WorldWideScience

Sample records for array technologies assessed

  1. Assessment of SEPS solar array technology for orbital service module application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Work performed in the following assessment areas on the SEPS solar array is reported: (1) requirements definition, (2) electrical design evaluation, (3) mechanical design evaluation, and (4) design modification analysis. General overall assessment conclusions are summarized. There are no known serious design limitations involved in the implementation of the recommended design modifications. A section of orbiter and array engineering drawings is included.

  2. Assessment of weld quality of aerospace grade metals by using ultrasonic matrix phased array technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T.

    2014-03-01

    Advantages of two dimensional electronic ultrasonic beam focusing, steering and scanning with the matrix phased array (MPA) technology has been used to visualize the conditions of resistance spot welds in auto vehicle grade advanced high strength steel carbon steels nondestructively. Two of the commonly used joining techniques, resistance spot welding and resistance seam welding, for thin aerospace grade plates made of aluminum, titanium, and stainless steels have also been inspected with the same MPA NDE system. In this study, a detailed discussions of the current MPA based ultrasonic real time imaging methodology has been made followed by some of the NDT results obtained with various welded test coupons.

  3. Assessment of High-Voltage Photovoltaic Technologies for the Design of a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Schneider, T.; Carruth, M. R.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    A three-year program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster system (D2HET) begun in 2001 as part of the NASA Advanced Cross-Enterprise Technology Development initiative. The system, which is expected to reduce significantly the power processing, complexity, weight, and cost over conventional low-voltage systems, will employ solar arrays that operate at voltages higher than (or equal to) 300 V. The lessons learned from the development of the technology also promise to become a stepping-stone for the production of the next generation of power systems employing high voltage solar arrays. This paper summarizes the results from experiments conducted mainly at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center with two main solar array technologies. The experiments focused on electron collection and arcing studies, when the solar cells operated at high voltages. The tests utilized small coupons representative of each solar array technology. A hollow cathode was used to emulate parts of the induced environment on the solar arrays, mostly the low-energy charge-exchange plasma (1012-1013 m-3 and 0.5-1 eV). Results and conclusions from modeling of electron collection are also summarized. The observations from the total effort are used to propose a preliminary, new solar array design for 2 kW and 30-40 kW class, deep space missions that may employ a single or a cluster of Hall- Effect thrusters.

  4. SEPS solar array design and technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The technology developments required and a preliminary design of a lightweight 25 kW solar array for the solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS) have been defined. The requirements for a 65 W/Kg SEPS solar array system requires significant component weight reductions over present state-of-the-art flexible solar arrays in both electrical and structural-mechanical designs. A requirement for operation from 0.3 au to 6.0 au presents a wide range of temperature environments as well as severe combined thermal/vacuum/UV radiation environments. Additional requirements are capability for partial array retraction operation, and capability for full retraction and automatic preloading for survival of the Shuttle reentry environment. An assessment of current lightweight flexible solar array technology is made against the SEPS solar array requirements and new technology requirements are defined. A preliminary design and the operating characteristics of a flat-fold solar array system meeting the SEPS requirements is presented. A full-width, 10-ft-tall functional array model, including representative welded electrical modules and a model astromast, was fabricated and tested.

  5. Slot Coupled Patch Array Antenna Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is an antenna array whose beam is controlled digitally. The Phase 1 effort will assess the method needed to achieve the gain, bandwidth, and...

  6. Technology assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical studies in assessment methodology have concentrated in the past year on computerization of state-of-the-art models for internal radiation dosimetry and development and evaluation of environmental transport models. Methodology applications continued to cover a broad spectrum of radiation exposure scenarios. Potential exposure situations requiring assessment arise from assorted deployments of all parts of nuclear fuel cycles, including comparisons of alternative uranium and thorium based cycles, and preliminary evaluations of advanced reactor fuel concepts. Measurements and samples were collected characterizing and documenting the current radiological status of formerly used Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites. This survey program encompasses research activities in the areas of survey design, instrumentation development, sample analysis, and data reduction and analysis. Other laboratory activities within TAS center around the unique capabilities of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as an irradiation source. Typically the HPRR was involved in testing and intercomparison of dosimetry and criticality alarm systems and in exposure of physical and biological experiments

  7. Healthcare technology and technology assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, James H.; Hwang, Raymond; Bozic, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    New technology is one of the primary drivers for increased healthcare costs in the United States. Both physician and industry play important roles in the development, adoption, utilization and choice of new technologies. The Federal Drug Administration regulates new drugs and new medical devices, but healthcare technology assessment remains limited. Healthcare technology assessment originated in federal agencies; today it is decentralized with increasing private sector efforts. Innovation is ...

  8. Photovoltaic cell and array technology development for future unique NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Curtis, H.; Piszczor, M.; Surampudi, R.; Hamilton, T.; Rapp, D.; Stella, P.; Mardesich, N.; Mondt, J.; Bunker, R.; Nesmith, B.; Gaddy, E.; Marvin, D.; Kazmerski, L.

    2002-01-01

    A technology review committee from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Air Force Research Lab, was formed to assess solar cell and array technologies required for future NASA science missions.

  9. SEPS solar array design and technology evaluation. [Solar Electric Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The solar array system considered is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, and an array electrical harness. A technology evaluation is performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define the supporting effort necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) solar array design requirements. Details of mechanical design are discussed along with questions of electrical design, operational reliability advantages, and array assembly advantages.

  10. Advocacy and technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    A highly structured treatment is presented of adversarial systems as they apply to technology assessment. One approach to the problem of adequate criteria of assessment focuses upon the internal operations of assessment entities; operations include problem perception, problem formulation, selection, utilization, determination, and evaluation. Potential contributions of advocacy as a mode of inquiry in technology are discussed; advocacy is evaluated by representative sets of criteria of adequate assessment which include participant criteria, perspectives criteria, situations criteria, base values criteria, and strategies criteria.

  11. The research progress of tiling array technology and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG XianYu; WANG Jun; CHI XueBin

    2008-01-01

    Tiling array technology was improved from microarray technology. Over the past five years, tiling array has become an important tool for gathering genome information. Its features of high density and high throughput allow people to probe into life from the whole-genome level. This paper is a survey of tiling array technology and its applications. In addition, some typical algorithms for identifying expressed probe signals are described and compared.

  12. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This year`s Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  13. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This year's Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  14. Health care technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Clifford

    1994-12-01

    The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.

  15. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  16. picoArray Technology: The Tool's Story

    CERN Document Server

    Duller, Andrew; Panesar, Gajinder; Gray, Alan; Robbins, Will

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the picoArray? architecture, and in particular the deterministic internal communication fabric. The methods that have been developed for debugging and verifying systems using devices from the picoArray family are explained. In order to maximize the computational ability of these devices, hardware debugging support has been kept to a minimum and the methods and tools developed to take this into account.

  17. Technologies for Language Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Jill; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews current and developing technology uses that are relevant to language assessment and discusses examples of recent linguistic applications from the laboratory at the Educational Testing Service. The processes of language test development are described and the functions they serve from the perspective of a large testing organization are…

  18. CNPC makes major breakthrough in array lateral logging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On October 12, 2011, the array lateral logging tool independently developed by CNPC Well Logging Company was successfully put to use at two production wells at Changqing Oilfield, obtaining high quality logging information. CNPC becomes the second company after Schlumberger in the world to master the array lateral logging technology, which can effectively identify layers as thin as 0.3 meter.

  19. Decontamination technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technology developments that may represent significant improvements over D and D technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water rector (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign D and D technologies of potential interest to the U.S. were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of D and D literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in D and D costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to U.S. needs

  20. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  1. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  2. Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the μg/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media

  3. The Use of Biochip Array Technology for Rapid Multimycotoxin Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotan, Monika; Devlin, Raymond; Porter, Jonathan; Benchikh, M El Ouard; Rodríguez, María Luz; McConnell, R Ivan; FitzGerald, S Peter

    2016-07-01

    The main known groups of mycotoxins are aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, type A trichothecenes (T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol), and zearalenones. They are harmful to humans, domestic animals, and livestock. In Europe, maximum permitted limits for aflatoxin B1 are set, and guidance levels are recommended for the other mycotoxins. This study applied biochip array technology to semiquantitative multimycotoxin screening at different levels to facilitate the verification of the compliance of feed material with acceptable safety standards. This application was developed and validated based on European Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. After a single generic sample-preparation method, simultaneous competitive chemiluminescent immunoassays were used and applied to the Evidence Investigator analyzer. The r and within-laboratory R values showed low overall CVs (10.6 and 11.6%, respectively). Low matrix effect and, consequently, low decision limits and detection capabilities proved the high sensitivity of the technology. The overall average recovery was 104%. Samples (n = 16) investigated within the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) program showed excellent correlation to assigned values. FAPAS proficiency-testing feed samples (n = 10) were within the schemes' z-score ±2 range. The authentic feed samples survey showed excellent correlation with LC-MS/MS. This application is, therefore, reliable and represents an innovative, cost-effective, and multianalytical tool for mycotoxin screening. PMID:27455929

  4. The Use of Biochip Array Technology for Rapid Multimycotoxin Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotan, Monika; Devlin, Raymond; Porter, Jonathan; Benchikh, M El Ouard; Rodríguez, María Luz; McConnell, R Ivan; FitzGerald, S Peter

    2016-07-01

    The main known groups of mycotoxins are aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, type A trichothecenes (T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol), and zearalenones. They are harmful to humans, domestic animals, and livestock. In Europe, maximum permitted limits for aflatoxin B1 are set, and guidance levels are recommended for the other mycotoxins. This study applied biochip array technology to semiquantitative multimycotoxin screening at different levels to facilitate the verification of the compliance of feed material with acceptable safety standards. This application was developed and validated based on European Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. After a single generic sample-preparation method, simultaneous competitive chemiluminescent immunoassays were used and applied to the Evidence Investigator analyzer. The r and within-laboratory R values showed low overall CVs (10.6 and 11.6%, respectively). Low matrix effect and, consequently, low decision limits and detection capabilities proved the high sensitivity of the technology. The overall average recovery was 104%. Samples (n = 16) investigated within the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) program showed excellent correlation to assigned values. FAPAS proficiency-testing feed samples (n = 10) were within the schemes' z-score ±2 range. The authentic feed samples survey showed excellent correlation with LC-MS/MS. This application is, therefore, reliable and represents an innovative, cost-effective, and multianalytical tool for mycotoxin screening.

  5. Technological development of the OGRE focal plane array

    OpenAIRE

    Tutt, James; McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Rogers, Thomas; Murray, Neil; Holland, Andrew; Weatherill, Daniel; Holland, Karen; Colebrook, David; Farn, David

    2015-01-01

    The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE) is a high resolution soft X-ray spectrometer sub-orbital rocket payload designed as a technology development platform for three low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) components. The incident photons will be focused using a light-weight, high resolution, single-crystal silicon optic. They are then dispersed conically according to wavelength by an array of off-plane gratings before being detected in a focal plane camera comprised of four Electron Mu...

  6. Melter Technologies Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schumacher, R.F. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States); Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The problem of controlling and disposing of surplus fissile material, in particular plutonium, is being addressed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Immobilization of plutonium by vitrification has been identified as a promising solution. The Melter Evaluation Activity of DOE`s Plutonium Immobilization Task is responsible for evaluating and selecting the preferred melter technologies for vitrification for each of three immobilization options: Greenfield Facility, Adjunct Melter Facility, and Can-In-Canister. A significant number of melter technologies are available for evaluation as a result of vitrification research and development throughout the international communities for over 20 years. This paper describes an evaluation process which will establish the specific requirements of performance against which candidate melter technologies can be carefully evaluated. Melter technologies that have been identified are also described.

  7. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  8. Hollow Nanospheres Array Fabrication via Nano-Conglutination Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling; Xia, Liangping; Shi, Lifang; Cao, Axiu; Pang, Hui; Hu, Song

    2015-09-01

    Hollow nanospheres array is a special nanostructure with great applications in photonics, electronics and biochemistry. The nanofabrication technique with high resolution is crucial to nanosciences and nano-technology. This paper presents a novel nonconventional nano-conglutination technology combining polystyrenes spheres (PSs) self-assembly, conglutination and a lift-off process to fabricate the hollow nanospheres array with nanoholes. A self-assembly monolayer of PSs was stuck off from the quartz wafer by the thiol-ene adhesive material, and then the PSs was removed via a lift-off process and the hollow nanospheres embedded into the thiol-ene substrate was obtained. Thiolene polymer is a UV-curable material via "click chemistry" reaction at ambient conditions without the oxygen inhibition, which has excellent chemical and physical properties to be attractive as the adhesive material in nano-conglutination technology. Using the technique, a hollow nanospheres array with the nanoholes at the diameter of 200 nm embedded into the rigid thiol-ene substrate was fabricated, which has great potential to serve as a reaction container, catalyst and surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate.

  9. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team

  10. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  11. Inquiries and technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examine six Canadian inquiries to determine their values as scientific assessments, their ability to combine scientific data with policy considerations, and their effectiveness in extending public debate on scientific issues. Among the inquiries examined are the environmental assessment hearings into the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station, the Bayda inquiry into the Cluff Lake uranium mine, and the Porter commission on electric power planning in Ontario

  12. Assessment of Watershed Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Suan, Medel P.

    1999-01-01

    Dealing with various topics such as watershed classification, computer simulation and modeling and computer application in watershed research, this paper assembles and summarizes technologies that are currently being used or have potential for application in the Philippines. This is in the hope of helping watershed managers, planners and researchers.

  13. Optimized design and assessment of whole genome tiling arrays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graf, S.; Nielsen, F.G.G.; Kurtz, S.; Huynen, M.A.; Birney, E.; Stunnenberg, H.G.; Flicek, P.

    2007-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Recent advances in microarray technologies have made it feasible to interrogate whole genomes with tiling arrays and this technique is rapidly becoming one of the most important high-throughput functional genomics assays. For large mammalian genomes, analyzing oligonucleotide tiling arra

  14. Development of a colorimetric sensor array for squid spoilage assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, Patricia; Fuentes, Ana; Ruiz-Rico, María; Vivancos, José-Luis; Fernández-Segovia, Isabel; Ros-Lis, José V; Barat, José M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a rapid, easy-to-use optoelectronic system for the shelf-life assessment of squid in cold storage. For this purpose, an optoelectronic nose was designed, which consisted of an array containing six sensing materials prepared by combining different dyes and two inorganic supports (aluminium oxide and silica gel). Samples were packaged with the colorimetric array and kept in cold storage for 12 days. Squid spoilage was monitored simultaneously by the colorimetric array and by the physico-chemical and microbial analyses during storage. Samples exceeded the acceptability limits for microbial counts on the third day. PCA analysis carried out with CIELab showed that the colorimetric array was able to discriminate between fresh squid fit for consumption and spoiled squid. The statistical models obtained by PLS, with the optoelectronic nose, successfully predicted CO2 and O2 content in the headspace as well as microbial growth. PMID:25577086

  15. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    , with special responsibility in providing assessments to underpin national policies in screening. External evaluations enhanced the rapid growth. In the Finnish environment, decision making on health technologies is extremely decentralized, so Finohta has developed some practical tools for implementing HTA...... findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries....

  16. Technology readiness assessments: A retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-11-01

    The development of new system capabilities typically depends upon the prior success of advanced technology research and development efforts. These systems developments inevitably face the three major challenges of any project: performance, schedule and budget. Done well, advanced technology programs can substantially reduce the uncertainty in all three of these dimensions of project management. Done poorly, or not at all, and new system developments suffer from cost overruns, schedule delays and the steady erosion of initial performance objectives. It is often critical for senior management to be able to determine which of these two paths is more likely—and to respond accordingly. The challenge for system and technology managers is to be able to make clear, well-documented assessments of technology readiness and risks, and to do so at key points in the life cycle of the program. In the mid 1970s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduced the concept of "technology readiness levels" (TRLs) as a discipline-independent, programmatic figure of merit (FOM) to allow more effective assessment of, and communication regarding the maturity of new technologies. In 1995, the TRL scale was further strengthened by the articulation of the first definitions of each level, along with examples (J. Mankins, Technology readiness levels, A White Paper, NASA, Washington, DC, 1995. [1]). Since then, TRLs have been embraced by the U.S. Congress' General Accountability Office (GAO), adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and are being considered for use by numerous other organizations. Overall, the TRLs have proved to be highly effective in communicating the status of new technologies among sometimes diverse organizations. This paper will review the concept of "technology readiness assessments", and provide a retrospective on the history of "TRLs" during the past 30 years. The paper will conclude with observations concerning prospective future

  17. Exploring PV on the Red Planet: Mars Array Technology Experiment and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Baraona, Cosmo; Brinker, David; Schelman, David

    2004-01-01

    The environment on the surface of Mars is different in several critical ways from the orbital environment in which space solar arrays normally operate. Some important differences are: 1) Low intensity, low temperature operation; 2) Spectrum modified by atmospheric dust, varies with time; 3) Indirect sunlight; 4) Possibility of dust atoms at some times of year; 5) Deposited dust; 6) Wind; 7) Peroxide-rich reactive soil. We are developing two experiments to test operation of solar arrays on the surface of Mars, to be flown on the 2001 Surveyor Lander mission. The Mars Array Technology Experiment (MATE) will test the operation of several types of solar cells under Mars conditions, and determine the direct and scattered solar spectrum at the surface. The Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiment will monitor the amount of dust deposition on a target solar cell, measure the characteristics of the dust, and test the feasibility of dust removal.

  18. Forest Technology Program Outcome Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomay, G. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Course grades are the norm for reporting a student’s overall proficiency. However, the one dimensional nature of grades implies that all individual course components have been equally mastered. The Pennsylvania College of Technology employs an institution wide program of Quality Through Assessment to aid in evaluating the institutional mission to, “provide students with quality academic programs that respond to economic and employment realities” (www.pct.edu/assessment/). The initiative emplo...

  19. Knowledge in health technology assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2011-01-01

    Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on designing and delivering services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient aspects of health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Only a few HTA agencies use and invest in scientific methods...

  20. Technological developments of the OGRE focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutt, James H.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Rogers, Thomas; Murray, Neil; Holland, Andrew; Weatherill, Daniel; Holland, Karen; Colebrook, David; Farn, David

    2015-09-01

    The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE) is a high resolution soft X-ray spectrometer sub-orbital rocket payload designed as a technology development platform for three low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) components. The incident photons will be focused using a light-weight, high resolution, single-crystal silicon optic. They are then dispersed conically according to wavelength by an array of off-plane gratings before being detected in a focal plane camera comprised of four Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EM-CCDs). While CCDs have been extensively used in space applications; EM-CCDs are seldom used in this environment and even more rarely for X-ray photon counting applications, making them a potential technology risk for larger scale X-ray observatories. This paper will discuss the reasons behind choosing EM-CCDs for the focal plane detector and the developments that have been recently made in the prototype camera electronics and thermal control system.

  1. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  2. Health technology assessment in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pwee, Keng Ho

    2009-07-01

    The Republic of Singapore is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. Its population enjoys good health and the Singapore Ministry of Health's mission is to promote good health and reduce illness, ensure access to good and affordable health care, and pursue medical excellence. This is achieved through a healthcare system that includes both private and public sector elements. The financing philosophy of Singapore's healthcare delivery system is based on individual responsibility and community support. Health care in Singapore is financed by a combination of taxes, employee medical benefits, compulsory health savings, insurance, and out-of-pocket payment. The capability for health technology assessment in Singapore was developed concurrently with its medical device regulation system in the 1990s. The first formal unit with health technology assessment (HTA) functions was established in September 1995. Today, HTA features in decision making for the Standard Drug List, licensing of medical clinics, the Health Service Development Programme, healthcare subsidies, and policy development. The public sector healthcare delivery clusters have also recently started health services research units with HTA functions. Singapore is organizing the 6th Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Annual Meeting in June 2009. Bringing this prestigious international conference to Asia for the first time will help raise awareness of HTA in the region.

  3. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  4. Ares Project Technology Assessment: Approach and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Tyson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Technology assessments provide a status of the development maturity of specific technologies. Along with benefit analysis, the risks the project assumes can be quantified. Normally due to budget constraints, the competing technologies are prioritized and decisions are made which ones to fund. A detailed technology development plan is produced for the selected technologies to provide a roadmap to reach the desired maturity by the project s critical design review. Technology assessments can be conducted for both technology only tasks or for product development programs. This paper is primarily biased toward the product development programs. The paper discusses the Ares Project s approach to technology assessment. System benefit analysis, risk assessment, technology prioritization, and technology readiness assessment are addressed. A description of the technology readiness level tool being used is provided.

  5. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  6. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  7. Evaluation and Assessment in Educational Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leping, Ed.; Johnson, D. LaMont, Ed.; Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.; Henderson, Norma J., Ed.

    This book contains the following articles on evaluating and assessing educational information technology: (1) "Assessing Learning in the New Age of Information Technology in Education" (Leping Liu, D. LaMont Johnson, Cleborne D. Maddux, and Norma J. Henderson); (2) "Instruments for Assessing the Impact of Technology in Education" (Rhonda…

  8. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  9. Calculation and analysis of correlation curves between Lanzhou Seismic Array sites and assessment of primary array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝春月; 郑重; 周公威

    2003-01-01

    By using the waveform data recorded during the site survey of Lanzhou Seismic Array, the author calculated andanalyzed the correlation of the signal and noise between the site pairs and found that the ideal radii of the twoconcentric rings for Lanzhou Seismic Array were 380 m and 1500 m, respectively. According to the radius limitand other requirements, nine sites were chosen to make a seismic array, and then the detection and location abilityof the array were estimated.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY TO REMOTELY NAVIGATE VERTICAL PIPE ARRAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Immel, D.; Vrettos, N.; Nance, T.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-07-01

    Situations exist around the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) complex where it is advantageous to remotely navigate vertical pipe arrays. Specific examples are waste tanks in the SRS Tank Farms, which contain horizontal cooling coils at the tank bottom, vertical cooling coils throughout and a limited number of access points or ''risers''. These factors limit accessibility to many parts of these tanks by conventional means. Pipe Traveler technology has been developed to address these issues. The Pipe Traveler addresses these issues by using the vertical cooling coils as its medium of travel. The unit operates by grabbing a pipe using dual grippers located on either side of the equipment. Once securely attached to the pipe a drive wheel is extended to come in contact with the pipe. Rotation of the drive wheel causes the unit to rotate around the pipe. This action is continued until the second set of grippers is aligned with the next pipe. Extension pistons are actuated to extend the second set of grippers in contact with a second pipe. The second set of grippers is then actuated to grasp the pipe. The first set of grippers releases the original pipe and the process is repeated until the unit reaches its desired location. Once at the tool deployment location the desired tool may be used. The current design has proven the concept of pipe-to-pipe navigation. Testing of the Pipe Traveler has proven its ability to transfer itself from one pipe to another.

  11. Social Shaping in Danish Technology Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Grethe; Clausen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    and political action for technology change. The authors of this article suggest that the social shaping perspective draws on lessons from technology assessments of earlier decades, lessons about the role of technology debate, participation and democratic control. We suggest that these are important...... in these projects contributed to new insights into the processes of technological change and thus to policy formulation. The social shaping perspective and technology assessment experiences are suggested as important guides to future technology strategies....... for technology policy initiatives at the beginning of the new millennium, as prerequisites for socially feasible and desirable technology development and innovation. On the basis of the Danish technology assessments of the 1980s, it is argued that technology assessments and the social shaping perspectives...

  12. Systems Dynamics Use for Technologies Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ginters, Egils; Barkane, Zane; Vincent, Hugues

    2010-01-01

    International audience Elaboration and introduction of a new technology is a complex and expensive task therefore it is necessary to assess the set of factors influencing the future of technology during the stages of technology emergence and development. The most important parameters of assessment are acceptance and sustainability of technology. Different models exist, but mostly they are static and do not offer possibilities for dynamic assessment in real time and do not forecast the sust...

  13. High-resolution medical ultrasound arrays using smart materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Keith; Caldwell, Paul J.; Kuhn, Phillip; Winzer, Stephen R.

    1996-05-01

    Current ultrasound images have relatively low contrast (high levels of clutter) and resolution. Image quality could be dramatically improved if 2D ultrasound transducer arrays were available to perform the scans. These improvements would come from reducing clutter by eliminating target echoes that the beam width of a 1D array causes to be superimposed on a scan plane, and enhancing resolution by enabling the use of algorithms which correct the wavefront distortion introduced by propagation through tissue. The advent of 2D arrays would also enable 3D images to be displayed--eventually in real time. The fabrication of 2D ultrasound arrays is, however, very difficult. This stems from the acoustic requirements of the array (aperture, pitch and element size) which combine together to dictate large numbers (> 1000) of very-low capacitance (capacitance and impedance mismatch. This paper will show how the development of composite smart materials involving the integration of electromechanical elements with electronics is being extended to the development of relatively-inexpensive high-sensitivity 2D ultrasound arrays.

  14. Ethical perspectives on health technology assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2004-01-01

    This study analyses why ethical aspects play a minor role in health technology assessment (HTA) studies, even when comprehensive approaches of technology assessment are advocated. Technology is often regarded as a value-neutral tool. At the same time, bioethics is dominated by an engineering model.

  15. Assessing Elementary Pupils' Attitudes Toward Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Holter, Charlotte Ann

    2016-01-01

    Making all US citizens technologically literate necessitates investigation into how to achieve this literacy. The Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology (STL) is intentional about ensuring technological literacy in all students. Instilling this knowledge in elementary students is an emerging field that requires assessment tools that conveys understanding into what student attitudes are about technology and technological concepts. Developing appropriate techn...

  16. Subjective assessments of spherical microphone arrays - Paired comparisons of two arrays designed using different microphone models

    OpenAIRE

    Koehl, Vincent; Paquier, Mathieu; Delikaris-Manias, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    International audience Microphone arrays are commonly used to capture sound fields. As the number of sensors forming the array increases, the spatial sampling accuracy at high frequencies improves. Numerous prototypes of spherical arrays were developed over the last years. However, much less attention has been paid to the intrinsic performances of the sensors than to their number and arrangement. This study aims at evaluating the relative performances of two rigid spherical microphone arra...

  17. Issues in health technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In general, the main justification for the provision of health services is to improve the health of individuals and populations. Some experts focus on other goals for the health care systems, such as promoting health care innovation and increasing employment. Information on the efficacy of a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure has become more widely available during the last 25 years, both through increased research and increased availability of data based on, e.g. the Cochrane Collaboration and the Health Technology Assessment Database (INAHTA). At the same time, the most relevant information is often in proprietary hands, that is, in private organizations such as the manufacturing industry or in organizations that collect health information. The American Food and Drug Administration routinely assesses efficacy of devices and makes this information openly accessible. Unfortunately, the European Union focuses on trade issues, including innovation, and does not have a strong focus on public health. Competition for health care resources is a major concern even in segments of the population living in the richest countries. The problem of limited resources is, of course, much more pronounced in poor countries, in particular in the poorest countries. Although cost effectiveness of health care is very important conceptually, data are often not available. Cost effectiveness is often developed within the context of national needs and is very difficult to transfer to other jurisdictions. In addition, data on cost effectiveness are often not available to compare different options in health care. There is thus enormous scope for such studies in the future. Broader issues, such as health care organization and morals and ethics are also important. For example, is it ethical to promote advanced technology in poor countries that cannot provide even basic health care services? Is it ethical for researchers to overlook the basic needs of poor countries when working on

  18. Assessment of US industry's technology trends and new technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The utility and effectiveness of a novel approach (the Applications Development, or AD approach), intended to augment the efficiency of NASA's technology utilization (TU) through dissemination of NASA technologies and joint technology development efforts with U.S. industry is tested. The innovative AD approach consists of the following key elements: selection of NASA technologies appearing to have leading edge attributes; interaction with NASA researchers to assess the characteristics and quality of each selected technology; identification of industry's needs in the selected technology areas; structuring the selected technologies in terms of specifications and standards familiar to industry (industrial Spec. Sheets); identification and assessment of industry's interest in the specific selected NASA technologies, utilizing the greatly facilitated communication made possible by the availability of the industrial Spec. Sheets; and matching selected NASA technologies with the needs of selected industries.

  19. Noncontact Microembossing Technology for Fabricating Thermoplastic Optical Polymer Microlens Array Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic optical polymers have replaced traditional optical glass for many applications, due to their superior optical performance, mechanical characteristics, low cost, and efficient production process. This paper investigates noncontact microembossing technology used for producing microlens arrays made out of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate, PS (polyStyrene, and PC (polycarbonate from a quartz mold, with microhole arrays. An array of planoconvex microlenses are formed because of surface tension caused by applying pressure to the edge of a hole at a certain glass transition temperature. We studied the principle of noncontact microembossing techniques using finite element analysis, in addition to the thermal and mechanical properties of the three polymers. Then, the independently developed hot-embossing equipment was used to fabricate microlens arrays on PMMA, PS, and PC sheets. This is a promising technique for fabricating diverse thermoplastic optical polymer microlens array sheets, with a simple technological process and low production costs.

  20. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  1. Establishment of Health Technology Assessment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Doaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health Technology Assessment (HTA aims at informing healthcare policymakers, managers and practitioners of the "clinical consequences, but also the economic, ethical, and other social implications of the diffusion and use of a specific procedure or technique on medical practice". So considering the policy-oriented nature of HTA that calls for a close integration into the functioning and governance of health systems the present study focuses on executive processes and function of the HTA office of Iran.Materials and methods: Data of this review study were collected through documented sources and observations from 2007 to 2010.Results: Health Technology Assessment began its activities as a secretariat in the Deputy of Health in 2007 and it continues as a Health Technology Assessment Office at the Management of Health Technology Assessment, Standardization, and Tariff at the Deputy of curative affairs of MOHME in the beginning of 2010.14 Technology of modern medical equipment and 8 pharmaceutical medicine are assessed, Now many of measures for HTA establishment  such as cooperation National Institute of Health Research (NIHR, Holding scientific committee meetings, Establishing  the  Master's degree of  health technology assessment ,Building capacities for health technology assessment through education in major universities of the country.Conclusion: pay attention to health technology assessment, selection and application of proper technologies in the frameworks of policy-making and managerial strategies and make efforts to develop it with the support of the governmental in Iran is necessary.

  2. Phase shifter technology assessment - Prospects and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    Capabilities and limitations of MMIC phase shifter technology at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies are reviewed. MMIC-based phase arrays make it possible to integrate active elements at the array face, i.e., to incorporate transmit power amplifiers and/or low noise amplifiers at each antenna element. Active elements make it possible to increase power efficiency and reliability and provide graceful degradation. Monolithic integration of the various transmit/receive functions including phase shifting is considered to be feasible through at least the lower millimeter-wave frequency range (about 30-100 GHz). MMIC integration also allows more flexibility in array design including those that are intended for airborne conformal applications.

  3. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  4. Multi-electrode array technologies for neuroscience and cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Micha E.; Hai, Aviad

    2013-02-01

    At present, the prime methodology for studying neuronal circuit-connectivity, physiology and pathology under in vitro or in vivo conditions is by using substrate-integrated microelectrode arrays. Although this methodology permits simultaneous, cell-non-invasive, long-term recordings of extracellular field potentials generated by action potentials, it is 'blind' to subthreshold synaptic potentials generated by single cells. On the other hand, intracellular recordings of the full electrophysiological repertoire (subthreshold synaptic potentials, membrane oscillations and action potentials) are, at present, obtained only by sharp or patch microelectrodes. These, however, are limited to single cells at a time and for short durations. Recently a number of laboratories began to merge the advantages of extracellular microelectrode arrays and intracellular microelectrodes. This Review describes the novel approaches, identifying their strengths and limitations from the point of view of the end users -- with the intention to help steer the bioengineering efforts towards the needs of brain-circuit research.

  5. Next Generation Solar Array Technologies for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Fosness, E.; Guerrero, J.; Mayberry, C.; Carpenter, B.; Goldstein, D.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in Shape Memory Alloy (SMA), Elastic Memory Composites (EMC), and ultra- light composites along with thin-film Copper-Indium- Diselinide (CIS) photovoltaics have offered the potential to provide solar array systems for small satellites that are significantly lighter than the current state of the practice. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and Lockheed Martin...

  6. Coherent-array HF Doppler sounding of traveling ionospheric disturbances. II - Assessment of errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Carlos, R. C.

    1989-12-01

    Errors which are likely to occur in the compact-array HF sounding technique for determining the velocity of traveling ionospheric disturbances are examined. The errors arise from ionospheric irregularities (either large-scale specular facets, or fine-scale scatterers) and from the presence of multiple disturbance undulations propagating simultaneously with different velocities. The errors are either systematic (that is, not causing internal inconsistencies within the array velocimetry data) or random (that is, causing quantifiable inconsistencies between alternative velocity estimates furnished by the array). The random errors can be directly assessed using array data, as is illustrated for actual data from a 16-channel array.

  7. Advanced Technology MEMS-based Acoustic Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a technological advancement of current state-of-the-art acoustic energy harvester for harsh environment...

  8. Investigation of a new electrode array technology for a central auditory prosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Calixto

    Full Text Available Ongoing clinical studies on patients recently implanted with the auditory midbrain implant (AMI into the inferior colliculus (IC for hearing restoration have shown that these patients do not achieve performance levels comparable to cochlear implant patients. The AMI consists of a single-shank array (20 electrodes for stimulation along the tonotopic axis of the IC. Recent findings suggest that one major limitation in AMI performance is the inability to sufficiently activate neurons across the three-dimensional (3-D IC. Unfortunately, there are no currently available 3-D array technologies that can be used for clinical applications. More recently, there has been a new initiative by the European Commission to fund and develop 3-D chronic electrode arrays for science and clinical applications through the NeuroProbes project that can overcome the bulkiness and limited 3-D configurations of currently available array technologies. As part of the NeuroProbes initiative, we investigated whether their new array technology could be potentially used for future AMI patients. Since the NeuroProbes technology had not yet been tested for electrical stimulation in an in vivo animal preparation, we performed experiments in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs in which we inserted and stimulated a NeuroProbes array within the IC and recorded the corresponding neural activation within the auditory cortex. We used 2-D arrays for this initial feasibility study since they were already available and were sufficient to access the IC and also demonstrate effective activation of the central auditory system. Based on these encouraging results and the ability to develop customized 3-D arrays with the NeuroProbes technology, we can further investigate different stimulation patterns across the ICC to improve AMI performance.

  9. Health Technology Assessment and patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Mulcahy; Tom Walley

    2005-01-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a process used to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and costeffectiveness of health technologies by a systematic review of clinical, economic, and utilization research.

    Despite widespread investment in patient safety technologies in the U.K., U.S., and elsewhere, little HTA has been done to establish the clinical or cost-effectiveness of these technologies. The HTA and patient safety literature suggests there are four categori...

  10. Quality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Luca; Gröbner, Julian; Hülsen, Gregor; Bachmann, Luciano; Blumthaler, Mario; Dubard, Jimmy; Khazova, Marina; Kift, Richard; Hoogendijk, Kees; Serrano, Antonio; Smedley, Andrew; Vilaplana, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The reliable quantification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the earth's surface requires accurate measurements of spectral global solar UV irradiance in order to determine the UV exposure to human skin and to understand long-term trends in this parameter. Array spectroradiometers (ASRMs) are small, light, robust and cost-effective instruments, and are increasingly used for spectral irradiance measurements. Within the European EMRP ENV03 project "Solar UV", new devices, guidelines and characterization methods have been developed to improve solar UV measurements with ASRMs, and support to the end user community has been provided. In order to assess the quality of 14 end user ASRMs, a solar UV intercomparison was held on the measurement platform of the World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) in Davos, Switzerland, from 10 to 17 July 2014. The results of the blind intercomparison revealed that ASRMs, currently used for solar UV measurements, show a large variation in the quality of their solar UV measurements. Most of the instruments overestimate the erythema-weighted UV index - in particular at large solar zenith angles - due to stray light contribution in the UV-B range. The spectral analysis of global solar UV irradiance further supported the finding that the uncertainties in the UV-B range are very large due to stray light contribution in this wavelength range. In summary, the UV index may be detected by some commercially available ASRMs within 5 % compared to the world reference spectroradiometer, if well characterized and calibrated, but only for a limited range of solar zenith angles. Generally, the tested instruments are not yet suitable for solar UV measurements for the entire range between 290 and 400 nm under all atmospheric conditions.

  11. The impact of solar cell technology on planar solar array performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael W.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a study into the potential impact of advanced solar cell technologies on the characteristics (weight, cost, area) of typical planar solar arrays designed for low, medium and geosynchronous altitude earth orbits are discussed. The study considered planar solar array substrate designs of lightweight, rigid-panel graphite epoxy and ultra-lightweight Kapton. The study proposed to answer the following questions: Do improved cell characteristics translate into array-level weight, size and cost improvements; What is the relative importance of cell efficiency, weight and cost with respect to array-level performance; How does mission orbital environment affect array-level performance. Comparisons were made at the array level including all mechanisms, hinges, booms, and harnesses. Array designs were sized to provide 5kW of array power (not spacecraft bus power, which is system dependent but can be scaled from given values). The study used important grass roots issues such as use of the GaAs radiation damage coefficients as determined by Anspaugh. Detailed costing was prepared, including cell and cover costs, and manufacturing attrition rates for the various cell types.

  12. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...... of technologies) having the largest potential for reducing the overall environmental impacts....

  14. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 6: Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, C. E.

    1981-04-01

    Industrial production of photovoltaic systems and volume of sales are reviewed. Low cost silicon production techniques are reviewed, including the Czochralski process, heat exchange method, edge defined film fed growth, dentritic web growth, and silicon on ceramic process. Semicrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and low cost poly-silicon are discussed as well as advanced materials and concentrator systems. Balance of system components beyond those needed to manufacture the solar panels are included. Nontechnical factors are assessed. The 1986 system cost goals are briefly reviewed.

  15. Technology assessment of RDX production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, M.D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The known processes for producing RDX were assessed with the goal of identifying the process that would generate the least waste and pollution. It was concluded that the Bachman process employed at Holston AAP is the most economical process for producing RDX and that it probably produces less waste than any other process. It was generally agreed that the entire Holston operation is a very clean one that complies with all federal and state emission standards. In addition, a number of opportunities in which Holston could reduce their wastes were identified. Preliminary assessments of waste and pollution profiles for alternate materials, with emphasis on dual-use materials, were performed.

  16. RF photonics technology for phased array antenna applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, A.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Zhuang, L.; Etten, van W.C.; Leinse, A.; Hoekman, M.; Heideman, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    One of the key research topics of the Telecommunication Engineering (TE) Group at the University of Twente (UT) is RF Photonics. The aim of this field is to develop schemes that utilize the advantages of optical technology for performing RF functions in wireless communication systems. Examples of su

  17. Technology for advanced focal plane arrays of HgCdTe and AIGaN

    CERN Document Server

    He, Li; Ni, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the basic framework of advanced focal plane technology based on the third-generation infrared focal plane concept. The essential concept, research advances, and future trends in advanced sensor arrays are comprehensively reviewed. Moreover, the book summarizes recent research advances in HgCdTe/AlGaN detectors for the infrared/ultraviolet waveband, with a particular focus on the numerical method of detector design, material epitaxial growth and processing, as well as Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor readout circuits. The book offers a unique resource for all graduate students and researchers interested in the technologies of focal plane arrays or electro-optical imaging sensors.

  18. Assessing medical technologies in development - A new paradigm of medical technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, MJM; van Rossum, W; Verkerke, GJ; Rakhorst, G

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Our study aims to provide a practical contribution to the field of medical technology assessment within a new paradigm. This paradigm indicates the need for more comprehensive technology assessments in the development stage of a new technology. Method: We introduce a method, based on Saat

  19. The internationalization of health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, D; Marshall, D

    1996-01-01

    Health technology assessment as a formalized set of activities has a relatively short history. At its current stage of development, it is clear that it has global dimensions and impact. In this paper we review the history of health technology assessment, its development as a form of health services research, and its "institutionalization." We then identify the reasons for its internationalization, review current international initiatives, and propose actions to be taken to improve cooperation among countries.

  20. Investigating brain functional evolution and plasticity using microelectrode array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate long and short-term plasticity responsible for memory formation in dissociated neuronal networks. In order to address this issue, a set of experiments was designed and implemented in which the microelectrode array electrode grid was divided into four quadrants, two of which were chronically stimulated, every two days for one hour with a stimulation paradigm that varied over time. Overall network and quadrant responses were then analyzed to quantify what level of plasticity took place in the network and how this was due to the stimulation interruption. The results demonstrate that there were no spatial differences in the stimulus-evoked activity within quadrants. Furthermore, the implemented stimulation protocol induced depression effects in the neuronal networks as demonstrated by the consistently lower network activity following stimulation sessions. Finally, the analysis demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of the stimulation decreased over time, thus suggesting a habituation phenomenon. These findings are sufficient to conclude that electrical stimulation is an important tool to interact with dissociated neuronal cultures, but localized stimuli are not enough to drive spatial synaptic potentiation or depression. On the contrary, the ability to modulate synaptic temporal plasticity was a feasible task to achieve by chronic network stimulation. PMID:26476356

  1. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth of scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed

  2. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m2) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Analysis of mismatch and shading effects in a photovoltaic array using different technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of a photovoltaic array implemented in the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia which consists of modules of different technologies and power, connected in series, in order to quantify the energy losses due to mismatch and the effect of the shadows. To do this, the performance of the modules was measured in operation under ambient conditions with field measurement equipment (AMPROBE Solar Analyzer, Solar - 4000), which allows the extrapolation of measures to standard conditions STC. For the data validation, measures under controlled conditions were taken to some modules in the flash test laboratory of the Institute of Energy Technology ITE of Valencia in Spain. Subsequently the array curves measured were validated with a photovoltaic array model developed in MATLAB-Simulink for the same conditions and technologies. The results of this particular array are lost up to 20% of the energy supplied due to the modules mismatch. The study shows the curves and the energy loss due to shadows modules. This result opens scenarios for conceivable modifications to the PV field configurations today, chosen during the design stage and unchangeable during the operating stage; and gives greater importance to the energy loss by mismatch in the PV array

  4. Assessment and Learning Technologies: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Treasa; Rushby, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Assessment pervades the learning process. This paper provides an overview of the application of technology to support and enhance diagnostic, formative and summative assessment. The focus is on examining how it can replace what already exists, improve the functionality, catalyse a redesign of the process and in some circumstances, make possible…

  5. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH...

  6. Technology Development for Large Radio Arrays at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Preston, R.; Navarro, R.; Wagstaff, K.; Mattmann, C.; D'Addario, L.; Thompson, D.; Majid, W.; Lazio, J.

    2011-05-01

    Future radio arrays are likely to include far more antennas than current arrays, ultimately culminating in the Square Kilometre Array. During the past 1.5 years JPL personnel have been working on technologies to address the challenges of such large arrays, including lower power digital signal processing, real-time data adaptive algorithms, and large-scale data archiving and mining. Power consumption by digital electronics may be a dominant component of the operating costs of large arrays. The choice of architecture for cross-correlation of thousands of antennas can have an orders-of-magnitude impact on power consumption. A power efficient architecture for a very-large-N array has been found. A second area of development at JPL is adaptive algorithms to perform real-time processing of data in high volume data flows, when storage of raw data for later processing is not an option. Algorithms to enable real-time detection of fast radio transients are being tested on the VLBA, and will be deployed as part of the CRAFT collaboration on ASKAP and potentially at other observatories. Finally, large radio arrays will produce extremely large data archives. We are working on applying a scalable framework for managing and mining large data archives to radio array needs. This framework is JPL's open source Process Control System, initially built for archiving data from NASA Earth Science missions and now used in a number of applications outside of astronomy. This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Feasibility study of flexible phased array ultrasonic technology using irregular surface specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Pyo; Moon, Yong Sik; Jung, Nam Du [NDE Performance Demonstration Team, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Nuclear power plant contain many dissimilar metal welds that connect carbon steel components with stainless steel pipes using alloy 600 welding materials. Primary water stress corrosion cracks at dissimilar metal welds have been continuously reported around the world. In periodic integrity evaluations, dissimilar metal welds are examined using a generic ultrasonic testing procedure, KPD-UT-10. In this procedure, the gap between the probe and examination surface is limited to 1/32 inch (0.8 mm). It is not easy to test some dissimilar metal welds in Korean plants applying ordinary technology because of their tapered shapes and irregular surface conditions. This paper introduces a method for applying a flexible phased array technology to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing results for various shapes and surface conditions. The artificial flaws in specimens with irregular surfaces were completely detected using the flexible phased array ultrasonic technology. Therefore, it can be said that the technology is applicable to field examination.

  8. The social function of technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of preserving the uneasy balance between a dynamic society and the equilibrium of man-environment society is discussed. Four sets of activities involved in technology assessment are considered: (1) Technology forecasting is necessary to warn of future dangers and opportunities, for effective timing, and to identify tradeoffs and alternatives. But forecasting is also chancy at best. (2) Social indicators need to be developed for the characterization of social status and measurement of social progress, as well as a better understanding of social needs. (3) With respect to technology assessment, the conflict between profitable directions of innovations and socially desirable directions is described, and a systematic way is needed to determine in advance what is technologically feasible to meet social needs. (4) National goals with respect to scientific and technological developments are also required.

  9. Health technology assessment. Evaluation of biomedical innovative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Spadoni, Enza; Geisler, Eliezer Elie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes health technology assessment (HTA) as an evaluation tool that applies systematic methods of inquiry to the generation and use of health technologies and new products. The focus of this article is on the contributions of HTA to the management of the new product development effort in the biomedical organization. Critical success factors (CSFs) are listed, and their role in assessing success is defined and explained. One of the conclusions of this article is that HTA is a powerful tool for managers in the biomedical sector, allowing them to better manage their innovation effort in their continuing struggle for competitiveness and survival.

  10. Health technology assessment. Evaluation of biomedical innovative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Spadoni, Enza; Geisler, Eliezer Elie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes health technology assessment (HTA) as an evaluation tool that applies systematic methods of inquiry to the generation and use of health technologies and new products. The focus of this article is on the contributions of HTA to the management of the new product development effort in the biomedical organization. Critical success factors (CSFs) are listed, and their role in assessing success is defined and explained. One of the conclusions of this article is that HTA is a powerful tool for managers in the biomedical sector, allowing them to better manage their innovation effort in their continuing struggle for competitiveness and survival. PMID:20659860

  11. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for genotyping and mapping in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable crops grown worldwide on more than one million hectares. Its progenitor, wild Daucus carota, is a weed commonly occurring across continents in the temperate climatic zone. Diversity Array Technology (DArT) is a microarray-based molecular marker syst...

  12. Stray light correction on array spectroradiometers for optical radiation risk assessment in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European directive 2006/25/EC requires the employer to assess and, if necessary, measure the levels of exposure to optical radiation in the workplace. Array spectroradiometers can measure optical radiation from various types of sources; however poor stray light rejection affects their accuracy. A stray light correction matrix, using a tunable laser, was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). As tunable lasers are very expensive, the purpose of this study was to implement this method using only nine low power lasers; other elements of the correction matrix being completed by interpolation and extrapolation. The correction efficiency was evaluated by comparing CCD spectroradiometers with and without correction and a scanning double monochromator device as reference. Similar to findings recorded by NIST, these experiments show that it is possible to reduce the spectral stray light by one or two orders of magnitude. In terms of workplace risk assessment, this spectral stray light correction method helps determine exposure levels, with an acceptable degree of uncertainty, for the majority of workplace situations. The level of uncertainty depends upon the model of spectroradiometers used; the best results are obtained with CCD detectors having an enhanced spectral sensitivity in the UV range. Thus corrected spectroradiometers require a validation against a scanning double monochromator spectroradiometer before using them for risk assessment in the workplace. (paper)

  13. Fabrication of four-channel DFB laser array using nanoimprint technology for 1.3 μm CWDM systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jianyi; Chen Xin; Zhou Ning; Huang Xiaodong; Liu Wen

    2014-01-01

    Four-channel monolithically integrated index-coupled distributed-feedback laser array has been fabricated using nanoimprint technology for 1.3 μm CWDM system.Selective lasing wavelength with 20 nm wavelength space is obtained.The present results show that the nanoimprint technology is mature and reliable in the fabrication of DFB laser array.

  14. Health Technology Assessment and patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mulcahy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA is a process used to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and costeffectiveness of health technologies by a systematic review of clinical, economic, and utilization research.

    Despite widespread investment in patient safety technologies in the U.K., U.S., and elsewhere, little HTA has been done to establish the clinical or cost-effectiveness of these technologies. The HTA and patient safety literature suggests there are four categories of patient safety HTA, including HTA for existing safety technologies, underutilized safety technologies, emerging safety technologies, as well as safety aspects of technologies with a non-safety primary purpose.

    Recent HTA and other research, including a 2002 evidencebased evaluation of patient safety technologies from the U.S. Agency for Health Research and Quality, provide an important foundation for a more comprehensive approach to patient safety HTA. However, HTA programs must address prioritization, methodology, and dissemination challenges introduced by patient safety technologies before significant progress can Te made.

  15. Magnetic Suspension Array Technology: Controlled Synthesis and Screening in Microfluidic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gungun; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy D; Bermúdez, Gilbert Santiago Cañón; Schmidt, Oliver G; Makarov, Denys

    2016-09-01

    Information tagging and processing are vital in information-intensive applications, e.g., telecommunication and high-throughput drug screening. Magnetic suspension array technology may offer intrinsic advantages to screening applications by enabling high distinguishability, the ease of code generation, and the feasibility of fast code readout, though the practical applicability of magnetic suspension array technology remains hampered by the lack of quality administration of encoded microcarriers. Here, a logic-controlled microfluidic system enabling controlled synthesis of magnetic suspension arrays in multiphase flow networks is realized. The smart and compact system offers a practical solution for the quality administration and screening of encoded magnetic microcarriers and addresses the universal need of process control for synthesis in microfluidic networks, i.e., on-demand creation of droplet templates for high information capacity. The demonstration of magnetic suspension array technology enabled by magnetic in-flow cytometry opens the avenue toward point-of-care multiplexed bead-based assays, clinical diagnostics, and drug discovery. PMID:27426124

  16. Microfabrication technology for large LEKID arrays : from NIKA2 to future applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goupy, J; Benoit, A; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; Hoarau, C; Leclercq, S; Sueur, H Le; Macias-Perez, J; Monfardini, A; Peck, I; Schuster, K

    2016-01-01

    The Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKID)demonstrated full maturity in the NIKA (New IRAM KID Arrays)instrument. These results allow directly comparing LEKID performance with other competing technologies (TES, doped silicon) in the mm and sub-mm range. A continuing effort is ongoing to improve the microfabrication technologies and concepts in order to satisfy the requirements of new instruments. More precisely, future satellites dedicated to CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) studies will require the same focal plane technology to cover, at least, the frequency range of 60 to 600 GHz. Aluminium LEKID developed for NIKA have so far demonstrated, under real telescope conditions, performance approaching photon-noise limitation in the band 120-300 GHz. By implementing superconducting bi-layers we recently demonstrated LEKID arrays working in the range 80-120 GHz and with sensitivities approaching the goals for CMB missions. NIKA itself (350 pixels) is followed by a more ambitious project requiring se...

  17. Assessing Students' Skills in Science & Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Orpwood, G

    2006-01-01

    This seminar is co-organised by the Centre for Information Technology in Education (CITE) and The Office of Research, Faculty of Education, HKU. The seminar will describe work in the Canadian province of Ontario to assess students skills in science and technology through a systematically constructed series of performance tasks. In addition, sets of "exemplars" of student performance were developed and are aviable in an on-line multi-media archive that will be shared with participants.

  18. An approach to comparing tiling array and high throughput sequencing technologies for genomic transcript mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozowsky Joel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two main technologies for transcriptome profiling, namely, tiling microarrays and high-throughput sequencing. Recently there has been a tremendous amount of excitement about the latter because of the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies and its promises. Consequently, the question of the moment is how these two technologies compare. Here we attempt to develop an approach to do a fair comparison of transcripts identified from tiling microarray and MPSS sequencing data. Findings This comparison is a challenging task because the sequencing data is discrete while the tiling array data is continuous. We use the published rice and Arabidopsis datasets which provide currently best matched sets of arrays and sequencing experiments using a slightly earlier generation of sequencing, the MPSS tag sequencing technology. After scoring the arrays consistently in both the organisms, a first pass comparison reveals a surprisingly small overlap in transcripts of 22% and 66% respectively, in rice and Arabidopsis. However, when we do the analysis in detail, we find that this is an underestimate. In particular, when we map the probe intensities onto the sequencing tags and then look at their intensity distribution, we see that they are very similar to exons. Furthermore, restricting our comparison to only protein-coding gene loci revealed a very good overlap between the two technologies. Conclusion Our approach to compare genome tiling microarray and MPSS sequencing data suggests that there is actually a reasonable overlap in transcripts identified by the two technologies. This overlap is distorted by the scoring and thresholding in the tiling array scoring procedure.

  19. Independent Assessment of Technology Characterizations to Support the Biomass Program Annual State-of-Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, B.

    2011-03-01

    This report discusses an investigation that addressed two thermochemical conversion pathways for the production of liquid fuels and addressed the steps to the process, the technology providers, a method for determining the state of technology and a tool to continuously assess the state of technology. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation as well as recommendations for improvements for future studies.

  20. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH framework and the calculation structure. The main novelties compared to other LCA software are as follows. First, the focus is put on material flow modelling, as each flow is characterised as a mix of mate...

  1. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances......As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regards to removal of heavy metals. Key words | advanced wastewater treatment, life cycle assessment, MBR, ozone treatment, sand...

  2. High power diode laser array development using completely indium free packaging technology with narrow spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Wang, Jingwei; Gao, Lijun; Liang, Xuejie; Li, Xiaoning; Liu, Xingsheng

    2016-03-01

    The high power diode lasers have been widely used in many fields. In this work, a sophisticated high power and high performance horizontal array of diode laser stacks have been developed and fabricated with high duty cycle using hard solder bonding technology. CTE-matched submount and Gold Tin (AuSn) hard solder are used for bonding the diode laser bar to achieve the performances of anti-thermal fatigue, higher reliability and longer lifetime. This array consists of 30 bars with the expected optical output peak power of 6000W. By means of numerical simulation and analytical results, the diode laser bars are aligned on suitable positions along the water cooled cooler in order to achieve the uniform wavelength with narrow spectrum and accurate central wavelength. The performance of the horizontal array, such as output power, spectrum, thermal resistance, life time, etc., is characterized and analyzed.

  3. Application of Gas Sensor Arrays in Assessment of Wastewater Purification Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Guz; Grzegorz Łagód; Katarzyna Jaromin-Gleń; Zbigniew Suchorab; Henryk Sobczuk; Andrzej Bieganowski

    2014-01-01

    A gas sensor array consisting of eight metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) type gas sensors was evaluated for its ability for assessment of the selected wastewater parameters. Municipal wastewater was collected in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in a primary sedimentation tank and was treated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR). A comparison of the gas sensor array (electronic nose) response to the standard physical-chemical parameters of treated wastewater was performed. To ...

  4. Technology and assessment of neutron absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review assesses more recent developments in the technology and application of those absorber materials which are considered to be established or to have shown potential in reactor control. Emphasis is placed on physical, chemical and metallurgical properties and upon irradiation behaviour. (author)

  5. Community Needs Assessment Office Administration & Technology (OAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, J. A.; Lum, Ku'uipo; Meyer, Diane

    The purpose of this survey was to obtain from employers the requisite skills and potential employment demand for office workers on Maui. Of particular interest was: (1) the assessment of various clerical skills and computer software in its relevance to the Office Administration & Technology (OAT) curriculum at Maui Community College; and (2) the…

  6. Expanding the applicability of Heallth Technology Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the presentation is to expand the foundations of input into policy decision making relying on health technology assessments (HTA). HTAs are primarily based on systematic reviews (SR) and thereby mostly on randomized controlled trials (RCT). RCTs can be distinguished on a continuu...

  7. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  8. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høibye, L; Clauson-Kaas, J; Wenzel, H; Larsen, H F; Jacobsen, B N; Dalgaard, O

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment, which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances and three advanced treatment methods; sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment is the most advantageous advanced treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regards to removal of heavy metals.

  9. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment......, which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination...... and three advanced treatment methods: sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment are the most advantageous advanved treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms...

  10. Constructive Technology Assessment for HIT development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høstgaard, Anna Marie Balling; Bertelsen, Pernille; Petersen, Lone Stub;

    2013-01-01

    in HIT development. A new evaluation methodology, including an analytical framework, has been developed specifically for HIT development: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) for HIT. It offers solutions to both the problems associated with summative technology evaluation and a way to involve end......-users. The CTA methodology is based on a Socio-technical understanding of technological development as an open ended, emergent process. The CTA was used during the EHR development process in the Region of North Jutland where it proved successful inproviding learning and feedback between all relevant groups......Experience and time has shown a need for new evaluation methods for evaluating Health Information Technology (HIT), as summative evaluation methods fail to accommodate the rapid and constant changes in HIT over time and to involve end-users, which has been recognized as an important success factor...

  11. Lightweight solar array blanket tooling, laser welding and cover process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A two phase technology investigation was performed to demonstrate effective methods for integrating 50 micrometer thin solar cells into ultralightweight module designs. During the first phase, innovative tooling was developed which allows lightweight blankets to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment with acceptable yields. During the second phase, the tooling was improved and the feasibility of laser processing of lightweight arrays was confirmed. The development of the cell/interconnect registration tool and interconnect bonding by laser welding is described.

  12. Industrial technology for economic and reliable encapsulation of large surface arrays of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguet, J.; Salles, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Different approaches are described showing, that the technology of sheet glass, which is applied in the fields of civil construction and automobile industry, can be used for the incapsulation of solar cell arrays after some modifications. The behaviour of such pannels during environmental tests is satisfactory and this technology allows to assure a good stability in the electric performance. The results obtained in the course of this contract allow to start up with the final step, that is the investigation and the realisation of the necessary means for the production of sheet glas based solar pannels.

  13. Technology Audit: Assessment of Innovative Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurushina Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the technological audit performing in the companies of oil and gas sector of Russian economy. To measure the innovations quality level the scale was developed based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving and the theory of technological structures. Figures of the innovations quantity by levels, volume and quality of the innovative portfolio are offered for assessment the innovative portfolio quality. The method was tested on an example of oil and gas transporting enterprises. The results of the comparative analysis of innovative portfolio are shown.

  14. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M.

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  15. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy. PMID:27494561

  16. Natural-technological risk assessment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burova, Valentina; Frolova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    EM-DAT statistical data on human impact and economic damages in the 1st semester 2015 are the highest since 2011: 41% of disasters were floods, responsible for 39% of economic damage and 7% of events were earthquakes responsible for 59% of total death toll. This suggests that disaster risk assessment and management still need to be improved and stay the principle issue in national and international related programs. The paper investigates the risk assessment and management practice in the Russian Federation at different levels. The method is proposed to identify the territories characterized by integrated natural-technological hazard. The maps of the Russian Federation zoning according to the integrated natural-technological hazard level are presented, as well as the procedure of updating the integrated hazard level taking into account the activity of separate processes. Special attention is paid to data bases on past natural and technological processes consequences, which are used for verification of current hazard estimation. The examples of natural-technological risk zoning for the country and some regions territory are presented. Different output risk indexes: both social and economic, are estimated taking into account requirements of end-users. In order to increase the safety of population of the Russian Federation the trans-boundaries hazards are also taken into account.

  17. Microfabrication Technology for Large Lekid Arrays: From Nika2 to Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupy, J.; Adane, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Hoarau, C.; Leclercq, S.; Le Sueur, H.; Macias-Perez, J.; Monfardini, A.; Peck, I.; Schuster, K.

    2016-08-01

    The lumped element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKID) demonstrated full maturity in the New IRAM KID Arrays (NIKA) instrument. These results allow directly comparing LEKID performance with other competing technologies (TES, doped silicon) in the mm and sub-mm range. A continuing effort is ongoing to improve the microfabrication technologies and concepts in order to satisfy the requirements of new instruments. More precisely, future satellites dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) studies will require the same focal plane technology to cover, at least, the frequency range of 60-600 GHz. Aluminium LEKID developed for NIKA have so far demonstrated, under real telescope conditions, a performance approaching photon noise limitation in the band 120-300 GHz. By implementing superconducting bi-layers, we recently demonstrated LEKID arrays working in the range 80-120 GHz and with sensitivities approaching the goals for CMB missions. NIKA itself (350 pixels) is followed by a more ambitious project requiring several thousand (3000-5000) pixels. NIKA2 has been installed in October 2015 at the IRAM 30-m telescope. We will describe in detail the technological improvements that allowed a relatively harmless tenfold up-scaling in pixels count without degrading the initial sensitivity. In particular, we will briefly describe a solution to simplify the difficult fabrication step linked to the slot-line propagation mode in coplanar waveguide.

  18. Status of the technologies for the production of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Pareschi, G; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; de Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Förster, A; Garczarczyk, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; Mandat, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Michałowski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wiśniewski, Ł; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation very high-energy gamma-ray observatory, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. CTA will comprise several tens of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) operated in array-mode and divided into three size classes: large, medium and small telescopes. The total reflective surface could be up to 10,000 m2 requiring unprecedented technological efforts. The properties of the reflector directly influence the telescope performance and thus constitute a fundamental ingredient to improve and maintain the sensitivity. The R&D status of lightweight, reliable and cost-effective mirror facets for the CTA telescope reflectors for the different classes of telescopes is reviewed in this paper.

  19. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  20. Study of dc micro-discharge arrays made in silicon using CMOS compatible technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Overzet, L. J.; Lefaucheux, P.; Ladroue, J.; Tillocher, T.; Aubry, O.; Woytasik, M.; Schelcher, G.; Dussart, R.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication technology used to make micro-discharge ‘reactors’ on a silicon (Si) substrate. For the fabrication of these reactors we have used Si wafers with 4 inch diameter and standard cleanroom facilities. The fabrication technology used is compatible with standard CMOS device fabrication and the fabricated micro-discharge reactors can be used to produce dc discharges. These micro-discharges operate at near atmospheric pressure. They were given ring-shaped anodes separated from the cathode by a SiO2 dielectric with a thickness of approximately 5-6 µm rather than the much more common ˜100 µm. The micro-discharge reactors can consist of either a single hole or multiple holes and we have built devices with holes from 25 to 150 µm in diameter. The micro-discharge measurements were obtained for helium and argon dc plasmas between 100 and 1000 Torr. We used a single ballast resistor to produce micro-discharges in multi-hole array. This resistor also acted to limit the discharge power. An average current density of 0.8 A cm-2 was calculated for the 1024 holes array with 100 µm diameter holes. In addition, we will report on stability of micro-discharges depending on the cavity configuration of the micro-reactors and the ignition trends for the micro-discharge arrays. Finally, we discuss the life time of micro-discharge arrays as well as the factors affecting them (cathode sputtering, thermally affected zones, etc).

  1. Assessing the performance of health technology assessment organizations: a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Louise; Farand, Lambert; Mondou, Isabelle; Sicotte, Claude; Battista, Renaldo

    2008-01-01

    In light of growing demands for public accountability, the broadening scope of health technology assessment organizations (HTAOs) activities and their increasing role in decision-making underscore the importance for them to demonstrate their performance. Based on Parson's social action theory, we propose a conceptual model that includes four functions an organization needs to balance to perform well: (i) goal attainment, (ii) production, (iii) adaptation to the environment, and (iv) culture and values maintenance. From a review of the HTA literature, we identify specific dimensions pertaining to the four functions and show how they relate to performance. We compare our model with evaluations reported in the scientific and gray literature to confirm its capacity to accommodate various evaluation designs, contexts of evaluation, and organizational models and perspectives. Our findings reveal the dimensions of performance most often assessed and other important ones that, hitherto, remain unexplored. The model provides a flexible and theoretically grounded tool to assess the performance of HTAOs.

  2. Photon counting pixel and array in amorphous silicon technology for large area digital medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdandoost, Mohammad Y.; Shin, Kyung W.; Safavian, Nader; Taghibakhsh, Farhad; Karim, Karim S.

    2010-04-01

    A single photon counting Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) based pixel architecture in amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology is reported for large area digital medical imaging. The VCO converts X-ray generated input charge into an output oscillating frequency signal. Experimental results for an in-house fabricated VCO circuit in a-Si technology are presented and external readout circuits to extract the image information from the VCO's frequency output are discussed. These readout circuits can be optimized to reduce the fixed pattern noise and fringing effects in an imaging array containing many such VCO pixels. Noise estimations, stability simulations and measurements for the fabricated VCO are presented. The reported architecture is particularly promising for large area photon counting applications (e.g. low dose fluoroscopy, dental computed tomography (CT)) due to its very low input referred electronic noise, high sensitivity and ease of fabrication in low cost a-Si technology.

  3. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  4. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  5. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies

  6. Constructive technology assessment and technology dynamics: the case of clean technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Johan W.

    1992-01-01

    A synthesis of neo-Schumpeterian evolutionary, sociological, and historical coevolution ary models could be used for constructive technology assessment, aimed at the active management of the process of technological change. This article proposes a synthetic quasi-evolutionary model, in which variati

  7. Development of miniature Stirling cryocooler technology for Infrared Focal Plane array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A reliable miniature cryocooler is one of the basic and foremost requirements for successful operation of high performance cooled infrared focal plane array (IRFPA used for defence applications. Technological complexity and requirement of long duration fail-safe operation of the cryocooler demands robust design, fabrication and assembly with tolerances and, perfection of an array of sub-technologies. The paper presents the progress of the development activities in Stirling cryocooler technology at SSPL, which evolved through essential milestones like the development of single and dual piston linear motor driven split coolers to the state-of-the-art integral Brushless DC (BLDC motor crank-driven type highly miniaturized coolers of capacities ranging from 0.25 to 0.5W at 80K. The theoretical investigations in the design of Stirling cycle cryocooler have been reported and the issues related to the design aspects are discussed in sufficient details. Experimental results of cryocooler performance tests are also presented. The paper also focuses on regenerator design optimization. The results of optimizations have been shown at the end considering a sample data.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.571-580, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5756

  8. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  9. Constructive technology assessment and technology dynamics: the case of clean technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Schot, Johan W.

    1992-01-01

    A synthesis of neo-Schumpeterian evolutionary, sociological, and historical coevolution ary models could be used for constructive technology assessment, aimed at the active management of the process of technological change. This article proposes a synthetic quasi-evolutionary model, in which variation and selection are neither independent nor coincidental processes. Variation and selection are linked by actors, resulting in the actor role labeled technological nexus. On the basis of the quasi...

  10. System-Level Integrated Circuit (SLIC) Technology Development for Phased Array Antenna Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windyka, John A.; Zablocki, Ed G.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the efforts and progress in developing a 'system-level' integrated circuit, or SLIC, for application in advanced phased array antenna systems. The SLIC combines radio-frequency (RF) microelectronics, digital and analog support circuitry, and photonic interfaces into a single micro-hybrid assembly. Together, these technologies provide not only the amplitude and phase control necessary for electronic beam steering in the phased array, but also add thermally-compensated automatic gain control, health and status feedback, bias regulation, and reduced interconnect complexity. All circuitry is integrated into a compact, multilayer structure configured for use as a two-by-four element phased array module, operating at 20 Gigahertz, using a Microwave High-Density Interconnect (MHDI) process. The resultant hardware is constructed without conventional wirebonds, maintains tight inter-element spacing, and leads toward low-cost mass production. The measured performances and development issues associated with both the two-by-four element module and the constituent elements are presented. Additionally, a section of the report describes alternative architectures and applications supported by the SLIC electronics. Test results show excellent yield and performance of RF circuitry and full automatic gain control for multiple, independent channels. Digital control function, while suffering from lower manufacturing yield, also proved successful.

  11. The past and the future of constructive technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, J.W.; Rip, A.

    1997-01-01

    Constructive technology assessment (CTA) is a member of the family of technology assessment approaches. developed in particular in the Netherlands and Denmark. CTA shifts the focus away from assessing impacts of new technologies to broadening design, development, and implementation processes. Explic

  12. MicroArray Facility: a laboratory information management system with extended support for Nylon based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaudoing Emmanuel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput gene expression profiling (GEP is becoming a routine technique in life science laboratories. With experimental designs that repeatedly span thousands of genes and hundreds of samples, relying on a dedicated database infrastructure is no longer an option. GEP technology is a fast moving target, with new approaches constantly broadening the field diversity. This technology heterogeneity, compounded by the informatics complexity of GEP databases, means that software developments have so far focused on mainstream techniques, leaving less typical yet established techniques such as Nylon microarrays at best partially supported. Results MAF (MicroArray Facility is the laboratory database system we have developed for managing the design, production and hybridization of spotted microarrays. Although it can support the widely used glass microarrays and oligo-chips, MAF was designed with the specific idiosyncrasies of Nylon based microarrays in mind. Notably single channel radioactive probes, microarray stripping and reuse, vector control hybridizations and spike-in controls are all natively supported by the software suite. MicroArray Facility is MIAME supportive and dynamically provides feedback on missing annotations to help users estimate effective MIAME compliance. Genomic data such as clone identifiers and gene symbols are also directly annotated by MAF software using standard public resources. The MAGE-ML data format is implemented for full data export. Journalized database operations (audit tracking, data anonymization, material traceability and user/project level confidentiality policies are also managed by MAF. Conclusion MicroArray Facility is a complete data management system for microarray producers and end-users. Particular care has been devoted to adequately model Nylon based microarrays. The MAF system, developed and implemented in both private and academic environments, has proved a robust solution for

  13. Phenomic assessment of genetic buffering by kinetic analysis of cell arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative high-throughput cell array phenotyping (Q-HTCP) is applied to the genomic collection of yeast gene deletion mutants for systematic, comprehensive assessment of the contribution of genes and gene combinations to any phenotype of interest (phenomic analysis). Interacting gene networks influence every phenotype. Genetic buffering refers to how gene interaction networks stabilize or destabilize a phenotype. Like genomics, phenomics varies in its resolution with there being a trade-off allocating a greater number of measurements per sample to enhance quantification of the phenotype vs. increasing the number of different samples by obtaining fewer measurements per sample. The Q-HTCP protocol we describe assesses 50,000-70,000 cultures per experiment by obtaining kinetic growth curves from time series imaging of agar cell arrays. This approach was developed for the yeast gene deletion strains, but it could be applied as well to other microbial mutant arrays grown on solid agar media. The methods we describe are for creation and maintenance of frozen stocks, liquid source array preparation, agar destination plate printing, image scanning, image analysis, curve fitting, and evaluation of gene interaction. PMID:25213246

  14. The first genetic map of pigeon pea based on diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi Ying Yang; Rachit A. Saxena; Pawan L. Kulwal; Gavin J. Ash; Anuja Dubey; John D. I. Harper; Hari D. Upadhyaya; Ragini Gothalwal; Andrzej Kilian; Rajeev K. Varshney

    2011-04-01

    With an objective to develop a genetic map in pigeon pea (Cajanus spp.), a total of 554 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers showed polymorphism in a pigeon pea F2 mapping population of 72 progenies derived from an interspecific cross of ICP 28 (Cajanus cajan) and ICPW 94 (Cajanus scarabaeoides). Approximately 13% of markers did not conform to expected segregation ratio. The total number of DArT marker loci segregating in Mendelian manner was 405 with 73.1% ($P \\gt 0.001$) of DArT markers having unique segregation patterns. Two groups of genetic maps were generated using DArT markers. While the maternal genetic linkage map had 122 unique DArT maternal marker loci, the paternal genetic linkage map has a total of 172 unique DArT paternal marker loci. The length of these two maps covered 270.0 cM and 451.6 cM, respectively. These are the first genetic linkage maps developed for pigeon pea, and this is the first report of genetic mapping in any grain legume using diversity arrays technology.

  15. Phased Array Technology with Phase and Amplitude Controlled Magnetron for Microwave Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    We need a microwave power transmitter with light weight and high DC-RF conversion efficiency for an economical SSPS (Space Solar Power System). We need a several g/W for a microwave power transmission (MPT) system with a phased array with 0.0001 degree of beam control accuracy (=tan-1 (100m/36,000km)) and over 80 % of DC-RF conversion efficiency when the weight of the 1GW-class SPS is below a several thousand ton - a several tens of thousand ton. We focus a microwave tube, especially magnetron by economical reason and by the amount of mass-production because it is commonly used for microwave oven in the world. At first, we have developed a phase controlled magnetron (PCM) with different technologies from what Dr. Brown developed. Next we have developed a phase and amplitude controlled magnetron (PACM). For the PACM, we add a feedback to magnetic field of the PCM with an external coil to control and stabilize amplitude of the microwave. We succeed to develop the PACM with below 10-6 of frequency stability and within 1 degree of an error in phase and within 1% of amplitude. We can control a phase and amplitude of the PACM and we have developed a phased array the PCMs. With the PCM technology, we have developed a small light weight MPT transmitter COMET (Compact Microwave Energy Transmitter) with consideration of heat radiation for space use and with consideration of mobility to space.

  16. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact. PMID:22230660

  17. Nanometer scale assessment of mechanical strain induced in silicon by a periodic line array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubas, S; Gaudeau, G; Ezzaidi, Y; Thomas, O; Morin, P

    2011-10-01

    Measuring stress and strain, induced by nanostructures, at the nanometer scale is still a challenge. In this work, we investigate the strain induced by sub-micrometric periodic line arrays deposited on single crystal (001) Si substrate. We study the influence of the lines width and the spacing between the lines for two sets of samples: a silicon nitride lines array and a poly-silicon line array capped with a Si3N4 stressor layer. The periodic strain field in mono-crystalline silicon is investigated by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction which is very sensitive to local strain (goniometer with a laboratory source. The line arrays induce a periodic strain field in silicon, which gives rise to distinct satellites in reciprocal space. The intensity envelope of these satellites is related to the strain field in one cell. In order to assess this strain field in silicon, mechanical modeling is necessary. Elastic calculations are performed with a Finite Element Modeling (FEM) code in order to extract the displacement field that is used for structure factor calculations within kinematical approximation. The calculated reciprocal space map is compared to the experimental results in order to validate the strain field. We show that for capped poly arrays, the diffracted intensity envelope is influenced by the spacing between the lines. This area is filled with silicon nitride which induces a noticeable change in displacement and strain field. While for bare stressor arrays the nitride line width is responsible of change in displacement field and thus on the RSM intensity envelope.

  18. Drug delivery system innovation and Health Technology Assessment: Upgrading from Clinical to Technological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzitta, Michele; Bruno, Giorgio; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Mendicino, Francesca R; Ricci, Maurizio

    2015-11-30

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary health political instrument that evaluates the consequences, mainly clinical and economical, of a health care technology; the HTA aim is to produce and spread information on scientific and technological innovation for health political decision making process. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as nanocarriers, are technologically complex but they have pivotal relevance in therapeutic innovation. The HTA process, as commonly applied to conventional drug evaluation, should upgrade to a full pharmaceutical assessment, considering the DDS complexity. This is useful to study more in depth the clinical outcome and to broaden its critical assessment toward pharmaceutical issues affecting the patient and not measured by the current clinical evidence approach. We draw out the expertise necessary to perform the pharmaceutical assessment and we propose a format to evaluate the DDS technological topics such as formulation and mechanism of action, physicochemical characteristics, manufacturing process. We integrated the above-mentioned three points in the Evidence Based Medicine approach, which is data source for any HTA process. In this regard, the introduction of a Pharmaceutics Expert figure in the HTA could be fundamental to grant a more detailed evaluation of medicine product characteristics and performances and to help optimizing DDS features to overcome R&D drawbacks. Some aspects of product development, such as manufacturing processes, should be part of the HTA as innovative manufacturing processes allow new products to reach more effectively patient bedside. HTA so upgraded may encourage resource allocating payers to invest in innovative technologies and providers to focus on innovative material properties and manufacturing processes, thus contributing to bring more medicines in therapy in a sustainable manner. PMID:26399633

  19. Drug delivery system innovation and Health Technology Assessment: Upgrading from Clinical to Technological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzitta, Michele; Bruno, Giorgio; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Mendicino, Francesca R; Ricci, Maurizio

    2015-11-30

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary health political instrument that evaluates the consequences, mainly clinical and economical, of a health care technology; the HTA aim is to produce and spread information on scientific and technological innovation for health political decision making process. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as nanocarriers, are technologically complex but they have pivotal relevance in therapeutic innovation. The HTA process, as commonly applied to conventional drug evaluation, should upgrade to a full pharmaceutical assessment, considering the DDS complexity. This is useful to study more in depth the clinical outcome and to broaden its critical assessment toward pharmaceutical issues affecting the patient and not measured by the current clinical evidence approach. We draw out the expertise necessary to perform the pharmaceutical assessment and we propose a format to evaluate the DDS technological topics such as formulation and mechanism of action, physicochemical characteristics, manufacturing process. We integrated the above-mentioned three points in the Evidence Based Medicine approach, which is data source for any HTA process. In this regard, the introduction of a Pharmaceutics Expert figure in the HTA could be fundamental to grant a more detailed evaluation of medicine product characteristics and performances and to help optimizing DDS features to overcome R&D drawbacks. Some aspects of product development, such as manufacturing processes, should be part of the HTA as innovative manufacturing processes allow new products to reach more effectively patient bedside. HTA so upgraded may encourage resource allocating payers to invest in innovative technologies and providers to focus on innovative material properties and manufacturing processes, thus contributing to bring more medicines in therapy in a sustainable manner.

  20. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  1. Advantages of Array-Based Technologies for Pre-Emptive Pharmacogenomics Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shahandeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As recognised by the National Institutes of Health (NIH Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI, microarray technology currently provides a rapid, inexpensive means of identifying large numbers of known genomic variants or gene transcripts in experimental and clinical settings. However new generation sequencing techniques are now being introduced in many clinical genetic contexts, particularly where novel mutations are involved. While these methods can be valuable for screening a restricted set of genes for known or novel mutations, implementation of whole genome sequencing in clinical practice continues to present challenges. Even very accurate high-throughput methods with small error rates can generate large numbers of false negative or false positive errors due to the high numbers of simultaneous readings. Additional validation is likely to be required for safe use of any such methods in clinical settings. Custom-designed arrays can offer advantages for screening for common, known mutations and, in this context, may currently be better suited for accredited, quality-controlled clinical genetic screening services, as illustrated by their successful application in several large-scale pre-emptive pharmacogenomics programs now underway. Excessive, inappropriate use of next-generation sequencing may waste scarce research funds and other resources. Microarrays presently remain the technology of choice in applications that require fast, cost-effective genome-wide screening of variants of known importance, particularly for large sample sizes. This commentary considers some of the applications where microarrays continue to offer advantages over next-generation sequencing technologies.

  2. Advantages of Array-Based Technologies for Pre-Emptive Pharmacogenomics Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Al; Johnstone, Daniel M; Atkins, Joshua R; Sontag, Jean-Marie; Heidari, Moones; Daneshi, Nilofar; Freeman-Acquah, Elvis; Milward, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    As recognised by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), microarray technology currently provides a rapid, inexpensive means of identifying large numbers of known genomic variants or gene transcripts in experimental and clinical settings. However new generation sequencing techniques are now being introduced in many clinical genetic contexts, particularly where novel mutations are involved. While these methods can be valuable for screening a restricted set of genes for known or novel mutations, implementation of whole genome sequencing in clinical practice continues to present challenges. Even very accurate high-throughput methods with small error rates can generate large numbers of false negative or false positive errors due to the high numbers of simultaneous readings. Additional validation is likely to be required for safe use of any such methods in clinical settings. Custom-designed arrays can offer advantages for screening for common, known mutations and, in this context, may currently be better suited for accredited, quality-controlled clinical genetic screening services, as illustrated by their successful application in several large-scale pre-emptive pharmacogenomics programs now underway. Excessive, inappropriate use of next-generation sequencing may waste scarce research funds and other resources. Microarrays presently remain the technology of choice in applications that require fast, cost-effective genome-wide screening of variants of known importance, particularly for large sample sizes. This commentary considers some of the applications where microarrays continue to offer advantages over next-generation sequencing technologies. PMID:27600079

  3. Advances in three-dimensional integration technologies in support of infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, D. S.; Vick, E. P.; Malta, D.; Lueck, M. R.; Skokan, M. R.; Masterjohn, C. M.; Muzilla, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Staring infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) require pixel-level, three-dimensional (3D) integration with silicon readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that provide detector bias, integrate detector current, and may further process the signals. There is an increased interest in ROIC technology as a result of two trends in the evolution of infrared FPAs. The first trend involves decreasing the FPA pixel size, which leads to the increased information content within the same FPA die size. The second trend involves the desire to enhance signal processing capability at the FPA level, which opens the door to the detector behaving like a smart peripheral rather than a passive component—with complex signal processing functions being executed on, rather than off, the FPA chip. In this paper, we review recent advances in 3D integration process technologies that support these key trends in the development of infrared FPAs. Specifically, we discuss approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with 3D ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of silicon circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias. We describe the continued development of the 3D integration technology and summarize key demonstrations that show its viability for pixels as small as 5 microns.

  4. Integration of field emitter array and thin-film transistor using polycrystalline silicon process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Y H; Kang, S Y; Park Jeong Man; Cho, K I

    1998-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a gated polycrystalline silicon field emitter array (poly-Si FEA) and a thin-film transistor(TFT) on an insulating substrate for active-matrix field emission displays (AMFEDs). The TFT was designed to have low off-state currents even at a high drain voltage. Amorphous silicon has been used as a starting material of the poly-Si FEA for improving surface smoothness and uniformity of the tips, and the gate holes have been formed by using an etch-back process. The integrated poly-Si TFT controlled electron emissions of the poly-Si FEA actively, resulting in great improvement in the emission reliability along with a low-voltage control, below 15 V, of field emission, The developed technology has potential applications in AMFEDs on glass substrates.

  5. Monitoring the Monitors: Assessing and Visualizing the State-of-Health of Earthscope's Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Foley, S.; Davis, G. A.; Lindquist, K. G.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Astiz, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Earthscope Transportable Array has increased in size over the last three years to over 200 broadband seismic stations. Assessing the state-of-health of the station equipment, collecting data transfer metadata, and providing this information to analysts, station engineers, administrative staff, researchers and the public is the responsibility of the Array Network Facility (ANF). Various interconnected software packages (including the Antelope Environmental Monitoring System, RRD, GMT, MATLAB, Nagios and Flickr) build data products in near real-time that are organized and integrated into the ANF website using PHP (a web-based scripting language embedded in HTML). These metadata and data products are readily accessible via the world-wide-web at http://anf.ucsd.edu, where multiple web-based tools have been developed to display and visualize these products.

  6. Problems of method of technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study undertakes to analyse the theoretical and methodological structure of Technology Assessment (TA). It is based on a survey of TA studies which provided an important condition for theoreticall sound statements on methodological aspects of TA. It was established that the main basic theoretical problems of TA are in the field of dealing with complexity. This is also apparent in the constitution of problems, the most elementary and central approach of TA. Scientifically founded constitution of problems and the corresponding construction of models call for interdisciplinary scientific work. Interdisciplinarity in the TA research process is achieved at the level of virtual networks, these networks being composed of individuals suited to teamwork. The emerging network structures have an objective-organizational and an ideational basis. The objective-organizational basis is mainly the result of team composition and the external affiliations of the team members. The ideational basis of the virtual network is represented by the team members' mode of thinking, which is individually located at a multidisciplinary level. The theoretical 'skeleton' of the TA knowledge system, which is represented by process knowledge based linkage structures, can be generated and also processed in connection with the knowledge on types of problems, areas of analysis and procedures to deal with complexity. Within this process, disciplinary knowledge is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Metatheoretical and metadisciplinary knowledge and the correspondingly processes complexity of models are the basis for the necessary methodological awareness, that allows TA to become designable as a research procedure. (orig./HP)

  7. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report

  8. High-throughput genotyping of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) utilising diversity arrays technology (DArT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E L; Whittock, S P; Jakše, J; Carling, J; Matthews, P D; Probasco, G; Henning, J A; Darby, P; Cerenak, A; Javornik, B; Kilian, A; Koutoulis, A

    2011-05-01

    Implementation of molecular methods in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) breeding is dependent on the availability of sizeable numbers of polymorphic markers and a comprehensive understanding of genetic variation. However, use of molecular marker technology is limited due to expense, time inefficiency, laborious methodology and dependence on DNA sequence information. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) is a high-throughput cost-effective method for the discovery of large numbers of quality polymorphic markers without reliance on DNA sequence information. This study is the first to utilise DArT for hop genotyping, identifying 730 polymorphic markers from 92 hop accessions. The marker quality was high and similar to the quality of DArT markers previously generated for other species; although percentage polymorphism and polymorphism information content (PIC) were lower than in previous studies deploying other marker systems in hop. Genetic relationships in hop illustrated by DArT in this study coincide with knowledge generated using alternate methods. Several statistical analyses separated the hop accessions into genetically differentiated North American and European groupings, with hybrids between the two groups clearly distinguishable. Levels of genetic diversity were similar in the North American and European groups, but higher in the hybrid group. The markers produced from this time and cost-efficient genotyping tool will be a valuable resource for numerous applications in hop breeding and genetics studies, such as mapping, marker-assisted selection, genetic identity testing, guidance in the maintenance of genetic diversity and the directed breeding of superior cultivars. PMID:21243330

  9. Mechanically robust, electrically stable metal arrays on plasma-oxidized polydimethylsiloxane for stretchable technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghir, Rian; Arscott, Steve

    2015-07-01

    Certain applications of evolving flexible technologies demand that metallic features remain both mechanically robust (crack-free) and electrically stable for large macroscopic mechanical deformation. Examples of this are flexible radio frequency transmission line technologies and soft metamaterials where electromagnetic properties (e.g., functionality and losses), which rely on the integrity of metallic features, are highly sensitive to shape and resistance variation. In this context, we demonstrate here the ability to deposit crack-free chromium/gold metallized mesa structures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates using thermal evaporation. In order to achieve this, the PDMS is exposed to an optimized oxygen plasma prior to the metallization. A shadow mask allowed us to define specific arrays of metallic mesa features having different sizes (100-600 μm) and surface filling factors on plasma-treated and non-treated PDMS. In contrast to non-treated PDMS, we demonstrate for a loading strain >45% that the local metal mesa strain is <2% (crack-free) and the electrical resistance variation is <2 for plasma-treated substrates. Such a result is achieved by tailoring the filling factor and the equivalent stiffness ratio of the layers. The relationship between the filling factor, the equivalent stiffness ratio, and the local strain reduction is analytically modelled. This allows one to understand the role of the key parameters in the behavior of the overall flexible system and, in principle, to design optimized systems such as those mentioned above.

  10. Development of Integrated Assessment Technology of Risk and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main idea and contents are summarized as below 1) Development of new risk/performance assessment system innovating old labor-intensive risk assessment structure - New consolidated risk assessment technology from various hazard(flood, fire, seismic in NPP) - BOP model development for performance monitoring - Consolidated risk/performance management system for consistency and efficiency of NPP 2) Resolution technology for pending issues in PSA - Base technology for PSA of digital I and C system - Base technology for seismic PSA reflecting domestic seismic characteristics and aging effect - Uncertainty reduction technology for level 2 PSA and best estimation of containment failure frequency 3) Next generation risk/performance assessment technology - Human-induced error reduction technology for efficient operation of a NPP

  11. Application of Gas Sensor Arrays in Assessment of Wastewater Purification Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Guz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array consisting of eight metal oxide semiconductor (MOS type gas sensors was evaluated for its ability for assessment of the selected wastewater parameters. Municipal wastewater was collected in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in a primary sedimentation tank and was treated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR. A comparison of the gas sensor array (electronic nose response to the standard physical-chemical parameters of treated wastewater was performed. To analyze the measurement results, artificial neural networks were used. E-nose—gas sensors array and artificial neural networks proved to be a suitable method for the monitoring of treated wastewater quality. Neural networks used for data validation showed high correlation between the electronic nose readouts and: (I chemical oxygen demand (COD (r = 0.988; (II total suspended solids (TSS (r = 0.938; (III turbidity (r = 0.940; (IV pH (r = 0.554; (V nitrogen compounds: N-NO3 (r = 0.958, N-NO2 (r = 0.869 and N-NH3 (r = 0.978; (VI and volatile organic compounds (VOC (r = 0.987. Good correlation of the abovementioned parameters are observed under stable treatment conditions in a laboratory batch reactor.

  12. Technology and Engineering Advances Supporting EarthScope's Alaska Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, J.; Enders, M.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska and Canada is an ongoing deployment of 261 high quality broadband seismographs. The Alaska TA is the continuation of the rolling TA/USArray deployment of 400 broadband seismographs in the lower 48 contiguous states and builds on the success of the TA project there. The TA in Alaska and Canada is operated by the IRIS Consortium on behalf of the National Science Foundation as part of the EarthScope program. By Sept 2015, it is anticipated that the TA network in Alaska and Canada will be operating 105 stations. During the summer of 2015, TA field crews comprised of IRIS and HTSI station specialists, as well as representatives from our partner agencies the Alaska Earthquake Center and the Alaska Volcano Observatory and engineers from the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory will have completed a total of 36 new station installations. Additionally, we will have completed upgrades at 9 existing Alaska Earthquake Center stations with borehole seismometers and the adoption of an additional 35 existing stations. Continued development of battery systems using LiFePO4 chemistries, integration of BGAN, Iridium, Cellular and VSAT technologies for real time data transfer, and modifications to electronic systems are a driving force for year two of the Alaska Transportable Array. Station deployment utilizes custom heliportable drills for sensor emplacement in remote regions. The autonomous station design evolution include hardening the sites for Arctic, sub-Arctic and Alpine conditions as well as the integration of rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries with traditional AGM batteries We will present new design aspects, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing deployments, as well as efforts to integrate TA stations with other existing networks in Alaska including the Plate Boundary Observatory and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  13. Breadboard linear array scan imager using LSI solid-state technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, R. A.; Brennan, J. A.; Frankel, D. G.; Noll, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of large scale integration photodiode arrays in a linear array scan (pushbroom) breadboard was evaluated for application to multispectral remote sensing of the earth's resources. The technical approach, implementation, and test results of the program are described. Several self scanned linear array visible photodetector focal plane arrays were fabricated and evaluated in an optical bench configuration. A 1728-detector array operating in four bands (0.5 - 1.1 micrometer) was evaluated for noise, spectral response, dynamic range, crosstalk, MTF, noise equivalent irradiance, linearity, and image quality. Other results include image artifact data, temporal characteristics, radiometric accuracy, calibration experience, chip alignment, and array fabrication experience. Special studies and experimentation were included in long array fabrication and real-time image processing for low-cost ground stations, including the use of computer image processing. High quality images were produced and all objectives of the program were attained.

  14. Technology in military strategy: a realistic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, R.

    1983-01-01

    Today the Military Reform Movement strongly criticizes the United States military for being mesmerized by technology to the detriment of other, including human, factors. Only in this century have writers given great attention to war technologies. In contrast to strategic thinkers like Sun-Tsu, Machiavelli, Clausewitz, Moltke, and Mahan, post-World War I theorists like fuller, Liddell Hart, Douhet, and Mitchell made technology a key to their strategic concepts. Nuclear war theorists like Brodie, Kahn, and Wohlstetter made technology a centrality, while limited war theorists like Osgood and Kissinger gave it considerable, but less, stress. The reformers place more weight on teh art of using military forces than on weapons, emphasizing mobility and historical lessons, rather than technology. Nuclear war theories rely too heavily on technological dimensions to expect a shift. Somewhat more attention could profitably be paid to nontechnological aspects of conventional war, but any violent pendulum swing should be avoided.

  15. Assessments of emerging science and technologies: Mapping the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, E.M.; Thorstensen, E.; Nielsen, R.O.; Bakker, de E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents comparative work from the EST-Frame project on technology appraisal. It focuses on studies of 'advisory domains' (more or less distinct traditions for assessment of technologies, such as risk analysis, foresight and ethical assessments). The purpose of the study was to increase t

  16. Beyond checklists: toward an ethical-constructive technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiran, Asle H.; Oudshoorn, Nelly; Verbeek, Peter-Paul

    2015-01-01

    While many technology assessments (TAs) formally conducted by TA organizations in Europe and the USA have examined the implications of new technologies for ‘quantifiable risks’ regarding safety, health or the environment, they have largely ignored the ethical implications of those technologies. Rece

  17. Predicting technology operational availability using technical maturity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical maturity assessment method was performed by systems engineers in collaboration with an advisory panel composed of team members from different Department of Energy sites and from different engineering and science disciplines. Various stabilization technologies were assessed annually as to their relative maturity and availability for use in stabilizing nuclear materials. After three years of assessments, several of the technologies are now components of operational systems. A regression analysis of the historical assessments was performed, and it was concluded that the numerical technical maturity score produced by a team of experts can provide a powerful predictor of the time remaining until the operational application of technologies

  18. A critical assessment of fuel cell technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold combustion is a promised technology to mankind since the middle of the last century. The fuel cell may at last become the energy machine of the one to come after a long journey on a road bordered with expectations, successes and disappointments. Ten billion people will need the cell for their well-being. The progress and the state-of-art is assessed by means of figures of merit for performance, normalized to standard conditions, life and variability. State-of-art current densities for multi-kW stacks operating on atmospheric pressure air at 0.74 V cell voltage (50% efficiency, HHV) are estimated to be 150 mA/cm2 for MCFC, 160 mA/cm2 for AFC, 239 mA/cm2 for PEFC and 270 mA/cm2 for SOFC. PAFC gives 260 mA/cm2 at 0.66 V and DMFC 100 mA/cm2 at 0.37 V. Decay rates are about 1%/1000 h for PEFC, PAFC and SOFC compared to 2%/1000 h for AFC and 3%/1000 h for MCFC. Coefficients of variation for cell voltages amount to about 1% for all options, except for MCFC with 3-4%. Improvement of cell performance after 1975 is nil to moderate, except for SOFC with a consistent annual improvement of about 10%. There is room for further development of terrestrial AFCs towards 300-400 mA/cm2 considering the figure 800 mA/cm2 for oxygen AFCs. Life and cost will decide the future of the fuel cell. Prospects are not as good as they could be. The fuel cell community lacks understanding of the basics of fuel processing, as demonstrated by the widespread misbelief ('the CO2 syndrome') that CO2 cannot be removed cost effectively from a hydrogen feed (which is practiced in every NH3 plant around the world). The competition, read the gas turbine, has to be taken very seriously. Emphasis has to be shifted from premature demonstrations to R and D on fundamental problems, which have been around too long. 34 refs

  19. Decision Gate Process for Assessment of a Technology Development Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Rajiv; Fishman, Julianna; Hyatt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Dust Management Project (DMP) was established to provide technologies (to TRL 6 development level) required to address adverse effects of lunar dust to humans and to exploration systems and equipment, which will reduce life cycle cost and risk, and will increase the probability of sustainable and successful lunar missions. The technology portfolio of DMP consisted of different categories of technologies whose final product is either a technology solution in itself, or one that contributes toward a dust mitigation strategy for a particular application. A Decision Gate Process (DGP) was developed to assess and validate the achievement and priority of the dust mitigation technologies as the technologies progress through the development cycle. The DGP was part of continuous technology assessment and was a critical element of DMP risk management. At the core of the process were technology-specific criteria developed to measure the success of each DMP technology in attaining the technology readiness levels assigned to each decision gate. The DGP accounts for both categories of technologies and qualifies the technology progression from technology development tasks to application areas. The process provided opportunities to validate performance, as well as to identify non-performance in time to adjust resources and direction. This paper describes the overall philosophy of the DGP and the methodology for implementation for DMP, and describes the method for defining the technology evaluation criteria. The process is illustrated by example of an application to a specific DMP technology.

  20. High-density stretchable microelectrode arrays: An integrated technology platform for neural and muscular surface interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang

    2011-12-01

    Numerous applications in neuroscience research and neural prosthetics, such as retinal prostheses, spinal-cord surface stimulation for prosthetics, electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording for epilepsy detection, etc., involve electrical interaction with soft excitable tissues using a surface stimulation and/or recording approach. These applications require an interface that is able to set up electrical communications with a high throughput between electronics and the excitable tissue and that can dynamically conform to the shape of the soft tissue. Being a compliant and biocompatible material with mechanical impedance close to that of soft tissues, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) offers excellent potential as the substrate material for such neural interfaces. However, fabrication of electrical functionalities on PDMS has long been very challenging. This thesis work has successfully overcome many challenges associated with PDMS-based microfabrication and achieved an integrated technology platform for PDMS-based stretchable microelectrode arrays (sMEAs). This platform features a set of technological advances: (1) we have fabricated uniform current density profile microelectrodes as small as 10 mum in diameter; (2) we have patterned high-resolution (feature as small as 10 mum), high-density (pitch as small as 20 mum) thin-film gold interconnects on PDMS substrate; (3) we have developed a multilayer wiring interconnect technology within the PDMS substrate to further boost the achievable integration density of such sMEA; and (4) we have invented a bonding technology---via-bonding---to facilitate high-resolution, high-density integration of the sMEA with integrated circuits (ICs) to form a compact implant. Taken together, this platform provides a high-resolution, high-density integrated system solution for neural and muscular surface interfacing. sMEAs of example designs are evaluated through in vitro and in vivo experimentations on their biocompatibility, surface conformability

  1. High-resolution focal plane array IR detection modules and digital signal processing technologies at AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Breiter, Rainer; Koch, R.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Eberhardt, Kurt; Oelmaier, Reinhard; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

    2000-07-01

    Full video format focal plane array (FPA) modules with up to 640 X 512 pixels have been developed for high resolution imaging applications in either mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) mid wave (MWIR) infrared (IR) or platinum silicide (PtSi) and quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology as low cost alternatives to MCT for high performance IR imaging in the MWIR or long wave spectral band (LWIR). For the QWIP's, a new photovoltaic technology was introduced for improved NETD performance and higher dynamic range. MCT units provide fast frame rates > 100 Hz together with state of the art thermal resolution NETD heat load of the integrated detector cooler assemblies (IDCAs) could be reduced to an amount as low, that a 1 W split liner cooler provides sufficient cooling power to operate the modules -- including the QWIP with 60 K operation temperature -- at ambient temperatures up to 65 degrees Celsius. Miniaturized command/control electronics (CCE) available for all modules provide a standardized digital interface, with 14 bit analogue to digital conversion for state to the art correctability, access to highly dynamic scenes without any loss of information and simplified exchangeability of the units. New modular image processing hardware platforms and software for image visualization and nonuniformity correction including scene based self learning algorithms had to be developed to accomplish for the high data rates of up to 18 M pixels/s with 14-bit deep data, allowing to take into account nonlinear effects to access the full NETD by accurate reduction of residual fixed pattern noise. The main features of these modules are summarized together with measured performance data for long range detection systems with moderately fast to slow F-numbers like F/2.0 - F/3.5. An outlook shows most recent activities at AIM, heading for multicolor and faster frame rate detector modules based on MCT devices.

  2. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) for high-throughput profiling of the hexaploid wheat genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mona; Wenzl, Peter; Caig, Vanessa; Carling, Jason; Xia, Ling; Yang, Shiying; Uszynski, Grzegorz; Mohler, Volker; Lehmensiek, Anke; Kuchel, Haydn; Hayden, Mathew J; Howes, Neil; Sharp, Peter; Vaughan, Peter; Rathmell, Bill; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Despite a substantial investment in the development of panels of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, the simple sequence repeat (SSR) technology with a limited multiplexing capability remains a standard, even for applications requiring whole-genome information. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) types hundreds to thousands of genomic loci in parallel, as previously demonstrated in a number diploid plant species. Here we show that DArT performs similarly well for the hexaploid genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The methodology previously used to generate DArT fingerprints of barley also generated a large number of high-quality markers in wheat (99.8% allele-calling concordance and approximately 95% call rate). The genetic relationships among bread wheat cultivars revealed by DArT coincided with knowledge generated with other methods, and even closely related cultivars could be distinguished. To verify the Mendelian behaviour of DArT markers, we typed a set of 90 Cranbrook x Halberd doubled haploid lines for which a framework (FW) map comprising a total of 339 SSR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was available. We added an equal number of DArT markers to this data set and also incorporated 71 sequence tagged microsatellite (STM) markers. A comparison of logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores, call rates and the degree of genome coverage indicated that the quality and information content of the DArT data set was comparable to that of the combined SSR/RFLP/AFLP data set of the FW map. PMID:17033786

  3. Dual-band technology on indium gallium arsenide focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Hess, Cory D.; Li, Chuan; Ettenberg, Martin; Trezza, John

    2011-06-01

    While InGaAs-based SWIR imaging technology has been improved dramatically over the past 10 years, the motivation remains to reduce Size Weight and Power (SWaP) for applications in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR). Goodrich ISR Systems, Princeton (Sensors Unlimited, Inc.) has continued to improve detector sensitivity. Additionally, SUI is working jointly with DRS-RSTA to develop innovative techniques for manufacturing dual-band focal planes to provide next generation technology for not only reducing SWaP for SWIR imagers, but also to combine imaging solutions for providing a single imager for Visible Near-SWIR (VNS) + LW imaging solutions. Such developments are targeted at reducing system SWaP, cost and complexity for imaging payloads on board UASs as well as soldier deployed systems like weapon sights. Our motivation is to demonstrate capability in providing superior image quality in fused LWIR and SWIR imaging systems, while reducing the total system SWaP and cost by enabling Short Wave and Thermal imaging in a single uncooled imager. Under DARPA MTO awarded programs, a LW bolometer (DRS-RSTA) is fabricated on a Short Wave (SW) InGaAs Vis-SWIR (SUI-Goodrich) Imager. The combined imager is a dual-band Sensor-Chip Assembly which is capable of imaging in VIS-SWIR + LW. Both DRS and Goodrich have developed materials and process enhancements to support these dual-band platform investigations. The two imagers are confocal and coaxial with respect to the incident image plane. Initial work has completed a single Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) capable of running both imagers. The team has hybridized InGaAs Focal planes to 6" full ROIC wafers to support bolometer fabrication onto the SW array.

  4. Developments of a new mirror technology for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high-energy gamma rays will consist of about a hundred of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) of different size with a total reflective area of about 10,000 m$^2$. Here we present a novel technology for the production of IACT mirrors that has been developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS in Krakow, Poland. The mirrors are made by cold-slumping of the front reflecting aluminium-coated panel and the rear panel interspaced with aluminium spacers. Each panel is built of two glass panels laminated with a layer of a fibreglass tissue in between for reinforcement of the structure against mechanical damage. The mirror structure is open and does not require a perfect sealing needed in closed-type designs. It prohibits water to be trapped inside and enables a proper ventilation of the mirror. Full-size hexagonal prototype mirrors produced for the medium-sized CTA telescopes will be presented together with the results of recent comprehensive ...

  5. Light-induced immobilisation of biomolecules as an attractive alternative to microdroplet dispensing-based arraying technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crookshanks, Meg; Skovsen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Teresa Neves;

    2007-01-01

    of reproducibility. This technology can be used to circumvent the need for often expensive nano/microdispensing technologies. The ultimate size of the immobilised spots is defined by the focal area of the UV beam, which for a diffraction-limited beam can be less than 1 mm in diameter. LIMI has the added benefit...... to conventional array formats. The ultimate consequence of the LIMI is that it is possible to write complex protein patterns using bitmaps at high resolution onto substrates. Thus, LIMI of biomolecules provides a new technological platform for biomolecular immobilisation and the potential for replacing present...

  6. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several...... intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systematically review these programmes, with thedual aim of assessing their collective success in promoting...

  7. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste

  8. Superconducting Technology Assessment (NSA, Office of Corporate Assessments)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The government, and particularly NSA, has a continuing need for ever-increasing computational power. The Agency is concerned about projected limitations of...

  9. Technology assessments in transportation: survey of recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    A survey and an evaluation of recent studies of transportation systems done in a technology-assessment framework were undertaken as the basis for a detailed statement of work for a US Department of Energy technology assessment of transportation energy-conservation strategies. Several bibliographies were searched and numerous professionals in the field of technology assessment were contacted regarding current work. Detailed abstracts were prepared for studies judged to be sufficiently broad in coverage of impacts assessed, yet detailed in coverage of all or part of the nation's transportation systems. Some studies were rich in data but not comprehensive in their analytical approach; brief abstracts were prepared for these. An explanation of the criteria used to screen the studies, as well as abstracts of 37 reports, are provided in this compendium of transportation-technology-assessment literature.

  10. Improving GPR Surveys Productivity by Array Technology and Fully Automated Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Marco; Ercoli, Emanuele; Mazzucchelli, Paolo; Cottino, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    The realization of network infrastructures with lower environmental impact and the tendency to use digging technologies less invasive in terms of time and space of road occupation and restoration play a key-role in the development of communication networks. However, pre-existing buried utilities must be detected and located in the subsurface, to exploit the high productivity of modern digging apparatus. According to SUE quality level B+ both position and depth of subsurface utilities must be accurately estimated, demanding for 3D GPR surveys. In fact, the advantages of 3D GPR acquisitions (obtained either by multiple 2D recordings or by an antenna array) versus 2D acquisitions are well-known. Nonetheless, the amount of acquired data for such 3D acquisitions does not usually allow to complete processing and interpretation directly in field and in real-time, thus limiting the overall efficiency of the GPR acquisition. As an example, the "low impact mini-trench "technique (addressed in ITU - International Telecommunication Union - L.83 recommendation) requires that non-destructive mapping of buried services enhances its productivity to match the improvements of new digging equipment. Nowadays multi-antenna and multi-pass GPR acquisitions demand for new processing techniques that can obtain high quality subsurface images, taking full advantage of 3D data: the development of a fully automated and real-time 3D GPR processing system plays a key-role in overall optical network deployment profitability. Furthermore, currently available computing power suggests the feasibility of processing schemes that incorporate better focusing algorithms. A novel processing scheme, whose goal is the automated processing and detection of buried targets that can be applied in real-time to 3D GPR array systems, has been developed and fruitfully tested with two different GPR arrays (16 antennas, 900 MHz central frequency, and 34 antennas, 600 MHz central frequency). The proposed processing

  11. Using technology in assessing integrated science and mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    1995-03-01

    Drawing from current models, research, and science and mathematics education reform documents, this article first defines and/or delimits three broad domains of education: integrated school science and mathematics, assessment, and technology. Based upon this three-tiered discussion, a list of characteristics is then distilled to guide in the development of assessment for integrated school science and mathematics using technology. Two integrated school science and mathematics activities are provided to illustrate the alignment of instruction and assessment and the systematic integration of technology into both.

  12. The development of integrated safety assessment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of developing the integrated PSA methodology and computer codes, Level-1 and Level-2 PSA methodology and tools were reviewed and improved. The Level-1 PSA computer code package KIRAP was improved and released by the name of KIRAP Release 2.0 Several Human reliability analysis and common cause failure analysis methods was reviewed and compared. For the development of Level-2 PSA computer code, several level-1 and Level-2 interface methods and containment event tree development methods were reviewed and compared. And the new technology such as artificial intelligence was reviewed if the technology can be applied to the development of PSA methodology.(Author)

  13. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  14. Biomedical Technology Assessment The 3Q Method

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurt, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating biomedical technology poses a significant challenge in light of the complexity and rate of introduction in today's healthcare delivery system. Successful evaluation requires an integration of clinical medicine, science, finance, and market analysis. Little guidance, however, exists for those who must conduct comprehensive technology evaluations. The 3Q Method meets these present day needs. The 3Q Method is organized around 3 key questions dealing with 1) clinical and scientific basis, 2) financial fit and 3) strategic and expertise fit. Both healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals) an

  15. Technology development risk assessment and mixed interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work is to demonstrate by means of a critical analysis of the state-of-the-art in technological and environmental risk analysis and decision making, that risk and environmental management decisions involve heterogeneous groups of social actors, each representing conflicting interests. It is argued that risk analyses should therefore be based on social interaction and communication paradigma, as well as, on a new rational way of thinking concerning the optimum choice of suitable technological development strategies leading towards a publicly acceptable balance between national energy-economic strategic necessities and social and individual perception of risk

  16. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  17. Technology and public policy: The process of technology assessment in the federal government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, V. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a descriptive and analytical review of the concept of technology assessment and the current status of its applications in the work of the federal executive agencies. The origin of the term technology assessment was examined along with a brief history of its discussion and development since 1966 and some of the factors influencing that development.

  18. 20 Years of Technology and Language Assessment in "Language Learning & Technology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Carol A.; Voss, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This review article provides an analysis of the research from the last two decades on the theme of technology and second language assessment. Based on an examination of the assessment scholarship published in "Language Learning & Technology" since its launch in 1997, we analyzed the review articles, research articles, book reviews,…

  19. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  20. Fabrication of corner cube array retro-reflective structure with DLP-based 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the fabrication of a corner cube array retro-reflective structure is presented by using DLP-based 3D printing technology. In this additive manufacturing technology a pattern of a cube corner array is designed in a computer and sliced with specific software. The image of each slice is then projected from the bottom side of a reservoir, containing UV cure resin, utilizing a DLP video projector. The projected area is cured and attached to a base plate. This process is repeated until the entire part is made. The best orientation of the printing process and the effect of layer thicknesses on the surface finish of the cube has been investigated. The thermal reflow surface finishing and replication with soft molding has also been presented in this article.

  1. Assessing Pulsar Timing Array Sensitivity to Gravitational Wave Bursts with Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Madison, D R; Chatterjee, S

    2014-01-01

    Highly energetic astrophysical phenomena like supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) mergers are predicted to emit prodigious amounts of gravitational waves (GWs). An anticipated component of the gravitational waveform known as "memory" is permanent and non-oscillatory. For SMBHB mergers, the memory is created primarily during the most violent moments of the inspiral immediately preceding the final plunge and ring-down when the strongest gravitational fields are at work and the non-linearities of general relativity are most pronounced. The essentially time-domain nature of memory makes it forbiddingly difficult to detect with ground based GW detectors, leaving pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments as the most promising means by which it may be detected and studied. In this paper, we discuss how GW bursts with memory (BWMs) influence pulsar timing experiments and develop methods to assess how sensitive modern timing efforts are to such GW events. We discuss how PTA searches for BWMs can be used to constrain th...

  2. Evaluation of micro Electroretinograms Recorded with Multiple Electrode Array to Assess Focal Retinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Momo; Sunagawa, Genshiro A.; Kondo, Mineo; Takahashi, Masayo; Mandai, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) are used to objectively assess the mass function of the retina, whereas focal ERGs are used to evaluate the focal retinal function. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a multiple electrode array (MEA) system for recording ex vivo micro ERGs (mERGs) together with multiunit spike responses of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to assess focal retinal function in isolated mouse retinas. The a- and b-waves of the full-field ERGs were present in the mERG. The b-wave was blocked by L-AP4, an inhibitor of the mGluR6 receptor, and the OFF-component was blocked by exposure to PDA, an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, with a corresponding RGC responses. mERGs were also recorded from mice with progressive retinal degeneration, the C57BL/6J-Pde6brd1-2J/J (rd1) mice, from which conventional full-field ERGs are non-recordable. A blockade of the glutamate receptors indicated that the negative wave of rd1 mice do not originate from the photoreceptors but from the second or third order neurons. This technique of recording mERGs will be useful in assessing the focal properties of the retinas obtained from eyes with pathology and also to follow the recovery of the physiology of the retina in regenerative studies. PMID:27480484

  3. Generating technology assessment. Phase I work plan, Task 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-15

    A plan of work outlining information to assess electric generating technologies is presented. Projections are made of realistic and understandable engineering and cost assessments of nonnuclear electrical generating technologies. A computer-based method of producing such engineering and cost estimates for use by EIA's Coal and Electric Power Analysis Division is to be developed and implemented. Technologies and processes to be assessed are: all nonnuclear conventional and nonconventional (coal gasification, advanced combustion turbines, atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, fuel cells, geothermal, solar thermal and photovoltaics, biomass conversion to electricity, ocean thermal, wind, and MHD). Engineering specifications recommended for determination are listed. Compatibility of the technologies are to be assessed with EIA models: MEFS, LEAP, and NCM.

  4. Optical Polarization Properties of Metal Nanowire Array Film Synthesized by Electrodeposition Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕萍; 史启祯; 吴振森; 王尧宇; 高胜利

    2005-01-01

    Metal nanowire array films were prepared by electrodepositing Cu, Ag, Ni, Co and Cu-Ag on porous anodic alumina film. Optical transmittance of both the porous anodic alumina film and metal nanowire array film was measured in the wavelength range of 400---2600 nm under an obliquely incident light. The experimental results show that metal nanowire array films exhibit a prominent polarization function. It was found that optical polarization properties can be improved by choosing suitable kinds of electrodepositing metal, controlling the shape and length of nanowire, and changing the incident angle.

  5. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material's decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting

  6. Gender and risk assessment in contraceptive technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammen, van Jessika; Oudshoorn, Nelly

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a comparison of risk assessment practices of contraceptives for women and men. Our analysis shows how the evaluation of health risks of contraceptives does not simply reflect the specific effects of chemical compounds in the human body. Rather, we show how side-effects were rated

  7. Highly Integrated Model Assessment Technology and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay-Dummer, Pablo; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Spector, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Effective and efficient measurement of the development of skill and knowledge, especially in domains of human activity that involve complex and challenging problems, is important with regard to workplace and academic performance. However, there has been little progress in the area of practical measurement and assessment, due in part to the lack of…

  8. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  9. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach

  10. Scenario drafting to anticipate future developments in technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retel, V.P.; Joore, M.A.; Rutgers, E.J.; Harten, van W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Health Technology Assessment (HTA) information, and in particular cost-effectiveness data is needed to guide decisions, preferably already in early stages of technological development. However, at that moment there is usually a high degree of uncertainty, because evidence is limited and d

  11. A Low Cost, Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Technology for Aviation Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will investigate the feasibility of utilizing ThinKom's low cost electronically scanned array (ESA) antenna concepts to enable affordable...

  12. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-07

    Wind power has become a mainstream power source in the U.S. electricity portfolio, supplying 4.9% of the nation’s electricity demand in 2014. With more than 65 GW installed across 39 states at the end of 2014, utility-scale wind power is a cost-effective source of low-emissions power generation throughout much of the nation. The United States has significant sustainable land-based and offshore wind resource potential, greater than 10 times current total U.S. electricity consumption. A technical wind resource assessment conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2009 estimated that the land-based wind energy potential for the contiguous United States is equivalent to 10,500 GW capacity at 80 meters (m) hub and 12,000 GW capacity at 100 meters (m) hub heights, assuming a capacity factor of at least 30%. A subsequent 2010 DOE report estimated the technical offshore wind energy potential to be 4,150 GW. The estimate was calculated from the total offshore area within 50 nautical miles of shore in areas where average annual wind speeds are at least 7 m per second at a hub height of 90 m.

  13. Technology assessment for Spaceship Two, space tourism, and private spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Randy

    A seven-step technology assessment was conducted to address questions regarding the significance and likely consequences associated with the introduction of Spaceship Two, space tourism, and private spaceflight. Impacts were assessed across four categories: the Role and Functions of Government, Private Industry Factors, Cultural and Societal Impacts, and the Time Frame in which these impacts were anticipated to occur. The technology assessment findings were compared to the results of expert interviews that addressed the sane four categories. The researcher noted that, while there was overwhelming agreement between the technology assessment's primary impacts and the expert interview responses, there were several differences. The technology assessment and interviewees agreed that the federal government would likely be both a regulator and user of private spaceflight. Both agreed that business partnerships would be key in pursuing private spaceflight. There was also consensus that, as market forces come to bear, ticket prices would drop and a larger market and broader passenger demographic would emerge. The technology assessment and experts agreed that an accident, especially one early in the industry's evolution, could be disastrous. Both agreed that private spaceflight can serve as a inspiration to students and be a positive influence in society, and both agreed that the start of passenger flights should take place in the 2010 - 2012 timeframe. Due to the potentially disastrous consequences of an accident, there was agreement between the technology assessment and experts on the value of flight and ground crew training, driven by insurance carriers and federal mandate. Most differences between the technology assessment's findings and the expert interview responses were due to omission, rather than direct disagreement. However, this was not the case in every instance. The most significant difference between the technology assessment and the experts involved the

  14. Three-dimensional Tip Electrode Array Technology for High Resolution Neuro-Electronic System used in Electrophysiological Experiments in-vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Joye, Neil; Lavagnino, Maurizio; Schmid, Alexandre; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional tip electrode array technology for in- vitro electrophysiological experiments is presented. Based on simulation results obtained with a finite element model of the neuron-electrode interface, it has been shown that the electrical coupling between the neural cells and the three-dimensional tip electrode array is improved compared to standard planar electrodes. Consequently, three dimensional microelectrode arrays (3D-MEAs) exhibiting a higher spatial resolution than ...

  15. Defining the "proven technology" technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia's nuclear power program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that "proven technology" is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for "proven technology" is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the "proven technology" term according to a specific country's requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of "proven technology" that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia's definition of "proven technology".

  16. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  17. Dosimetric performance and array assessment of plastic scintillation detectors for stereotactic radiosurgery quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the performance of plastic scintillation detectors (PSD) for quality assurance (QA) in stereotactic radiosurgery conditions to a microion-chamber (IC), Gafchromic EBT2 films, 60 008 shielded photon diode (SD) and unshielded diodes (UD), and assess a new 2D crosshair array prototype adapted to small field dosimetry. Methods: The PSD consists of a 1 mm diameter by 1 mm long scintillating fiber (BCF-60, Saint-Gobain, Inc.) coupled to a polymethyl-methacrylate optical fiber (Eska premier, Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Output factors (Sc,p) for apertures used in radiosurgery ranging from 4 to 40 mm in diameter have been measured. The PSD crosshair array (PSDCA) is a water equivalent device made up of 49 PSDs contained in a 1.63 cm radius area. Dose profiles measurements were taken for radiosurgery fields using the PSDCA and were compared to other dosimeters. Moreover, a typical stereotactic radiosurgery treatment using four noncoplanar arcs was delivered on a spherical phantom in which UD, IC, or PSD was placed. Using the Xknife planning system (Integra Radionics Burlington, MA), 15 Gy was prescribed at the isocenter, where each detector was positioned. Results: Output Factors measured by the PSD have a mean difference of 1.3% with Gafchromic EBT2 when normalized to a 10 x 10 cm2 field, and 1.0% when compared with UD measurements normalized to the 35 mm diameter cone. Dose profiles taken with the PSD crosshair array agreed with other single detectors dose profiles in spite of the presence of the 49 PSDs. Gamma values comparing 1D dose profiles obtained with PSD crosshair array with Gafchromic EBT2 and UD measured profiles shows 98.3% and 100.0%, respectively, of detector passing the gamma acceptance criteria of 0.3 mm and 2%. The dose measured by the PSD for a complete stereotactic radiosurgery treatment is comparable to the planned dose corrected for its SD-based Sc,p within 1.4% and 0.7% for 5 and 35 mm diameter cone, respectively

  18. Problems of method of technology assessment. A methodological analysis; Methodenprobleme des Technology Assessment; Eine methodologische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, V.

    1993-03-01

    The study undertakes to analyse the theoretical and methodological structure of Technology Assessment (TA). It is based on a survey of TA studies which provided an important condition for theoreticall sound statements on methodological aspects of TA. It was established that the main basic theoretical problems of TA are in the field of dealing with complexity. This is also apparent in the constitution of problems, the most elementary and central approach of TA. Scientifically founded constitution of problems and the corresponding construction of models call for interdisciplinary scientific work. Interdisciplinarity in the TA research process is achieved at the level of virtual networks, these networks being composed of individuals suited to teamwork. The emerging network structures have an objective-organizational and an ideational basis. The objective-organizational basis is mainly the result of team composition and the external affiliations of the team members. The ideational basis of the virtual network is represented by the team members` mode of thinking, which is individually located at a multidisciplinary level. The theoretical `skeleton` of the TA knowledge system, which is represented by process knowledge based linkage structures, can be generated and also processed in connection with the knowledge on types of problems, areas of analysis and procedures to deal with complexity. Within this process, disciplinary knowledge is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Metatheoretical and metadisciplinary knowledge and the correspondingly processes complexity of models are the basis for the necessary methodological awareness, that allows TA to become designable as a research procedure. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die Studie stellt sich die Aufgabe, die theoretische und methodische Struktur des Technology Assessment (TA) zu analysieren. Sie fusst auf Erhebungen, die bei Technology-Assessment-Studien vorgenommen wurden und die wesentliche Voraussetzungen fuer

  19. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified

  20. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  1. Technologies for Interactive Learning and Assessment Content Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Marjan; Ristov, Sasko; Armenski, Goce

    2016-01-01

    Recent technology trends evolved the student assessment from traditional ones ("pen-and-paper" and "face-to-face") to modern e-Assessment system. These modern approaches allow the teachers to conduct and evaluate an exam with huge number of students in a short period of time. Even more important, both the teacher and the…

  2. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  3. Utilisation of medical technology assessment in health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, WJA; Wieringh, R; van den Heuvel, LPM

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of medical technology assessment (MTA) to health policy decision making, the question has to be answered whether MTA is actually being used in decision-making processes and what factors are related to its utilisation. Design: We investigated recent Dutch policy

  4. Noninvasive imaging technologies for cutaneous wound assessment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dereck W; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    The ability to phenotype wounds for the purposes of assessing severity, healing potential and treatment is an important function of evidence-based medicine. A variety of optical technologies are currently in development for noninvasive wound assessment. To varying extents, these optical technologies have the potential to supplement traditional clinical wound evaluation and research, by providing detailed information regarding skin components imperceptible to visual inspection. These assessments are achieved through quantitative optical analysis of tissue characteristics including blood flow, collagen remodeling, hemoglobin content, inflammation, temperature, vascular structure, and water content. Technologies that have, to this date, been applied to wound assessment include: near infrared imaging, thermal imaging, optical coherence tomography, orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, fluorescence imaging, laser Doppler imaging, microscopy, spatial frequency domain imaging, photoacoustic detection, and spectral/hyperspectral imaging. We present a review of the technologies in use or development for these purposes with three aims: (1) providing basic explanations of imaging technology concepts, (2) reviewing the wound imaging literature, and (3) providing insight into areas for further application and exploration. Noninvasive imaging is a promising advancement in wound assessment and all technologies require further validation.

  5. Research of improved sparse grid non-uniformity correction technologies for infrared resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-jie; Zhao, Hong-ming; Gao, Yang; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Infrared resistor arrays perform a vital role in the hardware in the loop testing of infrared seekers. Infrared resistor arrays composed of large numbers of suspended resistor elements are commonly used to produce dynamic two-dimensional images of infrared radiation. Due to inconsistencies in the fabrication process of the resistor arrays, the temperature each resistor elements reaches for a given input voltage is variable and this leads to more significant radiance differences, these differences result in spatially-distributed radiance non-uniformity. Therefore, in order to obtain an available infrared image, non-uniformity correction (NUC) is necessary. In this paper, the non-uniformity characters of the infrared resistor arrays are analyzed base on measured data and then an improved sparse grid method for engineering are discussed and analyzed. First of all, the NUC camera has a strong influence on the effectiveness of the infrared resistor arrays NUC procedure. According to the actual fact and the laboratory condition, we presented an alternative method for collecting resistor arrays intended to reduce the influence causing by the NUC camera. Secondly, based on the measured non-uniformity data, we obtain the response characteristics of the infrared resistor arrays. In each gray level, we take two points or several points correction algorithm to calculate the gain data and the offset data, and then the linear look-up table is established. Finally, through MATLAB we develop the correction software, and we can obtain the driving output conveniently. The result shows that the image quality has a remarkable improvement after non-uniformity correction, the non-uniformity correction flow and algorithm preferably satisfies the requirement of the high confidence infrared imaging simulation.

  6. Emerging frontier technologies for food safety analysis and risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yi-yang; LIU Jia-hui; WANG Sai; CHEN Qi-long; GUO Tian-yang; ZHANG Li-ya; JIN Yong; SU Hai-jia; TAN Tian-wei

    2015-01-01

    Access to security and safe food is a basic human necessity and essential for a sustainable world. To perform hi-end food safety analysis and risk assessment with state of the art technologies is of utmost importance thereof. With applications as exempliifed by microlfuidic immunoassay, aptasensor, direct analysis in real time, high resolution mass spectrometry, benchmark dose and chemical speciifc adjustment factor, this review presents frontier food safety analysis and risk assess-ment technologies, from which both food quality and public health wil beneift undoubtedly in a foreseeable future.

  7. Thermionic conversion reactor technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The in-core thermionic space nuclear power supply may be the only identified reactor-power concept that can meet the SP-100 size functional requirements with demonstrated state-of-the-art reactor system and space-qualified power system component temperatures. The SP-100 configuration limits provide a net 40 m/sup 2/ of primary non-deployed radiator area. If a reasonable 7-year degradation allowance of 15% to 20% is provided then the beginning of life (BOL) net power output requirement is about 120 kWe. Consequently, the SP-100 power system must produce a P/A of 2.7 kWe/m/sup 2/. This non-deployed radiator area power density performance can only be reasonably achieved by the thermionic in-core convertr system, the potassium Rankine turbine system and the Stirling engine system. The purpose of this study is to examine past and current tests and data, and to assess the potential for successful development of suitable fueled-thermionic converters that will meet SP-100 and growth requirements. The basis for the assessment will be provided and the recommended key developments plan set forth.

  8. Thermionic conversion reactor technology assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-core thermionic space nuclear power supply may be the only identified reactor-power concept that can meet the SP-100 size functional requirements with demonstrated state-of-the-art reactor system and space-qualified power system component temperatures. The SP-100 configuration limits provide a net 40 m2 of primary non-deployed radiator area. If a reasonable 7-year degradation allowance of 15% to 20% is provided then the beginning of life (BOL) net power output requirement is about 120 kWe. Consequently, the SP-100 power system must produce a P/A of 2.7 kWe/m2. This non-deployed radiator area power density performance can only be reasonably achieved by the thermionic in-core convertr system, the potassium Rankine turbine system and the Stirling engine system. The purpose of this study is to examine past and current tests and data, and to assess the potential for successful development of suitable fueled-thermionic converters that will meet SP-100 and growth requirements. The basis for the assessment will be provided and the recommended key developments plan set forth

  9. New Modes of Constructive Technology Assessment for Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David; Remmen, Arne

    of transformation or co-creation in a movement from one context to another, i.e. from the North to South. The question here is how to affect a proactive intake of relevant knowledge in decision-making in a technological innovation process so as to increase the likelihood of developing sustainable solutions. A co...... by a product or process in a developing country. On the other hand are those who design, develop and promote the technological solution. If the latter group is to follow the call for proactively taking in socio-cultural and user knowledge, what methods may be employed? This paper revisits the literature....... Technology assessment helps assess the potential positive or negative impacts following in the wake of introducing a new technology of any conceivable type. It has an overall philosophy of reducing the cost of learning in society’s handling of new technologies, anticipating impacts and feeding these insights...

  10. Non-destructive evaluation of adhesive layer using a planar array capacitive imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyan; Zhao, Limei; Wen, Yintang; Sun, Dongtao

    2016-04-01

    The thermal protection materials for aircraft are usually assembled on the substrate surface by means of adhesion agent. It is very necessary to evaluate the interface bonding quality which has great influence on heat preservation performance. At present, there is still no relatively satisfactory and reliable method for defect detection of cohesive coating. Planar array electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a suitable non-invasive imaging technique when there is only limited access to the targeted object. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of using planar array electrical capacitive tomography for bondline defect detection. In this paper, a planar array ECT system is developed consist of a planar array sensor of 12 electrodes, a capacitance acquisition system and image reconstruction software. The sensor development, simulation of sensitivity map, practical application and imaging reconstruction are discussed. A series of specimens of thermal protection material with man-made defects are tested by the proposed planar array ECT system. The experimental results show that the defect in cohesive coating can be effectively detected and the minimum size can be detected is 10mm×10mm.

  11. Health Technology Assessment of Integrated Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Background: The fragmented delivery of healthcare and social services as advanced by WHO 2002. Objectives: This project of international collaboration assesses integrated home care (IHC) for frail elder somatic patients as compared to usual hospital care. Methods: The HTA follows the special......-up: Stroke: A meta-analysis including 14 randomized trials (N=2139) demonstrate a significant reduction (pcare with OR=0.75 (CI95%: 0.61-0.92). HF: 3 RCT (N=568) demonstrate each a significant reduction of all-cause readmissions. A meta...... with a minimum of national legislation/finance (Meso-strategy of dissemination). Implications: IHC is an approach to clinical continuity for a majority of frail elder somatic patients....

  12. ASSESSING UST CORRECTIVE ACTION TECHNOLOGIES: SITE ASSESSMENT AND SELECTION OF UNSATURATED ZONE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology is presented for evaluating the likely effectiveness of five soil treatment technologies at sites where petroleum products have contaminated the unsaturated zone. he five soil treatment technologies are: soil venting, biorestoration, soil flushing, hydraulic barrier...

  13. Reactor technology assessment and selection utilizing systems engineering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkaffly, Muhammed Zulfakar; Han, Ki-In

    2014-02-01

    The first Nuclear power plant (NPP) deployment in a country is a complex process that needs to consider technical, economic and financial aspects along with other aspects like public acceptance. Increased interest in the deployment of new NPPs, both among newcomer countries and those with expanding programs, necessitates the selection of reactor technology among commercially available technologies. This paper reviews the Systems Decision Process (SDP) of Systems Engineering and applies it in selecting the most appropriate reactor technology for the deployment in Malaysia. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in the SDP are explored to perform reactor technology assessment and to select the most feasible technology whose design has also to comply with the IAEA standard requirements and other relevant requirements that have been established in this study. A quick Malaysian case study result suggests that the country reside with PWR (pressurized water reactor) technologies with more detailed study to be performed in the future for the selection of the most appropriate reactor technology for Malaysia. The demonstrated technology assessment also proposes an alternative method to systematically and quantitatively select the most appropriate reactor technology.

  14. Time delay and integration array (TDI) using charge transfer device technology. Phase 2, volume 1: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The 20x9 TDI array was developed to meet the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Requirements. This array is based upon a self-aligned, transparent gate, buried channel process. The process features: (1) buried channel, four phase, overlapping gate CCD's for high transfer efficiency without fat zero; (2) self-aligned transistors to minimize clock feedthrough and parasitic capacitance; and (3) transparent tin oxide electrode for high quantum efficiency with front surface irradiation. The requirements placed on the array and the performance achieved are summarized. This data is the result of flat field measurements only, no imaging or dynamic target measurements were made during this program. Measurements were performed with two different test stands. The bench test equipment fabricated for this program operated at the 8 micro sec line time and employed simple sampling of the gated MOSFET output video signal. The second stand employed Correlated Doubled Sampling (CDS) and operated at 79.2 micro sec line time.

  15. Nanoprobe NAPPA Arrays for the Nanoconductimetric Analysis of Ultra-Low-Volume Protein Samples Using Piezoelectric Liquid Dispensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pechkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the evolution and the advances of the nanobiotechnologies applied to the systematic study of proteins, namely proteomics, both structural and functional, and specifically the development of more sophisticated and largescale protein arrays, have enabled scientists to investigate protein interactions and functions with an unforeseeable precision and wealth of details. Here, we present a further advancement of our previously introduced and described Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA-based nanoconductometric sensor. We coupled Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation factor Monitoring (QCM_D with piezoelectric inkjet printing technology (namely, the newly developed ActivePipette, which enables to significantly reduce the volume of probe required for genes/proteins arrays. We performed a negative control (with master mix, or MM and a positive control (MM_p53 plus MDM2. We performed this experiment both in static and in flow, computing the apparent dissociation constant of p53-MDM2 complex (130 nM, in excellent agreement with the published literature. We compared the results obtained with the ActivePipette printing and dispensing technology vs. pin spotting. Without the ActivePipette, after MDM2 addition the shift in frequency (Δf was 7575 Hz and the corresponding adsorbed mass was 32.9 μg. With the ActivePipette technology, after MDM2 addition Δf was 7740 Hz and the corresponding adsorbed mass was 33.6 μg. With this experiment, we confirmed the sensing potential of our device, being able to discriminate each gene and protein as well as their interactions, showing for each one of them a unique conductance curve. Moreover, we obtained a better yield with the ActivePipette technology.

  16. Integration of lateral flow and micro array technologies for multiplex immunoassay: application to the determination of drugs of abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a lateral flow micro array that combines multi-spot immunochip technology and immunochromatography. It can serve as a tool for the simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. The test zone of the nitrocellulose support comprises a micro array spotted with up to 32 antigens that can capture labeled gold-antibodies after lateral flow. The detection limits and detectable concentration ranges of the assay were characterized. The method was applied to the determination of drugs of abuse (and their metabolites) in urine, specifically of morphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and benzoylecgonine. The assay format is rapid (10 min), and has both a low relative standard deviation (-1 for drugs of abuse) are comparable to those of conventional single-analyte strip methods. (author)

  17. Remote assessment of cultural heritage environments with wireless sensor array networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbota, Henoc; Mitchell, John E; Odlyha, Marianne; Strlič, Matija

    2014-01-01

    The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn) and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported.

  18. Remote assessment of cultural heritage environments with wireless sensor array networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbota, Henoc; Mitchell, John E; Odlyha, Marianne; Strlič, Matija

    2014-01-01

    The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn) and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported. PMID:24854056

  19. Integrated assessment of emerging science and technologies as creating learning processes among assessment communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Ribeiro, Barbara; Heyen, Nils B; Nielsen, Rasmus Øjvind; Thorstensen, Erik; de Bakker, Erik; Klüver, Lars; Reiss, Thomas; Beekman, Volkert; Millar, Kate

    2016-12-01

    Emerging science and technologies are often characterised by complexity, uncertainty and controversy. Regulation and governance of such scientific and technological developments needs to build on knowledge and evidence that reflect this complicated situation. This insight is sometimes formulated as a call for integrated assessment of emerging science and technologies, and such a call is analysed in this article. The article addresses two overall questions. The first is: to what extent are emerging science and technologies currently assessed in an integrated way. The second is: if there appears to be a need for further integration, what should such integration consist in? In the article we briefly outline the pedigree of the term 'integrated assessment' and present a number of interpretations of the concept that are useful for informing current analyses and discussions of integration in assessment. Based on four case studies of assessment of emerging science and technologies, studies of assessment traditions, literature analysis and dialogues with assessment professionals, currently under-developed integration dimensions are identified. It is suggested how these dimensions can be addressed in a practical approach to assessment where representatives of different assessment communities and stakeholders are involved. We call this approach the Trans Domain Technology Evaluation Process (TranSTEP). PMID:27465504

  20. Technology assessment - a workable way out of the 'risk society'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of concrete experience and results in the risk assessment process concerning nuclear technology in the Federal Republic of Germany it becomes apparent that technology asessment can make a contribution towards the required technology domestication. The 'risk management' of the circle of nuclear power generators and the consulting and licensing bodies having failed, a new phase of technology assessment began in 1970, whereby proponents and opponents of nuclear energy had a say. Parallel research on the safety of light water reactors and fast breeders gave valuable insight into the danger potential of nuclear energy while the latent risk of technology assessment misuse became apparent in the decision-finding process concerning the problem of radioactive waste management. In the end it were the Enquete Commission 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the German Bundestag and the studies on social agreeability of energy supply systems which resulted in the perspective of a future without the use of nuclear power being a realistic option. The general findings of technology assessment, e.g. the cognition that there can be no scientific decision in favour of assuming responsibility for nuclear energy, opens up new views and possibilities for acting for the decision-makers in the field of energy policy. (orig./HSCH)

  1. How to make participatory technology assessment in agriculture more 'participatory'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    the cultivation of new GM plants in Denmark. Furthermore, through this illustration, the term Participatory Technology Assessment (PTA) is redefined, thereby suggesting two additional aspects to assessing new technologies – following and evaluating policy making – to be considered in the conduct of......This paper suggests a framework, based on Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH), to guide the organisation and management of expert-facilitated and participatory processes that allow for stakeholders' different interests, concerns, and values to be included in the assessment and policy making of GM...... plants. The framework is particularly useful for stakeholders, such as governments, foundations, and researchers, who attempt to facilitate inclusive and democratic processes to assess GM plants. The use of the framework is illustrated by evaluating the report from a citizen jury carried out to assess...

  2. 传声器阵列校准技术研究%Calibration technology of microphone array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元首; 陈宝; 张雪; 姜涛

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise is usually broadband noise. The designed array needs to satisfy the measurement require⁃ments of both high and low frequency signals. The corresponding array form is designed when the frequency range of array mea⁃surement is determined. The noise source localization technology based on microphone array is the core test technique in the wind tunnel aerodynamic noise test technology. The accuracy of noise source localization depends mainly on the microphone ar⁃ray calibration technique. After the microphone phase array is installed,different frequency response and sensitivity,preamplifier, cable laying,power supply,frequency response of signal conditioner and the installation of microphone array can cause the phase difference and amplitude difference among all measurement channels in the data acquisition system. Correction of phase difference and amplitude difference of microphones can make all the microphone frequency responses consistent and ensure the accuracy of test result.%气动噪声通常为宽频噪声,设计的阵列需要同时满足对高低频信号的测量需求,在确定了阵列测量频率范围的情况下,设计相应的阵列形式。在风洞气动噪声试验技术中,基于传声器阵列的噪声源定位技术是核心试验技术,噪声源定位的精准度主要取决于传声器阵列校准技术。传声器相位阵列安装之后,由于传声器频率响应和灵敏度不同,前置放大器、电缆的铺设、电源和信号调理器的频率响应以及传声器在阵列中的安装影响,会引起数据采集系统各测量通道间固有的相位差和幅值差。修正传声器的相位差和幅值差使得所有的传声器幅频响应一致,保证试验结果的准度。

  3. Adaptation of the Biolog Phenotype MicroArrayTM Technology to Profile the Obligate Anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyner, Dominique; Fortney, Julian; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry

    2010-05-17

    The Biolog OmniLog? Phenotype MicroArray (PM) plate technology was successfully adapted to generate a select phenotypic profile of the strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens (G.m.). The profile generated for G.m. provides insight into the chemical sensitivity of the organism as well as some of its metabolic capabilities when grown with a basal medium containing acetate and Fe(III). The PM technology was developed for aerobic organisms. The reduction of a tetrazolium dye by the test organism represents metabolic activity on the array which is detected and measured by the OmniLog(R) system. We have previously adapted the technology for the anaerobic sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. In this work, we have taken the technology a step further by adapting it for the iron reducing obligate anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens. In an osmotic stress microarray it was determined that the organism has higher sensitivity to impermeable solutes 3-6percent KCl and 2-5percent NaNO3 that result in osmotic stress by osmosis to the cell than to permeable non-ionic solutes represented by 5-20percent ethylene glycol and 2-3percent urea. The osmotic stress microarray also includes an array of osmoprotectants and precursor molecules that were screened to identify substrates that would provide osmotic protection to NaCl stress. None of the substrates tested conferred resistance to elevated concentrations of salt. Verification studies in which G.m. was grown in defined medium amended with 100mM NaCl (MIC) and the common osmoprotectants betaine, glycine and proline supported the PM findings. Further verification was done by analysis of transcriptomic profiles of G.m. grown under 100mM NaCl stress that revealed up-regulation of genes related to degradation rather than accumulation of the above-mentioned osmoprotectants. The phenotypic profile, supported by additional analysis indicates that the accumulation of these osmoprotectants as a response to salt stress does not

  4. Genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Isolated from Serum Using Sequenom MassARRAY Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess V Clendenen

    Full Text Available Large epidemiologic studies have the potential to make valuable contributions to the assessment of gene-environment interactions because they prospectively collected detailed exposure data. Some of these studies, however, have only serum or plasma samples as a low quantity source of DNA.We examined whether DNA isolated from serum can be used to reliably and accurately genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using Sequenom multiplex SNP genotyping technology. We genotyped 81 SNPs using samples from 158 participants in the NYU Women's Health Study. Each participant had DNA from serum and at least one paired DNA sample isolated from a high quality source of DNA, i.e. clots and/or cell precipitates, for comparison.We observed that 60 of the 81 SNPs (74% had high call frequencies (≥95% using DNA from serum, only slightly lower than the 85% of SNPs with high call frequencies in DNA from clots or cell precipitates. Of the 57 SNPs with high call frequencies for serum, clot, and cell precipitate DNA, 54 (95% had highly concordant (>98% genotype calls across all three sample types. High purity was not a critical factor to successful genotyping.Our results suggest that this multiplex SNP genotyping method can be used reliably on DNA from serum in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  5. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindra, Navin [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bkdubey@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dutta, Animesh [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  6. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  7. Theoretical Assessment of Technological Potential of Magnetic and Electrical Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Karmazin, V. V.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic, electrical an combined methods of mineral beneficiation are widely used in various branches of mining industry. These processes have significant economic and ecological advantages in those areas where they can be applied technologically. It is thus necessary to analyse technological possibilities and areas of potential applications. Different designs of the separators must also be considered. Such an attempt is being done in this article based on the assessment of the level of diffe...

  8. Technology Assessment Tool - An Application of Systems Engineering to USDOE Technology Proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rynearson, Michael Ardel

    1999-06-01

    This paper discusses the system design for a Technology Assessment (TA) tool that can be used to quantitatively evaluate new and advanced technologies, products, or processes. Key features of the tool include organization of information in an indentured hierarchy; questions and categories derived from the decomposition of technology performance; segregation of life-cycle issues into six assessment categories; and scoring, relative impact, and sensitivity analysis capability. An advantage of the tool's use is its ability to provide decision analysis data, based on incomplete or complete data.

  9. Technology Assessment Tool - An Application of Systems Engineering to USDOE Technology Proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Rynearson

    1999-06-01

    This paper discusses the system design of a Technology Assessment (TA) tool that can be used to quantitatively evaluate new and advanced technologies, products, or processes. Key features of the tool include organization of information in an indentured hierarchy; questions and categories derived from the decomposition of technology performance; segregation of life-cycle issues into six assessment categories; and scoring, relative impact, and sensitivity analysis capability. An advantage of the tool's use is its ability to provide decision analysis data, based on incomplete or complete data.

  10. The conceptual and practical challenges to technology categorisation in the preparation of technology needs assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2015-01-01

    the technology focus in the project, practice shows that the questions of what a technology is and how the key concepts of technology transfer and diffusion should be understood and operationalized remain diffuse. This paper explores the reasons for this by analysing the experience of the TNA project in using......The strong focus in climate negotiations on the transfer and diffusion of technologies as ameans to mitigate and adapt to climate change has entailed various programs to promote the transfer and diffusion of climate technologies, including the Technology Needs Assessment project (TNA). Despite...... be misleading. We therefore call for an increased focus on clarifying the technology concept in the training for the next generation of TNAs....

  11. Technology readiness and risk assessments: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-11-01

    Systems that depend upon the application of new technologies inevitably face three major challenges during development: performance, schedule and budget. Technology research and development (R&D) programs are typically advocated based on argument that these investments will substantially reduce the uncertainty in all three of these dimensions of project management. However, if early R&D is implemented poorly, then the new system developments that plan to employ the resulting advanced technologies will suffer from cost overruns, schedule delays and the steady erosion of initial performance objectives. It is often critical for senior management to be able to determine which of these two paths is more likely—and to respond accordingly. The challenge for system and technology managers is to be able to make clear, well-documented assessments of technology readiness and risks, and to do so at key points in the life cycle of the program. Several approaches have been used to evaluate technology maturity and risk in order to better anticipate later system development risks. The "technology readiness levels" (TRLs), developed by NASA, are one discipline-independent, programmatic figure of merit (FOM) that allows more effective assessment of, and communication regarding the maturity of new technologies. Another broadly used management tool is of the "risk matrix", which depends upon a graphical representation of uncertainty and consequences. However, for the most part these various methodologies have had no explicit interrelationship. This paper will examine past uses of current methods to improve R&D outcomes and will highlight some of the limitations that can arise. In this context, a new concept for the integration of the TRL methodology, and the concept of the "risk matrix" will be described. The paper will conclude with observations concerning prospective future directions for the important new concept of integrated "technology readiness and risk assessments".

  12. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  13. Technology Innovation Enabling Falls Risk Assessment in a Community Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Scanaill, Cliodhna; Garattini, Chiara; Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one in three people over the age of 65 will fall each year, resulting in significant financial, physical, and emotional cost on the individual, their family, and society. Currently, falls are managed using on-body sensors and alarm pendants to notify others when a falls event occurs. However these technologies do not prevent a fall from occurring. There is now a growing focus on falls risk assessment and preventative interventions. Falls risk is currently assessed in a clinical ...

  14. Development of macropore arrays in silicon and related technologies for X-ray imaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Badel, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Digital devices have started to replace photographic film inX-ray imaging applications. As compared to photographic films,these devices are more convenient to obtain images and tohandle, treat and store these images. The goal of the presentstudy is to develop macropore arrays and related silicontechnologies in order to fabricate X-ray imaging detectors formedical applications, and in particular for dentistry. Althougha few detectors are already available on the market, theirperformances, such...

  15. Generic technological platform for microfabricating silicon nitride micro- and nanopipette arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Guenat, Olivier T.; Generelli, Silvia; Dadras, Mohammad-Mehdi; Berdondini, L.; De Rooij, Nicolaas F; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the design and the characterization of batch fabricated SixNy micropipette arrays with diameters ranging from 6 µm down to 250 nm are described. The process used to fabricate the micromachined pipettes includes a deep reactive ion etching step, followed by the deposition of two successive layers, a thermal oxide layer and a low stress, low pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride layer, respectively. The diameter of the micropipettes could be modulated simply by choosi...

  16. The NICE ADHD health technology assessment: A review and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlander Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health technology assessments (HTAs by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE enjoy high levels of international attention. The present analysis addresses NICE's appraisal of methylphenidate, atomoxetine and dexamphetamine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents, published in March 2006. Methods A qualitative study of NICE Technology Appraisal No. 98 was done focusing on the >600-page technology assessment report, which aimed at evaluating ADHD treatment strategies by a clinical effectiveness review and an economic analysis using meta-analytical techniques and a cost-effectiveness model. Results The technology assessment was unable to differentiate between the various drugs in terms of efficacy, and its economic model was ultimately driven by cost differences. While the assessment concluded that the economic model "clearly identified an optimal treatment strategy" with first-line dexamphetamine, the NICE appraisal committee subsequently found it impossible to distinguish between the different strategies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. Analyzing the assessment reveals gaps and inconsistencies concerning data selection (ultimately relying on a small number of short-term studies only, data synthesis (pooling of heterogeneous study designs and clinical endpoints, and economic model structure (identifying double-counting of nonresponders as a likely source of bias, alongside further methodological anomalies. Conclusion Many conclusions of the NICE technology assessment rest on shaky grounds. There remains a need for a new, state-of-the-art systematic review of ADHD treatment strategies including economic evaluation, which ideally should address outcomes beyond children's health-related quality of life, such as long-term sequelae of the disorder and caregiver burden.

  17. Prioritising investments in health technology assessment: can we assess the potential value for money?

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Davies; Mike Drummond; Panos Papanikoloau

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to develop an economic prioritisation model to assist those involved in (i) the selection and prioritisation of health technology assessment topics and (ii) commissioning of HTA projects. The model used decision analytic techniques to estimate the expected costs and benefits of the health care interventions which were the focus of the HTA question(s) considered by the NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme in England. Initial estimation of the value for money of HTA was ...

  18. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  19. Incorporating the Technology Roadmap Uncertainties into the Project Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes two methods, Technology Roadmapping and Project Risk Assessment, which were used to identify and manage the technical risks relating to the treatment of sodium bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste treatment technology under consideration was Direct Vitrification. The primary objective of the Technology Roadmap is to identify technical data uncertainties for the technologies involved and to prioritize the testing or development studies to fill the data gaps. Similarly, project management's objective for a multi-million dollar construction project includes managing all the key risks in accordance to DOE O 413.3 - "Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets." In the early stages, the Project Risk Assessment is based upon a qualitative analysis for each risk's probability and consequence. In order to clearly prioritize the work to resolve the technical issues identified in the Technology Roadmap, the issues must be cross- referenced to the project's Risk Assessment. This will enable the project to get the best value for the cost to mitigate the risks.

  20. Incorporating the Technology Roadmap Uncertainties into the Project Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, B.E.

    2002-01-16

    This paper describes two methods, Technology Roadmapping and Project Risk Assessment, which were used to identify and manage the technical risks relating to the treatment of sodium bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste treatment technology under consideration was Direct Vitrification. The primary objective of the Technology Roadmap is to identify technical data uncertainties for the technologies involved and to prioritize the testing or development studies to fill the data gaps. Similarly, project management's objective for a multi-million dollar construction project includes managing all the key risks in accordance to DOE O 413.3 - ''Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.'' In the early stages, the Project Risk Assessment is based upon a qualitative analysis for each risk's probability and consequence. In order to clearly prioritize the work to resolve the technical issues identified in the Technology Roadmap, the issues must be cross- referenced to the project's Risk Assessment. This will enable the project to get the best value for the cost to mitigate the risks.

  1. Incorporating the Technology Roadmap Uncertainties into the Project Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two methods, Technology Roadmapping and Project Risk Assessment, which were used to identify and manage the technical risks relating to the treatment of sodium bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste treatment technology under consideration was Direct Vitrification. The primary objective of the Technology Roadmap is to identify technical data uncertainties for the technologies involved and to prioritize the testing or development studies to fill the data gaps. Similarly, project management's objective for a multi-million dollar construction project includes managing all the key risks in accordance to DOE O 413.3 - ''Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.'' In the early stages, the Project Risk Assessment is based upon a qualitative analysis for each risk's probability and consequence. In order to clearly prioritize the work to resolve the technical issues identified in the Technology Roadmap, the issues must be cross- referenced to the project's Risk Assessment. This will enable the project to get the best value for the cost to mitigate the risks

  2. Assessment, Technology and Democratic Education in the Age of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…

  3. Integrating ethics in health technology assessment: many ways to Rome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, B.; Oortwijn, W.; Lysdahl, K. Bakke; Refolo, P.; Sacchini, D.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Gerhardus, A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify and discuss appropriate approaches to integrate ethical inquiry in health technology assessment (HTA). METHODS: The key question is how ethics can be integrated in HTA. This is addressed in two steps: by investigating what it means to integrate ethic

  4. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected

  5. A Qualitative Approach to Assessing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Randall; Spickler, Donald; Bergner, Jennifer; Bardzell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Because technological pedagogical content knowledge is becoming an increasingly important construct in the field of teacher education, there is a need for assessment mechanisms that capture teachers' development of this portion of the knowledge base for teaching. The paper describes a proposal drawing on qualitative data produced during lesson…

  6. Mapping of health technology assessment in selected countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortwijn, W.; Broos, P.; Vondeling, H.; Banta, D.; Todorova, L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and apply an instrument to map the level of health technology assessment (HTA) development at country level in selected countries. We examined middle-income countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, and Russia) and countries we

  7. Reimbursement of pharmaceuticals: Reference pricing versus health technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Drummond (Michael); B. Jönsson (Bengt); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); T. Stargardt (Tom)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReference pricing and health technology assessment are policies commonly applied in order to obtain more value for money from pharmaceuticals. This study focussed on decisions about the initial price and reimbursement status of innovative drugs and discussed the consequences for market a

  8. Framework for dementia Quality of Life assessment with Assistive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for a Quality of Life (QOL) evaluation tool that is sensitive, flexible, computerized, and specific to assistive technology (AT) for dementia care. Using the appropriate evaluation tool serves to improve methodologies that are used for AT assessment...

  9. Information Technologies in the Assessment of Violations of Cognitive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly P. Omelchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about application of information technologies for an assessment of violations of cognitive functions at patients with diabetic and discirculatorencephalopathies. Results of the mathematical analysis of bioelectric activity of a brain of examinees are considered, the most significant factors reflecting existence of cognitive violations are revealed

  10. Readings in technology assessment. [in relation to social impact and the law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which reflect research in the following areas: development of the concept of technology assessment; institutionalization of technology assessment; the interface between law and technology assessment; and assessment case studies. Case studies include hazards of the medical use of X-rays, environmental noise effects in transportation planning, genetic technology, impact of underground coal mining, and aircraft/airport noise abatement.

  11. The Post-implementation Assessment of Advanced Technology Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Josef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient utilization of advanced manufacturing technology is usually seen as one of the crucial factors in achieving competitiveness on global markets. On the other hand, there are many problems associated with the advanced technology utilization. These problems could be related to the individual phases of the relevant project life cycle - starting from the early stages of AMT projects preparation and evaluation, through various problems related to the project implementation, its integration within the company environment, up to the issues related to the efficient utilization of the already deployed system. This paper focuses on the final stage of this processwhen the post-implementation assessment should be carried out in order to determine whether all initial expectations and objectives were met and whether all the originally promised benefits were delivered. Typical problems of technology benefits evaluation together with various methods, concepts as well as metrics used in the process of the assessment will be discussed here in particular.

  12. Assessment of technologies to meet a low carbon fuel standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sonia; Lutsey, Nicholas P; Parker, Nathan C

    2009-09-15

    California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) was designed to incentivize a diverse array of available strategies for reducing transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It provides strong incentives for fuels with lower GHG emissions, while explicitly requiring a 10% reduction in California's transportation fuel GHG intensity by 2020. This paper investigates the potential for cost-effective GHG reductions from electrification and expanded use of biofuels. The analysis indicates that fuel providers could meetthe standard using a portfolio approach that employs both biofuels and electricity, which would reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with the progress of cellulosic and battery technologies, feedstock prices, land availability, and the sustainability of the various compliance approaches. Our analysis is based on the details of California's development of an LCFS; however, this research approach could be generalizable to a national U.S. standard and to similar programs in Europe and Canada. PMID:19806719

  13. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of

  14. Assessment of an ultramicroelectrode array (UMEA) sensor for the determination of trace concentrations of heavy metals in water [online

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xudong

    2004-01-01

    The main objectives of this book are (i) to investigate the electrochemical behavior and the analytical performance of a novel ultramicroelectrode array (UMEA); (ii) to assess the analytical parameters of square-wave anodic stripping voltammetric measurements (SWASV) using the UMEA; and (iii) to estimate the potential of the UMEA in developing decentralised analytical equipments for the determination of trace concentrations of heavy metals in natural waters. Surface analytical techniques ...

  15. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.;

    2011-01-01

    contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...... identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health......The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the...

  16. Experimental demonstration of a multi-wavelength distributed feedback semiconductor laser array with an equivalent chirped grating profile based on the equivalent chirp technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangzhe; Zhang, Xia; Yao, Jianping

    2013-08-26

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first realization of a multi-wavelength distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser array with an equivalent chirped grating profile based on equivalent chirp technology. All the lasers in the laser array have an identical grating period with an equivalent chirped grating structure, which are realized by nonuniform sampling of the gratings. Different wavelengths are achieved by changing the sampling functions. A multi-wavelength DFB semiconductor laser array is fabricated and the lasing performance is evaluated. The results show that the equivalent chirp technology is an effective solution for monolithic integration of a multi-wavelength laser array with potential for large volume fabrication. PMID:24105542

  17. Research on pressure tactile sensing technology based on fiber Bragg grating array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinxue; Jiang, Qi; Huang, Yuanyang; Li, Yibin; Jia, Yuxi; Rong, Xuewen; Song, Rui; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    A pressure tactile sensor based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array is introduced in this paper, and the numerical simulation of its elastic body was implemented by finite element software (ANSYS). On the basis of simulation, fiber Bragg grating strings were implanted in flexible silicone to realize the sensor fabrication process, and a testing system was built. A series of calibration tests were done via the high precision universal press machine. The tactile sensor array perceived external pressure, which is demodulated by the fiber grating demodulation instrument, and three-dimension pictures were programmed to display visually the position and size. At the same time, a dynamic contact experiment of the sensor was conducted for simulating robot encountering other objects in the unknown environment. The experimental results show that the sensor has good linearity, repeatability, and has the good effect of dynamic response, and its pressure sensitivity was 0.03 nm/N. In addition, the sensor also has advantages of anti-electromagnetic interference, good flexibility, simple structure, low cost and so on, which is expected to be used in the wearable artificial skin in the future.

  18. Economical-environmental assessment on technologies producing electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the electric power industry is undergoing substantial regulatory and organizational change with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Under these circumstances, with utilization of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) concept, we consider the assessment of Technologies producing energy from financial and pollution viewpoint. AHP techniques is one of the efficient methods in analysis of complex and multi-criteria problems, which has plenty of applications. General pattern of this assessment has been introduced, and the main goal is determining of overall priority weights for each technology. With using this pattern, overall priority weights has been determined for thermal, combined cycle and Gas turbine plants. It has been cleared that relative priority of these plants will change, if relative priority of assessment criterions changes. For application of this approach, capital budgeting process and selection of some suitable technologies among the alternatives candidate for construction have been presented. In this process the objective is to maximize the sum of overall priority weights of technologies which have been identified from AHP. Constraints are about the construction budget and annual budget for emission allowances. This process is in the integer programming IP form an has been applied to three kind of power plants with reasonable assumptions

  19. Technology Innovation Enabling Falls Risk Assessment in a Community Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Scanaill, Cliodhna; Garattini, Chiara; Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Approximately one in three people over the age of 65 will fall each year, resulting in significant financial, physical, and emotional cost on the individual, their family, and society. Currently, falls are managed using on-body sensors and alarm pendants to notify others when a falls event occurs. However these technologies do not prevent a fall from occurring. There is now a growing focus on falls risk assessment and preventative interventions. Falls risk is currently assessed in a clinical setting by expert physiotherapists, geriatricians, or occupational therapists following the occurrence of an injurious fall. As the population ages, this reactive model of care will become increasingly unsatisfactory, and a proactive community-based prevention strategy will be required. Recent advances in technology can support this new model of care by enabling community-based practitioners to perform tests that previously required expensive technology or expert interpretation. Gait and balance impairment is one of the most common risk factors for falls. This paper reviews the current technical and non-technical gait and balance assessments, discusses how low-cost technology can be applied to objectively administer and interpret these tests in the community, and reports on recent research where body-worn sensors have been utilized. It also discusses the barriers to adoption in the community and proposes ethnographic research as a method to investigate solutions to these barriers. PMID:21660088

  20. Social and ethical analysis in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantivess, Sripen

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a review of the domestic and international literature on the assessment of the social and ethical implications of health technologies. It gives an overview of the key concepts, principles, and approaches that should be taken into account when conducting a social and ethical analysis within health technology assessment (HTA). Although there is growing consensus among healthcare experts that the social and ethical ramifications of a given technology should be examined before its adoption, the demand for this kind of analysis among policy-makers around the world, including in Thailand, has so far been lacking. Currently decision-makers mainly base technology adoption decisions using evidence on clinical effectiveness, value for money, and budget impact, while social and ethical aspects have been neglected. Despite the recognized importance of considering equity, justice, and social issues when making decisions regarding health resource allocation, the absence of internationally-accepted principles and methodologies, among other factors, hinders research in these areas. Given that developing internationally agreed standards takes time, it has been recommended that priority be given to defining processes that are justifiable, transparent, and contestable. A discussion of the current situation in Thailand concerning social and ethical analysis of health technologies is also presented. PMID:24964703

  1. Processes of technology assessment: The National Transportation Safety Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, E.

    1972-01-01

    The functions and operations of the Safety Board as related to technology assessment are described, and a brief history of the Safety Board is given. Recommendations made for safety in all areas of transportation and the actions taken are listed. Although accident investigation is an important aspect of NTSB's activity, it is felt that the greatest contribution is in pressing for development of better accident prevention programs. Efforts of the Safety Board in changing transportation technology to improve safety and prevent accidents are illustrated.

  2. The study of the life cycle of technology assessment model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu-Zhi; HUANG Xun-jiang

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of technology is one of the most important indexes to weigh up the risk of the investment to neo-tech. There are so many uncertainties because it is conditioned by a lot of factors, we can not make a rational forecasting by traditional assessment method. So this paper gives a conprehensive consideration to the factors that influence production and makes some modification to production function, and establishes the life cycle of technology assessmet model by the method of fuzzy mathematics. So it quantifies the risk of investment. We can take it as one foundational index for the decision making of the investment.

  3. ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

  4. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Navin; Dubey, Brajesh; Dutta, Animesh

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories.

  5. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  6. Michrohole Arrays Drilled with Advanced Abrasive Slurry Jet Technology to Efficiently Exploit Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth [Impact Technologies, Tulsa, OK (United States); Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Yingqi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, Parick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mohan, Ram [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Shoham, Ovadia [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Felber, Betty [Impact Technologies, Tulsa, OK (United States); Rychel, Dwight [Impact Technologies, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2014-03-12

    This project had two major areas of research for Engineered/ Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) development - 1) study the potential benefits from using microholes (i.e., bores with diameters less than 10.16 centimeters/ 4 inches) and 2) study FLASH ASJ to drill/ install those microbores between a well and a fracture system. This included the methods and benefits of drilling vertical microholes for exploring the EGS reservoir and for installing multiple (forming an array of) laterals/ directional microholes for creating the in-reservoir heat exchange flow paths. Significant benefit was found in utilizing small microbore sized connecting bores for EGS efficiency and project life. FLASH ASJ was deemed too complicated to optimally work in such deep reservoirs at this time.

  7. Bond quality control of aluminium stabilised superconductors with ultrasonic phased-array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel aluminium stabilised superconductors are currently being produced for the Large Hadron Collider detectors ATLAS and CMS. For a satisfying service of the conductor an intact bonding between the different constituents must be guaranteed. We have shown previously that ultrasonics is a powerful tool for checking the bond quality. However, up to now the full width of the bond could be inspected only on short samples with a mechanical scanner. The essence of this presentation is the introduction of the phased-array technique which allows a continuous analysis of the complete bond over km-long conductor units during their manufacture. For now, more than 50 km of conductor have been tested during co-extrusion. Disbondings are detected as regions with enhanced echo-amplitudes. We are about to set-up a second system for the control of an electron beam welding process which is used for the reinforcement of the CMS conductor. (orig.)

  8. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  9. Assessing the efficacy of vesicle fusion with planar membrane arrays using a mitochondrial porin as reporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila Justyna; Hansen, Jesper S.; Stibius, Karin B.;

    2011-01-01

    Reconstitution of functionally active membrane protein into artificially made lipid bilayers is a challenge that must be overcome to create a membrane-based biomimetic sensor and separation device. In this study we address the efficacy of proteoliposome fusion with planar membrane arrays. We...... reconstitution in biomimetic membrane arrays may be quantified using the developed FomA assay. Specifically, we show that FomA vesicles are inherently fusigenic. Optimal FomA incorporation is obtained with a proteoliposome lipid-to-protein molar ratio (LPR)=50 more than 105 FomA proteins could be incorporated...

  10. A Fast Tool for Assessing the Power Performance of Large WEC arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé

    In the present work, a tool for computing wave energy converter array hydrodynamic forces and power performance is developed. The tool leads to a significant reduction on computation time compared with standard boundary element method based codes while keeping similar levels of accuracy. This makes...... it suitable for array layout optimization, where large numbers of simulations are required. Furthermore, the tool is developed within an open-source environment such as Python 2.7 so that it is fully accessible to anyone willing to make use of it....

  11. International conference on comparative assessments of solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many regions in the world which lack fossil fuel resources but possess ample sunshine seek to identify near-term solar technologies capable of gradually replacing their fuel imports in cost-effective fashion. The conference addresses the following topics: technical and economical studies specifying their underlying basic assumption, methods and rules for evaluation in order to enable meaningful comparison between different technologies and systems. Detailed delineation of numerical and graphical representations, critical analysis and comparison between simulations, and test validity. Generalized performance indicators for systems and subsystems, problems of measuring and evaluating physical parameters, of terminology and conceptual tools for comparative evaluations. Advances in research development, engineering and field performance, including implications pertaining to comparative assessments and definitions of criteria and standards helpful to comparative evaluation. Assessments of the full (and hidden) cost of fossil energies as compared to solar, including environmental costs. Cost/benefit studies for remote versus centralized systems. (ed.)

  12. Fabrication of micro nickel/diamond abrasive pellet array lapping tools using a LIGA-like technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Yih; Yu, Tsung-Han; Hu, Yuh-Chung

    2007-06-01

    A manufacturing process of micro nickel/diamond abrasive pellet array lapping tools using a LIGA-like technology is reported here. The thickness of JSR THB-151N resist coated on an aluminum alloy substrate for micro lithography can reach up to 110 µm. During the lithography, different geometrical photomasks were used to create specific design patterns of the resist mold on the substrate. Micro roots, made by electrolytic machining on the substrate with guidance of the resist mold, can improve the adhesion of micro nickel abrasive pellets electroplated on the substrate. During the composite electroforming, the desired hardness of the nickel matrix inside the micro diamond abrasive pellets can be obtained by the addition of leveling and stress reducing agents. At moderate blade agitation and ultrasonic oscillation, higher concentration and more uniform dispersion of diamond powders deposited in the nickel matrix can be achieved. With these optimal experiment conditions of this fabrication process, the production of micro nickel/diamond abrasive pellet array lapping tools is demonstrated.

  13. Preliminary technology utilization assessment of the robotic fruit harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an analysis whose purpose was to examine the history and progress of mechanical fruit harvesting, to determine the significance of a robotic fruit tree harvester and to assess the available market for such a product are summarized. Background information that can be used in determining the benefit of a proof of principle demonstration is provided. Such a demonstration could be a major step toward the transfer of this NASA technology.

  14. Assessing the Application of Tissue Microarray Technology to Kidney Research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Su, Yinghao; Yao, Bing; Zheng, Wei; deCaestecker, Mark; Harris, Raymond C.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue microarray (TMA) is a new high-throughput method that enables simultaneous analysis of the profiles of protein expression in multiple tissue samples. TMA technology has not previously been adapted for physiological and pathophysiological studies of rodent kidneys. We have evaluated the validity and reliability of using TMA to assess protein expression in mouse and rat kidneys. A representative TMA block that we have produced included: (1) mouse and rat kidney cortex, outer medulla, and...

  15. Issues facing the Australian Health Technology Assessment Review of medical technology funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Susanne P

    2010-07-01

    The Australian Health Technology Assessment Review has the potential to have a major effect on the availability of new medical technology and the listing of associated medical procedures on the Medicare Benefits Schedule. Despite this, only about 15% of submissions to the Review came from "medical associations". Pharmaceutical and medical technologies are inherently different, and there are a number of difficulties associated with evaluating medical technology using the same process and evidence levels as those used for pharmaceuticals. The current sequential and lengthy processing of new medical technology and procedures is delaying access to beneficial medical technology and could be substantially reduced. There is currently no effective funding process for medical technology classified as capital equipment or consumables and disposables. This has created a perverse incentive in favour of using funded implantable prostheses based on access to funding rather than superior clinical effectiveness. The existing horizon scanning process could be better used to not only identify all potentially cost-effective new and emerging medical technology and procedures as early as possible, but also to identify gaps in the evidence. PMID:20618111

  16. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW.

  17. Teacher Learning of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, Ian D; Leonard, William J; Gerace, William J; Cyr, Karen St; Lee, Hyunju; Harris, Robby

    2008-01-01

    Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) is a pedagogy for teaching with classroom response technology. Teacher Learning of TEFA is a five-year research project studying teacher change, in the context of an intensive professional development program designed to help science and mathematics teachers learn TEFA. First, we provide an overview of the project's participating teachers, its intervention (consisting of the technology, the pedagogy, and the professional development program), and its research design. Then, we present narratives describing the unfolding change process experienced by four teachers. Afterward, we present some preliminary findings of the research, describe a "model for the co-evolution of teacher and pedagogy" that we are developing, and identify general implications for professional development.

  18. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW

  19. National Wind Technology Center sitewide, Golden, CO: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the nation`s primary solar and renewable energy research laboratory, proposes to expand its wind technology research and development program activities at its National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Golden, Colorado. NWTC is an existing wind energy research facility operated by NREL for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Proposed activities include the construction and reuse of buildings and facilities, installation of up to 20 wind turbine test sites, improvements in infrastructure, and subsequent research activities, technology testing, and site operations. In addition to wind turbine test activities, NWTC may be used to support other NREL program activities and small-scale demonstration projects. This document assesses potential consequences to resources within the physical, biological, and human environment, including potential impacts to: air quality, geology and soils, water resources, biological resources, cultural and historic resources, socioeconomic resources, land use, visual resources, noise environment, hazardous materials and waste management, and health and safety conditions. Comment letters were received from several agencies in response to the scoping and predecisional draft reviews. The comments have been incorporated as appropriate into the document with full text of the letters contained in the Appendices. Additionally, information from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site on going sitewide assessment of potential environmental impacts has been reviewed and discussed by representatives of both parties and incorporated into the document as appropriate.

  20. National Wind Technology Center sitewide, Golden, CO: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the nation's primary solar and renewable energy research laboratory, proposes to expand its wind technology research and development program activities at its National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Golden, Colorado. NWTC is an existing wind energy research facility operated by NREL for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Proposed activities include the construction and reuse of buildings and facilities, installation of up to 20 wind turbine test sites, improvements in infrastructure, and subsequent research activities, technology testing, and site operations. In addition to wind turbine test activities, NWTC may be used to support other NREL program activities and small-scale demonstration projects. This document assesses potential consequences to resources within the physical, biological, and human environment, including potential impacts to: air quality, geology and soils, water resources, biological resources, cultural and historic resources, socioeconomic resources, land use, visual resources, noise environment, hazardous materials and waste management, and health and safety conditions. Comment letters were received from several agencies in response to the scoping and predecisional draft reviews. The comments have been incorporated as appropriate into the document with full text of the letters contained in the Appendices. Additionally, information from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site on going sitewide assessment of potential environmental impacts has been reviewed and discussed by representatives of both parties and incorporated into the document as appropriate

  1. Health-care technology assessment: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Cyril

    2004-01-01

    Health technology assessment needs to relate to contemporary questions which concern public health-care systems: how to keep people healthy, how to focus on the needs of those with chronic disabilities and integrate care between the hospital and the community, how to encourage and audit effective teamwork, and how to establish a consensus about what is effective and affordable. Clinicians have an ethical responsibility to practice efficiently and economically, for profligacy in the care of one patient may mean that another is treated inadequately. For similar reasons, clinicians need to play a full role in the management of services. Advice from health technology assessment is vital and needs to be accurate, relevant, timely, clear, and accessible. As well as being concerned about what works, we need also to eliminate from practice what does not. Regular audit and appraisal of practice against the evidence base should be useful in this respect. Alternative approaches to management, such as the provision of care as opposed to aggressive treatments, need to be evaluated, and health technology assessment needs to consider how services are delivered, not just specific treatments. PMID:15176183

  2. Zero-emission vehicle technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T.

    1995-08-01

    This is the final report in the Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Technology Assessment, performed for NYSERDA by Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. Booz-Allen wrote the final report, and performed the following tasks as part of the assessment: assembled a database of key ZEV organizations, their products or services, and plans; described the current state of ZEV technologies; identified barriers to widespread ZEV deployment and projected future ZEV technical capabilities; and estimated the cost of ZEVs from 1998 to 2004. Data for the ZEV Technology Assessment were obtained from several sources, including the following: existing ZEV industry publications and Booz-Allen files; major automotive original equipment manufacturers; independent electric vehicle manufacturers; battery developers and manufacturers; infrastructure and component developers and manufacturers; the U.S. Department of Energy, the California Air Resources Board, and other concerned government agencies; trade associations such as the Electric Power Research Institute and the Electric Transportation Coalition; and public and private consortia. These sources were contacted by phone, mail, or in person. Some site visits of manufacturers also were conducted. Where possible, raw data were analyzed by Booz-Allen staff and/or verified by independent sources. Performance data from standardized test cycles were used as much as possible.

  3. Arraying prostate specific antigen PSA and Fab anti-PSA using light-assisted molecular immobilization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parracino, Antonietta; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; di Gennaro, Ane Kold; Pettersson, Kim; Lövgren, Timo; Petersen, Steffen B

    2010-01-01

    We here report for the first time the creation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Fab anti-PSA biosensor arrays using UV light-assisted molecular immobilization (LAMI), aiming at the detection and quantification of PSA, a cancer marker. The technology involves formation of free, reactive thiol groups upon UV excitation of protein aromatic residues located in spatial proximity of disulphide bridges, a conserved structural feature in both PSA and Fab molecules. The created thiol groups bind onto thiol reactive surfaces leading to oriented covalent protein immobilization. Protein activity was confirmed carrying out immunoassays: immobilized PSA was recognized by Fab anti-PSA in solution and immobilized Fab anti-PSA cross-reacted with PSA in solution. LAMI technology proved successful in immobilizing biomedically relevant molecules while preserving their activity, highlighting that insight into how light interacts with biomolecules may lead to new biophotonic technologies. Our work focused on the application of our new engineering principles to the design, analysis, construction, and manipulation of biological systems, and on the discovery and application of new engineering principles inspired by the properties of biological systems. PMID:20665692

  4. Demonstration of a micromachined planar distribution network in gap waveguide technology for a linear slot array antenna at 100 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiminejad, S.; Zaman, A. U.; Haasl, S.; Kildal, P.-S.; Enoksson, P.

    2016-07-01

    The need for high frequency antennas is rapidly increasing with the development of new wireless rate communication technology. Planar antennas have an attractive form factor, but they require a distribution network. Microstrip technology is most commonly used at low frequency but suffers from large dielectric and ohmic losses at higher frequencies and particularly above 100 GHz. Substrate-integrated waveguides also suffer from dielectric losses. In addition, standard rectangular waveguide interfaces are inconvenient due to the four flange screws that must be tightly fastened to the antenna to avoid leakage. The current paper presents a planar slot array antenna that does not suffer from any of these problems. The distribution network is realized by micromachining using low-loss gap waveguide technology, and it can be connected to a standard rectangular waveguide flange without using any screws or additional packaging. To realize the antenna at these frequencies, it was fabricated with micromachining, which offers the required high precision, and a low-cost fabrication method. The antenna was micromachined with DRIE in two parts, one silicon-on-insulator plate and one Si plate, which were both covered with Au to achieve conductivity. The input reflection coefficient was measured to be below 10 dB over a 15.5% bandwidth, and the antenna gain was measured to be 10.4 dBi, both of which are in agreement with simulations.

  5. Study of Flow-Assisted Corrosion of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy in Loop System Based on Array Electrode Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualiang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A loop system was used to investigate flow-assisted corrosion (FAC of AZ91D magnesium alloy at an elbow based on array electrode technology by potentiodynamic polarization, computational fluid dynamics, simulation and surface analysis. The experimental results demonstrate the fluid hydrodynamics plays a significant role in the FAC of AZ91D magnesium alloy. The corrosion rate increases from the outer wall to the inner wall of the elbow, with the higher corrosion rate corresponding to the higher flow velocity and larger shear stress at the elbow. The maximum corrosion rate appears at the innermost wall of the elbow, the location with the maximum flow velocity and shear stress.

  6. Assessment of Measurement Distortions in GNSS Antenna Array Space-Time Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyagaraja Marathe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenna array processing techniques are studied in GNSS as effective tools to mitigate interference in spatial and spatiotemporal domains. However, without specific considerations, the array processing results in biases and distortions in the cross-ambiguity function (CAF of the ranging codes. In space-time processing (STP the CAF misshaping can happen due to the combined effect of space-time processing and the unintentional signal attenuation by filtering. This paper focuses on characterizing these degradations for different controlled signal scenarios and for live data from an antenna array. The antenna array simulation method introduced in this paper enables one to perform accurate analyses in the field of STP. The effects of relative placement of the interference source with respect to the desired signal direction are shown using overall measurement errors and profile of the signal strength. Analyses of contributions from each source of distortion are conducted individually and collectively. Effects of distortions on GNSS pseudorange errors and position errors are compared for blind, semi-distortionless, and distortionless beamforming methods. The results from characterization can be useful for designing low distortion filters that are especially important for high accuracy GNSS applications in challenging environments.

  7. High-density fiber optic array technology and its applica- tions in functional genomic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jianbing; CHE Diping; ZHAO Chanfeng; ZHOU Lixin; FENG Wenyi

    2003-01-01

    The development of DNA microarray technology[1] revolutionized our way of studying gene expression. Instead of examining gene expression by Northern blots or RT-PCR one by one, we can now routinely check the changes of hundreds and thousands of gene expression levels simultaneously.

  8. Assessing effects of technology usage on mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Julianne

    2006-12-01

    Computer-based technologies are now commonplace in classrooms, and the integration of these media into the teaching and learning of mathematics is supported by government policy in most developed countries. However, many questions about the impact of computer-based technologies on classroom mathematics learning remain unanswered, and debates about when and how they ought to be used continue. An increasing number of studies seek to identify the effects of technology usage on classroom learning, and at a time when governments are calling for `evidence-based' policy development, many studies applying quasi-scientific methodologies to this field of practice are emerging. By analysing a series of conceptual frameworks for assessing the use of computer-based technologies to support school learning, this article emphasises the value of research into the relationship between technical and conceptual aspects of technology use in mathematics education and beyond, and challenges the usefulness of large-scale, quasi-scientific studies that focus on educational inputs and outputs.

  9. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  10. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  12. Research on the technologies of conformal phased array antenna%共形相控阵天线的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏浩; 李小浩; 李会莲

    2014-01-01

    Phased array antenna technology has been applied widely and developed rapidly in the fields of radar, communication, electronic warfare and navigation. Conformal phased array antenna technology is the focus of development of the phased array antenna. The development of foreign countries about conformal phased array antenna is introduced, the antenna array and pattern integration and beam forming of conformal phased array antenna are briefly discussed in this paper.%相控阵天线技术在雷达、通信、电子战、导航等领域获得了广泛应用和高速发展,共形相控阵天线是相控阵天线发展的重点之一。文章介绍了共形相控阵天线国外发展现状,进而探讨了共形相控阵的天线阵型,方向图综合及波束形成技术体制等关键技术。

  13. Advantages of Array-Based Technologies for Pre-Emptive Pharmacogenomics Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Al Shahandeh; Johnstone, Daniel M.; Joshua R. Atkins; Jean-Marie Sontag; Moones Heidari; Nilofar Daneshi; Elvis Freeman-Acquah; Milward, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    As recognised by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), microarray technology currently provides a rapid, inexpensive means of identifying large numbers of known genomic variants or gene transcripts in experimental and clinical settings. However new generation sequencing techniques are now being introduced in many clinical genetic contexts, particularly where novel mutations are involved. While these methods can be valuable for screening a restricted set ...

  14. Evaluation of Solar Array Peak Power Tracking Technologies for CubeSats

    OpenAIRE

    Erb, Daniel; Rawashdeh, Samir; Lumpp Jr., James

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity and capability of small satellite missions is placing more stringent requirements on spacecraft power systems. Higher power demands are usually met with deployable solar panels and platforms that require attitude determination and control systems which add mass, complexity, and risk to the mission. Finally, to make more efficient use of the solar panels under varying conditions, peak power tracking technologies are employed which electrically match the load and solar...

  15. Assessment of environmental control technology for coal conversion aqueous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.A.; Barker, R.E.

    1978-07-01

    A hydrocarbonization process has been studied to assess environmental control technology for coal conversion wastewaters. Fifteen major wastewater streams were identified; 2 present serious environmental problems not routinely encountered in industry. These are the hydrocarbonization condensate and the ash sluicing waste from the gasifier. The hydrocarbonization product water is high in phenolics, ammonia, cyanide, thiocyanate, and other sulfur compounds. This stream will present a significant wastewater treatment problem unless the stream can be recycled internally. The gasifier-ash sluicing water will probably be similar to ash sluicing water from coal-fired power generating plants. However, the large quantity of toxic trace elements may be more easily dissolved from ash produced at the lower-temperature and reducing conditions encountered in gasification. A number of cleanup technologies relevant to the cleanup of coal conversion aqueous effluents have ben assessed for their adaptability to the specific pollutants found in coal hydrocarbonization wastewater. A summary of these processes lists the potential applicability, economics, raw material requirements, process compatibility, operating conditions, state of development, environmental problems, energy requirements, and availability of each. Indications are that almost any level of removal can be achieved if one is willing to pay the cost. The optimum amount of cleanup will require much future interaction between industry, environmental control technology developers, human and environmental effects assessors, and federal effluent regulations administrators.

  16. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. PMID:27021760

  17. Life cycle assessment of products and technologies. LCA Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukkari, H.; Nors, M. (eds.)

    2009-12-15

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland organised a Symposium 'Life Cycle Assessment of Products and Technologies' on the 6th of October, 2009. The Symposium gave a good overview of methods, tools and applications of Life Cycle Assessment developed and utilised in several technology fields of VTT. The 12 Symposium papers deal with recent LCA studies on products and technologies. The scope ranges from beverage cups to urban planning, from inventory databases to rating systems. Topical issues relating to climate change concern biorefineries and the overall impacts of the utilisation of biomass. The calculation of carbon footprints is also introduced through paper products and magazines. One example of LCA tools developed at VTT addresses cement manufacturing. VTT's transport emission database, LIPASTO, was introduced in detail. The use of LCA methods and life cycle thinking is described in various contexts: product development in relation to precision instruments; selection of materials and work processes in relation to sediment remediation project; and procedures of sustainability rating through VTT's office building Digitalo. The Climate Bonus project presented a demonstrated ICT support that informs about the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprints of households. (orig.)

  18. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA.

  19. Development and Implementation of Health Technology Assessment: A Policy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abooee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making.Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods.Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress.Conclusion: HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity.

  20. Will a continuous GPS array for L.A. help earthquake hazard assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, William H.

    The striking landscapes and hospitable climate of Southern California are home to more than 20 million people and vital elements of the nation's economy. Unfortunately, the region is also laced with many active faults that can produce strong earthquakes. Scientists from several institutions are pursuing a new approach to studying earthquake hazards in a high-risk metropolitan area.The Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) is currently an array of about 40 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations distributed throughout the greater Los Angeles metropolitan region. There have been informal discussions about expanding the array to 250 stations, and formal proposals have been submitted to begin this expansion. To achieve high precision, the sites will be carefully monumented, and all the GPS receivers will operate continuously. The goals of the array are to provide an accurate and detailed velocity field from which to identify the deformation from known faults, test current models of the geologic structure, and make better estimates of the seismic potential in the populous parts of southern California.

  1. Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Bowen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented.

  2. Commercialisation of CMOS integrated circuit technology in multi-electrode arrays for neuroscience and cell-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Anthony H D; Robbins, Jon; Bowen, Chris R; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC) technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs) form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented.

  3. Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Anthony H. D.; Robbins, Jon; Bowen, Chris R.; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC) technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs) form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented. PMID:22163884

  4. Thinking Tools in Computer-Based Assessment: Technology Enhancements in Assessments for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest concerns in schools today is how teachers can bring together assessment and learning in a way that is meaningful for students' thinking skills, while focusing on content standards. Better understanding of how different types of technology based thinking tools can be used for improving classroom teaching and learning,…

  5. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring global visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  6. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring ``global visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  7. Reflections on the social epidemiologic dimension of health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Arminée

    2004-01-01

    Certain key parameters such as safety, efficacy, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness have long been established as key in HTA analysis. Equally important, however, are sociolegal and epidemiologic perspectives. A comprehensive analytic framework will consider the implications of using a technology in the context of societal norms, cultural values, and social institutions and relations. The methodology in which this expanded framework has been developed is termed 'Strategic HTA' to denote its power for the decision-making process. In addition to systematic reviews of published evidence, it incorporates analyses of the influence of dominant social relations on technological development and diffusion. This essay discusses the social epidemiologic aspects of health technology assessment, which includes factors such as sex and gender. It seeks to show how it is possible to bring data from wide-ranging disciplinary perspectives within the parameters of a single scientific inquiry; to draw from them scientifically defensible conclusions; and thereby to realize a deeper understanding of technology impact within a health care system. Armed with such an understanding, policy officials will be better prepared to resolve the competitive clamor of stakeholder voices, and to make the most "equitable" use of the available resources. PMID:15209176

  8. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments.

  9. Room temperature detector array technology for the terahertz to far-infrared.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Ryan; Shaw, Michael; Zhang, X.; Tao, Hu; Lentine, Anthony L.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Averitt, Richard D.; Kadlec, Emil G; Rakich, Peter T.

    2011-10-01

    Thermal detection has made extensive progress in the last 40 years, however, the speed and detectivity can still be improved. The advancement of silicon photonic microring resonators has made them intriguing for detection devices due to their small size and high quality factors. Implementing silicon photonic microring or microdisk resonators as a means of a thermal detector gives rise to higher speed and detectivity, as well as lower noise compared to conventional devices with electrical readouts. This LDRD effort explored the design and measurements of silicon photonic microdisk resonators used for thermal detection. The characteristic values, consisting of the thermal time constant ({tau} {approx} 2 ms) and noise equivalent power were measured and found to surpass the performance of the best microbolometers. Furthermore the detectivity was found to be D{sub {lambda}} = 2.47 x 10{sup 8} cm {center_dot} {radical}Hz/W at 10.6 {mu}m which is comparable to commercial detectors. Subsequent design modifications should increase the detectivity by another order of magnitude. Thermal detection in the terahertz (THz) remains underdeveloped, opening a door for new innovative technologies such as metamaterial enhanced detectors. This project also explored the use of metamaterials in conjunction with a cantilever design for detection in the THz region and demonstrated the use of metamaterials as custom thin film absorbers for thermal detection. While much work remains to integrate these technologies into a unified platform, the early stages of research show promising futures for use in thermal detection.

  10. Health technology assessment: the contribution of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The pragmatism in health care has made health technology assessment (HTA) restrict its scope to a particular set of problems, c.q. methods. The "multidisciplinary and comprehensive nature" of HTA, as the concept is presented in certain definitions, is lacking. Health care is also dominated by a positivistic-rationalistic approach of evaluation. In contrast, social studies of evaluations learn that a major difference has to be made between scientific research on (potential) impact of a technology and valuing these effects. In this contribution, we will discuss how the positivistic scientific bias of current HTA practice can be made up with other research traditions. More specifically, we focus on the question of how social scientists and particularly how qualitative research can contribute to HTA, complementary to positivistic studies of evidence and efficacy. PMID:12862189

  11. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. PMID:27117960

  12. Nutrition and Health Technology Assessment: When Two Worlds Meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten J. Poley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition that nutrition may have a positive impact on public health and that it may reduce medical expenditures. Yet, such claims need to be substantiated by evidence. This evidence could be delivered by health technology assessment (HTA, which can be thought of as the evaluation of technologies for clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and ethical, legal, and social impacts. The application of HTA to the field of ‘nutrition interventions’ is recent. So far, HTA and nutrition have represented two worlds far apart in many respects. This contribution, roughly, addresses the following issues: is there a need for HTAs in the field of nutrition, what would such HTAs look like, and how can the results coming from these HTAs optimally aid policy making?

  13. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making.

  14. Sensing technologies to measure metabolic activities in soil and assess its health conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    (olfactory fingerprint) typical of the analysed air sample. Due to these features, we decided to apply such a sensing technology to the analyses of soil atmospheres, because several processes in soil, both abiotic and biotic, result in gas and/or volatile production and the dynamics of such releases may also be affected by several additional environmental factors, such as soil moisture, temperature, gas exchange rates with outer atmosphere, adsorption/desorption processes, etc. Then, the analysis of soil atmosphere may provide information about global soil conditions (e.g. soil quality and health), according to a holistic approach, where several factors are contemporarily taken into account. At the same time, the use of such a technology, if adequately trained on purpose, can supply information about a single or a pool of processes sharing similar features, which occur in soil over a certain period of time and mostly affecting soil atmosphere. According to these premises and hypotheses, we demonstrated that EN is an useful technology to measure soil microbial activity, through its correlation to specific metabolic activities occurring in soil (i.e. global and specific respiration and some enzyme activities), but also soil microbial biomass. On the basis of such evidences, we also were able to use this technology to assess the quality and health conditions of soil ecosystems in terms of metabolic indices previously identified, according to some metabolic parameters and biomass quantification of microbial populations. In other studies, we also applied EN technology, despite using a different set of sensors in the array, to analyse the atmosphere of soil ecosystems in order to assess their environmental conditions after contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e. semivolatile - SVOCs - organic pollutants). In this case, EN technology resulted capable of distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated soils, according to the differences in a list of

  15. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes’ hearing problem: an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianwen; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Weifang; Ma, Xuezong

    2014-01-01

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the filtering principle of hair cells, external voice signals at different...

  16. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, however, genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to devel...

  17. 超声波相控阵黄金纯度检测技术%Gold Purity Inspection Technology by Ultrasonic Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟德煌; 徐贝尔; 梁茂飞

    2013-01-01

    The basic gold purity inspection method is introduced simply and the new gold inspection technology by ultrasonic phased array is focused in this paper. The principle of using phased array technology to inspect gold bar is analyzed. The ultrasonic phased array technology is reliable in gold inspection application which is verified by experiment. The result is that ultrasonic phased array technology could find the gas pore, inclusion defect and distinguish the 24K from 18K gold.%简要介绍了黄金纯度检测的基本方法,重点介绍了黄金纯度检测新技术—超声波相控阵检测技术的基本原理与方法.通过试验验证了超声波相控阵技术检测黄金纯度的可行性,可以检测出黄金纯度内部的气孔,块状夹杂及已熔化的夹杂,可以区分出24K与18K黄金.

  18. EASETECH – A LCA model for assessment of environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Baumeister, Hubert; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard;

    2014-01-01

    EASETECH is a new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies developed in collaboration between DTU Environment and DTU Compute. EASETECH is based on experience gained in the field of waste management modelling over the last decade and applies the same concepts to systems...... and products as a basis for the LCA calculations. These flows are handled as a matrix of waste fractions and material properties, and each fraction can be handled independently or grouped based on general similarity (e.g. PE bottle and plastic waste) in different processes. This is very important because...

  19. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  20. Lamination And Microstructuring Technology for a Bio-Cell Multiwell array

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, E; Neumann, A; Bottcher, L; Braun, T; Bauer, J; Reichl, H; Iafelice, B; Destro, F; Gambari, R

    2008-01-01

    Microtechnology becomes a versatile tool for biological and biomedical applications. Microwells have been established long but remained non-intelligent up to now. Merging new fabrication techniques and handling concepts with microelectronics enables to realize intelligent microwells suitable for future improved cancer treatment. The described technology depicts the basis for the fabrication of a elecronically enhanced microwell. Thin aluminium sheets are structured by laser micro machining and laminated successively to obtain registration tolerances of the respective layers of 5..10\\^A$\\mu$m. The microwells lasermachined into the laminate are with 50..80\\^A$\\mu$m diameter, allowing to hold individual cells within the well. The individual process steps are described and results on the microstructuring are given.

  1. Health Technology Assessment of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueze Liu; Jianwen Cao; Zuxun Lu

    2004-01-01

    Assess the current status of MRI in Shanxi province by health technology assessment method to provide suggestion and guidelines for future government decisions on the procurement and installation of new high-tech medical equipments. All of the 21 hospitals installed MRIs were surveyed.The results showed that 1 ) Diffusion of MRI is consistent with the economic development in different regional districts and hospital levels in Shanxi province. 2) There are better monetary returns of MRI in higher level hospitals than lower level hospitals. 3) Most MRIs in Shanxi province had been running at a loss, and the first class tertiary level hospitals had been making profit from providing MRI services to patients. 4) Better cost-benefit accorded with higher hospital level, more patients serviced etc. 5 ) The biggest investment risk is the initial purchase and installation of MRI. 6) Positive rates and veracity of MRI diagnosis were higher. 7) MRI is a safe equipment.

  2. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B H; Kim, S G

    2002-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of the existing nuclear power plants is required every ten years according to the recently revised atomic energy acts. The PSR of Kori unit 1 and Wolsong unit 1 that have been operating more than ten years is ongoing to comply the regulations. This research project started to develop the techniques necessary for the PSR. The project developed the following four techniques at the first stage for the environmental assessment of the existing plants. 1) Establishment of the assessment technology for contamination and accumulation trends of radionuclides, 2) alarm point setting of environmental radiation monitoring system, 3) Development of Radiation Safety Evaluation Factor for Korean NPP, and 4) the evaluation of radiation monitoring system performance and set-up of alarm/warn set point. A dynamic compartment model to derive a relationship between the release rates of gas phase radionuclides and the concentrations in the environmental samples. The model was validated by comparing ...

  3. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund;

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches...... may not always be the most environmentally friendly. The EASEWASTE model can identify the most environmentally sustainable solution, which may differ among waste materials and regions and can add valuable information about environmental achievements from each process in a solid waste management system....

  4. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters

  5. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.L.; Starr, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

  6. Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Balasubramanian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses” have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.

  7. Assessment of array scintillation detector for follicle thyroid 2-D image acquisition using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Borges da; Santanna, Claudio Reis de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: borges@ien.gov.br; santanna@ien.gov.br; Braz, Delson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.br; Carvalho, Denise Pires de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Endocrina]. E-mail: dencarv@ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    This work presents an innovative study to find out the adequate scintillation inorganic detector array to be used coupled to a specific light photo sensor, a charge coupled device (CCD), through a fiber optic plate. The goal is to choose the type of detector that fits a 2-dimensional imaging acquisition of a cell thyroid tissue application with high resolution and detection efficiency in order to map a follicle image using gamma radiation emission. A point or volumetric source - detector simulation by using a MCNP4B general code, considering different source energies, detector materials and geometry including pixel sizes and reflector types was performed. In this study, simulations were performed for 7 x 7 and 127 x 127 arrays using CsI(Tl) and BGO scintillation crystals with pixel size ranging from 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} to 10 x 10 {mu}m{sup 2} and radiation thickness ranging from 1 mm to 10 mm. The effect of all these parameters was investigated to find the best source-detector system that result in an image with the best contrast details. The results showed that it is possible to design a specific imaging system that allows searching for in-vitro studies, specifically in radiobiology applied to endocrine physiology. (author)

  8. BINARY: an optical freezing array for assessing temperature and time dependence of heterogeneous ice nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Budke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new optical freezing array for the study of heterogeneous ice nucleation in microliter-sized droplets is introduced, tested and applied to the study of immersion freezing in aqueous Snomax® suspensions. In the Bielefeld Ice Nucleation ARraY (BINARY ice nucleation can be studied simultaneously in 36 droplets at temperatures down to −40 °C (233 K and at cooling rates between 0.1 and 10 K min−1. The droplets are separated from each other in individual compartments, thus preventing a Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen type water vapor transfer between droplets as well as avoiding the seeding of neighboring droplets by formation and surface growth of frost halos. Analysis of freezing and melting occurs via an automated real-time image analysis of the optical brightness of each individual droplet. As an application ice nucleation in water droplets containing Snomax® at concentrations from 1 ng mL−1 to 1 mg mL−1 was investigated. Using different cooling rates, a small time dependence of ice nucleation induced by two different classes of ice nucleators (INs contained in Snomax® was detected and the corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient was quantified. The observed time dependence is smaller than those of other types of INs reported in the literature, suggesting that the BINARY setup is suitable for quantifying time dependence for most other INs of atmospheric interest, making it a useful tool for future investigations.

  9. Life cycle assessment of active and passive groundwater remediation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Peter; Finkel, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Groundwater remediation technologies, such as pump-and-treat (PTS) and funnel-and-gate systems (FGS), aim at reducing locally appearing contaminations. Therefore, these methodologies are basically evaluated with respect to their capability to yield local improvements of an environmental situation, commonly neglecting that their application is also associated with secondary impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a widely accepted method of assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts related to a product, process or service. This study presents the set-up of a LCA framework in order to compare the secondary impacts caused by two conceptually different technologies at the site of a former manufactured gas plant in the city of Karlsruhe, Germany. As a FGS is already operating at this site, a hypothetical PTS of the same functionality is adopted. During the LCA, the remediation systems are evaluated by focusing on the main technical elements and their significance with respect to resource depletion and potential adverse effects on ecological quality, as well as on human health. Seven impact categories are distinguished to address a broad spectrum of possible environmental loads. A main point of discussion is the reliability of technical assumptions and performance predictions for the future. It is obvious that a high uncertainty exists when estimating impact specific indicator values over operation times of decades. An uncertainty analysis is conducted to include the imprecision of the underlying emission and consumption data and a scenario analysis is utilised to contrast various possible technological variants. Though the results of the study are highly site-specific, a generalised relative evaluation of potential impacts and their main sources is the principle objective rather than a discussion of the calculated absolute impacts. A crucial finding that can be applied to any other site is the central role of steel, which particularly derogates

  10. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, DELIBERATIVE PROCESS, AND ETHICALLY CONTESTED ISSUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Norman; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare technology assessment (HTA) aims to support decisions as to which technologies should be used in which situations to optimize value. Because such decisions will create winners and losers, they are bound to be controversial. HTA, then, faces a dilemma: should it stay away from such controversies, remaining a source of incomplete advice and risking an important kind of marginalization, or should it enter the controversy? The question is a challenging one, because we lack agreement on principles that are fine grained enough to tell us what choices we should make. In this study, we will argue that HTA should take a stand on ethical issues raised by the technology that is being investigated. To do so, we propose adding a form of procedural justice to HTA to arrive at decisions that the public can regard as legitimate and fair. A fair process involves deliberation about the reasons, evidence, and rationales that are considered relevant to meeting population-health needs fairly. One important way to make sure that there is real deliberation about relevant reasons is to include a range of stakeholders in the deliberative process. To illustrate how such deliberation might work, we use the case of cochlear implants for deaf children. PMID:27472157

  11. A scientific assessment of a new technology orbital telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    As part of a program designed to test the Alpha chemical laser weapons system in space, the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) developed components of an agile, lightweight, 4-meter telescope, equipped with an advanced active-optics system. BMDO had proposed to make space available in the telescope's focal plane for instrumentation optimized for scientific applications in astrophysics and planetary astronomy for a potential flight mission. Such a flight mission could be undertaken if new or additional sponsorship can be found. Despite this uncertainty, BMDO requested assistance in defining the instrumentation and other design aspects necessary to enhance the scientific value of a pointing and tracking mission. In response to this request, the Space Studies Board established the Task Group on BMDO New Technology Orbital Observatory (TGBNTOO) and charged it to instrumentation, data management, and science-operations advice to BMDO to optimize the scientific value of a 4-meter mission; and (2) support a space studies board assessment of the relative scientific merit of the program. This report deals with the first of these tasks, assisting the Advanced Technology Demonstrator's (ATD's) program scientific potential. Given the potential scientific aspects of the 4-meter telescope, this project is referred to as the New Technology Orbital Telescope (NTOT), or as the ATD/NTOT, to emphasize its dual-use character. The task group's basic conclusion is that the ATD/NTOT mission does have the potential for contributing in a major way to astronomical goals.

  12. Bond and electron beam welding quality control of the aluminum stabilized and reinforced CMS conductor by means of ultrasonic phased-array technology

    CERN Document Server

    Neuenschwander, J; Horváth, I L; Luthi, T; Marti, H

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The coils for CNIS are wound of aluminum-stabilized Rutherford type superconductors reinforced with high-strength aluminum alloy. For optimum performance of the conductor a void-free metallic bonding between the high-purity aluminum and the Rutherford type cable as well as between the electron beam welded reinforcement and the high-purity aluminum must be guaranteed. It is the main task of this development work to assess continuously the bond quality over the whole width and the total length of the conductors during manufacture. To achieve this goal we use the ultrasonic phased-array technology. The application of multi- element transducers allows an electronic scanning perpendicular to the direction of production. Such a testing is sufficiently fast in order to allow a continuous a...

  13. Assessment vs. appraisal of ethical aspects of health technology assessment: can the distinction be upheld?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandman, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] An essential component of health technology assessment (HTA is the assessment of ethical aspects. In some healthcare contexts, tasks are strictly relegated to different expert groups: the HTA-agencies are limited to assessment of the technology and other actors within the health care sector are responsible for appraisal and recommendations. Ethical aspects of health technologies are considered with reference to values or norms in such a way that may be prescriptive, or offer guidance as to how to act or relate to the issue in question. Given this internal prescriptivity, the distinction between assessment and appraisal seems difficult to uphold, unless the scrutiny stops short of a full ethical analysis of the technology. In the present article we analyse the distinction between assessment and appraisal, using as an example ethical aspects of implementation of GPS-bracelets for people with dementia. It is concluded that for HTA-agencies with a strictly delineated assessment role, the question of how to deal with the internal prescriptivity of ethics may be confusing. A full ethical analysis might result in a definite conclusion as to whether the technology in question is ethically acceptable or not, thereby limiting choices for decision-makers, who are required to uphold certain ethical values and norms. At the same time, depending on the exact nature of such a conclusion, different action strategies can be supported. A positive appraisal within HTA could result in a decision on implementation, or of the technology, thereby making it available to patients, or decisions to and even the use of the technology (even if someone else will have to fund it. A neutral appraisal, giving no definite answer as to whether implementation is recommended or not, could result in a towards the technology. A negative appraisal could result in a decision to or even implementation. This paper presents an overview of the implications of different outcomes

  14. Virtues, ecological momentary assessment/intervention and smartphone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Jason D; Steinke, Ellen G

    2015-01-01

    Virtues, broadly understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether studies showing that situations can strongly influence our responses provide evidence against the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition). In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that the prevailing methods for examining situational influences are limited in their ability to test dispositional stability and robustness; or, then, whether virtues exist. We make the case that these limitations can be addressed by aggregating repeated, cross-situational assessments of environmental, psychological and physiological variables within everyday life-a form of assessment often called ecological momentary assessment (EMA, or experience sampling). We, then, examine how advances in smartphone application (app) technology, and their mass adoption, make these mobile devices an unprecedented vehicle for EMA and, thus, the psychological study of virtue. We, additionally, examine how smartphones might be used for virtue development by promoting changes in thought and behavior within daily life; a technique often called ecological momentary intervention (EMI). While EMA/I have become widely employed since the 1980s for the purposes of understanding and promoting change amongst clinical populations, few EMA/I studies have been devoted to understanding or promoting virtues within non-clinical populations. Further, most EMA/I studies have relied on journaling, PDAs, phone calls and/or text messaging systems. We explore how smartphone app technology provides a means of making EMA a more robust psychological method, EMI a more robust way of promoting positive change, and, as a result, opens up new possibilities for studying and promoting virtues.

  15. Virtues, Ecological Momentary Assessment/Intervention and Smartphone Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Runyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtues, generally understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition is called into question by studies showing that, to a significant degree, an individual’s situation can influence their responses. In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that these kinds of situational studies are limited in their ability to test dispositional stability and robustness; or, then, whether virtues exist. We make the case that these limitations can be addressed by aggregating repeated, cross-situational assessments of environmental, psychological and physiological variables within everyday life—a form of assessment often called ecological momentary assessment (EMA, or experience sampling. We, then, examine how advances in smartphone application (app technology, and their mass adoption, make these mobile devices an unprecedented vehicle for EMA and, thus, the psychological study of virtue. We, additionally, examine how smartphones might be used for virtue development by promoting changes in thought and behavior within daily life; a technique often called ecological momentary intervention (EMI. While EMA/I have become widely employed since the 1980s for the purposes of understanding and promoting change amongst clinical populations, few EMA/I studies have been devoted to understanding or promoting virtues within non-clinical populations. Further, most EMA/I studies have relied on journaling, PDAs, phone calls and/or text messaging systems. We explore how smartphone app technology provides a means of making EMA a more robust psychological method, EMI a more robust way of promoting positive change, and, as a result, opens up new possibilities for studying and promoting virtues.

  16. Risk assessment - hospital view in selecting medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Yadin; Jahnke, Ernest; Blair, Curtis

    2004-01-01

    Appropriate deployment of technological innovation contributes to improvement in the quality of healthcare delivered, the containment of cost, and access to the healthcare system. Hospitals have been allocating a significant portion of their resources to procuring and managing capital assets; they are continuously faced with demands for new medical equipment and are asked to manage existing inventory for which they are not well prepared. To objectively direct their investment, hospitals are developing medical technology management programs that need pertinent information and planning methodology for integrating new equipment into existing operations as well as for mitigating patient safety issues and costs of ownership. Clinical engineers identify technological solutions based on the matching of new medical equipment with hospital's objectives. They review their institution's overall technological position, determine strengths and weaknesses, develop equipment-selection criteria, supervise installations, train users and monitor post procurement performance to assure meeting of goals. This program, together with consistent assessment methodology and evaluation analysis, will objectively guide the capital assets decision-making process. At Texas Children's Hospital we integrated engineering simulation, bench testing and clinical studies with financial information to assure the validity of risk avoidance practice and the promotion of medical equipment and supplies selection based on quantitative measurement process and product comparison practice. The clinical engineer's skills and expertise are needed to facilitate the adoption of an objective methodology for implementing the program, thus improving the match between the hospital's needs and budget projections, equipment performance and cost of ownership. The result of systematic planning and execution is a program that assures the safety and appropriateness of inventory level at the lowest life-cycle costs at the

  17. Diversity arrays technology (DArT for pan-genomic evolutionary studies of non-model organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E James

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-throughput tools for pan-genomic study, especially the DNA microarray platform, have sparked a remarkable increase in data production and enabled a shift in the scale at which biological investigation is possible. The use of microarrays to examine evolutionary relationships and processes, however, is predominantly restricted to model or near-model organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study explores the utility of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT in evolutionary studies of non-model organisms. DArT is a hybridization-based genotyping method that uses microarray technology to identify and type DNA polymorphism. Theoretically applicable to any organism (even one for which no prior genetic data are available, DArT has not yet been explored in exclusively wild sample sets, nor extensively examined in a phylogenetic framework. DArT recovered 1349 markers of largely low copy-number loci in two lineages of seed-free land plants: the diploid fern Asplenium viride and the haploid moss Garovaglia elegans. Direct sequencing of 148 of these DArT markers identified 30 putative loci including four routinely sequenced for evolutionary studies in plants. Phylogenetic analyses of DArT genotypes reveal phylogeographic and substrate specificity patterns in A. viride, a lack of phylogeographic pattern in Australian G. elegans, and additive variation in hybrid or mixed samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results enable methodological recommendations including procedures for detecting and analysing DArT markers tailored specifically to evolutionary investigations and practical factors informing the decision to use DArT, and raise evolutionary hypotheses concerning substrate specificity and biogeographic patterns. Thus DArT is a demonstrably valuable addition to the set of existing molecular approaches used to infer biological phenomena such as adaptive radiations, population dynamics, hybridization, introgression, ecological

  18. Evaluation of Policy and Research Interventions in Science and Technology: Consequence Assessment of Regulatory and Technology Transfer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mary Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    This research contributes to efforts in assessment studies related to science and technology interventions. The work presented in this thesis focuses on understanding the effects of policies that influence science and technology interventions, and determining the impact of science and technology interventions themselves. Chapter 1 explores how…

  19. Comparative evaluation by lifecycle and risk assessment of agrobiological and technological routes of production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The application of lifecycle and risk assessment methodologies for environmental assessment of agricultural products is growing and produces interesting results. This allows comparisons between agricultural and technological routes of production. An evaluation of such assessments provides increased

  20. Common protein biomarkers assessed by reverse phase protein arrays show considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, Katharina; Raychaudhuri, Mithu; Buchner, Theresa; Thulke, Sabrina; Wolff, Claudia; Höfler, Heinz; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Avril, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer. However, the variability of protein expression within the same tumor is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess intratumoral heterogeneity in protein expression levels by reverse-phase-protein-arrays (RPPA) (i) within primary breast cancers and (ii) between axillary lymph node metastases from the same patient. Protein was extracted from 106 paraffin-embedded samples from 15 large (≥3 cm) primary invasive breast cancers, including different zones within the primary tumor (peripheral, intermediate, central) as well as 2-5 axillary lymph node metastases in 8 cases. Expression of 35 proteins including 15 phosphorylated proteins representing the HER2, EGFR, and uPA/PAI-1 signaling pathways was assessed using reverse-phase-protein-arrays. All 35 proteins showed considerable intratumoral heterogeneity within primary breast cancers with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) of 31% (range 22-43%). There were no significant differences between phosphorylated (CV 32%) and non-phosphorylated proteins (CV 31%) and in the extent of intratumoral heterogeneity within a defined tumor zone (CV 28%, range 18-38%) or between different tumor zones (CV 24%, range 17-38%). Lymph node metastases from the same patient showed a similar heterogeneity in protein expression (CV 27%, range 18-34%). In comparison, the variation amongst different patients was higher in primary tumors (CV 51%, range 29-98%) and lymph node metastases (CV 65%, range 40-146%). Several proteins showed significant differential expression between different tumor stages, grades, histological subtypes and hormone receptor status. Commonly used protein biomarkers of breast cancer, including proteins from HER2, uPA/PAI-1 and EGFR signaling pathways showed higher than previously reported intratumoral heterogeneity of expression levels both within primary breast cancers and between lymph node metastases from the same patient. Assessment

  1. Scenario drafting to anticipate future developments in technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retèl Valesca P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Technology Assessment (HTA information, and in particular cost-effectiveness data is needed to guide decisions, preferably already in early stages of technological development. However, at that moment there is usually a high degree of uncertainty, because evidence is limited and different development paths are still possible. We developed a multi-parameter framework to assess dynamic aspects of a technology -still in development-, by means of scenario drafting to determine the effects, costs and cost-effectiveness of possible future diffusion patterns. Secondly, we explored the value of this method on the case of the clinical implementation of the 70-gene signature for breast cancer, a gene expression profile for selecting patients who will benefit most from chemotherapy. Methods To incorporate process-uncertainty, ten possible scenarios regarding the introduction of the 70-gene signature were drafted with European experts. Out of 5 most likely scenarios, 3 drivers of diffusion (non-compliance, technical failure, and uptake were quantitatively integrated in a decision-analytical model. For these scenarios, the cost-effectiveness of the 70-gene signature expressed in Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs was compared to clinical guidelines, calculated from the past (2005 until the future (2020. Results In 2005 the ICER was €1,9 million/quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY, meaning that the 70-gene signature was not yet cost-effective compared to the current clinical guideline. The ICER for the 70-gene signature improved over time with a range of €1,9 million to €26,145 in 2010 and €1,9 million to €11,123/QALY in 2020 depending on the separate scenario used. From 2010, the 70-gene signature should be cost-effective, based on the combined scenario. The uptake-scenario had strongest influence on the cost-effectiveness. Conclusions When optimal diffusion of a technology is sought, incorporating process

  2. A Safety Assessment Framework for Prospective Fuel Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New technologies are being developed to improve the safety and economics of nuclear fuels for commercial water-cooled reactors. Standard fuel comprises uranium dioxide ceramic pellets sealed in a zirconium alloy cladding tube. This fuel-form serves the industry very well and has an exceptional safety record; however, it is recognized that new fuel materials and design features could provide greater levels of accident tolerance. Cost savings may also be possible once testing and qualification phases are complete and when the complete fuel cycle is considered. Nuclear utilities are the ultimate users of nuclear fuel and they put a high premium on both reliability and safety margin. Any fuel they use must offer high margin to failure in both normal and postulated accident conditions. For a new fuel variant to be viable it must be cost-effective and provide an improved safety rating as standard nuclear fuel. Significantly higher safety margins can justify a higher fuel price, but the additional margin must be attainable without requiring excessive input of resources. Determining the overall safety level for a nuclear fuel is non-trivial because it requires an understanding of how constituent materials behave during long periods in a reactor core, and this is complex due to the multiple, high energy, interdependent effects that take place. Fuel properties may even provide opposing safety merit in different conditions. Despite the difficulties, it is important for the fuel technology community to be able to assess - at least qualitatively - the safety performance credentials for the new types of fuel underdevelopment. Currently, there is no focused, peer-reviewed guidance to help perform such assessments. This paper introduces a framework of safety ‘Premises’, ‘Principles’ and ‘Other Considerations’ that are specifically tailored for the fuel technology community. The framework can serve as an informal methodology to help compare the safety features of

  3. Hydrogel Microwell Arrays Allow the Assessment of Protease-Associated Enhancement of Cancer Cell Aggregation and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar W. Hutmacher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current routine cell culture techniques are only poorly suited to capture the physiological complexity of tumor microenvironments, wherein tumor cell function is affected by intricate three-dimensional (3D, integrin-dependent cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM interactions. 3D cell cultures allow the investigation of cancer-associated proteases like kallikreins as they degrade ECM proteins and alter integrin signaling, promoting malignant cell behaviors. Here, we employed a hydrogel microwell array platform to probe using a high-throughput mode how ovarian cancer cell aggregates of defined size form and survive in response to the expression of kallikreins and treatment with paclitaxel, by performing microscopic, quantitative image, gene and protein analyses dependent on the varying microwell and aggregate sizes. Paclitaxel treatment increased aggregate formation and survival of kallikrein-expressing cancer cells and levels of integrins and integrin-related factors. Cancer cell aggregate formation was improved with increasing aggregate size, thereby reducing cell death and enhancing integrin expression upon paclitaxel treatment. Therefore, hydrogel microwell arrays are a powerful tool to screen the viability of cancer cell aggregates upon modulation of protease expression, integrin engagement and anti-cancer treatment providing a micro-scaled yet high-throughput technique to assess malignant progression and drug-resistance.

  4. Development of Seismic Safety Assessment Technology for Containment Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.B.; Suh, Y.P.; Lee, J.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This final report is made based on the research results of seismic analysis and seismic margin assessment field, carried out during 3rd stage ('01.4.1{approx}'02.3.31) under financial support of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). The objective of this research is to develop the soil - structure interaction analysis technique with high reliability, the main research subjects, performed during 3rd stage are as follows. 1) Preparation of user's guide manual for SSI analysis with high accuracy. 2) Sensitivity analysis of effective shear strain and seismic input motion. 3) Database construction of Hualien earthquake recorded data. (author). 21 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide review manuals and technical database for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. A research programs have been conducted based on a contract with well-equipped organization since F.Y.2006. Four experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant, which have experienced many corrosion problems. TOKAI plant is the pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec. 1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr. 2006. Corrosion of stainless steel made components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions. Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions. Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloy made components in highly radioactive nitric acid solutions. Creep and fatigue of nickel-base alloy made furnaces which is operated in the conditions of daily cyclic heating. (author)

  6. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R ampersand D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  7. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R&D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Future technology in cochlear implants: assessing the benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert J S

    2011-05-01

    It has been over 50 years since Djourno and Eyries first attempted electric stimulation in a patient with deafness. Over this time, the Cochlear Implant (CI) has become not only remarkably successful, but increasingly complex. Although the basic components of the system still comprise an implanted receiver stimulator and electrode, externally worn speech processor, microphone, control system, and power source, there are now several alternative designs of these components with different attributes that can be variably combined to meet the needs of specific patient groups. Development by the manufacturers has been driven both by these various patient needs, and also by the desire to achieve technological superiority, or at least differentiation, ultimately in pursuit of market share. Assessment of benefit is the responsibility of clinicians. It is incumbent on both industry and clinicians to ensure appropriate, safe, and affordable introduction of new technology. For example, experience with the totally implanted cochlear implant (TIKI) has demonstrated that quality of hearing is the over-riding consideration for CI users. To date, improved hearing outcomes have been achieved by improvements in: speech processing strategies; microphone technology; pre-processing strategies; electrode placement; bilateral implantation; use of a hearing aid in the opposite ear (bimodal stimulation); and the combination of electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear. The resulting expansion of CI candidacy, with more residual hearing, further improves the outcomes achieved. Largely facilitated by advances in electronic capability and computerization, it can be expected that these improvements will continue. However, marked variability of results still occurs and we cannot assure any individual patient of their outcome. Realistic goals for implementation of new technology include: improved hearing in noise and music perception; effective invisible hearing (no external apparatus

  9. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants.

  10. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants. PMID:26499065

  11. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres. PMID:19157835

  12. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Repair and Damage Assessment Supporting Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, B. W.; Bodine, J. B.; Dopker, B.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hanson, C. T.; Harris, C. G.; Nelson, K. M.; Walker, T. H.; Kennedy, T. C.; Nahan, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored contracts for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) and Materials Development Omnibus Contract (MDOC), Boeing is studying the technologies associated with the application of composite materials to commercial transport fuselage structure. Included in the study is the incorporation of maintainability and repairability requirements of composite primary structure into the design. This contractor report describes activities performed to address maintenance issues in composite fuselage applications. A key aspect of the study was the development of a maintenance philosophy which included consideration of maintenance issues early in the design cycle, multiple repair options, and airline participation in design trades. Fuselage design evaluations considered trade-offs between structural weight, damage resistance/tolerance (repair frequency), and inspection burdens. Analysis methods were developed to assess structural residual strength in the presence of damage, and to evaluate repair design concepts. Repair designs were created with a focus on mechanically fastened concepts for skin/stringer structure and bonded concepts for sandwich structure. Both a large crown (skintstringer) and keel (sandwich) panel were repaired. A compression test of the keel panel indicated the demonstrated repairs recovered ultimate load capability. In conjunction with the design and manufacturing developments, inspection methods were investigated for their potential to evaluate damaged structure and verify the integrity of completed repairs.

  13. Dry Process Fuel Core Characteristics Assessment Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major research activities of the Phase I study are the analysis of the dry process fuel irradiation test in HANARO research reactor, review of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis results and supplementary calculations, and the feasibility study of the dry process technology for the application to the future fuel cycle. The irradiation test of the dry process fuel was successfully performed in the HANARO research reactor. For the compatibility analysis of the DUPIC fuel, the mechanical integrity and safety of the DUPIC fuel were analyzed. Especially the radiation source term of the DUPIC fuel core was re-evaluated so that the credibility of the radiation effect calculation is improved. In order to assess the applicability of the dry process technology, a fuel cycle analysis code DYMOND was imported and a DUPIC fuel cycle model was developed to be implemented in the DYMOND code. The fuel cycle analyses were performed for the criticality of the dry process, fast reactor cycle, thorium fuel cycle and the light water reactor cycle. The fuel cycle analysis showed that the dry process should be appropriately introduced into the fuel cycle in the time domain. However the recycle analysis also showed that the fission products should be effectively removed from the spent fuel in order to establish the fuel cycle and, therefore, it is recommended to perform theoretical and experimental analyses in the Phase II study

  14. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  15. Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model for Safety Technology Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) develops and advances methodologies and technologies to improve air transportation safety. The Safety Analysis and Integration Team (SAIT) conducts a safety technology portfolio assessment (PA) to analyze the program content, to examine the benefits and risks of products with respect to program goals, and to support programmatic decision making. The PA process includes systematic identification of current and future safety risks as well as tracking several quantitative and qualitative metrics to ensure the program goals are addressing prominent safety risks accurately and effectively. One of the metrics within the PA process involves using quantitative aviation safety models to gauge the impact of the safety products. This paper demonstrates the role of aviation safety modeling by providing model outputs and evaluating a sample of portfolio elements using the Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) model. The model enables not only ranking of the quantitative relative risk reduction impact of all portfolio elements, but also highlighting the areas with high potential impact via sensitivity and gap analyses in support of the program office. Although the model outputs are preliminary and products are notional, the process shown in this paper is essential to a comprehensive PA of NASA's safety products in the current program and future programs/projects.

  16. Cryogenic phased-array for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); assessment of clinical and research applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Flora S.

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging is one of the most powerful tools in diagnostic medicine for soft tissue imaging. Image acquisition techniques and hardware receivers are very important in achieving high contrast and high resolution MR images. An aim of this dissertation is to design single and multi-element room and cryogenic temperature arrays and make assessments of their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and SNR gain. In this dissertation, four sets of MR receiver coils are built. They are the receiver-only cryo-coils that are not commercially available. A tuning and matching circuit is attached to each coil. The tuning and matching circuits are simple; however, each device component has to operate at a high magnetic field and cryogenic temperature environment. Remote DC bias of the varactor controls the tuning and matching outside the scanner room. Active detuning of the resonator is done by two p-i-n junction (PIN) diodes. Cooling of the receiver is done by a customized liquid nitrogen cryostat. The first application is to build a 3-Tesla 2x1 horseshoe counter-rotating current (CRC) cryogenic array to image the tibia in a human body. With significant increase in SNR, the surface coil should deliver high contrast and resolution images that can show the trabecular bone and bone marrow structure. This structural image will be used to model the mechanical strength of the bone as well as bone density and chance of fracture. The planar CRC is a unique design of this surface array. The second application is to modify the coil design to 7-Tesla to study the growth of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Fast scan MR images of the infant monkey heads are taken for monitoring shapes of their eyeballs. The monkeys are induced with shortsightedness by eye lenses, and they are scanned periodically to get images of their eyeballs. The field-of-view (FOV) of these images is about five centimeters and the area of interest is two centimeters deep from the surface. Because of these reasons

  17. Latest developments of 10μm pitch HgCdTe diode array from the legacy to the extrinsic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Berthoz, Jocelyn; Taalat, Rachid; Rubaldo, Laurent; Kerlain, Alexandre; Carrère, Emmanuel; Dargent, Loïc.

    2016-05-01

    Sofradir recently presented Daphnis, its latest 10 μm pitch product family. Both Daphnis XGA and HD720 are 10μm pitch mid-wave infrared focal plane array. Development of small pixel pitch is opening the way to very compact products with a high spatial resolution. This new product is taking part in the HOT technology competition allowing reductions in size, weight and power of the overall package. This paper presents the recent developments achieved at Sofradir to make the 10μm pitch HgCdTe focal plane array based on the legacy technology. Electrical and electro-optical characterizations are presented to define the appropriate design of 10μm pitch diode array. The technological tradeoffs are explained to lower the dark current, to keep high quantum efficiency with a high operability above 110K, F/4. Also, Sofradir recently achieved outstanding Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) demonstration at this pixel pitch, which clearly demonstrates the benefit to users of adopting 10μm pixel pitch focal plane array based detectors. Furthermore, the HgCdTe technology has demonstrated an increase of the operating temperature, plus 40K, moving from the legacy to the P-on-n one at a 15μm pitch in mid-wave band. The first realizations using the extrinsic P-on-n technology and the characterizations of diodes with a 10μm pitch neighborhood will be presented in both mid-wave and long-wave bands.

  18. In-situ examination of turbine components (blade roots, rotor steeple grooves and disk-blade rim attachments) of low-pressure steam turbine, using phased array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study test and 3 field trials were performed at Darlington NGS in 1996, 1999 and 2000 on ABB LP turbines. The scope of these trials was to commission in-situ automatic phased array systems capable to inspect blade roots and rotor steeples of L-0 and L-1 rows. GE disk-blade rim attachments were inspected at Bruce B nuclear station, in fall of 1999. The automated ultrasonic phased array technology is capable of high-speed rate and reliable detection and sizing. The capability demonstration was performed on mock-ups and reference blocks, using EDM notches. A custom built UT simulation software: Imagine 3D interfaces with SimScan to generates the spreadsheets/charts with target and probe coordinates and ultrasonic path and angles (refracted and skew) to hit the reference target. Examination of L-0 blade and rotor steeple grooves was performed with 2 phased array systems under networking. Data analysis was done in near-real time. Manual and automatic phased array were performed on L-1 blade roots (hook 1). Special linear array probes were designed by OPG and manufactured by lmasonic, to fit the specific geometry and to optimize the beam features for detection and sizing. Accuracy in sizing is ± 0.8 mm for height ± 1.8 mm for length. Location of indication is within ± 4 mm space envelope. Sizing based on Dynamic Depth Focusing (DDF) board is better for specular reflection of EDM notches on disk attachment. (author)

  19. In-situ examination of turbine components (blade roots, rotor steeple grooves and disk-blade rim attachments) of low-pressure steam turbine, using phased array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorau, P.; Macgillivray, D.; Hazelton, T.; Gilham, L.; Taffs, B.; Huggins, J.; Fortin, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Specialized Inspection and Maintenance Dept., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A feasibility study test and 3 field trials were performed at Darlington NGS in 1996, 1999 and 2000 on ABB LP turbines. The scope of these trials was to commission in-situ automatic phased array systems capable to inspect blade roots and rotor steeples of L-0 and L-1 rows. GE disk-blade rim attachments were inspected at Bruce B nuclear station, in fall of 1999. The automated ultrasonic phased array technology is capable of high-speed rate and reliable detection and sizing. The capability demonstration was performed on mock-ups and reference blocks, using EDM notches. A custom built UT simulation software: Imagine 3D interfaces with SimScan to generates the spreadsheets/charts with target and probe coordinates and ultrasonic path and angles (refracted and skew) to hit the reference target. Examination of L-0 blade and rotor steeple grooves was performed with 2 phased array systems under networking. Data analysis was done in near-real time. Manual and automatic phased array were performed on L-1 blade roots (hook 1). Special linear array probes were designed by OPG and manufactured by lmasonic, to fit the specific geometry and to optimize the beam features for detection and sizing. Accuracy in sizing is {+-} 0.8 mm for height {+-} 1.8 mm for length. Location of indication is within {+-} 4 mm space envelope. Sizing based on Dynamic Depth Focusing (DDF) board is better for specular reflection of EDM notches on disk attachment. (author)

  20. All correlations must die: Assessing the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in pulsar-timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, S R; Babak, S; Brem, P; Gair, J R; Sesana, A; Vecchio, A

    2016-01-01

    We present two methods for determining the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave background affecting a pulsar-timing array, where detection is based on recovering evidence for correlations between different pulsars, i.e. spatial correlations. Nulling these spatial correlations is crucial to understanding the response of our detection statistic under the null hypothesis so that we can properly assess the significance of plausible signals. The usual approach of creating many noise-only simulations is, albeit useful, undesirable since in that case detection significance is predicated on our (incomplete) understanding of all noise processes. Alternatively, destroying any possible correlations in our real datasets and using those (containing all actual noise features) is a much superior approach. In our first method, we perform random phase shifts in the signal-model basis functions, which has the effect of eliminating signal phase coherence between pulsars, while keeping the statistical properties of t...

  1. Biogas upgrading technologies:Energetic analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajing Xu; Ying Huang; Bin Wu; Xiangping Zhang; Suojiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas upgrading for removing CO2 and other trace components from raw biogas is a necessary step before the biogas to be used as a vehicle fuel or supplied to the natural gas grid. In this work, three technologies for biogas upgrading, i.e., pressured water scrubbing (PWS), monoethanolamine aqueous scrubbing (MAS) and ionic liquid scrubbing (ILS), are studied and assessed in terms of their energy consumption and environmental impacts with the process simulation and green degree method. A non-random-two-liquid and Henry's law property method for a CO2 separation system with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) is established and verified with experimental data. The assessment results indicate that the specific energy consumption of ILS and PWS is almost the same and much less than that of MAS. High purity CO2 product can be obtained by MAS and ILS methods, whereas no pure CO2 is recovered with the PWS. For the environmental aspect, ILS has the highest green degree production value, while MAS and PWS produce serious environmental impacts.

  2. Ultra-low dark current InGaAs technology for focal plane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, Bora M.; Huang, Wei; Masaun, Navneet; Lange, Michael; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Dries, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    Under the DARPA Photon Counting Arrays (PCAR) program we have investigated technologies to reduce the overall noise level in InGaAs based imagers for identifying a man at 100m under low-light level imaging conditions. We report the results of our experiments comprising of 15 InGaAs wafers that were utilized to investigate lowering dark current in photodiode arrays. As a result of these experiments, we have achieved an ultra low dark current of 2nA/cm2 through technological advances in InGaAs detector design, epitaxial growth, and processing at a temperature of +12.3 degrees C. The InGaAs photodiode array was hybridized to a low noise readout integrated circuit, also developed under this program. The focal plane array (FPA) achieves very high sensitivity in the shortwave infrared bands in addition to the visible response added via substrate removal process post hybridization. Based on our current room-temperature stabilized SWIR camera platform, these imagers enable a full day-night imaging capability and are responsive to currently fielded covert laser designators, illuminators, and rangefinders. In addition, improved haze penetration in the SWIR compared to the visible provides enhanced clarity in the imagery of a scene. In this paper we show the results of our dark current studies as well as FPA characterization of the camera built under this program.

  3. Holistic Privacy Impact Assessment Framework for Video Privacy Filtering Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Badii

    2013-02-01

    balanced Privacy Filtering of the video frame whilst retaining the minimum of the information as negotiated per agreed process logic. Insights from this study have served the co-desi gn and deployment optimisation of privacy-preserving video filtering solutions. This UI-REF-based framework has been successfully applied to the evaluation of MediaEval 2012-2013 Privacy Filtering and as such h as served to motivates further innovation in co-design and multi-level, multi-modal impact assessment of multimedia privacy-security-balancing risk mitigati on technologies.

  4. Enhancing Teachers' Technological Knowledge and Assessment Practices to Enhance Student Learning in Technology: A Two-year Classroom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Judy; Jones, Alister; Northover, Ann

    2001-02-01

    This paper reports on a two-year classroom investigation of primary school (Years 1-8) technology education. The first year of the project explored emerging classroom practices in technology. In the second year intervention strategies were developed to enhance teaching, learning and assessment practices. Findings from the first year revealed that assessment was often seen in terms of social and managerial aspects, such as teamwork, turn taking and co-operative skills, rather than procedural and conceptual technological aspects. Existing formative interactions with students distorted the learning away from the procedural and conceptual aspects of the subject. The second year explored the development of teachers' technological knowledge in order to enhance formative assessment practices in technology, to inform classroom practice in technology, and to enhance student learning. Intervention strategies were designed to enhance the development of procedural, conceptual, societal and technical aspects of technology for teachers and students. The results from this intervention were very positive. This paper highlights the importance of developing teacher expertise pertaining to broad concepts of technology, detailed concepts in different technological areas and general pedagogical knowledge. The findings from this research therefore have implications for thinking about teaching, learning and assessment in technology.

  5. From understanding cellular function to novel drug discovery: the role of planar patch-clamp array chip technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe ePy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All excitable cell functions rely upon ion channels that are embedded in their plasma membrane. Perturbations of ion channel structure or function result in pathologies ranging from cardiac dysfunction to neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, to understand the functions of excitable cells and to remedy their pathophysiology, it is important to understand the ion channel functions under various experimental conditions – including exposure to novel drug targets. Glass pipette patch-clamp is the state of the art technique to monitor the intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons. However, this technique is labor-intensive and has low data throughput. Planar patch-clamp chips, integrated into automated systems, offer high throughputs but are limited to isolated cells from suspensions, resulting in questionable models of true physiological function, and are unsuitable for studies involving neuronal communication. Multi-electrode arrays (MEA, in contrast, have the ability to monitor network activity by measuring local field potentials from multiple extracellular sites, but specific ion channel activity is challenging to extract from these multiplexed signals. Here we describe a novel planar patch-clamp chip technology that enables the simultaneous high resolution electrophysiological interrogation of individual neurons at multiple sites in synaptically connected neuronal networks, thereby combining the advantages of MEA and patch-clamp techniques. Each neuron can be probed through an aperture that connects to a dedicated subterranean microfluidic channel. Neurons growing in networks are aligned to the apertures by physisorbed or chemisorbed chemical cues. In this review, we describe the design and fabrication process of these chips, the approach to the chemical patterning for cell placement, and present physiological data from cultured neuronal cells.

  6. Polystyrene Core-Silica Shell Particles with Defined Nanoarchitectures as a Versatile Platform for Suspension Array Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Dominik; Gawlitza, Kornelia; Rurack, Knut

    2016-04-19

    The need for rapid and high-throughput screening in analytical laboratories has led to significant growth in interest in suspension array technologies (SATs), especially with regard to cytometric assays targeting a low to medium number of analytes. Such SAT or bead-based assays rely on spherical objects that constitute the analytical platform. Usually, functionalized polymer or silica (SiO2) microbeads are used which each have distinct advantages and drawbacks. In this paper, we present a straightforward synthetic route to highly monodisperse SiO2-coated polystyrene core-shell (CS) beads for SAT with controllable architectures from smooth to raspberry- and multilayer-like shells by varying the molecular weight of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which was used as the stabilizer of the cores. The combination of both organic polymer core and a structurally controlled inorganic SiO2 shell in one hybrid particle holds great promises for flexible next-generation design of the spherical platform. The particles were characterized by electron microscopy (SEM, T-SEM, and TEM), thermogravimetry, flow cytometry, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption, offering comprehensive information on the composition, size, structure, and surface area. All particles show ideal cytometric detection patterns and facile handling due to the hybrid structure. The beads are endowed with straightforward modification possibilities through the defined SiO2 shells. We successfully implemented the particles in fluorometric SAT model assays, illustrating the benefits of tailored surface area which is readily available for small-molecule anchoring. Very promising assay performance was shown for DNA hybridization assays with quantification limits down to 8 fmol. PMID:27018430

  7. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate existing proven technologies for the monitoring of hazardous waste sites during remediation activities and to protect the health and safety of all related entities while complying with government regulations. The study began with a literature search to determine manufacturers and related instrumentation which would be applicable to the most complex (in terms of toxicity and mediums affected) sites. Criteria for monitoring and analyses were established and a functional analysis was performed to select the most appropriate instrumentation available. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry is the most widely accepted method for generating quantitative data given the characterization of the Winfield site. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, while not a new technology, has the distinct advantage of measuring simultaneously hundreds of gaseous pollutants which can also be sparged from water and this technology received the highest score as per the functional analysis. To protect workers and the public surrounding remediation sites which are known to contain VOCs, on site monitoring prior to, and during the excavation operations, is recommended until enough data are obtained to assess the health risks to workers. The conclusion of this study is to recommend evaluation of both the mobile GC/MS and FTIR systems simultaneously in identical operating conditions

  8. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Grzebelus, Dariusz; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Ellison, Shelby; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Macko-Podgorni, Alicja; Heller-Uszynska, Kasia; Kilian, Andrzej; Nothnagel, Thomas; Allender, Charlotte; Simon, Philipp W; Baranski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to develop a saturated genetic linkage map of carrot. We analyzed a set of 900 DArT markers in a collection of plant materials comprising 94 cultivated and 65 wild carrot accessions. The accessions were attribu...

  9. Why Portfolio Assessment is Introduced to Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘若芸

    2004-01-01

    The concept of portfolio assessment derived from the field of fine arts. It has been proven an effective learning and assessment tool. In Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, the traditional assessment is still used. After analysing the benefits and disadvantages, the author is eager to introduce it to Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology. The problems are also predicted.

  10. Assessing Apoptosis Gene Expression Profiling with a PCR Array in the Hippocampus of Ts65Dn Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that Down syndrome (DS is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically. Intellectual disability is the foremost and most debilitating trait, which caused loss of cognitive abilities and the development of early onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Ts65Dn mice were used in this study. We isolated the hippocampus. First, we used transmission scanning electron microscopy to directly observe the hippocampus and confirm if apoptosis had occurred. Second, we customized a PCR array with 53 genes, including several important genes related to cell apoptosis. Gene expression was detected by RT-PCR. There were varying degrees of changes characteristic of apoptosis in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice, which mainly included the following: nuclear membrane thinning, unevenly distributed chromosomes, the production of chromatin crescents, and pyknosis of the nuclei with some nuclear fragmentation. Meanwhile, three genes (API5, AIFM1, and NFκB1 showed changes of expression in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice compared with normal mice. Only NFκB1 expression was significantly increased, while the expressions of API5 and AIFM1 were notably decreased. The fold changes in the expression of API5, AIFM1, and NFκB1 were 11.55, 5.94, and 3.11, respectively. However, some well-known genes related to cell apoptosis, such as the caspase family, Bcl-2, Bad, Bid, Fas, and TNF, did not show changes in expression levels. The genes we found which were differentially expressed in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice may be closely related to cell apoptosis. PCR array technology can assist in the screening and identification of genes involved in apoptosis.

  11. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes’ hearing problem:an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwen Li; Yan Li; Ming Zhang; Weifang Ma; Xuezong Ma

    2014-01-01

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the ifltering principle of hair cells, external voice sig-nals at different frequencies are converted to current signals at corresponding frequencies using electronic multi-channel bandpass ifltering technology. Different positions on the skin can be stimulated by the electrode array, allowing the perception and discrimination of external speech signals to be determined by the skin response to the current signals. Through voice frequen-cy analysis, the frequency range of the band-pass iflter can also be determined. These ifndings demonstrate that the sensory nerves in the skin can help to transfer the voice signal and to dis-tinguish the speech signal, suggesting that the skin sensory nerves are good candidates for the replacement of the auditory nerve in addressing deaf-mutes’ hearing problems. Scientiifc hearing experiments can be more safely performed on the skin. Compared with the artificial cochlea, multi-channel-array skin-hearing aids have lower operation risk in use, are cheaper and are more easily popularized.

  12. Developing an Instrument for Assessing Students' Concepts of the Nature of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nature of technology has been rarely discussed despite the fact that technology plays an essential role in modern society. It is important to discuss students' concepts of the nature of technology, and further to advance their technological literacy and adaptation to modern society. There is a need to assess high school students'…

  13. Model-based feasibility assessment and evaluation of prostate hyperthermia with a commercial MR-guided endorectal HIFU ablation array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A., E-mail: salgaonkarv@radonc.ucsf.edu; Hsu, I-C.; Diederich, Chris J. [Thermal Therapy Research Group, Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H-1031, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Prakash, Punit [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, 2077 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Rieke, Viola; Ozhinsky, Eugene; Kurhanewicz, John [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Plata, Juan [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Feasibility of targeted and volumetric hyperthermia (40–45 °C) delivery to the prostate with a commercial MR-guided endorectal ultrasound phased array system, designed specifically for thermal ablation and approved for ablation trials (ExAblate 2100, Insightec Ltd.), was assessed through computer simulations and tissue-equivalent phantom experiments with the intention of fast clinical translation for targeted hyperthermia in conjunction with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: The simulations included a 3D finite element method based biothermal model, and acoustic field calculations for the ExAblate ERUS phased array (2.3 MHz, 2.3 × 4.0 cm{sup 2}, ∼1000 channels) using the rectangular radiator method. Array beamforming strategies were investigated to deliver protracted, continuous-wave hyperthermia to focal prostate cancer targets identified from representative patient cases. Constraints on power densities, sonication durations and switching speeds imposed by ExAblate hardware and software were incorporated in the models. Preliminary experiments included beamformed sonications in tissue mimicking phantoms under MR temperature monitoring at 3 T (GE Discovery MR750W). Results: Acoustic intensities considered during simulation were limited to ensure mild hyperthermia (T{sub max} < 45 °C) and fail-safe operation of the ExAblate array (spatial and time averaged acoustic intensity I{sub SATA} < 3.4 W/cm{sup 2}). Tissue volumes with therapeutic temperature levels (T > 41 °C) were estimated. Numerical simulations indicated that T > 41 °C was calculated in 13–23 cm{sup 3} volumes for sonications with planar or diverging beam patterns at 0.9–1.2 W/cm{sup 2}, in 4.5–5.8 cm{sup 3} volumes for simultaneous multipoint focus beam patterns at ∼0.7 W/cm{sup 2}, and in ∼6.0 cm{sup 3} for curvilinear (cylindrical) beam patterns at 0.75 W/cm{sup 2}. Focused heating patterns may be practical for treating focal disease in a single posterior

  14. Assessment of impacts from different waste treatment and waste disposal technologies: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents assessments of treatment and disposal technologies that appear to be appropriate for use in regional facilities in the Midwest Compact Region. Treatment technologies assessed are: compaction with a supercompactor, incineration, and incineration followed by solidification of the incinerator ash. Disposal technologies assessed are: shallow land burial, considered a baseline for comparison of other technologies, below-ground and above-ground vaults, the earth mounded concrete bunker, improved shallow land burial, modular concrete canister disposal, mined cavities, unlined and lined augered holes. The text indicates that assessment of treatment technologies sometimes depends on the disposal technology that will be used, and vice versa. However, the major thrust of assessments reported here is to evaluate the technologies without defining combinations of treatment and disposal methods. 20 refs

  15. Molecular karyotyping: array CGH quality criteria for constitutional genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Joris R; Melotte, Cindy; Froyen, Guy; Van Vooren, Steven; Dutta, Binita; Maas, Nicole; Vermeulen, Stefan; Menten, Björn; Speleman, Frank; De Moor, Bart; Van Hummelen, Paul; Marynen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Devriendt, Koen

    2005-03-01

    Array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) enables the identification of chromosomal copy number changes. The availability of clone sets covering the human genome opens the possibility for the widespread use of array CGH for both research and diagnostic purposes. In this manuscript we report on the parameters that were critical for successful implementation of the technology, assess quality criteria, and discuss the potential benefits and pitfalls of the technology for improved pre- and postnatal constitutional genetic diagnosis. We propose to name the genome-wide array CGH "molecular karyotyping," in analogy with conventional karyotyping that uses staining methods to visualize chromosomes.

  16. Psychometric evaluation of a new assessment of the ability to manage technology in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Nygård, Louise; Kottorp, Anders

    2011-03-01

    Technology increasingly influences the everyday lives of most people, and the ability to manage technology can be seen as a prerequisite for participation in everyday occupations. However, knowledge of the ability and skills required for management of technology is sparse. This study aimed to validate a new observation-based assessment, the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The META has been developed to assess the ability to manage technology in everyday life. A sample of 116 older adults with and without cognitive impairment were observed and interviewed by the use of the META when managing their everyday technology at home. The results indicate that the META demonstrates acceptable person response validity and technology goodness-of-fit. Additionally, the META can separate individuals with higher ability from individuals with lower ability to manage everyday technology. The META can be seen as a complement to existing ADL assessment techniques and is planned to be used in both research and practice.

  17. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies: Method and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng;

    2016-01-01

    to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration...

  18. 78 FR 49287 - Environmental Assessment for Potential Lease Issuance and Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... well as identification of important environmental issues associated with data collection and technology... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Assessment for Potential Lease Issuance and Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  19. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  20. Common protein biomarkers assessed by reverse phase protein arrays show considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Malinowsky

    Full Text Available Proteins are used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer. However, the variability of protein expression within the same tumor is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess intratumoral heterogeneity in protein expression levels by reverse-phase-protein-arrays (RPPA (i within primary breast cancers and (ii between axillary lymph node metastases from the same patient. Protein was extracted from 106 paraffin-embedded samples from 15 large (≥3 cm primary invasive breast cancers, including different zones within the primary tumor (peripheral, intermediate, central as well as 2-5 axillary lymph node metastases in 8 cases. Expression of 35 proteins including 15 phosphorylated proteins representing the HER2, EGFR, and uPA/PAI-1 signaling pathways was assessed using reverse-phase-protein-arrays. All 35 proteins showed considerable intratumoral heterogeneity within primary breast cancers with a mean coefficient of variation (CV of 31% (range 22-43%. There were no significant differences between phosphorylated (CV 32% and non-phosphorylated proteins (CV 31% and in the extent of intratumoral heterogeneity within a defined tumor zone (CV 28%, range 18-38% or between different tumor zones (CV 24%, range 17-38%. Lymph node metastases from the same patient showed a similar heterogeneity in protein expression (CV 27%, range 18-34%. In comparison, the variation amongst different patients was higher in primary tumors (CV 51%, range 29-98% and lymph node metastases (CV 65%, range 40-146%. Several proteins showed significant differential expression between different tumor stages, grades, histological subtypes and hormone receptor status. Commonly used protein biomarkers of breast cancer, including proteins from HER2, uPA/PAI-1 and EGFR signaling pathways showed higher than previously reported intratumoral heterogeneity of expression levels both within primary breast cancers and between lymph node metastases from the same patient

  1. A Novel Methodology for the Sustainability Impact Assessment of New Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    de Blok, K; Huijbregts, M; Roes, Lex; van Haaster, Berthe; Patel, M.K. (Martin); Hertwich, E.; Hauschild, M.; Sellke, P.; Antunes, P.; Hellweg, S.; Ciroth, A.; Harmelink, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies can have profound impact on society and nature. Therefore, a need exists for a method that can provide a balanced assessment of new tech-nologies that takes into account all different impacts. Within the EU-funded PROSUITE pro-ject, the aim is to develop a methodology for the sustainability assessment of existing and emerging technologies. Here, existing approaches of sustainability assessment are re-viewed. All of them have their merits, but none of them ...

  2. 1st International Ocean Technology Congress on EEZ Resources : Technology Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Champ, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Today western nations consume annually only a small percentage of their resources from the sea, despite the proclamation of Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) by many. In contrast, most Pacific Basin Countries obtain more than a quarter of their annual needs from the ocean. Determination of greater rewards from the development of marine resources is markedly inhibited by the limited technical abilities available to locate and assess them. Knowledge of Exclusive Economic Zone resources is schematic and generalised, and a detailed understanding of the geology and processes relating to the economic use of the seafloor is both fragmentary and very basic. Technology for mapping the mineral resources of continental shelves and ocean areas, except in active offshore hydrocarbon provinces, has been largely developed in pursuit of scientific objectives and competence to rapidly appraise economic potential is limited. Similarly, the capability to characterise and evaluate the other resources of the seas is rudimentary. The...

  3. Measuring and Assessing Application-Specific Technology Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Ardilio; Sven Seidenstricker; Michael Schmitz

    2015-01-01

    Technology readiness is a crucial issue for decision-makers in technology-driven enterprises, determining whether the technology will or won’t be adopted for use in products or as a process technology. We know that, in some cases, lower technology readiness will be accepted by the users; these could be end-users, but, more often, it will be used in companies. The impact of a too early or too late adopted technology can be huge for companies and can even threaten market position or the existen...

  4. Evaluation of pressure sensing concepts: A technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R.L.; Thacker, L.H.

    1993-09-01

    Advanced distributed control systems for electric power plants will require more accurate and reliable pressure gauges than those now installed. Future developments in power plant control systems are expected to use digital/optical networks rather than the analog/electric data transmission used in existing plants. Many pressure transmitters now installed use oil filling to separate process fluids from the gauge mechanism and are subject to insidious failures when the oil leaks. Testing and maintenance of pressure channels occupy a disproportionately large amount of effort to restore their accuracy and verify their operability. These and similar concerns have prompted an assessment of a broad spectrum of sensor technologies to aid in selecting the most likely candidates for adaptation to power plant applications. Ten representative conventional and thirty innovational pressure sensors are described and compared. Particular emphasis is focused on two categories: Silicon-integrated pressure sensors and fiber-optic sensors, and both of these categories are discussed in detail. Additional attractive concepts include variable reluctance gauges and resonant structure gauges that may not require oil buffering from the process fluid.

  5. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide the review manual and the relevant technical data for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. We have been conducted the research program based on a contract with well-equipped organization since FY2006. We selected four experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant experienced in much corrosion problems, which is pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec.1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr.2006. Corrosion of stainless steel made components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions. Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions. Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloy made components in highly radioactive nitric acid solutions. Creep and fatigue of nickel-base alloy made furnaces which is operated in the conditions of daily cyclic heating. This annual report presents the summary of research activities in FY2010. (author)

  6. Interview: Health technology assessment in Asia: an emerging trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bong-min

    2012-05-01

    Bong-min Yang, PhD (in economics), is Professor and former Dean of the School of Public Health at the Seoul National University, South Korea. Professor Yang has led research and written many papers in health economics and healthcare systems in Korea and Asia. His recent research and publications focus on the field of economic evaluation and outcomes research. He played a key role in the introduction of a formal health technology assessment system within Korean healthcare. He is currently serving as Executive Director, Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University. In addition to his research and publications, Professor Yang is Associate Editor for Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, is co-editor-in-chief for Value in Health Regional Issues, and is currently chair of the Management Advisory Board of Value in Health and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Medical Economics. He has been a policy consultant to China, Japan, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and India. He has also worked as a short-term consultant at the WHO, ADB, UNDP and the World Bank. For the Korean government, he served as Chairperson of the Health Insurance Reform Committee, and Chairperson of the Drug Pricing and Reimbursement Committee. He is currently serving as Chair of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Asia Consortium, and a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. PMID:24237405

  7. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  8. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  9. [The Health Technology Assessment Engine of the Academic Hospital of Udine: first appraisal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Health Technology Assessment Engine (HTAE) of the Academic Hospital of Udine aggregates about one hundred of health technology assessment websites. It was born thanks to Google technology in 2008 and after about four years of testing it became public for everybody from the Homepage of the Italian Society of Health Technology Assessment (SIHTA). In this paper the first results obtained with this resource are reported. The role of the scientific librarian is examined not only as a support specialist in bibliographic search but also as a creative expert in managing new technologies for the community.

  10. Technology Status and Developing Trends of Satellite Phased Array%星载相控阵天线的技术现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎鲁滨

    2012-01-01

    星载相控阵天线采用现代微波集成技术,在有限的卫星平台空间条件下,实现独立控制的多个点波束,满足未来通信的需求。相控阵天线可以实现波束间通信容量的调整,还可以根据需要改变波束形状,使用自适应调零的抗干扰技术,这些技术已在国外星上设备中广泛采用,具有广阔的发展前景。文章介绍了星载相控阵天线的研究现状、关键技术,以及发展趋势,并对我国星载相控阵天线技术的发展提出了建议。%Satellite phased array with modern microwave integrated circuit technology takes limit space on satellite and is able to independently control many beams to satisfy the demands ofmod- ern communication. The power ration between beams of phased array is adjustble. The radiation beam shape is variable and adaptive anti-jamming technology is easy to apply. Satellite phased ar- ray has been applied in wide domain and has increasing developing future. This paper gives the research status of satellite phased array, the key technologies and prospects the developing trends of satellite phased array.

  11. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Marine and Hydrokinetic Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Baldwin, Gilbert Bindewald, Austin Brown, Charles Chen, Kerry Cheung, Corrie Clark, Joe Cresko,

    2015-10-07

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies convert the energy of waves, tides, and river and ocean currents into electricity. With more than 50% of the U.S. population living within 50 miles of the nation’s coasts, MHK technologies hold significant potential to supply renewable electricity to consumers in coastal load centers, particularly in the near term in areas with high costs of electricity and longer term in high resource areas in close proximity to major coastal load centers. MHK resource assessments identify a total U.S. technical resource potential of approximately 1250–1850 terawatt-hours (TWh) of generation per year from ocean wave, ocean current, ocean tidal, and river current energy. Of this, the U.S. continental technical resource potential is approximately 500–750 TWh/year. For context, roughly 90,000 homes can be powered by 1 TWh of electricity generation each year. A cost-effective MHK industry could provide a substantial amount of electricity for the nation owing in large part to its unique advantages as a source of energy, including its vast resource potential, its close proximity to major coastal load centers, and its long-term predictability and near-term forecastability.

  12. Nuclear Reactor Technology Assessment for Near Term Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. Several IAEA Member States have embarked recently on initiatives to establish or reinvigorate nuclear power programmes. In response, the IAEA has developed several guidance and technical publications to identify with Member States the complex tasks associated with such an undertaking and to recommend the processes that can be used in the performance of this work. A major challenge in this undertaking, especially for newcomer Member States, is the process associated with reactor technology assessment (RTA) for near term deployment. RTA permits the evaluation, selection and deployment

  13. Assessment of Technologies Used to Characterize Wildlife Populations in the Offshore Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-12-09

    Wind energy development in the offshore environment can have both direct and indirect effects on wildlife, yet little is known about most species that use near-shore and offshore waters due in part to the difficulty involved in studying animals in remote, challenging environments. Traditional methods to characterize offshore wildlife populations include shipboard observations. Technological advances have provided researches with an array of technologies to gather information about fauna from afar. This report describes the use and application of radar, thermal and optical imagery, and acoustic detection technologies for monitoring birds, bats, and marine mammals in offshore environments.

  14. Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Information and Communication Technologies Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalik, Cindy; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Karpinski, Aryn

    2013-01-01

    The impact of a redesigned educational technology course on preservice teachers' knowledge and skills with regard to information and communications technology as defined by ISTE's National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS-T) was investigated in this study. Two changes were made to the course: (1) a commercially available…

  15. An Empirical Assessment of Science Teachers' Intentions toward Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weishen; Chang, Huey-Por; Guo, Chorng-Jee

    2008-01-01

    Building upon three theoretical paradigms (technology acceptance model, social cognitive theory, and task-technology fit), the present study aims to investigate the relationship among intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing science teachers' intentions toward teaching with information technology (IT). A sample of 226 middle school science…

  16. Improving Outcome Assessment in Information Technology Program Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Bryan S.; Reynolds, Charles

    2010-01-01

    As of March 2010, there were fourteen Information Technology programs accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, known as ABET, Inc (ABET Inc. 2009). ABET Inc. is the only recognized institution for the accreditation of engineering, computing, and technology programs in the U.S. There are currently over 128 U.S. schools…

  17. 1:1 Technology and Computerized State Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    American students in the 21st century are growing up with Internet accessible technology available at their fingertips. Considering this and the continued pressure to compete in a global society, The United States' Department of Education's National Education Technology Plan (NETP) (2010) calls for educators to leverage technology in order to…

  18. Technology assessment of multileaf collimation: a North American users survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) initiated an Assessment of Technology Subcommittee (ATS) to help the radiotherapy community evaluate emerging technologies. The ATS decided to first address multileaf collimation (MLC) by means of a North American users survey. The survey attempted to address issues such as MLC utility, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and customer satisfaction. Methods and Materials: The survey was designed with 38 questions, with cross-tabulation set up to decipher a particular clinic's perception of MLC. The surveys were coded according to MLC types, which were narrowed to four: Elekta, Siemens, Varian 52-leaf, and Varian 80-leaf. A 40% return rate was desired. Results: A 44% (108 of 250) return was achieved. On an MLC machine, 76.5% of photon patients are being treated with MLC. The main reasons for not using MLC were stair stepping, field size limitation, and physician objection. The most common sites in which MLC is being used are lung, pelvis, and prostate. The least used sites are head and neck and mantle fields. Of the facilities, 31% claimed an increase in number of patients being treated since MLC was installed, and 44% claimed an increase in the number of fields. Though the staffing for block cutting has decreased, therapist staffing has not. However, 91% of the facilities claimed a decreased workload for the therapists, despite the increase in daily treated patients and fields. Of the facilities that justified MLC purchase for more daily patients, 63% are actually treating more patients. Only 26% of the facilities that justified an MLC purchase for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are currently using it for that purpose. The satisfaction rating (1 = low to 5 = high) for department groups averaged 4.0. Therapists ranked MLC as 4.6. Conclusions: Our survey shows that most users have successfully introduced MLC into the clinic as a block replacement. Most have found MLC to be cost-effective and

  19. Trust, technology affordances and feedback in peer assessments in MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla Lunde; Milligan, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The preliminary findings in the automated peer assessments in the assessment framework in a MOOC are discussed here. We discuss whether,the assessment frame work underpins pedagogical approaches including feedback and collaboration between the participants. The empirical foundation is research...... on data from a recent MOOC from Melbourne University titled “Teaching and assessing 21st century skills”....

  20. Improving Pathological Assessment of Breast Cancer by Employing Array-Based Transcriptome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Mihály

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer research has paved the way of personalized oncology with the introduction of hormonal therapy and the measurement of estrogen receptor as the first widely accepted clinical biomarker. The expression of another receptor—HER2/ERBB2/neu—was initially a sign of worse prognosis, but targeted therapy has granted improved outcome for these patients so that today HER2 positive patients have better prognosis than HER2 negative patients. Later, the introduction of multigene assays provided the pathologists with an unbiased assessment of the tumors’ molecular fingerprint. The recent FDA approval of complete microarray pipelines has opened new possibilities for the objective classification of breast cancer samples. Here we review the applications of microarrays for determining ER and HER2 status, molecular subtypes as well as predicting prognosis and grade for breast cancer patients. An open question remains the role of single genes within such signatures. Openly available microarray datasets enable the execution of an independent cross-validation of new marker and signature candidates. In summary, we review the current state regarding clinical applications of microarrays in breast cancer molecular pathology.

  1. Development of ultrasonic testing technique for anchor bolts. Part 2. Development of nondestructive examination method for fatigue cracks by ultrasonic phased array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cracks may initiate in anchor bolts in nuclear power plants due to a severe earthquake. Moreover, number of fatigue cracks have been found in the anchor bolts in aged nuclear and thermal power plants. Ultrasonic phased array technology is effective to detect such cracks, and a method is proposed to determine crack depth by using refection echo at the vicinity of crack according to simulation results of wave propagation within bolts. However, detectability of crack and applicability of this method for crack sizing are not known though they are essential to evaluation of crack in bolts by ultrasonic phased array technology. In this report, we prepared M24 and M30 bolt specimens with various slits and fatigue cracks introduced. Three linear array probes with respective frequency of 2, 5 and 10 MHz are used to measure these specimens. The investigation of fracture surface is also performed after finishing all measurements. Measurement results show the following: (1) the frequency of 10 MHz is more appropriate than frequencies of 5 and 2 MHz for detecting crack in bolts; (2) it is easy to detect 1-mm-deep cracks; and (3) it is possible to determine crack depth for M30 bolts with the deviation of 2 mm from actual depth by proposed method, but difficult for M24 bolts. (author)

  2. Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzochukwu, G. A. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2000-06-30

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  3. Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites

  4. Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1999-01-15

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  5. Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  6. Phased-array ultrasound technology enhances accuracy of dual frequency ultrasound measurements - towards improved ultrasound bone diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans; Malo, Markus K H; Liukkonen, Jukka; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Overlying soft tissues attenuate ultrasound backscattered from bone, complicating diagnostics of osteoporosis at the most important fracture sites. Dual-frequency ultrasound technique (DFUS) has been proposed to solve this problem through determination of thickness and composition of overlying soft tissue. This study applies DFUS technique for the first time with a phased-array transducer to investigate if the thickness of two interfering layers (oil and water) can be accurately determined in a variety of configurations. Results indicate that DFUS may be used with phased-array ultrasound systems, making them a suitable combination to consider in future development of clinical in vivo ultrasound methodologies. PMID:27187271

  7. Natural hazards and technological risk in Russia: the relation assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, E

    2005-01-01

    International audience Almost every natural disaster is accompanied by some sort of technological one. A number of studies also show a correlation between technological disasters and various global processes such as solar disturbances, geophysical field variation etc. In this study we attempted to ascertain and codify the relationship between different types of technological disasters and natural hazards. Two types of natural hazards were found, based on their genesis, distribution in time...

  8. Assessing the Role of Technology Adoption in China's Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Nadja

    China has experienced a period of tremendous economic growth in recent years. In an attempt to explain this development, several existing growth-accounting studies reveal that impressively high rates of productivity growth have been at the heart of China's performance. This study investigates...... to what extent these productivity increases can be explained by technology-adoption theory. In less developed countries, the key element behind technological progress is technology adoption, the process of copying technological knowledge invented throughout the world. To uncover a measure of China...

  9. 2014 Abridged Technology and Engineering Literacy Framework for the 2014 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing importance of technology and engineering in the educational landscape, and to support America's ability to contribute to and compete in a global economy, the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) initiated development of the first NAEP Technology and Engineering Literacy (TEL) Assessment. Relating to national efforts in…

  10. Vocal Sight-Reading Assessment: Technological Advances, Student Perceptions, and Instructional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated choral singers' comfort level using computer technology for vocal sight-reading assessment. High school choral singers (N = 138) attending a summer music camp completed a computer-based sight-reading assessment and accompanying pre- and posttest surveys on their musical backgrounds and perceptions about technology. A large…

  11. What Can You Learn in Three Minutes? Critical Reflection on an Assessment Task that Embeds Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Natalie Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically examine an assessment task, undertaken by pre-service science teachers, that integrates the use of technology (in this case digital video-recorders and video-editing software) whilst scaffolding skill development. The embedding of technology into the assessment task is purposeful, aiming to…

  12. Decision Gate Process for Assessment of a NASA Technology Development Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Rajiv; Fishman, Julianna L.; Hyatt, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Dust Management Project (DMP) was established to provide technologies (to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6) required to address adverse effects of lunar dust to humans and to exploration systems and equipment, to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and to increase the probability of sustainable and successful lunar missions. The technology portfolio of DMP consisted of different categories of technologies whose final product was either a technology solution in itself, or one that contributes toward a dust mitigation strategy for a particular application. A Decision Gate Process (DGP) was developed to assess and validate the achievement and priority of the dust mitigation technologies as the technologies progress through the development cycle. The DGP was part of continuous technology assessment and was a critical element of DMP risk management. At the core of the process were technology-specific criteria developed to measure the success of each DMP technology in attaining the technology readiness levels assigned to each decision gate. The DGP accounts for both categories of technologies and qualifies the technology progression from technology development tasks to application areas. The process provided opportunities to validate performance, as well as to identify non-performance in time to adjust resources and direction. This paper describes the overall philosophy of the DGP and the methodology for implementation for DMP, and describes the method for defining the technology evaluation criteria. The process is illustrated by example of an application to a specific DMP technology.

  13. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant. Assessment of titanium alloy heating component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide review manuals and technical database for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. Research programs have been conducted based on a contract with well-equipped organization since F. Y. 2006. One experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed below in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant, which have experienced many corrosion problems. TOKAI plant is the pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec. 1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr. 2006. - Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions -. (author)

  14. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant. Assessment of stainless steel heating component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide review manuals and technical database for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. Research programs have been conducted based on a contract with well-equipped organization since F.Y. 2006. One experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed below in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant, which have experienced many corrosion problems. TOKAI plant is the pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec. 1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr. 2006. - Corrosion of stainless steel components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions -. (author)

  15. Propulsion Technology Assessment: Science and Enabling Technologies to Explore the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Johnson, Les; Baysinger, Michael F.; Beers, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger effort led by the Keck Institute for Space Studies at the California Institute of Technology, the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA’s George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study to assess what low-thrust advanced propulsion system candidates, existing and near term, could deliver a small, Voyager-like satellite to our solar system’s heliopause, approximately 100 AU from the center of the sun, within 10 years and within a 2025 to 2035 launch window. The advanced propulsion system trade study consisted of three candidates, including a Magnetically Shielded Miniature (MaSMi) Hall thruster, a solar sail and an electric sail. Two aerial densities, and thus characteristic accelerations, 0.426 mm/s(exp 2) and 0.664 mm/s(exp 2), were analyzed for the solar sail option in order understand the impact of near and long term development of this technology. Similarly, two characteristic accelerations, 1 mm/s(exp 2) and 2 mm/s(exp 2), were also analyzed for the electric sail option in addition to tether quantities of 10 and 20, respectively, and individual tether length of 20 km. A second analysis was conducted to determine what existing solid rocket motor kick stage(s) would be required to provide additional thrust at various points in the trajectory, assuming an earth departure characteristic energy capability provided by a Space Launch System (SLS) Block 1B vehicle architecture carrying an 8.4 meter payload fairing. Two trajectory profiles were considered, including an escape trajectory using a Jupiter gravity assist (E-Ju), and an escape trajectory first performing a Jupiter gravity assist followed by an Oberth maneuver around the sun and an optional Saturn gravity assist (E-Ju-Su-Sa). The Oberth maneuver would need to be performed very close to the sun, wherein this study assumed a perihelion distance of approximately 11 solar radii, or 0.05 AU, away from the surface. The heat shield technology required to perform this type of ambitious

  16. Technometry - the assessment of technico-economic attainments. Enzymes, genetically produced drugs, solar cell arrays, lasers, sensors, industrial robots in the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and in the USA. Technometrie - die Bemessung des technisch-wirtschaftlichen Leistungsstandes. Enzyme, gentechnisch hergestellte Arzneimittel, Solargeneratoren, Laser, Sensoren, Industrieroboter in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Japan und den Vereinigten Staaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupp, H.; Hohmeyer, O.; Kollert, R.; Legler, H.

    1987-01-01

    The competitiveness of a given economic system can conveniently be assessed using analytical methods which at an early stage allow to recognize possible technical drawbacks (technological gaps). The study presents a promising analytical method (indicators, technometry). Details on the pioneer activities going on in Japan and details on the fundamentals of technometry and technological indicators are followed by a presentation of selected fields of technology, namely immobilized biocatalysts, genetically produced drugs, power engineering (solar cells and solar cell arrays), physical technologies (laser radiation sources), measurement techniques (sensors), production engineering (industrial robots, market and technology reports, technico-scientific evaluation). The study concludes with explaining a number of results applicable to all the fields discussed (technological indicators, macroeconomic indicators, technico-economic indicators for selected fields of technology. (HWJ).

  17. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Technical volume. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor); Chafaris, G.; Chestek, J.; Contrad, J.; Frippel, G.; Gulatsi, R.; Heath, A.; Hodara, H.; Kritikos, H.; Tamiyasu, K.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of space systems and technology for detecting and monitoring ocean oil spills and waste pollution was assessed as well as the impact of this application on communication and data handling systems. Agencies charged with responsibilities in this area were identified and their measurement requirements were ascertained in order to determine the spatial resolution needed to characterize operational and accidental discharges. Microwave and optical sensors and sensing techniques were evaluated as candidate system elements. Capabilities are described for the following: synthetic aperture radar, microwave scatterometer, passive microwave radiometer, microwave altimeter, electro-optical sensors currently used in airborne detection, existing space-based optical sensors, the thematic mapper, and the pointable optical linear array.

  18. Examination of Engineering Design in Curriculum Content and Assessment Practices of Secondary Technology Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the current status of technology education teacher practices with respect to engineering design. Participants were drawn from the current International Technology Education Association (ITEA) high school teacher membership database. A survey instrument gathered data about the extent to which engineering design concepts are incorporated into the curriculum content, and assessment practices employed by secondary technology educators. Moreover, the survey identifi...

  19. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  20. Enhancing innovation in agriculture at the policy level : The potential contribution of Technology Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank M.; Russell, A. Wendy; Kimber, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Technology Assessment (TA) is an applied process that considers the societal implications of technological change in order to influence policy to improve technology governance. TA has considerable potential to enhance innovation in agriculture and to assist agricultural industries in becoming more e

  1. Bridges between science, society and policy technology assessment : methods and impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Ladikas, Miltos

    2004-01-01

    This book summarises the results of the project TAMI (Technology Assessment in Europe; between Method and Impact). This was a two-year project that brought together the main institutes of technology assessment in Europe, both parliamentary and non-parliamentary. TAMI created a structured dialogue between technology assessment experts and policymakers on current methodologies and their impact on policymaking. The TAMI team explored and assessed the whole spectrum of methodologies from the "classical" to the "interactive/participatory" and "communicative," identified good practices in project implementation and set the stage for impact evaluation based on objective criteria. Finally this report offers a series of policy recommendations based on the findings of the project. Science, Society and Policy, are three areas that technology assessment functions within and works for; this book is an attempt to improve the interaction amongst them for a more socially and economically sustainable Science and Technology p...

  2. Objective assessment and design improvement of a staring, sparse transducer array by the spatial crosstalk matrix for 3D photoacoustic tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Wong

    Full Text Available Accurate reconstruction of 3D photoacoustic (PA images requires detection of photoacoustic signals from many angles. Several groups have adopted staring ultrasound arrays, but assessment of array performance has been limited. We previously reported on a method to calibrate a 3D PA tomography (PAT staring array system and analyze system performance using singular value decomposition (SVD. The developed SVD metric, however, was impractical for large system matrices, which are typical of 3D PAT problems. The present study consisted of two main objectives. The first objective aimed to introduce the crosstalk matrix concept to the field of PAT for system design. Figures-of-merit utilized in this study were root mean square error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean absolute error, and a three dimensional structural similarity index, which were derived between the normalized spatial crosstalk matrix and the identity matrix. The applicability of this approach for 3D PAT was validated by observing the response of the figures-of-merit in relation to well-understood PAT sampling characteristics (i.e. spatial and temporal sampling rate. The second objective aimed to utilize the figures-of-merit to characterize and improve the performance of a near-spherical staring array design. Transducer arrangement, array radius, and array angular coverage were the design parameters examined. We observed that the performance of a 129-element staring transducer array for 3D PAT could be improved by selection of optimal values of the design parameters. The results suggested that this formulation could be used to objectively characterize 3D PAT system performance and would enable the development of efficient strategies for system design optimization.

  3. Assessing Effects of Technology Usage on Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Julianne

    2006-01-01

    Computer-based technologies are now commonplace in classrooms, and the integration of these media into the teaching and learning of mathematics is supported by government policy in most developed countries. However, many questions about the impact of computer-based technologies on classroom mathematics learning remain unanswered, and debates about…

  4. Natural hazards and technological risk in Russia: the relation assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost every natural disaster is accompanied by some sort of technological one. A number of studies also show a correlation between technological disasters and various global processes such as solar disturbances, geophysical field variation etc. In this study we attempted to ascertain and codify the relationship between different types of technological disasters and natural hazards. Two types of natural hazards were found, based on their genesis, distribution in time, and impact pattern on the technosphere. Solar and geomagnetic disturbances generally affect technological risk through the failure of automatic machinery and the reduction of operator reliability. They increase the probability of transport accidents, fires, and catastrophic toxic emissions. These types of technological disasters are widely prevalent throughout Russia and in all federal regions. Geological, climatic, hydrological, and other natural hazardous processes increase technological risk through direct mechanical impacts. Their occurrence in space and time depends on the character of the natural process and the specific regional environment. The total number and proportion of technological disasters in federal regions results mainly from the concentration of industrial units and their type, as well as the local natural and social environment. Temporal changes in the number of technological disasters of different groups depend on the prevailing type of natural processes.

  5. Summary of the NASA Science Instrument, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS) Technology Assessment Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology Assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assessed the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. This needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper summarizes the SIOSS findings and recommendations.

  6. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies - Task 1 Report Technology Evaluation of Hydrogen Light Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Rousseau, Aymeric

    2007-12-01

    This task analyzes the candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles for near-term use in the Southeastern U.S. The purpose of this work is to assess their potential in terms of efficiency and performance. This report compares conventional, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with gasoline and hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) as well as fuel cell and fuel cell hybrids from a technology as well as fuel economy point of view. All the vehicles have been simulated using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). First, some background information is provided on recent American automotive market trends and consequences. Moreover, available options are presented for introducing cleaner and more economical vehicles in the market in the future. In this study, analysis of various candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles is performed using PSAT and, thus, a brief description of PSAT features and capabilities are provided. Detailed information on the simulation analysis performed is also offered, including methodology assumptions, fuel economic results, and conclusions from the findings.

  7. Array-based approaches to bacterial transcriptome analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Microarray technology has been extensively used to compare or quantify genome-wide mRNA levels, a key factor in the adaptive response of bacteria to the environment. Classical gene expression arrays based on an existing genome annotation with relatively few probes for each gene, are well suited to assess the expression levels of all annotated transcripts under many different conditions. Newer genomic tiling arrays that cover both strands of a genome by overlapping probes and, more recently, R...

  8. NASA Langley Systems Analysis & Concepts Directorate Technology Assessment/Portfolio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Stephen; Chytka, Trina; Arcara, Phil; Jones, Sharon; Stanley, Doug; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2006-01-01

    Systems analysis develops and documents candidate mission and architectures, associated system concepts, enabling capabilities and investment strategies to achieve NASA s strategic objectives. The technology assessment process connects the mission and architectures to the investment strategies. In order to successfully implement a technology assessment, there is a need to collect, manipulate, analyze, document, and disseminate technology-related information. Information must be collected and organized on the wide variety of potentially applicable technologies, including: previous research results, key technical parameters and characteristics, technology readiness levels, relationships to other technologies, costs, and potential barriers and risks. This information must be manipulated to facilitate planning and documentation. An assessment is included of the programmatic and technical risks associated with each technology task as well as potential risk mitigation plans. Risks are assessed and tracked in terms of likelihood of the risk occurring and consequences of the risk if it does occur. The risk assessments take into account cost, schedule, and technical risk dimensions. Assessment data must be simplified for presentation to decision makers. The Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) at NASA Langley Research Center has a wealth of experience in performing Technology Assessment and Portfolio Analysis as this has been a business line since 1978.

  9. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Mort D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2015-11-30

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed both at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and subsequently at Pennsylvania State University. The research project can be divided into three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment.

  10. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Mort David [MIT

    2015-03-10

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research project consists of three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment. Results in each area is described in the report.

  11. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels: advanced wafer-level process technologies for integration of focal plane arrays with readout electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Dorota S.; Vick, Erik P.; Lueck, Matthew R.; Malta, Dean; Skokan, Mark R.; Masterjohn, Christopher M.; Muzilla, Mark S.

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decade, the development of infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) has seen two trends: decreasing of the pixel size and increasing of signal-processing capability at the device level. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels can be achieved through the use of advanced wafer-level processes for the integration of FPAs with silicon (Si) readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we review the development of these wafer-level integration technologies, highlighting approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with three-dimensional ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of Si circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias.

  12. A development perspective for biomass-fuelled electricity generation technologies. Economic technology assessment in view of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Chapters 1-3 the methodology for assessing the development of biomass based energy technologies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is brought into focus. The development of this methodology begins with a chapter on existing views regarding the environment, sustainability and the role of technology. In the second part of this thesis, the newly established methodology is applied to biomass-fuelled central electricity production. First the scope for application in the European Union (EU) is considered. Following this, the assessment focusses on rural electrification in developing countries. Where biomass, in addition to being grown purposefully as an energy crop, may become available as residues and waste, developments in legislation with regard to waste biomass can be critical. This is discussed in a special introduction to Part B. Here also, the methodological differences between technology assessments for waste processing and for sustainable electricity generation are discussed

  13. Feasibility Assessment of Using Geoinformatics Technology in Disaster Disease Surveillance in a Developing Country, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Faruque, Md Omar; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Ardalan, Ali; AHMADNEZHAD, Elham; Mohammadinia, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Geoinformatics technology retains an unprecedented trait of performing with a supersonic speed and precision in public health management whereas the existing disease surveillance systems in developing countries lack using this technology. This article aims to assess the feasibility of using geoinformatics technology in disaster disease surveillance in a developing country, Iran. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on technology acceptance mod...

  14. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenköttera, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Kristensen, F.B.; Brand, A.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the im

  15. 空间圆阵列天线超分辨测向技术研究%Study on Technology About Spatial Circular Antenna Array in DOA Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白蕾; 司锡才

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses an algorithm of spatial circular antenna array in super-resolution direction estimation,presents circular antenna array for ship-carried,and lists covariance matrix of this circular array.The MUSIC algorithm and MATLAB software are used to simulate. Its validity of theoretical analysis is confirmed by computer simulation. The result can be taken as the technological and theoretical basis in super-resolution direction estimation engineering.%论述了空间圆阵列天线谱估计超分辨测向的算法,提出了适合于舰载的圆阵列天线阵,列出了圆阵的协方差矩阵。选用MUSIC算法,用MATLAB软件进行了计算机仿真,模拟结果验证了理论分析的正确性。理论分析及结果可作为高分辨测向工程实现的理论基础和技术基础。

  16. EVALUATION OF CURRENT SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT OF BIOBASED TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable technology is driven by economic competitiveness, government policies and public pressure. The claim of inherent cleanliness for biotechnology is too simplistic. Each application of biotechnology must be evaluated for suitable characteristics of sustainability. The ...

  17. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques Applied During Structural Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Williams, P.T.; Dua, S.K.

    1998-10-20

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure properly and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated from a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology given site-specific conditions. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was carried out at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University, was to conduct an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study targeted the problem of dust suppression during the demolition of nuclear facilities. The resulting data were employed to assist in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to predict dust generation during structural demolition.

  18. Assessing nanocellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Henrique Milanez; Roniberto Morato do Amaral; Leandro Innocentini Lopes de Faria; José Angelo Rodrigues Gregolin

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nanocellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nanocellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nanomaterials. Scientific and technological future developments in nanocellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped....

  19. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  20. The Development of Technology for Higher Education Institution's Administrative Personnel Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtina, Olga Yurevna; Kirillov, Andrey Vladimirovich; Matyash, Sergey Askoldovich; Urzha, Olga Aleksandrovna

    2015-01-01

    The main approaches for development of assessment technology of higher education institution's administrative personnel are considered in this article. Alongside with it the following is defined: purposes, formation principles, indicators and criteria of the assessment system, rating scale, the procedure and order of assessment process of higher…

  1. U.S. Tsunami Information technology (TIM) Modernization: Performance Assessment of Tsunamigenic Earthquake Discrimination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, M. T.; Lomax, A.; Hellman, S. B.; Whitmore, P.; Weinstein, S.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Knight, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami warning centers must rapidly decide whether an earthquake is likely to generate a destructive tsunami in order to issue a tsunami warning quickly after a large event. For very large events (Mw > 8 or so), magnitude and location alone are sufficient to warrant an alert. However, for events of smaller magnitude (e.g., Mw ~ 7.5), particularly for so-called "tsunami earthquakes", magnitude alone is insufficient to issue an alert and other measurements must be rapidly made and used to assess tsunamigenic potential. The Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project to update and standardize the earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems currently employed at the U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers in Ewa Beach, Hawaii (PTWC) and Palmer, Alaska (NTWC). We (ISTI) are responsible for implementing the seismic monitoring components in this new system, including real-time seismic data collection and seismic processing. The seismic data processor includes a variety of methods aimed at real-time discrimination of tsunamigenic events, including: Mwp, Me, slowness (Theta), W-phase, mantle magnitude (Mm), array processing and finite-fault inversion. In addition, it contains the ability to designate earthquake scenarios and play the resulting synthetic seismograms through the processing system. Thus, it is also a convenient tool that integrates research and monitoring and may be used to calibrate and tune the real-time monitoring system. Here we show results of the automated processing system for a large dataset of subduction zone earthquakes containing recent tsunami earthquakes and we examine the accuracy of the various discrimation methods and discuss issues related to their successful real-time application.

  2. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools…

  3. Improving Formative Assessment Practice with Educational Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Vendlinski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a web-based assessment design tool, the ADDS, that provides teachers both a structure and the resources required to develop and use quality assessments. The tool is applicable across subject domains. The heart of the ADDS is an assessment design workspace that allows teachers to decide the attributes of an assessment, as well as the context and type of responses the students will generate, as part of their assessment design process. While the tool is very flexible and allows the above steps to be done in any order (or skipped entirely, our goal was to streamline and scaffold the process for teachers by organizing all the materials for them in one place and to provide resources they could use or reuse to create assessments for their students. The tool allows teachers to deliver the assessments to their students either online or on paper. Initial results from our first teacher study suggest that teachers who used the tool developed assessments that were more cognitively demanding of students and addressed the "big ideas" rather than disassociated facts of a domain.

  4. A model for technology assessment and commercialization for innovative disruptive technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KASSICIEH, SULEIMAN K.; WALSH, STEVE; MCWHORTER,PAUL J.; CUMMINGS JR.,JOHN C.; WILLIAMS,W. DAVID; ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.

    2000-05-17

    Disruptive technologies are scientific discoveries that break through the usual product technology capabilities and provide a basis for a new competitive paradigm as described by Anderson and Tushman [1990], Tushman and Rosenkopf [1992], and Bower and Christensen [1995]. Discontinuous innovations are products/processes/services that provide exponential improvements in the value received by the customer much in the same vein as Walsh [1996], Lynn, Morone and Paulson [1996], and Veryzer [1998]. For more on definitions of disruptive technologies and discontinuous innovations, see Walsh and Linton [1999] who provide a number of definitions for disruptive technologies and discontinuous innovations. Disruptive technologies and discontinuous innovations present a unique challenge and opportunity for R and D organizations seeking to build their commercialization efforts and to reinvent the corporation. These technologies do not have a proven path from scientific discovery to mass production and therefore require novel approaches. These critically important technologies are the wellspring of wealth creation and new competency generation but are not readily accepted by the corporate community. They are alternatively embraced and eschewed by the commercial community. They are finally accepted when the technology has already affected the industry or when the technological horse has already flown out of the hanger. Many firms, especially larger firms, seem reluctant to familiarize themselves with these technologies quickly. The trend seems to be that these firms prefer to react to a proven disruptive technology that has changed the product market paradigm. If true, then there is cause for concern. This paper will review the literature on disruptive technologies presenting a model of the progression from scientific idea to mass production for disruptive technologies contrasted to the more copious incremental technologies. The paper will then describe Sandia National Laboratories

  5. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  6. Assessing nanocellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Henrique Milanez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nanocellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nanocellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nanomaterials. Scientific and technological future developments in nanocellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nanocellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nanocellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nanocellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nanocellulose S&T advances in the coming years.

  7. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues, E-mail: douglasmilanez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Informacao Tecnologica em Materiais. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  8. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  9. Prospective Technology Assessment of Synthetic Biology: Fundamental and Propaedeutic Reflections in Order to Enable an Early Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan Cornelius

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic biology is regarded as one of the key technosciences of the future. The goal of this paper is to present some fundamental considerations to enable procedures of a technology assessment (TA) of synthetic biology. To accomplish such an early "upstream" assessment of a not yet fully developed technology, a special type of TA will be considered: Prospective TA (ProTA). At the center of ProTA are the analysis and the framing of "synthetic biology," including a characterization and assessment of the technological core. The thesis is that if there is any differentia specifica giving substance to the umbrella term "synthetic biology," it is the idea of harnessing self-organization for engineering purposes. To underline that we are likely experiencing an epochal break in the ontology of technoscientific systems, this new type of technology is called "late-modern technology." -I start this paper by analyzing the three most common visions of synthetic biology. Then I argue that one particular vision deserves more attention because it underlies the others: the vision of self-organization. I discuss the inherent limits of this new type of late-modern technology in the attempt to control and monitor possible risk issues. I refer to Hans Jonas' ethics and his early anticipation of the risks of a novel type of technology. I end by drawing conclusions for the approach of ProTA towards an early societal shaping of synthetic biology.

  10. Large Deployable Reflector Science and Technology Workshop. Volume 3: Systems and Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidich, C. A. (Editor); Pittman, R. B. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The results of five technology panels which convened to discuss the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) are presented. The proposed LDR is a large, ambient-temperature, far infrared/submillimeter telescope designed for space. Panel topics included optics, materials and structures, sensing and control, science instruments, and systems and missions. The telescope requirements, the estimated technology levels, and the areas in which the generic technology work has to be augmented are enumerated.

  11. GIS Technology: Resource and Habitability Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a one-year project to apply a GIS analysis tool to new orbital data for lunar resource assessment and martian habitability identification.  We used...

  12. Environmental Decision Making and Information Technology: Issues Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, S.; Fletcher, T.; Mechling, J.; Tonn, B.; Turner, R.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the Information Technology and Environmental Decision Making Workshop that was held at Harvard University, October 1-3, 1998. Over sixty participants from across the US took part in discussions that focused on the current practice of using information technology to support environmental decision making and on future considerations of information technology development, information policies, and data quality issues in this area. Current practice is focusing on geographic information systems and visualization tools, Internet applications, and data warehousing. In addition, numerous organizations are developing environmental enterprise systems to integrate environmental information resources. Plaguing these efforts are issues of data quality (and public trust), system design, and organizational change. In the future, much effort needs to focus on building community-based environmental decision-making systems and processes, which will be a challenge given that exactly what needs to be developed is largely unknown and that environmental decision making in this arena has been characterized by a high level of conflict. Experimentation and evaluation are needed to contribute to efficient and effective learning about how best to use information technology to improve environmental decision making.

  13. An Assessment of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Implementation in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Yasin Shaikh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AMTs (Advanced Manufacturing Technologies has always been the high interest and core issue for the manufacturing enterprises to get rapid production for global market place. The developed countries have achieved its competitive advantage by implementing this unique model of technologies with full range of systems. In developing countries, the implementation of such technologies is not much common due to so many reasons, (political, social, economical and technical but entrepreneurs of growing economies are contemplating to reshape long term strategy to adopt Computer systems oriented technologies in their manufacturing companies to meet the growing needs of their indigenous market on one hand and to make a place in the international market on the other. Although, very few manufacturing organization do meet the global market requirements. But there is still lot of efforts to be taken for world class competition. An attempt has been made in this paper to develop a conceptual model taking in to account the three parameters such as, Direct, Indirect and Administrative AMTs. This research work further attempts to present an empirical data analysis conducted in the manufacturing enterprises in province of Sindh, Pakistan. The overall indigenous progress of manufacturing enterprises as according to the data collected from 60 companies reveals that the AMTs systems are partially understood and practiced that is also one of the cause towards slow progress of national exchequer.

  14. Assessment Models and Software Support for Assistive Technology Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Len; Sanche, Bob

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews requirements for considering the need for assistive technology (AT) services within the Individualized Education Program process and highlights the importance of collaborative teamwork. Current AT models are described, along with the AT Co-Planner. The use of a software version of the model is discussed. (Contains references.)…

  15. Wood products biomass gasification: technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G.; Scarzella, L.

    In this paper, a design lay-out is presented for the gasification of wood products biomass. Regarding this alternative energy form, the paper discusses historical aspects and recent technological developments made by Italian industry. The design, construction, performance, efficiency, present and future applications of a twin-feeding system are described.

  16. Assessing the Gap: The MBA and Information Technology Management Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John B.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most prevalent themes for managers in nearly all industries is the impact of Information Technology on the organization's value chain. Direct and indirect IT costs comprise a significant portion of operating expenses for most businesses and constitute an estimated 50% of all capital expenditures. Understanding whether and to what…

  17. Tiger Team Assessment of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, [August 19--September 13, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tiger Team Assessment conducted at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, between August 19 and September 13, 1991. A team comprised of professionals from the Department, its contractors, and consultants conducted the assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy the status of environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs at PETC. A management assessment was performed

  18. Building Blocks for a 24 GHz Phased-Array Front-End in CMOS Technology for Smart Streetlights

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ban; Tasselli, Gabriele; Botteron, Cyril; Farine, Pierre-André

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent European Union report, lighting represents a significant share of electricity costs and the goal of reducing lighting power consumption by 20% demands the coupling of light-emitting diode (LED) lights with smart sensors and communication networks. In this context, this paper proposes the integration of these three elements into a smart streetlight, incorporating a 24 GHz phased-array (Ph-A) front-end (FE). The main building blocks of this Ph-A FE integrated in a low cost...

  19. Emergent technologies against the background of everyday life: Discursive psychology as a technology assessment tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Molder, te H.F.M.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    To understand prospective users’ reactions to emergent technologies, it is crucial to examine the interactional contexts within which these reactions take place as people’s reactions are shaped by issues that are not necessarily related to science or technology. These issues are often overshadowed o

  20. Assessing the Applicability of 3D Holographic Technology as an Enhanced Technology for Distance Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kalansooriya; Ashu Marasinghe; K.M.D.N. Bandara

    2015-01-01

    Distance learning has provided an excellent platform for students in geographically remote locations while enabling them to learn at their own pace and convenience. A number of technologies are currently being utilized to conceptualize, design, enhance and foster distance learning. Teleconferences, electronic field trips, podcasts, webinars, video conferencing and online courses are among such technologies used in providing distance learning opportunities. However limitations i...

  1. Review and assessments of potential environmental, health and safety impacts of MHD technology. Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop an environmental, health and safety (EH and S) assessment and begin a site - specific assessment of these and socio - economic impacts for the magnetohydrodynamics program of the United States Department of Energy. This assessment includes detailed scientific and technical information on the specific EH and S issues mentioned in the MHD Environmental Development Plan. A review of current literature on impact-related subjects is also included. This document addresses the coal-fired, open-cycle MHD technology and reviews and assesses potential EH and S impacts resulting from operation of commercially-installed technology.

  2. The responsibility of technology. Weighting goods - risk assessment - codes of conduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the heading 'The responsibility of technology' nineteen authors contribute to the following topics: Basic questions of weighting 'goods' relating to resources, the relationship of technical possibilities and (self)restraint of individuals and collectives, striving for knowledge and appropriate limits, possibilities of directing and influencing technology and questions concerning (the limits of) individual and collective responsibility. Dealt with in more detail are: The assessment of technical risks and uncertainties from an ethical and legal point of view, problems in nuclear research and technology illustrated by the example of Chernobyl, information technology, and the influence of the press when presenting technology matters. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Shadow Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace (SMART NAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Develop a simulation and modeling capability that includes: (a) Assessment of multiple parallel universes, (b) Accepts data feeds, (c) Allows for live virtual constructive distribute environment, (d) Enables integrated examinations of concepts, algorithms, technologies and National Airspace System (NAS) architectures.

  4. A review of the use of information and communication technologies for dietary assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, J.; Engelen, A.; Molag, M.L.; Roesle, J.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently used dietary-assessment methods often present difficulties for researchers and respondents, and misreporting errors are common. Methods using information and communication technologies (ICT) may improve quality and accuracy. The present paper presents a systematic literature review describ

  5. Gun muzzle flash detection using a single photon avalanche diode array in 0.18µm CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savuskan, Vitali; Jakobson, Claudio; Merhav, Tomer; Shoham, Avi; Brouk, Igor; Nemirovsky, Yael

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) 2D array is used to record and sample muzzle flash events in the visible spectrum, from representative weapons. SPADs detect the emission peaks of alkali salts, potassium or sodium, with spectral emission lines around 769nm and 589nm, respectively. The alkali salts are included in the gunpowder to suppress secondary flashes ignited during the muzzle flash event. The SPADs possess two crucial properties for muzzle flash imaging: (i) very high photon detection sensitivity, (ii) a unique ability to convert the optical signal to a digital signal at the source pixel, thus practically eliminating readout noise. The sole noise sources are the ones prior to the readout circuitry (optical signal distribution, avalanche initiation distribution and nonphotonic generation). This enables high sampling frequencies in the kilohertz range without significant SNR degradation, in contrast to regular CMOS image sensors. This research will demonstrate the SPAD's ability to accurately sample and reconstruct the temporal behavior of the muzzle flash in the visible wavelength, in the presence of sunlight. The reconstructed signal is clearly distinguishable from background clutter, through exploitation of flash temporal characteristics and signal processing, which will be reported. The frame rate of ~16 KHz was chosen as an optimum between SNR degradation and temporal profile recognition accuracy. In contrast to a single SPAD, the 2D array allows for multiple events to be processed simultaneously. Moreover, a significant field of view is covered, enabling comprehensive surveillance and imaging.

  6. The use of technology in a model of formative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsa García López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a formative assessment model for the Mathematical Analysis course taken by engineering students. It includes online questionnaires with feedback, a portfolio with weekly assignments, exams involving the use of mathematical software and a project to be completed in small groups of two or three students. The model has been perfected since 2009, and during the 2014-15 academic year the creation of a pilot online learning community was added. Based on Google+, it has been used for a peer assessment experiment involving student projects, among other uses.

  7. Valuing Virtual Worlds: The Role of Categorization in Technology Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Nardon, Luciara; Aten, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds offer great potential for supporting the collaborative work of geographically distributed teams. However, reports indicate the existence of substantial barriers to the acceptance and use of virtual worlds in business settings. In this paper, we explore how individuals' interpretations of virtual worlds influence their judgments of the value of the technology. We conducted a qualitative analysis set in the context of a large computer and software company that was in the process ...

  8. How is risk assessment performed in international technology projects

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Davalos, Alfonso Daniel; Chia Chin Hui, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In today’s ever changing business landscape, technology and innovation projects play a key role in creating competitive advantages for an organisation. However, many such projects are often hampered by under performance, cost overruns and lower than predicted revenue (Morris and Hough, 1987 and Christoffersen et al, 1992). This seems to indicate the lack of risk management in the way we manage projects. On the other hand, it is impossible to have any projects without risks. Thus, it is essent...

  9. Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies : Challenges and Opportunities in Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gregory A.; Elbert, Thomas; Bradley P. Sutton; Heller, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the reasons for the contrast between the remarkable advances that hemodynamic and electromagnetic imaging of the human brain appear capable of delivering in clinical practice in psychology and their very limited penetration into practice to date. Both the heritages of the relevant technologies and the historical orientation of clinical psychology away from biological phenomena are factors. Discussion of some technical aspects and prospects of these methods and recommendatio...

  10. Developing an instrument to assess information technology staff motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Belfo, Fernando Paulo; Sousa, Rui Dinis

    2011-01-01

    Motivation is a key factor that influences individual effort, which, in turn, affects individual and organizational performance. Nevertheless, motivation at work depends on the organizational rewards and incentives, according to individual goals. This paper reports on the development of an instrument designed to measure the motivation of Information Technology people at their workplace. Psychology theories and work addressing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation have been studied. Some motivati...

  11. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques applied During Structural Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.

    1997-08-06

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated by a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was conducted by the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), was to perform an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study specifically targeted the problem of dust suppression during demolition. The resulting data were used in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to structural demolition. In the Fiscal Year 1996 (FY96), the effectiveness of different dust suppressing agents was investigated for different types of concrete blocks. Initial tests were conducted in a broad particle size range. In Fiscal Year 1997 (FY97), additional tests were performed in the size range in which most of the particles were detected. Since particle distribution is an important parameter for predicting deposition in various compartments of the human respiratory tract, various tests were aimed at determining the particle size distribution of the airborne dust particles. The effectiveness of dust suppressing agents for particles of various size was studied. Instead of conducting experiments on various types of blocks, it was thought prudent to carry out additional tests on blocks of the same type. Several refinements were also incorporated in the test procedures and data acquisition system used in FY96.

  12. On Assessing the Robustness of Structural Health Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    As Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) continues to gain popularity, both as an area of research and as a tool for use in industrial applications, the number of technologies associated with SHM will also continue to grow. As a result, the engineer tasked with developing a SHM system is faced with myriad hardware and software technologies from which to choose, often adopting an ad hoc qualitative approach based on physical intuition or past experience to making such decisions. This paper offers a framework that aims to provide the engineer with a quantitative approach for choosing from among a suite of candidate SHM technologies. The framework is outlined for the general case, where a supervised learning approach to SHM is adopted, and the presentation will focus on applying the framework to two commonly encountered problems: (1) selection of damage-sensitive features and (2) selection of a damage classifier. The data employed for these problems will be drawn from a study that examined the feasibility of applying SHM to the RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response observatory network.

  13. Advanced rocket propulsion technology assessment for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Single-stage and two-stage launch vehicles were evaluated for various levels of propulsion technology and payloads. The evaluation included tradeoffs between ascent flight performance and vehicle sizing that were driven by engine mass, specific impulse, and propellant requirements. Numerous mission, flight, and vehicle-related requirements and constraints were satisfied in the design process. The results showed that advanced technology had a large effect on reducing both single- and two-stage vehicle size. High-pressure hydrocarbon-fueled engines that were burned in parallel with two-position nozzle hydrogen-fueled engines reduced dry mass by 23% for the two-stage vehicle and 28% for the single-stage vehicle as compared to an all-hydrogen-fueled system. The dual-expander engine reduced single-stage vehicle dry mass by 41%. Using advanced technology, the single-stage vehicle became comparable in size and sensitivity to that of the two-stage vehicle for small payloads.

  14. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Taylor, C. H. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Moore, J. S. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Ward, J. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-23

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies offices of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in research, development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies. This report estimates the benefits of successfully developing and deploying these technologies (a “Program Success” case) relative to a base case (the “No Program” case). The Program Success case represents the future with completely successful deployment of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies. The No Program case represents a future in which there is no contribution after FY 2016 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies. The benefits of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies were estimated on the basis of differences in fuel use, primary energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, including energy and emissions from fuel production, between the base case and the Program Success case. Improvements in fuel economy of various vehicle types, growth in the stock of fuel cell vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles, and decreased GHG intensity of hydrogen production and delivery in the Program Success case over the No Program case were projected to result in savings in petroleum use and GHG emissions. Benefits were disaggregated by individual program technology areas, which included the FCTO program and the VTO subprograms of batteries and electric drives; advanced combustion engines; fuels and lubricants; materials (for reduction in vehicle mass, or “lightweighting”); and, for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, reduction in rolling and aerodynamic resistance. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 47% to 76

  15. Early stage health technology assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices: the MATCH experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Craven, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Early stage Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices requires different methods than those usually employed for pharmaceuticals. This paper reviews widely used methods for HTA, discusses their limits for early stage evaluation of biomedical devices and presents two methods for early stage HTA being developed in the Multidisciplinary Assessment of Technology Centre for Healthcare (MATCH) project: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to elicit user needs; and early stage economic e...

  16. Development and assessment of closure technology for liquid-waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharge of low-level liquid wastes into soils was practiced previously at the Hanford Site. Technologies for long-term confinement of subsurface contaminants are needed. Additionally, methods are needed to assess the effectiveness of confinement technologies in remediating potentially diverse environmental conditions. Recently developed site remediation systems and assessment methods for in situ stabilization and isolation of radioactive and other contaminants within and below low-level liquid-waste disposal structures are summarized

  17. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program, Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the state-of-the art of innovative in situ remediation technologies to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. This program complements similar ongoing integrated demonstration programs being conducted at several DOE sites. The ISRIP has been conducting baseline assessments on in situ technologies to support program planning. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an assessment and evaluation of subsurface containment barrier technology in support of ISRIP`s Containment Technology Subprogram. This report summarizes the results of that activity and provides a recommendation for priortizing areas in which additional research and development is needed to advance the technology to the point of demonstration in support of DOE`s site restoration activities.

  18. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program, Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the state-of-the art of innovative in situ remediation technologies to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. This program complements similar ongoing integrated demonstration programs being conducted at several DOE sites. The ISRIP has been conducting baseline assessments on in situ technologies to support program planning. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an assessment and evaluation of subsurface containment barrier technology in support of ISRIP's Containment Technology Subprogram. This report summarizes the results of that activity and provides a recommendation for priortizing areas in which additional research and development is needed to advance the technology to the point of demonstration in support of DOE's site restoration activities

  19. Algorithm for automatic forced spirometry quality assessment: technological developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Umberto; Burgos, Felip; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Velickovski, Filip; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Roca, Josep; Caminal, Pere

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the implementation of automatic real-time assessment of quality of forced spirometry (FS) may significantly enhance the potential for extensive deployment of a FS program in the community. Recent studies have demonstrated that the application of quality criteria defined by the ATS/ERS (American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society) in commercially available equipment with automatic quality assessment can be markedly improved. To this end, an algorithm for assessing quality of FS automatically was reported. The current research describes the mathematical developments of the algorithm. An innovative analysis of the shape of the spirometric curve, adding 23 new metrics to the traditional 4 recommended by ATS/ERS, was done. The algorithm was created through a two-step iterative process including: (1) an initial version using the standard FS curves recommended by the ATS; and, (2) a refined version using curves from patients. In each of these steps the results were assessed against one expert's opinion. Finally, an independent set of FS curves from 291 patients was used for validation purposes. The novel mathematical approach to characterize the FS curves led to appropriate FS classification with high specificity (95%) and sensitivity (96%). The results constitute the basis for a successful transfer of FS testing to non-specialized professionals in the community.

  20. Towards Liberal Education Assessment in Engineering and Technology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, Tom A.; Milanovic, Ivana; Sweitzer, Fredrick

    2012-01-01

    Our regional accrediting body, New England Association of Schools and Colleges, requires outcome assessment of core liberal education outcomes. Because of this mandate, and our new mission at the University to prepare students with the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to thrive and be engaged in a pluralistic, complex world, we have…

  1. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to pose appropriate questions according to the location of the student. A student's location can be obtained using the device position or by scanning a QR code attached to a dried plant sheet in a herbarium or to a fresh plant in an arboretum. The assessment questions are complemented with elaborated feedback that, according to the students' responses, provides indications of possible mistakes and correct answers. Three experiments were designed to measure the effectiveness of the formative assessment using dried and fresh plants. Three questionnaires were used to evaluate the system performance from the students' perspective. The results clearly indicate that formative assessment is objectively effective compared to traditional methods and that the students' attitudes towards the system were very positive.

  2. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to…

  3. Assessment of impacts from different waste treatment and waste disposal technologies: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents assessments of treatment and disposal technologies that appear to be appropriate for use in regional facilities in the Midwest Compact Region. The treatment technologies assessed: compaction with a supercompactor; incineration; and incineration followed by solidfication of the incinerator ash. The disposal technologies assessed are: shallow land burial, considered a baseline for comparison of other technologies; below-ground vaults; abov-groudn vaults; the earth mounded concrete bunker, a technology developed in France; improved shallow land burial, essentially deeper burial; modular concrete canister disposal; mined cavities (both new and existing); and unlined augered holes; and lined augered holes. The teatment technologies are assessed primarily in terms of the their impact on the waste management system, and generally not comparatively. The dispoal technologies are assessed relative to the present standard practice shallow land burial; shallow land burial was slected as a frame of reference because it has an experience base spanning several decades, not because of any preferential characteristics. 20 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Geophysical Investigations on Malta (Central Mediterranean) using Ambient Noise: Assessing Array Performance and Influence of a Thick Low Velocity Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, D.; Paolucci, E.; D'Amico, S.; Galea, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The use of microtremors to obtain shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles of the subsurface is becoming a widespread approach due to its various advantages. Noise measurements were carried out at four sites on Malta (Central Mediterranean). Array techniques were first tested in an area where a ≈45 m layer of soft Blue Clay (BC) overlies the harder limestone. Three array configurations (two arrays of 17 geophones in an L-shape and circle respectively and one 42 geophone array in an L-shape) were tested and processed using the f-k and two SPAC techniques: Modified and Extended SPAC. No significant difference was observed in the dispersion curve from the two short arrays despite having different shapes. However, a significant variation was observed between the dispersion curve from the long and short arrays in the low frequency part. A joint inversion, using two direct search methods, of the dispersion and the H/V curve was then used to obtain the Vs profile for the site, with most of the profiles being in agreement both in terms of velocity and depth. A study was also conducted at three other sites on Malta where hard Upper Coralline Limestone (UCL) overlies the soft BC creating a velocity inversion in the soil profile. The shape of the effective dispersion curves obtained using ESAC show both an inverse dispersive trend and normal dispersion. This shape is tentatively explained in terms of the presence of higher mode Rayleigh waves. A Genetic Algorithm approach was then used to jointly invert the H/V and Rayleigh wave dispersion curve. It was observed that the BC velocity was higher when overlain by a large thickness of UCL. This could be linked to the effective pressure caused by the hard UCL, making the BC more compact, and having a higher velocity. The theoretical implications of a prominent low-velocity layer on site amplification and the interpretation of ambient noise data are investigated and discussed.

  5. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. Methods The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. Results These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. Conclusions This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. PMID:26206364

  6. Bank Auditors Assessment of the Use of CD-ROM Technology in the Banking Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Michael W.

    A review of the research has indicated that compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM) technology is used most often by the home consumer, with educational use next and business use following. To assess how CD-ROM technology is used in the banking industry, bank auditors were surveyed. One hundred business systems and operational auditors in downtown…

  7. Assessing Pre-Service Science Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) through Observations and Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbazoglu Bilici, Sedef; Guzey, S. Selcen; Yamak, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Background: Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is critical for effective teaching with technology. However, generally science teacher education programs do not help pre-service teachers develop TPACK. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess pre-service science teachers' TPACK over a semester-long Science Methods. Sample:…

  8. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria Educational Assessment System--Emerging Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aworanti, Olatunde Awotokun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria educational assessment system with its emerging challenges. This is inevitable following the globalisation trend which has brought drastic changes in the world of technology. The essence of the paper is to describe the present status of ICT in the Nigeria educational…

  9. Technology-based Learning, Assessment, and Knowledge Management Support Systems for Workforce Literacy and Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Raymond G.

    2001-01-01

    Considers the need for information literacy in the workplace and discusses ways to achieve it. Highlights include using a systems approach to information literacy education; technology-based learning systems; assessment through technology-based interactive systems; and knowledge management support systems. (LRW)

  10. Technology Use in Rwandan Secondary Schools: An Assessment of Teachers' Attitudes towards Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Felicia O.

    2016-01-01

    Technology use is evident in all spheres of human endeavour. Focusing on technology use in education, this paper examines teachers' attitudes towards geographic information system (GIS). An assessment was made of GIS teachers in Rwandan secondary schools. Key areas covered include how GIS is implemented in schools, teachers' attitudes and…

  11. Problem structuring in health technology assessment : an argumentative approach to increase its usefulness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Hartman, Margriet

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of the limited impact of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) research on health policy and clinical practice. HTA is a type of policy research that aims to provide information concerning medical technologies in order to support health care decision making. Although,

  12. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS proposes to systematically mature, mitigate risk for; and perform hardware-based ground validations / demonstrations of a low-cost, high technology payoff,...

  13. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effort proposed is for detailed planning, configuration and hardware definition of a low-cost, but high technology payoff, ISS-based flight experiment that will...

  14. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of a Safety Assessment and a Radioactivity Exposure Assessment for the Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kang, Young Ae; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-09-15

    This report is to provide the reference contents of research and development for technologies of radioactivity exposure and safety assessment for development of the decommissioning technology for nuclear facilities. This report consists of as follows: - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a radioactivity exposure assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a safety assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities.

  15. Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, AdamuMadu

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the n...

  16. Parameter variation and scenario analysis in impact assessments of emerging energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Breunig, Hanna Marie

    2015-01-01

    There is a global need for energy technologies that reduce the adverse impacts of societal progress and that address today's challenges without creating tomorrow's problems. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) can support technology developers in achieving these prerequisites of sustainability by providing a systems perspective. However, modeling the early-stage scale up and impacts of technology systems may lead to unreliable or incomplete results due to a lack of representative technical, s...

  17. Assessing the Use of Mobile Health Technology by Patients: An Observational Study in Primary Care Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Veronica; Johnson, Emily; Gonzalez, Cesar; Ramirez, Vanessa; Rubino, Barbara; Rossetti, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Background There is significant potential for mobile health technology to improve health outcomes for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is a need for further development of mobile health technology that would help to improve the health of lower-income communities. Objective The study objective was to assess mobile phone and app usage among a culturally diverse patient population, and to determine whether patients would be interested in using mobile health technology to help manag...

  18. A pilot trial assessing urinary gene expression profiling with an mRNA array for diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN is complex. Quantification of mRNA expression in urinary sediment has emerged as a novel strategy for studying renal diseases. Considering the numerous molecules involved in DN development, a high-throughput platform with parallel detection of multiple mRNAs is needed. In this study, we constructed a self-assembling mRNA array to analyze urinary mRNAs in DN patients with aims to reveal its potential in searching novel biomarkers. METHODS: mRNA array containing 88 genes were fabricated and its performance was evaluated. A pilot study with 9 subjects including 6 DN patients and 3 normal controls were studied with the array. DN patients were assigned into two groups according to their estimate glomerular rate (eGFR: DNI group (eGFR>60 ml/min/1.73 m(2, n = 3 and DNII group (eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m(2, n = 3. Urinary cell pellet was collected from each study participant. Relative abundance of these target mRNAs from urinary pellet was quantified with the array. RESULTS: The array we fabricated displayed high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the Cts of Positive PCR Controls in our experiments were 24±0.5 which indicated high repeatability of the array. A total of 29 mRNAs were significantly increased in DN patients compared with controls (p<0.05. Among these genes, α-actinin4, CDH2, ACE, FAT1, synaptopodin, COL4α, twist, NOTCH3 mRNA expression were 15-fold higher than those in normal controls. In contrast, urinary TIMP-1 mRNA was significantly decreased in DN patients (p<0.05. It was shown that CTGF, MCP-1, PAI-1, ACE, CDH1, CDH2 mRNA varied significantly among the 3 study groups, and their mRNA levels increased with DN progression (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Our pilot study demonstrated that mRNA array might serve as a high-throughput and sensitive tool for detecting mRNA expression in urinary sediment. Thus, this primary study indicated that mRNA array probably could be a

  19. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume II: control technology data tables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report, the Control Technology Data Tables, is the second volume of the three-volume final report for the contract. It presents in tabular format, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts and application status. Also included is a code list which classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process, and emission source.

  20. The Effect of Government Actions on Environmental Technology Innovation: Applications to the Integrated Assessment of Carbon Sequestration Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E. S.; Hounshell, D. A.; Yeh, S.; Taylor, M.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Riahi, K.; Barreto, L.; Rao, S.

    2004-01-15

    This project seeks to improve the ability of integrated assessment models (IA) to incorporate changes in technology, especially environmental technologies, cost and performance over time. In this report, we present results of research that examines past experience in controlling other major power plant emissions that might serve as a reasonable guide to future rates of technological progress in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems. In particular, we focus on U.S. and worldwide experience with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technologies over the past 30 years, and derive empirical learning rates for these technologies. The patterns of technology innovation are captured by our analysis of patent activities and trends of cost reduction over time. Overall, we found learning rates of 11% for the capital costs of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system for SO{sub 2} control, and 13% for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO{sub x} control. We explore the key factors responsible for the observed trends, especially the development of regulatory policies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control, and their implications for environmental control technology innovation.