of individual experimental spectra with a refined reference phase list (32) of likely As species. Arsenic and metal cations (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) accumulated in distinct, isolated areas often not larger than 50 x 50 microm in which the Pearson correlation between the elements was strongly positive (rho>0.75). The correlation of As to Zn and Cr decreased from >0.9 to <0.8 and increased to Cu from approximately 0.6 to >0.8 with depth. Arsenic occurred predominantly in the +5 oxidation state. Abstract factor analysis and linear least square combination fit analysis suggested that As occurred as a continuum of fully and poorly-ordered copper-arsenate precipitates with additional components being characterized by surface adsorption complexes on goethite and gibbsite in the presence and absence of Zn. Precipitates other than copper-based ones, e.g., scorodite, adamite and ojuelaite were also identified. The significant co-localization and chemical speciation of As with Cu suggest that the speciation of As in a contaminated soils is not solely controlled by surface adsorption reactions, but significantly

  11. Arsenic Trioxide Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis through Inactivation of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic trioxide has been reported to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptotic cell death in many human cancer cells including breast cancer. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activity of arsenic trioxide are still largely unknown. In the present study, we assessed the effects of arsenic trioxide on cell viability and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. For mechanistic studies, we used multiple cellular and molecular approaches such as MTT assay, apoptosis ELISA assay, gene transfection, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and invasion assays. For the first time, we found a significant reduction in cell viability in arsenic trioxide-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was consistent with induction of apoptosis and also associated with down-regulation of Notch-1 and its target genes. Taken together, our findings provide evidence showing that the down-regulation of Notch-1 by arsenic trioxide could be an effective approach, to cause down-regulation of Bcl-2, and NF-κB, resulting in the inhibition of cell growth and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that the anti-tumor activity of arsenic trioxide is in part mediated through a novel mechanism involving inactivation of Notch-1 and its target genes. We also suggest that arsenic trioxide could be further developed as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Effects of plant arsenic uptake and heavy metals on arsenic distribution in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayiga, Abioye O. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States); Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States) and Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)]. E-mail: lqma@ifas.ufl.edu; Zhou Qixing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2007-06-15

    This study examined the effects of heavy metals and plant arsenic uptake on soil arsenic distribution. Chemical fractionation of an arsenic-contaminated soil spiked with 50 or 200 mg kg{sup -1} Ni, Zn, Cd or Pb was performed before and after growing the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L for 8 weeks using NH{sub 4}Cl (water-soluble plus exchangeable, WE-As), NH{sub 4}F (Al-As), NaOH (Fe-As), and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (Ca-As). Arsenic in the soil was present primarily as the recalcitrant forms with Ca-As being the dominant fraction (45%). Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions though Ca-As contributed the most (51-71% reduction). After 8 weeks of plant growth, the Al-As and Fe-As fractions were significantly (p < 0.01) greater in the metal-spiked soils than the control, with changes in the WE-As fraction being significantly (p = 0.007) correlated with plant arsenic removal. The plant's ability to solubilize soil arsenic from recalcitrant fractions may have enhanced its ability to hyperaccumulate arsenic. - Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions with most from the Ca-fraction.

  13. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  14. Separation of radioarsenic from a germanium dioxide target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the separation and recovery of arsenic radionuclides from a germanium oxide target using a liquid-liquid extraction technique is described. The effects of target material and preparation were investigated. The effects of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide concentration on germanium recovery were determined. The efficacy of various reducing agents were evaluated for recovery of arsenic. In addition, the effects of hydrochloric acid and reducing agent concentration were evaluated for optimum arsenic extraction conditions. The germanium oxide target material was recovered in greater than 99% radiochemical yield with less than 1% crossover contamination of germanium radionuclides. (author)

  15. Effects of combined composting and vermicomposting of waste sludge on arsenic fate and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maňáková, Blanka; Kuta, Jan; Svobodová, Markéta; Hofman, Jakub

    2014-09-15

    Composting and vermicomposting are traditional processes for the treatment of sludge. During these processes, the humification of organic matter has a significant effect on the physicochemical form and distribution of heavy metals. In this study, industrial sludge (groundwater treatment waste) contaminated by arsenic (396 ± 1 mg kg(-1)) was used. Such sludge poses a significant challenge with respect to effective treatment. Composting, vermicomposting (with Eisenia fetida), and the combined approach of composting and vermicomposting were performed to determine the evolution of arsenic speciation, mobility and bioavailability. The composting/vermicomposting was done with sludge, horse manure, and grass in the ratios of 3:6:1. A solution of 0.1M NH4COOCH3 was used as a single extraction solvent for determination of the mobile arsenic pool and targeted arsenic species (As(III), As(V), monomethylarsenic acid - MMA(V), dimethylarsenic acid - DMA(V)). The analysis of arsenic in the extracts was carried out by means of HPLC-ICP-MS spectrometry. In addition, the earthworm species E. fetida was used for bioaccumulation tests that followed the compost and vermicompost processes. The obtained results indicate a reduction in arsenic mobility and bioavailability in all matured composts and vermicomposts. The combined process exhibited a greater effect than compost or vermicompost alone. PMID:25209831

  16. Bimetallic nanoparticles for arsenic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Nafiseh; Mohapatra, Mamata; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-06-01

    Effective and sensitive monitoring of heavy metal ions, particularly arsenic, in drinking water is very important to risk management of public health. Arsenic is one of the most serious natural pollutants in soil and water in more than 70 countries in the world. The need for very sensitive sensors to detect ultralow amounts of arsenic has attracted great research interest. Here, bimetallic FePt, FeAu, FePd, and AuPt nanoparticles (NPs) are electrochemically deposited on the Si(100) substrate, and their electrochemical properties are studied for As(III) detection. We show that trace amounts of As(III) in neutral pH could be determined by using anodic stripping voltammetry. The synergistic effect of alloying with Fe leads to better performance for Fe-noble metal NPs (Au, Pt, and Pd) than pristine noble metal NPs (without Fe alloying). Limit of detection and linear range are obtained for FePt, FeAu, and FePd NPs. The best performance is found for FePt NPs with a limit of detection of 0.8 ppb and a sensitivity of 0.42 μA ppb(-1). The selectivity of the sensor has also been tested in the presence of a large amount of Cu(II), as the most detrimental interferer ion for As detection. The bimetallic NPs therefore promise to be an effective, high-performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of ultratrace quantities of arsenic. PMID:25938763

  17. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  18. Variability in human metabolism of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the nature and extent of human cancer risks due to arsenic (As) in drinking water is currently of great concern, since millions of persons worldwide are exposed to arsenic, primarily through natural enrichment of drinking water drawn from deep wells. Humans metabolize and eliminate As through oxidative methylation and subsequent urinary excretion. While there is debate as to the role of methylation in activation/detoxification, variations in arsenic metabolism may affect individual risks of toxicity and carcinogenesis. Using data from three populations, from Mexico, China, and Chile, we have analyzed the distribution in urine of total arsenic and arsenic species (inorganic arsenic (InAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA). Data were analyzed in terms of the concentration of each species and by evaluating MMA:DMA and (MMA+DMA):InAs ratios. In all persons most urinary As was present as DMA. Male:female differences were discernible in both high- and low-exposure groups from all three populations, but the gender differences varied by populations. The data also indicated bimodal distributions in the ratios of DMA to InAs and to MMA. While the gene or genes responsible for arsenic methylation are still unknown, the results of our studies among the ethnic groups in this study are consistent with the presence of functional genetic polymorphisms in arsenic methylation leading to measurable differences in toxicity. This analysis highlights the need for continuing research on the health effects of As in humans using molecular epidemiologic methods

  19. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of

  20. Arsenic in groundwater: a summary of sources and the biogeochemical and hydrogeologic factors affecting arsenic occurrence and mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid element (atomic number 33) with one naturally occurring isotope of atomic mass 75, and four oxidation states (-3, 0, +3, and +5) (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). In the aqueous environment, the +3 and +5 oxidation states are most prevalent, as the oxyanions arsenite (H3AsO3 or H2AsO3- at pH ~9-11) and arsenate (H2AsO4- and HAsO42- at pH ~4-10) (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). In soils, arsine gases (containing As3-) may be generated by fungi and other organisms (Woolson, 1977). The different forms of As have different toxicities, with arsine gas being the most toxic form. Of the inorganic oxyanions, arsenite is considered more toxic than arsenate, and the organic (methylated) arsenic forms are considered least toxic (for a detailed discussion of toxicity issues, the reader is referred to Mandal and Suzuki (2002)). Arsenic is a global health concern due to its toxicity and the fact that it occurs at unhealthful levels in water supplies, particularly groundwater, in more than 70 countries (Ravenscroft et al., 2009) on six continents.

  1. Breast-feeding Protects against Arsenic Exposure in Bangladeshi Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Fängström, Britta; Moore, Sophie; Nermell, Barbro; Kuenstl, Linda; Goessler, Walter; Grandér, Margaretha; Kabir, Iqbal; Palm, Brita; Arifeen, Shams El; Vahter, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive. Aim Our goal was to assess the arsenic exposure through breast milk in Bangladeshi infants, living in an area with high prevalence of arsenic-rich tube-well water. Methods We analyzed metabolites of inorganic arsenic in breast milk ...

  2. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001)...

  3. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; ISLAM, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from baseline to follow-up 4 to 6 months after the household received the intervention. This was assessed through a pre- and postintervention quiz concerning kn...

  4. The effectiveness of water-treatment systems for arsenic used in 11 homes in Southwestern and Central Ohio, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Ann; Ekberg, Mike

    2016-01-01

    the raw water. In general, the treatment systems were less effective at treating higher concentrations of arsenic. For five sites with raw-water arsenic concentrations of 10–30 µg/L, the systems removed 65–81 percent of the arsenic, and the final concentrations were less than the maximum contamination level. For three sites with higher raw-water arsenic concentrations (50–75 µg/L), the systems removed 22–34 percent of the arsenic; and the final concentrations were 4–5 times more than the maximum contamination level. Other characteristics of the raw water may have affected the performance of treatment systems; in general, raw water with the higher arsenic concentrations also had higher pH, higher concentrations of organic carbon and ammonia, and more reducing (methanogenic) redox conditions.For sites with raw-water arsenic concentrations of 10–30 µg/L, two types of systems (reverse osmosis and oxidation/filtration) removed similar amounts of arsenic, but the quality of the treated water differed in other respects. Reverse osmosis caused substantial decreases in pH, alkalinity, and concentrations of most ions. On the other hand, oxidation/filtration using manganese-based media caused a large increase of manganese concentrations, from less than 50 µg/L in raw water to more than 700 µg/L in outflow from the oxidation filtration units.It is not known if the results of this study are widely applicable; the number of systems sampled was relatively small, and each system was sampled only once. Further study may be warranted to investigate whether available methods of arsenic removal are effective/practical for residential use in areas like Ohio, were groundwater with elevated arsenic concentrations is strongly reducing, and the predominant arsenic species is arsenite (As3+).

  5. Removal of arsenic from drinking water by the electrocoagulation using Fe and Al electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Removal percentages of arsenic from drinking water at optimum operating conditions in electrocoagulation process were 93.5% for Fe electrode and 95.7% for Al electrode. → Operating costs at the optimum conditions were 0.020 Euro m-3 for Fe and 0.017 Euro m-3 for Al electrodes. → Surface topography of the solid particles at Fe/Al electrodes was analyzed with scanning electron microscope. → The adsorption of arsenic followed pseudo second-order adsorption model. - Abstract: A novel technique of electrocoagulation (EC) was attempted in the present investigation to remove arsenic from drinking waters. Experiments were carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor using Al and Fe electrodes with monopolar parallel electrode connection mode to assess their efficiency. The effects of several operating parameters on arsenic removal such as pH (4-9), current density (2.5-7.5 A m-2), initial concentration (75-500 μg L-1) and operating time (0-15 min) were examined. Optimum operating conditions were determined as an operating time of 12.5 min and pH 6.5 for Fe electrode (93.5%) and 15 min and pH 7 for Al electrode (95.7%) at 2.5 A m-2, respectively. Arsenic removal obtained was highest with Al electrodes. Operating costs at the optimum conditions were calculated as 0.020 Euro m-3 for Fe and 0.017 Euro m-3 for Al electrodes. EC was able to bring down aqueous phase arsenic concentration to less than 10 μg L-1 with Fe and Al electrodes. The adsorption of arsenic over electrochemically produced hydroxides and metal oxide complexes was found to follow pseudo second-order adsorption model. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze surface topography of the solid particles at Fe/Al electrodes during the EC process.

  6. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to increase arsenic mobilization in the aqueous phase, raising concerns with this approach.

  7. Microwave assisted digestion of organoarsenic compounds for the determination of total arsenic in aqueous, biological, and sediment samples using FI-HG-ETAAS (P8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A microwave assisted wet digestion method for organo-arsenic compounds and subsequent determination of total arsenic in aqueous, biological and sediment samples by means of flow injection hydride generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry is described. Sodium persulfate, sodium fluoride and nitric acid serve as digestion reagents, which allow a quantitative transformation of organo-arsenic compounds to hydride forming species in a commercial microwave sample preparation system. Arsenic recovery from aqueous testing solutions of dimethylarsinic acid, phenylarsonic acid and tetraphenylarsonium chloride at initial concentrations of 100 μg l-1 and 10 μg l-1 is complete, even in the presence of an excess of organic carbon or fatty acids. Arsenic recovery from aqueous arsenobetaine solutions with the same initial concentrations is also complete if high pressure vessels and a higher concentration of fluoride ions are used, whereas the addition of organic carbon leads to a decrease in arsenic recovery of about 2 % to 5 %. In all cases, residual carbon contents are close to the limit of detection for the applied analytical method (15 mg l-1). Results of arsenic analysis in reference standard materials revealed a significant dependence on the material's nature. Sediment samples and plant materials show recoveries for arsenic around 100 % after a single-step digestion in medium pressure (30 bar) tetrafluorometoxil liners. Seafood usually require either the use of high pressure vessels (75 bar) or a second digestion step if medium pressure vessels are used. (author)

  8. Effect of water hyacinth root extract on arsenic level in different organs of arsenic-treated rat

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen Lipika Quayum

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the administration of the ethanol extract of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) ameliorates arsenic from arsenic-treated rats. To induce arsenic accumulation in different organs, arsenic trioxide was administered orally by gavage at a dose of 500 µg/rat/day for 7 days. In search of an effective therapeutic agent to counteract arsenic accumulation and arsenic-induced oxidative stress, different concentrations of ethanol extract of root of water hyacint...

  9. SU-E-J-75: Importance of 4DCT for Target Volume Definition in Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We aimed to investigate the importance of 4DCT for lung tumors treated with SBRT and whether maximum intensity projection (MIP) and free breathing (FB) images can compansate for tumor movement. Methods: Six patients with primary lung cancer and 2 patients with lung metastasis with a median age of 69.5 (42–86) were included. Patients were positioned supine on a vacuum bag. In addition to FB planning CT images, 4DCT images were obtained at 3 mm intervals using Varian RPM system with (Siemens Somatom Sensetion 64). MIP series were reconstructed using 4DCT images. PTV-FB and PTV-MIP (GTV+5mm) volumes were contoured using FB and MIP series, respectively. GTVs were defined on each of eight different breathing phase images and were merged to create the ITV. PTV-4D was generated with a 5 mm margin to ITV. PTV-MIP and PTV-4D contours were copied to FB CT series and treatment plans for PTV-MIP and PTV-FB were generated using RapidArc (2 partial arc) technique in Eclipse (version 11, AAA algorithm). The prescription dose was 5600cGy in 7 fractions. ITV volumes receiving prescription dose (%) and V95 for ITV were calculated for each treatment plan. Results: The mean PTV-4B, PTV-MIP and PTV-FB volumes were 23.2 cc, 15.4cc ve 11cc respectively. Median volume of ITV receiving the prescription dose was 34.6% (16.4–70 %) and median V95 dose for ITV was 1699cGy (232cGy-5117cGy) in the plan optimized for PTV-FB as the reference. When the plan was optimized for PTV-MIP, median ITV volume receiving the prescription dose was 67.15% (26–86%) and median V95 dose for ITV was 4231cGy (1735cGy-5290cGy). Conclusion: Images used in lung SBRT are critical for treatment quality; FB and MIP images did not compensate target movement, therefore 4DCT images should be obtained for all patients undergoing lung SBRT or the safety margins should be adjusted

  10. Potential of bioleaching of arsenic from ash soils from site Zemianske Kostolany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essence of this work is to study bioleaching of potentially toxic elements, arsenic, using the filamentous fungus Asperillus niger. As a model locality was chosen Zemianske Kosto.any, which represents the heart of coal mining in Slovakia. Species A. niger was isolated from anthropogenic sediments with a high content of potentially toxic elements, especially arsenic. Filamentous fungus A. niger was put on soil samples from the site model. The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of arsenic bioleaching using the three different soil samples for analysis (1 g, 10 g and 100 g). It was found that the most efficient leaching of arsenic was achieved with furnish at 1 g of the substrate. The highest portion of arsenic was released into the medium, values range from 131.75 μg.dm-3 to 1517.55 μg.dm-3. At the furnish 10 g of soil were released lower amounts, from 69.77 μg.dm-3 to 553.45 μg.dm-3. Lowest bioleaching efficiency was achieved with the furnish 100 g, values are from 38.02 μg.dm-3 to 254.07 μg.dm-3. (authors)

  11. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Hermann M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwate...

  12. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    OpenAIRE

    Santander, M.; Valderrama, L.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF) and dissolved air flotation (DAF). A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic polyacrylamide (NALCO 9808) as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with fl...

  13. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic a...

  14. The molecular mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic compounds are known human carcinogens. Although many carcinogens are also mutagens, arsenite is not mutagenic in the V79 (hprt and Na+/K+ ATPase) system or in the G12 (qpt) system. This clearly indicates that arsenite per se does not cause any type of mutation detectable at these loci, including point mutations, small deletions and multilocus deletions. The lack of arsenic mutagenesis has led to studies emphasizing its comutagenicity. In this study, arsenite was found to enhance both UV- and MNU-mutagenesis in V79 or G12 cells. Although arsenite is comutagenic with both UV254 and UV360, the latter seems more important because of its natural relevance. The ability of arsenite to inhibit the repair of MNU-induced DNA damage was measured by a nick translation assay which measures DNA strand breaks by incorporating radioactive dNMP at their 3'OH ends in permeabilized V79 cells. It was found that strand breaks resulting from MNU or its repair accumulate in the presence of arsenite. MNU-induced poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis, measured by the incorporation of [3H]NAD+ in permeabilized cells, was also increased by post-treatment of the cells with arsenite. This supports the hypothesis that arsenite inhibits the completion of DNA repair. The accumulated strand breaks in the presence of arsenite are probably not due to direct inhibition of DNA polymerase α, the presumed repair enzyme, since very high concentrations of arsenite are needed. DNA polymerase β and DNA ligase are probably not the direct targets of arsenite for a similar reason. Thus arsenite probably inhibits the completion of DNA repair in an indirect way. Arsenite per se can inhibit metabolic cooperation and it can induce SV40 gene amplification. This suggests arsenite might also function as a tumor-promoter

  15. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  16. XAS Studies of Arsenic in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is present in low concentrations in much of the Earth's crust and changes in its speciation are vital to understanding its transport and toxicity in the environment. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the coordination sites of arsenic in a wide variety of samples, including soil and earthworm tissues from arsenic-contaminated land, and human hair and nail samples from people exposed to arsenic in Cambodia. Our results confirm the effectiveness of using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to determine speciation changes in environmental samples

  17. Arsenic in the soils of Zimapan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic concentrations of 73 soil samples collected in the semi-arid Zimapan Valley range from 4 to 14 700 mg As kg-1. Soil arsenic concentrations decrease with distance from mines and tailings and slag heaps and exceed 400 mg kg-1 only within 500 m of these arsenic sources. Soil arsenic concentrations correlate positively with Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, suggesting a strong association with ore minerals known to exist in the region. Some As was associated with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, this association is less for contaminated than for uncontaminated samples. Very little As was found in the mobile water-soluble or exchangeable fractions. The soils are not arsenic contaminated at depths greater than 100 cm below the surface. Although much of the arsenic in the soils is associated with relatively immobile solid phases, this represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. -- Much of the arsenic is relatively immobile but presents long-term source of arsenic

  18. Infrared spectrum of arsenic pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a literature review about arsenic fluorides, we give several methods of obtaining very pure AsF5 in order to ascertain the right spectrum of this compound. Our spectra fit well with Akers's observations, and we note that AsF5 structure can be explained in terms of C3v molecular symmetry, with the As-F bond stretching lying at 786 cm-1 and 811 cm-1. (author)

  19. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  20. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  1. Arsenic Adsorption Onto Iron Oxides Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aredes, S.; Klein, B.; Pawlik, M.

    2004-12-01

    The predominant form of arsenic in water is as an inorganic ion. Under different redox conditions arsenic in water is stable in the +5 and +3 oxidation states. Arsenic oxidation state governs its toxicity, chemical form and solubility in natural and disturbed environments. As (III) is found in anoxic environments such as ground water , it is toxic and the common species is the neutral form, H3AsO3. As (V) is found in aerobic conditions such as surface water, it is less toxic and the common species in water are: H2AsO4 - and HAsO4 {- 2}. The water pH determines the predominant arsenate or arsenite species, however, both forms of arsenic can be detected in natural water systems. Iron oxides minerals often form in natural waters and sediments at oxic-anoxic boundaries. Over time they undergo transformation to crystalline forms, such as goethite or hematite. Both As(V) and As(III) sorbs strongly to iron oxides, however the sorption behavior of arsenic is dependent on its oxidation state and the mineralogy of the iron oxides. Competition between arsenic and others ions, such fluoride, sulphate and phosphate also play a role. On the other hand, calcium may increase arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides. Electrokinetic studies and adsorption experiments were carried out in order to determine which conditions favour arsenic adsorption. Hematite, goethite and magnetite as iron based sorbents were used. Test were also conducted with a laterite soil rich in iron minerals. The focus of this study is to evaluate physical and chemical conditions which favour arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides minerals, the results contribute to an understanding of arsenic behaviour in natural and disturbed environments. Furthermore, results could contribute in developing an appropriate remediation technology for arsenic removal in water using iron oxides minerals.

  2. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  3. Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 μg/L, range 2.4-940 μg/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

  4. ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

  5. Total arsenic in marine organisms from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , Las Minas and O'bourque have an average ingestion rate of fish of 51 kg yr-1, varying from 21 to 116. Only a few studies have investigated the total As content in marine organisms from Cuba. In particular, a survey of marine products from the Western coast, displayed concentrations of Arsenic ranging from 0.01 to 4.82 μg g-1d.w.. Total Arsenic in fish and crustaceans was also measured in Cienfuegos Bay in 1974 and results showed low concentrations of this compound (1.2 μg g-1 d.w. in fish and 1.7 in crustaceans). Sixteen species of fish, two of molluscs and three of crustaceans were caught in Cienfuegos Bay. The target species were selected among those of dietary importance for the population. The arsenic contents in the samples were determined using an Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method (Si/Li detector with 180 eV for Mn Kα and Cd-109 annular source. The elaboration of the spectra and quantitative analysis was carried out using the QSAX System. Compton peak was used for the matrix effects correction. Several Biological Certified Reference Materials (NRCC DOLT-2 Dogfish Liver, NRCC TORT-2 Lobster Hepatopancreas, NIES CRM-9 Sargasso, NRCC DORM-1 Dogfish Muscle and IAEA-140/TM Seaweed Fucus sp.) were measured for calculating the As concentrations in the samples. The highest values of Arsenic were found in crustaceans, which showed a mean value of 26.5 μg g-1 d.w. (values ranging from 6.9 to 53.9). These levels are in agreement with others found in literature for shrimps and marine crabs captured in estuaries and enclosed bays. The higher Arsenic content in tissues of bottom dwellers such as shrimps and crabs, can be attributed to their habitat being close to the sediment. Sediments are always higher in Arsenic than water and bottom water usually contains higher As concentration than surface water. When comparing the obtained values from this study with those reported in 1974 for shrimps from Cienfuegos bay, we observed that the mean value of Arsenic

  6. Total arsenic in marine organisms from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , Las Minas and O'bourque have an average ingestion rate of fish of 51 kg yr-1, varying from 21 to 116. Only a few studies have investigated the total As content in marine organisms from Cuba. In particular, a survey of marine products from the Western coast, displayed concentrations of Arsenic ranging from 0.01 to 4.82 μg g-1d.w. Total Arsenic in fish and crustaceans was also measured in Cienfuegos Bay in 1974 and results showed low concentrations of this compound (1.2 μg g-1 d.w. in fish and 1.7 in crustaceans). Sixteen species of fish, two of molluscs and three of crustaceans were caught in Cienfuegos Bay. The target species were selected among those of dietary importance for the population. The arsenic contents in the samples were determined using an Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method (Si/Li detector with 180 eV for Mn Kα and Cd-109 annular source. The elaboration of the spectra and quantitative analysis was carried out using the QSAX System. Compton peak was used for the matrix effects correction. Several Biological Certified Reference Materials (NRCC DOLT-2 Dogfish Liver, NRCC TORT-2 Lobster Hepatopancreas, NIES CRM-9 Sargasso, NRCC DORM-1 Dogfish Muscle and IAEA-140/TM Seaweed Fucus sp.) were measured for calculating the As concentrations in the samples. The highest values of Arsenic were found in crustaceans, which showed a mean value of 26.5 μg g-1 d.w. (values ranging from 6.9 to 53.9). These levels are in agreement with others found in literature for shrimps and marine crabs captured in estuaries and enclosed bays. The higher Arsenic content in tissues of bottom dwellers such as shrimps and crabs, can be attributed to their habitat being close to the sediment. Sediments are always higher in Arsenic than water and bottom water usually contains higher As concentration than surface water. When comparing the obtained values from this study with those reported in 1974 for shrimps from Cienfuegos bay, we observed that the mean value of Arsenic

  7. Possible mechanisms for arsenic-induced proliferative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterhahn, K.E.; Dudek, E.J.; Shumilla, J.A. [Dartmouth College and Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Possible mechanisms for cardiovascular diseases and cancers which have been observed on chronic exposure to arsenic have been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that nonlethal levels of arsenic are mitogenic, cause oxidative stress, increase nuclear translocation of trans-acting factors, and increase expression of genes involved in proliferation. Cultured porcine vascular (from aorta) endothelial cells were used as a model cell system to study the effects of arsenic on the target cells for cardiovascular diseases. Treatment of postconfluent cell cultures with nonovertly toxic concentrations of arsenite increased DNA synthesis, similar to the mitogenic response observed with hydrogen peroxide. Within 1 hour of adding noncytotoxic concentrations of arsenite, cellular levels of oxidants increased relative to control levels, indicating that arsenite promotes cellular oxidations. Arsenite treatment increased nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, in a manner similar to that observed with hydrogen peroxide. Pretreatment of intact cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dimethylfumarate prevented the arsenite-induced increases in cellular oxidant formation and NF-KB translocation. Arsenite had little or no effect on binding of NF-KB to its DNA recognition sequence in vitro, indicating that it is unlikely that arsenite directly affects NF-KB. The steady-state mRNA levels of intracellular adhesion molecule and urokinase-like plasminogen activator, genes associated with the active endothelial phenotype in arteriosclerosis and cancer metastasis, were increased by nontoxic concentrations of arsenite. These data suggest that arsenite promotes proliferative diseases like heart disease and cancer by activating oxidant-sensitive endothelial cell signaling and gene expression. It is possible that antioxidant therapy would be useful in preventing arsenic-induced cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  8. Arsenic exposure disrupts epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Katharine J. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Holloway, Adele [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Cook, Anthony L. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Chin, Suyin P. [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Snow, Elizabeth T., E-mail: elizabeth.snow@utas.edu.au [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin which increases skin cancer risk for exposed populations worldwide; however the underlying biomolecular mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is complex and poorly defined. Recent investigations show that histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase activity is impaired, and epigenetic patterns of gene regulation are consistently altered in cancers associated with arsenic exposure. Expression of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 is altered in solid tumours and haematological malignancies; however its role in arsenic-induced pathology is unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of arsenic on epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 and its targeting microRNA, miR-34a in primary human keratinocytes. Acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) increased in keratinocytes exposed to 0.5 μM arsenite [As(III)]; and this was associated with chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a promoter. Moreover, although SIRT1 protein initially increased in these As(III)-exposed cells, after 24 days expression was not significantly different from untreated controls. Extended exposure to low-dose As(III) (0.5 μM; > 5 weeks) compromised the pattern of CpG methylation at SIRT1 and miR-34a gene promoters, and this was associated with altered expression for both genes. We have found that arsenic alters epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 expression via structural reorganisation of chromatin at the miR-34a gene promoter in the initial 24 h of exposure; and over time, through shifts in miR-34a and SIRT1 gene methylation. Taken together, this investigation demonstrates that arsenic produces cumulative disruptions to epigenetic regulation of miR-34a expression, and this is associated with impaired coordination of SIRT1 functional activity. - Highlights: • Submicromolar arsenic concentrations disrupt SIRT1 activity and expression in human keratinocytes. • Arsenic-induced chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a gene promoter is associated with hyperacetylation

  9. Arsenic exposure disrupts epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin which increases skin cancer risk for exposed populations worldwide; however the underlying biomolecular mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is complex and poorly defined. Recent investigations show that histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase activity is impaired, and epigenetic patterns of gene regulation are consistently altered in cancers associated with arsenic exposure. Expression of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 is altered in solid tumours and haematological malignancies; however its role in arsenic-induced pathology is unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of arsenic on epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 and its targeting microRNA, miR-34a in primary human keratinocytes. Acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) increased in keratinocytes exposed to 0.5 μM arsenite [As(III)]; and this was associated with chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a promoter. Moreover, although SIRT1 protein initially increased in these As(III)-exposed cells, after 24 days expression was not significantly different from untreated controls. Extended exposure to low-dose As(III) (0.5 μM; > 5 weeks) compromised the pattern of CpG methylation at SIRT1 and miR-34a gene promoters, and this was associated with altered expression for both genes. We have found that arsenic alters epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 expression via structural reorganisation of chromatin at the miR-34a gene promoter in the initial 24 h of exposure; and over time, through shifts in miR-34a and SIRT1 gene methylation. Taken together, this investigation demonstrates that arsenic produces cumulative disruptions to epigenetic regulation of miR-34a expression, and this is associated with impaired coordination of SIRT1 functional activity. - Highlights: • Submicromolar arsenic concentrations disrupt SIRT1 activity and expression in human keratinocytes. • Arsenic-induced chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a gene promoter is associated with hyperacetylation

  10. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola O. Adeyemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Arsenic is a known toxic element and its presence and toxicity in nature is a worldwide environmental problem. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation is a potential method to reduce as concentration in contaminated areas. Approach: In order to explore the possible bioremediation of this element, three filamentous fungi-Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor were investigated for their potential abilities to accumulate (and possibly solubilize arsenic from an agar environment consisting of non buffered mineral salts media amended with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% (w/v arsenopyrite (FeAsS. Growth rates, dry weights, arsenic accumulation and oxalate production by the fungi as well as the pH of the growth media were all assessed during this study. Results: There was no visible solubilization of FeAsS particles underneath any of the growing fungal colonies or elsewhere in the respective agar plates. No specific patterns of growth changes were observed from the growth ratios of the fungi on agar amended with different amounts of FeAsS although growth of all fungi was stimulated by the incorporation of varying amounts of FeAsS into the agar with the exception of A. niger on 0.4% (w/v amended agar and T. versicolor on 0.8% (w/v amended agar. The amounts of dry weights obtained for all three fungi also did not follow any specific patterns with different amounts of FeAsS and the quantities obtained were in the order A. niger > S. himantioides > T. versicolor. All fungi accumulated as in their biomasses with all amounts of FeAsS although to varying levels and T. versicolor was the most effective with all amounts of FeAsS while A. niger was the least effective. Conclusion: The accumulation of arsenic in the biomasses of the test fungi as shown in this study may suggested a role for fungi through their bioaccumulating capabilities as agents in the possible bioremediation of arsenic contaminated environments.

  11. Risk Analysis of Acute Or Chronic Exposure to Arsenic of the Inhabitants in a District of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic occurrence in the water constitutes a serious world health concern due to its toxicity. Depending on the intensity and duration of exposure, this element can be acutely lethal or may have a wide range of health effects in humans and animals. In Argentina, the origin of arsenic is mainly natural, and related to different geological processes. The Argentinean concern about arsenic and its influence on human health dates back to the previous century. The disease ascribed to arsenic contamination was called ‘chronic regional endemic hydroarsenism’. It is produced by the consumption of water with high levels of this element. In our study, we focused in La Matanza district, a very populated site in the Buenos Aires Province. An increasing concern of the inhabitants of the area regarding health problems was detected. In order to establish a full view of arsenic exposure in the area, several matrices and targets were analyzed. As matrices, water and soil samples were analyzed. As targets, canine and human hair was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronically exposure to arsenic of La Matanza inhabitants.

  12. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  14. The Chemistry and Metabolism of Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. IntrodctionA century of study of the process by which many organisms convert inorganic arsenic into an array of methylated metabolites has answered many questions and has posed some new ones. The capacity of microorganisms to. form volatile arsenic compounds was first recogniz...

  15. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  16. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed. PMID:26476885

  17. Arsenic Consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic in drinking water and minimal risk levels (MRLs) for total dietary exposure to arsenic have long been established in the U.S. Multiple studies conducted over the last five years have detected arsenic in foods and beverages including juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and others. Understanding whether or not each of these foods or drinks is a concern to certain groups of individuals requires examining which types of and how much arsenic is ingested. In this article, recent studies are reviewed and placed in the context of consumption patterns. When single sources of food or drink are considered in isolation, heavy rice eaters can be exposed to the most arsenic among adults while infants consuming formula containing contaminated organic brown rice syrup are the most exposed group among children. Most food and drink do not contain sufficient arsenic to exceed MRLs. For individuals consuming more than one source of contaminated water or food, however, adverse health effects are more likely. In total, recent studies on arsenic contamination in food and beverages emphasize the need for individual consumers to understand and manage their total dietary exposure to arsenic. PMID:26591332

  18. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eHug

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand. Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic, and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  19. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US

  20. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F. [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu [Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Karagas, Margaret R., E-mail: margaret.r.karagas@dartmouth.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States)

    2015-09-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US.

  1. Summary of four scientific studies on Arsenicum album high dilution effect against Arsenic intoxication in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Terzan

    2012-09-01

    Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Arsenicum Album, to Ameliorate Toxicity Induced by Repeated Sublethal Injections of Arsenic Trioxide in Mice. Pathobiology 2008;75:156–170. [6]/ Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Potentized homeopathic drugs act through regulation of gene expression: a hypothesis to explain their mechanism and pathways of action in vivo. Comp Ther Med 1997;5:43–6

  2. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels. PMID:27460822

  3. Methylation of inorganic arsenic by murine fetal tissue explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broka, Derrick; Ditzel, Eric; Quach, Stephanie; Camenisch, Todd D

    2016-07-01

    Although it is generally believed that the developing fetus is principally exposed to inorganic arsenic and the methylated metabolites from the maternal metabolism of arsenic, little is known about whether the developing embryo can autonomously metabolize arsenic. This study investigates inorganic arsenic methylation by murine embryonic organ cultures of the heart, lung, and liver. mRNA for AS3mt, the gene responsible for methylation of arsenic, was detected in all embryonic tissue types studied. In addition, methylated arsenic metabolites were generated by all three tissue types. The fetal liver explants yielded the most methylated arsenic metabolites (∼7% of total arsenic/48 h incubation) while the heart, and lung preparations produced slightly greater than 2% methylated metabolites. With all tissues the methylation proceeded mostly to the dimethylated arsenic species. This has profound implications for understanding arsenic-induced fetal toxicity, particularly if the methylated metabolites are produced autonomously by embryonic tissues. PMID:26446802

  4. Elucidating the pathway for arsenic methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although biomethylation of arsenic has been studied for more than a century, unequivocal demonstration of the methylation of inorganic arsenic by humans occurred only about 30 years ago. Because methylation of inorganic arsenic activates it to more reactive and toxic forms, elucidating the pathway for the methylation of this metalloid is a topic of considerable importance. Understanding arsenic metabolism is of public health concern as millions of people chronically consume drinking water that contains high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Hence, the focus of our research has been to elucidate the molecular basis of the steps in the pathway that leads from inorganic arsenic to methylated and dimethylated arsenicals. Here we describe a new S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferase from rat liver cytosol that catalyzes the conversion of arsenite to methylated and dimethylated species. This 42-kDa protein has sequence motifs common to many non-nucleic acid methyltransferases and is closely related to methyltransferases of previously unknown function that have been identified by conceptual translations of cyt19 genes of mouse and human genomes. Hence, we designate rat liver arsenic methyltransferase as cyt19 and suggest that orthologous cyt19 genes encode an arsenic methyltransferase in the mouse and human genomes. Our studies with recombinant rat cyt19 find that, in the presence of an exogenous or a physiological reductant, this protein can catalyze the entire sequence of reactions that convert arsenite to methylated metabolites. A scheme linking cyt19 and thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase in the methylation and reduction of arsenicals is proposed

  5. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  6. Inflammatory Factor Alterations in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cocks Overexposed to Arsenic Trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingwei; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Kexin; Tian, Li; He, Ying; Chai, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Exposure of people and animals to arsenic (As) is a global public health concern because As is widely distributed and associated with numerous adverse effects. As is a poisonous metalloid and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a form of As. Thus far, there have been very few reports on the inflammatory factor alterations of the gastrointestinal tract in birds exposed to As2O3. To investigate the possible correlation of As2O3 with inflammatory injury induced by an arsenic-supplemented diet in birds, 72 1-day-old male Hy-line cocks were selected and randomly divided into four groups. They were fed with either a commercial diet or an arsenic-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and samples of gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum were collected at days 30, 60, and 90 of the experiment period. The inflammation-related genes were determined, including NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, PTGEs, and TNF-α. The connection between arsenic dosage and inflammation-related genes was assessed. The content of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was measured by Western blot of the samples. The results showed that arsenic supplementation increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks at different time points (p function regression of the gastrointestinal tract by affecting inflammation-related genes and iNOS in cocks. This study offers some information on the mechanism of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory injury and iNOS expression level alterations induced by arseniasis. PMID:25784090

  7. Arsenic Geochemistry in Source Waters of the Los Angeles Aqueduct

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Janet G; Wilkie, Jennifer A; Chiu, Van Q

    1997-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely distributed constituent of geologic materials, with an average crustal abundance of 1.8 ppm. The natural processes of weathering of arsenic-containing minerals and volcanism contribute arsenic to groundwaters, surface freshwaters, and seawater. Recently, increased attention has focused on arsenic geochemistry in natural waters. This attention has been motivated by concern over the human health effects of arsenic exposure; consumption of drinking water can be a significant,...

  8. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers

  9. A broad view of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F T

    2007-01-01

    In the mind of the general public, the words "arsenic" and "poison" have become almost synonymous. Yet, As is a natural metallic element found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment, including foods. Mining and smelting activities are closely associated with As, and the largest occurrence of As contamination in the United States is near the gold mines of northern Nevada. Inhabitants of Bangladesh and surrounding areas have been exposed to water that is naturally and heavily contaminated with As, causing what the World Health Organization has described as the worst mass poisoning in history. Although readily absorbed by humans, most inorganic As (>90%) is rapidly cleared from the blood with a half-life of 1 to 2 h, and 40 to 70% of the As intake is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted within 48 h. Arsenic does not appreciably bioaccumulate, nor does it biomagnify in the food chain. The United States has for some time purchased more As than any other country in the world, but As usage is waning, and further reductions appear likely. Arsenic is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. All feed additives used in US poultry feeds must meet the strict requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (Rockville, MD) before use. Although some public health investigators have identified poultry products as a potentially significant source of total As exposure for Americans, studies consistently demonstrate that <1% of samples tested are above the 0.5 ppm limit established by the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated the possibility that As in poultry litter could pollute ground waters, million of tons of litter have been applied to the land, and no link has been established between litter application and As contamination of ground water. Yet, the fact that <2% of the United States population is involved in

  10. ARSENIC SPECIATION IN CARROT EXTRACTS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE DETECTION OF MMA(III) AND MMTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two predominant routes of arsenic exposure are dietary ingestion and drinking water consumption. Dietary arsenic, unlike drinking water arsenic, contains a variety of arsenicals with dramatically different toxicities. The list of arsenicals detected in dietary samples conti...

  11. Determination of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after complexation and sorption on a C-18 bonded silica column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozebon, D; Dressler, V L; Gomes Neto, J A; Curtius, A J

    1998-04-01

    A flow injection procedure for the separation and pre-concentration of inorganic arsenic based on the complexation with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) and sorption on a C-18 bonded silica gel minicolumn is proposed. During the sample injection by a time-based fashion, the As(3+)-DDTP complex is stripped from the solution and retained in the column. Arsenic(V) and other ions that do not form complexes are discarded. After reduction to the trivalent state by using potassium iodide plus ascorbic acid, total arsenic is determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Arsenic(V) concentration can be calculated by difference. After processing 6 ml sample volume, the As(3+)-DDTP complexes were eluted directly into the autosampler cup (120 mul). Ethanol was used for column rinsing. Influence of pH, reagent concentration, pre-concentration and elution time and column size were investigated. When 30 mul of eluate plus 10 mul of 0.1% (w/v) Pd(NO(3))(2) were dispensed into the graphite tube, analytical curve in the 0.3-3 mug As l(-1) range was obtained (r=0.9991). The accuracy was checked for arsenic determination in a certified water, spiked tap water and synthetic mixtures of arsenite and arsenate. Good recoveries (97-108%) of spiked samples were found. Results are precise (RSD 7.5 and 6% for 0.5 and 2.5 mug l(-1), n=10) and in agreement with the certified value of reference material at 95% confidence level. PMID:18967109

  12. Arsenic contamination and arsenicosis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenicosis is a serious environmental chemical disease in China mainly caused by drinking water from pump wells contaminated by high levels of arsenic. Chronic exposure of humans to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with skin lesions, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, blackfoot disease, and high risk of cancers. Lead by the Ministry of Health of China, we carried out a research about arsenicosis in China recently. Areas contaminated with arsenic from drinking water are determined by 10% pump well water sample method while areas from burning coal are determined by existing data. Two epidemic areas of Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia are investigated for the distribution of pump wells containing high arsenic. Well water in all the investigated villages of Shanxi Province showed polluted by high arsenic, and the average rate of unsafe pump well water is 52%. In Inner Mongolia, the high percentage of pump wells containing elevated arsenic is found only in a few villages. The average rate of unsafe pump well water is 11%. From our research, we find that new endemic areas are continuously emerging in China. Up to now, epidemic areas of arsenicosis mainly involve eight provinces and 37 counties in China. In the affected areas, the discovery of wells and coal with high levels of arsenic is continuing sporadically, and a similar scattered distribution pattern of patients is also being observed

  13. [Competitive Microbial Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Bai, Yao-hui; Liang, Jin-song; Huo, Yang; Wang, Ming-xing; Yuan, Lin-ijang

    2016-02-15

    Filters are widely applied in drinking water treatment plants. Our previous study, which explored the asenic redox in a filter of drinking water plant treating underground water, found that As3+ could be oxidized to As5+ by biogenic manganese oxides, while As5+ could be reduced to As3+ by some microbial arsenic reductases in the biofilter system. This microbial competition could influence the system stability and treatment efficiency. To explore its mechanism, this study selected a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and a arsenic-reducing strain (Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9) to investigate their competitive relationship in nutrient acquisition and arsenic redox in the presence of Mn2+, As3+ or As5+ The results revealed that the concentration and valence of Mn and As varied with different reaction time; biological manganese oxides dominated the arsenic redox by rapidly oxidizing the As3+ in the existing system and the As3+ generated by arsenic reductase into As. PCR and RT-PCR results indicated that the arsenic reductase (arsC) was inhibited by the manganese oxidase (cumA). The expression of 16S rRNA in QJX-1 was two orders of magnitude higher than that in LSJ-9, which implied QJX-1 was dominant in the bacterial growth. Our data revealed that hydraulic retention time was critical to the valence of arsenic in the effluent of filter in drinking water treatment plant. PMID:27363151

  14. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuthiphun, L.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil covering materials mixed with arsenic-contaminated soil at 10% w/w, the efficiency of arsenic adsorption of fly ash, lateritic soil, lime and limestone powder were 84, 60,38 and 1% respectively. The equilibrium time for lateritic soil at pH 4 was achieved within 4 hrs, whereas pH 7 and 12, the equilibrium time was 6 hrs. For fly ash, 2 hrs were required to reach the equilibrium at pH 12, while the equilibrium time was attained within 6 hrs at pH 4 and 7. Furthermore, lateritic soil possessedhigh arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 7 and 4 and best fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The fly ash showing high arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 12 and 7 fit the Freundlich isotherm at pH 12 and Langmuirisotherm at pH 7.This indicated that lateritic soil was suitable for arsenic adsorption at low pH, whilst at high pH,arsenic was well adsorbed by fly ash. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm could be used to determine quantities of soil covering materials for arsenic adsorption to prevent arsenic air pollution from arseniccontaminated soils.

  15. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  16. Environmental arsenic exposure and sputum metalloproteinase concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Josyula, Arun B.; Poplin, Gerald S.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; McClellen, Hannah E.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Stürup, Stefan; Clark Lantz, R.; Jefferey L. Burgess

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: arsenic, creatinin, MMP levelsExposure/effect represented: arsenicStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 73 subjectsAnalytical technique: ELISA, HPLCTissue/biological material/sample size: urine samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response): inorganic arsenic positively correlated with logMMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in sputum (Pearson's r Ό 0:351, P Ό 0:009) and negatively correlated with the log of s...

  17. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  18. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 mu g=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 mu g=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100 - 500 mu g=L) in real Bangladesh tube well water

  19. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri;

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict...... regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. While rice protein based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content...

  20. Arsenic(III) Immobilization on Rice Husk

    OpenAIRE

    Malay Chaudhuri; Mohammed Ali Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    A number of large aquifers in various parts of the world have been identified with contamination by arsenic. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer of the skin, lungs, urinary bladder and kidney, as well as skin pigmentation and hyperkeratosis. Arsenic occurs in groundwater in two valence states, as trivalent arsenite [As(III)] and pentavalent arsenate [As(V)]. As(III) is more toxic and more difficult to remove from water by adsorption on activated alumina. In this stud...

  1. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Cancer from Exposure Inorganic Arsenic in Duplicate Food by Villagers in Ronphibun, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyawat Saipan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ronphibun district is a district in Nakorn Si Thammarat province, within southern Thailand. This district is the site of several former tin mines that were in operation 100 years ago. Arsenic contamination caused by past mining activities remains in the area. The specific purpose of this study was conducted to assess cancer risk in people living within Ronphibun district from exposure to inorganic arsenic via duplicate food using probabilistic risk assessment. A hundred and fifty duplicate food samples were collected from participants. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Inorganic arsenic concentrations in duplicate food ranged from 0.16 to 0.42 μg/g dry weight. The probabilistic carcinogenic risk levels were 6.76 x 10-4 and 1.74 x 10-3 based on the 50th and 95th percentile, respectively. Risk values for people in Ronphibun from exposure to inorganic arsenic remained higher than the acceptable target risk. Sensitivity analysis indicted that exposure duration and concentrations of arsenic in food were the two most influential of cancer risk estimates.

  2. Speciation of arsenic in water, sediment, and plants of the Moira watershed, Canada, using HPLC coupled to high resolution ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jian; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Dzurko, Mark Stephen [Department of Chemistry, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, K9J 7B8, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with high-resolution sector field ICP-MS was applied to the speciation of arsenic in environmental samples collected from the Moira watershed, Ontario, Canada. Arsenic contamination in Moira River and Moira Lake from historic gold mine operations is of increasing environmental concern to the local community. In this study, the current arsenic contamination status in water, sediment, and plants was investigated. Elevated levels of arsenic in the surface water of up to 75 ng mL{sup -1} in Moira River and 50 ng mL{sup -1} in Moira Lake were detected, 98% of which was present as arsenate. High concentrations of arsenic (>300 ng mL{sup -1}), mainly present as arsenite, were detected in sediment porewaters. A sediment profile of As from the West basin of Moira Lake showed lower As concentrations compared with data from the 1990s. An optimized extraction procedure using a phosphoric acid-ascorbic acid mixture demonstrated that an unknown ''As-complex'' which may consist of As, sulfide and organic matter is potentially responsible for the release of arsenite from the sediment to the overlying water column. Arsenic concentrations in plant samples ranged from 2.6 to 117 mg kg{sup -1}, dry weight. Accumulation of arsenic was observed in submerged plants collected from Moira River and Moira Lake. Only a small part of the arsenic (6.3-16.1%) in the plants was extractable with methanol-water (9:1), and most of this arsenic (70-93%) was inorganic arsenic. A variety of organic arsenic compounds, including simple methylated compounds (methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid), trimethylarsine oxide, and tetramethylarsonium cation were detected at trace levels. No arsenobetaine and arsenocholine was found in any plant sample. An unknown compound, most probably an arsenosugar was detected in the two submerged plants, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) and long-stemmed waterwort (Elatine triandra). These

  3. [Advance on oxidative stress mechanism of arsenic toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; An, Yan

    2009-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic is one of proven human carcinogens, which there are so far no sound laboratory-based evidences and there are very few reports in the literature regarding arsenic carcinogenic effects in in vivo animal experiment. Because of this lack of adequate evidences, the mechanism for understanding arsenic toxicology remains vague. Recently, many modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis have been proposed, oxidative stress is one of the stronger theories of arsenic action modes which have a substantial mass of supporting data. Further more, many researchers have pointed out that induction of oxidative stress by methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenics plays an important role in the toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenics. The role of oxidative stress induced by arsenic in arsenic toxicology was reviewed. PMID:19877531

  4. Global Atmospheric Transport and Source-Receptor Relationships for Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Wu, Shiliang; Li, Xueling; Jaffe, Daniel A; Perry, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic and many of its compounds are toxic pollutants in the global environment. They can be transported long distances in the atmosphere before depositing to the surface, but the global source-receptor relationships between various regions have not yet been assessed. We develop the first global model for atmospheric arsenic to better understand and quantify its intercontinental transport. Our model reproduces the observed arsenic concentrations in surface air over various sites around the world. Arsenic emissions from Asia and South America are found to be the dominant sources for atmospheric arsenic in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Asian emissions are found to contribute 39% and 38% of the total arsenic deposition over the Arctic and Northern America, respectively. Another 14% of the arsenic deposition to the Arctic region is attributed to European emissions. Our results indicate that the reduction of anthropogenic arsenic emissions in Asia and South America can significantly reduce arsenic pollution not only locally but also globally. PMID:26906891

  5. Mathematical model insights into arsenic detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhout H Frederik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic in drinking water, a major health hazard to millions of people in South and East Asia and in other parts of the world, is ingested primarily as trivalent inorganic arsenic (iAs, which then undergoes hepatic methylation to methylarsonic acid (MMAs and a second methylation to dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs. Although MMAs and DMAs are also known to be toxic, DMAs is more easily excreted in the urine and therefore methylation has generally been considered a detoxification pathway. A collaborative modeling project between epidemiologists, biologists, and mathematicians has the purpose of explaining existing data on methylation in human studies in Bangladesh and also testing, by mathematical modeling, effects of nutritional supplements that could increase As methylation. Methods We develop a whole body mathematical model of arsenic metabolism including arsenic absorption, storage, methylation, and excretion. The parameters for arsenic methylation in the liver were taken from the biochemical literature. The transport parameters between compartments are largely unknown, so we adjust them so that the model accurately predicts the urine excretion rates of time for the iAs, MMAs, and DMAs in single dose experiments on human subjects. Results We test the model by showing that, with no changes in parameters, it predicts accurately the time courses of urinary excretion in mutiple dose experiments conducted on human subjects. Our main purpose is to use the model to study and interpret the data on the effects of folate supplementation on arsenic methylation and excretion in clinical trials in Bangladesh. Folate supplementation of folate-deficient individuals resulted in a 14% decrease in arsenicals in the blood. This is confirmed by the model and the model predicts that arsenicals in the liver will decrease by 19% and arsenicals in other body stores by 26% in these same individuals. In addition, the model predicts that arsenic

  6. Combining Ferric Salt and Cactus Mucilage for Arsenic Removal from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dawn I; Stebbins, Daniela M; Alcantar, Norma A

    2016-03-01

    New methods to remediate arsenic-contaminated water continue to be studied, particularly to fill the need for accessible methods that can significantly impact developing communities. A combination of cactus mucilage and ferric (Fe(III)) salt was investigated as a flocculation-coagulation system to remove arsenic (As) from water. As(V) solutions, ferric nitrate, and mucilage suspensions were mixed and left to stand for various periods of time. Visual and SEM observations confirmed the flocculation action of the mucilage as visible flocs formed and settled to the bottom of the tubes within 3 min. The colloidal suspensions without mucilage were stable for up to 1 week. Sample aliquots were tested for dissolved and total arsenic by ICP-MS and HGAFS. Mucilage treatment improved As removal (over Fe(III)-only treatment); the system removed 75-96% As in 30 min. At neutral pH, removal was dependent on Fe(III) and mucilage concentration and the age of the Fe(III) solution. The process is fast, achieving maximum removal in 30 min, with the majority of As removed in 10-15 min. Standard jar tests with 1000 μg/L As(III) showed that arsenic removal and settling rates were pH-dependent; As removal was between 52% (high pH) and 66% (low pH). PMID:26824141

  7. Anthropogenic and geogenic impacts on arsenic bioaccessibility in UK topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Cave, M R; Wragg, J

    2012-10-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible arsenic (B-As) and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed in order to assess the potential for developing a national B-As dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total arsenic (As) is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating B-As in urban areas where it explains 75-92% of the variance. The broad compatibility of the London, Glasgow and Swansea regression models suggests that application of these models to estimate bioaccessible As in UK soils impacted by diffuse anthropogenic urban contamination and non-ferrous metal processing should be relatively accurate. In areas dominated by Jurassic ironstones and associated clays and limestones, total As, P and pH are significant, accounting for 53, 14 and 5%, respectively, of the B-As variance. Models based on total As as the sole predictor in the combined Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary ironstones datasets explain about 40% of the B-As variance. The median As bioaccessible fraction (%As-BAF) is 19 to 28% in the anthropogenic contamination impacted urban domains, but much lower (5-9%) in geogenic terrains dominated by ironstones. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. PMID:22842593

  8. A greenhouse study on arsenic remediation potential of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria Zizanioides) as a function of soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, M. A.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most harmful and toxic metals, being a Group A human carcinogen. Mining activities as well as the use of arsenic-containing pesticides have resulted in the contamination of a wide variety of sites including mine tailings, cattle dip sites, wood treatment sites, pesticide treatment areas, golf courses, etc. Phytoremediation has emerged as a novel and promising technology, which uses plants to clean up contaminated soil and water taking advantage of plant's natural abilities to extract and accumulate various contaminants. This method has distinct advantages, since it maintains the biological properties and physical structure of the soil, is environment friendly, and above all, inexpensive. However, effective remediation of contaminated residential soils using a specific plant species is an immensely complex task whose success depends on a multitude of factors including the ability of the target plant to uptake, translocate, detoxify, and accumulate arsenic in its system. One of the major challenges in phytoremediation lies in identifying a fast- growing, high biomass plant that can accumulate the contaminant in its harvestable parts. vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a fast-growing perennial grass with strong ecological adaptability and large biomass. While this plant is not a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, it has been reported to be able to tolerate and accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Being a high biomass, fast-growing plant, vetiver has the potential to be used for arsenic remediation. The present study investigates the potential of vetiver grass to tolerate and accumulate arsenic in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. A greenhouse study is in progress to study the uptake, tolerance and stress response of vetiver grass to inorganic arsenical pesticide. A column study was set up using 5 soils (Eufaula, Millhopper, Orelia, Orla, and Pahokee Muck) contaminated with sodium arsenite at 4 different concentrations of

  9. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. PMID:24210365

  10. Manufacture of high purity low arsenic anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for manufacturing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity from arsenic contaminated anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is described which comprises: (a) contacting the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the arsenic impurity in the presence of a catalyst which comprises a catalytic amount of (i) molybdenum or an inorganic molybdenum compound and (ii) a phosphate compound, at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to oxidize volatile trivalent arsenic impurities in the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to non-volatile pentavalent arsenic compounds, and (b) distilling the resulting mixture and recovering anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity

  11. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies. PMID:26231509

  12. Arsenic stress after the Proterozoic glaciations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Arvestål, Emma; Callac, Nolwenn; El Albani, Abderrazak; Kilias, Stephanos; Argyraki, Ariadne; Jakobsson, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Protection against arsenic damage in organisms positioned deep in the tree of life points to early evolutionary sensitization. Here, marine sedimentary records reveal a Proterozoic arsenic concentration patterned to glacial-interglacial ages. The low glacial and high interglacial sedimentary arsenic concentrations, suggest deteriorating habitable marine conditions may have coincided with atmospheric oxygen decline after ~2.1 billion years ago. A similar intensification of near continental margin sedimentary arsenic levels after the Cryogenian glaciations is also associated with amplified continental weathering. However, interpreted atmospheric oxygen increase at this time, suggests that the marine biosphere had widely adapted to the reorganization of global marine elemental cycles by glaciations. Such a glacially induced biogeochemical bridge would have produced physiologically robust communities that enabled increased oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system and the radiation of the complex Ediacaran-Cambrian life.

  13. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  14. Toxicokinetics and Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides an overview of arsenic toxicokinetics and physiologically-basedpharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling with particular emphasis on key 'actors needed fordevelopment of a model useful for dose-response analysis, applications of arsenicmodels, as well research needs.U...

  15. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY SOFTENING AND COAGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water regulations for arsenic (As) and disinfection by-product precursor materials (measured as TOC) are becoming increasingly stringent. Among the modifications to conventional treatment that can improve removal of As and TOC, precipitative softening and coagulation are...

  16. Arsenic and other trace elements in thermal springs and in cold waters from drinking water wells on the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo; Quintanilla Aguirre, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Numerous hot springs and fumaroles occur along the Andes Mountains, in the Bolivian Altiplano, where people use thermal springs for recreational purposes as pools, baths and also for consumption as drinking water and irrigation once it is mixed with natural surface waters; most of these thermal springs emerge from earth surface and flow naturally into the rivers streams which drain further into the Poopó Lake. Physicochemical characteristics of the thermal water samples showed pH from 6.3 to 8.3 with an average of 7.0, redox potential from +106 to +204 mV with an average of +172 mV, temperatures from 40 to 75 °C with an average of 56 °C and high electrical conductivity ranging from 1.8 to 75 mS/cm and averaged 13 mS/cm. Predominant major ions are Na+ and Cl- and the principal water types are 37.5% Na-Cl type and 37.5% Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 7.8 to 65.3 μg/L and arsenic speciation indicate the predominance of As(III) species. Sediments collected from the outlets of thermal waters show high iron content, and ferric oxides and hydroxides are assumed to be principal mineral phases for arsenic attenuation by adsorption/co-precipitation processes. Arsenic concentrations in cold water samples from shallow aquifers are higher than those in thermal springs (range < 5.6-233.2 μg/L), it is likely that thermal water discharge is not the main source of high arsenic content in the shallow aquifer as they are very immature and may only have a small component corresponding to the deep geothermal reservoir. As people use both thermal waters and cold waters for consumption, there is a high risk for arsenic exposure in the area.

  17. Speciation of arsenic in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods are presented in this report for the determination of inorganic species of arsenic. For both methods, the parameters influencing the separations have been investigated using radiotracers. Following optimization of the methods; the applicability was tested by determining As(III) and As(V) in real water samples. The detection limit of these arsenic species in both fresh and sea water was about 0.02 μg/L. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Arsenic Induced Decreases in the Vascular Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Allison M.; Lantz, R. Clark; Rodgers, Laurel S.; Sollome, James J.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.; Andrew, Angeline S; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic is associated with increased incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the role of arsenic in early events in vascular pathology, C57BL/6 mice ingested drinking water with or without 50 ppb sodium arsenite (AsIII) for four, five or eight weeks. At five and eight weeks, RNA from the lungs of control and AsIII exposed animals was processed for microarray. Sixty-five genes were significantly and differentially expressed. Differential expres...

  19. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xiang-yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di- and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants.Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica r...

  20. Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykknes, Annette; Kvittingen, Lise

    2003-05-01

    This article presents parts of the history of the element arsenic in order to illustrate processes behind development of knowledge in chemistry. The particular aspects presented here are the use of arsenic as a stimulant by Styrian peasants, in Fowler's solution, in drugs of the 19th century (e.g., salvarsan), and in current medical treatment, all of which challenge the myth of this element as exclusively poisonous.

  1. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to have an affinity for the toxic element. The arsenic concentrations in the principal edible mushrooms of commerce were found to be very low, i.e. on the average 0.5 mg/kg on dry matter. Among the asc...

  2. Arsenic exposure and the seroprevalence of total hepatitis A antibodies in the US population: NHANES, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, A; Smit, E; Bethel, J W; Houseman, E A; Kile, M L

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the association between urinary arsenic and the seroprevalence of total hepatitis A antibodies (total anti-HAV: IgG and IgM) in 11 092 participants aged ⩾6 years using information collected in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2012). Multivariate logistic regression models evaluated associations between total anti-HAV and total urinary arsenic defined as the sum of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate (TUA1). Effect modification by self-reported HAV immunization status was evaluated. Total anti-HAV seroprevalence was 35·1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 33·3-36·9]. Seropositive status was associated with higher arsenic levels and this association was modified by immunization status (P = 0·03). For participants that received ⩾2 vaccine doses or did not know if they had received any doses, a positive dose-response association was observed between increasing TUA1 and odds of total anti-HAV [odds ratio (OR) 1·42, 95% CI 1·11-1·81; and OR 1·75, 95% CI 1·22-2·52], respectively. A positive but not statistically significant association was observed in those who received arsenic exposure was associated with positive total anti-HAV seroprevalence. Further studies are needed to determine if arsenic increases the risk for incident hepatitis A infection or HAV seroconversion. PMID:26739255

  3. The influence of salinity on toxicological effects of arsenic in digestive gland of clam Ruditapes philippinarum using metabolomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chenglong; WU Huifeng; LIU Xiaoli; ZHAO Jianmin; YU Junbao; YIN Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Ruditapes philippinarum,a clam that thrives in intertidal zones of various salinities,is a useful biomonitor to marine contaminants.We investigated the influence of dilution to 75% and 50% of normal seawater salinity (31.1) on the responses of the digestive gland of R.philippinarum to arsenic exposure (20 μg/L),using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics.After acute arsenic exposure for 48 h,salinity-dependent differential metabolic responses were detected.In normal seawater,arsenic exposure increased the concentrations of branched-chain amino acids,and of threonine,proline,phosphocholine and adenosine,and it decreased the levels of alanine,hypotaurine,glucose,glycogen and ATP in the digestive glands.Differential changes in metabolic biomarkers observed at lower salinity (~23.3)included elevation of succinate,taurine and ATP,and depletion of branched-chain amino acids,threonine and glutamine.Unique effects of arsenic at the lowest salinity (~15.6) included down-regulation of glutamate,succinate and ADP,and up-regulation of phosphocholine.We conclude that salinity influences the metabolic responses of this clam to arsenic.

  4. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

  5. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Liebeke

    Full Text Available Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  6. Determination of leachable arsenic from glass ampoules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appreciable amounts of different arsenic compounds are used in the manufacture of glass and glass ampoules (injection vials and bottles) used to store drugs. Exposure/intake of arsenic to human beings may result in skin ulceration, injury to mucous membranes, perforation of nasal septum, skin cancer and keratoses, especially of the palms and soles and may cause detrimental effects. Considering the toxicity of arsenic, even if traces of arsenic from such glass containers/ampoules are leached out, it can impart damage to human beings. To check the possibility of leaching of arsenic from glass ampoules, a simple methodology has been developed. Different makes and varieties of glass ampoules filled with de-ionized water were subjected to high pressure and temperature leaching for varying amount of time using autoclave to create extreme conditions for the maximum leaching out of the analyte. Subsequently, the determination of the arsenic contents in leached water using neutron activation analysis is reported in detail with observations. (author)

  7. A novel arsenic methyltransferase gene of Westerdykella aurantiaca isolated from arsenic contaminated soil: phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical studies and its role in arsenic bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shikha; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Meher, Alok Kumar; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Bansiwal, Amit Kumar; Pande, Veena; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-03-01

    Elevated arsenic concentration in the environment and agricultural soil is a serious concern to crop production and human health. Among different detoxification mechanisms, the methylation of arsenic is a widespread phenomenon in nature. A number of microorganisms are able to methylate arsenic, but less is known about the arsenic metabolism in fungi. We identified a novel arsenic methyltransferase (WaarsM) gene from a soil fungus, Westerdykella aurantiaca. WaarsM showed sequence homology with all known arsenic methyltransferases having three conserved SAM binding motifs. The expression of WaarsM enhanced arsenic resistance in E. coli (Δars) and S. cerevisiae (Δacr2) strains by biomethylation and required endogenous reductants, preferably GSH, for methyltransferase activity. The purified WaarsM catalyzes the production of methylated arsenicals from both AsIII and AsV, and also displays AsV reductase activity. It displayed higher methyltransferase activity and lower KM 0.1945 ± 0.021 mM and KM 0.4034 ± 0.078 mM for AsIII and AsV, respectively. S. cerevisiae (Δacr2) cells expressing WaarsM produced 2.2 ppm volatile arsenic and 0.64 ppm DMA(v) with 0.58 ppm volatile arsenicals when exposed to 20 ppm AsV and 2 ppm AsIII, respectively. Arsenic tolerance in rice after co-culture with genetically engineered yeast suggested its potential role in arsenic bioremediation. Thus, characterization of WaarsM provides a potential strategy to reduce arsenic concentration in soil with reduced arsenic accumulation in crops grown in arsenic contaminated areas, and thereby alleviating human health risks. PMID:26776948

  8. Chemical extraction of arsenic from contaminated soil under subcritical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seok-Young, E-mail: quartzoh@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680 749 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Myong-Keun; Kim, Ick-Hyun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680 749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju Yup; Bae, Wookeun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Gyunggi-Do 425 791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    In this research, we investigated a chemical extraction process, under subcritical conditions, for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil in the vicinity of an abandoned smelting plant in South Korea. The total concentration of As in soil was 75.5 mg/kg, 68% of which was As(+ III). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the possible As(+ III)-bearing compounds in the soil were As{sub 2}O{sub 3} and R-AsOOH. At 20 {sup o}C, 100 mM of NaOH could extract 26% of the As from the soil samples. In contrast, 100 mM of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid showed less than 10% extraction efficiency. However, as the temperature increased to 250 and 300 {sup o}C, extraction efficiencies increased to 75-91% and 94-103%, respectively, regardless of the extraction reagent used. Control experiments with subcritical water at 300 {sup o}C showed complete extraction of As from the soil. Arsenic species in the solution extracted at 300 {sup o}C indicated that subcritical water oxidation may be involved in the dissolution of As(+ III)-bearing minerals under given conditions. Our results suggest that subcritical water extraction/oxidation is a promising option for effective disposal of As-contaminated soil. - Research highlights: {yields} Extraction efficiency by EDTA, citric acid, and NaOH is limited at room temperature. {yields} Extraction efficiencies increase to 94-103% at 300 {sup o}C regardless of the extraction reagent used. {yields} Subcritical water oxidation may be responsible for the dissolution of As(+ III)-bearing minerals.

  9. Evidence against the nuclear in situ binding of arsenicals-oxidative stress theory of arsenic carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large amount of evidence suggests that arsenicals act via oxidative stress in causing cancer in humans and experimental animals. It is possible that arsenicals could bind in situ close to nuclear DNA followed by Haber-Weiss type oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, we tested this...

  10. Evidence against the nuclear in situ binding of arsenicals-oxidative stress theory of arsenic carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of evidence suggests that arsenicals act via oxidative stress in causing cancer in humans and experimental animals. It is possible that arsenicals could bind in situ close to nuclear DNA followed by Haber-Weiss type oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis by using radioactive 73As labeled arsenite and vacuum filtration methodology to determine the binding affinity and capacity of 73As arsenite to calf thymus DNA and Type 2A unfractionated histones, histone H3, H4 and horse spleen ferritin. Arsenicals are known to release redox active Fe from ferritin. At concentrations up to about 1 mM, neither DNA nor any of the three proteins studied, Type II-A histones, histone H3, H4 or ferritin, bound radioactive arsenite in a specific manner. Therefore, it appears highly unlikely that initial in situ binding of trivalent arsenicals, followed by in situ oxidative DNA damage, can account for arsenic's carcinogenicity. This experimental evidence (lack of arsenite binding to DNA, histone Type II-A and histone H3, H4) does not rule out other possible oxidative stress modes of action for arsenic such as (a) diffusion of longer lived oxidative stress molecules, such as H2O2 into the nucleus and ensuing oxidative damage, (b) redox chemistry by unbound arsenicals in the nucleus, or (c) arsenical-induced perturbations in Fe, Cu or other metals which are already known to oxidize DNA in vitro and in vivo

  11. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMASIII AND DMASIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMAsIII and DMAsIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC. L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo2, W. R. Cullen3, and D.J. Thomas4. 1Toxicology Section, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, D.F., 2Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3Uni...

  12. Arsenic speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines and human health implication for inorganic arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice and drinking water are recognized as the dominant sources of arsenic (As) for human intake, while little is known about As accumulation and speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), which have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both eastern and western cultures. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. The levels of inorganic arsenic in CHMs from fields and markets or pharmacies ranged from 63 to 550 ng/g with a mean of 208 ng/g and 94 to 8683 ng/g with a mean of 1092 ng/g, respectively. The highest concentration was found in the Chrysanthemum from pharmacies. It indicates that the risk of inorganic As in CHMs to human health is higher in medicines from markets or pharmacies than that collected directly from fields. Some CHMs may make a considerable contribution to the human intake of inorganic arsenic. - Highlights: ► Arsenic speciation was extracted using 1% HNO3 in microwave. ► Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. ► The highest concentration of inorganic arsenic was found in the Chrysanthemum. - Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples.

  13. Soil arsenic in Armadale, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.H.; Lloyd, O.L.; Hubbard, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    As part of an investigation into the high mortality from lung cancer and the high sex ratios of births in Armadale, central Scotland, concentrations of arsenic were measured in soil cores from 48 sites in Armadale and 6 sites in a comparison town. Concentrations in Armadale were substantially higher than those in the comparison town, and many of the highest range of values were in that part of the town where the epidemiological abnormalities of lung cancer and of birth sex ratios were most pronounced. The study indicated that clues to the etiology of high rates of disease in small areas could be sought most profitably if close links were maintained between epidemiological and environmental investigations.

  14. Arsenic emission during combustion of high arsenic coals from Southwestern Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of better understanding the distribution of arsenic, 144 coal samples were collected from southwestern Guizhou, and the concentrations of arsenic were determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The content of arsenic varies from 0.3 ppm to 3.2 wt.%. In most coal samples, the arsenic content was lower than 30 ppm, which was close to a representative value of arsenic concentration of coal in China. Arsenic contents in 37 samples, which were from several small coal mines, were more than 30 ppm, among which only 16 samples were more than 100 ppm, and only a few samples contained more than 1000 ppm, which were very restricted and the coal seams were generally unworkable. Combustion of two kinds of high arsenic coal with and without CaO additive was studied in a bench scale drop tube furnace (DTF) to understand the partition and emission of arsenic in the process. The PM was size segregated by low pressure impactor (LPI) into 13 size stages ranging from 9.8 to 0.0281 μm. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was used to determine the chemical composition of the PM, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the arsenic content. A bimodal mode distribution of the PM was formed during coal combustion; the large mode (coarse particle) was formed at 4.0 μm, and the other mode (fine particles) was at about 0.1 μm. A middle mode was gradually obvious in high temperature for both of the two coal combustions, which may have been derived from coagulation and agglomeration of metal elements vapors. More gaseous arsenic was formed in 50% oxygen content than 20% oxygen content. Arsenic in sulfide is easier to vaporize than as arsenate. Along with the increasing temperature from 1100 oC to 1400 oC, the arsenic concentration in PM1 increased from 0.07 mg/N m3 to 0.25 mg/N m3. With the addition of the calcium based sorbent, the arsenic concentration in

  15. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L. Comparison of arsenic concentrations in Pennsylvania groundwater by physiographic province indicates that the Central Lowland physiographic province had the highest median arsenic concentration (4.5 µg/L) and the highest percentage of sample records with arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 µg/L (59 percent) and greater than or equal to 10.0 µg/L (43 percent). Evaluation of four major aquifer types (carbonate, crystalline, siliciclastic, and surficial) in Pennsylvania showed that all types had median arsenic concentrations less than 4.0 µg/L, and the highest arsenic concentration (490.0 µg/L) was in a siliciclastic aquifer. The siliciclastic and surficial aquifers had the highest percentage of sample records with arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 µg/L and 10.0 µg/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with low pH (less than or equal to 4.0), high pH (greater than or equal to 8.0), or reducing conditions. For waters classified as anoxic (405 samples), 20 percent of sampled wells contained water with elevated concentrations of arsenic; for waters classified as oxic (1,530 samples) only 10 percent of sampled wells contained water with elevated arsenic concentrations. Nevertheless, regardless of the reduction

  16. Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity and Genetic Susceptibility to Arsenic-Related Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bianchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic (As exposure represents an important problem in many parts of the World. Indeed, it is estimated that over 100 million individuals are exposed to arsenic, mainly through a contamination of groundwaters. Chronic exposure to As is associated with adverse effects on human health such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases and the rate of morbidity and mortality in populations exposed is alarming. The purpose of this review is to summarize the genotoxic effects of As in the cells as well as to discuss the importance of signaling and repair of arsenic-induced DNA damage. The current knowledge of specific polymorphisms in candidate genes that confer susceptibility to arsenic exposure is also reviewed. We also discuss the perspectives offered by the determination of biological markers of early effect on health, incorporating genetic polymorphisms, with biomarkers for exposure to better evaluate exposure-response clinical relationships as well as to develop novel preventative strategies for arsenic- health effects.

  17. 高砷煤烘玉米粉致大鼠砷中毒模型的建立%The establishment of the arsenic poisoning rats model caused by corn flour baked by high-arsenic coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茂琳; 张爱华; 于春; 徐玉艳; 胡勇; 肖婷婷; 王蕾

    2013-01-01

    ,the blurred mitochondrial cristae,some disappeared ridges,the reduced rough endoplasmic reticulum,and irregular uneven nuclear in the liver cells of rats in arsenic contaminated grain group.The contents of aspartate transaminase (AST) and total bile acid (TBA) in medium and high arsenic contaminated grain group were respectively (196.17 ± 46.18),(212.40 ± 35.14) U/L and (11.74 ± 4.07),(19.19 ± 4.68) μmol/L,which were higher than it in the control group (separately (143.10 ± 29.13) U/L and (6.23 ± 2.95) μmol/L).The contents of glutathione-S-transferases (GST),γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)in high arsenic contaminated grain group were separately (196.21 ± 47.38) U/L,(1.71 ± 0.66) U/L,(9.54 ± 1.95) mmol/L,which were higher than that in the control group ((134.93 ± 24.80) U/L,(0.75 ± 0.36) U/L,(7.67 ± 1.02) mmol/L,respectively).The contents of cholinesterase (CHE) in low,medium and high arsenic contaminated grain group were separately (259.90 ± 52.71) U/L,(263.44 ± 66.06) U/L and (244.90 ± 36.14) U/L,the contents of total protein(TP) in rats of high arsenic contaminated grain group were (62.64 ± 5.50)g/L,which was all lower than that in the control group ((448.33 ± 59.67) U/L,(69.38 ± 4.24) g/L,respectively).The contents of TBA in high arsenic contaminated grain group ((19.19 ± 4.68) μmol/L) was higher than that in drinking water arsenic poisoning group ((15.15 ±2.64)μmoL/L).The differences of the above indexes were all significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion The results showed the arsenic poisoning rat model produced by coal-burning were successfully established.%目的 采用高砷煤烘烤的玉米粉为主要原料配制饲料喂饲大鼠,建立燃煤型砷中毒大鼠模型.方法 采用健康断乳Wistar大鼠50只,按体重用随机数字法分为5组(正常对照组,饮水型砷中毒组,低砷、中砷和高砷粮食污染组),每组10只.正常组和饮水型砷中毒组喂饲不含砷的标准饲

  18. Uptake of Arsenic in Rice Plant Varieties Cultivated with Arsenic Rich Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyal Bhattacharya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater of many areas of West Bengal, India is severely contaminated with arsenic. The paddy soil gets con¬taminated from the groundwater and thus there is a probability of bioaccumulation of arsenic in rice plants cultivated with arsenic contaminated groundwater and soil. This study aims at assessing the level of arsenic in irrigation water and soil and to investigate the seasonal bioaccumulation of arsenic in the various parts (straw, husk and grain of the rice plant of differ¬ent varieties in the arsenic affected two blocks (Chakdaha and Ranaghat-I of Nadia district, West Bengal. It was found that the arsenic uptake in rice during the pre-monsoon season is more than that of the post-monsoon season. The accumulation of arsenic found to vary with different rice varieties; the maximum accumulation was in White minikit (0.31±0.005 mg/kg and IR 50 (0.29±0.001 mg/kg rice varieties and minimum was found to be in the Jaya rice variety (0.14±0.002 mg/kg. In rice plant maximum arsenic accumulation occurred in the straw part (0.89±0.019-1.65±0.021 mg/kg compared to the ac¬cumulation in husk (0.31±0.011-0.85±0.016 mg/kg and grain (0.14±0.002-0.31±0.005 mg/kg parts. For any rice sample concentration of arsenic in the grain did not exceed the WHO recommended permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg/kg.

  19. Mouse Assay for Determination of Arsenic Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Accurate assessment of human exposure estimates from arsenic-contaminated soils depends upon estimating arsenic (As) soil bioavailability. Development of bioavailability assays provides data needed for human health risk assessments and supports development and valida...

  20. Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration. PMID:24933913

  1. Arsenic and the Epigenome: Linked by Methylation(SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an environmental toxicant currently poisoning millions of people worldwide, and chronically-exposed individuals are susceptible to arsenic poisoning, or arsenicosis. In some exposed populations arsenicosis susceptibility is dependent in part on the abil...

  2. Map of Arsenic concentrations in groundwater of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map graphic image at http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/arsenic_map.png illustrates arsenic values, in micrograms per liter, for groundwater samples from about...

  3. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also expose normal cells in a lab dish to the substance to see if it causes ... www.cancer.org . Known and Probable Human Carcinogens National organizations and websites Along with the American Cancer ...

  4. Arsenic in Cancer Treatment: Challenges for Application of Realgar Nanoparticles (A Minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Baláž

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available While intensive efforts have been made for the treatment of cancer, this disease is still the second leading cause of death in many countries. Metastatic breast cancer, late-stage colon cancer, malignant melanoma, multiple myeloma, and other forms of cancer are still essentially incurable in most cases. Recent advances in genomic technologies have permitted the simultaneous evaluation of DNA sequence-based alterations together with copy number gains and losses. The requirement for a multi-targeting approach is the common theme that emerges from these studies. Therefore, the combination of new targeted biological and cytotoxic agents is currently under investigation in multimodal treatment regimens. Similarly, a combinational principle is applied in traditional Chinese medicine, as formulas consist of several types of medicinal herbs or minerals, in which one represents the principal component, and the others serve as adjuvant ones that assist the effects, or facilitate the delivery, of the principal component. In Western medicine, approximately 60 different arsenic preparations have been developed and used in pharmacological history. In traditional Chinese medicines, different forms of mineral arsenicals (orpiment—As2S3, realgar—As4S4, and arsenolite—arsenic trioxide, As2O3 are used, and realgar alone is included in 22 oral remedies that are recognized by the Chinese Pharmacopeia Committee (2005. It is known that a significant portion of some forms of mineral arsenicals is poorly absorbed into the body, and would be unavailable to cause systemic damage. This review primary focuses on the application of arsenic sulfide (realgar for treatment of various forms of cancer in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Accumulation and transport mechanisms of arsenic in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Kamiya, Takehiro; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Fujiwara, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Both species of arsenic (As), arsenate and arsenite are highly toxic to plants. Arsenic contamination is a major problem in Southeast Asia particularly in Bangladesh and West Bengal. In these countries, As-contaminated groundwater is widely used for irrigating rice in dry season that results in elevated As accumulation in soils and in rice grain and straw. So it is important for understanding the accumulation and transport mechanisms of arsenic in rice. We monitored increased arsenic content ...

  6. Environmental arsenic exposure and serum matrix metalloproteinase-9

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Littau, Sally R.; Roberge, Jason; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Harris, Robin B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental arsenic exposure and serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In a cross-sectional study of residents of Arizona, USA (n=215) and Sonora, Mexico (n=163), drinking water was assayed for total arsenic, and daily drinking water arsenic intake estimated. Urine was speciated for arsenic and concentrations were adjusted for specific gravity. Serum was anal...

  7. Effect of drinking arsenic-contaminated water in children

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Kunal K.; Guha Mazumder, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water has been a major environmental health hazard throughout the world including India. Although a lot of information is available on health effects due to chronic arsenic toxicity in adults, knowledge of such effect on children is scanty. A review of the available literature has been made to highlight the problem in children. Scientific publications on health effects of chronic arsenic toxicity in children with special referen...

  8. Arsenic removal in drinking water by reverse osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Md. Fayej

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is widely distributed in nature in the air, water and soil. Acute and chronic arsenic exposure by drinking water has been reported in many countries, especially Argentina, Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Mongolia, Thailand and Taiwan. There are many techniques used to remove arsenic from drinking water. Among them reverse osmosis is widely used. Therefore the purpose of this study is to find the conditions favorable for removal of arsenic from drinking water by using reverse osmosis ...

  9. Gut Microbiome Phenotypes Driven by Host Genetics Affect Arsenic Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Kun; Mahbub, Ridwan; Cable, Peter Hans; Ru, Hongyu; Parry, Nicola M. A.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Wishnok, John S.; Styblo, Miroslav; Swenberg, James A.; Fox, James G; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Large individual differences in susceptibility to arsenic-induced diseases are well-documented and frequently associated with different patterns of arsenic metabolism. In this context, the role of the gut microbiome in directly metabolizing arsenic and triggering systemic responses in diverse organs raises the possibility that gut microbiome phenotypes affect the spectrum of metabolized arsenic species. However, it remains unclear how host genetics and the gut microbiome interact to affect th...

  10. Removal of arsenic and COD from industrial wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    H. POIROT; Michon, C.; O. POTIE; S. ZOD; Valentin, G.; Leclerc, J.P.; F. LAPICQU

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the treatment of arsenic-containing industrial wastewaters by electrocoagulation. The waste issued from a paper mill industry downstream of the biological treatment by activated sludge was enriched with arsenic salts for the purpose of investigation of the treatment of mixed pollution. First, the treatment of single polluted waters, i.e. containing either the regular organic charge from the industrial waste or arsenic salts only, was studied. In the case of arsenic-contai...

  11. Arsenic on the Hands of Children after Playing in Playgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Elena; Zhang, Hongquan; Wang, Zhongwen; Jhangri, Gian S; Lu, Xiufen; Fok, Nelson; Gabos, Stephan; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Increasing concerns over the use of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in playground structures arise from potential exposure to arsenic of children playing in these playgrounds. Limited data from previous studies analyzing arsenic levels in sand samples collected from CCA playgrounds are inconsistent and cannot be directly translated to the amount of children’s exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to determine the quantitative amounts of arsenic on the hands of...

  12. Arsenic-related Bowen's disease, palmar keratosis, and skin cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cöl, M; Cöl, C; Soran, A; Sayli, B S; Oztürk, S

    1999-01-01

    Chronic arsenical intoxication can still be found in environmental and industrial settings. Symptoms of chronic arsenic intoxication include general pigmentation or focal "raindrop" pigmentation of the skin and the appearance of hyperkeratosis of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. In addition to arsenic-related skin diseases including keratosis, Bowen's disease, basal-cell-carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma, there is also an increased risk of some internal malignancies. Arsenic...

  13. Validation and Structural Characterization of the LEDGF/p75-MLL Interface as a New Target for the Treatment of MLL-Dependent Leukemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, K.; Těšina, Petr; Demeulemeester, J.; El Ashkar, S.; Méreau, H.; Schwaller, J.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Veverka, Václav; De Rijck, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 18 (2014), s. 5139-5151. ISSN 0008-5472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11205; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08066; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : MLL * leukemia * LEDGF/p75 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.329, year: 2014

  14. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santander

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF and dissolved air flotation (DAF. A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic polyacrylamide (NALCO 9808 as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with flotation studies to determine the removal efficiency of adsorbents particles. The results achieved indicate that the adsorption kinetic of arsenic is very rapid and that in range of pH’s from 2 to 7 the adsorption percentages remain constant. The equilibrium conditions were achieved in 60 minutes and about 95% of arsenic was adsorbed when used an adsorbent concentration of 2 g/L and pH 6.3. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent particles was 4.96 mg/g. The mean free energy of adsorption (E was found to be 2.63 kJ/mol, which suggests physisorption. The results of the flotation studies demonstrated that when synthetic effluents with 8.9 mg/L of arsenic were treated under the following experimental conditions; 2 g/L of adsorbent particles, 120 mg/L of Fe(III, 2 mg/L of Nalco 9808, 20 mg/L of sodium oleate, and 40% of recycle ratio in the DAF, it was possible to reach 98% of arsenic removal and 6.3 NTU of residual turbidity in clarified synthetic effluent.

  15. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J; Stamos, Christina L; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 microg/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 microg/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulic-conductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 microg/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 microg/L over a 20-year period. PMID:20113363

  16. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J.; Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 (mu or u)g/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 (mu or u)g/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulicconductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 (mu or u)g/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 (mu or u)g/L over a 20-year period.

  17. Removal of arsenic from drinking water by the electrocoagulation using Fe and Al electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobya, M., E-mail: kobya@gyte.edu.tr [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering, 41400 Gebze (Turkey); Gebologlu, U.; Ulu, F.; Oncel, S. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering, 41400 Gebze (Turkey); Demirbas, E. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > Removal percentages of arsenic from drinking water at optimum operating conditions in electrocoagulation process were 93.5% for Fe electrode and 95.7% for Al electrode. > Operating costs at the optimum conditions were 0.020 Euro m{sup -3} for Fe and 0.017 Euro m{sup -3} for Al electrodes. > Surface topography of the solid particles at Fe/Al electrodes was analyzed with scanning electron microscope. > The adsorption of arsenic followed pseudo second-order adsorption model. - Abstract: A novel technique of electrocoagulation (EC) was attempted in the present investigation to remove arsenic from drinking waters. Experiments were carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor using Al and Fe electrodes with monopolar parallel electrode connection mode to assess their efficiency. The effects of several operating parameters on arsenic removal such as pH (4-9), current density (2.5-7.5 A m{sup -2}), initial concentration (75-500 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and operating time (0-15 min) were examined. Optimum operating conditions were determined as an operating time of 12.5 min and pH 6.5 for Fe electrode (93.5%) and 15 min and pH 7 for Al electrode (95.7%) at 2.5 A m{sup -2}, respectively. Arsenic removal obtained was highest with Al electrodes. Operating costs at the optimum conditions were calculated as 0.020 Euro m{sup -3} for Fe and 0.017 Euro m{sup -3} for Al electrodes. EC was able to bring down aqueous phase arsenic concentration to less than 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} with Fe and Al electrodes. The adsorption of arsenic over electrochemically produced hydroxides and metal oxide complexes was found to follow pseudo second-order adsorption model. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze surface topography of the solid particles at Fe/Al electrodes during the EC process.

  18. TRACE ANALYSIS OF ARSENIC BY COLORIMETRY, ATOMIC ABSORPTION, AND POLAROGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A differential pulse polarographic method was developed for determining total arsenic concentrations in water samples from ash ponds at steam-electric generating plants. After digestion of the sample and isolation of arsenic by solvent extraction, the peak current for arsenic is ...

  19. Population Based Exposure Assessment of Bioaccessible Arsenic in Carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two predominant arsenic exposure routes are food and water. Estimating the risk from dietary exposures is complicated, owing to the chemical form dependent toxicity of arsenic and the diversity of arsenicals present in dietary matrices. Two aspects of assessing dietary expo...

  20. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Madhurima Pandey; Sushma Yadav; Piyush Kant Pandey

    2007-01-01

    The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically ...

  1. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douillet, Christelle [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Currier, Jenna [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Saunders, Jesse [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Bodnar, Wanda M. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431 (United States); Matoušek, Tomáš [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stýblo, Miroslav, E-mail: styblo@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of

  2. Uptake and transformation of arsenic during the vegetative life stage of terrestrial fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many species of terrestrial fungi produce fruiting bodies that contain high proportions of arsenobetaine (AB), an arsenic compound of no known toxicity. It is unknown whether fungi produce or accumulate AB from the surrounding environment. The present study targets the vegetative life stage (mycelium) of fungi, to examine the role of this stage in arsenic transformations and potential formation of AB. The mycelia of three different fungi species were cultured axenically and exposed to AB, arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinoyl acetic acid for 60 days. Agaricus bisporus was additionally exposed to hypothesized precursors for AB and the exposure time to As(V) and dimethlyarsinic acid was also extended to 120 days. The mycelia of all fungi species accumulated all arsenic compounds with two species accumulating significantly more AB than other compounds. Few biotransformations were observed in these experiments indicating that it is unlikely that the mycelium of the fungus is responsible for biosynthesizing AB. - Highlights: • Mycelia of terrestrial fungi were exposed to arsenobetaine (AB) and potential precursors. • Mycelium may be selectively accumulating AB and transporting it to fruiting bodies. • Mycelium did not biosynthesize AB. - Mycelia of edible mushrooms preferentially accumulate arsenobetaine but do not biosynthesize this non-toxic arsenical

  3. Genomic responses to arsenic in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez-Riego

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant and a toxic metalloid which presents two main redox states in nature: arsenite [As(III] and arsenate [As(V]. Arsenic resistance in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is mediated by the arsBHC operon and two additional arsenate reductases encoded by the arsI1 and arsI2 genes. Here we describe the genome-wide responses to the presence of arsenate and arsenite in wild type and mutants in the arsenic resistance system. Both forms of arsenic produced similar responses in the wild type strain, including induction of several stress related genes and repression of energy generation processes. These responses were transient in the wild type strain but maintained in time in an arsB mutant strain, which lacks the arsenite transporter. In contrast, the responses observed in a strain lacking all arsenate reductases were somewhat different and included lower induction of genes involved in metal homeostasis and Fe-S cluster biogenesis, suggesting that these two processes are targeted by arsenite in the wild type strain. Finally, analysis of the arsR mutant strain revealed that ArsR seems to only control 5 genes in the genome. Furthermore, the arsR mutant strain exhibited hypersentivity to nickel, copper and cadmium and this phenotype was suppressed by mutation in arsB but not in arsC gene suggesting that overexpression of arsB is detrimental in the presence of these metals in the media.

  4. Arsenic enrichment in mangroves, and sediments along Karachi coast, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida Parveen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the arsenic (As concentration in different parts of mangroves Avicennia marina and sediments in Karachi coastal area i.e. Korangi Creek , Manora, Kakapir and Sandspit. Methods: Sites are identified for sampling owing to their vicinity to industrial activities. Sandspit is targeted for its being devoid of industries. The hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS were used to analyse the concentration of arsenic in mangrove and sediment. Results: The high concentration of As was found in roots and middle aerial part as compared to the upper part of mangroves. The concentrations of As was found higher in sediments as compared to the mangroves. There is a seasonal variation of As enrichment in mangrove and sediments as dry seasons showed higher concentration while in rainy season dilution factors may be attributed to the low level of As. The concentration variation of As in sampling sites of mangroves and sediments following the trend i.e. Korangi Creek >Manora>Kakapir>Sandspit. The statistical analysis (Two way ANOVA of data exhibited no significant difference (P>0.05 for trace metals concentrations in mangrove as well as in sediments. Conclusions: It is obvious to conclude that As should be continuously monitored in different environmental segments. The data must correlate with geographical distribution of As, quantification in different species, their solubility and bioavailability to understand the possible factors responsible for environmental pollution. The present study will be helpful to improve water management resources.

  5. Arsenic enrichment in mangroves, and sediments along Karachi coast, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashida Parveen; Erum Zahir; Arshad Fazal Siddiqui

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the arsenic (As) concentration in different parts of mangroves Avicenniamarina and sediments in Karachi coastal area i.e. Korangi Creek , Manora, Kakapir and Sandspit. Methods: Sites are identified for sampling owing to their vicinity to industrial activities. Sandspit is targeted for its being devoid of industries. The hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) were used to analyse the concentration of arsenic in mangrove and sediment.Results:The high concentration of As was found in roots and middle aerial part as compared to the upper part of mangroves. The concentrations of As was found higher in sediments as compared to the mangroves. There is a seasonal variation of As enrichment in mangrove and sediments as dry seasons showed higher concentration while in rainy season dilution factors may be attributed to the low level of As. The concentration variation of As in sampling sites of mangroves and sediments following the trend i.e. Korangi Creek >Manora>Kakapir>Sandspit. The statistical analysis (Two way ANOVA) of data exhibited no significant difference (P>0.05) for trace metals concentrations in mangrove as well as in sediments.Conclusions:It is obvious to conclude that As should be continuously monitored in different environmental segments. The data must correlate with geographical distribution of As, quantification in different species, their solubility and bioavailability to understand the possible factors responsible for environmental pollution. The present study will be helpful to improve water management resources.

  6. Natural arsenic contaminated diets perturb reproduction in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David; Brix, Kevin V; Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nic R

    2008-07-15

    The toxicological effect of natural diets elevated in metals on reproduction in fish is poorly understood. The reproductive output of zebrafish fed the polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from a metal-impacted estuary, Restronguet Creek, Cornwall, UK, was compared to fish fed N. diversicolor collected from a nonmetal impacted estuary, Blackwater, Essex, UK. Fish fed the metal laden N. diversicolorfor 68 days showed reduced reproductive output, characterized by reduced cumulative egg production (47%), cumulative number of spawns (30%), as well as reduced average number of eggs produced per spawn and % hatch rate. The mRNA transcript levels of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin was also reduced 1.5 fold in the livers of female fish fed metal-laden N. diversicolor. No difference was seen between the lipid, protein, or moisture content of the two diets and no difference in growth was seen between the two fish populations. The Restronguet Creek polychaetes have elevated arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and silver body burdens, but the only element found to accumulate in the tissues of zebrafish fed this diet was As. The As in these N. diversicolor was found to be predominantly potentially toxic inorganic As species, 58% of total As content, which is unusual for aquatic organisms where arsenic is typically biotransformed into less toxic organoarsenical compounds. These results demonstrate that reproduction in fish is a sensitive target of exposure to a natural diet contaminated with As and this exposure route could be of significance to the health of fish populations. PMID:18754393

  7. Well Water Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Induced Skin-Lesions and Self-Reported Morbidity in Inner Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Yajuan Xia; Wade, Timothy J; Kegong Wu; Yanhong Li; Zhixiong Ning; X Chris Le; Binfei Chen; Yong Feng; Mumford, Judy L.; Xingzhou He

    2009-01-01

    Residents of the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia have been exposed to arsenic-contaminated well water for over 20 years, but relatively few studies have investigated health effects in this region. We surveyed one village to document exposure to arsenic and assess the prevalence of arsenic-associated skin lesions and self-reported morbidity. Five-percent (632) of the 12,334 residents surveyed had skin lesions characteristics of arsenic exposure. Skin lesions were strongly associated with...

  8. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    OpenAIRE

    Yongfang Li; Feng Ye; Anwei Wang; Da Wang; Boyi Yang; Quanmei Zheng; Guifan Sun; Xinghua Gao

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking ...

  9. Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Nachman, Keeve E.; Baron, Patrick A; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) causes cancer and possibly other adverse health outcomes. Arsenic-based drugs are permitted in poultry production; however, the contribution of chicken consumption to iAs intake is unknown. Objectives: We sought to characterize the arsenic species profile in chicken meat and estimate bladder and lung cancer risk associated with consuming chicken produced with arsenic-based drugs. Methods: Conventional, antibiotic-free, and organic chicken samples were colle...

  10. XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer has been widely studied. However, few studies have examined the correlation between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and arsenic or its metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln, with urinary arsenic profiles and UC. To this end, we conducted a hospital-based case–control study with 324 UC patients and 647 age- and gender-matched non-cancer controls. Genomic DNA was used to examine the genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). Urinary arsenic profiles were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) linked with hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotypes were significantly related to UC, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.68 (1.03–2.75) and 0.66 (0.48–0.90), respectively. Participants with higher total urinary arsenic levels, a higher percentage of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and a lower percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) had a higher OR of UC. Participants carrying XRCC1 risk diplotypes G-C/G-C, A-C/A-C, and A-T/G-T, and who had higher total arsenic levels, higher InAs%, or lower DMA% compared to those with other XRCC1 diplotypes had a higher OR of UC. Our results suggest that the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Arg DNA repair genes play an important role in poor arsenic methylation capacity, thereby increasing the risk of UC in non-obvious arsenic exposure areas. - Highlights: • The XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotype was significantly associated with increased OR of UC. • The XRCC1 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotype had a significantly decreased OR of UC. • Combined effect of the XRCC1 genotypes and poor arsenic methylation capacity on

  11. XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chien-I [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Jen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    The association between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer has been widely studied. However, few studies have examined the correlation between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and arsenic or its metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln, with urinary arsenic profiles and UC. To this end, we conducted a hospital-based case–control study with 324 UC patients and 647 age- and gender-matched non-cancer controls. Genomic DNA was used to examine the genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). Urinary arsenic profiles were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) linked with hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotypes were significantly related to UC, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.68 (1.03–2.75) and 0.66 (0.48–0.90), respectively. Participants with higher total urinary arsenic levels, a higher percentage of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and a lower percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) had a higher OR of UC. Participants carrying XRCC1 risk diplotypes G-C/G-C, A-C/A-C, and A-T/G-T, and who had higher total arsenic levels, higher InAs%, or lower DMA% compared to those with other XRCC1 diplotypes had a higher OR of UC. Our results suggest that the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Arg DNA repair genes play an important role in poor arsenic methylation capacity, thereby increasing the risk of UC in non-obvious arsenic exposure areas. - Highlights: • The XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotype was significantly associated with increased OR of UC. • The XRCC1 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotype had a significantly decreased OR of UC. • Combined effect of the XRCC1 genotypes and poor arsenic methylation capacity on

  12. Carbonate ions and arsenic dissolution by groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of Marshall Sandstone, a major source of groundwater with elevated arsenic levels in southeast Michigan, were exposed to bicarbonate ion under controlled chemical conditions. In particular, effects of pH and redox conditions on arsenic release were evaluated. The release of arsenic from the aquifer rock was strongly related to the bicarbonate concentration in the leaching solution. The results obtained suggest that the carbonation of arsenic sulfide minerals, including orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As2S2), is an important process in leaching arsenic into groundwater under anaerobic conditions. The arseno-carbonate complexes formed, believed to be As(CO3)2-, As(CO3)(OH)2-, and AsCO3+, are stable in groundwater. The reaction of ferrous ion with the thioarsenite from carbonation process can result in the formation of arsenopyrite which is a common mineral in arsenic-rich aquifers.Samples of Marshall Sandstone, a major source of groundwater with elevated arsenic levels in southeast Michigan, were exposed to bicarbonate ion under controlled chemical conditions. In particular, effects of pH and redox conditions on arsenic release were evaluated. The release of arsenic from the aquifer rock was strongly related to the bicarbonate concentration in the leaching solution. The results obtained suggest that the carbonation of arsenic sulfide minerals, including orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As2S2), is an important process in leaching arsenic into groundwater under anaerobic conditions. The arseno-carbonate complexes formed, believed to be As(CO3)2-, As(CO3)(OH)2-, and AsCO3+, are stable in groundwater. The reaction of ferrous ion with the thioarsenite from carbonation process can result in the formation of arsenopyrite which is a common mineral in arsenic-rich aquifers.The role of bicarbonate in leaching arsenic into groundwater was investigated by conducting batch experiments using core samples of Marshall Sandstone from southeast Michigan and different bicarbonate

  13. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearing, Michelle M., E-mail: michelle.nearing@rmc.ca; Koch, Iris, E-mail: koch-i@rmc.ca; Reimer, Kenneth J., E-mail: reimer-k@rmc.ca

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC–ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC–ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenic-sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC–ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) with HPLC–ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC–ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC–ICP-MS and ESI–MS, HPLC–ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI–MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC–ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches. - Highlights: • HPLC–ICP-MS is the most common method used for arsenic speciation. • HPLC limitations include

  14. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC–ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC–ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenic-sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC–ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) with HPLC–ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC–ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC–ICP-MS and ESI–MS, HPLC–ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI–MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC–ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches. - Highlights: • HPLC–ICP-MS is the most common method used for arsenic speciation. • HPLC limitations include

  15. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Cai, Yong

    2003-12-15

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) is the first reported arsenic hyperaccumulator. To investigate the arsenic tolerance mechanism in this plant, reversed-phase HPLC with postcolumn derivatization was used to analyze the thiols induced under arsenic exposure. A major thiol in the plant leaflets was found to be responsive to arsenic exposure. The arsenic-induced compound was purified on a large scale by combining covalent chromatography and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. About 2 mg of this compound was isolated from 1 kg of fresh leaflets. The purified arsenic-induced compound was characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A molecular ion (M + 1) of 540 and fragments were obtained, which indicated that the arsenic-induced thiol was a phytochelatin with two subunits (PC(2)). Compared to the classical methods for purification of phytochelatins, this new method is more specific, simple, and rapid and is suitable for purification of PCs in a large scale as well as sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:14670068

  16. Arsenic in private well water part 3 of 3: Socioeconomic vulnerability to exposure in Maine and New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V; Spayd, Steven E; Procopio, Nicholas A; Marvinney, Robert G; Smith, Andrew E; Chillrud, Steven N; Braman, Stuart; Zheng, Yan

    2016-08-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic element often concentrated in groundwater at levels unsafe for human consumption. Private well water in the United States is mostly unregulated by federal and state drinking water standards. It is the responsibility of the over 13 million U.S. households regularly depending on private wells for their water to ensure it is safe for drinking. There is a consistent graded association with health outcomes at all levels of socioeconomic status (SES) in the U.S. Differential exposure to environmental risk may be contributing to this persistent SES-health gradient. Environmental justice advocates cite overwhelming evidence that income and other SES measures are consistently inversely correlated with exposure to suboptimal environmental conditions including pollutants, toxins, and their impacts. Here we use private well household surveys from two states to investigate the association between SES and risks for arsenic exposure, examining the potentially cumulative effects of residential location, testing and treatment behavior, and psychological factors influencing behavior. We find that the distribution of natural arsenic hazard in the environment is socioeconomically random. There is no evidence that higher SES households are avoiding areas with arsenic or that lower SES groups are disproportionately residing in areas with arsenic. Instead, disparities in exposure arise from differing rates of protective action, primarily testing well water for arsenic, and secondly treating or avoiding contaminated water. We observe these SES disparities in behavior as well as in the psychological factors that are most favorable to these behaviors. Assessment of risk should not be limited to the spatial occurrence of arsenic alone. It is important that social vulnerability factors are incorporated into risk modeling and identifying priority areas for intervention, which should include strategies that specifically target socioeconomically vulnerable

  17. Hemimicelle capped functionalized carbon nanotubes-based nanosized solid-phase extraction of arsenic from environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end functionalization of CNTs can introduce oxygen-containing negatively functional groups such as -COOH, -OH, or -C=O on their surface site. If cationic surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) was added to the functionalized CNTs, then interactions such as hydrophobic and ionic may lead to formation of hemimicelle/admicelle aggregates on the CNTs, a new kind of adsorbents, namely, the hemimicelle capped CMMWCNTs, is obtained. The application of the hemimicelle capped carbon nanotubes-based nanosized solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbents in environmental analysis is reported for the first time using arsenic as model target. The effect of adsorption and desorption conditions for arsenic including the amount of surfactant, initial pH of sample solution, the ultrasonic time of sample solution, the amount of electrolyte, flow rate, eluent and its amount were investigated and optimized prior to its determination by atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry (AFS). Arsenic can be quantitatively retained on the hemimicelle capped CMMWCNTs at pH 5-6 from sample volume up to 500 mL and then eluted completely with 2 mol L-1 HNO3 in the presence of 10 mg L-1 CTAC. The method detection limit for arsenic determination with AFS detection was 2 ng L-1, and the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 11) was 5.3% at the 0.5 μg L-1 level. The recoveries of arsenic in the spiked environmental water samples ranged from 94% to 104.29% with 500 mL of water sample. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of arsenic in aqueous environmental samples, which demonstrates the hemimicelle capped CMMWCNTs can be an excellent SPE adsorbents for arsenic pretreatment and enrichment from real water samples

  18. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  19. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members. Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  20. Comparative Distribution and Retention of Arsenic in Arsenic (+3 Oxidation State) Methyltransferase Knockout and Wild Type Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) gene encodes a ~ 43 kDa protein that catalyzes conversion of inorganic arsenic into methylated products. Heterologous expression of AS3MT or its silencing by RNA interference controls arsenic methylation phenotypes...

  1. Biomonitoring of Occupational Exposure to Total Arsenic and Total Mercury in Urine of Goldmine Workers in Southwestern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Gyeabour Abrefah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of total arsenic and total mercury in the urine of goldmine workers in south-western Ghana due to occupational exposure was conducted to determine whether occupational exposure substantially contributes to their overall exposure to arsenic and mercury. The urine was collected after 2-day abstinence from sea foods by the workers and from those with no dental amalgam fillings. Total arsenic and total mercury were simultaneously determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA. After 1-hour irradiation of the urine in Ghana's miniature neutron source reactor (GHARR-1 to induce 76As and 197Hg radionuclides through nuclear reactions 75As(n, γ76As, and 196Hg(n, γ197Hg, the γ-radiation intensity of the induced 76As and 197Hg radionuclides were measured by γ-spectrometry. The validity of the INAA technique for As and Hg determination was checked by analyses of NIST SRM 3103a (As standard solution and NIST SRM 3133 (Hg standard solution, respectively. The mean mass fractions of arsenic in the urine are 6.76 µg/L ± 1.43, 7.78 µg/L ± 1.33, 8.03 µg/L ± 1.75, 10.44 µg/L ± 1.88, and 14.75 µg/L ± 1.62 for workers in offices 10 km from the mine, 2 km from the mine, 0.5 km from the mine, casual mine workers, and gold ore processing workers, respectively. The levels of arsenic in the urine are all within the 5 to 40 µg As L-1 day-1 normal range for excretion of arsenic. The observed mass fraction of As was higher in high exposure workers. The mean mass fraction of Hg in the urine are 0.36 µg/L ± 0.11, 0.47 µg/L ± 0.12, 0.51 µg/L ± 0.16, 0.57 µg/L ± 0.14, and 0.56 µg/L ± 0.21 for workers in offices 10 km from the mine, 2 km from the mine, 0.5 km from the mine, casual mine workers, and gold ore processing workers, respectively. The high Hg exposed workers engage in small scale gold mining using mercury. The exposure of the different categories of workers to both total arsenic and total mercury are safe.

  2. Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whaley-Martin, K.J.; Koch, I.; Moriarty, M.; Reimer, K.J. (Royal)

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R{sup 2} = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R{sup 2} = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

  3. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries. PMID:27092031

  4. Determination of total arsenic in soil and arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected ground water in Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambodia has geological environments conducive to generation of high-arsenic groundwater and people are at high risk of chronic arsenic exposure. The aims of this study are to investigate the concentration of total arsenic and to isolate and identify arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected locations in Kandal Province, Cambodia. The INAA technique was used to measure the concentration of total arsenic in soils. The arsenic concentrations in soils were above permissible 5 mg/kg, ranging from 5.34 to 27.81 mg/kg. Bacteria resistant to arsenic from two arsenic-contaminated wells in Preak Russey were isolated by enrichment method in nutrient broth (NB). Colonies isolated from NB was then grown on minimal salt media (MSM) added with arsenic at increasing concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 and 250 ppm. Two isolates that can tolerate 750 ppm of arsenic were identified as Enterobacter agglomerans and Acinetobacter lwoffii based on a series of biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis. Optimum growth of both isolates ranged from pH 6.6 to 7.0 and 30-35 deg C. E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii were able to remove 66.4 and 64.1 % of arsenic, respectively at the initial concentration of 750 ppm, within 72 h of incubation. Using energy dispersive X-ray technique, the percentage of arsenic absorbed by E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii was 0.09 and 0.15 %, respectively. This study suggested that arsenic-resistant E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii removed arsenic from media due to their ability to absorb arsenic. (author)

  5. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as μg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe

  6. Arsenic in the environment: enrichments in the Slovenian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, a toxic element with metalloid properties, is found in detectable concentrations in environmental samples. In nature it is enriched in metal (sulphide ore deposits, mainly as arsenides of Cu, Ni and Fe. Arsenic compounds are used mainly in agricultureand forestry as pesticides and herbicides. The ecosystem can be contaminated with arsenic via both natural and anthropogenic sources. Uses of arsenic contaminated water present so far the greatest health hazard. Occurrences of mining related arsenic problems havealso been recorded in many parts of the world.The impact of mining and metallurgic industry with regard to arsenic contents in soils in some potentially contaminated areas in Slovenia is discussed. Enriched contents of arsenic were found in Mežica. Arsenic correlates very well with lead, zinc and other heavymetals which are enriched as a result of long lasting lead production in the area. Also in Celje and Jesenice arsenic has the same distribution pattern as other anthropogenically introduced pollutants. In Idrija there are some slightly arsenic enriched areas, but there is no correlation with mercury, so the origin of arsenic in not clear yet.

  7. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.meharg@abdn.ac.uk; Sun, Guoxin [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Williams, Paul N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Zhu, Yong-Guan [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as {mu}g/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe.

  8. Establishment of Groundwater Arsenic Potential Distribution and Discrimination in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo Sheng; Chen, Yu Ying; Chung Liu, Chih; Lin, Chien Wen

    2016-04-01

    According to the last 10 years groundwater monitoring data in Taiwan, Arsenic concentration increase rapidly in some areas, similar to Bengal and India, the main source of Arsenic-polluted groundwater is geological sediments, through reducing reactions. There are many researches indicate that high concentration of Arsenic in groundwater poses the risk to water safety, for example, the farm lands irrigation water contains Arsenic cause the concentration of Arsenic increase in soil and crops. Based on the management of water usage instead of remediation in the situation of insufficient water. Taiwan EPA has been developed the procedures of Arsenic contamination potential area establishment and source discriminated process. Taiwan EPA use the procedures to determine the management of using groundwater, and the proposing usage of Arsenic groundwater accordance with different objects. Agencies could cooperate with the water quality standard or water needs, studying appropriate water purification methods and the groundwater depth, water consumption, thus achieve the goal of water safety and environmental protection, as a reference of policy to control total Arsenic concentration in groundwater. Keywords: Arsenic; Distribution; Discrimination; Pollution potential area of Arsenic; Origin evaluation of groundwater Arsenic

  9. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC-ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC-ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenicsbnd sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC-ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with HPLC-ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC-ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC-ICP-MS and ESI-MS, HPLC-ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI-MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC-ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches.

  10. Anionic sorbents for arsenic and technetium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sorbents, zirconium coated zeolite and magnesium hydroxide, were tested for their effectiveness in removing arsenic from Albuquerque municipal water. Results for the zirconium coated zeolite indicate that phosphate present in the water interfered with the sorption of arsenic. Additionally, there was a large quantity of iron and copper present in the water, corrosion products from the piping system, which may have interfered with the uptake of arsenic by the sorbent. Magnesium hydroxide has also been proven to be a strong sorbent for arsenic as well as other metals. Carbonate, present in water, has been shown to interfere with the sorption of arsenic by reacting with the magnesium hydroxide to form magnesium carbonate. The reaction mechanism was investigated by FT-IR and shows that hydrogen bonding between an oxygen on the arsenic species and a hydrogen on the Mg(OH)2 is most likely the mechanism of sorption. This was also confirmed by RAMAN spectroscopy and XRD. Technetium exists in multiple oxidation states (IV and VII) and is easily oxidized from the relatively insoluble Tc(IV) form to the highly water soluble and mobile Tc(VII) form. The two oxidation states exhibit different sorption characteristics. Tc(VII) does not sorb to most materials whereas Tc(IV) will strongly sorb to many materials. Therefore, it was determined that it is necessary to first reduce the Tc (using SnCl2) before sorption to stabilize Tc in the environment. Additionally, the effect of carbonate and phosphate on the sorption of technetium by hydroxyapatite was studied and indicated that both have a significant effect on reducing Tc sorption

  11. Arsenic detection in water: YPO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasish; Luwang, Meitram Niraj

    2015-12-01

    This work reports on the novel technique of detection of arsenic in aqueous solution utilising the luminescence properties of lanthanide doped nanomaterials. Eu3+ (5%) doped YPO4nanorodswere utilised for the said experiment. Co-precipitation method was used for the synthesis of the materials and characterised them with different instrumental techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infra-red (IR), UV-absorption, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence studies. This nanoparticle can adsorb both arsenic and arsenious acids. We studied the effect of arsenic adsorption on the luminescence behaviour of the nanoparticles. Arsenic acid enhanced the luminescence intensity whereas arsenious acid quenched the luminescence. This luminescence enhancement or quenching is related with arsenic concentration. This relation of luminescence property with concentration of arsenic can be used to detect arsenic in industrial waste.

  12. Gut microbiome phenotypes driven by host genetics affect arsenic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Mahbub, Ridwan; Cable, Peter Hans; Ru, Hongyu; Parry, Nicola M A; Bodnar, Wanda M; Wishnok, John S; Styblo, Miroslav; Swenberg, James A; Fox, James G; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2014-02-17

    Large individual differences in susceptibility to arsenic-induced diseases are well-documented and frequently associated with different patterns of arsenic metabolism. In this context, the role of the gut microbiome in directly metabolizing arsenic and triggering systemic responses in diverse organs raises the possibility that gut microbiome phenotypes affect the spectrum of metabolized arsenic species. However, it remains unclear how host genetics and the gut microbiome interact to affect the biotransformation of arsenic. Using an integrated approach combining 16S rRNA gene sequencing and HPLC-ICP-MS arsenic speciation, we demonstrate that IL-10 gene knockout leads to a significant taxonomic change of the gut microbiome, which in turn substantially affects arsenic metabolism. PMID:24490651

  13. Method development for arsenic analysis by modification in spectrophotometric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a non-metallic constituent, present naturally in groundwater due to some minerals and rocks. Arsenic is not geologically uncommon and occurs in natural water as arsenate and arsenite. Additionally, arsenic may occur from industrial discharges or insecticide application. World Health Organization (WHO and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority have recommended a permissible limit of 10 ppb for arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic at lower concentrations can be determined in water by using high tech instruments like the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (hydride generation. Because arsenic concentration at low limits of 1 ppb can not be determined easily with simple spectrophotometric technique, the spectrophotometric technique using silver diethyldithiocarbamate was modified to achieve better results, up to the extent of 1 ppb arsenic concentration.

  14. Occurrence of arsenic in plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), nature of organo-arsenic compound present and its excretion by man.

    OpenAIRE

    Luten, J B; Riekwel-Booy, G; Rauchbaar, A

    1982-01-01

    The arsenic content in 255 samples of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) varied between 3 and 166 mg/kg. About 65% of the samples had an arsenic content above 10 mg/kg. High (low) arsenic concentration in the fillet corresponds with a high (low) concentration in milt or roe. An excretion experiment with eight human volunteers showed that after the consumption of plaice, 69-85% of the ingested arsenic was excreted in the urine within five days. The organo-arsenic compound present in plaice was iso...

  15. Biosensors for Inorganic and Organic Arsenicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed and is strongly associated with human health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To date, a number of biosensors for the detection of arsenic involving the coupling of biological engineering and electrochemical techniques has been developed. The properties of whole-cell bacterial or cell-free biosensors are summarized in the present review with emphasis on their sensitivity and selectivity. Their limitations and future challenges are highlighted.

  16. Solubility and transport of arsenic coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental method combined with a numerical model allows a comparison of two methods for the disposal of ash that contains arsenic, from the Rio Escondido coal-fired power plant. The calculation yields significant differences in aquifer migration times for the site. The wet disposal method gave 10 years time and the dry method gave 22 years. Experiments were performed on the rate of dissolution of the arsenic from ash samples; and these results indicate a first order kinetics reaction. 8 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Determination of arsenic in crude petroleum and liquid hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, B K; Irgolic, K J

    1989-12-01

    Total arsenic was determined in crude petroleum and liquid hydrocarbons derived from crude petroleum by extraction with boiling water or boiling aqueous nitric acid (concentration 0.25 to 2.5 M), mineralization of the extracts with concentrated nitric/sulphuric acid, and reduction of the arsenate to arsine in a hydride generator. The arsine was flushed into a helium-DC plasma. The arsenic emission was monitored at 228.8 nm. The total arsenic concentration in 53 crude oil samples ranged from 0.04 to 514 mg L(-1) (median 0.84 mg L(-1)). Arsenic was also determined in several refined liquid hydrocarbons and in a commercially available arsenic standard in an organic matrix (triphenylarsine in xylene). The method was checked with NIST 1634b "Trace Elements in Residual Fuel Oil". The arsenic concentration found in this standard agreed with the certified value (0.12±0.2 μg g(-1)) within experimental error. Viscous hydrocarbons such as the fuel oil must be dissolved in xylene for the extraction to be successful. Hydride generation applied to an aqueous not-mineralized extract from an oil containing 1.67 μg As mL(-1) revealed, that trimethylated arsenic (520 ng mL(-1)) is the predominant arsenic species among the reducible and detectable arsenic compounds. Monomethylated arsenic (104 ng ml(-1)), inorganic arsenic (23 ng mL(-1)), and dimethylated arsenic (low ng mL(-1)) were also detected. The sum of the concentrations of these arsenic species accounts for only 39% of the total arsenic in the sample. PMID:24202418

  18. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  19. THE ROLE OF ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE IN ARSENIC METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in the environment. Epidemiological studies have linked chronic exposures to inorganic As (iAs) to adverse health effects such as skin lesions, peripheral neuropathy, cardiovascular, hepatic and renal disorders, diabetes mellitus, skin cancer,...

  20. Arsenic resistant bacteria isolated from arsenic contaminated river in the Atacama Desert (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, G; Campos, V L; Valenzuela, C; Yañez, J; Zaror, C; Mondaca, M A

    2009-11-01

    In this study, arsenic resistant bacteria were isolated from sediments of an arsenic contaminated river. Arsenic tolerance of bacteria isolated was carried out by serial dilution on agar plate. Redox abilities were investigated using KMnO4. arsC and aox genes were detected by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively. Bacterial populations were identified by RapID system. Forty nine bacterial strains were isolated, of these, 55 % corresponded to the reducing bacteria, 4% to oxidizing bacteria, 8% presented both activities and in 33% of the bacteria none activity was detected. arsC gene was detected in 11 strains and aox genes were not detected. The activity of arsenic transforming microorganisms in river sediment has significant implications for the behavior of the metalloid. PMID:19779656

  1. Evaluation of two new arsenic field test kits capable of detecting arsenic water concentrations close to 10 microg/L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig M; George, Christine M; Kalman, David A; Smith, Allan H

    2006-05-15

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Arsenic field test kits may offer a cost-effective approach for measuring these exposures in the field, although the accuracy of some kits used in the past has been poor. In this study, arsenic concentrations were measured in 136 water sources in western Nevada using two relatively new arsenic test kits and compared to laboratory measurements using atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients comparing the Quick Arsenic and Hach EZ kits to laboratory measurements were 0.96 (p or = 500 microg/L), test kit and AFS measurements were in the same category in 71% (Quick Arsenic) and 62% (Hach EZ) of samples, and within one category of each other in 99% (Quick Arsenic) and 97% (Hach EZ) of samples. Both kits identified all water samples with high arsenic concentrations (> 15 microg/L) as being above the United States Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard and the World Health Organization's guideline value for arsenic of 10 microg/L. These results suggestthatthese easily portable kits can be used to identify water sources with high arsenic concentrations and may provide an important tool for arsenic surveillance and remediation programs. PMID:16749706

  2. The MRP2/cMOAT transporter and arsenic-glutathione complex formation are required for biliary excretion of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, S V; Neely, M W; Kala, G; Prater, C I; Atwood, D W; Rice, J S; Lieberman, M W

    2000-10-27

    Worldwide, millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water that exceeds the World Health Organization standard of 10 microg/liter by as much as 50-300-fold, yet little is known about the molecular basis for arsenic excretion. Here we show that transport of arsenic into bile depends on the MRP2/cMOAT transporter and that glutathione is obligatory for such transport. Using reversed phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that two arsenic-glutathione complexes not previously identified in vivo, arsenic triglutathione and methylarsenic diglutathione, account for most of the arsenic in the bile. The structure of the compounds was also confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our findings may help explain the increased susceptibility of malnourished human populations to arsenic. PMID:10938093

  3. Preliminary study on the mode of occurrence of arsenic in high arsenic coals from southwest Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁振华; 郑宝山; 张杰; H.; E.; Belkin; R.; B.; Finkelman; 赵峰华; 周代兴; 周运书; 陈朝刚

    1999-01-01

    Coal samples from high arsenic coal areas have been analyzed by electron microprobe analyzer ( EMPA) , scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) , X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) , low temperature ashing (LTA) , transmission electron microscopy (TEM) , X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) , instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wet chemical analysis. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, and As-bearing clays are found in the high arsenic coals, their contents do not account for the abundance of arsenic in the some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that arsenic exists mainly in the form of As5+ and As3+ , combined with compounds in the organic matrix. The occurrence of such exceptionally high arsenic contents in coal and the fact that the arsenic is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. The modes of occurrence of arsenic in high As-coals are discussed.

  4. Mechanism of arsenic tolerance and bioremoval of arsenic by Acidithiobacilus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prabha M N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This paper reports the studies on mechanism of arsenic tolerance and bioremoval of arsenic ions (arsenite or arsenate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Exposure of cells to arsenic ions resulted in increased cell surface hydrophobicity, decreased electrophoretic mobility and stronger adsorption affinity towards arsenopyrite. The mechanism of tolerance to arsenic ions were specific and could be attributed to the changes in specific protein expression in the outer membrane and cytosolic membrane fractions. Biosorption studies showed decrease in solution arsenic concentration only with ferrous–grown cells indicating that presence of ferric ions in the EPS was necessary for binding or entrapment of arsenic ions in the EPS. Bacterial EPS of ferrous–grown wild cells were able to uptake arsenate ions due to the strong affinity of ferric ions towards arsenate ions. Neither cells nor the ferric ions were capable of precipitating or oxidizing arsenite ions directly. Both arsenate ions and arsenite ions were co–precipitated with ferric ions formed during the growth of the bacteria.  

  5. Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nandita [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Ma, Lena Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.ed [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Vu, Joseph C. [Chemistry Research Unit, CMAVE, USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL 32608-1069 and Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0500 (United States); Raj, Anshita [Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2009-08-15

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of four-month old Pteris vittata (arsenic - hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-arsenic--hyperaccumulator) plants. The arsenic treatments (0, 150, and 300 muM as sodium arsenate) in hydroponics had adverse effects on the root and frond dry weights, and this effect was more evident in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of arsenate-treated plants were reduced more in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. This effect was accompanied by similar decreases in tissue NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Therefore, this decrease is interpreted as being indirect, i.e., the consequence of the reduced NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake and translocation in the plants. The study shows the difference in the tolerance level of the two Pteris species with varying sensitivity to arsenic. - Arsenic reduced the activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase more in Pteris ensiformis than Pteris vittata.

  6. Toxic effects of arsenic on Sinorhizobium-Medicago sativa symbiotic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the Rhizobium-legume symbiotic interaction has been proposed as an interesting tool in bioremediation. However, little is known about the effect of most common contaminants on this process. The phytotoxic effects of arsenic on nodulation of Medicago sativa have been examined in vitro using the highly arsenic resistant and symbiotically effective Sinorhizobium sp. strain MA11. The bacteria were able to grow on plates containing As concentrations as high as 10 mM. Nevertheless, as little as 25-35 μM arsenite produced a 75% decrease in the total number of nodules, due to a 90% reduction in the number of rhizobial infections, as could be determined using the strain MA11 carrying a lacZ reporter gene. This effect was associated to root hair damage and a shorter infective root zone. However, once nodulation was established nodule development seemed to continue normally, although earlier senescence could be observed in nodules of arsenic-grown plants. - First steps of nodulation of alfalfa, in particular infection thread formation, are more sensitive to As than nitrogen fixation due to plant effects

  7. Toxic effects of arsenic on Sinorhizobium-Medicago sativa symbiotic interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajuelo, Eloisa [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain); Rodriguez-Llorente, Ignacio D. [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: irodri@us.es; Dary, Mohammed; Palomares, Antonio J. [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Recently, the Rhizobium-legume symbiotic interaction has been proposed as an interesting tool in bioremediation. However, little is known about the effect of most common contaminants on this process. The phytotoxic effects of arsenic on nodulation of Medicago sativa have been examined in vitro using the highly arsenic resistant and symbiotically effective Sinorhizobium sp. strain MA11. The bacteria were able to grow on plates containing As concentrations as high as 10 mM. Nevertheless, as little as 25-35 {mu}M arsenite produced a 75% decrease in the total number of nodules, due to a 90% reduction in the number of rhizobial infections, as could be determined using the strain MA11 carrying a lacZ reporter gene. This effect was associated to root hair damage and a shorter infective root zone. However, once nodulation was established nodule development seemed to continue normally, although earlier senescence could be observed in nodules of arsenic-grown plants. - First steps of nodulation of alfalfa, in particular infection thread formation, are more sensitive to As than nitrogen fixation due to plant effects.

  8. Parageneses and Crystal Chemistry of Arsenic Minerals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majzlan, J.; Drahota, P.; Filippi, Michal

    Chantilly: Mineralogical Society of America, 2014 - (Bowell, J.; Alpers, C.; Jamieson, H.; Nordstrom, D.; Majzlan, J.), s. 17-184. (Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 79). ISBN 978-0-939950-94-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : arsenic * mineralogy * parageneses * crystal structure Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rise to radiological evidence or pneumoconiosis. Arsenic does have a depressant effect upon the bone... regulated areas, food or beverages are not consumed, smoking products, chewing tobacco and gum are not used...-practice controls. (ii) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, for which the...

  10. Arsenic - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... español) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Arsenic English 关于砷的常问问题 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Food and Drug Administration Spanish (español) Arsénico Characters not ...

  11. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The FDA has been ... this, the FDA is considering how any possible health risk from these two forms of ... arsenic in fruit juice? The FDA has proposed an “action level” ...

  12. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  13. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to h

  14. Speciation of arsenic in environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for speciation of arsenic in environmental waters by selective hydride formation and on-line AAS is described. Starting from literature data, the separation scheme and the necessary apparatus are outlined. Preliminary practical experience then leads to the formulation of further improvements and accompanying testing experiments. (author). 51 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  15. Arsenic(III Immobilization on Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Chaudhuri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of large aquifers in various parts of the world have been identified with contamination by arsenic. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer of the skin, lungs, urinary bladder and kidney, as well as skin pigmentation and hyperkeratosis. Arsenic occurs in groundwater in two valence states, as trivalent arsenite [As(III] and pentavalent arsenate [As(V]. As(III is more toxic and more difficult to remove from water by adsorption on activated alumina. In this study, immobilization (adsorption of As(III by quaternized rice husk was examined. Batch adsorption test showed that extent of adsorption was dependent on pH, As (III concentration, contact time and rice husk dose. Maximum adsorption occurred at pH 7-8, and equilibrium adsorption was attained in 2 h. Equilibrium adsorption data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. According to the Langmuir isotherm, adsorption capacity of quaternized rice husk is 0.775 mg As(III/g, which is 4.3x higher than that (0.180 mg As(III/g of activated alumina. Quaternized rice husk is a potentially useful adsorbent for removing arsenic from groundwater.

  16. Arsenic mobilization from sediments in microcosms under sulfate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Quicksall, Andrew N; Chillrud, Steven N; Mailloux, Brian J; Bostick, Benjamin C

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic is often assumed to be immobile in sulfidic environments. Here, laboratory-scale microcosms were conducted to investigate whether microbial sulfate reduction could control dissolved arsenic concentrations sufficiently for use in groundwater remediation. Sediments from the Vineland Superfund site and the Coeur d'Alene mining district were amended with different combination of lactate and sulfate and incubated for 30-40 days. In general, sulfate reduction in Vineland sediments resulted in transient and incomplete arsenic removal, or arsenic release from sediments. Sulfate reduction in the Coeur d'Alene sediments was more effective at removing arsenic from solution than the Vineland sediments, probably by arsenic substitution and adsorption within iron sulfides. X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that the Vineland sediments initially contained abundant reactive ferrihydrite, and underwent extensive sulfur cycling during incubation. As a result, arsenic in the Vineland sediments could not be effectively converted to immobile arsenic-bearing sulfides, but instead a part of the arsenic was probably converted to soluble thioarsenates. These results suggest that coupling between the iron and sulfur redox cycles must be fully understood for in situ arsenic immobilization by sulfate reduction to be successful. PMID:27037658

  17. Arsenic hydrogeochemistry in an irrigated river valley - A reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the lower Madison River valley, Montana, are high (16 to 176 ??g/L). Previous studies hypothesized that arsenic-rich river water, applied as irrigation, was evapoconcentrated during recharge and contaminated the thin alluvial aquifer. Based on additional data collection and a reevaluation of the hydrology and geochemistry of the valley, the high arsenic concentrations in ground water are caused by a unique combination of natural hydrologic and geochemical factors, and irrigation appears to play a secondary role. The high arsenic concentrations in ground water have several causes: direct aquifer recharge by Madison River water having arsenic concentrations as high as 100 ??g/L, leaching of arsenic from Tertiary volcano-clastic sediment, and release of sorbed arsenic where redox conditions in ground water are reduced. The findings are consistent with related studies that demonstrate that arsenic is sorbed by irrigated soils in the valley. Although evaporation of applied irrigation water does not significantly increase arsenic concentrations in ground water, irrigation with arsenic-rich water raises other environmental concerns.

  18. Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Joyce S.; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Kaetzel, Rhonda; Scrafford, Carolyn; Mink, Pamela; Barraj, Leila M.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Goodman, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89?17.7 ?g/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91?19.9 ?g/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background.

  19. Arsenic efflux from Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhou Yan

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton plays an important role in arsenic speciation, distribution, and cycling in freshwater environments. Little information, however, is available on arsenic efflux from the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes. This study investigated M. aeruginosa arsenic efflux and speciation by pre-exposing it to 10 µM arsenate or arsenite for 24 h during limited (12 h and extended (13 d depuration periods under phosphate enriched (+P and phosphate depleted (-P treatments. Arsenate was the predominant species detected in algal cells throughout the depuration period while arsenite only accounted for no greater than 45% of intracellular arsenic. During the limited depuration period, arsenic efflux occurred rapidly and only arsenate was detected in solutions. During the extended depuration period, however, arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were found to be the two predominant arsenic species detected in solutions under -P treatments, but arsenate was the only species detected under +P treatments. Experimental results also suggest that phosphorus has a significant effect in accelerating arsenic efflux and promoting arsenite bio-oxidation in M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, phosphorus depletion can reduce arsenic efflux from algal cells as well as accelerate arsenic reduction and methylation. These findings can contribute to our understanding of arsenic biogeochemistry in aquatic environments and its potential environmental risks under different phosphorus levels.

  20. Evaluation of electrokinetic remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Oh; Kim, Won-Seok; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2005-09-01

    The potential of electrokinetic (EK) remediation technology has been successfully demonstrated for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated fine-grained soils through laboratory scale and field application studies. Arsenic contamination in soil is a serious problem affecting both site use and groundwater quality. The EK technology was evaluated for the removal of arsenic from two soil samples; a kaolinite soil artificially contaminated with arsenic and an arsenic-bearing tailing-soil taken from the Myungbong (MB) gold mine area. The effectiveness of enhancing agents was investigated using three different types of cathodic electrolytes; deionized water (DIW), potassium phosphate (KH(2)PO(4)) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The results of the experiments on the kaolinite show that the potassium phosphate was the most effective in extracting arsenic, probably due to anion exchange of arsenic species by phosphate. On the other hand, the sodium hydroxide seemed to be the most efficient in removing arsenic from the tailing-soil. This result may be explained by the fact that the sodium hydroxide increased the soil pH and accelerated ionic migration of arsenic species through the desorption of arsenic species as well as the dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals. PMID:16237600

  1. Soil Contamination by Arsenic in Urban Areas: A case study of Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Solgi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: It seems that arsenic in soil is controlled by natural and anthropogenic factors. The highest concentrations of arsenic in center and the north areas reflected arsenic loading is originated from anthropogenic sources such as vehicles and industrial processes.

  2. Life-history effects of arsenic toxicity in clades of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposures of Lumbricus rubellus to a series of arsenic concentrations in soil were used to assess life-stage (juvenile, adult) and genotype specific sensitivities, to calculate population growth rate (λ) and to assess patterns of As accumulation. Significant mortality was seen in juveniles at 125 mg/kg As, while growth and maturation was affected from 36 mg/kg and above. In adults, cocoon production at the highest concentration (125 mg/kg) was significantly reduced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by comparison of mitochondrial sequences to establish genotypic variation among juveniles. Three clades with more than 7.5% divergent were described, with 70% of earthworms belonging to a single clade. Date of and mass at maturation was significantly different between clades, but clades were not differentially As sensitive. Parameter λ was reduced at 36 mg/kg As and was negative at 125 mg/kg As, suggesting impacts and population stability and potential extinction at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: ► Lumbricus rubellus exposures to arsenic assessed life-stage and genotype sensitivities. ► Mortality effects were seen at 125 mg/kg and sublethal effects at 36 mg/kg ► Phylogenetic analysis identified three major L. rubellus clades. ► Date and mass at maturation, but not arsenic sensitivity, differed between clades. ► Effects on λ suggested population impacts at environmental concentrations. - Capsule: The impact of arsenic toxicity and role of genotype on Lumbricus rubellus life-history parameters reveal variation among sublethal endpoints.

  3. Inverse association between toenail arsenic and body mass index in a population of welders

    OpenAIRE

    Grashow, Rachel; Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Christiani, David C.; Kile, Molly L.; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Recent data show that arsenic may play a role in obesity-related diseases. However, urinary arsenic studies report an inverse association between arsenic level and body mass index (BMI). We explored whether toenail arsenic, a long-term exposure measure, was associated with BMI in 74 welders with known arsenic exposure. BMI showed significant inverse associations with toenail arsenic (p=0.01), which persisted in models adjusted for demographics, diet and work history. It is unclear whether low...

  4. In Vivo Assessment of Arsenic Bioavailability in Rice and Its Significance for Human Health Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Juhasz, Albert L.; Smith, Euan; Weber, John; Rees, Matthew; Rofe, Allan; Kuchel, Tim; Sansom, Lloyd; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Background Millions of people worldwide consume arsenic-contaminated rice; however, little is known about the uptake and bioavailability of arsenic species after arsenic-contaminated rice ingestion. Objectives In this study, we assessed arsenic speciation in greenhouse-grown and supermarket-bought rice, and determined arsenic bioavailability in cooked rice using an in vivo swine model. Results In supermarket-bought rice, arsenic was present entirely in the inorganic form compared to greenhous...

  5. Association of Genetic Variation in Cystathionine-β-Synthase and Arsenic Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Kristin E.; Basu, Anamika; Alan E Hubbard; Bates, Michael N.; Kalman, David; Rey, Omar; Smith, Allan; Smith, Martyn T.; Steinmaus, Craig; Skibola, Christine F.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced disease may be partially explained by genetic differences in arsenic metabolism. Mounting epidemiological evidence and in vitro studies suggest that methylated arsenic metabolites, particularly monomethylarsonic (MMA3), are more acutely toxic than inorganic arsenic; thus, MMA3 may be the primary toxic arsenic species. To test the role of genetic variation in arsenic metabolism, polymorphisms in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism [...

  6. geochemical controls on arsenic and phosphorus in natural and engineered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jason Edward

    2000-01-01

    This thesis elucidates fundamental reactions that can control concentrations of arsenic and phosphate in water sources. High levels of arsenic or phosphorus have significant implications for the environment-- arsenic is extremely toxic to humans while phosphorus can cause eutrophication. Initial work focused on arsenic solids that might exert geochemical control on soluble arsenic. Formation of proposed iron, barium, copper and zinc-arsenic solids were systematically examined under ...

  7. Arsenic, mode of action at biologically plausible low doses: What are the implications for low dose cancer risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is an established human carcinogen. However, there has been much controversy about the shape of the arsenic response curve, particularly at low doses. This controversy has been exacerbated by the fact that the mechanism(s) of arsenic carcinogenesis are still unclear and because there are few satisfactory animal models for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the relative risk for cancer among populations exposed to ≤60 ppb As in their drinking water is often lower than the risk for the unexposed control population. We have found that treatment of human keratinocyte and fibroblast cells with 0.1 to 1 μM arsenite (AsIII) also produces a low dose protective effect against oxidative stress and DNA damage. This response includes increased transcription, protein levels and enzyme activity of several base excision repair genes, including DNA polymerase β and DNA ligase I. At higher concentrations (> 10 μM), As induces down-regulation of DNA repair, oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis. This low dose adaptive (protective) response by a toxic agent is known as hormesis and is characteristic of many agents that induce oxidative stress. A mechanistic model for arsenic carcinogenesis based on these data would predict that the low dose risk for carcinogenesis should be sub-linear. The threshold dose where toxicity outweighs protection is hard to predict based on in vitro dose response data, but might be estimated if one could determine the form (metabolite) and concentration of arsenic responsible for changes in gene regulation in the target tissues

  8. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast...... of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography–ICP-MS following microwave......-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg–1 wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (...

  9. Groundwater arsenic concentrations in Vietnam controlled by sediment age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Thai, Nguyen Thi; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Nhan, Pham Quy; Long, Tran Vu; Viet, Pham Hung; Murray, Andrew Sean

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater continues to threaten the health of millions of people in southeast Asia. The oxidation of organic carbon, coupled to the reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron oxides, is thought to control the release of sediment-bound arsenic into groundwater. However......, the cause of the high spatial variability in groundwater arsenic concentrations—which can range from 5 to 500 μg l−1 within distances of a few kilometres—has been uncertain. Here, we combine measurements of sediment age, organic-matter reactivity and water chemistry at four locations along a cross......-section of the arsenic-contaminated Red River floodplain in Vietnam to determine the origin of variations in groundwater arsenic concentrations. The burial age of the aquifer sediments, determined using optical stimulated luminescence, ranged from 460 years near the course of the present-day river to 5...

  10. The evolving use of arsenic in pharmacotherapy of malignant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritharis, Athena; Bradley, Thomas P; Budman, Daniel R

    2013-06-01

    For more than 2,000 years, arsenic and its derivatives have shown medical utility. Owing to the toxicities and potential carcinogenicity of arsenicals, their popularity has fluctuated. The exact mechanism of action of therapeutic arsenic is not well characterized but likely to involve apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, inhibition of intracellular transduction pathways, and cell functions. Arsenic trioxide has received approval for use in patients with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia for remission induction. Arsenic has additionally shown activity in a range of solid tumors, myelodysplastic syndrome, multiple myeloma, and in autoimmune diseases. The following is a review of the history of arsenic, its cellular metabolism, pharmacology, genetic basis of disposition, associated toxicities, and clinical efficacy. PMID:23494203

  11. Low doses of arsenic, via perturbing p53, promotes tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Suthakar; Li, Ping; Fagman, Johan; Yu, Tianqi; Lafontant, Jean; Zhang, Guojun; Chen, Changyan

    2016-09-01

    In drinking water and in workplace or living environments, low doses of arsenic can exist and operate as a potent carcinogen. Due to insufficient understanding and information on the pervasiveness of environmental exposures to arsenic, there is an urgent need to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of arsenic regarding its carcinogenic effect on human health. In this study, we demonstrate that low doses of arsenic exposure mitigate or mask p53 function and further perturb intracellular redox state, which triggers persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activates UPR (unfolded protein response), leading to transformation or tumorigenesis. Thus, the results suggest that low doses of arsenic exposure, through attenuating p53-regulated tumor suppressive function, change the state of intracellular redox and create a microenvironment for tumorigenesis. Our study also provides the information for designing more effective strategies to prevent or treat human cancers initiated by arsenic exposure. PMID:27425828

  12. Predicting groundwater arsenic contamination in Southeast Asia from surface parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Lenny; Berg, Michael; Amini, Manouchehr; Hug, Stephan J.; Annette Johnson, C.

    2008-08-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater resources threatens the health of millions of people worldwide, particularly in the densely populated river deltas of Southeast Asia. Although many arsenic-affected areas have been identified in recent years, a systematic evaluation of vulnerable areas remains to be carried out. Here we present maps pinpointing areas at risk of groundwater arsenic concentrations exceeding 10μgl-1. These maps were produced by combining geological and surface soil parameters in a logistic regression model, calibrated with 1,756 aggregated and geo-referenced groundwater data points from the Bengal, Red River and Mekong deltas. We show that Holocene deltaic and organic-rich surface sediments are key indicators for arsenic risk areas and that the combination of surface parameters is a successful approach to predict groundwater arsenic contamination. Predictions are in good agreement with the known spatial distribution of arsenic contamination, and further indicate elevated risks in Sumatra and Myanmar, where no groundwater studies exist.

  13. A critical review of arsenic exposures for Bangladeshi adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    Groundwater, the most important source of water for drinking, cooking, and irrigation in Bangladesh, is a significant contributor to the daily human intake of arsenic. Other arsenic intake pathways, established as relevant for Bangladeshi adults through this review, include consumption of contaminated edible plant parts and animal-origin food, inhalation of contaminated air, soil ingestion, betel quid chewing, and tobacco smoking. This review qualifies and quantifies these arsenic intake pathways through analysis of the range of arsenic levels observed in different food types, water, soil, and air in Bangladesh, and highlights the contributions of dietary intake variation and cooking method in influencing arsenic exposures. This study also highlights the potential of desirable dietary patterns and intakes in increasing arsenic exposure which is relevant to Bangladesh where nutritional deficiencies and lower-than-desirable dietary intakes continue to be a major concern. PMID:26004539

  14. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Gruber, Joann F.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L; Margaret R Karagas

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's ho...

  15. Analytical approaches for arsenic determination in air : a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Rodas Navarro, Daniel Alejandro; Sánchez de la Campa Verdona, Ana María; Alsioufi, Louay

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the different steps involved in the determination of arsenic in air, considering the particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous phase. The review focuses on sampling, sample preparation and instrumental analytical techniques for both total arsenic determination and speciation analysis. The origin, concentration and legislation concerning arsenic in ambient air are also considered. The review intends to describe the procedures for sample collection of total suspended particl...

  16. The Role of Photochemistry the Transport and Transformation of Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlak, David L.; Bentley, Abra

    1997-01-01

    Arsenic, a toxic trace element, enters surface waters from abandoned mines and geothermal springs. Once arsenic is discharged to surface waters, photochemical reactions can alter the oxidation state of the metal or cause the dissolution of the mineral phases onto which it could adsorb. To assess the role of these photochemical reactions arsenic fate and transport, we conducted laboratory studies and collected samples from arseniccontaminated surface waters. Results of laboratory studies indic...

  17. Resistance to Arsenic- and Antimony-Based Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Salerno; Arlette Garnier-Suillerot

    2003-01-01

    Organic arsenicals were the first antimicrobial agents specifically synthesized for the treatment of infectious diseases such as syphilis and sleeping sickness. For the treatment of diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites, organic derivatives of arsenic and the related metalloid antimony are still the drugs of choice. Arsenic trioxide, As203, has been used for a long time in traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of various diseases, and it has recently been shown to be clinically ac...

  18. Arsenic geochemistry and human health in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    McCarty, Kathleen M.; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic occurs naturally in many environmental components and enters the human body through several exposure pathways. Natural enrichment of arsenic may result in considerable contamination of soil, water, and air. Arsenic in groundwater can exceed values hundreds of time higher than the concentration recommended for drinking water. Such exposure levels indicate a serious potential health risk to individuals consuming raw groundwater. Human activities that have an impact on the environment ma...

  19. Quality of our groundwater resources: arsenic and fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater often contains arsenic or fluoride concentrations too high for drinking or cooking. These constituents, often naturally occurring, are not easy to remove. The right combination of natural or manmade conditions can lead to elevated arsenic or fluoride which includes continental source rocks, high alkalinity and pH, reducing conditions for arsenic, high phosphate, high temperature and high silica. Agencies responsible for safe drinking water should be aware of these conditions, be prepared to monitor, and treat if necessary.

  20. Purification of arsenic contaminated ground water using hydrated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical methodology has been developed for the separation of arsenic from ground water using inorganic material in neutral medium. The separation procedure involves the quantitative retention of arsenic on hydrated manganese dioxide, in neutral medium. The validity of the separation procedure has been checked by a standard addition method and radiotracer studies. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), a powerful measurement technique, has been used for the quantitative determination of arsenic. (author)

  1. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in wat...

  2. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G. White

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb. To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%, Proteobacteria (17% and Bacteriodetes (12% were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%, Prevotellaceae (12% and Veillonellacea (7% being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota.

  3. Behavior of arsenic in hydrometallurgical zinc production and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Peltekov A.B.; Boyanov B.S.; Markova T.S.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of arsenic in zinc sulphide concentrates is particularly harmful, because it creates problems in zinc electrolysis. The main source of arsenic in non-ferrous metallurgy is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). In oxidative roasting of zinc concentrates, FeAsS oxidizes to arsenic oxides (As2O3, As2O5). In this connection a natural FeAsS was examined, and also the distribution of arsenic in the products of the roasting process, the cycle of sulphuric acid obtaining and the leaching of zinc calcine...

  4. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  5. Arsenic-transforming microbes and their role in biomining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, L; Sklodowska, A

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that microorganisms can dissolve different minerals and use them as sources of nutrients and energy. The majority of rock minerals are rich in vital elements (e.g., P, Fe, S, Mg and Mo), but some may also contain toxic metals or metalloids, like arsenic. The toxicity of arsenic is disclosed after the dissolution of the mineral, which raises two important questions: (1) why do microorganisms dissolve arsenic-bearing minerals and release this metal into the environment in a toxic (also for themselves) form, and (2) How do these microorganisms cope with this toxic element? In this review, we summarize current knowledge about arsenic-transforming microbes and their role in biomining processes. Special consideration is given to studies that have increased our understanding of how microbial activities are linked to the biogeochemistry of arsenic, by examining (1) where and in which forms arsenic occurs in the mining environment, (2) microbial activity in the context of arsenic mineral dissolution and the mechanisms of arsenic resistance, (3) the minerals used and technologies applied in the biomining of arsenic, and (4) how microbes can be used to clean up post-mining environments. PMID:23299972

  6. Development of an arsenic trioxide vapor and arsine sampling train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sampling train was evaluated using 76As tracer for the measurement of particulate arsenic, arsine, and arsenic trioxide vapor in air and industrial process gas streams. In this train, a demister was used to remove droplets of water and oil, and particulates were removed by a filter. Vapor arsenic trioxide was collected in an impinger solution, and arsine gas was collected on silvered quartz beads. Hydrogen sulfide gas did not reduce the arsine trapping efficiency of the silvered beads, and charcoal proved to be an effective trap for both arsine and arsenic trioxide vapor. 1 figure, 2 tables

  7. Chemical characteristics of arsenic in a marine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various chemical forms of 74As accumulated from either water or food by the marine food chain [Fucus spiralis (L.) → Littorina littoralis (L.) → Nucella lapillus] have been separated and characterized. Arsenic components were separated by differential extraction followed by high-voltage paper electrophoresis/paper chromatography of the water-soluble farction and thin-layer chromatography of the lipid-soluble fraction. The algae assimilates arsenic mainly (60%) as one lipid-soluble compound with Rsub(f) = 0.18, and 12 water-soluble organo-arsenic compounds as minor components. On the other hand, the snails produce predominantly one major water-soluble organo-arsenic compound with Rsub(f) = 0.66. This water-soluble arsenic compound was produced by the snails and not by intestinal microbes. Time-course studies on the relative proportions of labelled arsenic compounds in algal tissue indicate a transition from arsenate through water-soluble organo-arsenic components to a lipid-soluble arsenic compound. The water-soluble organo-arsenic compounds in the food chain studied were different from those previously found or proposed in marine organisms. (orig.)

  8. Environmental arsenic exposure, selenium and sputum alpha-1 antitrypsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased respiratory disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protects the lung against tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure is associated with changes in airway AAT concentration and whether...... selenium positively associated with sputum AAT (P=0.004 and P=0.002, respectively). In analyses stratified by town, these relationships remained significant only in Ajo, with the higher arsenic exposure. Reduction in AAT may be a means by which arsenic induces respiratory disease, and selenium may protect...

  9. Urinary arsenic speciation profile in ethnic group of the Atacama desert (Chile) exposed to variable arsenic levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Jorge; Mansilla, Héctor D; Santander, I Paola; Fierro, Vladimir; Cornejo, Lorena; Barnes, Ramón M; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic groups from the Atacama Desert (known as Atacameños) have been exposed to natural arsenic pollution for over 5000 years. This work presents an integral study that characterizes arsenic species in water used for human consumption. It also describes the metabolism and arsenic elimination through urine in a chronically exposed population in northern Chile. In this region, water contained total arsenic concentrations up to 1250 μg L(-1), which was almost exclusively As(V). It is also important that this water was ingested directly from natural water sources without any treatment. The ingested arsenic was extensively methylated. In urine 93% of the arsenic was found as methylated arsenic species, such as monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. The original ingested inorganic species [As(V)], represent less than 1% of the total urinary arsenic. Methylation activity among individuals can be assessed by measuring primary [inorganic As/methylated As] and secondary methylation [MMA/DMA] indexes. Both methylation indexes were 0.06, indicating a high biological converting capability of As(V) into MMA and then MMA into DMA, compared with the control population and other arsenic exposed populations previously reported. PMID:25438126

  10. New Sorbents for Removing Arsenic From Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConchie, D. M.; Genc-Fuhrman, H.; Clark, M. W.; Caldicott, W.; Davies-McConchie, F. G.

    2004-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water used in many countries, including some of the poorest developing countries, and recognition that consuming this water can have serious consequences for human health, have led to increased investigations of ways to obtain safe water supplies. Finding new groundwater resources is a possible solution but this is a costly strategy that has no guarantee of success, particularly in areas where water is already a scarce commodity. The alternative is to treat water that is already available, but existing technologies are usually too expensive, too difficult to operate and maintain, or not completely effective when used in less developed countries or remote areas. There is therefore, an urgent need to find a simple and effective but inexpensive sorbent for arsenic that can be used to treat large volumes of water under less than ideal conditions. In this paper we present the results of field and laboratory trials that used a new, highly cost-effective, sorbent to remove arsenic from contaminated water. BauxsolT is the name given to the cocktail of minerals prepared by treating caustic bauxite refinery residues with Mg and Ca to produce a substance with a reaction pH of about 8.5, a high acid neutralizing capacity and an excellent ability to trap trace metals, metalloids and some other ionic species. The trapped ions are tightly bound by processes that include; precipitation of low solubility neoformational minerals, isomorphous substitution, solid-state diffusion, and adsorption; it is also an excellent flocculant. Although ordinary BauxsolT has an excellent ability to bind arsenate, and to a lesser extent arsenite, this ability can be further increased for particular water types by using activated BauxsolT or BauxsolT combined with small amounts of other reagents. Field trials conducted at the Gilt Edge Mine, South Dakota, showed that the addition of BauxsolT to highly sulfidic waste rock reduced the arsenic

  11. Tropospheric arsenic over marine and continental regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate and vapor concentrations of atmospheric As have been measured over various marine and continental areas. Particulate sample were collected on double Whatman 41 filters. Particulate-vapor samples were collected using an in-line filter system with a 0.45-μm pore size Nuclepore filters as a particle prefilter in front of two Whatman 41 filters impregnated with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and glycerol for vapor As collection. Arsenic determinations were by destructive neutron activation. The data from the Nuclepore-impregnated filter samples indicates that the major fraction of As in the atmosphere is particulate but a vapor component of As is detectable, most frequently associated with high sampling temperatures and high total As concentrations. With the data presented here, estimates of representative global near-surface concentrations of atmospheric arsenic have been made

  12. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurima Pandey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations.

  13. Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow groundwater with high arsenic concentrations from naturally occurring sources is the primary source of drinking water for millions of people in Bangladesh. It has resulted in a major public health crisis with as many as 70 million people possibly at risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is supporting international efforts and the Government of Bangladesh to find alternative, safe and sustainable sources of drinking water. (IAEA)

  14. Arsenic toxicity: the effects on plant metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PatrickFinnegan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The two forms inorganic arsenic, arsenate (AsV and arsenite (AsIII, are easily taken up by the cells of the plant root. Once in the cell, AsV can be readily converted to AsIII, the more toxic of the two forms. AsV and AsIII both disrupt plant metabolism, but through distinct mechanisms. AsV is a chemical analogue of phosphate that can disrupt at least some phosphate-dependent aspects of metabolism. AsV can be translocated across cellular membranes by phosphate transport proteins, leading to imbalances in phosphate supply. It can compete with phosphate during phosphorylation reactions, leading to the formation of AsV adducts that are often unstable and short-lived. As an example, the formation and rapid autohydrolysis of AsV-ADP sets in place a futile cycle that uncouples photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, decreasing the ability of cells to produce ATP and carry out normal metabolism. AsIII is a dithiol reactive compound that binds to and potentially inactivates enzymes containing closely spaced cysteine residues or other sulfhydryl-containing groups. Arsenic exposure generally induces the production of reactive oxygen species that can lead to the production of antioxidant metabolites and numerous enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. Oxidative carbon metabolism, amino acid and protein relationships, and nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways are also impacted by As exposure. These effects are reflected in a dramatic restructuring of amino acid pools in Arabidopsis thaliana upon AsV exposure. Readjustment of several metabolic pathways, such as glutathione production, has been shown to lead to increased arsenic tolerance in plants. Species- and cultivar-dependent variation in arsenic sensitivity and the remodeling of metabolite pools that occurs in response to As exposure gives hope that additional metabolic pathways associated with As tolerance will be identified.

  15. Arsenic trioxide: safety issues and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wing-Yan AU; Yok-Lam KWONG

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used medicinally for thousands of years.Its therapeutic use in leukaemia was described a century ago.Recent rekindling in the interest of As2O3 is due to its high efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL).As2O3 has also been tested clinically in other blood and solid cancers.Most studies have used intravenous As2O3,although an oral As2O3 is equally efficacious.Side effects of As2O3 are usually minor,including skin reactions,gastrointestinal upset,and hepatitis.These respond to symptomatic treatment or temporary drug cessation,and do not compromise subsequent treatment with As2O3.During induction therapy in APL,a leucocytosis may occasionally occur,which can be associated with fluid accumulation and pulmonary infiltration.The condition is similar to the APL differentiation syndrome during treatment with all-trans retinoic acid,and responds to cytoreductive treatment and corticosteroids.Intravenous As2O3 treatment leads to QT prolongation.In the presence of under-lying cardiopulmonary diseases or electrolyte disturbances,particularly hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia,serious arrhythmias may develop,with torsades du pointes reported in 1% of cases.This may be related to a dose-dependent arsenic-mediated inhibition of potassium ion channels that compro-mises cardiac repolarization.Because of slow intestinal absorption,oral-As2O3 gives a lower plasma arsenic concentration,which is associated with lesser QT prolongation and hence a more favorable cardiac safety profile.As2O3 does not appear to enter the central nervous system.However,if the blood brain barrier is breached,elemental arsenic may enter the cerebrospinal fluid.As2O3 is predomi-nantly excreted in the kidneys,and dose adjustment is required when renal func-tion is impaired.

  16. Arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidou, M.; Charalambous, C.; Aletrari, M.; Nicolaidou Kanari, P.; Petronda, A.; Ward, N. I.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryCyprus being a Mediterranean island with long dry summers and mild winters suffers from water deficiency and over exploitation of its water resources. Groundwater in Cyprus is a valuable natural resource as approximately 50% of the total water needs come from underground water supplies. According to the Directive 118/2006/EC, groundwater should be protected from deterioration and chemical pollution, this is particularly important for groundwater dependent ecosystems and for the use of groundwater as a water supply for human consumption. During 2007 to 2009, as part of a national monitoring programme, 84 boreholes were sampled in Cyprus and subsequently analysed for total arsenic by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The groundwater concentrations ranged from <0.3 to 41 μg/L As. Several boreholes located in a rural farming district near Nicosia had concentrations above the World Health Organisation (WHO) Drinking Water Guideline limit of 10 μg/L As. Evaluation of the groundwater sampling procedure for boreholes provided data recommending that water samples should be collected after an initial borehole washout for 5 min. Further sampling of these boreholes in 2010, revealed total arsenic concentrations of <0.3-64.2 μg/L As, with the predominant arsenic species (determined using a novel field-based methodology) being arsenate (AsV). The maximum total arsenic concentration is 6-fold higher than the WHO Drinking Water Guideline limit (10 μg/L As) and approximately half of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (UN-FAO) irrigational limit of 100 μg/L As.

  17. Examination of the effects of arsenic on glucose homeostasis in cell culture and animal studies: Development of a mouse model for arsenic-induced diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous epidemiologic studies found increased prevalences of type 2 diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water. Although results of epidemiologic studies in low-exposure areas or occupational settings have been inconclusive, laboratory research has shown that exposures to iAs can produce effects that are consistent with type 2 diabetes. The current paper reviews the results of laboratory studies that examined the effects of iAs on glucose metabolism and describes new experiments in which the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure were reproduced in a mouse model. Here, weanling male C57BL/6 mice drank deionized water with or without the addition of arsenite (25 or 50 ppm As) for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests revealed impaired glucose tolerance in mice exposed to 50 ppm As, but not to 25 ppm As. Exposure to 25 and 50 ppm As in drinking-water resulted in proportional increases in the concentration of iAs and its metabolites in the liver and in organs targeted by type 2 diabetes, including pancreas, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Dimethylarsenic was the predominant form of As in the tissues of mice in both 25 and 50 ppm groups. Notably, the average concentration of total speciated arsenic in livers from mice in the 50 ppm group was comparable to the highest concentration of total arsenic reported in the livers of Bangladeshi residents who had consumed water with an order of magnitude lower level of iAs. These data suggest that mice are less susceptible than humans to the diabetogenic effects of chronic exposure to iAs due to a more efficient clearance of iAs or its metabolites from target tissues

  18. Arsenic evolution in fractured bedrock wells in central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Zheng, Y.; Culbertson, C.; Schalk, C.; Nielsen, M. G.; Marvinney, R.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated arsenic concentration in fractured bedrock wells has emerged as an important and challenging health problem, especially in rural areas without public water supply and mandatory monitoring of private wells. This has posed risks of skin, bladder, prostate diseases and cancers to private well users. In central Maine, including the study site, 31% of bedrock wells in meta-sedimentary formations have been reported of elevated arsenic concentrations of > 10 µg/L. Geophysical logging and fracture specific water sampling in high arsenic wells have been conducted to understand how water flowing through the aquifers enters the boreholes and how arsenic evolves in the fracture bedrock wells. Two domestic wells in Manchester, Maine, located 50 meter apart with 38 µg/L and 73 µg/L of arsenic in unfiltered water, were investigated to characterize fractures by geophysical logging and to determine flow rates by pumping test. Water samples, representing the bore hole and the fractures, were collected and analyzed for arsenic under ambient and pumping conditions. Transmissivity of the fractures was estimated at 0.23-10.6 m2/day. Water with high dissolved arsenic was supplied primarily by high yielding fractures near the bottom of the borehole. Dissolved arsenic concentrations in borehole water increased as fracture water with high arsenic was replacing borehole water with initially low dissolved arsenic in response to pumping. The precipitation of iron particulates enriched in arsenic was common during and after pumping. Laboratory experiment on well water samples over a period of 16 days suggested that in the borehole arsenic was mainly settled with iron enriched particles, likely amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides, with possibly minor adsorption on the iron minerals. Another bedrock well in Litchfield, Maine, with 478 µg/L of arsenic in the unfiltered well water, is being investigated to quantify and reconstruct of the groundwater flow under ambient and pumping conditions

  19. Drinking water arsenic exposure and blood pressure in healthy women of reproductive age in Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extremely high exposure levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower exposure levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8790 women who had recently been pregnant in an area of Inner Mongolia, China known to have a gradient of drinking water arsenic exposure. This study observed increased systolic blood pressure levels with increasing drinking water arsenic, at lower exposure levels than previously reported in the literature. As compared to the referent category (below limit of detection to 20 μg of As/L), the overall population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.29 mm Hg (95% CI 0.82, 1.75), 1.28 mm Hg (95% CI 0.49, 2.07), and 2.22 mm Hg (95% CI 1.46, 2.97) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased from 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 μg of As/L, respectively. Controlling for age and body weight (n = 3260), the population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.88 mm Hg (95% CI 1.03, 2.73), 3.90 mm Hg (95% CI 2.52, 5.29), and 6.83 mm Hg (95% CI 5.39, 8.27) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased, respectively. For diastolic blood pressure effect, while statistically significant, was not as pronounced as systolic blood pressure. Mean diastolic blood pressure rose 0.78 mm Hg (95% CI 0.39, 1.16), 1.57 mm Hg (95% CI 0.91, 2.22) and 1.32 mm Hg (95% CI 0.70, 1.95), respectively, for the overall population and rose 2.11 mm Hg (95% CI 1.38, 2.84), 2.74 mm Hg (95% CI 1.55, 3.93), and 3.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84, 4.31), respectively, for the adjusted population (n = 3260) at drinking water arsenic concentrations of 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 μg of As/L. If our study results are confirmed in other populations, the potential burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to drinking water arsenic is significant

  20. Arsenic speciation in arsenic-rich Brazilian soils from gold mining sites under anaerobic incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, J. W. V.; Talbott, J.L.; Scott, J.; Roy, W.R.; Stucki, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Arsenic speciation in environmental samples is essential for studying toxicity, mobility and bio-transformation of As in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although the inorganic species As(III) and As(V) have been considered dominant in soils and sediments, organisms are able to metabolize inorganic forms of arsenic into organo-arsenic compounds. Arsenosugars and methylated As compounds can be found in terrestrial organisms, but they generally occur only as minor constituents. We investigated the dynamics of arsenic species under anaerobic conditions in soils surrounding gold mining areas from Minas Gerais State, Brazil to elucidate the arsenic biogeochemical cycle and water contamination mechanisms. Methods. Surface soil samples were collected at those sites, namely Paracatu Formation, Banded Iron Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence, and incubated in CaCl2 2.5 mmol L-1 suspensions under anaerobic conditions for 1, 28, 56 and 112 days. After that, suspensions were centrifuged and supernatants analyzed for soluble As species by IC-ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. Results. Easily exchangeable As was mainly arsenite, except when reducible manganese was present. Arsenate was mainly responsible for the increase in soluble arsenic due to the reductive dissolution of either iron or manganese in samples from the Paracatu Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence. On the other hand, organic species of As dominated in samples from the Banded Iron Formation during anaerobic incubation. Discussion. Results are contrary to the expectation that, in anaerobic environments, As release due to the reductive dissolution of Fe is followed by As(V) reduction to As(III). The occurrence of organo-arsenic species was also found to be significant to the dynamics of soluble arsenic, mainly in soils from the Banded Iron Formation (BIF), under our experimental conditions. Conclusions. In general, As(V) and organic As were the dominant species in solution, which is surprising

  1. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 54302, September 7, 2010, and Aluminum Extrusions From... Antidumping Duty Determination, 75 FR 57441, September 21, 2010. \\3\\ See Aluminum Extrusions From the People's... Determination of Targeted Dumping, 75 FR 69403, November 12, 2010, and Aluminum Extrusions From the...

  2. Understanding and Quantifying Controls of Arsenic Mobility during Deepwell Re-injection of CSG Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Rathi, B.; Prommer, H.; Donn, M.; Siade, A. J.; Berg, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Australia, the injection of reverse-osmosis treated production water from coal seams into the surrounding, deep aquifers may provide the most viable method to dispose of large quantities of production water. The geochemical disequilibrium between the injectant water composition and the target aquifer can potentially drive a range of water-sediment interactions that must be clearly understood and quantified in order to anticipate and manage future water quality changes at both the local and regional scale. In this study, we use a multi-scale geochemical characterisation of a proposed reinjection site in combination with geochemical/reactive transport modeling to understand and predict the long-term fate of arsenic; and explore means for suitably mitigating an undesired increase of naturally occurring arsenic concentrations. We use a series of arsenic sorption experiments with the aquifer material from an injection trial site in Queensland, Australia to quantify As sorption/desorption from mineral surfaces in response to changes in site-specific geochemical conditions. Batch experiments with arsenite were performed under anoxic conditions to replicate the highly reducing in-situ conditions. The results showed significant arsenic mobility at pH >8. Competitive sorption effects with phosphate and the impact of varying temperatures were also tested in batch mode. A site-specific general composite (GC) surface complexation model (SCM) was derived through inverse geochemical modeling, i.e., selection of appropriate surface complexation reactions and optimization of sorption constants. The SCM was subsequently tested and further improved during the interpretation of data from column flow-through experiments and from a field injection trial. Eventually the uncertainty associated with estimates of sorption constants was addressed and the effects of this uncertainty on field-scale model predictions were analyzed.

  3. Hydrogeological investigation for assessment of the sustainability of low-arsenic aquifers as a safe drinking water source in regions with high-arsenic groundwater in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    von Brömssen, Martin; Markussen, Lars; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Hossain, Mohammed; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Hasan, Md Aziz; Islam, M. Mainul; Rahman, M. Mokhlesur

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of groundwater from shallow, high prolific Holocene sedimentary aquifers has been a main element for achieving safe drinking water and food security in Bangladesh. However, the presence of elevated levels of geogenic arsenic (As) in these aquifers has undermined this success. Except for targeting safe aquifers through installations of tubewells to greater depth, no mitigation option has been successfully implemented on a larger scale. The objective of this study has been to chara...

  4. Arsenic induces NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase I by disrupting the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 complex and recruiting Nrf2 x Maf to the antioxidant response element enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoqing; Chen, Michael G; Lin, Gary X; Ma, Qiang

    2006-08-18

    The ubiquitous toxic metalloid arsenic elicits pleiotropic adverse and adaptive responses in mammalian species. The biological targets of arsenic are largely unknown at present. We analyzed the signaling pathway for induction of detoxification gene NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) by arsenic. Genetic and biochemical evidence revealed that induction required cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE) of Nqo1. Arsenic stabilized Nrf2 protein, extending the t(1/2) of Nrf2 from 21 to 200 min by inhibiting the Keap1 x Cul3-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. Arsenic markedly inhibited the ubiquitination of Nrf2 but did not disrupt the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 association in the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, arsenic, but not phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone, dissociated Nrf2 from Keap1 and Cul3 followed by dimerization of Nrf2 with a Maf protein (Maf G/Maf K). Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Nrf2 and Maf associated with the endogenous Nqo1 ARE enhancer constitutively. Arsenic substantially increased the ARE occupancy by Nrf2 and Maf. In addition, Keap1 was shown to be ubiquitinated in the cytoplasm and deubiquitinated in the nucleus in the presence of arsenic without changing the protein level, implicating nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of Keap1. Our data reveal that arsenic activates the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway through a distinct mechanism from that by antioxidants and suggest an "on-switch" model of Nqo1 transcription in which the binding of Nrf2 x Maf to ARE controls both the basal and inducible expression of Nqo1. PMID:16785233

  5. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  6. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  7. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  8. Sedimentology and arsenic pollution in the Bengal Basin: insight into arsenic occurrence and subsurface geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew; McArthur, John

    2014-05-01

    The Bengal delta system is a geologically recent feature overlying a deeply incised palaeo-surface formed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This surface is a series of terraces and valleys created by river incision (Goodbred & Kuehl 2003). The terraces were weathered, forming a thin, indurated laterite deposit (Goodbred & Kuehl 2000) at depths greater than 50 m. McArthur et al. (2008) define this as a palaeosol and have identified it at depths greater than 30 m though out Bangladesh and West Bengal. It has been observed that arsenic concentrations at these sites are lower than the rest of the delta. It has been assumed that the surface morphology at sites where there is a palaeosol are similar and can therefore be characterised by remote sensing, in the form of Google Earth images. Sites were selected in Bangladesh and West Bengal, from work by McArthur et al. (2011); Hoque et al. (2012), where groundwater chemistry and sedimentology data are available making it possible to determine if the subsurface is a palaeo-channel or palaeo-interfluve. Arsenic concentration data have been inputted into Google Earth and the palaeo-channels marked where the arsenic concentration is greater than 10 µg/L, and palaeo-interfluves where arsenic concentration is less than 10 µg/L. The surface morphologies in these domains have been examined for similarities, and it was shown that avulsion scars and abandoned river channels are found where arsenic concentrations are greater than 10 µg/L. Conversely the surrounding areas that are devoid of channel scars have arsenic concentrations less than 10 µg/L. Using the correlation between avulsion features being representative of palaeo-channels and high arsenic concentrations, sites were selected that had a similar surface morphology to the type localities. A comparison of these images and arsenic concentrations showed that the postulate is valid for over 80 percent of cases. Where this is not valid, this could indicate that the subsurface

  9. Natural and industrial Arsenic pollution,early predictors of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic and arsenic compounds have been classidied in Group 1 " carcinogenic to humans" by IARC (2004). Both short-and long-term exposure to arsenic can cause several health problems. The interest in cardiovascular effects of human esposures to arsenic is growing.

  10. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ARSENICALS FROM SEAFOOD MATRICES WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ICP-MS DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two major sources of arsenic exposure are water and diet. Dietary exposure is considerably more difficult to assess because of the diversity of arsenicals present in dietary matrices coupled with species dependent toxicity of arsenic. Dietary arsenic assessments are further c...

  11. PEPTIDE BINDING AS A MODE OF ACTION FOR THE CARCINOGENICITY AND TOXICITY OF ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure leads to tumors in human skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Three likely initial stages of arsenical-macromolecular interaction are (1) binding of trivalent arsenicals to the sulfhydryl groups of peptides and proteins, (2) arsenical-induced generation...

  12. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for drinking water treatment in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow tube well drinking water is an urgent health problem in Bangladesh. Current arsenic mitigation solutions, including (household) arsenic removal options, do not always provide a sustainable alternative for safe drinking water. A novel technology, Subsurface Arsenic Re

  13. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lu [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan Xiulan [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Liao Xiaoyong, E-mail: liaoxy@igsnrr.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Wen Yi; Chong Zhongyi; Liang Tao [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on plant uptake and antioxidative response of Pteris vitatta L. were studied hydroponically. The combination of arsenic and phenanthrene decreased arsenic contents in fronds by 30-51%, whereas increased arsenic concentrations 1.2-1.6 times in roots, demonstrating the suppression of arsenic translocation compared to the corresponding treatment without phenanthrene. Under the co-exposure, As(III) concentrations in fronds deceased by 12-73%, and at higher arsenic exposure level ({>=}10 mg/L), As(V) in fronds and As(III) in roots increased compared to the single arsenic treatment. Arsenic exposure elevated phenanthrene concentrations in root by 39-164%. The co-existence of arsenic and phenanthrene had little impact on plant arsenic accumulation, although synergistic effect on antioxidants was observed, suggesting the special physiological process of P. vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination. - Highlights: > Pteris vitatta L. show tolerance to the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure. > P. vitatta efficiently accumulate arsenic and simultaneously enhance phenanthrene dissipation. > Phenanthrene suppresses arsenic translocation from roots to fronds. > Phenanthrene causes As(III) elevation in roots while reduction in fronds. > Synergistic effect potentiates the toxicity and antioxidants in plant. - Pteris vitatta L. not only efficiently accumulate arsenic but also enhance phenanthrene dissipation under the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M; Brown, Steven D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8. PMID:25883298

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Ferrero, Marcela A.; ROSEN, BARRY P.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8.

  16. Effects of organic matter and ageing on the bioaccessibility of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, Louise; Koch, Iris [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College, P.O. Box 17 000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K7B4 (Canada); Reimer, Kenneth J., E-mail: reimer-k@rmc.ca [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College, P.O. Box 17 000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K7B4 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic-contaminated soils may pose a risk to human health. Redevelopment of contaminated sites may involve amending soils with organic matter, which potentially increases arsenic bioaccessibility. The effects of ageing on arsenic-contaminated soils mixed with peat moss were evaluated in a simulated ageing period representing two years, during which arsenic bioaccessibility was periodically measured. Significant increases (p = 0.032) in bioaccessibility were observed for 15 of 31 samples tested, particularly in comparison with samples originally containing >30% bioaccessible arsenic in soils naturally rich in organic matter (>25%). Samples where percent arsenic bioaccessibility was unchanged with age were generally poor in organic matter (average 7.7%) and contained both arsenopyrite and pentavalent arsenic forms that remained unaffected by the organic matter amendments. Results suggest that the addition of organic matter may lead to increases in arsenic bioaccessibility, which warrants caution in the evaluation of risks associated with redevelopment of arsenic-contaminated land. - Highlights: > Adding organic matter to contaminated soils may increase arsenic bioaccessibility. > Ageing soils with >25% organic matter can lead to increased arsenic bioaccessibility. > No changes in arsenic bioaccessibility for soils poor in organic matter (mean 7.7%). > No changes in arsenic bioaccessibility for samples containing arsenopyrite. > Organic matter in soil may favour oxidation of trivalent arsenic to pentavalent form. - Adding organic carbon may increase arsenic bioaccessibility, especially in samples originally containing >30% bioaccessible arsenic in organic carbon-rich soils (>25%).

  17. Detecting and quantifying lewisite degradation products in environmental samples using arsenic speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Crain, J.S.; Shem, L.M.; O`Neill, H.J.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Besmer, M.; Mohrman, G.B. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a unique method for identifying and quantifying lewisite degradation products using arsenic (III) and arsenic (IV) speciation in solids and in solutions. Gas chromatographic methods, as well as high-performance liquid chromatographic methods are described for separation of arsenic species. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrographic methods are presented for the detection of arsenic.

  18. Eggshell membrane-based solid-phase extraction combined with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry for trace arsenic(V) in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjiang; Wang, Weidong; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuming; Cao, Jia

    2010-03-15

    The eggshell membrane (ESM) contains several surface functional groups such as amines, amides and carboxylic groups with potential as SPE adsorbent for the retention of target species of interest. In this paper, the potential use of ESM, a typical biomaterial, as solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent is evaluated for analysis of trace arsenic(V) in environmental water samples in combination with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). In order to obtain the satisfactory recovery of arsenic(V), various parameters including the desorption and enrichment conditions such as pH, the flow rate and the volume of sample solution, the amount of ESM and the content of sodium chloride were systematically optimized and the effects of co-existed ions were also investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, arsenic(V) could be easily extracted by the ESM packed cartridge and the breakthrough adsorption capacity was found to be 3.9 microg g(-1). The favorable limit of detection (LOD) for arsenic(V) was found to be 0.001 microg L(-1) with an enrichment factor of 33.3, and the relative standard deviations (R.S.Ds) was 2.1% for 0.6 microg L(-1) arsenic (n=11). The reproducibility among columns was satisfactory (R.S.D. among columns is less than 5%). The proposed method has been successfully applied to analysis of arsenic(V) in aqueous environmental samples, which suggests the ESM can be an excellent SPE adsorbent for arsenic(V) pretreatment and enrichment from real water samples. PMID:20152431

  19. Secondary arsenic minerals in the environment: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, P.; Filippi, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 8 (2009), s. 1243-1255. ISSN 0160-4120 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300130702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : arsenic * secondary arsenic mineral * environmental sample * solubility * environmental stability Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.786, year: 2009

  20. Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajrak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

  1. History of Arsenic as a Poison and Medicinal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since ancient times, human exposure to the metalloid arsenic has been both intentional and unintentional. The intentional exposure to arsenic has been to inflict harm on others as well as to be a curative agent for those who are ill. The unintentional exposure has either been f...

  2. Assessment of natural arsenic in groundwater in Cordoba Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisca, Franco M; Carro Perez, Magalí E

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in different hydrogeological regions, to define the naturally expected concentration in an aquifer by means of hydrogeochemistry studies, and to identify emergent health evidences related to cancer mortality in the study area. The correlation between arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater is analyzed at each county in the Cordoba Province. Two dimensionless geoindicators are proposed to identify risk zones and to rapidly visualize the groundwater quality related to the presence of arsenic and fluoride. A surface-mapping system is used to identify the spatial variability of concentrations and for suggesting geoindicators. The results show that the Chaco-Pampean plain hydrogeologic region is the most affected area, with arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater being generally higher than the values suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Mortality related to kidney, lung, liver, and skin cancer in this area could be associated to the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water. Generated maps provide a base for the assessment of the risk associated to the natural occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the region. PMID:19165608

  3. Rapid biotransformation of arsenic by a model protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic biomethylation and biovolatilization are thought to be two important metabolic pathways in aquatic and soil environments. Tetrahymena thermophila is a genus of free-living ciliated protozoan that is widely distributed in freshwater environments around the world. In this study, we studied arsenic accumulation, speciation, efflux, methylation and volatilization in this unicellular eukaryote exposed to various concentrations of arsenate. Our results show that T. thermophila accumulated 187 mg.kg-1 dry weight of arsenic when exposed to 40 μM for 48 h, with MMAs(V) (monomethylarsenate) and DMAs(V) (dimethylarsenate) as the dominant species, accounting for 66% of the total arsenic. Meanwhile, arsenate, arsenite, MMAs(V) and DMAs(V) were detected in the culture medium; the last three were released by the cells. The production of volatile arsenic increased with increasing external As(V) concentrations and exposure time. To our knowledge, this is the first study on arsenic metabolism, particularly biomethylation and biovolatilization, in protozoa. - Tetrahymena thermophila can rapidly methylate arsenic, and produce volatile arsenicals.

  4. FIELD STUDY OF ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER BY ZEROVALENT IRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of ground-water resources by arsenic is a widespread environmental problem; consequently, there is a need for developments and improvements of remedial technologies to effectively manage arsenic contamination in ground water and soils. In June 2005, a 7 m long, 14 ...

  5. Adsorption characteristics of arsenic and boron by soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to obtain baseline data concerning the surface and ground water pollution caused by coal ash disposal, adsorption characteristics of arsenic (III) and boron by soil have been studied through laboratory experiments. The main results are as follows: (1) Arsenic (III) and boron adsorption on soil was strongly dependent on pH with adsorption maxima at pH 8 and 8-9, respectively. (2) Arsenic (III) and boron adsorption on soil over the entire concentration ranges investigated could be described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, respectively. The Henry adsorption isotherm was also applicable over the lower concentration ranges of arsenic (III) and boron (As (III): < 0.1 deltag/ml; B: < 5deltag/ml.) (3) Arsenic (III) and boron adsorption on soil is controlled mainly by the contents of extractable Fe oxide and hydroxide for arsenic (III) and by the contents of extractable Al hydroxide and allophane (amorphous aluminium silicates) for boron. (4) Adsorption and movement of arsenic (III) and boron during the infiltration of coal ash leachate in soil layer were investigated by means of the unsteady-state, one-dimensional convective-diffusive mass transport model. This model is very useful for evaluation and prediction of the contamination of ground water by trace elements such as arsenic (III) and boron leached at coal ash disposal site.

  6. POU/POE TREATMENT OF ARSENIC IN GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point-of-use/Point-of-entry (POU/POE) arsenic removal systems were installed in seventeen homes that were found to have high levels of arsenic (50-480ug/L) in their well water. This presetation will describe the process and the problems encountered in selecting the treatment syst...

  7. Arsenic in detergents: Possible danger and pollution hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angino, E.E.; Magnuson, L.M.; Waugh, T.C.; Galle, O.K.; Bredfeldt, J.

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic at a concentration of 10 to 70 parts per million has been detected in several common presoaks and household detergents. Arsenic values of 2 to 8 parts per billion have been measured in the Kansas River. These concentrations are close to the amount (10 parts per billion) recommended by the United States Public Health Service as a drinking-water standard.

  8. Rapid biotransformation of arsenic by a model protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Xixiang [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Yongyu; Yang Jun [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhu Yongguan, E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Arsenic biomethylation and biovolatilization are thought to be two important metabolic pathways in aquatic and soil environments. Tetrahymena thermophila is a genus of free-living ciliated protozoan that is widely distributed in freshwater environments around the world. In this study, we studied arsenic accumulation, speciation, efflux, methylation and volatilization in this unicellular eukaryote exposed to various concentrations of arsenate. Our results show that T. thermophila accumulated 187 mg.kg{sup -1} dry weight of arsenic when exposed to 40 {mu}M for 48 h, with MMAs(V) (monomethylarsenate) and DMAs(V) (dimethylarsenate) as the dominant species, accounting for 66% of the total arsenic. Meanwhile, arsenate, arsenite, MMAs(V) and DMAs(V) were detected in the culture medium; the last three were released by the cells. The production of volatile arsenic increased with increasing external As(V) concentrations and exposure time. To our knowledge, this is the first study on arsenic metabolism, particularly biomethylation and biovolatilization, in protozoa. - Tetrahymena thermophila can rapidly methylate arsenic, and produce volatile arsenicals.

  9. Biotransformation and biomethylation of arsenic by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wu, Mingyin; Lu, Gan; Si, Youbin

    2016-02-01

    The resistance of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to toxic arsenic was investigated by measuring the growth of the bacteria in the presence of As(III) and As(V) in different growth media. The bacteria were shown to biotransform arsenic through the partial methylation of inorganic arsenic into methylated metabolites. This biotransformation of inorganic arsenic by S. oneidensis MR-1 was affected by the methyl donor, the composition of the medium, and the presence of Fe(III). The relative content of methylated arsenic in the medium containing S-adenosyl methionine as the methyl donor was greater than that in the medium containing methylcobalamin. The biotransformation process driven by Fe-reducing bacteria, and occurred in combination with microbially mediated As-Fe reduction in the presence of Fe(III). The results demonstrate that S. oneidensis MR-1 methylates inorganic arsenic into less toxic organoarsenic compounds. This process has potential applications in the bioremediation of environmental arsenic, and the results provide new insights into the control of in situ arsenic pollution. PMID:26692509

  10. Analytical Strategies for the Determination of Arsenic in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno E. S. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is an element of concern given its toxicological significance, even at low concentrations. Food is a potential route of exposure to inorganic arsenic and in this regard arsenic in rice is associated with soil contamination, fertilizer application, and the use of arsenic-containing irrigation water. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the regional rice crops with a view to future discussions on the need for possible regulatory measures. Several studies have reported high concentrations of arsenic in rice grown in soils irrigated with contaminated water; however, procedures used, including sample pretreatment and preconcentration steps, have to be followed to ensure sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. Arsenic is a difficult element to measure in complex matrices, such as foods, because the matrix must be destroyed at an elevated temperature without the loss of the analyte or contamination. This review summarizes the major methods for the determination of arsenic in rice samples. The main purpose of this review is to provide an update on the recent literature concerning the strategies for the determination of arsenic and to critically discuss their advantages and weaknesses. These difficulties are described along with recent developments aimed at overcoming these potential issues.

  11. Arsenic Methylation, Oxidative Stress and Cancer - Is there a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a multiorgan human carcinogen. The best-known example of this effect occurred in subgroups of the Taiwanese population who were chronically exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water and developed cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladde...

  12. Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in rocks, soils, and the waters in contact with them. Recognized as a toxic element for centuries, arsenic today also is a human health concern because it can contribute to skin, bladder, and other cancers (National Research Council, 1999). Recently, the National Research Council (1999) recommended lowering the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) allowed for arsenic in drinking water of 50 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), citing risks for developing bladder and other cancers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) will propose a new, and likely lower, arsenic MCL during 2000 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). This fact sheet provides information on where and to what extent natural concentrations of arsenic in ground water exceed possible new standards. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected and analyzed arsenic in potable (drinkable) water from 18,850 wells in 595 counties across the United States during the past two decades. These wells are used for irrigation, industrial purposes, and research, as well as for public and private water supply. Arsenic concentrations in samples from these wells are similar to those found in nearby public supplies (see Focazio and others, 1999). The large number of samples, broad geographic coverage, and consistency of methods produce a more accurate and detailed picture of arsenic concentrations than provided by any previous studies.

  13. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... p.34-36. (2001) DATA Arsenic in ground-water resources of the United States : U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 063-00. (2000) ... analysis on the occurrence of arsenic in ground-water resources of the United States and limitations in drinking-water-supply characterizations : U.S. ...

  14. The microbial arsenic cycle in Mono Lake, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S; Stolz, John F; Hollibaugh, James T

    2004-04-01

    Significant concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic can be found in the waters of a number of lakes located in the western USA and in other water bodies around the world. These lakes are often situated in arid, volcanic terrain. The highest concentrations of arsenic occur in hypersaline, closed basin soda lakes and their remnant brines. Although arsenic is a well-known toxicant to eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike, some prokaryotes have evolved biochemical mechanisms to exploit arsenic oxyanions (i.e., arsenate and arsenite); they can use them either as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (arsenate), or as an electron donor (arsenite) to support chemoautotrophic fixation of CO(2) into cell carbon. Unlike in freshwater or marine ecosystems, these processes may assume quantitative significance with respect to the carbon cycle in arsenic-rich soda lakes. For the past several years our research has focused on the occurrence and biogeochemical manifestations of these processes in Mono Lake, a particularly arsenic-rich environment. Herein we review some of our findings concerning the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in this lake, with the hope that it may broaden the understanding of the influence of microorganisms upon the speciation of arsenic in more common, less "extreme" environments, such as drinking water aquifers. PMID:19712427

  15. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubiak, J.J.; Khankhane, P.J.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As remediat

  16. Removal of arsenic from contaminated water using coagulation enhanced microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of an innovative arsenic removal process were presented. The process is based on a combination of coagulation and microfiltration processes. Coagulation-Enhanced Microfiltration (CEMF) may eventually become a full-scale commercial technology. This study focused on the process with respect to groundwater treatment because of the importance of arsenic contamination in drinking water. Most experiments were bench-scale using tap water spiked with arsenic. Ferric chloride, which is commonly used in arsenic removal processes was also added. In addition, some tests were conducted on actual arsenic-contaminated water from the effluent treatment plant of a former mining site in Ontario. Results indicate a high arsenic removal efficiency in both spiked and actual water solutions. The microfiltration significantly reduced the level of arsenic in the treatment. This paper described the characteristics of membrane separation. It also presented information regarding chemically enhanced membrane filtration and coagulation-enhanced microfiltration. Bench-scale tests were conducted with both tubular membranes and with immersed capillary membranes. The effect of iron to arsenic ratios on the effectiveness of the system was also tested. It was recommended that future research should include a field study of the process on a pilot-scale to optimize process parameters and to accurately determine the cost of the process. 16 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  17. ASSESSING ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND SKIN HYPERKERATOSIS IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen. The inorganic forms, especially arsenite (As+3), are believed to be the most toxic species. Methylation is often considered to be thedetoxification pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. The ground water in Ba Men, Inner Mo...

  18. Arsenic Precipitation in the Bioleaching of Realgar Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the characteristics of arsenic precipitation during the bioleaching of realgar. The bioleaching performance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans BY-3 (A. ferrooxidans was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrophotometry. SEM and XRD analyses revealed that the arsenic-adapted strain of A. ferrooxidans was more hydrophobic and showed higher attachment efficiency to realgar compared with the wild strain. The arsenic precipitation using A. ferrooxidans resulted in the precipitation of an arsenic-rich compound on the surface of the bacterial cell, as shown in the TEM images. The FT-IR spectra suggested that the −OH and −NH groups were closely involved in the biosorption process. The observations above strongly suggest that the cell surface of A. ferrooxidans plays a role in the induction of arsenic tolerance during the bioleaching of realgar.

  19. Arsenic and diabetes and hypertension in human populations: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term exposure to ingested arsenic from drinking water has been well documented to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in a dose-response relationship among residents of arseniasis-endemic areas in southwestern Taiwan and Bangladesh. An increased risk of self-reported hypertension but not diabetes was reported in a community-based study of residents who consumed drinking water with a low level of arsenic. Increased glycosylated hemoglobin level and systolic blood pressure were observed in workers occupationally exposed to arsenic. Inconsistent findings of arsenic and diabetes in occupational studies may result from the healthy worker effect and the variation in exposure measurement, age composition, number of patients, accuracy in diagnosis and classification of underlying causes of death, competing causes of death, and method to detect diabetes. The dose-response relationship and toxicological mechanisms of arsenic-induced diabetes and hypertension need further elucidation

  20. Behavior of arsenic in hydrometallurgical zinc production and environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltekov A.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of arsenic in zinc sulphide concentrates is particularly harmful, because it creates problems in zinc electrolysis. The main source of arsenic in non-ferrous metallurgy is arsenopyrite (FeAsS. In oxidative roasting of zinc concentrates, FeAsS oxidizes to arsenic oxides (As2O3, As2O5. In this connection a natural FeAsS was examined, and also the distribution of arsenic in the products of the roasting process, the cycle of sulphuric acid obtaining and the leaching of zinc calcine were studied. The arsenic contamination of soils in the vicinity of nonferrous metals smelter KCM SA, Plovdiv, Bulgaria as a result of zinc and lead productions has been studied.

  1. Study on arsenic metabolism in animals by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats fed a diet of 5% Hijiki or 5% cellulose for 2 weeks, were administered large doses of sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4) during two days. After 24 to 48 hours of the last arsenic administration, respective organs were isolated and dried. Potions of these were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a research reactor of Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, KUR. Arsenic concentrations were determined as gamma radiation from 76As. The Hijiki diet enhanced higher concentrations of arsenic in the blood cells than did the cellulose diet. These results suggested that the Hijiki diet has some effects on arsenic metabolism concerning arsenic distribution in body and its excretion. (author)

  2. Well water arsenic exposure, arsenic induced skin-lesions and self-reported morbidity in Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure from contaminated well water is a cause of skin and bladder cancer and linked to numerous other adverse health effects. Residents of the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia, China, have been exposed to arsenic-contaminated well water for over 20 years but few s...

  3. Accumulation of arsenic in leaves and grain are affected by variety and soil arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) levels in rice grains and food products can reach toxic levels when produced under certain growing conditions found mostly in Asia. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently set a CODEX limit of 0.2 ppm inorganic As in milled white rice, and lower limits are expected to be set f...

  4. Arsenic-rich acid mine water with extreme arsenic concentration: mineralogy, geochemistry, microbiology, and environmental implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majzlan, J.; Plášil, Jakub; Škoda, R.; Gescher, J.; Kögler, F.; Rusznyak, A.; Küsel, K.; Neu, T.R.; Mangold, S.; Rothe, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 23 (2014), s. 13685-13693. ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : extreme arsenic concentration Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 5.330, year: 2014

  5. Attenuation of arsenic neurotoxicity by curcumin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of continued exposure to arsenic and associated human health risk including neurotoxicity, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant, has been investigated in rats. A significant decrease in locomotor activity, grip strength (26%) and rota-rod performance (82%) was observed in rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) as compared to controls. The arsenic treated rats also exhibited a decrease in the binding of striatal dopamine receptors (32%) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (19%) in striatum. Increased arsenic levels in corpus striatum (6.5 fold), frontal cortex (6.3 fold) and hippocampus (7.0 fold) associated with enhanced oxidative stress in these brain regions, as evident by an increase in lipid perioxidation, protein carbonyl and a decrease in the levels of glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase with differential effects were observed in arsenic treated rats compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) caused an increase in locomotor activity and grip strength and improved the rota-rod performance in comparison to arsenic treated rats. Binding of striatal dopamine receptors and TH expression increased while arsenic levels and oxidative stress decreased in these brain regions in co-treated rats as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. No significant effect on any of these parameters was observed in rats treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) alone compared to controls. A significant protection in behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical parameters in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin.

  6. Growing burden of diabetes in Pakistan and the possible role of arsenic and pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadar, Haji; Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This review is undertaken to address the possible role of arsenic and pesticides in the prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan and to highlight a resourceful targeted research in this area. A bibliographic search of scientific databases was conducted with key words of “epidemics of diabetes in Pakistan”, “diabetes in Asia”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “diabetes mellitus and heavy metals”, “diabetes mellitus and pesticides”, “prevalence of pesticides in Pakistan”, and “heavy ...

  7. Separation of no-carrier-added arsenic-77 from neutron irradiated germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic-77 (T1/2 = 1.6 d) was produced by irradiating natural germanium in Pakistan Research Reactor-1. The nuclear reaction 76Ge(n, γ-) produces 77Ge, which decays by emission of β particles into 77As. The neutron irradiated target was dissolved in aqua regia, excess of acid was removed by evaporation and finally the solution in basic media was passed through hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) column. The Ge was quantitatively retained on HZO, while 77As was present in the effluent. More than 90% 77As was recovered. The chemical impurity of Ge in 77As was < 0.01 μg/mL. (orig.)

  8. Insights into arsenic multi-operons expression and resistance mechanisms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chungui; Zhang, Yi; Chan, Zhuhua; Chen, Shicheng; YANG, SUPING

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is widespread in the environment and causes numerous health problems. Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been regarded as a good model organism for studying arsenic detoxification since it was first demonstrated to methylate environmental arsenic by conversion to soluble or gaseous methylated species. However, the detailed arsenic resistance mechanisms remain unknown though there are at least three arsenic-resistance operons (ars1, ars2, and ars3) in R. palustris. In this study, we i...

  9. Impact of Arsenic Toxicity on Black Gram and Its Amelioration Using Phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Saumya Srivastava; Yogesh Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of arsenic in soil and ground water is one of the most important environmental problems particularly in South-East Asia. Arsenic-polluted irrigation water creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) to arsenic with or without phosphate application was investigated. Arsenic-treated plants showed reduction in their growth and pigment content. Arsenic significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte...

  10. Losses of arsenic during the low temperature ashing of atmospheric particulate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation and atomic absorption procedures have been used to study arsenic losses during low temperature ashing at power levels between 50 and 125 watts (RF). Losses of arsenic from ambient atmospheric particulate matter and various synthetic sea salt matrices containing known quantities of arsenic was observed. In general, the magnitude of arsenic losses by this treatment will depend on applied power levels and the physical and chemical properties of the arsenic sample matrix

  11. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drewniak Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  12. Isolation of arsenic-tolerant bacteria from arsenic-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorasan Sobhon*

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of toxic heavy metals such as arsenic posed high risk to the environment. Arsenite [As(III], a reduced form of arsenic, is more toxic and mobile than arsenate [As(V]. The aim of this work was to isolate arsenic-tolerant bacteria from contaminated soil collected in Ronphibun District, Nakorn Srithammarat Province, followed by screening these bacteria for their ability to adsorb arsenite. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from samples cultivated in basal salts medium plus 0.1% yeast extract and up to 40 mM sodium-arsenite at 30oC under aerobic condition. From these, isolates B-2, B-3, B-4, B-21, B-25 and B-27 produced extracellular polymeric-like substances into the culture medium, which may potentially be used in the bioremediation of arsenic and other contaminants. All isolates displayed arsenite adsorbing activities in the ranges of 36.87-96.93% adsorption from initial concentration of 40 mM sodium-arsenite, without any arsenic transforming activity. Five isolates with the highest arsenite adsorbing capacity include B-4, B-7, B-8, B-10 and B-13 which adsorbed 80.90, 86.72, 87.08, 84.36 and 96.93% arsenite, respectively. Identification of their 16S rDNA sequences showed B -7, B-8, and B-10 to have 97%, 99% and 97% identities to Microbacterium oxydans, Achromobacter sp. and Ochrobactrum anthropi, respectively. Isolates B-4 and B-13, which did not show sequence similarity to any bacterial species, may be assigned based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics to the genus Streptococcus and Xanthomonas, respectively. Thus, both isolates B-4 and B-13 appear to be novel arsenite adsorbing bacteria within these genuses.

  13. Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn (Comforce Technical Services, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at http://www.sandia.gov/water/arsenic.htm. This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

  14. Arsenic exposure, urinary arsenic speciation, and peripheral vascular disease in blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term exposure to ingested inorganic arsenic is associated with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in the blackfoot disease (BFD)-hyperendemic area in Taiwan. This study further examined the interaction between arsenic exposure and urinary arsenic speciation on the risk of PVD. A total of 479 (220 men and 259 women) adults residing in the BFD-hyperendemic area were studied. Doppler ultrasound was used to diagnose PVD. Arsenic exposure was estimated by an index of cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE). Urinary levels of total arsenic, inorganic arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) were determined. Primary methylation index [PMI = MMAV/(AsIII + AsV)] and secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV) were calculated. The association between PVD and urinary arsenic parameters was evaluated with consideration of the interaction with CAE and the confounding effects of age, sex, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results showed that aging was associated with a diminishing capacity to methylate inorganic arsenic and women possessed a more efficient arsenic methylation capacity than men did. PVD risk increased with a higher CAE and a lower capacity to methylate arsenic to DMAV. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for CAE of 0, 0.1-15.4, and >15.4 mg/L x year were 1.00, 3.41 (0.74-15.78), and 4.62 (0.96-22.21), respectively (P 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI > 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI ≤ 6.93, and PMI ≤ 1.77 and SMI ≤ 6.93 were 1.00, 2.93 (0.90-9.52), 2.85 (1.05-7.73), and 3.60 (1.12-11.56), respectively (P V have a higher risk of developing PVD in the BFD-hyperendemic area in Taiwan

  15. Dithiothreitol abrogates the effect of arsenic trioxide on normal rat liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a known environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. Significant correlation has been reported between consumption of arsenic-contaminated water and occurrence of liver cancer; moreover, ATO-treated leukemia patients also suffers from liver toxicity. Hence, modulation of ATO action may help to prevent populations suffering from arsenic toxicity as well as help reduce the drug-related side effects. Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a well-known dithiol agent reported to modulate the action of ATO. Controversial reports exist regarding the effect of DTT on ATO-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, no report illustrates the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced liver toxicity, the prime target for arsenic. Mitochondria serve as the doorway to apoptosis and have been implicated in ATO-induced cell death. Hence, we attempted to study the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced dysfunction of mammalian liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep3B). We, for the first time, report that ATO produces complex I-mediated electron transfer inhibition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, respiration inhibition, and ATO-induced ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) opening. DTT at low concentration (100 μM and less) prevents the effect of ATO-induced complex I-malfunctions. DTT protects mitochondria from ATO-mediated opening of MPT and membrane potential depolarization. DTT also prevented ATO-induced Hep3B cell death. Thus, at low concentrations DTT abrogates the effect of ATO on rat liver mitochondria and Hep3B cell line. Therefore, the present result suggests, that use of low concentration of dithiols as food supplement may prevent arsenic toxicity in affected population

  16. Arsenic absorption by members of the Brassicacea family, analysed by neutron activation, k0-method - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand and the United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities has been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Brassicacea is a plant family with edible species (arugula, cabbage, cauliflower, cress, kale, mustard, radish), ornamental ones (alysssum, field pennycress, ornamental cabbages and kales) and some species are known as metal and metalloid accumulators (Indian mustard, field pennycress), like chromium, nickel, and arsenic. The present work aimed at studying other taxa of the Brassicaceae family to verify their capability in absorbing arsenic, under controlled conditions, for possible utilisation in remediation activities. The analytical method chosen was neutron activation analysis, k0 method, a routine technique at CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. To avoid possible interference from solid substrates, like sand or vermiculite, attempts were carried out to keep the specimens in 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S). Growth was stumped, plants withered and perished, showing that modifications in M and S had to be done. The addition of nickel and silicon allowed normal growth of the plant specimens, for periods longer than usually achieved (more than two months); yielding samples large enough for further studies with other techniques, like ICP-MS, and other targets, like speciation studies. The results of arsenic absorption are presented here and the need of nickel and silicon in the composition of M and S is discussed. (author)

  17. Arsenic absorption by members of the Brassicacea family, analysed by neutron activation, k{sub 0}-method - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Matos, Ludmila Vieira da Silva; Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Ferreira, Alexandre Santos Martorano; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: george@cdtn.br, e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand and the United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities has been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Brassicacea is a plant family with edible species (arugula, cabbage, cauliflower, cress, kale, mustard, radish), ornamental ones (alysssum, field pennycress, ornamental cabbages and kales) and some species are known as metal and metalloid accumulators (Indian mustard, field pennycress), like chromium, nickel, and arsenic. The present work aimed at studying other taxa of the Brassicaceae family to verify their capability in absorbing arsenic, under controlled conditions, for possible utilisation in remediation activities. The analytical method chosen was neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0} method, a routine technique at CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. To avoid possible interference from solid substrates, like sand or vermiculite, attempts were carried out to keep the specimens in 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S). Growth was stumped, plants withered and perished, showing that modifications in M and S had to be done. The addition of nickel and silicon allowed normal growth of the plant specimens, for periods longer than usually achieved (more than two months); yielding samples large enough for further studies with other techniques, like ICP-MS, and other targets, like speciation studies. The results of arsenic absorption are presented here and the need of nickel and silicon in the composition of M and S is discussed. (author)

  18. Removal of arsenic from Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil with soil washing using magnetic iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaemaro; Zhao, Xin; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic compounds are considered carcinogen and easily enter drinking water supplies with their natural abundance. US Environmental Protection Agency is finalizing a regulation to reduce the public health risks from arsenic in drinking water by revising the current drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ppb to 10 ppb in 2001 (USEPA, 2001). Therefore, soil remediation is also growing field to prevent contamination of groundwater as well as crop cultivation. Soil washing is adjusted as ex-situ soil remediation technique which reduces volume of the contaminated soil. The technique is composed of physical separation and chemical extraction to extract target metal contamination in the soil. Chemical extraction methods have been developed solubilizing contaminants containing reagents such as acids or chelating agents. And acid extraction is proven as the most commonly used technology to treat heavy metals in soil, sediment, and sludge (FRTR, 2007). Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic iron oxide have been used in diverse areas including information technology and biomedicine. Magnetic iron oxides also can be used as adsorbent to heavy metal enhancing removal efficiency of arsenic concentration. In this study, magnetite is used as the washing agent with acid extraction condition so that the injected oxide can be separated by magnetic field. Soil samples were collected from three separate areas in the Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil to have synergy effect with phytoremediation. Each sample was air-dried and sieved (2mm). Soil washing condition was adjusted on pH in the range of 0-12 with hydrogen chloride and sodium hydroxide. After performing soil washing procedure, arsenic-extracted samples were analyzed for arsenic concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). All the soils have exceeded worrisome level of soil contamination for region 1 (25mg/kg) so the soil remediation techniques are

  19. Incineration treatment of arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterland, L.R.; King, C.; Richards, M.K.; Thurnau, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    An incineration test program was conducted at the US Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the incinerability of these soils in terms of the fate of arsenic and lead and the destruction of organic contaminants during the incineration process. The test program consisted of a series of bench-scale experiments with a muffle furnace and a series of incineration tests in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator system.

  20. Arsenic biotransformation in earthworms from contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Button, Mark; Jenkin, Gawen R.T.; Harrington, Chris F.; Michael J. Watts

    2009-01-01

    Two species of arsenic (As) resistant earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrillus rubidus, their host soils and soil excretions (casts) were collected from 23 locations at a former As mine in Devon, UK. Total As concentrations, measured by ICP-MS, ranged from 255 to 13,080 mg kg-1 in soils, 11 to 877 mg kg-1 in earthworms and 284 to 4221 mg kg-1 in earthworm casts from a sub-sample of 10 of the 23 investigated sites. The samples were also measured for As speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS to in...

  1. Arsenic-induced plant growth of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Impact of arsenic and phosphate rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-He; Yang, Guang-Mei; Fu, Jing-Wei; Guan, Dong-Xing; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) has been shown to promote plant growth and arsenic (As) uptake by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). However, little is known about its behaviors in agricultural soils. In this study, impact of 50 mg kg(-1) As and/or 1.5% PR amendment on plant As accumulation and growth was investigated by growing PV for 90 d in three agricultural soils. While As amendment significantly increased plant As uptake and substantially promoted PV growth, the opposite was observed with PR amendment. Arsenic amendment increased plant frond As from 16.9-265 to 961-6017 mg kg(-1),whereas PR amendment lowered frond As to 10.2-216 mg kg(-1). The As-induced plant growth stimulation was 69-71%. While PR amendment increased plant Ca and P uptake, As amendment showed opposite results. The PV biomass was highly correlated with plant As at r = 0.82, but with weak correlations with plant Ca or P at r < 0.30. This study confirmed that 1) As significantly promoted PV growth, probably independent of Ca or P uptake, 2) PR amendment didn't enhance plant growth or As uptake by PV in agricultural soils with adequate available P, and 3) PV effluxed arsenite (AsIII) growing in agricultural soils. PMID:26874625

  2. On concentration dependence of arsenic diffusivity in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, O. I.

    2016-05-01

    An analysis of the equations used for modeling thermal arsenic diffusion in silicon has been carried out. It was shown that for arsenic diffusion governed by the vacancy-impurity pairs and the pairs formed due to interaction of impurity atoms with silicon self-interstitials in a neutral charge state, the doping process can be described by the Fick’s second law equation with a single effective diffusion coefficient which takes into account two impurity flows arising due to interaction of arsenic atoms with vacancies and silicon self-interstitials, respectively. Arsenic concentration profiles calculated with the use of the effective diffusivity agree well with experimental data if the maximal impurity concentration is near the intrinsic carrier concentration. On the other hand, for higher impurity concentrations a certain deviation in the local regions of arsenic distribution is observed. The difference from the experiment can occur due to the incorrect use of effective diffusivity for the description of two different impurity flows or due to the formation of nonuniform distributions of neutral vacancies and neutral self-interstitials in heavily doped silicon layers. We also suppose that the migration of nonequilibrium arsenic interstitial atoms makes a significant contribution to the formation of a low concentration region on thermal arsenic diffusion.

  3. Determination of arsenic in environmental water by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and sensitive method for separation of MMA, DMA, As(III) and As(V) is presented. Inorganic arsenic MMA, DMA, As(III) and As(V) are separated by the use of coprecipitation with Fe(OH)3, cation exchange chromatography and extraction combined with neutron activation analysis. The recovery for MMA, DMA, As(III) and As(V) is 96.4%, 103%, 96.3% and 104%, respectively. The applicability of the method to the arsenic species in a fresh water is demonstrated. The detection limit of the method is 0.02 μg/L of arsenic. The results show that the arsenic concentrations in drinking water of Akebameng range from 204 μg/L to 1125 μg/L, which are much higher than the permitted limit (< 50 μg/L). The dominant species of As in drinking water are inorganic arsenic compounds of which occupy 94%-99% of the total arsenic. The concentrations of MMA and DMA in drinking water vary from 4.61 μg/L to 20.7 μg/L and 5.69-18.2 μg/L, of which the ratio of MMA and DMA to total arsenic ranges from 1% to 6%

  4. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in water are up to 100 ug/1. According to MCL, present technologies are unadjusted for safely arsenic removal for concentrations below of 10 ug/1. This fact has inspired many companies to solve this problem adequately, by using an alternative technologies and new process able materials. In this paper the observation of conventional and the alternative technologies will be given, bearing in mind complex chemistry and electrochemistry of arsenic, formation of colloidal arsenic, which causes the biggest problems in water purification technologies. In this paper many results will be presented, which are obtained using the alternative technologies, as well as the newest results of original author's investigations. Using new nanomaterials, on Pilot plant "VALETA H2O-92", concentration of arsenic was removed far below MLC value.

  5. Arsenic pollution in the Yellowknife area from gold smelter activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold mined at Yelloknife in the North West Territories of Canada is associated with arsenopyrite ores which necessitates the oxidation of the arsenic and sulphur by roasting at two Yellowknife smelters. As2O3 and SO2 are emitted into the atmosphere, and despite improvements in emission control, significant emissions still occur. In order to asses the arsenic contamination in the local environment and the potential exposures to man, soil samples and samples of the native vegetation were collected in and around Yellowknife and the two smelters. Arsenic and antimony analyses were done by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the SLOWPOKE facility at University of Toronto. Zinc, copper, lead and cadmium analyses were done by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. Arsenic was found to be accumulated in the soils in the vicinity of the two smelters to levels of several thousand ppm. Antimony levels were about 10% of arsenic and were highly correlated with arsenic. Zinc occured to 500 ppm around the smelters. Soil arsenic levels are sufficiently high to inhibit root growth in soils over a very extensive area. (author)

  6. Investigation of biomethylation of arsenic and tellurium during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the process of composting features a high microbiological activity, its potential to methylate metals and metalloids has been little investigated so far in spite of the high impact of this process on metal(loid) toxicity and mobility. Here, we studied the biotransformation of arsenic, tellurium, antimony, tin and germanium during composting. Time resolved investigation revealed a highly dynamic process during self-heated composting with markedly differing time patterns for arsenic and tellurium species. Extraordinary high concentrations of up to 150 mg kg-1 methylated arsenic species as well as conversion rates up to 50% for arsenic and 5% for tellurium were observed. In contrast, little to no conversion was observed for antimony, tin and germanium. In addition to experiments with metal(loid) salts, composting of arsenic hyperaccumulating ferns Pteris vittata and P. cretica grown on As-amended soils was studied. Arsenic accumulated in the fronds was efficiently methylated resulting in up to 8 mg kg-1 methylated arsenic species. Overall, these studies indicate that metal(loid)s can undergo intensive biomethylation during composting. Due to the high mobility of methylated species this process needs to be considered in organic waste treatment of metal(loid) contaminated waste materials.

  7. Removal of Arsenic with Oyster Shell: Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Atiqur Rahman, , and

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oyster shell has tremendous potential as a remediation material for the removal of arsenic from groundwater. A single arsenic removal system was developed with oyster shell for tube well water containing arsenic. The system removes arsenic from water by adsorption through fine oyster shell. Various conditions that affect the adsorption/desorption of arsenic were investigated. Adsorption column methods showed the removal of As(III under the following conditions: initial As concentration, 100 µg /L; oyster shell amount, 6 g; particle size, <355µm ; treatment flow rate, 1.7 mL/min; and pH 6.5. Arsenic concentration of the treated water were below the Bangladesh drinking water standard of 50 µg/L for As. The desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were in the range of 80-83%. A combination of techniques was used to measure the pH, conductivity, cations and anions. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe in treated water were below their respective WHO guideline for drinking. The present study might provide new avenues to achieve the arsenic concentrations required for drinking water recommended by Bangladesh and the World Health Organization (WHO.

  8. Behavior of arsenic impurity at antimony electric precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the arsenic impurity electrochemical behavior and it purification from antimony by electric precipitation out of fluoride solutions was studied. For this the arsenic sample with mass 0.003-0.006 g has been irradiated at the WWR-SM nuclear reactor during 3-5 hour in the thermal neutron flux 1013 n/cm2 s, after 24 h keeping the sample has being dissolved in the concentrated nitric acid, and then it has been evaporated several times with distillation water addition up to wet precipitation state. It is shown, that arsenic impurity behavior character in the antimony electric precipitation out to fluoride electrolyte depends on the electrolyte content, electrolysis conditions, arsenic valency state in arsenic impurity existence in the five-valency state its joint electric reduction with antimony is practically not observing. In the case the arsenic being in three-valency state, it joint electric reduction with antimony is taking place. In this time the electrolytic antimony contents arsenic impurities less in dozen time than initial material

  9. Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte roots - an ecotoxicological risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is known to accumulate with iron plaque on macrophyte roots. Three to four years after the Aznalcollar mine spill (Spain), residual arsenic contamination left in seasonal wetland habitats has been identified in this form by scanning electron microscopy. Total digestion has determined arsenic concentrations in thoroughly washed 'root + plaque' material in excess of 1000 mg kg-1, and further analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests arsenic exists as both arsenate and arsenite. Certain herbivorous species feed on rhizomes and bulbs of macrophytes in a wide range of global environments, and the ecotoxicological impact of consuming arsenic rich iron plaque associated with such food items remains to be quantified. Here, greylag geese which feed on Scirpus maritimus rhizome and bulb material in areas affected by the Aznalcollar spill are shown to have elevated levels of arsenic in their feces, which may originate from arsenic rich iron plaque. - Accumulation of metals with iron plaque on macrophyte roots in wetlands poses an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores

  10. Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte roots - an ecotoxicological risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, M.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: mark.taggart@uclm.es; Mateo, R. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); Charnock, J.M.; Bahrami, F. [Synchrotron Radiation Department, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Green, A.J. [Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, CSIC, Pabellon del Peru, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, 41013 Seville (Spain); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Arsenic is known to accumulate with iron plaque on macrophyte roots. Three to four years after the Aznalcollar mine spill (Spain), residual arsenic contamination left in seasonal wetland habitats has been identified in this form by scanning electron microscopy. Total digestion has determined arsenic concentrations in thoroughly washed 'root + plaque' material in excess of 1000 mg kg{sup -1}, and further analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests arsenic exists as both arsenate and arsenite. Certain herbivorous species feed on rhizomes and bulbs of macrophytes in a wide range of global environments, and the ecotoxicological impact of consuming arsenic rich iron plaque associated with such food items remains to be quantified. Here, greylag geese which feed on Scirpus maritimus rhizome and bulb material in areas affected by the Aznalcollar spill are shown to have elevated levels of arsenic in their feces, which may originate from arsenic rich iron plaque. - Accumulation of metals with iron plaque on macrophyte roots in wetlands poses an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores.

  11. Mobilization of arsenic from subsurface sediments by effect of bicarbonate ions in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain M; Akai, Junji; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic leaching by bicarbonate ions has been investigated in this study. Subsurface sediment samples from Bangladesh were treated with different carbonate and bicarbonate ions and the results demonstrate that the arsenic leaching efficiency of the carbonate solutions decreased in the order of Na2CO3>NaHCO3>BaCO3>MnCO3. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate ions extracted arsenic most efficiently; Na2CO3 leached maximum 118.12 microg/l of arsenic, and NaHCO3, 94.56 microg/l of arsenic from the Ganges delta sediments after six days of incubation. The arsenic concentrations extracted in the batch experiments correlated very well with the bicarbonate concentrations. The kinetics study of arsenic release indicates that arsenic-leaching rate increased with reaction time in bicarbonate solutions. Bicarbonate ions can extract arsenic from sediment samples in both oxic and anoxic conditions. A linear relationship found between arsenic contents in core samples and those in leachates suggests that dissolved arsenic concentration in groundwater is related to the amount of arsenic in aquifer sediments. In batch experiment, bicarbonate solutions effectively extracted arsenic from arsenic adsorbed iron oxyhydroxide, reflecting that bicarbonate solutions may mobilize arsenic from iron and manganese oxyhydroxide in sediments that are ubiquitous in subsurface core samples. Carbonate ion may form complexes on the surface sites of iron hydroxide and substitute arsenic from the surface of minerals and sediments resulting in release of arsenic to groundwater. Like in the batch experiment, arsenic and bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh correlated very well. Therefore, bicarbonate leaching is presumed to be one important mechanism to mobilize arsenic in bicarbonate dominated reducing aquifer of Bangladesh and other parts of the world as well. PMID:14602108

  12. Analytical artefacts in the speciation of arsenic in clinical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urine and blood samples of cancer patients, treated with high doses of arsenic trioxide were analysed for arsenic species using HPLC-HGAFS and, in some cases, HPLC-ICPMS. Total arsenic was determined with either flow injection-HGAFS in urine or radiochemical neutron activation analysis in blood fractions (in serum/plasma, blood cells). The total arsenic concentrations (during prolonged, daily/weekly arsenic trioxide therapy) were in the μg mL-1 range for urine and in the ng g-1 range for blood fractions. The main arsenic species found in urine were As(III), MA and DMA and in blood As(V), MA and DMA. With proper sample preparation and storage of urine (no preservation agents/storage in liquid nitrogen) no analytical artefacts were observed and absence of significant amounts of alleged trivalent metabolites was proven. On the contrary, in blood samples a certain amount of arsenic can get lost in the speciation procedure what was especially noticeable for the blood cells although also plasma/serum gave rise to some disappearance of arsenic. The latter losses may be attributed to precipitation of As(III)-containing proteins/peptides during the methanol/water extraction procedure whereas the former losses were due to loss of specific As(III)-complexing proteins/peptides (e.g. cysteine, metallothionein, reduced GSH, ferritin) on the column (Hamilton PRP-X100) during the separation procedure. Contemporary analytical protocols are not able to completely avoid artefacts due to losses from the sampling to the detection stage so that it is recommended to be careful with the explanation of results, particularly regarding metabolic and pharmacokinetic interpretations, and always aim to compare the sum of species with the total arsenic concentration determined independently

  13. Analytical artefacts in the speciation of arsenic in clinical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slejkovec, Zdenka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: zdenka.slejkovec@ijs.si; Falnoga, Ingrid [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Goessler, Walter [Institute of Chemistry - Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, Graz (Austria); Elteren, Johannes T. van [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Raml, Reingard [Institute of Chemistry - Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, Graz (Austria); Podgornik, Helena; Cernelc, Peter [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloska 7, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-01-21

    Urine and blood samples of cancer patients, treated with high doses of arsenic trioxide were analysed for arsenic species using HPLC-HGAFS and, in some cases, HPLC-ICPMS. Total arsenic was determined with either flow injection-HGAFS in urine or radiochemical neutron activation analysis in blood fractions (in serum/plasma, blood cells). The total arsenic concentrations (during prolonged, daily/weekly arsenic trioxide therapy) were in the {mu}g mL{sup -1} range for urine and in the ng g{sup -1} range for blood fractions. The main arsenic species found in urine were As(III), MA and DMA and in blood As(V), MA and DMA. With proper sample preparation and storage of urine (no preservation agents/storage in liquid nitrogen) no analytical artefacts were observed and absence of significant amounts of alleged trivalent metabolites was proven. On the contrary, in blood samples a certain amount of arsenic can get lost in the speciation procedure what was especially noticeable for the blood cells although also plasma/serum gave rise to some disappearance of arsenic. The latter losses may be attributed to precipitation of As(III)-containing proteins/peptides during the methanol/water extraction procedure whereas the former losses were due to loss of specific As(III)-complexing proteins/peptides (e.g. cysteine, metallothionein, reduced GSH, ferritin) on the column (Hamilton PRP-X100) during the separation procedure. Contemporary analytical protocols are not able to completely avoid artefacts due to losses from the sampling to the detection stage so that it is recommended to be careful with the explanation of results, particularly regarding metabolic and pharmacokinetic interpretations, and always aim to compare the sum of species with the total arsenic concentration determined independently.

  14. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: High-chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. At low-chronic levels, as those present in Spain, evidence is scarce. In this ecological study, we evaluated the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations during the period 1998-2002 with cardiovascular mortality in the population of Spain. Methods: Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were available for 1721 municipalities, covering 24.8 million people. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cardiovascular (361,750 deaths), coronary (113,000 deaths), and cerebrovascular (103,590 deaths) disease were analyzed for the period 1999-2003. Two-level hierarchical Poisson models were used to evaluate the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations with mortality adjusting for social determinants, cardiovascular risk factors, diet, and water characteristics at municipal or provincial level in 651 municipalities (200,376 cardiovascular deaths) with complete covariate information. Results: Mean municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 10 μg/L. Compared to municipalities with arsenic concentrations 10 μg/L, respectively (P-value for trend 0.032). The corresponding figures were 5.2% (0.8% to 9.8%) and 1.5% (-4.5% to 7.9%) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 0.3% (-4.1% to 4.9%) and 1.7% (-4.9% to 8.8%) for cerebrovascular disease mortality. Conclusions: In this ecological study, elevated low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 μg/L.

  15. 海带中有害元素As的研究现状及展望%Research Status and Prospects for Arsenic in Saccharina japonica Aresch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆; 樊亚鸣; 曾源; 关灼斌; 何芝洲; 杨宜婷; 吴晓童; 陈怡莎

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on five aspects issues, namely, the arsenic content in Chinese kelp, the presence form and toxicity of arsenic, as well as the arsenic limit content, the method of detection arsenic, and the technology of removing arsenic in standards at home and abroad. The limit of inorganic arsenic in S. japonica is over the national standards for dried algae (≤1.5 mg/kg). In fact, inorganic arsenic is also accumulated while extracting target substance. Therefore, the limits of inorganic arsenic in the kelp extract should be referred to the international standards for food additives (≤3 mg/kg) due to lack of the standards on inorganic arsenic limit for extract of algae.%就我国近海海带中砷含量、砷的存在形态及其毒性、国内外相关标准中砷的限量、砷检测方法及脱砷技术等5方面的问题,综合阐述并分析前人对海带中有害元素砷的研究状况。据此,并结合我们的工作,提出关于海带脱砷研究的现状、面临的问题及可能的前景:根据砷的价态、形态及毒性机理,海带中具有毒性的砷的形态为无机砷;我国国标(2005版)对干海藻无机砷的限量(≤1.5 mg/kg),而国产海带无机砷含量已超国标;提取分离技术是海带深加工产业的基石,此过程实际上富集了提取物中的砷,在国内外少有海藻提取物砷限量的背景下,建议参照国际食品添加剂标准中特定海带提取物中无机砷限量(≤3 mg/kg)。

  16. Measurements of Arsenic in the Urine and Nails of Individuals Exposed to Low Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking Water From Private Wells in a Rural Region of Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Fabien; Lampron-Goulet, Eric; Normandin, Louise; Langlois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic leads to an increased risk of cancer. A biological measurement was conducted in 153 private well owners and their families consuming water contaminated by inorganic arsenic at concentrations that straddle 10 μg/L. The relationship between the external dose indicators (concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells and daily well water inorganic arsenic intake) and the internal doses (urinary arsenic--sum of As(III), DMA, and MMA, adjusted for creatinine--and total arsenic in toenails) was evaluated using multiple linear regressions, controlling for age, gender, dietary sources of arsenic, and number of cigarettes smoked. It showed that urinary arsenic was associated with concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells (p water inorganic arsenic intake (p water inorganic arsenic intake (p = .017) and rice consumption (p = .022) in children (n = 43). The authors' study reinforces the drinking-water quality guidelines for inorganic arsenic. PMID:26867295

  17. An Immunohistological and in Situ Hybridization Study of Arsenical Keratosis

    OpenAIRE

    FUJIWARA, Hiroshi; Tazawa, Toshio; Yamamoto, Ayako; Ito, Masaaki

    1996-01-01

    Arsenical keratosis (AK) is a common early sign of chronic arsenicism. The association between arsenicism and Bowen's disease is well documented, but a definitive understanding of the relation between AK and Bowen's disease remains elusive. In this study, eight cases of AK were examined immunohistologically with antibodies for cytokeratins, epidermal growth factor receptor, erbB2 protein, c-myc protein, and ki-67. An in situ hybridization study for c-myc, v-erb-B, and erbB2 mRNA was also perf...

  18. Arsenic-transforming microbes and their role in biomining processes

    OpenAIRE

    Drewniak, L.; Sklodowska, A.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that microorganisms can dissolve different minerals and use them as sources of nutrients and energy. The majority of rock minerals are rich in vital elements (e.g., P, Fe, S, Mg and Mo), but some may also contain toxic metals or metalloids, like arsenic. The toxicity of arsenic is disclosed after the dissolution of the mineral, which raises two important questions: (1) why do microorganisms dissolve arsenic-bearing minerals and release this metal into the environment in a tox...

  19. Reduction in Urinary Arsenic with Bottled-water Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Josyula, Arun B.; McClellen, Hannah; Hysong, Tracy A.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S.; Stürup, Stefan; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2006-01-01

    The study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of providing bottled water in reducing arsenic exposure. Urine, tap-water and toenail samples were collected from non-smoking adults residing in Ajo (n=40) and Tucson (n=33), Arizona, USA. The Ajo subjects were provided bottled water for 12 months prior to re-sampling. The mean total arsenic (μg/L) in tap-water was 20.3±3.7 in Ajo and 4.0±2.3 in Tucson. Baseline urinary total inorganic arsenic (μg/L) was significantly higher among the Ajo s...

  20. The Total Arsenic Concentrations of Aquatic Products and the Assessment of Arsenic Intake from Aquatic Products in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guang-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of aquatic products consumed by the resident to the daily dietary arsenic intakes of the residents of Guangzhou of Guangdong province in China. All aquatic products were sampled from supermarkets and terminal markets. Accuracy was assured using standard reference material (GBW08551 and recovery experiments. Total arsenic concentrations of aquatic products were determined after acid digestion by hydride generation atomic fluorescent spectrometry. A wide range of arsenic concentration (0.0075-1.2017 mg/kg was found among the various aquatic products, the mean arsenic concentration in aquatic production was 0.2022 mg/kg. The arsenic concentrations of various aquatic products groups were as follows: Crustacean (0.3176±0.2324 mg/kg >Mollusk fish (0.1979±0.2013 mg/k >Saltwater fish (0.1558±0.1119 mg/kg >Freshwater fish (0.1374±0.0970 mg/kg. The range of daily dietary arsenic intake of various residents through the consumption of aquatic products was 5.96-11.85 µg/day. The freshwater fish had the largest contribution to the daily dietary arsenic intakes from aquatic products in all type aquatic products, accounted for around 50%.

  1. Bacterial respiration of arsenic and selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J.F.; Oremland, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Oxyanions of arsenic and selenium can be used in microbial anaerobic respiration as terminal electron acceptors. The detection of arsenate and selenate respiring bacteria in numerous pristine and contaminated environments and their rapid appearance in enrichment culture suggest that they are widespread and metabolically active in nature. Although the bacterial species that have been isolated and characterized are still few in number, they are scattered throughout the bacterial domain and include Gram- positive bacteria, beta, gamma and epsilon Proteobacteria and the sole member of a deeply branching lineage of the bacteria, Chrysiogenes arsenatus. The oxidation of a number of organic substrates (i.e. acetate, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, ethanol) or hydrogen can be coupled to the reduction of arsenate and selenate, but the actual donor used varies from species to species. Both periplasmic and membrane-associated arsenate and selenate reductases have been characterized. Although the number of subunits and molecular masses differs, they all contain molybdenum. The extent of the environmental impact on the transformation and mobilization of arsenic and selenium by microbial dissimilatory processes is only now being fully appreciated.

  2. Arsenic trioxide: an ancient drug revived

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical applications of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL),as well as non-APL malignancies and to discuss the mechanisms and adverse effects involved in ATO administration.Data sources The data in this article were collected from PubMed and CHKD database with relevant English and Chinese articles published from 1957 to 2011,with key words including acute promyelocytic leukemia,arsenic trioxide,treatment,and mechanism.Study selection Articles including any information about ATO in the treatment of APL were selected.Results APL is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia,with dismal prognosis under treatment with traditional chemotherapy.ATO impressively increases the complete remission rate and prolongs survival of patients with APL,with only mild and transient adverse effects.The advances in the understanding of multiple mechanisms involved in ATO treatment will benefit more cancers in future.Conclusion Deeper understanding of mechanisms involved in ATO treatment may provide rationales for future clinical applications in a number of human malignancies.Chin Med J 2012; 125( 19):3556-3560

  3. Arsenic chemistry and remediation in Hawaiian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Nguyen V

    2013-01-01

    Past use of arsenical pesticides has resulted in elevated levels of arsenic (As) in some Hawaiian soils. Total As concentrations of 20-100 mg/kg are not uncommon, and can exceed 900 mg/kg in some lands formerly planted with sugarcane. With high contents of amorphous aluminosilicates and iron oxides in many Hawaii's volcanic ash-derived Andisols, a high proportion (25-30%) of soil As was associated with either these mineral phases or with organic matter. Less than 1% of the total As was water soluble or exchangeable. Furthermore, the soils can sorb As strongly: the addition of 1000 mg/kg as As (+5) resulted in only between 0.03 and 0.30 mg/L As in soil solution. In contrast, soils having more crystalline minerals (e.g., Oxisols) sorb less As and thus often contain less As. Phosphate fertilization increases As bioaccessibility, whereas the addition of Fe(OH)3 decreases it. Brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) can be used to remove some soil As. Concentrations of As in fronds varied on average from 60 mg/kg when grown on a low-As Oxisol to 350 mg/kg when grown on a high-As Andisol. Ratios of leaf As to CaCl2-extractable soil As were 12 and 222 for the Oxisol and Andisol, respectively. PMID:23487989

  4. Inorganic arsenic - SPE HG-AAS method for RICE tested in-house and collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Qian, Yiting; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    Arsenic (As) is a trace element present in the environment and consequently in various food items, e.g. rice, which may contain relatively high concentration of arsenic compared to other foodstuffs of plant origin. Rice contains most often three forms of arsenic; inorganic arsenic (iAs) and the m......Arsenic (As) is a trace element present in the environment and consequently in various food items, e.g. rice, which may contain relatively high concentration of arsenic compared to other foodstuffs of plant origin. Rice contains most often three forms of arsenic; inorganic arsenic (i...... and is one of the major contributors to the iAs exposure in many countries. The work presented here describes the development, validation and application of a simple and inexpensive method for inorganic arsenic (iAs) determination in rice samples. The separation of iAs from organoarsenic compounds (MA...

  5. Removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major concerns in many parts of the world including Bangladesh and India. Considering the high toxicity of arsenic, World Health Organization (WHO) has set a provisional guideline value of 10 μg L-1 for arsenic in drinking water. Several methods have been adopted for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Most of the methods fail to remove As(III), the most toxic form of arsenic. An extra oxidative treatment step is essential for effective removal of total arsenic. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) oxidizes As(III) to As(V). Removal of arsenic from water using manganese dioxide has been reported. During this work, removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from arsenic contaminated area of West Bengal, India were carried out using MnO2

  6. Bioaccessibility and degradation of naturally occurring arsenic species from food in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Capilla, Teresa; Beshai, Mona; Maher, William; Kelly, Tamsin; Foster, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Humans are exposed to organic arsenic species through their diet and therefore, are susceptible to arsenic toxicity. Investigating the transformations occurring in the gastrointestinal tract will influence which arsenic species to focus on when studying metabolism in cells. Using a physiologically based extraction test, the bioaccessibility of arsenic species was determined after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of rice, seaweed and fish. Pure standards of the major arsenic species present in these foodstuffs (arsenic glutathione complexes, arsenosugars and short chain fatty acids) were also evaluated to assess the effect of the food matrix on bioaccessibility and transformation. Approximately 80% of arsenic is released from these foodstuffs, potentially becoming available. Hydrolysis and demethylation of arsenic glutathione complexes and arsenosugars standards was observed, but no transformations occurred to arsenosugars present in seaweed. Demethylation of MA and DMA from rice occurs increasing the amount of inorganic arsenic species available for metabolism. PMID:27374523

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ARSENIC SPECIATION METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING BACKGROUND EXPOSURE LEVELS OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN DIETARY SAMPLES AND APPLICATION TO IN VITRO BIOACCESSIBILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingestion of arsenic is the primary route of exposure for most people, with dietary intake and drinking water as the primary sources of that exposure. Traditionally, measurements of arsenic dietary intake are based on food consumption data coupled with total arsenic data from a ...

  8. Management of the Arsenic Groundwater System Lagunera - MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boochs, P. W.; Billib, M.; Aparicio, J.; Gutierrez, C.

    2007-05-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is considered one of the most important environmental causes of cancer mortality in the world. Groundwater resources of the Comarca Lagunera region (Northern Mexico), which represents the main source of drinking water for more than 2 million people in the area, show arsenic concentrations ranging from 5 to 750 micro g/l. Large areas have concentrations quite above the Mexican standard of 25 micro g/l for human use and consumption. The aquifer is overexploited and the groundwater levels at the central part of the aquifer are drawn down more than 100 m in less than 50 years. The drawdown provoked the dissolution and migration of the geogenic existing arsenic within the aquifer. The presence of arsenic has been related to several potential sources. It was found out, that the main source is geothermal activity, less mining and the use of arsenical pesticides. The process of the geneses of the arsenic pollution implicates, that the highest content is on the bottom of the aquifer. Data analysis showed, that arsenic concentration is correlated to the age of the groundwater. "Older" water has higher arsenic content than "younger" water and the oldest water can be found at the bottom of the aquifer. Before 1950 the groundwater level in the Comarca Lagunera was close to the surface and there were only dug and shallow wells with low groundwater abstraction. The water was pumped from the upper parts of the aquifer and because this was "young" water it had low arsenic content. Then after 1950 a lot of wells, mainly for irrigation, were built and in 2002 there were 2350 active wells with an abstraction of about 1088 Mio cbm/year. In consequence to this the groundwater level decreased extraordinary. More and more "older" water was pumped and the arsenic content increased. Furthermore at the beginning of 1960 the river Nazas was canalized and lined, so that the natural groundwater recharge by infiltration from the river was stopped. By this way, the

  9. Heavy coal combustion as the dominant source of particulate pollution in Taiyuan, China, corroborated by high concentrations of arsenic and selenium in PM1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal burning generates toxic elements, some of which are characteristic of coal combustion such as arsenic and selenium, besides conventional coal combustion products. Airborne particulate samples with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM1) were collected in Taiyuan, China, and multi-element analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations of arsenic and selenium from ambient air in Taiyuan (average 43 and 58 ng m -3, respectively) were relatively high compared to what is reported elsewhere. Arsenic and selenium were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.997), indicating an overwhelmingly dominant source. Correlation between these two chalcophile elements and the lithophile element Al is high (r is 0.75 and 0.72 for As and Se, respectively). This prompted the hypothesis that the particles were from coal combustion. The enrichment of the trace elements could be explained by the volatilization-condensation mechanism during coal combustion process. Even higher correlations of arsenic and selenium with PM1 (r = 0.90 and 0.88) give further support that airborne particulate pollution in Taiyuan is mainly a direct result of heavy coal consumption. This conclusion agrees with the results from our previous study of individual airborne particles in Taiyuan

  10. Heavy coal combustion as the dominant source of particulate pollution in Taiyuan, China, corroborated by high concentrations of arsenic and selenium in PM10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal burning generates toxic elements, some of which are characteristic of coal combustion such as arsenic and selenium, besides conventional coal combustion products. Airborne particulate samples with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) were collected in Taiyuan, China, and multi-element analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations of arsenic and selenium from ambient air in Taiyuan (average 43 and 58 ng m-3, respectively) were relatively high compared to what is reported elsewhere. Arsenic and selenium were found to be highly correlated (r=0.997), indicating an overwhelmingly dominant source. Correlation between these two chalcophile elements and the lithophile element Al is high (r is 0.75 and 0.72 for As and Se, respectively). This prompted the hypothesis that the particles were from coal combustion. The enrichment of the trace elements could be explained by the volatilization-condensation mechanism during coal combustion process. Even higher correlations of arsenic and selenium with PM10 (r=0.90 and 0.88) give further support that airborne particulate pollution in Taiyuan is mainly a direct result of heavy coal consumption. This conclusion agrees with the results from our previous study of individual airborne particles in Taiyuan. (author)

  11. Factors influencing arsenic and nitrate removal from drinking water in a continuous flow electrocoagulation (EC) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study was conducted under continuous flow conditions to evaluate some of the factors influencing contaminant removal by electrocoagulation (EC). A bench-scale simulation of drinking water treatment was done by adding a filtration column after a rectangular EC reactor. Contaminant removal efficiency was determined for voltages ranging from 10 to 25 V and a comparative study was done with distilled water and tap water for two contaminants: nitrate and arsenic(V). Maximum removal efficiency was 84% for nitrate at 25 V and 75% for arsenic(V) at 20 V. No significant difference in contaminant removal was observed in tap water versus distilled water. Increase in initial As(V) concentration from 1 ppm to 2 ppm resulted in a 10% increase in removal efficiency. Turbidity in the EC reactor effluent was 52 NTU and had to be filtered to achieve acceptable levels of final turbidity (5 NTU) at steady-state. The flow regime in the continuous flow reactor was also evaluated in a tracer study to determine whether it is a plug flow reactor (PFR) or constantly stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the results show that this reactor was close to an ideal CSTR, i.e., it was fairly well-mixed.

  12. Distribution of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings dams at Obuasi Municipality of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This present study investigated the issue of gold mine tailings dams as a potential source of arsenic and other trace elements contamination and their dissolution into the adjoining environmental media in Obuasi Municipality of Ghana. One active (Sanso tailings dam and two abandoned (Pompora and Dokyiwa mine tailings dams in Obuasi gold mine site, were selected for the collection and analysis of the tailings. The concentrations of As, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS, Varian Models 240FS. The total concentrations of elements in the mine tailings were up to 1752 mg/kg As, 75.16 wt.% Fe, 1848.12 mg/kg Mn, 92.17 mg/kg Cu and 7850 177.56 mg/kg Zn. Sulfate was the dominant anion throughout the leachate, reaching a maximum dissolved concentration of 58.43 mg/L. The mine tailings were contaminated with much higher concentrations of As and heavy metals than the Netherlands soil protection guideline values. Leaching levels of As were in the range of 0.04–0.56 %, presenting high proportions for the total arsenic content in the mine tailings

  13. Factors influencing arsenic and nitrate removal from drinking water in a continuous flow electrocoagulation (EC) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N. Sanjeev [Civil Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Goel, Sudha, E-mail: sudhagoel@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Civil Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-01-15

    An experimental study was conducted under continuous flow conditions to evaluate some of the factors influencing contaminant removal by electrocoagulation (EC). A bench-scale simulation of drinking water treatment was done by adding a filtration column after a rectangular EC reactor. Contaminant removal efficiency was determined for voltages ranging from 10 to 25 V and a comparative study was done with distilled water and tap water for two contaminants: nitrate and arsenic(V). Maximum removal efficiency was 84% for nitrate at 25 V and 75% for arsenic(V) at 20 V. No significant difference in contaminant removal was observed in tap water versus distilled water. Increase in initial As(V) concentration from 1 ppm to 2 ppm resulted in a 10% increase in removal efficiency. Turbidity in the EC reactor effluent was 52 NTU and had to be filtered to achieve acceptable levels of final turbidity (5 NTU) at steady-state. The flow regime in the continuous flow reactor was also evaluated in a tracer study to determine whether it is a plug flow reactor (PFR) or constantly stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the results show that this reactor was close to an ideal CSTR, i.e., it was fairly well-mixed.

  14. Microbial community in high arsenic shallow groundwater aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-, SO4(2-/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+ were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.

  15. A methodological approach for the identification of arsenic bearing phases in polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matera, V.; Le Hecho, I.; Laboudigue, A.; Thomas, P.; Tellier, S.; Astruc, M

    2003-11-01

    Arsenic in the three polluted soils is mainly associated with neoformed amorphous iron (hydr)oxides. - A methodological approach is used to characterize arsenic pollution in three soils and to determine arsenic speciation and association with solid phases in three polluted soils. HPLC-ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation analysis, SEM-EDS and XRD for physical characterization of arsenic pollution, and sequential chemical extractions to identify arsenic distribution. Arsenic was concentrated in the finest size fractions also enriched in iron and aluminium. Total arsenic concentrations in soils are close to 1%. Arsenic was mainly present as arsenate, representing more than 90% of total arsenic. No crystallised arsenic minerals were detected by XRD analysis. SEM-EDS observations indicated arsenic/iron associations. Modified Tessier's procedure showed that arsenic was mainly extracted from amorphous iron oxide phase. The results of this methodological approach lead to predict the formation of iron arsenates in the case of one of the studied soils while arsenic sorption on iron amorphous (hydr)oxides seemed to be the determinant in the two other soils.

  16. A methodological approach for the identification of arsenic bearing phases in polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic in the three polluted soils is mainly associated with neoformed amorphous iron (hydr)oxides. - A methodological approach is used to characterize arsenic pollution in three soils and to determine arsenic speciation and association with solid phases in three polluted soils. HPLC-ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation analysis, SEM-EDS and XRD for physical characterization of arsenic pollution, and sequential chemical extractions to identify arsenic distribution. Arsenic was concentrated in the finest size fractions also enriched in iron and aluminium. Total arsenic concentrations in soils are close to 1%. Arsenic was mainly present as arsenate, representing more than 90% of total arsenic. No crystallised arsenic minerals were detected by XRD analysis. SEM-EDS observations indicated arsenic/iron associations. Modified Tessier's procedure showed that arsenic was mainly extracted from amorphous iron oxide phase. The results of this methodological approach lead to predict the formation of iron arsenates in the case of one of the studied soils while arsenic sorption on iron amorphous (hydr)oxides seemed to be the determinant in the two other soils

  17. Urinary total arsenic and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine are associated with renal cell carcinoma in an area without obvious arsenic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most reliable and abundant markers of DNA damage. The study was designed to explore the relationship between urinary 8-OHdG and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to investigate whether individuals with a high level of 8-OHdG would have a modified odds ratio (OR) of arsenic-related RCC. This case–control study was conducted with 132 RCC patients and 245 age- and sex-matched controls from a hospital-based pool between November 2006 and May 2009. Pathological verification of RCC was completed by image-guided biopsy or surgical resection of renal tumors. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Concentrations of urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Level of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly associated with the OR of RCC in a dose–response relationship after multivariate adjustment. Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. The greatest OR (3.50) was seen in the individuals with high urinary 8-OHdG and high urinary total arsenic. A trend test indicated that the OR of RCC was increased with one of these factors and was further increased with both (p = 0.002). In conclusion, higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of the RCC. High levels of 8-OHdG combined with urinary total arsenic might be indicative of arsenic-induced RCC. -- Highlights: ► Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. ► Higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of RCC risk. ► Urinary 8-OHdG may modify arsenic related RCC risk.

  18. Urinary total arsenic and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine are associated with renal cell carcinoma in an area without obvious arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chao-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jan-Show [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsiu-Yuan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical Universtiy-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most reliable and abundant markers of DNA damage. The study was designed to explore the relationship between urinary 8-OHdG and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to investigate whether individuals with a high level of 8-OHdG would have a modified odds ratio (OR) of arsenic-related RCC. This case–control study was conducted with 132 RCC patients and 245 age- and sex-matched controls from a hospital-based pool between November 2006 and May 2009. Pathological verification of RCC was completed by image-guided biopsy or surgical resection of renal tumors. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Concentrations of urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Level of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly associated with the OR of RCC in a dose–response relationship after multivariate adjustment. Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. The greatest OR (3.50) was seen in the individuals with high urinary 8-OHdG and high urinary total arsenic. A trend test indicated that the OR of RCC was increased with one of these factors and was further increased with both (p = 0.002). In conclusion, higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of the RCC. High levels of 8-OHdG combined with urinary total arsenic might be indicative of arsenic-induced RCC. -- Highlights: ► Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. ► Higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of RCC risk. ► Urinary 8-OHdG may modify arsenic related RCC risk.

  19. Arsenic and iron removal from groundwater by oxidation–coagulation at optimized pH: Laboratory and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Arsenic and iron removed by a systematic oxidation–coagulation at optimized pH. • Used KMnO4 as oxidant and FeCl3 as coagulant in presence of NaHCO3. • Field trial results are highly encouraging. • The method is efficient, safe, simple and low-cost. • The method is suitable for rural application in developing countries. -- Abstract: A three-step treatment process involving (i) mild alkaline pH-conditioning by NaHCO3; (ii) oxidation of arsenite and ferrous ions by KMnO4, itself precipitating as insoluble MnO2 under the pH condition; and (iii) coagulation by FeCl3 has been used for simultaneous removal of arsenic and iron ions from water. The treated water is filtered after a residence time of 1–2 h. Laboratory batch experiments were performed to optimize the doses. A field trial was performed with an optimized recipe at 30 households and 5 schools at some highly arsenic affected villages in Assam, India. Simultaneous removals of arsenic from initial 0.1–0.5 mg/L to about 5 μg/L and iron from initial 0.3–5.0 mg/L to less than 0.1 mg/L have been achieved along with final pH between 7.0 and 7.5 after residence time of 1 h. The process also removes other heavy elements, if present, without leaving any additional toxic residue. The small quantity of solid sludge containing mainly ferrihydrite with adsorbed arsenate passes the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The estimated recurring cost is approximately USD 0.16 per/m3 of purified water. A high efficiency, an extremely low cost, safety, non-requirement of power and simplicity of operation make the technique potential for rural application

  20. N-6-Adenine-Specific DNA Methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) Polymorphisms and Arsenic Methylation in Andean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Harari, Florencia; Engström, Karin; Concha, Gabriela; Colque, Graciela; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In humans, inorganic arsenic is metabolized to methylated metabolites mainly by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT). AS3MT polymorphisms are associated with arsenic metabolism efficiency. Recently, a putative N-6-adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) was found to methylate arsenic in vitro. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the role of N6AMT1 polymorphisms in arsenic methylation efficiency in humans. METHODS: We assessed arsenic methylation efficiency in 188 w...

  1. Characterization of arsenic resistant bacteria from arsenic rich groundwater of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Angana; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2013-03-01

    Sixty-four arsenic (As) resistant bacteria isolated from an arsenic rich groundwater sample of West Bengal were characterized to investigate their potential role in subsurface arsenic mobilization. Among the isolated strains predominance of genera Agrobacterium/Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum and Achromobacter which could grow chemolitrophically and utilize arsenic as electron donor were detected. Higher tolerance to As(3+) [maximum tolerable concentration (MTC): ≥10 mM], As(5+) (MTC: ≥100 mM) and other heavy metals like Cu(2+), Cr(2+), Ni(2+) etc. (MTC: ≥10 mM), presence of arsenate reductase and siderophore was frequently observed among the isolates. Ability to produce arsenite oxidase and phosphatase enzyme was detected in 50 and 34 % of the isolates, respectively. Although no direct correlation among taxonomic identity of bacterial strains and their metabolic abilities as mentioned above was apparent, several isolates affiliated to genera Ochrobactrum, Achromobacter and unclassified Rhizobiaceae members were found to be highly resistant to As(3+) and As(5+) and positive for all the test properties. Arsenate reductase activity was found to be conferred by arsC gene, which in many strains was coupled with arsenite efflux gene arsB as well. Phylogenetic incongruence between the 16S rRNA and ars genes lineages indicated possible incidence of horizontal gene transfer for ars genes. Based on the results we propose that under the prevailing low nutrient condition inhabitant bacteria capable of using inorganic electron donors play a synergistic role wherein siderophores and phosphatase activities facilitate the release of sediment bound As(5+), which is subsequently reduced by arsenate reductase resulting into the mobilization of As(3+) in groundwater. PMID:23238642

  2. Oceanic arsenic detoxication: the path of arsenic in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenate appears to be readily metabolized by all marine algae. Its metabolism and mechanisms for biodegradation of the accumulated arsenolipids was investigated. The objective was to acquire sufficient understanding of the paths of arsenic in marine food chains to be able to evaluate the problems it might present to marine organisms and their effective productivity and the hazards its intermediates might present in marine products for human nutrition

  3. Arsenic fractionation and mineralogical characterization of sediments in the Cold Lake area of Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated arsenic (As > 0.01 mg L−1) in some domestic well water in the Cold Lake area of Alberta, Canada is of great concern for public health. To determine possible sources of groundwater As, sediments (n = 135) collected from five different locations (up to ∼ 300 m depth) in the area were characterized. Total As concentrations in the sediments varied from ∼ 1 to 35 mg kg−1. Sediments derived from shale contained high As (∼ 13 mg kg−1; n = 14), particularly the shale of Lea Park formation where maximum average As was ∼ 32 mg kg−1 (n = 2). Unoxidized sediments of Grand Centre (24.9 ± 4.2 mg kg−1 As) and Bonnyville (19.9 ± 1.8 mg kg−1 As) formations also contained high As. Sequential extraction procedure (SEP) revealed the dominance of exchangeable and specifically adsorbed As (6 to 46% of total As) in the sediments of varying As concentrations (0.8 to 35.4 mg kg−1 As). The high As sediments (> 7 mg kg−1 As) also contained significant amount of sulfide bound As (11 to 34% of total As), while low As (< 7 mg kg−1 As) sediments had crystalline oxide minerals bound As (25 to 75% of total As) as major phases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses confirmed the presence of pyrite, and μ-XRD analysis signaled the presence of arsenopyrite in sediments containing ∼ 20 mg kg−1 As. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis suggested dominance of arsenite (AsIII; ∼ 60 to 90% of total As) in all the sediments. These findings may help to devise strategies to investigate mechanisms of As release into the groundwater. - Highlights: • High arsenic was found in sediments derived from shale. • Arsenic was mainly found in exchangeable and sulfide bound phases. • Pyrite and arsenopyrite minerals were found in high arsenic sediments. • Sulfide minerals in the sediments could be the potential source of groundwater As

  4. Arsenic fractionation and mineralogical characterization of sediments in the Cold Lake area of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Muhammad Babar, E-mail: mjaved@ualberta.ca; Kachanoski, Gary, E-mail: gary.kachanoski@mun.ca; Siddique, Tariq, E-mail: tariq.siddique@ualberta.ca

    2014-12-01

    Elevated arsenic (As > 0.01 mg L{sup −1}) in some domestic well water in the Cold Lake area of Alberta, Canada is of great concern for public health. To determine possible sources of groundwater As, sediments (n = 135) collected from five different locations (up to ∼ 300 m depth) in the area were characterized. Total As concentrations in the sediments varied from ∼ 1 to 35 mg kg{sup −1}. Sediments derived from shale contained high As (∼ 13 mg kg{sup −1}; n = 14), particularly the shale of Lea Park formation where maximum average As was ∼ 32 mg kg{sup −1} (n = 2). Unoxidized sediments of Grand Centre (24.9 ± 4.2 mg kg{sup −1} As) and Bonnyville (19.9 ± 1.8 mg kg{sup −1} As) formations also contained high As. Sequential extraction procedure (SEP) revealed the dominance of exchangeable and specifically adsorbed As (6 to 46% of total As) in the sediments of varying As concentrations (0.8 to 35.4 mg kg{sup −1} As). The high As sediments (> 7 mg kg{sup −1} As) also contained significant amount of sulfide bound As (11 to 34% of total As), while low As (< 7 mg kg{sup −1} As) sediments had crystalline oxide minerals bound As (25 to 75% of total As) as major phases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses confirmed the presence of pyrite, and μ-XRD analysis signaled the presence of arsenopyrite in sediments containing ∼ 20 mg kg{sup −1} As. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis suggested dominance of arsenite (AsIII; ∼ 60 to 90% of total As) in all the sediments. These findings may help to devise strategies to investigate mechanisms of As release into the groundwater. - Highlights: • High arsenic was found in sediments derived from shale. • Arsenic was mainly found in exchangeable and sulfide bound phases. • Pyrite and arsenopyrite minerals were found in high arsenic sediments. • Sulfide minerals in the sediments could be the potential source of groundwater As.

  5. Arsenic distribution in soils and plants of an arsenic impacted former mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mining area affected by the abandoned exploitation of an arsenical tungsten deposit was studied in order to assess its arsenic pollution level and the feasibility of native plants for being used in phytoremediation approaches. Soil and plant samples were collected at different distances from the polluting sources and analysed for their As content and distribution. Critical soil total concentrations of As were found, with values in the range 70-5330 mg kg-1 in the uppermost layer. The plant community develops As tolerance by exclusion strategies. Of the plant species growing in the most polluted site, the shrubs Salix atrocinerea Brot. and Genista scorpius (L.) DC. exhibit the lowest bioaccumulation factor (BF) values for their aerial parts, suggesting their suitability to be used with revegetation purposes. The species Scirpus holoschoenus L. highlights for its important potential to stabilise As at root level, accumulating As contents up to 3164 mg kg-1. - Highlights: → Environmental assessment of an abandoned arsenical tungsten mining exploitation. → Under the present soils conditions As mobility is relatively low, with [As]soluble/[As]total ≤ 2%. → The highest risk of As mobilisation would take place under reducing conditions. → The shrubs Salix atrocinerea and Genista scorpius are suitable for revegetation. → The species Scirpus holoschoenus accumulates high As contents at root level. - The plants Salix atrocinerea, Genista scorpius and Scirpus holoschoenus are suitable for revegetation or phytostabilisation approaches of As-polluted soils.

  6. Photooxidation of arsenic(III) to arsenic(V) on the surface of kaolinite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Yu, Yingtan; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Li, Jinjun; Wu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    As one of the most toxic heavy metals, the oxidation of inorganic arsenic has drawn great attention among environmental scientists. However, little has been reported on the solar photochemical behavior of arsenic species on top-soil. In the present work, the influencing factors (pH, relative humidity (RH), humic acid (HA), trisodium citrate, and additional iron ions) and the contributions of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mainly HO and HO2/O2(-)) to photooxidation of As(III) to As(V) on kaolinite surfaces under UV irradiation (λ=365nm) were investigated. Results showed that lower pH facilitated photooxidation, and the photooxidation efficiency increased with the increase of RH and trisodium citrate. Promotion or inhibition of As(III) photooxidation by HA was observed at low or high dosages, respectively. Additional iron ions greatly promoted the photooxidation, but excessive amounts of Fe(2+) competed with As(III) for oxidation by ROS. Experiments on scavengers indicated that the HO radical was the predominant oxidant in this system. Experiments on actual soil surfaces proved the occurrence of As(III) photooxidation in real topsoil. This work demonstrates that the photooxidation process of As(III) on the soil surface should be taken into account when studying the fate of arsenic in natural soil newly polluted with acidic wastewater containing As(III). PMID:26456603

  7. Arsenic distribution in soils and plants of an arsenic impacted former mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otones, V. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Santa Regina, I. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n., Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A mining area affected by the abandoned exploitation of an arsenical tungsten deposit was studied in order to assess its arsenic pollution level and the feasibility of native plants for being used in phytoremediation approaches. Soil and plant samples were collected at different distances from the polluting sources and analysed for their As content and distribution. Critical soil total concentrations of As were found, with values in the range 70-5330 mg kg{sup -1} in the uppermost layer. The plant community develops As tolerance by exclusion strategies. Of the plant species growing in the most polluted site, the shrubs Salix atrocinerea Brot. and Genista scorpius (L.) DC. exhibit the lowest bioaccumulation factor (BF) values for their aerial parts, suggesting their suitability to be used with revegetation purposes. The species Scirpus holoschoenus L. highlights for its important potential to stabilise As at root level, accumulating As contents up to 3164 mg kg{sup -1}. - Highlights: > Environmental assessment of an abandoned arsenical tungsten mining exploitation. > Under the present soils conditions As mobility is relatively low, with [As]{sub soluble}/[As]{sub total} {<=} 2%. > The highest risk of As mobilisation would take place under reducing conditions. > The shrubs Salix atrocinerea and Genista scorpius are suitable for revegetation. > The species Scirpus holoschoenus accumulates high As contents at root level. - The plants Salix atrocinerea, Genista scorpius and Scirpus holoschoenus are suitable for revegetation or phytostabilisation approaches of As-polluted soils.

  8. Speciation of arsenic and mercury in feed: why and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    The understanding of the mechanisms of biological activities and biotransformation of trace elements such as arsenic and mercury has improved during recent years with the help of chemical speciation studies. However, the most important practical application of elemental speciation is in the area of...... toxicology. Toxicological knowledge on the individual trace element species can lead to more specific legislation of hazardous substances found in feed. Examples here are arsenic, where the inorganic forms are the most toxic, and mercury, where the organic form methylmercury is more toxic than inorganic...... mercury. In the present paper an overview of the current knowledge on arsenic and mercury speciation in feed and analytical methodologies for arsenic and mercury speciation analysis are given. Additionally the current status and expected future developments within legislation for trace element speciation...

  9. Speciation neutron activation analysis for arsenic in marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods involving chemical separations prior to irradiations can be developed to determine the species of an element. The technique can be called speciation NAA (SNAA). We have developed SNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. The method involves extraction by a methanol-MIBK-water system, cation exchange chromatography, and HPLC followed by NAA. The detection limits for various arsenic species are around 20 ng g-1 of fish under the experimental conditions of 2-h irradiation in a neutron flux of 5x1011 cm-2 s-1 at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 facility. Details of the methods and results are presented

  10. A terminal molybdenum arsenide complex synthesized from yellow arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, John J; Piro, Nicholas A; Cummins, Christopher C

    2009-10-19

    A terminal molybdenum arsenide complex is synthesized in one step from the reactive As(4) molecule. The properties of this complex with its arsenic atom ligand are discussed in relation to the analogous nitride and phosphide complexes. PMID:19764796

  11. ARSENIC INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useful biomarkers of arsenic effects in both experimental animals and humans are needed. Arsenate and arsenite are good inducers of rat hepatic and renal heme oxygenase (HO); monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) are not. Therefore, HO enzyme induction ...

  12. Treatment of arsenic-contaminated water using akaganeite adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena C., Fernando; Johnson, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method and composition using akaganeite, an iron oxide, as an ion adsorption medium for the removal of arsenic from water and affixing it onto carrier media so that it can be used in filtration systems.

  13. Speciation of arsenic and mercury in feed: why and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms of biological activities and biotransformation of trace elements such as arsenic and mercury has improved during recent years with the help of chemical speciation studies. However, the most important practical application of elemental speciation is in the area of...... toxicology. Toxicological knowledge on the individual trace element species can lead to more specific legislation of hazardous substances found in feed. Examples here are arsenic, where the inorganic forms are the most toxic, and mercury, where the organic form methylmercury is more toxic than inorganic...... mercury. In the present paper an overview of the current knowledge on arsenic and mercury speciation in feed and analytical methodologies for arsenic and mercury speciation analysis are given. Additionally the current status and expected future developments within legislation for trace element speciation...

  14. The polarographic electroreduction of uranyl ion in arsenic acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electroreduction of uranyl ion in arsenic acid studied by d.c. polarography shows one reduction wave at all the used arsenic acid concentrations corresponding to one electron reduction mechanism. At low arsenic acid concentration (0,1 - 0,3 M)UO2(ClO4)2 is reduced to HUO2AsO4. At higher acid concentration (0,6 M) the HUO2AsO4 molecules are reduced to UO2+ (pentavalent uranium). It is also reliable to study polarographic behaviour of uranyl ions in arsenic acid solutions up to pH 3,01. It is also possible to apply this method for the analytical determination of uranyl ion concentrations up to 2 mM. (Author)

  15. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in germfree and conventional mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body retention of orally administered 74As-labelled arsenic increased with increasing dose (0.4-4 mg/kg b.wt) in mice. As(III) was retained to a greater extent than As(V) at the high doses. Methylated arsenic (in percent of dose) in 48-hour urine decreased with increasing dose level. As(III) was generally more methylated than As(V). Differences in retention in relation to valence state and dose is discussed against the differences in methylation, binding and excretion of the different forms of arsenic. Germfree mice were shown to methylate inorganic arsenic to the same extent as conventional mice. Intestinal bacteria can thus not be a major source of methylation in mice. (author)

  16. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  17. Detection of Arsenic in the Atmospheres of Dying Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chayer, Pierre; Kruk, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of As V resonance lines observed in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of three hot DA white dwarfs: G191-B2B, WD0621-376, and WD2211-495. The stars have effective temperatures ranging from 60,000 K to 64,000 K and are among the most metal-rich white dwarfs known. We measured the arsenic abundances not only in these stars, but also in three DO stars in which As has been detected before: HD149499B, HZ21, and RE0503-289. The arsenic abundances observed in the DA stars are very similar. This suggests that radiative levitation may be the mechanism that supports arsenic. The arsenic abundance in HZ21 is significantly lower than that observed in HD149499B, even though the stars have similar atmospheric parameters. An additional mechanism may be at play in the atmospheres of these two DO stars.

  18. Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  19. Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosheen Mirza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  20. Contributions of natural arsenic sources to surface waters on a high grade arsenic-geochemical anomaly (French Massif Central).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossy, A; Grosbois, C; Hendershot, W; Beauchemin, S; Crouzet, C; Bril, H

    2012-08-15

    The subwatershed studied drains a non-exploited area of the St-Yrieix-la-Perche gold mining district (French Massif Central) and it is located on an arsenic (As) geochemical anomaly. In this context, it is important to know the geochemical processes involved in the transfer of As from solid environmental compartments to the aquatic system. The stream showed a temporal variation of dissolved As (As(d)) content from 69.4 μg.L(-1) in the low flow period to 7.5 μg.L(-1) in the high flow period. Upstream, ground- and wetland waters had As(d) concentrations up to 215 and 169 μg.L(-1), respectively. The main representative As sources were determined at the subwatershed scale with in-situ monitoring of major and trace element contents in different waters and single extraction experiments. The As sources to stream water could be regrouped into two components: (i) one As-rich group (mainly in the low flow period) with groundwater, gallery exploration outlet waters and wetland waters, and (ii) one As-poor group (mainly in the high flow period) with rainwaters and soil solutions. In the soil profile, As(d) showed a significant decrease from 52.4 μg.L(-1) in the 0-5 cm superficial soil horizon to 14.4 μg.L(-1) in the 135-165 cm deep soil horizon. This decrease may be related to pedogenic processes and suggests an evolution of As-bearing phase stability through the soil profile. Quantification of As(d) fluxes at the subwatershed scale showed that groundwater was the major input (>80%) of As(d) to surface water. Moreover, natural weathering of the As-rich solid phases showed an impact on the As release, mainly from superficial soil horizons with runoff contributing about 5% to As input in surface water. PMID:22750171

  1. Utility of arsenic-treated bird skins for DNA extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamauf Anita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural history museums receive a rapidly growing number of requests for tissue samples from preserved specimens for DNA-based studies. Traditionally, dried vertebrate specimens were treated with arsenic because of its toxicity and insect-repellent effect. Arsenic has negative effects on in vivo DNA repair enzymes and consequently may inhibit PCR performance. In bird collections, foot pad samples are often requested since the feet were not regularly treated with arsenic and because they are assumed to provide substantial amounts of DNA. However, the actual influence of arsenic on DNA analyses has never been tested. Findings PCR success of both foot pad and body skin samples was significantly lower in arsenic-treated samples. In general, foot pads performed better than body skin samples. Moreover, PCR success depends on collection date in which younger samples yielded better results. While the addition of arsenic solution to the PCR mixture had a clear negative effect on PCR performance after the threshold of 5.4 μg/μl, such high doses of arsenic are highly unlikely to occur in dried zoological specimens. Conclusions While lower PCR success in older samples might be due to age effects and/or DNA damage through arsenic treatment, our results show no inhibiting effect on DNA polymerase. We assume that DNA degradation proceeds more rapidly in thin tissue layers with low cell numbers that are susceptible to external abiotic influences. In contrast, in thicker parts of a specimen, such as foot pads, the outermost horny skin may act as an additional barrier. Since foot pads often performed better than body skin samples, the intention to preserve morphologically important structures of a specimen still conflicts with the aim to obtain optimal PCR success. Thus, body skin samples from recently collected specimens should be considered as alternative sources of DNA.

  2. Microbial arsenic metabolism: New twists on an old poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J.F.; Basu, P.; Oremland, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microorganisms metabolize arsenic despite its toxicity and are part of its robust iogeochemical cycle. Respiratory arsenate reductase is a reversible enzyme, functioning in some microbes as an arsenate reductase but in others as an arsenite oxidase. As(III) can serve as an electron donor for anoxygenic photolithoautotrophy and chemolithoautotrophy. Organoarsenicals, such as the feed additive roxarsone, can be used as a source of energy, releasing inorganic arsenic.

  3. Factors influencing the metabolism of inorganic arsenic in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Anna-Lena

    2007-01-01

    p>Inorganic arsenic (iAs), a naturally occurring drinking water contaminant, is a potent human carcinogen and toxicant. It is believed that in humans, as well as in most mammals, inorganic arsenic is biotransformed via reduction and methylation using one-carbon metabolism with S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as methyl donor, and is excreted mainly in urine as dimethylarsinate (DMA) and methylarsonate (MA) as well as some unmethylated iAs (arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III))....

  4. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Gawedzki; K. Wayne Forsythe

    2012-01-01

    Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging...

  5. Arsenic Precipitation in the Bioleaching of Realgar Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Chen; Lei Yan; Qiang Wang; Hongyu Li

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates the characteristics of arsenic precipitation during the bioleaching of realgar. The bioleaching performance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans BY-3 (A. ferrooxidans) was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry. SEM and XRD analyses revealed that the arsenic-adapted strain of A. ferrooxidans was more hydrophobic and showed high...

  6. Arsenic-Based Antineoplastic Drugs and Their Mechanisms of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, Stephen John

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic-based compounds have become accepted agents for cancer therapy providing high rates of remission of some cancers such as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The mechanisms by which arsenic-containing compounds kill cells and reasons for selective killing of only certain types of cancer cells such as APLs have recently been delineated. This knowledge was gained in parallel with increasing understanding and awareness of the importance of intracellular redox systems and regulation of the...

  7. Study of arsenic diffusion in dental therapy by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation by fast neutrons (14 MeV) allows the evaluation of radioactive arsenic distribution in the different parts of teeth of which the nerve was killed. As an average 60 % of the arsenic is found in the upper part 4.3 % in the middle part and 2.2 % in the apical part. About 34 % of arsenious anhydride is diffused into the organism. This quantitative analysis is a contribution to the therapeutic choice in function of element diffusion

  8. Cancer excess after arsenic exposure from contaminated milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki;

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic is related to increased risk of cancer in the lung, skin, bladder, and, possibly, other sites. However, little is known about the consequences of developmental exposures in regard to cancer risk. During early summer in 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of infant...... occurred in the western part of Japan because of contaminated milk powder. Okayama Prefecture was most severely affected. We examined whether the affected birth cohorts in this prefecture experienced increased cancer mortality....

  9. Field Deployable Method for Arsenic Speciation in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voice, Thomas C; Flores Del Pino, Lisveth V; Havezov, Ivan; Long, David T

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water supplies by arsenic is a world-wide problem. Total arsenic measurements are commonly used to investigate and regulate arsenic in water, but it is well understood that arsenic occurs in several chemical forms, and these exhibit different toxicities. It is problematic to use laboratory-based speciation techniques to assess exposure as it has been suggested that the distribution of species is not stable during transport in some types of samples. A method was developed in this study for the on-site speciation of the most toxic dissolved arsenic species: As (III), As (V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA). Development criteria included ease of use under field conditions, applicable at levels of concern for drinking water, and analytical performance.The approach is based on selective retention of arsenic species on specific ion-exchange chromatography cartridges followed by selective elution and quantification using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples can be delivered to a set of three cartridges using either syringes or peristaltic pumps. Species distribution is stable at this point, and the cartridges can be transported to the laboratory for elution and quantitative analysis. A set of ten replicate spiked samples of each compound, having concentrations between 1 and 60 µg/L, were analyzed. Arsenic recoveries ranged from 78-112 % and relative standard deviations were generally below 10%. Resolution between species was shown to be outstanding, with the only limitation being that the capacity for As (V) was limited to approximately 50 µg/L. This could be easily remedied by changes in either cartridge design, or the extraction procedure. Recoveries were similar for two spiked hard groundwater samples indicating that dissolved minerals are not likely to be problematic. These results suggest that this methodology can be use for analysis of the four primary arsenic species of concern in

  10. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Naghizadeh; Ahmad Reza Yari; Hamid Reza Tashauoei; Mokhtar Mahdavi; Elham Derakhshani; Rahman Rahimi; Pegah Bahmani; Hiva Daraei; Esmaeil Ghahremani

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Tashauoei HR, Mahdavi M, Derakhshani E, Rahimi R, Bahmani P. Carbon nanotubes technology for removal of arsenic from water. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1):6-11. Aims of the Study: This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the arsenic removal from water by using carbon nanotubes in continuous adsorption column. Materials & Methods: Independent variables including carbon nanotubes dosage, contact time and breakthrough poi...

  11. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in subtropical coastal beachrock, Gulf of Mannar, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Dajkumar Sahayam; N Chandrasekar; S Krishna Kumar; G Victor Rajamanickam

    2010-02-01

    An assessment of coastal pollution was made on the basis of trace element concentrations (arsenic –As, mercury – Hg) in the Gulf of Mannar. The beachrock samples were collected along the coastal tracts between Rameswaram and Kanyakumari. The samples were dried and digested to determine the As and Hg using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS-air-acetylene and nitrous oxide method). The As and Hg accumulation status of the beachrock was assessed using geo-accumulation index values (). The accumulation of As and Hg in the beachrock ranges from 2.75 to 20.72 g g−1 and from 0.06 to 0.31 g g−1, respectively. The As and Hg concentrations in the beachrocks are compared with crustal average values and average of other region sediments. The possible source of the contamination is from atmospheric deposition and anthropogenic activities.

  12. Arsenic mobilization processes in the red river delta, Vietnam. Towards a better understanding of the patchy distribution of dissolved arsenic in alluvial deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiche, Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    In this work the spatial variability of dissolved arsenic concentrations in aquifers was studied in a small village in the vicinity of Ha Noi, Vietnam. The main goal was to identify major geochemical, sedimentological and hydrochemical differences between high and low arsenic regions. Furthermore, the behaviour of arsenic and other elements during sequential extractions on a micrometer scale was characterized with micro synchrotron XRF analysis. Based on the results a conceptual model was developed which could explain the current situation in the village. Moreover, it could help to identify high arsenic areas throughout the world and, therefore, prevent the installation of drinking water wells in arsenic burdened regions. (orig.)

  13. Naturally occurring radioactive elements, arsenic and other metals in drinking water from private wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    island of Gotland, where the bedrock is dominated by Silurian limestones, the majority of the water samples showed boron concentrations far exceeding the provisional guide line value 500 μg/l set by WHO. Metals like lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium are only rarely found in harmful concentrations in Swedish drinking-water. A conclusion of the results from this study is that ordinary analyses of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters as well as radon-222, should be complemented with analyses of metals including uranium and arsenic, especially in waters from drilled wells in bedrock. A direct finding from this study is that radium-226 accumulates in some types of common water filters, which are often used to decrease iron and manganese. With arsenic concentrations in the drinking water exceeding the guide line 10 μg/l, actions should be taken to reduce the concentrations below this limit. Recent tests by the National Board of Health and Welfare of Sweden have shown that adsorption and ion exchange can reduce arsenic in drinking water up to 98 %. This project has shown that arsenic accumulates to a large degree in common water filters installed to remove iron and manganese. This study gives an overview of how drinking water, extracted from private wells, is influenced by various elements that occur naturally in our environment. New problem areas such as a radiation dose from lead-210 and polonium-210 have been identified. Information campaigns addressing different target groups, like county councils and municipalities, are necessary to inform well owners about the issues on radon, uranium, arsenic, fluoride and water filters. Additional studies are needed to further increase our knowledge on radioactive elements, arsenic and other possibly harmful elements in drinking water. A further mapping of lead-210 and polonium-210 occurrence in drinking water would allow for better estimates o

  14. Cytokinin Determines Thiol-Mediated Arsenic Tolerance and Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Thotegowdanapalya C; Castrillo, Gabriel; Navarro, Cristina; Zarco-Fernández, Sonia; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Mateo, Cristian; Zamarreño, Angel M; Paz-Ares, Javier; Muñoz, Riansares; García-Mina, Jose M; Hernández, Luis E; Schmülling, Thomas; Leyva, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The presence of arsenic in soil and water is a constant threat to plant growth in many regions of the world. Phytohormones act in the integration of growth control and stress response, but their role in plant responses to arsenic remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that arsenate [As(V)], the most prevalent arsenic chemical species in nature, causes severe depletion of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that CK signaling mutants and transgenic plants with reduced endogenous CK levels showed an As(V)-tolerant phenotype. Our data indicate that in CK-depleted plants exposed to As(V), transcript levels of As(V)/phosphate-transporters were similar or even higher than in wild-type plants. In contrast, CK depletion provoked the coordinated activation of As(V) tolerance mechanisms, leading to the accumulation of thiol compounds such as phytochelatins and glutathione, which are essential for arsenic sequestration. Transgenic CK-deficient Arabidopsis and tobacco lines show a marked increase in arsenic accumulation. Our findings indicate that CK is an important regulatory factor in plant adaptation to arsenic stress. PMID:27208271

  15. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naghizadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Tashauoei HR, Mahdavi M, Derakhshani E, Rahimi R, Bahmani P. Carbon nanotubes technology for removal of arsenic from water. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:6-11. Aims of the Study: This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the arsenic removal from water by using carbon nanotubes in continuous adsorption column. Materials & Methods: Independent variables including carbon nanotubes dosage, contact time and breakthrough point were carried out to determine the influence of these parameters on the adsorption capacity of the arsenic from water. Results: Adsorption capacities of single wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes were about 148 mg/g and 95 mg/g respectively. The experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and equilibrium data indicate the best fit obtained with Langmuir isotherm model. Conclusions: Carbon nanotubes can be considered as a promising adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from large volume of aqueous solutions. References: 1. Lomaquahu ES, Smith AH. Feasibility of new epidemiology studies on arsenic exposures at low levels. AWWA Inorganic Contaminants Workshop. San Antonio; 1998. 2. Burkel RS, Stoll RC. Naturally occurring arsenic in sandstone aquifer water supply wells of North Eastern Wisconsin. Ground Water Monit Remediat 1999;19(2:114-21. 3. Mondal P, Majumder CB, Mohanty B. Laboratory based approaches for arsenic remediation from contaminated water: recent developments. J Hazard Mater 2006;137(1: 464-79. 4. Meenakshi RCM. Arsenic removal from water: a review. Asian J Water Environ Pollut 2006;3(1:133-9. 5. Wickramasinghe SR, Binbing H, Zimbron J, Shen Z, Karim MN. Arsenic removal by coagulation and filtration: comparison of ground waters from United States and Bangladesh. Desalination 2004;169:231-44. 6. Hossain MF. Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-an overview. Agric Ecosyst Environ 2006;113(1-4:1-16. 7. USEPA, Arsenic. Final

  16. Arsenic incorporation into authigenic pyrite, Bengal Basin sediment, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md. N.; Muneem, Ad. A.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment from two deep boreholes (???400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  17. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  18. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values ≥126 mg/100 ml (≥7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 μg/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic

  19. Fractionation of inorganic arsenic by adjusting hydrogen ion concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Andrea; Gonzalez, Mario Henrique; Queiroz, Helena Müller; Cadore, Solange

    2016-12-15

    The inorganic fraction of arsenic species, iAs=∑[As(III)+As(V)] present in fish samples can be quantified in the presence of other arsenic species also found in fishes, such as: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AsB). The toxic arsenic fraction was selected taking into account the dissociation constants of these arsenic species in different hydrogen ions concentration leading to the arsine formation from iAs compounds detected as As(III) by HG AAS. For thus, a microwave assisted extraction was carried out using HCl 1molL(-1) in order to maintain the integrity of the arsenic species in this mild extraction media. Recovery experiments were done for iAs fraction, in the presence of other arsenic species. The recovery values obtained for iAs fraction added were quantitative about 87-107% (for N=3, RSD⩽3%). The limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ), were 5μgkg(-1) and 16μgkg(-1) respectively. PMID:27451157

  20. Carbon-enhanced inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection of arsenic and selenium and its application to arsenic speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Sturup, Stefan

    1994-01-01

    Addition of carbon as methanol or ammonium carbonate to the aqueous analyte solutions in combination with increased plasma power input enhanced the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) signal intensities of arsenic and selenium. In the presence of the optimum 3% v/v methanol...... concentration the signal intensities achieved were about 4500-5000 counts s-1 per ng ml-1 of arsenic and about 700-1100 counts s-1 per ng ml-1 of selenium (Se-82), corresponding to enhancement factors of 3.5-4.5 compared with aqueous solution for the two elements. Differences in sensitivity (calculated on the...... basis of analyte atom) were observed between the individual arsenic species and between the selenium species in aqueous as well as in carbon-added solutions. The presence of 3% v/v methanol in the analyte solutions doubled the level of the background signal for arsenic and selenium, but its fluctuation...

  1. Arsenic removal from aqueous solution using ferrous based red mud sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiran; Wang, Jun; Luan, Zhaokun; Liang, Zhen

    2010-05-15

    Ferrous based red mud sludge (FRS) which combined the iron-arsenic co-precipitation and the high arsenic adsorption features was developed aimed at low arsenic water treatment in rural areas. Arsenic removal studies shown that FRS in dosage of 0.2 or 0.3g/l can be used effectively to remove arsenic from aqueous solutions when initial As(V) concentration was 0.2 or 0.3mg/l. Meanwhile, turbidity of supernatant in disturbing water was lower than 2 NTU after 24h. The pH range (4.5-8.0) for FRS in effective arsenic removal was applicable in natural circumstance. Phosphate can greatly reduce the arsenic removal efficiency while the presence of carbonate had no significant effect on arsenic removal. Arsenic fractionation experiments showed that amorphous hydrous oxide-bound arsenic was the major components. When aqueous pH was decreased from 8.0 to 4.5, arsenic in FRS was not obviously released. The high arsenic uptake capability, good settlement performance and cost-effective characteristic of FRS make it potentially attractive material for the arsenic removal in rural areas. PMID:20034742

  2. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested

  3. Arsenic chemistry in the rhizosphere of Pteris vittata L. and Nephrolepis exaltata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This greenhouse experiment evaluated the influence of arsenic uptake by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and non-arsenic hyperaccumulator Nephrolepis exaltata L. on arsenic chemistry in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The plants were grown for 8 weeks in a rhizopot with a soil containing 105 mg kg-1 arsenic. The soil arsenic was fractionated into five fractions with decreasing availability: non-specifically bound (N), specifically bound (S), amorphous hydrous-oxide bound (A), crystalline hydrous-oxide bound (C), and residual (R). P. vittata produced larger plant biomass (7.38 vs. 2.32 mg plant-1) and removed more arsenic (2.61 vs. 0.09 mg pot-1 arsenic) than N. exaltata. Plant growth reduced water-soluble arsenic, and increased soil pH (P. vittata only) in the rhizosphere soil. P. vittata was more efficient than N. exaltata to access arsenic from all fractions (39-64% vs. 5-39% reduction). However, most of the arsenic taken up by both plants was from the A fraction (67-77%) in the rhizosphere soil, the most abundant (61.5%) instead of the most available (N fraction). - Plant arsenic uptake altered arsenic distribution in different fractions in the rhizosphere soil

  4. Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick A.; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) causes cancer and possibly other adverse health outcomes. Arsenic-based drugs are permitted in poultry production; however, the contribution of chicken consumption to iAs intake is unknown. Objectives: We sought to characterize the arsenic species profile in chicken meat and estimate bladder and lung cancer risk associated with consuming chicken produced with arsenic-based drugs. Methods: Conventional, antibiotic-free, and organic chicken samples were collected from grocery stores in 10 U.S. metropolitan areas from December 2010 through June 2011. We tested 116 raw and 142 cooked chicken samples for total arsenic, and we determined arsenic species in 65 raw and 78 cooked samples that contained total arsenic at ≥ 10 µg/kg dry weight. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of total arsenic in cooked chicken meat samples was 3.0 µg/kg (95% CI: 2.5, 3.6). Among the 78 cooked samples that were speciated, iAs concentrations were higher in conventional samples (GM = 1.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.4, 2.3) than in antibiotic-free (GM = 0.7 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) or organic (GM = 0.6 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) samples. Roxarsone was detected in 20 of 40 conventional samples, 1 of 13 antibiotic-free samples, and none of the 25 organic samples. iAs concentrations in roxarsone-positive samples (GM = 2.3 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.1) were significantly higher than those in roxarsone-negative samples (GM = 0.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.0). Cooking increased iAs and decreased roxarsone concentrations. We estimated that consumers of conventional chicken would ingest an additional 0.11 µg/day iAs (in an 82-g serving) compared with consumers of organic chicken. Assuming lifetime exposure and a proposed cancer slope factor of 25.7 per milligram per kilogram of body weight per day, this increase in arsenic exposure could result in 3.7 additional lifetime bladder and lung cancer cases per 100,000 exposed persons. Conclusions: Conventional chicken meat had higher i

  5. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...... arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples....... For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted...

  6. Comparison of Low Concentration and High Concentration Arsenic Removal Techniques and Evaluation of Concentration of Arsenic in Ground Water: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasar, Abdullah; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Shahzadi, Uzma; Saleem, Pakeeza [GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    The main focus of this study was the evaluation of arsenic concentration in the ground water of Lahore at different depth and application of different mitigation techniques for arsenic removal. Twenty four hours of solar oxidation gives 90% of arsenic removal as compared to 8 hr. or 16 hr. Among oxides, calcium oxide gives 96% of As removal as compared to 93% by lanthanum oxide. Arsenic removal efficiency was up to 97% by ferric chloride, whereas 95% by alum. Activated alumina showed 99% removal as compared to 97% and 95% removal with bauxite and charcoal, respectively. Elemental analysis of adsorbents showed that the presence of phosphate and silica can cause a reduction of arsenic removal efficiency by activated alumina, bauxite and charcoal. This study has laid a foundation for further research on arsenic in the city of Lahore and has also provided suitable techniques for arsenic removal.

  7. Amphoteric arsenic in GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Araújo, J P; Rita, E; Soares, JC

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the lattice location of implanted arsenic in GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive $^{73}$As. We give direct evidence that As is an amphoteric impurity, thus settling the long-standing question as to whether it prefers cation or anion sites in GaN. The amphoteric character of As and the fact that As$\\scriptstyle_{Ga}\\,$ " anti-sites ” are not minority defects provide additional aspects to be taken into account for an explanantion of the so-called “ miscibility gap ” in ternary GaAs$\\scriptstyle_{1-x}$N$\\scriptstyle_{x}$ compounds, which cannot be grown with a single phase for values of $x$ in the range 0.1<${x}$< 0.99.

  8. Amphoteric arsenic in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have determined the lattice location of implanted arsenic in GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive 73As. They give direct evidence that As is an amphoteric impurity, thus settling the long-standing question as to whether it prefers cation or anion sites in GaN. The amphoteric character of As and the fact that AsGa 'antisites' are not minority defects provide additional aspects to be taken into account for an explanantion of the so-called miscibility gap in ternary GaAs1-xNx compounds, which cannot be grown with a single phase for values of x in the range of 0.1< x<0.99

  9. Arsenic sorption onto disordered mackinawite as a control on the mobility of arsenic in the ambient sulphidic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wolthers, M.; Charlet, L.; Weijden, C.H. van der

    2003-01-01

    Arsenate, As (V), sorption onto synthetic disordered mackinawite (FeSam) follows Langmuir-type behaviour. As (V) is not reduced prior to or during sorption. Arsenite, As (III) sorption can be expressed by a Freundlich isotherm. Comparison of the experimental sorption isotherms to field data describing the mobility of arsenic in a Bangladesh aquifer shows that arsenic mobility may be controlled by As (V) sorption onto FeSam in the aquifer sediment.

  10. Inorganic Arsenic Induces NRF2-Regulated Antioxidant Defenses in Both Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Shuo; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Li, Wei; Nie, Huifang; Sun, Guifang; Li, Bing

    2016-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic is reported to induce the reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress, which is supposed to be one of the main mechanisms of arsenic-related neurological diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of antioxidant defense systems, up-regulates the expression of target genes to fight against oxidative damages caused by harmful substances, including metals. In the present study, mice were used as a model to investigate the oxidative stress levels and the expressions of NRF2-regulated antioxidant substances in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure intra-gastrically. Our results showed that acute NaAsO2 treatment resulted in decreased total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and increased maleic dialdehyde production in the nervous system. We also detected rapidly elevation of NRF2 protein levels by enhancement of Nrf2 transcription, especially at 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure group. In the meantime, mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 encoding antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were consistently elevated time- and dose-dependently both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Taken together, the presence study demonstrated the activation of NRF2 pathway, an early antioxidant defensive response, in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus upon inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure in vivo. A better knowledge on the roles of NRF2 pathway in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis would be helpful for the strategies on improvement of neurotoxicity related to this metalloid. PMID:27165637

  11. Total arsenic in selected food samples from Argentina: Estimation of their contribution to inorganic arsenic dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Hilbe, Nandi; Brusa, Lucila; Campagnoli, Darío; Beldoménico, Horacio

    2016-11-01

    An optimized flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (FI-HGAAS) method was used to determine total arsenic in selected food samples (beef, chicken, fish, milk, cheese, egg, rice, rice-based products, wheat flour, corn flour, oats, breakfast cereals, legumes and potatoes) and to estimate their contributions to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values obtained were 6μgkg(-)(1) and 18μgkg(-)(1), respectively. The mean recovery range obtained for all food at a fortification level of 200μgkg(-)(1) was 85-110%. Accuracy was evaluated using dogfish liver certified reference material (DOLT-3 NRC) for trace metals. The highest total arsenic concentrations (in μgkg(-)(1)) were found in fish (152-439), rice (87-316) and rice-based products (52-201). The contribution to inorganic arsenic (i-As) intake was calculated from the mean i-As content of each food (calculated by applying conversion factors to total arsenic data) and the mean consumption per day. The primary contributors to inorganic arsenic intake were wheat flour, including its proportion in wheat flour-based products (breads, pasta and cookies), followed by rice; both foods account for close to 53% and 17% of the intake, respectively. The i-As dietary intake, estimated as 10.7μgday(-)(1), was significantly lower than that from drinking water in vast regions of Argentina. PMID:27211625

  12. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Kimberly [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869 West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869 West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: dula@hampshire.edu; Xing, Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind 'tightly' to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil. - The distribution of arsenic species [i.e., As (III), As (V), and methylated arsenic species (DMA, MMA)] on the soil surface and in a depth profile as well as those associated with humic acids is discussed.

  13. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind 'tightly' to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil. - The distribution of arsenic species [i.e., As (III), As (V), and methylated arsenic species (DMA, MMA)] on the soil surface and in a depth profile as well as those associated with humic acids is discussed

  14. Development of suitable hydroponics system for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water using an arsenic hyperaccumulator plant Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Inoue, Chihiro; Endo, Ginro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we found that high-performance hydroponics of arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata is possible without any mechanical aeration system, if rhizomes of the ferns are kept over the water surface level. It was also found that very low-nutrition condition is better for root elongation of P. vittata that is an important factor of the arsenic removal from contaminated water. By the non-aeration and low-nutrition hydroponics for four months, roots of P. vittata were elongated more than 500 mm. The results of arsenate phytofiltration experiments showed that arsenic concentrations in water declined from the initial concentrations (50 μg/L, 500 μg/L, and 1000 μg/L) to lower than the detection limit (0.1 μg/L) and about 80% of arsenic removed was accumulated in the fern fronds. The improved hydroponics method for P. vittata developed in this study enables low-cost phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water and high-affinity removal of arsenic from water. PMID:26549187

  15. Arsenic contamination of soils and agricultural plants through irrigation water in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study monitored the influence of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water on alkaline soils and arsenic uptake in agricultural plants at field level. The arsenic concentrations in irrigation water ranges from -1 where the arsenic concentrations in the soils were measured from 6.1 to 16.7 mg As kg-1. The arsenic content in different parts of plants are found in the order of roots > shoots > leaves > edible parts. The mean arsenic content of edible plant material (dry weight) were found in the order of onion leaves (0.55 mg As kg-1) > onion bulb (0.45 mg As kg-1) > cauliflower (0.33 mg As kg-1) > rice (0.18 mg As kg-1) > brinjal (0.09 mg As kg-1) > potato (-1). - The arsenic content in soil and plants is influenced by the degree of arsenic amount in irrigated water

  16. Arsenic alters ATP-dependent Ca²+ signaling in human airway epithelial cell wound response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Cara L; Lantz, R Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L; Boitano, Scott

    2011-05-01

    Arsenic is a natural metalloid toxicant that is associated with occupational inhalation injury and contaminates drinking water worldwide. Both inhalation of arsenic and consumption of arsenic-tainted water are correlated with malignant and nonmalignant lung diseases. Despite strong links between arsenic and respiratory illness, underlying cell responses to arsenic remain unclear. We hypothesized that arsenic may elicit some of its detrimental effects on the airway through limitation of innate immune function and, specifically, through alteration of paracrine ATP (purinergic) Ca²+ signaling in the airway epithelium. We examined the effects of acute (24 h) exposure with environmentally relevant levels of arsenic (i.e., immune functions (e.g., ciliary beat, salt and water transport, bactericide production, and wound repair). Arsenic-induced compromise of such airway defense mechanisms may be an underlying contributor to chronic lung disease. PMID:21357385

  17. Effect of phosphorus on arsenic accumulation in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and its implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to understand the effect of phosphorus on arsenic accumulation in As-hyperaccumulator Chinese brake (Pteris vittata L.). It is shown that arsenic concentrations in the fronds and rhizoids, the arsenic bioaccumulation factor, and the total arsenic in the fronds were not influenced significantly under low levels of phosphorus (≤400 mg/kg) and increased sharply under high levels of phosphorus (>400 mg/ kg). The discovery implies that the efficiency of arsenic removal in phytoremediation using the hyperaccumulating plant can be greatly elevated by the phosphorus addition at high rates. The interaction between the accumulation of phosphorus and that of arsenic in plant was stimulated mutually. The result represents that Chinese brake is a good material for plant physiologist to conduct comparative and mechanism studies on the uptake behaviors of phosphorus and arsenic, and phosphorus is also a potential accelerator for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils.

  18. THE ROLE OF VALENCE AND METHYLATION STATE ON THE ACTIVITY OF ARSENIC DURING MITOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivalent methylated arsenicals are much more potent DNA damaging agents, clastogens, and large deletion mutagens than are their inorganic and pentavalent counterparts. Previously we had noticed that many of the arsenicals induced "c-type" anaphases characteristic of spindle pois...

  19. DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENICALS: ROLE OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to arsenic is worldwide due to both natural and man-made processes. Arsenic-associated human diseases include lung, liver, bladder and skin cancer, cardiovascular and vascular disorders, neurological disorders, skin diseases, and liver disorders. Premalignant skin lesi...

  20. Combustion characteristics and arsenic retention during co-combustion of agricultural biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui; Hu, Yunhu

    2016-08-01

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and laboratory-scale circulated fluidized bed combustion experiment was conducted to investigate the thermochemical, kinetic and arsenic retention behavior during co-combustion bituminous coal with typical agricultural biomass. Results shown that ignition performance and thermal reactivity of coal could be enhanced by adding biomass in suitable proportion. Arsenic was enriched in fly ash and associated with fine particles during combustion of coal/biomass blends. The emission of arsenic decreased with increasing proportion of biomass in blends. The retention of arsenic may be attributed to the interaction between arsenic and fly ash components. The positive correlation between calcium content and arsenic concentration in ash suggesting that the arsenic-calcium interaction may be regarded as the primary mechanism for arsenic retention. PMID:27136608