WorldWideScience

Sample records for arousal

  1. Arousal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes. PMID:22136894

  2. Nonspecific arousal with noloxone.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, F N; Bayne, L H; Rangno, R E

    1980-01-01

    The use of naloxone, the first narcotic antagonist devoid of agonist properties, has become the standard way of treating narcotic-induced coma and respiratory depression. This report concerns a patient in whom a narcotic effect was unlikely, but who nevetheless showed arousal after naloxone administration.

  3. Affect intensity and cardiac arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blascovich, J; Brennan, K; Tomaka, J; Kelsey, R M; Hughes, P; Coad, M L; Adlin, R

    1992-07-01

    Relationships between affect intensity and basal, evoked, and perceived cardiac arousal were investigated in 3 experiments. Affect intensity was assessed using Larsen and Diener's (1987) Affect Intensity Measure (AIM). Cardiac arousal was evoked with exercise in the 1st study and with mental arithmetic in the 2nd and 3rd. Perceived cardiac arousal was measured under optimal conditions using a standard heartbeat discrimination procedure. Women as a group scored higher on the AIM. Affect intensity was unrelated to basal or evoked cardiac arousal and was negatively related to perceived cardiac arousal in all 3 studies. Data suggest that affect intensity, although unrelated to actual physiological arousal, is negatively related to the accuracy with which individuals perceive their own arousal. Results are discussed within the context of an expanded arousal-regulation model (Blascovich, 1990). PMID:1494983

  4. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in...... psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  5. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  6. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L

    2016-07-01

    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432

  7. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  8. Male bisexual arousal: a matter of curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Rosenthal, Allen M; Cash, Brian M; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2013-12-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether bisexual-identified men are sexually aroused to both men and women. We hypothesized that a distinct characteristic, level of curiosity about sexually diverse acts, distinguishes bisexual-identified men with and without bisexual arousal. Study 1 assessed men's (n=277) sexual arousal via pupil dilation to male and female sexual stimuli. Bisexual men were, on average, higher in their sexual curiosity than other men. Despite this general difference, only bisexual-identified men with elevated sexual curiosity showed bisexual arousal. Those lower in curiosity had responses resembling those of homosexual men. Study 2 assessed men's (n=72) sexual arousal via genital responses and replicated findings of Study 1. Study 3 provided information on the validity on our measure of sexual curiosity by relating it to general curiosity and sexual sensation seeking (n=83). Based on their sexual arousal and personality, at least two groups of men identify as bisexual. PMID:24055219

  9. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  10. Arousal Cues Arousal-Related Material in Memory: Implications for Understanding Effects of Mood on Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Margaret S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses research showing that material people learn when in a high arousal state and material they learn when in a normal arousal state is subsequently best recalled when they are in a similar arousal state. Speculates that this effect may partially underlie mood cuing, mood-related material from memory. (EKN)

  11. EEG and autonomic arousal measures in schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C

    1989-04-01

    EEG and autonomic indices were measured in basal, tonic, and phasic conditions in order to delineate the nature of arousal dysfunction in schizophrenics as compared to normals. The experimental procedure involved six continuous recording sessions consisting of a basal recording before and after four experimental series. Sequentially, these were the visual nonsignal (VNS), the auditory nonsignal (ANS), the visual signal (VS), and the auditory signal (AS) series. The main findings indicated significant differences between the two groups in cardiovascular indices during the basal and tonic conditions and in the EEG and EMG indices of phasic response. These results suggest a dysfunction of basal and tonic autonomic arousal and a modulatory impairement of the central phasic arousal reaction. The findings are in accordance with the two arousal hypothesis postulated by Routtenberg (1968) and disconfirm the unitary concept of arousal for the explanation of psychophysiological abnormality in schizophrenia. PMID:2744968

  12. Neurophysical substrates of arousal and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2009-02-01

    The study of arousal and attention could be of prominent importance for elucidating both fundamental and practical aspects of the mind-brain puzzle. Defined as "general activation of mind" (Kahnemann in Attention and effort. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1973), or "general operation of consciousness" (Thacher and John in Functional neuroscience: foundations of cognitive processing. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977), arousal can be considered as a starting point of fundamental research on consciousness. Similar role could be assigned to attention, which can be defined by substituting the attributes "general" with "focused". Concerning the practical applications, the empirically established correlation between neuronal oscillations and arousal/attention levels is widely used in research and clinics, including neurofeedback, brain-computer communication, etc. However, the neurophysical mechanism underlying this correlation is still not clear enough. In this paper, after reviewing some present classical and quantum approaches, a transition probability concept of arousal based on field-dipole quantum interactions and information entropy is elaborated. The obtained analytical expressions and numerical values correspond to classical empirical results for arousal and attention, including the characteristic frequency dependence and intervals. Simultaneously, the fundamental (substrate) role of EEG spectrum has been enlightened, whereby the attention appears to be a bridge between arousal and the content of consciousness. Finally, some clinical implications, including the brain-rate parameter as an indicator of arousal and attention levels, are provided. PMID:18975019

  13. Effects of Voice on Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PsycheLoui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners’ preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants’ perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50 made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

  14. Searching arousals: A fuzzy logic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Ahmed, Beena; Penzel, Thomas; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to detect spontaneous, chin tension and limb movement-related arousals by estimating neuronal and muscular activity. Features extraction is carried out by Time Varying Autoregressive Moving Average (TVARMA) models and recursive particle filtering. Classification is performed by a fuzzy inference system with rule-based decision scheme based upon the AASM scoring rules. Our approach yielded two metrics: arousal density and arousal index to comply with standardised clinical benchmarking. The obtained statistics achieved error deviation around ±1.5 to ±30. These results showed that our system can differentiate amongst 3 different types of arousals, subject to inter-subject variability and up-to-date scoring references. PMID:26736862

  15. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood. PMID:11437309

  16. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans, sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species, it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include, the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not synonymous), the activation of specific brain area as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all, by the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic area as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for male mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

  17. Sleep position, autonomic function, and arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Galland, B; Reeves, G; Taylor, B.; Bolton, D.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate and compare heart rate variability (HRV) and responses of heart rate and arousal to head-up tilting in infants sleeping prone and supine.
METHODS—Thirty seven healthy infants aged 2-4 months were studied. HRV was measured for 500 beats while they were in a horizontal position. Subjects were then tilted 60° head-up, and heart rate recorded over 1 minute and arousal responses observed. Data were collected during both quiet and active sleep for both prone ...

  18. The Effects of Arousal on Cognitive Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Lim, David T. K.

    Previous work has demonstrated the importance of Osgood's three semantic dimensions (Evaluation, Potency, Activity) in people's conceptions of various domains. To test the effects of arousal on how individuals use these dimensions, three studies were conducted. In each study, six stimuli from a particular domain were presented in pairs. Subjects…

  19. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  20. Conditioned sexual arousal in a nonhuman primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Charles T; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Ziegler, Toni E; Ferris, Craig F

    2011-05-01

    Conditioning of sexual arousal has been demonstrated in several species from fish to humans but has not been demonstrated in nonhuman primates. Controversy exists over whether nonhuman primates produce pheromones that arouse sexual behavior. Although common marmosets copulate throughout the ovarian cycle and during pregnancy, males exhibit behavioral signs of arousal, demonstrate increased neural activation of anterior hypothalamus and medial preoptic area, and have an increase in serum testosterone after exposure to odors of novel ovulating females suggestive of a sexually arousing pheromone. Males also have increased androgens prior to their mate's ovulation. However, males presented with odors of ovulating females demonstrate activation of many other brain areas associated with motivation, memory, and decision making. In this study, we demonstrate that male marmosets can be conditioned to a novel, arbitrary odor (lemon) with observation of erections, and increased exploration of the location where they previously experienced a receptive female, and increased scratching in post-conditioning test without a female present. This conditioned response was demonstrated up to a week after the end of conditioning trials, a much longer lasting effect of conditioning than reported in studies of other species. These results further suggest that odors of ovulating females are not pheromones, strictly speaking and that marmoset males may learn specific characteristics of odors of females providing a possible basis for mate identification. PMID:21029736

  1. Psychophysiological study of arousal modulation model of music

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaki, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Mitsuo; Hori, Tadao

    1994-01-01

    Music is known to have both stimulatory and sedative effects. We investigated whether music modulated the arousal level. EEGs, EOG, SPR, plethysmograph, and skin temperature were recorded on 14 students (mean=22.1 yrs) during sessions of (1) baseline (pre-rest), (2) preparations of arousal (task or rest), (3) music (stimulative or calm), (4) after-effects (post-rest). Seven subjects, who were assigned to the high arousal group were preparatively increased their arousal level by the cognitive ...

  2. Addiction and arousal: the hypocretin connection

    OpenAIRE

    Boutrel, Benjamin; de Lecea, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The hypocretins, also known as orexins, are two neuropeptides now commonly described as critical components to maintain and regulate the stability of arousal. Several lines of evidence have raised the hypothesis that hypocretin-producing neurons are part of the circuitries that mediate the hypothalamic response to acute stress. Intracerebral administration of hypocretin leads to a dose related reinstatement of drug and food seeking behaviors. Furthermore, stress-induced reinstatement can be b...

  3. Interplay between affect and arousal in recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara M Greene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i positive mood-high arousal; (ii positive mood-low arousal; (iii negative mood-high arousal; (iv negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory.

  4. Norepinephrine at the nexus of arousal, motivation and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Rodrigo A; Schmeichel, Brooke E; Berridge, Craig W

    2016-06-15

    Arousal plays a critical role in cognitive, affective and motivational processes. Consistent with this, the dysregulation of arousal-related neural systems is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including addiction. Noradrenergic systems exert potent arousal-enhancing actions that involve signaling at α1- and β-noradrenergic receptors within a distributed network of subcortical regions. The majority of research into noradrenergic modulation of arousal has focused on the nucleus locus coeruleus. Nevertheless, anatomical studies demonstrate that multiple noradrenergic nuclei innervate subcortical arousal-related regions, providing a substrate for differential regulation of arousal across these distinct noradrenergic nuclei. The arousal-promoting actions of psychostimulants and other drugs of abuse contribute to their widespread abuse. Moreover, relapse can be triggered by a variety of arousal-promoting events, including stress and re-exposure to drugs of abuse. Evidence has long-indicated that norepinephrine plays an important role in relapse. Recent observations suggest that noradrenergic signaling elicits affectively-neutral arousal that is sufficient to reinstate drug seeking. Collectively, these observations indicate that norepinephrine plays a key role in the interaction between arousal, motivation, and relapse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26773688

  5. Interplay between affect and arousal in recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ciara M Greene; Pooja Bahri; David Soto

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive...

  6. Interplay between Affect and Arousal in Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Ciara M.; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive...

  7. [Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabriëls, L

    2014-01-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal. PMID:24535769

  8. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology—Implications for schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D’Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the peduncu...

  9. [Symptomatology and treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erős, Erika; Brockhauser, Ildikó; Pólyán, Edina

    2015-04-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder is a rare condition among women characterized by unwanted and intrusive sexual arousal that can persist for an extended period of time and unrelated to sexual desire or sexual stimuli. Since its first documentation in 2001, numerous studies have been dedicated to investigate its specifics. The persistent genital arousal occurs in the absence of sexual interest and fantasies and it causes excessive psychological suffering. Masturbation, spontaneous orgasm or sexual intercourse can offer only a temporary relief. Researches provide a limited insight into the characteristics of persistent genital arousal disorder. This paper presents a case and summarizes the scientific findings on prevalence, etiology and treatment perspectives. PMID:25845321

  10. Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L

    2008-09-01

    The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or dominant modes of thinking. Affect thus moderates many of the textbook phenomena in cognitive psychology. In the current review, we suggest additionally that the arousal dimension of affect amplifies reactions, leading to intensified evaluations, increased reliance on particular styles of learning, and enhanced long-term memory for events. We conclude that whereas valenced affective cues serve as information about value, the arousal dimension provides information about urgency or importance. PMID:25067943

  11. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  12. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  13. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions. PMID:25258109

  14. Reduction of the Misinformation Effect by Arousal Induced after Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Shaun M.; Nielson, Kristy A.

    2010-01-01

    Misinformation introduced after events have already occurred causes errors in later retrieval. Based on literature showing that arousal induced after learning enhances delayed retrieval, we investigated whether post-learning arousal can reduce the misinformation effect. 251 participants viewed four short film clips, each followed by a retention…

  15. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

  16. Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

  17. The physiological basis of human sexual arousal: neuroendocrine sexual asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2005-04-01

    Normal sexual arousal and response suppose an integrated process involving both physiological and psychological processes. However, the current understanding of sexual arousal does not provide a coherent model that accounts for the integration of multiple physiological systems that subsequently generate a coordinated sexual response at both the spinal peripheral and cerebral central levels. Herein we suggest a model that involves both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during sexual arousal via the two classes of gonadal hormones, androgens and oestrogens. We discuss the manner in which gonadal hormones may activate such a system, transforming pre-pubertal (non-erotic) genital stimulation to post-pubertal erogenization of stimulation and subsequent sexual arousal. Finally, we indicate that the different balance of androgens and oestrogens in men and women may generate asymmetric effects on each of the components of the autonomic nervous system, thereby explaining some of the differences in patterns of sexual arousal and the responses cycle across the sexes. PMID:15811068

  18. Sexual arousal to female children in gynephilic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip E; Blanchard, Ray

    2010-09-01

    Phallometric assessments of single-victim sexual offenders against children have suggested that only about 50% of these men are more attracted to children than they are to adults. This has raised the question of what motivates the other 50% of men to approach young girls for sex. Freund et al. showed that gynephilic men (i.e., men preferentially attracted to adult women) evidenced greater arousal to images of prepubescent girls than to images of males of any age or to nonerotic images, arguing that gynephilic men may approach prepubescent girls as a "surrogate" for their preferred erotic targets (i.e., adult women). One might argue that these phallometric results are artifactual, given that they were obtained in a time period during which images of nudity were far less common than they are today (thus any female nudity might have elicited arousal). To address this issue, the authors examined the sexual arousal patterns of 214 contemporary men who, based on self-report, offense history, and phallometric responses, were purely gynephilic. Results showed the "classical control profile": the greatest arousal to adult women, systematically decreasing arousal as the female stimuli became younger, and essentially no arousal to any age categories of males or to neutral (nonerotic) stimuli. Arousal to both pubescent and prepubescent girls was significantly greater than to neutral stimuli (p < .001 for both). Thus, Freund et al.'s results still appear to be valid, and the explanation for child molesting that they suggest still seems to be feasible. PMID:20562410

  19. Distraction by emotional sounds: Disentangling arousal benefits and orienting costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Kotz, Sonja A; Schröger, Erich; Wetzel, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    Unexpectedly occurring task-irrelevant stimuli have been shown to impair performance. They capture attention away from the main task leaving fewer resources for target processing. However, the actual distraction effect depends on various variables; for example, only target-informative distractors have been shown to cause costs of attentional orienting. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that high arousing emotional distractors, as compared with low arousing neutral distractors, can improve performance by increasing alertness. We aimed to separate costs of attentional orienting and benefits of arousal by presenting negative and neutral environmental sounds (novels) as oddballs in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Participants categorized pictures while task-irrelevant sounds preceded visual targets in two conditions: (a) informative sounds reliably signaled onset and occurrence of visual targets, and (b) noninformative sounds occurred unrelated to visual targets. Results confirmed that only informative novels yield distraction. Importantly, irrespective of sounds' informational value participants responded faster in trials with high arousing negative as compared with moderately arousing neutral novels. That is, costs related to attentional orienting are modulated by information, whereas benefits related to emotional arousal are independent of a sound's informational value. This favors a nonspecific facilitating cross-modal influence of emotional arousal on visual task performance and suggests that behavioral distraction by noninformative novels is controlled after their motivational significance has been determined. PMID:26053245

  20. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association.We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11 and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity.Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14 and women (n = 12 were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women.Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control.

  1. The Amygdala, Arousal and Memory: From Lesions to Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Åhs, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Emotional events are better remembered than neutral events. But what are the mechanisms behind this memory enhancing effect? It seems that they depend on the arousal level at the moment we experience the event to be remembered. The first study of the present thesis mapped the brain areas that changed their activity in a highly arousing situation in subjects with snake or spider phobia. Looking at pictures of their feared object engaged the amygdala, situated in the medial temporal lobe. This ...

  2. Arousal-biased competition in perception and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, Mara; Sutherland, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Our everyday surroundings besiege us with information. The battle is for a share of our limited attention and memory, with the brain selecting the winners and discarding the losers. Previous research shows that both bottom-up and top-down factors bias competition in favor of high priority stimuli. We propose that arousal during an event increases this bias both in perception and in long-term memory of the event. Arousal-biased competition theory provides specific predictions about when arousa...

  3. Arousal and Merriment as Decision Drivers among Young Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal

    2007-01-01

    Arousal among young consumers plays a key role in buying decisions. One of the challenges for success in retailing is to enhance the in-store ambience to influence the young consumers for prolonged stay in the store for shopping and explore the zone of experience of new products. This paper attempts to analyze arousal and satisfaction as behavioral drivers which influence buying behavior of young consumers and measures the extent of satisfaction on purchases made through empirical investigati...

  4. Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Catie; Leopold, David A; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Mandelkow, Hendrik; Picchioni, Dante; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Frank Q; Turchi, Janita N; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-04-19

    Changes in brain activity accompanying shifts in vigilance and arousal can interfere with the study of other intrinsic and task-evoked characteristics of brain function. However, the difficulty of tracking and modeling the arousal state during functional MRI (fMRI) typically precludes the assessment of arousal-dependent influences on fMRI signals. Here we combine fMRI, electrophysiology, and the monitoring of eyelid behavior to demonstrate an approach for tracking continuous variations in arousal level from fMRI data. We first characterize the spatial distribution of fMRI signal fluctuations that track a measure of behavioral arousal; taking this pattern as a template, and using the local field potential as a simultaneous and independent measure of cortical activity, we observe that the time-varying expression level of this template in fMRI data provides a close approximation of electrophysiological arousal. We discuss the potential benefit of these findings for increasing the sensitivity of fMRI as a cognitive and clinical biomarker. PMID:27051064

  5. Valence, arousal and cognitive control: A voluntary task switching study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JelleDemanet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the interplay between arousal, valence and cognitive control. To this end, we investigated how arousal and valence associated with affective stimuli influenced cognitive flexibility when switching between tasks voluntarily. Three hypotheses were tested. First, a valence hypothesis that states that the positive valence of affective stimuli will facilitate both global and task-switching performance because of increased cognitive flexibility. Second, an arousal hypothesis that states that arousal, and not valence, will specifically impair task-switching performance by strengthening the previously executed task-set. Third, an attention hypothesis that states that both cognitive and emotional control ask for limited attentional resources, and predicts that arousal will impair both global and task-switching performance. The results showed that arousal affected task-switching but not global performance, possibly by phasic modulations of the noradrenergic system that reinforces the previously executed task. In addition, positive valence only affected global performance but not task-switching performance, possibly by phasic modulations of dopamine that stimulates the general ability to perform in a multitasking environment.

  6. Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Catie; Leopold, David A.; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Mandelkow, Hendrik; Picchioni, Dante; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Frank Q.; Turchi, Janita N.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in brain activity accompanying shifts in vigilance and arousal can interfere with the study of other intrinsic and task-evoked characteristics of brain function. However, the difficulty of tracking and modeling the arousal state during functional MRI (fMRI) typically precludes the assessment of arousal-dependent influences on fMRI signals. Here we combine fMRI, electrophysiology, and the monitoring of eyelid behavior to demonstrate an approach for tracking continuous variations in arousal level from fMRI data. We first characterize the spatial distribution of fMRI signal fluctuations that track a measure of behavioral arousal; taking this pattern as a template, and using the local field potential as a simultaneous and independent measure of cortical activity, we observe that the time-varying expression level of this template in fMRI data provides a close approximation of electrophysiological arousal. We discuss the potential benefit of these findings for increasing the sensitivity of fMRI as a cognitive and clinical biomarker. PMID:27051064

  7. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosse, Christin; Burdakov, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioral state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise). An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behavior, and bases for disease. PMID:25368557

  8. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Burdakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioural state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise. An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behaviour, and bases for disease.

  9. Laboratory-induced hyperventilation differentiates female sexual arousal disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Klein, Carolin; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-08-01

    The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing, a technique previously found to increase SNS activity, immediately prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Physiological arousal (i.e., vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured via the vaginal photoplethysmograph and subjective arousal was measured via self-report questionnaires. LIH differentiated women with SAD from those in the control group, with LIH increasing VPA in the latter, but having no significant effect in the heterogeneous SAD group. However, among subtypes of SAD, LIH differentiated women with genital (n = 16) and subjective (n = 16) subtypes of SAD from women with combined SAD (n = 28) and women without sexual difficulties. Specifically, women in the control group and those with combined SAD had a significant increase in VPA whereas women with genital or subjective SAD had a significant decrease in VPA following LIH. There was no significant effect of LIH on any self-report measure of sexual arousal following erotic stimuli. Implications of the results for the conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:18343989

  10. Emotional Arousal and Multiple Memory Systems in the Mammalian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Packard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal induced by stress and/or anxiety can exert complex effects on learning and memory processes in mammals. Recent studies have begun to link study of the influence of emotional arousal on memory with earlier research indicating that memory is organized in multiple systems in the brain that differ in terms of the type of memory they mediate. Specifically, these studies have examined whether emotional arousal may have a differential effect on the cognitive and stimulus-response habit memory processes subserved by the hippocampus and dorsal striatum, respectively. Evidence indicates that stress or the peripheral injection of anxiogenic drugs can bias animals and humans towards the use of striatal-dependent habit memory in dual-solution tasks in which both hippocampal and stritatal-based strategies can provide an adequate solution. A bias towards the use of habit memory can also be produced by intra-basolateral amygdala administration of anxiogenic drugs, consistent with the well documented role of efferent projections of this brain region in mediating the modulatory influence of emotional arousal on memory. In some learning situations, the bias towards the use of habit memory produced by emotional arousal appears to result from an impairing effect on hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. Further research examining the neural mechanisms linking emotion and the relative use of multiple memory systems should prove useful in view of the potential role for maladaptive habitual behaviors in various human psychopathologies.

  11. Alcohol, selective attention and sexual arousal in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G T; Niaura, R S; Adler, J L

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-two men social drinkers were randomly assigned to the cells of a balanced placebo design to investigate the effects of expected and actual alcohol consumption on sexual responsiveness. Using a dichotic listening task, erotic and nonerotic information was presented in the nonattended channel while subjects performed simple (low-attention demand) and complex (high-attention demand) numerical tasks presented in the attended channel. Penile tumescence was recorded continuously in response to all audiotaped information. The high-attention demand task significantly interfered with sexual arousal compared with the low-attention demand task, primarily because of the significant suppressant effect of alcohol on arousal during the complex task. The lack of differences in tumescence under the two cognitive tasks when subjects were sober is inconsistent with the cognitive interference model of sexual arousal. Alcohol expectations increased arousal during the low-attention demand task, whereas actual alcohol consumption decreased arousal only during the high-attention demand task. Both effects are attributed to the different effects of these separate variables on attentional processes. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:3990295

  12. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based on the fact that the sexually dimorphic neuropeptide vasopressin has its receptors in the part of the brain involved in music and dance performance (the basal ganglia), and its concentrations rise during sexual arousal in men. In addition, music, dance, and courtship phenotypes seem to be in part regulated by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis on the role of music in sexual selection. Further studies are clearly required. PMID:27372870

  13. Arousal and the attentional network in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Maximilian J; Neufang, Susanne; Stein, Dan J; Domschke, Katharina

    2014-11-01

    Although a great deal of information about the neurobiology of panic disorder is now available, there is a need for an updated etiological model integrating recent findings on the neurobiology of the arousal system and its relationship with higher cortical functions in panic disorder. The current mini-review presents psychophysiological, molecular biological/genetic and functional neuroimaging evidence for dysfunction in major arousal systems of the brain. Such dysfunction may influence the development of panic disorder by precipitating autonomic bodily symptoms and at the same time increasing vigilance to these sensations by modulating cortical attentional networks. A multilevel model of arousal, attention and anxiety-including the norepinephrine, orexin, neuropeptide S and caffeine-related adenosine systems-may be useful in integrating a range of data available on the pathogenesis of panic disorder. PMID:25311787

  14. Arousal recognition system based on heartbeat dynamics during auditory elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Mimma; Valenza, Gaetano; Greco, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on the recognition of different arousal levels, elicited by affective sounds, performed using estimates of autonomic nervous system dynamics. Specifically, as a part of the circumplex model of affect, arousal levels were recognized by properly combining information gathered from standard and nonlinear analysis of heartbeat dynamics, which was derived from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Affective sounds were gathered from the International Affective Digitized Sound System and grouped into four different levels of arousal. A group of 27 healthy volunteers underwent such elicitation while ECG signals were continuously recorded. Results showed that a quadratic discriminant classifier, as applied implementing a leave-one-subject-out procedure, achieved a recognition accuracy of 84.26%. Moreover, this study confirms the crucial role of heartbeat nonlinear dynamics for emotion recognition, hereby estimated through lagged Poincare plots. PMID:26737686

  15. Chemosensory stimulation during sleep - Arousal responses to gustatory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B A; Moutsis, T T; Bingel, U; Sommer, J U

    2016-05-13

    The processing of nociceptive, visual, vibrotactile, thermal and acoustic stimuli during sleep has been extensively investigated in the past. Recently, interest has focused on the impact of olfactory stimulation on sleep. In contrast to all other sensory systems, olfactory stimulation does not lead to an increased arousal frequency, regardless of hedonicity and concentration. The impact of the second chemosensory system, gustation, on sleep however has not been investigated to date. Twenty-one normosmic and normogeusic volunteers of both genders, aged 19-33years, participated in the trial. Stimulation was performed with a gustometer using the following aqueous solutions: saccharose 20% (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% (salty), citrate 5% (sour), and quinine 0.02% (bitter). A tasteless solution was used as negative control. Capsaicin, a strong trigeminal stimulus, served as positive control. Primary outcome was arousal frequency per stimulus in each sleep stage, as assessed with polysomnography. The frequency of arousals decreased in deeper sleep stages (N1: 211 arousals of 333 stimuli=63%, N2: 676/2728=25%, N3: 43/1378=3%, REM: 57/1010=6%). Statistically significant differences in terms of arousal frequency were found in N2 between the negative control and NaCl 100μl (pCapsaicin led to complete awakenings in 94% of stimuli (30/32). These results demonstrate that gustatory stimulation during sleep induces arousals depending on stimulus intensity and sleep stage, which is different to olfactory stimulation and may be related to differences in central processing of the two chemosensory systems. PMID:26921652

  16. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and...

  17. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  18. Hypothalamic feedforward inhibition of thalamocortical network controls arousal and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carolina Gutierrez; Cadavieco, Marta Carus; Jego, Sonia; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Korotkova, Tatiana; Adamantidis, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, synchronous synaptic activity in the thalamocortical network generates predominantly low-frequency oscillations (transmission increased the duration of NREM sleep and amplitude of delta (1-4 Hz) oscillations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TRN cells integrate subcortical arousal inputs selectively during NREM sleep and may participate in sleep intensity. PMID:26691833

  19. Creative People Create Values: Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators' creative personality and their state of positive arousal…

  20. Physiological Concomitants of the Alcohol State: Arousal or Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Arthur R.

    This experiment was designed to discriminate among two diametrically opposed states, arousal and relaxation, which have been attributed to alcohol ingestion. Male social drinker subjects were assigned to form two independent groups of ten subjects each. Baseline measure of heart rate, skin conductance level (SCL), pulse wave amplitude and ear lobe…

  1. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  2. Driving with music : Effects on arousal and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, Ayca Berfu; de Waard, Dick; Epstude, Kai; Steg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we aimed at exploring the influence of music on driving performance, arousal and mental effort while carrying out a monotonous car-following task in a low-complexity traffic setting. Participants (N = 47) were randomly assigned to loud and moderate volume music groups, and comp

  3. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  4. The body language: The spontaneous influence of congruent bodily arousal on the awareness of emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kever, Anne; Grynberg, Delphine; Eeckhout, Coralie; Mermillod, Martial; Fantini, Carole; Vermeulen, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, the idea of a reciprocal influence of physiological and psychological processes seems to be widely accepted. For instance, current theories of embodied emotion suggest that knowledge about an emotion concept involves simulations of bodily experienced emotional states relevant to the concept. In line with this framework, the present study investigated whether actual levels of physiological arousal interact with the processing of emotional words. Participants performed 2 blocks of an attentional blink task, once after a cycling session (increased arousal) and once after a relaxation session (reduced arousal). Concretely, participants were instructed to detect and report 2 target words (T1 and T2) presented among a series of nonword distractors. T1 and T2 were either neutral, high arousal, or low arousal words. Results revealed that increased physiological arousal led to improved reports of high arousal T2 words, whereas reduced physiological arousal led to improved reports of low arousal T2 words. Neutral T2 remained unaffected by the arousing conditions. These findings emphasize that actual levels of physiological arousal modulate the cognitive access to arousal (in-)congruent emotional concepts and suggest a direct grounding of emotion knowledge in our bodily systems of arousal. PMID:25915069

  5. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  6. Age differences in the role of cognitive versus somatic arousal in sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kristy D; McCrae, Christina S; Dautovich, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (a) to determine whether daily or overall cognitive and somatic arousal better predict sleep and (b) to investigate age differences in the arousal-sleep relation. Fifty younger and 50 older adults completed the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale and sleep diaries for 14 consecutive days. Analyses revealed mean arousal may better predict sleep regardless of age. However, daily arousal represents an important avenue of research as it may uncover lagged or coupling effects in the arousal-sleep relation. Significant age differences in the arousal-sleep relation suggest age-dependent associations between the type of arousal and sleep. Implications for assessment of sleep in older and younger adults are discussed. PMID:23746053

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESESSION FACTORS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF DEVIANT AROUSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession masturbation lowered arousal levels and both participants suppressed arousal to varying degrees. These outcomes suggest the potential for considera...

  8. Reversible blunting of arousal from sleep in response to intermittent hypoxia in the developing rat

    OpenAIRE

    Darnall, R.A.; McWilliams, S.; Schneider, R. W.; Tobia, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Arousal is an important survival mechanism when infants are confronted with hypoxia during sleep. Many sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia before death and have impaired arousal mechanisms. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to hypoxia would cause a progressive blunting of arousal, and that a reversal of this process would occur if the hypoxia was terminated at the time of arousal. P5 (postnatal age of 5 days), P15, and P25 rat pups wer...

  9. Women’s Sexual Arousal: Effects of High Alcohol Dosages and Self-Control Instructions

    OpenAIRE

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women’s sexual arousal – especially genital arousal –received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson & Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. I...

  10. Glucocorticoid enhancement of memory requires arousal-induced noradrenergic activation in the basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Roozendaal, Benno; Okuda, Shoki; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; McGaugh, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of long-term memories for emotionally arousing experiences but not that for less arousing or neutral information. However, previous studies have not determined the basis of such arousal-induced selectivity. Here we report the finding that endogenous noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) induced by emotional arousal is essential in enabling glucocorticoid memory enhancemen...

  11. Influence of sexual arousability on partner communication mediators of condom use among African American female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Swartzendurber, Andrea; Murray, Sarah H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Graham, Cynthia A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ample evidence shows that partner sexual communication is related to condom use. Although communication about safer sex may often occur when sexual arousal is high, no studies have examined arousability, one’s propensity for sexual arousal and partner sexual communication. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sexual arousability and partner-related mediators of condom use among African American female adolescents, who have disproportionate risk for HIV and...

  12. Does menstrual cycle phase influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-07-01

    Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080

  13. Glucocorticoid enhancement of memory requires arousal-induced noradrenergic activation in the basolateral amygdala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, B; Okuda, S; Van der Zee, EA; McGaugh, JL; McGaugh, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of long-term memories for emotionally arousing experiences but not that for less arousing or neutral information. However, previous studies have not determined the basis of such arousal-induced selectivity. Here w

  14. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  15. Arousal-Augmented Priming Effects: Rock Music Videos and Sex Object Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christine Hall; Krygowski, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Investigates effects of undergraduate students' physiological arousal induced by physical activity on schematic priming effects from music videos. Finds that in high-arousal conditions priming effects were more extreme and more closely resembled music video content than in low-arousal conditions. (SR)

  16. Electrodermal activity of professional pianists -Sympathetic arousal in piano performance-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Bando

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to research sympathetic arousal of professional pianists during musical performance. We measured the electrodermal activities of professional pianists who were performing both an original and an arranged score of the same piece of music by attaching electrodes to their left feet. For the data analysis, normalized skin resistance change per beat was used to analyze the electrodermal activities of the pianists originally. We could show a change in electrodermal activities at the onset of the music and at the motif of the music. Comparing the two performance conditions, we could show significant changes in electrodermal activity in dynamic arranged sections and octave up sections. The sympathetic arousal of the pianists changed dynamically in accordance with musical structure.

  17. Personality Change at the Intersection of Autonomic Arousal and Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Daniel; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that personality change in children would be predicted by the interaction of family risk with susceptibility to autonomic arousal, with children characterized by both families at high risk and highly reactive autonomic nervous systems showing maladaptive change. This hypothesis was tested in a six-year longitudinal study in which personality prototype, problem behavior, and negative emotional intensity were measured at two-year intervals. The results indicated that children wi...

  18. Both Predator and Prey: Emotional Arousal in Threat and Reward

    OpenAIRE

    Löw, Andreas; Lang, Peter J.; Smith, J. Carson; Bradley, Margaret M

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the psychophysiology of emotional arousal anticipatory to potentially aversive and highly pleasant outcomes. Human brain reactions (event-related potentials) and body reactions (heart rate, skin conductance, the probe startle reflex) were assessed along motivational gradients determined by apparent distance from sites of potential punishment or reward. A predator-prey survival context was simulated using cues that signaled possible money rewards or possible losses; the ...

  19. Arousal and Associative Processes in Reinstatement of Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Daniel Erik

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is a two-paper investigation of the basic associative and arousal-based processes involved in reinstatement of conditional fear. Clarifying the factors involved in reinstatement of fear--a behavioral phenomenon in which the experience of an aversive event following fear extinction produces a return of fear--provides a better understanding of the factors that contribute to the waxing and waning of untreated fear and the return of fear following exposure treatment. Shedding li...

  20. Reducing cardiovascular arousal to psychological stress with brief physical exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Chafin, Sky

    2007-01-01

    We test if brief physical exercise can reduce cardiovascular arousal not just during a psychological stressor, as prior studies suggest, but both before it occurs, when one is anticipating the stressor, and after it occurs, when one is ruminating about it. Including both anticipatory and recovery responses may be more consistent with how individuals use exercise to cope with stress. It is also relevant to an expanded view of the cardiovascular reactivity hypothesis, which suggests that the du...

  1. Social odours, sexual arousal and pairbonding in primates

    OpenAIRE

    SNOWDON, CHARLES T.; Ziegler, Toni E; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J.; Ferris, Craig F.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the role of social odours in sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in biparental and cooperatively breeding primates. Social odours are complex chemical mixtures produced by an organism that can simultaneously provide information about species, kinship, sex, individuality and reproductive state. They are long lasting and have advantages over other modalities. Both sexes are sensitive to changes in odours over the reproductive cycle and experimental disruption of signals can lea...

  2. Early brain-body impact of emotional arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien D'Hondt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, whole head magnetoencephalogram (MEG data and skin conductance response (SCR, a reliable autonomic marker of central activation, were recorded in healthy volunteers during the presentation of emotional (unpleasant and pleasant and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. Analyses of event-related magnetic fields (ERFs revealed greater activity at 180 ms in an occipitotemporal component for emotional pictures than for neutral counterparts. More importantly, these early effects of emotional arousal on cerebral activity were significantly correlated with later increases in SCR magnitude. For the first time, a neuromagnetic cortical component linked to a well-documented marker of bodily arousal expression of emotion, namely, the skin conductance response, was identified and located. This finding sheds light on the time course of the brain–body interaction with emotional arousal and provides new insights into the neural bases of complex and reciprocal mind–body links.

  3. Personal space invasions in the lavatory: suggestive evidence for arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemist, R D; Knowles, E S; Matter, C F

    1976-05-01

    The hypothesis that personal space invasions produce arousal was investigated in a field experiment. A men's lavatory provided a setting where norms for privacy were salient, where personal space invasions could occur in the case of men urinating, where the opportunity for compensatory responses to invasion were minimal, and where proximity-induced arousal could be measured. Research on micturation indicates that social stressors inhibit relaxation of the external urethral sphincter, which would delay the onset of micturation, and that they increase intravesical pressure, which would shorten the duration of micturation once begun. Sixty lavatory users were randomly assigned to one of three levels of interpersonal distance and their micturation times were recorded. In a three-urinal lavatory, a confederate stood immediately adjacent to a subject, one urinal removed, or was absent. Paralleling the results of a correlational pilot study, close interpersonal distances increased the delay of onset and decreased the persistence of micturation. These findings provide objective evidence that personal space invasions produce physiological changes associated with arousal. PMID:1271224

  4. The influence of valence and arousal on reasoning: Affective priming in the semantic verification task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of affective valence and arousal on the reasoning process. Reasoning was measured using a semantic verification task and the influence of valence and arousal was tracked using the affective priming paradigm. Primes were photographs varied on two dimensions - emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and arousal (high, low. Forty-nine psychology students participated in the experiment. Results showed that reaction time needed for semantic verification was significantly faster for positive-high arousing in comparison to positive-low arousing condition and for neutral high arousing in comparison to neutral-low arousing condition, but there were no significant differences in negative low and high arousing conditions. Also, significant differences were found among all three valences in high arousing conditions and there were no such differences in low arousing conditions. These results reveal the importance of both arousal and valence in the research on the influence of emotions on the reasoning process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  5. Sex differences in concordance rates between auditory event-related potentials and subjective sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Taylor L; Meana, Marta; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-08-01

    Much research indicates men show a greater concordance between subjective and genital sexual arousal than do women. We investigated the relationship between subjective sexual arousal and brain activation in men and women. Subjective sexual arousal and auditory N1 and P3b ERP amplitudes were measured while 38 participants viewed erotic and non-erotic films. Most notably, there was a significant correlation between N1 amplitude and sexual arousal in men; for women, there was a significant correlation between the P3b amplitude and sexual arousal. ERP amplitudes were inversely associated with reported arousal, suggesting that sexual arousal interferes with early tone processing for men, and with later tone processing for women. Lastly, for women, pornography/erotica consumption was negatively correlated with P3b amplitudes, suggesting that women who consume more pornography/erotica may also show greater attention to erotic films. PMID:27125689

  6. Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women's physiological sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Harte, Christopher B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that women's physiological sexual arousal is facilitated by moderate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. Literature also suggests that the level of SNS activation may play a role in the degree to which SNS activity affects sexual arousal. We provide the first empirical examination of a possible curvilinear relationship between SNS activity and women's genital arousal using a direct measure of SNS activation in 52 sexually functional women. The relationship between heart rate variability (HRV), a specific and sensitive marker of SNS activation, and vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), a measure of genital arousal, was analyzed. Moderate increases in SNS activity were associated with higher genital arousal, while very low or very high SNS activation was associated with lower genital arousal. These findings imply that there is an optimal level of SNS activation for women's physiological sexual arousal. PMID:22092348

  7. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory. PMID:24604603

  8. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Barber, Sarah J; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V; Mather, Mara

    2015-12-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: (1) immediate handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, (2) residual handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip 15min prior to encoding, or (3) no handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10min after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal interacts

  9. Music and Emotion: the Dispositional or Arousal theory

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Buccella

    2012-01-01

    One of the ways of analysing the relationship between music and emotions in through musical expressiveness.As the theory I discuss in this paper puts it, expressiveness in a particular kind of music's secondary quality or, to use the term which gives the theory its name, a disposition of music to arouse a certain emotional response in listeners.The most accurate version of the dispositional theory is provided by Derek Matravers in his book Art and Emotion and in other papers: what I will try ...

  10. A Scale for Assessing the Severity of Arousal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Zhang, Bin; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Flamand, Mathilde; Noël de Fontréaux, Alix; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Brion, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arousal disorders may have serious health consequences. Objective: To develop a scale assessing the severity of arousal disorders (Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale, PADSS). Setting: University hospital. Design: Controlled study. Participants: Consecutive patients (older than 15 y), with sleepwalking (SW) and/or sleep terrors (ST), subjects with previous SW/ST, normal controls and patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Intervention: The self-rated scale listed 17 parasomniac behaviors (PADSS-A), assessed their frequency from never to twice or more per night (PADSS-B) and evaluated the consequences (PADSS-C: disturbed sleep, injuries, fatigue, and psychological consequences). The clinimetric properties and face validity of the scale were tested. Results: Half of the 73 patients with SW/ST (more men than women) had injured themselves or others, whereas 15% had concomitant sexsomnia and 23% had amnestic eating behaviors. The total PADSS score (range: 0-50) was 19.4 ± 6.3 (range: 8-36) in this group, 11.7 ± 5.9 in 26 subjects with previous SW/ST, 8.8 ± 3.2 in 26 patients with RBD, and 2.0 ± 3.5 in 53 normal controls (P < 0.05). The PADSS demonstrated high sensitivity (83.6%), specificity (87.8%), internal consistency, and test-retest reliability (0.79). The best cutoff for the total score was at 13/14. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: wandering and violence/handling. The complexity of behaviors emerging from N3 sleep (scored on videopolysomnography) positively correlated with scores for the PADSS-total, PADSS-A, PADSS-C, and the “violence/handling” factor. Conclusion: This scale had reasonable psychometric properties and could be used for screening and stratifying patients and for evaluating the effects of treatments. Citation: Arnulf I; Zhang B; Uguccioni G; Flamand M; Noël de Fontréaux A; Leu-Semenescu S; Brion A. A scale for assessing the severity of arousal disorders. SLEEP 2014;37(1):127-136. PMID

  11. Generalized CNS arousal: An elementary force within the vertebrate nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, D P; Kilinc, M; Maritan, A; Banavar, J R; Pfaff, D

    2016-09-01

    Why do animals and humans do anything at all? Arousal is the most powerful and essential function of the brain, a continuous function that accounts for the ability of animals and humans to respond to stimuli in the environment by producing muscular responses. Following decades of psychological, neurophysiological and molecular investigations, generalized CNS arousal can now be analyzed using approaches usually applied to physical systems. The concept of "criticality" is a state that illustrates an advantage for arousal systems poised near a phase transition. This property provides speed and sensitivity and facilitates the transition of the system into different brain states, especially as the brain crosses a phase transition from less aroused to more aroused states. In summary, concepts derived from applied mathematics of physical systems will now find their application in this area of neuroscience, the neurobiology of CNS arousal. PMID:27216213

  12. Arousal and locomotion make distinct contributions to cortical activity patterns and visual encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinck, Martin; Batista-Brito, Renata; Knoblich, Ulf; Cardin, Jessica A

    2015-05-01

    Spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity is highly state-dependent, yet relatively little is known about transitions between distinct waking states. Patterns of activity in mouse V1 differ dramatically between quiescence and locomotion, but this difference could be explained by either motor feedback or a change in arousal levels. We recorded single cells and local field potentials from area V1 in mice head-fixed on a running wheel and monitored pupil diameter to assay arousal. Using naturally occurring and induced state transitions, we dissociated arousal and locomotion effects in V1. Arousal suppressed spontaneous firing and strongly altered the temporal patterning of population activity. Moreover, heightened arousal increased the signal-to-noise ratio of visual responses and reduced noise correlations. In contrast, increased firing in anticipation of and during movement was attributable to locomotion effects. Our findings suggest complementary roles of arousal and locomotion in promoting functional flexibility in cortical circuits. PMID:25892300

  13. Superior perception of phasic physiological arousal and the detrimental consequences of the conviction to be aroused on worrying and metacognitions in GAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andor, Tanja; Gerlach, Alexander L; Rist, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Although people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often report arousal symptoms, psychophysiological studies show no evidence of autonomic hyperarousal. Hypersensitivity toward and catastrophic interpretation of phasic arousal cues may explain this discrepancy. The authors tested (a) whether GAD sufferers perceive nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations (NSCFs), an indicator of phasic autonomic arousal, better than controls do and (b) whether the conviction to be aroused contributes to the maintenance of worrying and metacognitive beliefs about worrying. Thirty-three GAD sufferers and 34 healthy controls participated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to detect their own NSCFs during a signal detection task. GAD sufferers accurately detected more of their NSCFs than did controls, who tended to miss NSCFs. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to relax following worry induction. While relaxing, they received nonveridical feedback indicating either arousal or relaxation. Arousal feedback conserved negative metacognitive beliefs regarding worrying and also maintained negative mood and worry exclusively in GAD participants. These findings suggest that superior perception of phasic arousal cues and their catastrophic misinterpretation increases worrying, negative metacognitive beliefs about worrying, and anxious mood in GAD. PMID:18266497

  14. Cardiovascular sympathetic arousal in response to different mental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestanik, M; Mestanikova, A; Visnovcova, Z; Calkovska, A; Tonhajzerova, I

    2016-01-01

    The altered regulation of autonomic response to mental stress can result in increased cardiovascular risk. The laboratory tests used to simulate the autonomic responses to real-life stressors do not necessarily induce generalized sympathetic activation; therefore, the assessment of regulatory outputs to different effector organs could be important. We aimed to study the cardiovascular sympathetic arousal in response to different mental stressors (Stroop test, mental arithmetic test) in 20 healthy students. The conceivable sympathetic vascular index - spectral power of low frequency band of systolic arterial pressure variability (LF-SAP) and novel potential cardio-sympathetic index - symbolic dynamics heart rate variability index 0V% were evaluated. The heart and vessels responded differently to mental stress - while Stroop test induced increase of both 0V% and LF-SAP indices suggesting complex sympathetic arousal, mental arithmetic test evoked only 0V% increase compared to baseline (pStroop test compared to mental arithmetic test potentially indicating the effect of different central processing (0V%, LF-SAP: p<0.001; HR, MAP: p<0.01). The different effectors' sympathetic responses to cognitive stressors could provide novel important information regarding potential pathomechanisms of stress-related diseases. PMID:26674281

  15. Swallowing Disorders in Severe Brain Injury in the Arousal Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremare, A; Rapin, A; Veber, B; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Verin, E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of swallowing disorders in severe brain injury in the arousal phase after coma. Between December 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, eleven patients with severe acquired brain injury who were admitted to rehabilitation center (Male 81.8 %; 40.7 ± 14.6 years) were included in the study. Evaluation of swallowing included a functional examination, clinical functional swallowing test, and naso-endoscopic swallowing test. All patients had swallowing disorders at admission. The first functional swallowing test showed oral (77.8 %) and pharyngeal (66.7 %) food bolus transport disorders; and alterations in airway protection mechanisms (80 %). Swallowing test under endoscopic control showed a disorder in swallowing coordination in 55.6 % of patients tested. Seven (63.6 %) patients resumed oral feeding within an average of 6 weeks after admission to rehabilitation center and 14 weeks after acquired brain injury. Six (85.7 %) of these seven patients continued to require modified solid and liquid textures. Swallowing disorders are a major concern in severe brain injury in the arousal phase. Early bedside assessment of swallowing is essential for detection of swallowing disorders to propose appropriate medical rehabilitation care to these patients in a state of altered consciousness. PMID:27090424

  16. PERSISTANT GENITAL AROUSAL DISORDER IN ELDERLY WOMEN: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arnaoudova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent genital arousal (PGAD is an unusual, rarely diagnosed but a real problem for some women which causes considerable physical and psychological distress. It is characterized by physiological signs of sexual arousal that persist despite the absence of sexual desire. A number of theories have been proposed and various psychological and medical treatments have been used to treat this condition with varying success.The problem is even more serious with elderly women. In our clinical practice we have met a number of patients with such complains, which we have discussed mostly in terms of depression, panic disorder or SSRI’s application.In our paper we discuss some diagnostic and therapeutic issues and present a case of a 71 years old woman, who experienced distinct symptoms of PGAD for nearly 10 years. She was treated with a number of antidepressants and benzodiazepines without effect. Olanzapine 5 mg at bed time was administered. A good therapeutic response was achieved from the same evening and was held at the hospital stay and afterwards.

  17. Developmental cascades linking stress inoculation, arousal regulation, and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Lyons

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stressful experiences that are challenging but not overwhelming appear to promote the development of arousal regulation and resilience. Variously described in studies of humans as inoculating, steeling, or toughening, the notion that coping with early life stress enhances arousal regulation and resilience is further supported by longitudinal studies of squirrel monkey development. Exposure to early life stress inoculation diminishes subsequent indications of anxiety, increases exploration of novel situations, and decreases stress-levels of cortisol compared to age-matched monkeys raised in undisturbed social groups. Stress inoculation also enhances prefrontal-dependent cognitive control of behavior and increases ventromedial prefrontal cortical volumes. Larger volumes do not reflect increased cortical thickness but instead represent surface area expansion of ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Expansion of ventromedial prefrontal cortex coincides with increased white matter myelination inferred from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. These findings suggest that early life stress inoculation triggers developmental cascades across multiple domains of adaptive functioning. Prefrontal myelination and cortical expansion induced by the process of coping with stress support broad and enduring trait-like transformations in cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of behavior. Implications for programs designed to promote resilience in humans are discussed.

  18. Neural correlates of emotion word processing: the interaction between emotional valence and arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Citron, Francesca M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion is characterised by two-dimensions: emotional valence describes the extent to which an emotion is positive or negative, and arousal represents its intensity. Emotional content of verbal material affects cognitive processing, although research on word recognition has only recently taken emotion into account, primarily focusing on valence, while neglecting arousal. The present work aimed to disentangle the effects of valence and arousal during a lexical decision ta...

  19. Enhanced Auditory Arousal Increases Intake of Less Palatable and Healthier Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Privitera, Gregory J.; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (...

  20. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ciara M Greene; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-01-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independe...

  1. Enjoyment of arousing television news: The role of age and sensation seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Kleemans, M.; Hendriks Vettehen, P.G.J.; Eisinga, R.N.; Beentjes, J.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of television news as entertainment by focusing on the enjoyment that viewers experience while watching television news stories. In particular, the study examined the relationship between arousing news stories and enjoyment, and explored the potential moderating role of age and sensation seeking. Participants (N = 288) watched four news stories and reported both their feelings of arousal and their enjoyment of each story. An ∩-shaped relationship between arous...

  2. Continuous Arousal Self-assessments Validation Using Real-time Physiological Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ting; Baveye, Yoann; Chamaret, Christel; Dellandréa, Emmanuel; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    On one hand, the fact that Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) is highly correlated with the user affective arousal provides the possibility to apply GSR in emotion detection. On the other hand, temporal correlation of real-time GSR and self-assessment of arousal has not been well studied. This paper confronts two modalities representing the induced emotion when watching 30 movies extracted from the LIRIS-ACCEDE database. While continuous arousal annotations have been self-assessed by 5 participants...

  3. Perceived mental effort correlates with changes in tonic arousal during attentional tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Stein Dan J; Howells Fleur M; Russell Vivienne A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been suggested that perceived mental effort reflects changes in arousal during tasks of attention. Such changes in arousal may be tonic or phasic, and may be mediated by the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. We hypothesized that perceived mental effort during attentional tasks would correlate with tonic changes in cortical arousal, as assessed by relative electroencephalogram (EEG) band power and theta/beta ratio, and not with phasic changes in cortical...

  4. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children’s memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can be manipulated factorially. False memories increased with age for unpresented semantic associates of word lists, and net accuracy (the ratio of true...

  5. Age differences in arousal and vigilance in California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M T; Coss, R G

    2001-11-01

    Newly emerged pup, juvenile, and adult California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi douglasii) were videorecorded at a seminatural field site in northern California. Video data revealed age differences in the budgeting of ground squirrel behavior, habitat use, and physiological arousal as indicated by morphometric analyses of tail piloerection. Adults and juveniles devoted their time to foraging in the open at feeding stations while displaying low to moderate levels of arousal, respectively. Pups remained vigilant on the fringe of covered habitats while displaying comparatively higher levels of arousal. Higher pup arousal may facilitate memory formation during early stages of development. PMID:11745313

  6. The effect of personality type and musical task on self-perceived arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the level of arousal influenced by 4 different musical experiences classified by task difficulty and to examine the relationship between music-induced arousal level and personality type. Participants included 32 university students who were neither musicians nor music majors. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) was used to identify participants as either extravert or introvert. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 types of musical tasks: listening, singing, rhythm tapping, or keyboard playing. Arousal level was measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (ADACL) (Thayer, 1978) before and after the musical task. The ADACL is a self-report scale consisting of a list of 20 adjectives which describe various transitory arousal states, including energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness. Results showed no significant difference between personality types and the changes in arousal level. Result indicated a significant effect of listening on decreased tension arousal. Singing and rhythm tapping, which are regarded as having a relatively moderate task difficulty, increased energy arousal significantly and decreased tiredness arousal significantly. Participants' tiredness arousal levels also decreased significantly after keyboard playing. These findings suggest that engaging in musical experience that has a moderate level of task difficulty makes individuals more energetic and less tired. PMID:18563971

  7. Ventilatory and arousal responses to hypoxia in sleeping humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon-Jones, M; Sullivan, C E

    1982-06-01

    We measured ventilatory and arousal responses to progressive eucapnic hypoxia during wakefulness, nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep using a progressive isocapnic rebreathing method. Nine healthy adults (4 female, 5 male) slept with a mask glued to the face with medical silicone rubber and breathed from a closed valveless biased flow circuit, including an in-line bag-in-box and a variable soda-lime absorber. Progressive hypoxia was induced by consumption of oxygen and by gradual replacement of circuit volume with nitrogen. Tidal volume was measured by electrical integration of the flow signal from a pneumotach on the box. Arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) was measured with an ear oximeter and end-tidal CO2 tension (PetCO2) was measured continuously and kept constant by variable absorption. Sleep state was identified using standard criteria with 2 channels each of EEG, submental EMG, and EOG. There was marked variability in arousal level both in NREM and REM sleep, with subjects failing to awaken by 70% SaO2, our previously agreed safety limit, on 12 of 26 NREM tests, and 7 of 15 REM tests. During wakefulness, the mean slope +/- SEM of the ventilatory response to hypoxia was 0.68 +/- 0.07 L/min% SaO2 (n = 36, mean PetCO2 = 37.0 mmHg). In NREM sleep, this response decreased to a mean of 0.42 +/- 0.06 L/min/% SaO2 (n = 26, mean PetCO2 = 37.2 mmHg). In REM sleep, the average ventilatory response was further decreased to 0.33 +/- 0.06 L/min/% SaO2 (n = 15, mean PetCO2 = 37.8 mmHg). Analysis of variance showed a significant state-dependent effect on ventilatory response (p less than 0.01). The wake-NREM and wake-REM differences were significantly different (p less than 0.05), but the NREM-REM difference was not (p greater than 0.2). In REM sleep, breath-to-breath variability was marked, and in 2 cases, the response was not significantly different from zero. In all 3 states, the entire ventilatory response was due to

  8. Effects of affiliation and power motivation arousal on salivary progesterone and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Stanton, Steven J

    2004-12-01

    Following up on earlier research suggesting a link between implicit affiliation motivation and progesterone (P) and implicit power motivation and testosterone [T; Schultheiss, O.C., Dargel, A., Rohde, W., 2003. Implicit motives and gonadal steroid hormones: Effects of menstrual cycle phase, oral contraceptive use, and relationship status. Horm. Behav. 43, 293-301.], we tested whether arousal of affiliation motivation increases P levels and whether arousal of power motivation increases T levels. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to watch 30 min of either Bridges of Madison County (affiliation arousal) or The Godfather II (power arousal), or a documentary about the Amazon (control condition). Levels of P and T were assessed in saliva samples taken before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 45 min after the movie (T3). The efficacy of experimental conditions to differentially arouse motives was verified by assessment of changes in affiliation and power motive imagery expressed in imaginative stories written before and after the movie. After the movie, salivary P levels (T2 and T3) in the affiliation-arousal group were significantly higher than in the control group and marginally higher than in the power-arousal group. Subjects' postmovie T responses (T3) depended on premovie T levels: in men, higher premovie T levels predicted a greater likelihood of postmovie T increases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions, whereas in women, higher premovie T levels tended to be associated with postmovie T decreases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions. These findings suggest that aroused affiliation motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on P, whereas aroused power motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on T in men, but not in women, with high baseline T levels. PMID:15555501

  9. Arousal responses in babies at risk of sudden infant death syndrome at different postnatal ages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, K P

    1992-03-01

    Hypercarbic and hypoxic arousal responses during sleep were measured in healthy term infants, infants where a previous sibling died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infants suffering a clearly defined apparent life threatening event (ALTE) requiring vigorous or mouth to mouth resuscitation. Groups of infants were tested at approximately one, six and 13 weeks postnatally. Arousal was defined as gross body movement with eyes opening and moving or crying. Hypercarbic arousal was by step increases in F1 Co2 until arousal occurred or until endtidal (PETCO2) reached 8.7 KpA (65 mm Hg) Hypoxic arousal was by step decreases in FIO2 until arousal occurred or until an FIO2 of 0.15 had been maintained for 20 minutes. There was no difference in hypercaribic arousal threshold with age in any group. Hypercarbic arousal threshold was significantly higher in siblings (mean 53.4, 53.6, 54.7 mmHg. [7.12, 7.14, 7.29 KPA] at 0, 6, 13 postnatal weeks) compared to controls (mean 50.9, 52.3, 53.0mm Hg. [6.78, 6.97, 7.29 KPS respectively). ALTE infants differed only at 12 weeks having a significantly lower threshold (51.0mmHg. [6.80 KPA] V 53.0mm Hg. (7.06 KPA]) compared to controls. There was no difference in hypoxic arousal response with age in any group. An arousal response to hypoxia occurred in only 22% of ALTE infants and 40% of siblings compared to 67% of normal infants. Deficient sleep arousal, especially to hypoxia, is common in infants and especially those considered at increased risk from SIDS. This deficiency is present in the first postnatal week and did not vary overy the first three months of postnatal life.

  10. Female nudity in advertisements, arousal and response: a parsimonious extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaTour, M S; Henthorne, T L

    1994-12-01

    This study extended a 1990 report of LaTour, Pitts, and Snook-Luther by further analysis. Relationships between the key dimensions of High Activation (tension) and General Activation (energy) and ratings of attitude toward the advertisement were analyzed in a test of two hypothetical models performed on ratings by 134 undergraduate business students who responded to the paper-and-pencil tests which operationalized the constructs. In addition, attitude toward the brand was added to the formulation to evaluate the tenability of direct effects of arousal on attitude toward the brand (Ab) and indirect effects "filtered through" attitude toward the advertisement (Aad). Analysis supported the idea that excessive rated tension induced from an erotic advertisement has negative consequences. As predicted, different structural relations between these variables occur under different conditions. PMID:7886193

  11. The Mozart effect: evidence for the arousal hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Edward A; Smith, Kenneth H

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of music listening for performance on a 25-question portion of the analytical section of the Graduate Record Exam by 72 undergraduate students (M age 21.9 yr.). Five levels of an auditory condition were based on Mozart Piano Sonata No. 3 (K. 281), Movement I (Allegro); a rhythm excerpt; a melody excerpt; traffic sounds; and silence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the stimuli. After a 5-min., 43-sec. (length of the first Allegro movement) listening period, participants answered the questions. Analysis indicated participants achieved significantly higher mean scores after all auditory conditions than those in the silent condition. No statistically significant pairwise mean difference appeared between scores for the auditory conditions. Findings were interpreted in terms of an arousal framework, suggesting the higher means in all auditory conditions may reflect immediate exposure to auditory stimuli. PMID:19093601

  12. Music and Emotion: the Dispositional or Arousal theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Buccella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways of analysing the relationship between music and emotions in through musical expressiveness.As the theory I discuss in this paper puts it, expressiveness in a particular kind of music's secondary quality or, to use the term which gives the theory its name, a disposition of music to arouse a certain emotional response in listeners.The most accurate version of the dispositional theory is provided by Derek Matravers in his book Art and Emotion and in other papers: what I will try to do, then, is to illustrate Matravers theory and claim that it is a good solution to many problems concerning music and its capacity to affect our inner states.

  13. Electroencephalographic brain dynamics of memory encoding in emotionally arousing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique eUribe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional content/context enhances declarative memory through modulation of encoding and retrieval mechanisms. At encoding, neurophysiological data have consistently demonstrated the subsequent memory effect in theta and gamma oscillations. Yet, the existing studies were focused on the emotional content effect and let the emotional context effect unexplored. We hypothesized that theta and gamma oscillations show higher evoked/induced activity during the encoding of visual stimuli when delivered in an emotionally arousing context. Twenty-five healthy volunteers underwent evoked potentials recordings using a 21 scalp electrodes montage. They attended to an audiovisual test of emotional declarative memory being randomly assigned to either emotionally arousing or neutral context. Visual stimulus presentation was used as the time-locking event. Grand-averages of the evoked potentials and evoked spectral perturbations were calculated for each volunteer. Evoked potentials showed a higher negative deflection from 80 to 140 ms for the emotional condition. Such effect was observed over central, frontal and prefrontal locations bilaterally. Evoked theta power was higher in left parietal, central, frontal and prefrontal electrodes from -50 to 300 ms in the emotional condition. Evoked gamma power was higher in the emotional condition with a spatial distribution that overlapped at some points with the theta topography. The early theta power increase could be related to expectancy induced by auditory information processing that facilitates visual encoding in emotional contexts. Together, our results suggest that declarative memory enhancement for both emotional content and emotional context are supported by similar neural mechanisms at encoding, and offer new evidence about the brain processing of relevant environmental stimuli.

  14. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  15. Pre-Sleep Arousal and Sleep Problems of Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Villalta, Ian K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal among 52 anxious children and adolescents, aged 7-14 years, in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and primary anxiety disorder. Assessment included structured diagnostic interviews and parent and child completed measures of sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal. Overall, 85% of parents…

  16. Validity of Physiological Measures of Pedophilic Sexual Arousal in a Sexual Offender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C. N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed sexual arousal, in response to nondeviant and pedophilic audiotapes, among inpatient adult male sexual offenders. Audiotapes describing consenting sexual intercourse created significantly greater arousal than did descriptions of physically forcible sexual/nonsexual activity with female minors. Correspondence of physiological measures with…

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Exercise-Induced Arousal and Cognition Using Fractionated Response Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Barella, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to identify the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance for the central…

  18. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  19. Low-arousal speech noise improves performance in N-back task: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhu Han

    Full Text Available The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits.

  20. Direct Manipulation of Physiological Arousal in Induced Anxiety Therapy-Biofeedback Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Induced Anxiety is a brief psychotherapy procedure that teaches individuals to cope with negative effect by using relaxation techniques. This research investigated the role of physiological arousal in the affect induction phase of Induced Anxiety therapy by using biofeedback to facilitate arousal. Twenty-one college students suffering from…

  1. Disorders in sexual desire and sexual arousal in women, a 2010 state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, female sexual desire and arousal disorders are viewed from the perspective of incentive motivation and information processing models of sexual response. The effects of hormones, somatic disease, and medication on sexual arousability are discussed, as well as the influence of ps

  2. Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boywitt, C Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings. PMID:25387152

  3. Acoustic intensity causes perceived changes in arousal levels in music: an experimental investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T Dean

    Full Text Available Listener perceptions of changes in the arousal expressed by classical music have been found to correlate with changes in sound intensity/loudness over time. This study manipulated the intensity profiles of different pieces of music in order to test the causal nature of this relationship. Listeners (N = 38 continuously rated their perceptions of the arousal expressed by each piece. An extract from Dvorak's Slavonic Dance Opus 46 No 1 was used to create a variant in which the direction of change in intensity was inverted, while other features were retained. Even though it was only intensity that was inverted, perceived arousal was also inverted. The original intensity profile was also superimposed on three new pieces of music. The time variation in the perceived arousal of all pieces was similar to their intensity profile. Time series analyses revealed that intensity variation was a major influence on the arousal perception in all pieces, in spite of their stylistic diversity.

  4. Adding fuel to fire: the impact of followers' arousal on ratings of charisma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Juan Carlos; Mayo, Margarita; Shamir, Boas

    2007-11-01

    The authors conducted an experimental laboratory study and a longitudinal field study to investigate the impact of followers' arousal on ratings of charisma. Both studies examined 2 contrasting hypotheses: (a) the misattribution hypothesis, which posits a direct effect of arousal, and (b) the response-facilitation hypothesis, which posits an interactive effect of arousal and leaders' charismatic appeal on ratings of charisma. The overall results from both studies provide support for the response-facilitation hypothesis. In addition, the authors tested the hypothesis that arousal effects are limited to ratings of charisma. As expected, ratings of transactional leadership, in contrast with ratings of charisma, were not influenced by followers' arousal states. The authors discuss the implications of these results and offer suggestions for future research. PMID:18020798

  5. Upbeat and happy: arousal as an important factor in studying attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Meghan M; Shore, David I

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of music-induced mood changes on different components of visual attention. Affective valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low) were manipulated by having participants listen to one of four versions of a Mozart Sonata that varied in mode (major or minor) and tempo (fast or slow). Attention was measured in three domains-alerting, orienting, and executive control. Affective valence and arousal had an effect on executive control, but not on alerting or orienting. Individuals who experienced positive valence had less efficient control over their responses than those who experienced negative valence, but only when arousal levels were high. Positive and negative valence did not influence executive control measures when arousal levels were low. These findings demonstrate that affective valence and arousal interact with one another to influence the processing of items in visual attention. PMID:22017613

  6. Acoustic Intensity Causes Perceived Changes in Arousal Levels in Music: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Roger T.; Bailes, Freya; Schubert, Emery

    2011-01-01

    Listener perceptions of changes in the arousal expressed by classical music have been found to correlate with changes in sound intensity/loudness over time. This study manipulated the intensity profiles of different pieces of music in order to test the causal nature of this relationship. Listeners (N = 38) continuously rated their perceptions of the arousal expressed by each piece. An extract from Dvorak's Slavonic Dance Opus 46 No 1 was used to create a variant in which the direction of change in intensity was inverted, while other features were retained. Even though it was only intensity that was inverted, perceived arousal was also inverted. The original intensity profile was also superimposed on three new pieces of music. The time variation in the perceived arousal of all pieces was similar to their intensity profile. Time series analyses revealed that intensity variation was a major influence on the arousal perception in all pieces, in spite of their stylistic diversity. PMID:21533095

  7. Threat but not arousal narrows attention: Evidence from pupil dilation and saccade control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HenkVan Steenbergen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that negative affect causes attentional narrowing. According to Easterbrook’s (1959 influential hypothesis this effect is driven by the withdrawal motivation inherent to negative emotions and might be related to increases in arousal. We investigated whether valence-unspecific increases in physiological arousal, as measured by pupil dilation, could account for attentional narrowing effects in a cognitive control task. Following the presentation of a negative, positive, or neutral picture, participants performed a saccade task with a prosaccade versus an antisaccade instruction. The reaction time difference between pro- and antisaccades was used to index attentional selectivity, and while pupil diameter was used as an index of physiological arousal. Pupil dilation was observed for both negative and positive pictures, which indicates increased physiological arousal. However, increased attentional selectivity was only observed following negative pictures. Our data show that motivational intensity effects on attentional narrowing can occur independently of physiological arousal effects.

  8. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. PMID:26118962

  9. Infant arousal in an en-face exchange with a new partner: effects of prematurity and perinatal biological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerman, C O; Hsu, H C; Molitor, A; Leung, E H; Goldstein, R F

    1999-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants of higher (n = 18) and lower (n = 29) perinatal biological risk were contrasted at 4 months adjusted age with healthy full-term infants (n = 32) in their arousal during a standardized peekaboo game with an examiner. VLBW infants showed less positive arousal, more negative arousal, and 3 mixtures of behavioral cues across the peekaboo game seldom seen for full-term infants-strong cues of both positive and negative arousal, strong cues of negative arousal alone, and no strong cues of either positive or negative arousal. Contrary to expectations, perinatal biological risk did not strongly predict variations in arousal within the VLBW group. Possible changes in how internal and external sources of arousal are integrated provide one explanation for the presence of strong relationships between perinatal biological risk and social responsiveness near term age and their disappearance by 4 months of age. PMID:9923482

  10. Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep. PMID:25498600

  11. Dissociable modulation of overt visual attention in valence and arousal revealed by topology of scan path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ni

    Full Text Available Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion, have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low. Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal.

  12. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  13. Beyond intensity: Spectral features effectively predict music-induced subjective arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Emotions in music are conveyed by a variety of acoustic cues. Notably, the positive association between sound intensity and arousal has particular biological relevance. However, although amplitude normalization is a common procedure used to control for intensity in music psychology research, direct comparisons between emotional ratings of original and amplitude-normalized musical excerpts are lacking. In this study, 30 nonmusicians retrospectively rated the subjective arousal and pleasantness induced by 84 six-second classical music excerpts, and an additional 30 nonmusicians rated the same excerpts normalized for amplitude. Following the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models of acoustic communication, we hypothesized that arousal and pleasantness ratings would be similar for both versions of the excerpts, and that arousal could be predicted effectively by other acoustic cues besides intensity. Although the difference in mean arousal and pleasantness ratings between original and amplitude-normalized excerpts correlated significantly with the amplitude adjustment, ratings for both sets of excerpts were highly correlated and shared a similar range of values, thus validating the use of amplitude normalization in music emotion research. Two acoustic parameters, spectral flux and spectral entropy, accounted for 65% of the variance in arousal ratings for both sets, indicating that spectral features can effectively predict arousal. Additionally, we confirmed that amplitude-normalized excerpts were adequately matched for loudness. Overall, the results corroborate our hypotheses and support the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models. PMID:24215647

  14. Vivid: How valence and arousal influence word processing under different task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Busch, Nathaniel; Wilkie, Gianna; Kuperberg, Gina

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine how different dimensions of emotion-valence and arousal-influence different stages of word processing under different task demands. In two experiments, two groups of participants viewed the same single emotional and neutral words while carrying out different tasks. In both experiments, valence (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral) was fully crossed with arousal (high and low). We found that the task made a substantial contribution to how valence and arousal modulated the late positive complex (LPC), which is thought to reflect sustained evaluative processing (particularly of emotional stimuli). When participants performed a semantic categorization task in which emotion was not directly relevant to task performance, the LPC showed a larger amplitude for high-arousal than for low-arousal words, but no effect of valence. In contrast, when participants performed an overt valence categorization task, the LPC showed a large effect of valence (with unpleasant words eliciting the largest positivity), but no effect of arousal. These data show not only that valence and arousal act independently to influence word processing, but that their relative contributions to prolonged evaluative neural processes are strongly influenced by the situational demands (and by individual differences, as revealed in a subsequent analysis of subjective judgments). PMID:26833048

  15. Perceived mental effort correlates with changes in tonic arousal during attentional tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Dan J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that perceived mental effort reflects changes in arousal during tasks of attention. Such changes in arousal may be tonic or phasic, and may be mediated by the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE system. We hypothesized that perceived mental effort during attentional tasks would correlate with tonic changes in cortical arousal, as assessed by relative electroencephalogram (EEG band power and theta/beta ratio, and not with phasic changes in cortical arousal, assessed by P300 amplitude and latency. Methods Forty-six healthy individuals completed tasks that engage the anterior and posterior attention networks (continuous performance task, go/no-go task, and cued target detection task. During completion of the three attentional tasks a continuous record of tonic and phasic arousal was taken. Cortical measures of arousal included frequency band power, theta/beta ratios over frontal and parietal cortices, and P300 amplitude and latency over parietal cortices. Peripheral measures of arousal included skin conductance responses, heart rate and heart rate variance. Participants reported their perceived mental effort during each of the three attentional tasks. Results First, changes in arousal were seen from rest to completion of the three attentional tasks and between the attentional tasks. Changes seen between the attentional tasks being related to the task design and the attentional network activated. Second, perceived mental effort increased when demands of the task increased and correlated with left parietal beta band power during the three tasks of attention. Third, increased mental effort during the go/no-go task and the cued target detection task was inversely related to theta/beta ratios. Conclusion These results indicate that perceived mental effort reflects tonic rather than phasic changes in arousal during tasks of attention. We suggest that perceived mental effort may reflect in part tonic activity of

  16. Increased sexual arousal in patients with movement disorders

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    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increased of sexual arousal (ISA has been described in different neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was present a case series of ISA in patients with movement disorders. Method Fifteen patients with different forms of movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette´s syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, were evaluated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. Results Among Parkinson’s disease patients there were seven cases with different forms of ISA due to dopaminergic agonist use, levodopa abuse, and deep brain stimulation (DBS. In the group with hyperkinetic disorders, two patients with Huntington’s disease, two with Tourette’s syndrome, and four with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 presented with ISA. Conclusions ISA in this group of patients had different etiologies, predominantly related to dopaminergic treatment or DBS in Parkinson’s disease, part of the background clinical picture in Huntington’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome, and probably associated with cultural aspects in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.

  17. Pupillary Contagion in Infancy: Evidence for Spontaneous Transfer of Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Christine; Wesevich, Victoria; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-07-01

    Pupillary contagion-responding to pupil size observed in other people with changes in one's own pupil-has been found in adults and suggests that arousal and other internal states could be transferred across individuals using a subtle physiological cue. Examining this phenomenon developmentally gives insight into its origins and underlying mechanisms, such as whether it is an automatic adaptation already present in infancy. In the current study, 6- and 9-month-olds viewed schematic depictions of eyes with smaller and larger pupils-pairs of concentric circles with smaller and larger black centers-while their own pupil sizes were recorded. Control stimuli were comparable squares. For both age groups, infants' pupil size was greater when they viewed large-center circles than when they viewed small-center circles, and no differences were found for large-center compared with small-center squares. The findings suggest that infants are sensitive and responsive to subtle cues to other people's internal states, a mechanism that would be beneficial for early social development. PMID:27207876

  18. Differences between problem and nonproblem gamblers in subjective arousal and affective valence amongst electronic gaming machine players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L; Rodda, Simone; Phillips, James G

    2004-12-01

    Arousal-based theories of gambling suggest that excitement gained from gambling reinforces further gambling behavior. However, recent theories of emotion conceptualize mood as comprising both arousal and valence dimensions. Thus, excitement comprises arousal with positive valence. We examined self-reported changes in arousal and affective valence in 27 problem and 40 nonproblem gamblers playing electronic gaming machines (EGMs). Problem gamblers reported greater arousal increases after gambling and increases in negative valence if they lost. This accords poorly with an excitement-based explanation of problem gambling. PMID:15530730

  19. Norepinephrine is required to promote wakefulness and for hypocretin-induced arousal in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chanpreet; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Prober, David A

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological studies in mammals suggest that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in promoting arousal. However, the role of endogenous NE is unclear, with contradicting reports concerning the sleep phenotypes of mice lacking NE due to mutation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (dbh). To investigate NE function in an alternative vertebrate model, we generated dbh mutant zebrafish. In contrast to mice, these animals exhibit dramatically increased sleep. Surprisingly, despite an increase in sleep, dbh mutant zebrafish have a reduced arousal threshold. These phenotypes are also observed in zebrafish treated with small molecules that inhibit NE signaling, suggesting that they are caused by the lack of NE. Using genetic overexpression of hypocretin (Hcrt) and optogenetic activation of hcrt-expressing neurons, we also find that NE is important for Hcrt-induced arousal. These results establish a role for endogenous NE in promoting arousal and indicate that NE is a critical downstream effector of Hcrt neurons. PMID:26374985

  20. Predicting internet pornography use and arousal: the role of individual difference variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the relation between a number of theoretically relevant individual difference variables and individuals' online pornography use and arousal patterns. In doing so, an attempt is also made to determine whether self-reports of arousal can be collapsed into meaningful empirically derived content groupings. An exploratory factor analysis produces 3 factors for men: standard fare, specialized, and male-focused; and two factors for women: standard fare and specialized. Findings indicate that sexual disposition is a strong predictor of standard fare use and arousal for both genders. Men and women higher in psychopathy were more likely to use all forms of content. For those high in psychopathy, however, men were only slightly, and women not at all, more likely to find standard fare content arousing. Results are discussed in terms of their potential value for understanding an often overlooked first step in the process of pornography consumption. PMID:19219657

  1. Effects of Increased Physiological Arousal on Upper Extremity Positional Awareness in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kovacs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increased physiological arousal on the ability to perceive upper extremity positional awareness in healthy young adults. Approach: Thirty-eight participants were pre- and post-tested for upper extremity positional awareness using a manual kinesthesiometer. Participants in the experimental group underwent a combination of the Stroop color-word task and timed arithmetic problems to produce a state of physiological arousal. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken during data collection to assess levels of physiological arousal. Pre-and post-test absolute error scores for each participant were compared. Results: ANCOVA revealed a significant time effect (pConclusion: The results suggested positional awareness is altered under a state of elevated physiological arousal and that these results may have significant implications for individuals performing various types of motor skills.

  2. How deeply does your mutant sleep? Probing arousal to better understand sleep defects in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Faville, R.; Kottler, B.; Goodhill, G. J.; Shaw, P. J.; Van Swinderen, B

    2015-01-01

    The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a critical model system for investigating sleep functions. Most studies use duration of inactivity to measure sleep. However, a defining criterion for sleep is decreased behavioral responsiveness to stimuli. Here we introduce the Drosophila ARousal Tracking system (DART), an integrated platform for efficiently tracking and probing arousal levels in animals. This video-based platform delivers positional and locomotion data, behavioral responsiv...

  3. General Anesthesia and Altered States of Arousal: A Systems Neuroscience Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emery N Brown; Purdon, Patrick L.; Van Dort, Christa J.

    2011-01-01

    Placing a patient in a state of general anesthesia is crucial for safely and humanely performing most surgical and many nonsurgical procedures. How anesthetic drugs create the state of general anesthesia is considered a major mystery of modern medicine. Unconsciousness, induced by altered arousal and/or cognition, is perhaps the most fascinating behavioral state of general anesthesia. We perform a systems neuroscience analysis of the altered arousal states induced by five classes of intraveno...

  4. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    OpenAIRE

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that ...

  5. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Gharabaghi

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography often fails to assess both the level (i.e. arousal) and the content (i.e. awareness) of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations. We introduced epidural e...

  6. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Suzanne; Bensch, Michael; Halder, Sebastian; Hill, Jeremy; Nijboer, Femke; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Birbaumer, Niels; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) often fails to assess both the level (i.e., arousal) and the content (i.e., awareness) of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations. We introduced epidu...

  7. Arousal and locomotion make distinct contributions to cortical activity patterns and visual encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Vinck, Martin; Batista-Brito, Renata; Knoblich, Ulf; Cardin, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity is highly state-dependent, yet relatively little is known about transitions between distinct waking states. Patterns of activity in mouse V1 differ dramatically between quiescence and locomotion, but this difference could be explained by either motor feedback or a change in arousal levels. We recorded single cells and local field potentials from area V1 in mice head-fixed on a running wheel and monitored pupil diameter to assay arousal. Using n...

  8. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Gharabaghi

    2014-10-01

    Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient’s present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain-computer interfaces.

  9. Greater emotional arousal predicts poorer long-term memory of communication skills in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Baucom, Brian R.; Weusthoff, Sarah; Atkins, David; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have examined the importance of learning skills in behaviorally based couple interventions but none have examined predictors of long-term memory for skills. Associations between emotional arousal and long-term recall of communication skills delivered to couples during a behaviorally based relationship distress prevention program were examined in a sample of 49 German couples. Fundamental frequency (f0), a vocal measure of encoded emotional arousal, was measured during pre-treatme...

  10. SMOKING DURING PREGNANCY: POSTNATAL EFFECTS ON AROUSAL AND ATTENTIONAL BRAIN SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Buchanan, R.; K. McKeon; Skinner, R.D.; Wallace, T.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is known to produce lasting arousal, attentional and cognitive deficits in humans. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system (RAS), is known to modulate arousal, waking and REM sleep. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep decreases between 10 and 30 days postnatally in the rat, with the greatest decrease occurring at 12–21 days. Pregnant dams were exposed to 150 ml of cigarette smoke for 15 min, 3 times per day,...

  11. Time-of-day effects in arousal: disrupted diurnal cortisol profiles in children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Swanson, James; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluctuations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms related to regulatory deficits in arousal states are themselves characterized by circadian rhythms. Although cortisol is an important circadian arousal-related marker, studies focusing on across-the-day cortisol variations in ADHD are scarce. There is no study with multiple measurements to take into account interday and intraday variability. Methods: Salivary cortisol was sampled five times a day (awakenin...

  12. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening

    OpenAIRE

    Iris eVan Den Bosch; Valorie eSalimpoor; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectatio...

  13. Encoding of goal-relevant stimuli is strengthened by emotional arousal in memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho eLee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotional information receives preferential processing, which facilitates adaptive strategies for survival. However, the presence of emotional stimuli and the arousal they induce also influence how surrounding non-emotional information is processed in memory (Mather & Sutherland, 2011. For example, seeing a highly emotional scene often leads to forgetting of what was seen right beforehand, but sometimes instead enhances memory for the preceding information. In two studies, we examined how emotional arousal affects short-term memory retention for goal-relevant information that was just seen. In Study 1, participants were asked to remember neutral objects in spatially-cued locations (i.e., goal-relevant objects determined by specific location, while ignoring objects in uncued locations. After each set of objects were shown, arousal was manipulated by playing a previously fear-conditioned tone (i.e., CS+ or a neutral tone that had not been paired with shock (CS-. In Study 1, memory for the goal-relevant neutral objects from arousing trials was enhanced compared to those from the non-arousing trials. This result suggests that emotional arousal helps to increase the impact of top-down priority (i.e., goal-relevancy on memory encoding. Study 2 supports this conclusion by demonstrating that when the goal was to remember all objects regardless of the spatial cue, emotional arousal induced memory enhancement in a more global manner for all objects. In sum, the two studies show that the ability of arousal to enhance memory for previously encoded items depends on the goal relevance initially assigned to those items

  14. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Fleischman

    Full Text Available Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76 were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission.

  15. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Michael T.; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Horner, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are the main source of cortical acetylcholine, and their activation by histamine elicits cortical arousal. TWIK-like acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels modulate neuronal excitability and are expressed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, but the role of TASK channels in the histamine-basal forebrain cholinergic arousal circuit is unknown. We first expressed TASK channel subunits and histamine Type 1 receptors in HEK cells. Application of histamine in vitr...

  16. Parents’ empathic perspective taking and altruistic behavior predicts infants’ arousal to others’ emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Upshaw, Michaela B.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy emerges in children’s overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others’ emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants’ arousal toward others’ emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants’ (n = 49) pupillary changes in response to another infant’s emotions, and to determin...

  17. Childhood Trauma is Associated with Altered Cortical Arousal: Insights from an EEG Study

    OpenAIRE

    Howells, Fleur Margaret; Stein, Dan J.; Russell, Vivienne A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma is associated with psychiatric disorders, yet the underlying psychobiological mechanisms that account for this link are not well understood. Alterations in cortical arousal may, however, play a key role in mediating this association. We hypothesized that childhood trauma would be associated with alterations in arousal during a task that required sustained attention and behavioral inhibition. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three healthy adults completed the Childhood...

  18. Childhood trauma is associated with altered cortical arousal: insights from an EEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Fleur Margaret Howells; Stein, Dan J.; Vivienne Ann Russell

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma is associated with psychiatric disorders, yet the underlying psychobiological mechanisms that account for this link are not well understood. Alterations in cortical arousal may, however, play a key role in mediating this association. We hypothesised that childhood trauma would be associated with alterations in arousal during a task that required sustained attention and behavioural inhibition. Methods: Fifty-three healthy adults completed the Childhood Trauma Ques...

  19. A relook at the motor vehicle buyer after the purchase: dissonance arousal

    OpenAIRE

    S. Brijball

    2000-01-01

    This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported diss...

  20. The Eye is Listening: Music-Induced Arousal and Individual Differences Predict Pupillary Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Gingras; Manuela Maria Marin

    2015-01-01

    Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females) provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness, and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts wer...

  1. Executive functioning and diabetes: The role of anxious arousal and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Lacourt, Tamara E; Duke, Danny C; Heijnen, Cobi J; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2016-09-01

    Individuals who perform poorly on measures of the executive function of inhibition have higher anxious arousal in comparison to those with better performance. High anxious arousal is associated with a pro-inflammatory response. Chronically high anxious arousal and inflammation increase one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We sought to evaluate anxious arousal and inflammation as underlying mechanisms linking inhibition with diabetes incidence. Participants (N=835) completed measures of cognitive abilities, a self-report measure of anxious arousal, and donated blood to assess interleukin-6 (IL-6) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Individuals with low inhibition were more likely to have diabetes than those with high inhibition due to the serial pathway from high anxious arousal to IL-6. Findings remained when entering other indicators of cognitive abilities as covariates, suggesting that inhibition is a unique cognitive ability associated with diabetes incidence. On the basis of our results, we propose several avenues to explore for improved prevention and treatment efforts for type 2 diabetes. PMID:27261922

  2. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music. PMID:25056004

  3. Specificity of autonomic arousal to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tabitha A; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Brian, Jessica; Chau, Tom; Kushki, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety is one of the most concerning comorbidities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to its high prevalence, negative impact on physical and psychological well-being, and interaction with core deficits of ASD. Current assessment and treatment of anxiety, which rely on the observation of behavior and self-reports, are often ineffective as ASD is associated with deficits in communication and diminished introspective ability. In this light, autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity has been suggested as a marker of physiological arousal associated with anxiety. However, physiological arousal measured by ANS indices also occurs with other cognitive and emotional processes, and it is unclear whether anxiety-related arousal can be differentiated from that related to other cognitive processes. To address this gap, we investigated the use of linear and nonlinear classification techniques for differentiating anxiety-related arousal from arousal due to three cognitive processes (attention, inhibitory control, and social cognition) and physical activity based on electrocardiography signal features. Our results indicate that over 80% classification accuracy can be achieved, suggesting that ANS response can be used as a specific marker of anxiety-related arousal in a subgroup of children with ASD who demonstrate an increase in heart rate in response to anxiogenic stimuli. PMID:26389543

  4. Reversible blunting of arousal from sleep in response to intermittent hypoxia in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, R A; McWilliams, S; Schneider, R W; Tobia, C M

    2010-12-01

    Arousal is an important survival mechanism when infants are confronted with hypoxia during sleep. Many sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia before death and have impaired arousal mechanisms. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to hypoxia would cause a progressive blunting of arousal, and that a reversal of this process would occur if the hypoxia was terminated at the time of arousal. P5 (postnatal age of 5 days), P15, and P25 rat pups were exposed to either eight trials of hypoxia (3 min 5% O(2) alternating with room air) (group A), or three hypoxia trials as in group A, followed by five trials in which hypoxia was terminated at arousal (group B). In both groups A and B, latency increased over the first four trials of hypoxia, but reversed in group B animals during trials 5-8. Progressive arousal blunting was more pronounced in the older pups. The effects of intermittent hypoxia on heart rate also depended on age. In the older pups, heart rate increased with each hypoxia exposure. In the P5 pups, however, heart rate decreased during hypoxia and did not return to baseline between exposures, resulting in a progressive fall of baseline values over successive hypoxia exposures. In the group B animals, heart rate changes during trials 1-4 also reversed during trials 5-8. We conclude that exposure to repeated episodes of hypoxia can cause progressive blunting of arousal, which is reversible by altering the exposure times to hypoxia and the period of recovery between hypoxia exposures. PMID:20930126

  5. Feelings of disgust and disgust-induced avoidance weaken following induced sexual arousal in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Borg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the strongest disgust elicitors. This results in the intriguing question of how people succeed in having pleasurable sex at all. One possible explanation could be that sexual engagement temporarily reduces the disgust eliciting properties of particular stimuli or that sexual engagement might weaken the hesitation to actually approach these stimuli. METHODOLOGY: Participants were healthy women (n = 90 randomly allocated to one of three groups: the sexual arousal, the non-sexual positive arousal, or the neutral control group. Film clips were used to elicit the relevant mood state. Participants engaged in 16 behavioural tasks, involving sex related (e.g., lubricate the vibrator and non-sex related (e.g., take a sip of juice with a large insect in the cup stimuli, to measure the impact of sexual arousal on feelings of disgust and actual avoidance behaviour. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sexual arousal group rated the sex related stimuli as less disgusting compared to the other groups. A similar tendency was evident for the non-sex disgusting stimuli. For both the sex and non-sex related behavioural tasks the sexual arousal group showed less avoidance behaviour (i.e., they conducted the highest percentage of tasks compared to the other groups. SIGNIFICANCE: This study has investigated how sexual arousal interplays with disgust and disgust eliciting properties in women, and has demonstrated that this relationship goes beyond subjective report by affecting the actual approach to disgusting stimuli. Hence, this could explain how we still manage to engage in pleasurable sexual activity. Moreover, these findings suggest that low sexual arousal might be a key feature in the

  6. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Suzanne; Bensch, Michael; Halder, Sebastian; Hill, Jeremy; Nijboer, Femke; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Birbaumer, Niels; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) often fails to assess both the level (i.e., arousal) and the content (i.e., awareness) of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations. We introduced epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) for monitoring of cortical physiology in a late-stage amytrophic lateral sclerosis patient in completely locked-in state (CLIS). Despite long-term application for a period of six months, no implant-related complications occurred. Recordings from the left frontal cortex were sufficient to identify three arousal states. Spectral analysis of the intrinsic oscillatory activity enabled us to extract state-dependent dominant frequencies at <4, ~7 and ~20 Hz, representing sleep-like periods, and phases of low and elevated arousal, respectively. In the absence of other biomarkers, ECoG proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring circadian rhythmicity, i.e., avoiding interference with the patient when he was sleeping and exploiting time windows of responsiveness. Moreover, the effects of interventions addressing the patient's arousal, e.g., amantadine medication, could be evaluated objectively on the basis of physiological markers, even in the absence of behavioral parameters. Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient's present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain

  7. Positive Affect and Cognitive Restoration: Investigating the Role of Valence and Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealis, Logan J; van Allen, Zack M; Zelenski, John M

    2016-01-01

    Positive moods are thought to restore self-control resources following depletion. However, it is not well understood whether this effect is due to affective valence (pleasantness), arousal (activation), or a combination of both. Across four studies, we set out to investigate the role of positive moods on cognitive and behavioral measures of self-regulation in an ego-depletion paradigm. In studies 1 and 2, we independently manipulated affective valence and arousal and assessed self-regulation with a Stroop task. Results did not suggest a restorative effect of either on cognitive resources. In study 3, we employed both behavioral (the 'handgrip task') and cognitive (Stroop) assessments of self-regulation. Again, no significant effect of mood was observed on the Stroop task. Additionally, participants did not persist significantly longer on the handgrip task following a positive mood induction. Finally, in study 4, high vs. low states of arousal were manipulated and self-regulation was assessed via pre- and post-manipulation Stroop performance. In study 4, Stroop performance improved slightly more across time points for those in the high arousal condition than for those in the low arousal condition. Therefore, across four studies, we failed to find a consistent pattern of results suggesting that positive moods restore cognitive resources. PMID:26784026

  8. The impact of stimulus arousal level on emotion regulation effectiveness in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Skye; Kuo, Janice R

    2016-07-30

    Basic emotion theory suggests that the effectiveness of different emotion regulation strategies vary with the intensity of the emotionally-salient stimulus. Although findings from studies using healthy samples are concordant with what is proposed by theory, it is unclear whether these relationships hold true among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Twenty-five individuals with BPD and 30 HCs were exposed to negative images of varying levels of emotional arousal and were instructed to either react as they normally would, distract, or use mindful awareness. Self-reported negativity ratings, heart rate, and skin conductance level (SCL) were monitored throughout. SCL data indicated that increases in image arousal resulted in larger reductions in SCL when distracting but not when implementing mindful awareness. Self-report data suggested that, in HCs, the effectiveness of mindful awareness decreased to a greater extent than distraction when image arousal increased. These findings are consistent with basic emotion research and suggest that some forms of emotion regulation (distraction) are more suited to high emotion arousal contexts than others (mindful awareness) and that, compared with HCs, individuals with BPD may be more resilient to the deteriorating effectiveness of mindful awareness with respect to increasing emotional arousal. PMID:27203152

  9. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Guez

    Full Text Available The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test, and for associations (associative recognition test. In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress.

  10. Disentangling the Effect of Valence and Arousal on Judgments Concerning Moral Transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Viña, Luis; Garcia-Burgos, David; Okan, Yasmina; Cándido, Antonio; González, Felisa

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of research has investigated the effect of emotions on judgments concerning moral transgressions. Yet, few studies have controlled for arousal levels associated with the emotions. High arousal may affect moral processing by triggering attention to salient features of transgressions, independently of valence. Therefore previously documented differences in effects of negative and positive emotions may have been confounded by differences in arousal. We conducted two studies to shed light on this issue. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire including vignettes selected on the basis of psychometrical properties (i.e., mean ratings of the actions and variability). This questionnaire was administered to participants in Study 2, after presenting them with selected pictures inducing different valence but equivalent levels of arousal. Negative pictures led to more severe moral judgments than neutral (p = .054, d = 0.60) and positive pictures (p = .002, d = 1.02), for vignettes that were not associated with extreme judgments. In contrast, positive pictures did not reliably affect judgments concerning such vignettes. These findings suggest that the observed effects of emotions cannot be accounted for by an increase in attention linked to the arousal which accompanies these emotions. PMID:26256035

  11. The Eye is Listening: Music-Induced Arousal and Individual Differences Predict Pupillary Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Puig-Waldmüller, Estela; Fitch, W T

    2015-01-01

    Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females) provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness, and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females). We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music. PMID:26617511

  12. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mirandola

    Full Text Available Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1 whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2 whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently, compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval.

  13. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1) whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2) whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently), compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence) predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval. PMID:26938737

  14. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  15. The eye is listening: Music-induced arousal and individual differences predict pupillary responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eGingras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females. We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music.

  16. The rewarding aspects of music listening are related to degree of emotional arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie N Salimpoor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and "neutral" music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The "chills" phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal.

  17. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders. PMID:2346901

  18. The amplitude and phase precision of 40 Hz auditory steady-state response depend on the level of arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Morup, Morten; Parnas, Josef; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Arnfred, Sidse M

    2007-01-01

    level of arousal, but the findings are somewhat controversial. Generally, ASSR is diminished in sleep but it may be increased in drowsiness. Besides, ASSR reduction has been observed in schizophrenia. However, schizophrenic patients are known to have a disturbance of arousal level, what makes it...... pertinent to know the effects of fluctuations in arousal on passive response to gamma-range stimulation. In nine healthy volunteers trains of 40 Hz click stimuli were applied during two conditions: in the "high arousal" condition subjects were sitting upright silently reading a book of interest; in the "low...

  19. The Association Among Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 Levels, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Arousal in Male Patients with OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha T. Bekci, Mehmet Kayrak, Aysel Kiyici, Emin Maden, Hatem Ari, Zeynettin Kaya, Turgut Teke, Hakan Akilli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms of the increased cardiac and vascular events in patients with OSA are not well understood. Arousal which is an important component of OSA was associated with increased sympathetic activation and electrocardiographic changes which prone to arrhythmias. We planned to examine the association among arousal, circulating Lp-PLA2 and total antioxidant capacity in male patients with OSA.Methods: Fifty male patients with newly diagnosed OSA were enrolled the study. A full-night polysomnography was performed and arousal index was obtained. Lp-PLA2 concentrations were measured in serum samples with the PLAC Test. Total antioxidant capacity in patients was determined with Antioxidant Assay Kit.Results: Arousal was positively correlated with LP-PLA2 levels (r=0.43, p=0.002 and was negatively correlated with total antioxidant capacity (r= -0.29, p=0.04. Elevated LP-PLA2 levels and decreased total antioxidant activities were found in the highest arousal quartile compared with the lowest and 2nd quartiles (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively. LP-PLA2 was an independently predictor of arousal index in regression model (β=0.357, p=0.002Conclusions: This study demonstrated a moderate linear relationship between arousal and LP-PLA2 levels. Also, total antioxidant capacities were decreased in the higher arousal index. Based on the study result, the patients with higher arousal index may be prone to vascular events.

  20. People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

    2008-10-01

    Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external. PMID:19093614

  1. The relationship of deviant sexual arousal and psychopathy in incest offenders, extrafamilial child molesters, and rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Serran, G A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between deviant sexual arousal, as measured by auditory phallometric stimuli, and psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, was examined in 156 incest offenders, 260 extrafamilial child molesters, and 123 rapists. Subjects in each group had never been convicted of another type of sexual offense. Replicating previous research, rapists were more psychopathic than incest offenders and child molesters. Deviant sexual arousal to auditory stimuli was evident only on the Pedophile Index for child molesters. When the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal was evaluated in the three groups combined, several significant correlations emerged. However, a finer analysis of these correlations revealed that child molesters evidenced a significant correlation between psychopathy and the Rape Index and psychopathy and the Pedophile Index. There were no such significant findings in the incest offender or rapist groups. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:11055527

  2. Building trust: Heart rate synchrony and arousal during joint action increased by public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; McGraw, John J; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wallot, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    The physiological processes underlying trust are subject of intense interest in the behavioral sciences. However, very little is known about how trust modulates the affective link between individuals. We show here that trust has an effect on heart rate arousal and synchrony, a result consistent with research on joint action and experimental economics. We engaged participants in a series of joint action tasks which, for one group of participants, was interleaved with a PGG, and measured their heart synchrony and arousal. We found that the introduction of the economic game shifted participants' attention to the dynamics of the interaction. This was followed by increased arousal and synchrony of heart rate profiles. Also, the degree of heart rate synchrony was predictive of participants' expectations regarding their partners in the economic game. We conclude that the above changes in physiology and behavior are shaped by the valuation of other people's social behavior, and ultimately indicate trust building process. PMID:26037635

  3. Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a psychophysiological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Gorges, Susanne; Alpers, Georg W; Lehmann, Andreas C; Pauli, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and 95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal. PMID:17118518

  4. How Fear-Arousing News Messages Affect Risk Perceptions and Intention to Talk About Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Sang-Hwa; Hove, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Building on the theoretical arguments of the impersonal-impact and differential-impact hypotheses, this study has a twofold purpose: first, to demonstrate how fear-arousing media messages about risk are associated with personal-level risk perception, as well as, and perhaps more so than, societal-level risk perception; and second, to examine how the resulting risk perceptions can mediate intention to talk about the risk with family and friends. A news message evaluation study was conducted among the general public in South Korea concerning two major risks, carcinogens and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two sets of structural equation models reveal three main findings: (a) Fear-arousing news messages are positively related to personal-level risk perception, as well as to societal-level risk perception; (b) fear-arousing news messages result in intention to talk about the risk directly and indirectly through risk perception; and PMID:26789555

  5. Temporal dynamics of arousal and attention in 12-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, S V; Clackson, K; de Barbaro, K

    2016-07-01

    Research from the animal literature suggests that dynamic, ongoing changes in arousal lead to dynamic changes in an individual's state of anticipatory readiness, influencing how individuals distribute their attention to the environment. However, multiple peripheral indices exist for studying arousal in humans, each showing change on different temporal scales, challenging whether arousal is best characterized as a unitary or a heterogeneous construct. Here, in 53 typical 12-month-olds, we recorded heart rate (HR), head movement patterns, electrodermal activity (EDA), and attention (indexed via look duration) during the presentation of 20 min of mixed animations and TV clips. We also examined triggers for high arousal episodes. Using cross-correlations and auto-correlations, we found that HR and head movement show strong covariance on a sub-minute scale, with changes in head movement consistently preceding changes in HR. EDA showed significant covariance with both, but on much larger time-scales. HR and head movement showed consistent relationships with look duration, but the relationship is temporally specific: relations are observed between head movement, HR and look duration at 30 s time-lag, but not at larger time intervals. No comparable relationships were found for EDA. Changes in head movement and HR occurred before changes in look duration, but not for EDA. Our results suggest that consistent patterns of covariation between heart rate, head movement and EDA can be identified, albeit on different time-scales, and that associations with look duration are present for head movement and heart rate, but not for EDA. Our results suggests that there is a single construct of arousal that can identified across multiple measures, and that phasic changes in arousal precede phasic changes in look duration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 623-639, 2016. PMID:26999073

  6. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Yo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal.

  7. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal

  8. Synchronized Bilateral Synaptic Inputs to Drosophila melanogaster Neuropeptidergic Rest/Arousal Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, E. V.; Wu, Y.; deCarvalho, T.;

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide PDF (pigment-dispersing factor)-secreting large ventrolateral neurons (lLN(v)s) in the Drosophila brain regulate daily patterns of rest and arousal. These bilateral wake-promoting neurons are light responsive and integrate information from the circadian system, sleep circuits, and....... We demonstrate that cholinergic input, but not GABAergic input, is required for synchronous membrane activity, whereas GABA can modulate firing patterns. We conclude that neuropeptidergic lLN(v)s that control rest and arousal receive synchronous synaptic inputs mediated by ACh....

  9. Acoustic Intensity Causes Perceived Changes in Arousal Levels in Music: An Experimental Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Roger T.; Bailes, Freya; Schubert, Emery

    2011-01-01

    Listener perceptions of changes in the arousal expressed by classical music have been found to correlate with changes in sound intensity/loudness over time. This study manipulated the intensity profiles of different pieces of music in order to test the causal nature of this relationship. Listeners (N = 38) continuously rated their perceptions of the arousal expressed by each piece. An extract from Dvorak's Slavonic Dance Opus 46 No 1 was used to create a variant in which the direction of chan...

  10. The Role of Arousal in the Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Healthy Aging: An fMRI Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SandaDolcos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite ample support for enhanced affective well-being and emotional stability in healthy aging, the role of potentially important dimensions, such as the emotional arousal, has not been systematically investigated in neuroimaging studies. In addition, the few behavioral studies that examined effects of arousal have produced inconsistent findings. The present study manipulated the arousal of pictorial stimuli to test the hypothesis that preserved emotional functioning in aging is modulated by the level of arousal, and to identify the associated neural correlates. Young and older healthy participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures, which they rated for emotional content, while fMRI data were recorded. There were three main novel findings regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of negative pictures with different levels of arousal in young and older adults. First, the common engagement of the right amygdala in young and older adults was driven by high arousing negative stimuli. Second, complementing an age-related reduction in the subjective ratings for low arousing negative pictures, there were opposing patterns of activity in the rostral/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and the amygdala, which showed increased vs. decreased responses, respectively, to low arousing negative pictures. Third, increased spontaneous activity in the ventral ACC/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC in older adults was linked to reduced ratings for low arousing negative pictures. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates underlying processing of negative emotions with different levels of arousal in the context of enhanced emotional functioning in healthy aging. Notably, the results support the idea that older adults have emotion regulation networks chronically activated, in the absence of explicit induction of the goal to regulate emotions, and that this effect is specific to low arousing

  11. Agreement of Self-Reported and Genital Measures of Sexual Arousal in Men and Women: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Chivers; M.C. Seto; M.L. Lalumière; E. Laan; T. Grimbos

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of sexual arousal in men and women informs theoretical studies of human sexuality and provides a method to assess and evaluate the treatment of sexual dysfunctions and paraphilias. Understanding measures of arousal is, therefore, paramount to further theoretical and practical advances

  12. Cognitive Biases in the Interpretation of Autonomic Arousal: A Test of the Construal Bias Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Keith D.; Easter, Matthew A.; Summers, Jessica J.; Posada, Maria L.

    2009-01-01

    According to Bandura's construal bias hypothesis, derived from social cognitive theory, persons with the same heightened state of autonomic arousal may experience either pleasant or deleterious emotions depending on the strength of perceived self-efficacy. The current study tested this hypothesis by proposing that college students' preexisting…

  13. The Experience of a Modern Dance Group: Arousal, Motivation, and Self-Rated Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, John H.; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Wilson, George V.; Nakamori, Kayo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the findings obtained in previous reversal theory based dance research by investigating dancers' perceptions of their own arousal levels and performance and their motivational states when performing. A group of modern dancers (n = 21), performing at a dance competition, acted as volunteer…

  14. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

  15. Adult Perceptions of Pain and Hunger Cries: A Synchrony of Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeskind, Philip Sanford; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Male and female nonparent adults rated tape-recordings of initial, middle, and final 10-second segments of pain and hunger cries on four 7-point Likert-type scale items describing how urgent, arousing, aversive, and sick cry segments sounded. Results suggest that different segments of cries resulting from the same stimulus provide different…

  16. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  17. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  18. Temperament and arousal systems: A new synthesis of differential psychology and functional neurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Irina; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the unidimensional construct of General Arousal as utilised by models of temperament in differential psychology for example, to underlie 'Extraversion'. Evidence suggests that specialization within monoamine neurotransmitter systems contrasts with the attribution of a "general arousal" of the Ascending Reticular Activating System. Experimental findings show specialized roles of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin systems in hypothetically mediating three complementary forms of arousal that are similar to three functional blocks described in classical models of behaviour within kinesiology, clinical neuropsychology, psychophysiology and temperament research. In spite of functional diversity of monoamine receptors, we suggest that their functionality can be classified using three universal aspects of actions related to expansion, to selection-integration and to maintenance of chosen behavioural alternatives. Monoamine systems also differentially regulate analytic vs. routine aspects of activities at cortical and striatal neural levels. A convergence between main temperament models in terms of traits related to described functional aspects of behavioural arousal also supports the idea of differentiation between these aspects analysed here in a functional perspective. PMID:26969100

  19. Stigma and Glucose Levels: Testing Ego Depletion and Arousal Explanations of Stereotype Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Andrew M.; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that when stigmatized group membership is made salient, group members' cognitive performance is lowered; however, the mechanism through which this effect operates is not well understood. This study tests between arousal and ego depletion accounts of stereotype threat by examining whether stereotype threat effects…

  20. Sleep during arousal episodes as a function of prior torpor duration in hibernating European ground squirrels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    EEG's were recorded in hibernating European ground squirrels during euthermic arousal episodes at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C. Spontaneous torpor bouts ranged from 6 to 15 days, body temperature during torpor was 7.5 degrees C. The torpor duration prior to EEG measurements was experiment

  1. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  2. Deindividuating Effects of Group Presence and Arousal on Stealing by Halloween Trick-or-Treaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Edward; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of group presence and arousal in deindividuation, a process that is theoretically related to performance of anti-social behavior. On Halloween night, 23 selected homes in Seattle, Washington, were prepared for experimental manipulation. All homes were set up so that observers could watch children…

  3. Reproducing affective norms with lexical co-occurrence statistics : Predicting valence, arousal, and dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.M.; Recchia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Human ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance are frequently used to study the cognitive mechanisms of emotional attention, word recognition, and numerous other phenomena in which emotions are hypothesized to play an important role. Collecting such norms from human raters is expensive and time co

  4. Emotional Arousal, Client Perceptual Processing, and the Working Alliance in Experiential Psychotherapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missirlian, Tanya M.; Toukmanian, Shake G.; Warwar, Serine H.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2005-01-01

    Early-, middle-, and late-phase client emotional arousal, perceptual processing strategies, and working alliance were examined in relation to treatment outcome on 4 measures in 32 clients who previously underwent experiential therapy for depression. Hierarchical regression analyses relating these variables to outcome indicated that results varied…

  5. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links with Pragmatic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did…

  6. Increased Arousal Levels and Decreased Sleep by Brain Music in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Zhan Fang; Chun-Peng Zhang; Dan Wu; Yang Xia; Yong-Xiu Lai; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    More and more studies have been reported on whether music and other types of auditory stimulation would improve the quality of sleep.Many of these studies have found significant results,but others argue that music is not significantly better than the tones or control conditions in improving sleep.For further understanding the relationship between music and sleep or music and arousal,the present study therefore examines the effects of brain music on sleep and arousal by means of biofeedback.The music is from the transformation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) of rats using an algorithm in the Chengdu Brain Music (CBM) system.When the brain music was played back to rats,EEG data were recorded to assess the efficacy of music to induce or improve sleep,or increase arousal levels by sleep staging,etc.Our results demonstrate that exposure to the brain music increases arousal levels and decreases sleep in rats,and the underlying mechanism of decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep may be different.

  7. Memory recall in arousing situations – an emotional von Restorff effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasselbach Simone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Results Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Conclusion Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed.

  8. Parents' empathic perspective taking and altruistic behavior predicts infants' arousal to others' emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Michaela B; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Empathy emerges in children's overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others' emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants' arousal toward others' emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants' (n = 49) pupillary changes in response to another infant's emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants' pupil dilation in response to others' emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others' emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal toward others' emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents' empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors. PMID:25883577

  9. Dyspareunia in women : a painful affair : the role of fear of pain and sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Marieke

    2008-01-01

    Dyspareunia, defined as genital pain associated with penile-vaginal intercourse, is a common problem in women. According to the prevailing cognitive-behavioural model of dyspareunia (Spano & Lamont, 1975), fear of pain and diminished sexual arousal are key components in the onset and maintenance of

  10. Dissociable Effects of Valence and Arousal on Different Subtypes of Old/New Effect: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huifang; Zhang, Qin; Li, Bingbing; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Here, we utilized the study-test paradigm combined with recognition confidence assessment and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements to investigate the effects of valence and arousal on the different subtypes of the old-new effect. We also test the effect of valence and arousal at encoding stage to investigate the underlying mechanism of the effect of the two emotional dimension on different retrieval process. In order to test the effects of valence and arousal on old/new effect precisely, we used the "subject-oriented orthogonal design" which manipulated valence and arousal independently according to subjects' verbal reporting to investigate the effects of valence and arousal on old/new effect respectively. Three subtypes of old/new effect were obtained in the test phase, which were FN400, LPC, and late positivity over right frontal. They are supposed to be associated with familiarity, recollection, and post-retrieval processes respectively according to previous studies. For the FN400 component, valence affected mid-frontal negativity from 350-500 ms. Pleasant items evoked an enhanced ERP old/new effect relative to unpleasant items. However, arousal only affected LPC amplitude from 500-800 ms. The old/new effect for high-arousal items was greater than for low-arousal items. Valence also affected the amplitude of a positive-going slow wave at right frontal sites from 800-1000 ms, possibly serving as an index of post-retrieval processing. At encoding stage, the valence and arousal also have dissociable effect on the frontal slow wave between 350-800 ms and the centro-parietal positivity in 500-800 ms. The pleasant items evoked a more positive frontal slow wave relative to unpleasant ones, and the high arousal items evoked a larger centro-parietal positivity relative to low arousal ones. These results suggest that valence and arousal may differentially impact these different memory processes: valence affects familiarity and post

  11. Dissociable effects of valence and arousal on different subtypes of old/new effect: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we utilized the study-test paradigm combined with recognition confidence assessment and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP measurements to investigate the effects of valence and arousal on the different subtypes of the old-new effect. We also test the effect of valence and arousal at encoding stage to investigate the underlying mechanism of the effect of the two emotional dimension on different retrieval process. In order to test the effects of valence and arousal on old/new effect precisely, we used the “subject-oriented orthogonal design” which manipulated valence and arousal independently according to subjects’ verbal reporting to investigate the effects of valence and arousal on old/new effect respectively. Three subtypes of old/new effect were obtained in the test phase, which were FN400, LPC, and late positivity over right frontal. They are supposed to be associated with familiarity, recollection, and post-retrieval processes respectively according to previous studies. For the FN400 component, valence affected mid-frontal negativity from 350 to 500 ms. Pleasant items evoked an enhanced ERP old/new effect relative to unpleasant items. However, arousal only affected LPC amplitude from 500 to 800ms. The old/new effect for high-arousal items was greater than for low-arousal items. Valence also affected the amplitude of a positive-going slow wave at right frontal sites from 800 to 1000 ms, possibly serving as an index of post-retrieval processing. At encoding stage, the valence and arousal also have dissociable effect on the frontal slow wave between 350-800ms and the centro-parietal positivity in 500-800ms. The pleasant items evoked a more positive frontal slow wave relative to unpleasant ones, and the high arousal items evoked a larger centro-parietal positivity relative to low arousal ones. These results suggest that valence and arousal may differentially impact these different memory processes: valence affects

  12. Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheumann Marina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-identity while others encode for arousal, we studied infants of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus. Kittens are an excellent model for analysing vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal. They strongly depend on the care of their mother. Thus, the acoustical conveyance of sender-identity and arousal may be important for their survival. Results We recorded calls of 18 kittens in an experimentally-induced separation paradigm, where kittens were spatially separated from their mother and siblings. In the Low arousal condition, infants were just separated without any manipulation. In the High arousal condition infants were handled by the experimenter. Multi-parametric sound analyses revealed that kitten isolation calls are individually distinct and differ between the Low and High arousal conditions. Our results suggested that source- and filter-related parameters are important for encoding sender-identity, whereas time-, source- and tonality-related parameters are important for encoding arousal. Conclusion Comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence for commonalities in non-verbal cues encoding sender-identity and arousal across mammals comparable to paralinguistic cues in humans. This favours the establishment of general concepts for voice recognition and emotions in humans and animals.

  13. Comparing Subjective Ratings of Sexual Arousal and Desire in Partnered Sexual Activities from Women of Different Sexual Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tonje J; Ryder, Andrew G; Pfaus, James G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about non-monosexual women's sexual arousal and desire. Typically, bisexual women have been excluded from research on sexual arousal and desire, whereas mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian women have been placed into monosexual categories. This research (1) compared the subjective sexual arousal and desire of self-identified heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, and lesbian women in partnered sexual activities with men and with women, and (2) compared within-group differences for subjective sexual arousal and desire with men versus women for the five groups. Participants included 388 women (M age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). Sexual orientation was associated with sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with both men and with women. Bisexuals reported higher sexual arousal and desire for women than heterosexuals and lesbians, while lesbians reported lower sexual arousal and desire with men than the other groups. Heterosexuals and mostly heterosexuals scored higher on the male than on the female motivational dimension of the SADI, while the reverse was found for lesbians and mostly lesbians. Findings indicate that non-monosexuals have higher sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with women than monosexuals. Further, bisexual women did not differentiate their sexual arousal with men versus women, while the other sexual orientation groups differentiated in terms of their motivation to engage in sexual activity. These findings may have implications for how female sexual orientation is conceptualized. PMID:25808718

  14. Differences in neural activity when processing emotional arousal and valence in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Angela; Wang, Zhishun; Huo, Yuankai; Goh, Suzanne; Russell, James A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have difficulty recognizing and interpreting facial expressions of emotion, which may impair their ability to navigate and communicate successfully in their social, interpersonal environments. Characterizing specific differences between individuals with ASD and their typically developing (TD) counterparts in the neural activity subserving their experience of emotional faces may provide distinct targets for ASD interventions. Thus we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a parametric experimental design to identify brain regions in which neural activity correlated with ratings of arousal and valence for a broad range of emotional faces. Participants (51 ASD, 84 TD) were group-matched by age, sex, IQ, race, and socioeconomic status. Using task-related change in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal as a measure, and covarying for age, sex, FSIQ, and ADOS scores, we detected significant differences across diagnostic groups in the neural activity subserving the dimension of arousal but not valence. BOLD-signal in TD participants correlated inversely with ratings of arousal in regions associated primarily with attentional functions, whereas BOLD-signal in ASD participants correlated positively with arousal ratings in regions commonly associated with impulse control and default-mode activity. Only minor differences were detected between groups in the BOLD signal correlates of valence ratings. Our findings provide unique insight into the emotional experiences of individuals with ASD. Although behavioral responses to face-stimuli were comparable across diagnostic groups, the corresponding neural activity for our ASD and TD groups differed dramatically. The near absence of group differences for valence correlates and the presence of strong group differences for arousal correlates suggest that individuals with ASD are not atypical in all aspects of emotion-processing. Studying these similarities

  15. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eVan Den Bosch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA, an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1 pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2 whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 minutes. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music.

  16. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

  17. Glucocorticoids interact with the noradrenergic arousal system in the nucleus accumbens shell to enhance memory consolidation of both appetitive and aversive taste learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichmann, Romy; Fornari, Raquel V.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing experiences but have little effect on memory of low-arousing experiences. Although both positive and negative emotionally arousing events tend to be well remembered, studies i

  18. The Insula modulates arousal-induced reluctance to try novel tastes through adrenergic transmission in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Stehberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reluctance to try novel tastes (neophobia can be exacerbated in arousing situations, such as when children are under social stress or in rodents, when the new taste is presented in a high arousal context (HA compared to a low arousal context (LA. The present study aimed at determining whether adrenergic transmission at the Insula regulates the reluctance to try novel tastes induced by arousing contexts. To this end, a combination of systemic and intra-insular manipulations of adrenergic activity was performed before the novel taste (saccharin 0.1% was presented either in LA or HA contexts in rats. Our results show that systemic adrenergic activity modulates reluctance to try novel tastes. Moreover, intra-insular microinjections of propranolol or norepinephrine were found to modulate the effects of arousing contexts on reluctance to try novel tastes. Finally, intra-insular propranolol blocked epinephrine-induced increased reluctance, while intra-insular norepinephrine blocked oral propranolol-induced decreases in reluctance and increased the reluctance to try novel tastes presented in low arousing contexts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the insula is a critical site for regulating the effects of arousal in the reluctance to try novel tastes via the adrenergic system.

  19. The Impact of Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection. PMID:26310879

  20. When playing together feels different: effects of task types and social contexts on physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sohye; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2009-02-01

    This study examines how task types (violent vs. nonviolent) and social contexts (solo vs. collaborative) affect physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming. Our results show that social contexts modify the effects of violent game tasks on arousal. When compared with solo play, collaborative play led to a significant decrease in arousal in response to violent tasks, while leading to a slight increase for nonviolent tasks. The findings point to the importance of understanding how social contexts of game playing shape psychological experiences in multiplayer online games. PMID:19006459

  1. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C.; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language. PMID:26226604

  2. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M Y Ho

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language.

  3. Simulation Analysis of Transient Earth Voltages Aroused by Partial Discharge in Switchgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the properties of Transient Earth Voltages (TEV Aroused by Partial Discharge in Switchgear by Simulation. The mechanism of TEV aroused by partial discharge in switchgears is analyzed. The Finite Integration Theory (FIT was employed to simulate the propagation of TEV in the switchgear. The simulation results show that the pulse width of TEV increases as the pulse width of PD pulse increases and the amplitude of TEV is proportional to the PD pulse amplitude. There are time differences between the TEV signals of different detecting points when the TEV propagating on the switchgear’s surface. Based on the simulation, a method of locating the PD of switchgear is proposed by positioning multi-sensors on the external surface of switchgear.

  4. Minority persistence in agent based model using information and emotional arousal as control variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2013-07-01

    We present detailed analysis of the behavior of an agent based model of opinion formation, using a discrete variant of cusp catastrophe behavior of single agents. The agent opinion about a particular issue is determined by its information about the issue and its emotional arousal. It is possible that for agitated agents the same information would lead to different opinions. This results in a nontrivial individual opinion dynamics. The agents communicate via messages, which allows direct application of the model to ICT based communities. We study the dependence of the composition of an agent society on the range of interactions and the rate of emotional arousal. Despite the minimal number of adjustable parameters, the model reproduces several phenomena observed in real societies, for example nearly perfectly balanced results of some highly contested elections or the fact that minorities seldom perceive themselves to be a minority.

  5. Emotional arousal in temporal lobectomy: autonomic and performance effects of success and failure feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R A; Smith, B D; Tammy, T R; Fedio, P

    1996-04-01

    Both theory and evidence suggest that right temporal lobectomy (RTL) patients show hypoarousal and left temporal lobectomy (LTL) patients show relative hyperarousal (Davidson, Fedio, Smith, Aurielle, & Martin, 1992). However, we hypothesized that these differences occur only under passive, nonevaluative stimulus conditions. The present study employed, instead, conditions of performance evaluation. We recorded the skin conductance responses (SCRs) and reaction times (RTs) of RTLs, LTLs, and normal controls (NCs) during easy and difficult trial blocks on a target-detection task, with auditory success/failure feedback. We found that LTLs exhibited relative hypoarousal and retarded RTs and that RTLs were normally aroused following success feedback. These results demonstrated that the arousal level of LTLs is contingent on stimulus conditions, thus calling into question the theory that this group is generally subject to hyperarousal. The two-dimensional theory of the neural processing of emotional experience partially explains our data. PMID:8780959

  6. Genetic and Anatomical Dissection of Sleep and Arousal in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and arousal are among the major mysteries remaining in biology. Animals are rendered defenseless, unable to forage for food, and immobile during sleep and yet sleep is necessary since complete deprivation results in significant health deficits and eventually death. In humans, artificial lighting and societal pressures have reduced the total amount of time spent sleeping over the last century. Chapter 1 of this thesis provides background information on our current understandings of sleep...

  7. Social and nonsocial content differentially modulates visual attention and autonomic arousal in Rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Machado

    Full Text Available The sophisticated analysis of gestures and vocalizations, including assessment of their emotional valence, helps group-living primates efficiently navigate their social environment. Deficits in social information processing and emotion regulation are important components of many human psychiatric illnesses, such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety disorder. Analyzing the neurobiology of social information processing and emotion regulation requires a multidisciplinary approach that benefits from comparative studies of humans and animal models. However, many questions remain regarding the relationship between visual attention and arousal while processing social stimuli. Using noninvasive infrared eye-tracking methods, we measured the visual social attention and physiological arousal (pupil diameter of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta as they watched social and nonsocial videos. We found that social videos, as compared to nonsocial videos, captured more visual attention, especially if the social signals depicted in the videos were directed towards the subject. Subject-directed social cues and nonsocial nature documentary footage, compared to videos showing conspecifics engaging in naturalistic social interactions, generated larger pupil diameters (indicating heightened sympathetic arousal. These findings indicate that rhesus monkeys will actively engage in watching videos of various kinds. Moreover, infrared eye tracking technology provides a mechanism for sensitively gauging the social interest of presented stimuli. Adult male rhesus monkeys' visual attention and physiological arousal do not always trend in the same direction, and are likely influenced by the content and novelty of a particular visual stimulus. This experiment creates a strong foundation for future experiments that will examine the neural network responsible for social information processing in nonhuman primates. Such studies may provide valuable information

  8. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Dannii Yeung; Wenjie Duan; Sandy Tang; June C Yeung; Rita Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied...

  9. Multilevel modulation of a sensory motor circuit during C. elegans sleep and arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Julie Y.; Paul W Sternberg

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is characterized by behavioral quiescence, homeostasis, increased arousal threshold, and rapid reversibility. Understanding how these properties are encoded by a neuronal circuit has been difficult, and no single molecular or neuronal pathway has been shown to be responsible for the regulation of sleep. Taking advantage of the well-mapped neuronal connections of Caenorhabditis elegans and the sleep-like states in this animal, we demonstrate the changed properties of both sensory neurons...

  10. Cognitive flexibility in young children: the impact of arousal and temperament.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciugureanu, Ecaterina

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of arousal on cognitive flexibility of young children. Participants were 119 6-year old children. A within-subjects repeated measures experimental design was used to evaluate differences in the effect of exposure to threat and neutral stimuli under low- and high-conflict conditions. On average, children responded more accurately to threat versus neutral stimuli. Moreover, children responded slower to threat stimuli relative to neutral stimuli under low-conf...

  11. Using event related potentials to identify a user's behavioural intention aroused by product form design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Fu; Zhang, Xuefeng; Qu, Qingxing; Liu, Weilin

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of product form to arouse user's behavioural intention plays a decisive role in further user experience, even in purchase decision, while traditional methods rarely give a fully understanding of user experience evoked by product form, especially the feeling of anticipated use of product. Behavioural intention aroused by product form designs has not yet been investigated electrophysiologically. Hence event related potentials (ERPs) were applied to explore the process of behavioural intention when users browsed different smart phone form designs with brand and price not taken into account for mainly studying the brain activity evoked by variety of product forms. Smart phone pictures with different anticipated user experience were displayed with equiprobability randomly. Participants were asked to click the left mouse button when certain picture gave them a feeling of behavioural intention to interact with. The brain signal of each participant was recorded by Curry 7.0. The results show that pictures with an ability to arouse participants' behavioural intention for further experience can evoke enhanced N300 and LPPs (late positive potentials) in central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions. The scalp topography shows that central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions are more activated. The results indicate that the discrepancy of ERPs can reflect the neural activities of behavioural intention formed or not. Moreover, amplitude of ERPs occurred in corresponding brain areas can be used to measure user experience. The exploring of neural correlated with behavioural intention provide an accurate measurement method of user's perception and help marketers to know which product can arouse users' behavioural intention, maybe taken as an evaluating indicator of product design. PMID:26995041

  12. Arousal and valence prediction in spontaneous emotional speech: felt versus perceived emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, K. P.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Neerincx, M.A.; de Jong, F.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe emotion recognition experiments car- ried out for spontaneous affective speech with the aim to com- pare the added value of annotation of felt emotion versus an- notation of perceived emotion. Using speech material avail- able in the TNO-GAMING corpus (a corpus containing audio- visual recordings of people playing videogames), speech-based affect recognizers were developed that can predict Arousal and Valence scalar values. Two types of recognizers were devel- oped ...

  13. Arousal and Valence Prediction in Spontaneous Emotional Speech: Felt versus Perceived Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Khiet P.; Leeuwen, van, M.; Neerincx, Mark A; Jong, de, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe emotion recognition experiments carried out for spontaneous affective speech with the aim to compare the added value of annotation of felt emotion versus annotation of perceived emotion. Using speech material available in the TNO-GAMING corpus (a corpus containing audiovisual recordings of people playing videogames), speech-based affect recognizers were developed that can predict Arousal and Valence scalar values. Two types of recognizers were developed in parallel: o...

  14. Being watched by others eliminates the effect of emotional arousal on inhibitory control

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jiaxin; Tseng, Philip; Muggleton, Neil G.; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effect of being watched by others has been proven a powerful tool in modulating social behaviors (e.g., charitable giving) and altering cognitive performance (e.g., visual search). Here we tested whether such awareness would affect one of the core elements of human cognition: emotional processing and impulse control. Using an emotion stop-signal paradigm, we found that viewing emotionally-arousing erotic images before attempting to inhibit a motor response impaired participa...

  15. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    OpenAIRE

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET; danilo eRamos; Lino Jose Bueno; Emmanuel eBigand

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s) and long (> 2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This eff...

  16. Violent computer games and their effects on state hostility and physiological arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Arriaga, Patrícia; Esteves, Francisco; CARNEIRO, PAULA; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta

    2006-01-01

    The definitive version is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20134 WOS:000238831900007 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of violent computer games on State Hostility, State Anxiety, and Arousal. Participants were undergraduate students, aged from 18 to 25 years old. Before the experimental sessions, participants filled in self-report measures concerning their video game habits and were also pre-tested for aggressiveness a...

  17. Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation

    OpenAIRE

    Kehoe, Elizabeth G.; Toomey, John M.; Balsters, Joshua H.; Bokde, Arun L. W.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants’ ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extravers...

  18. Encoding of goal-relevant stimuli is strengthened by emotional arousal in memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Greening, Steven G.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotional information receives preferential processing, which facilitates adaptive strategies for survival. However, the presence of emotional stimuli and the arousal they induce also influence how surrounding non-emotional information is processed in memory (Mather and Sutherland, 2011). For example, seeing a highly emotional scene often leads to forgetting of what was seen right beforehand, but sometimes instead enhances memory for the preceding information. In two studies, we examined how ...

  19. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters emotional arousal regulation and its effects on working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhihao; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hamann, Stephan; Peltier, Scott; LaConte, Stephen; Hu, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    While prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has been associated with arousal dysregulation and attentional impairments in both human and animal studies, the neurobiological bases of these teratogenic effects have not been well characterized. In the current study, we report functional neuroimaging observations of these effects in exposed youth. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we embedded task-irrelevant emotional distracters in a working memory task to examine the interaction of ...

  20. Lateralized Scratching in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence of a Functional Asymmetry During Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Russell, Jamie L; Freeman, Hani; Reynolds, Elizabeth A. M.; GRIFFIS, CAROLINE; Leavens, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated laterality in scratching by chimpanzees (n = 89) during socially arousing circumstances. Hand use and the side of the body scratched was recorded during a baseline and experimental condition. In the experimental condition, chimpanzees were shown a video of other conspecifics sharing, fighting over, and consuming a watermelon. Self-touches were categorized as either rubs or scratches. The chimpanzees showed a significant right hand bias for rubbing and also significantly d...

  1. Emotional Arousal, Blood Glucose Levels, and Memory Modulation: Three Laboratory Exercises in Cognitive Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between emotional arousal and cognition in humans represent an important field in cognitive neuroscience. Studies examining the characteristics of emotion-induced memory enhancement and the mechanisms through which these effects occur are becoming increasingly common. This article describes three affordable laboratory exercises of relevance to the growing interest in this field. Specifically, Experiment one reviews a protocol for examining memory, hypermnesia, reminiscence, ...

  2. Dyspareunia in women: a painful affair : the role of fear of pain and sexual arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Marieke

    2008-01-01

    Dyspareunia, defined as genital pain associated with penile-vaginal intercourse, is a common problem in women. According to the prevailing cognitive-behavioural model of dyspareunia (Spano & Lamont, 1975), fear of pain and diminished sexual arousal are key components in the onset and maintenance of this poorly understood condition. In this thesis, a number of experimental studies are reported that sought to gain more insight into the role of these factors in dyspareunia. Results indicated tha...

  3. Ventilatory dynamics during transient arousal from NREM sleep: implications for respiratory control stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, M C; Koh, S S; Shin, J J; Westbrook, P R; Berry, R B

    1996-05-01

    The polysomnographic and ventilatory patterns of nine normal adults were measured during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) stage 2 sleep before and after repeated administrations of a tone (40-72 dB) lasting 5 s. The ventilatory response to arousal (VRA) was determined in data sections showing electrocortical arousal following the start of the tone. Mean inspiratory flow and tidal volume increased significantly above control levels in the first seven breaths after the start of arousal, with peak increases (64.2% > control) occurring on the second breath. Breath-to-breath occlusion pressure 100 ms after the start of inspiration showed significant increases only on the second and third postarousal breaths, whereas upper airway resistance declined immediately and remained below control for > or = 7 consecutive breaths. These results suggest that the first breath and latter portion of the VRA are determined more by upper airway dynamics than by changes in the neural drive to breathe. Computer model simulations comparing different VRA time courses show that sustained periodic apnea is more likely to occur when the fall in the postarousal increase in ventilation is more abrupt. PMID:8727529

  4. Sleep during arousal episodes as a function of prior torpor duration in hibernating European ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijkstra, A M; Daan, S

    1997-03-01

    EEG's were recorded in hibernating European ground squirrels during euthermic arousal episodes at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C. Spontaneous torpor bouts ranged from 6 to 15 days, body temperature during torpor was 7.5 degrees C. The torpor duration prior to EEG measurements was experimentally manipulated: the animals were induced to arouse by gentle handling after torpor of less then 1 day (n = 3), 1-2 days (n = 6), 3-4 days (n = 9) and 5-12 days (n = 9). The animals slept 71.5% of euthermic time, of which 61.4% NREM and 10.2% REM sleep. NREM percentage was slightly positively and REM percentage negatively correlated with prior torpor duration (TD). Spectral analysis showed changes in EEG activity during the euthermic phase in the slow wave frequency range (1-4 Hz) and in higher frequencies. Prior TD specifically affected the slow waves. Slow wave activity decreased exponentially during the euthermic phase. The initial slow wave activity showed a systematic increase with prior TD, which could be described by an exponentially saturating function, albeit with a relatively small time constant compared with spontaneous torpor duration. It is concluded that sleep during arousal episodes following torpor at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C is affected both in structure and intensity by prior TD. The results are consistent with the proposition that torpor inhibits the restorative function of sleep. PMID:9125697

  5. Effects of a structured problem-solving procedure on pre-sleep cognitive arousal in college students with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Colleen E; Waters, William F

    2006-01-01

    Pre-sleep cognitive arousal, more specifically worry, is often reported as a distressing symptom that interferes with sleep. Using a controlled group design, a "constructive worry" intervention, similar to Espie and Lindsay's (1987) "worry control" procedure, was tested for its effects on pre-sleep cognitive arousal in an undergraduate population reporting insomnia. After 2 baseline nights, participants (N = 33) either recorded possible solutions to worries (constructive worry group) or recorded worries and completed worry questionnaires (worry group) for 5 nights. As hypothesized, the constructive worry group had decreased pre-sleep cognitive arousal relative to the worry group and relative to baseline scores. This study provides further support for augmenting existing insomnia treatments with cognitive interventions to successfully treat the complaint of pre-sleep cognitive arousal. PMID:16390282

  6. Effect of arousal methods for 175 cases of prolonged coma and its factors after severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江基尧; 包映晖; 殷玉华; 潘耀华; 梁玉敏; 罗其中

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of arousal methods for prolonged coma of 175 patients with severe traumatic brain injury and related factors.Methods: There were 175 cases with persistent coma longer than 1 month after severe traumatic brain injury. Coma lasted 1-12 months. Arousal procedures included hyperbaric oxygen, physical therapy and arousal drugs. Results: In the 175 prolonged coma patients 110 got recovery of consciousness; in 118 cases with coma of 1-3 months, 86 cases recovered consciousness (72.9%); in 42 cases with coma of 4-6 months, 20 cases recovered consciousness (47.6);and in 15 cases with coma of longer than 6 months, only 4 cases recovered consciousness (26.7%). The recovery of consciousness depended on patient's primary brain stem damagme, cerebral hernia, GCS score, and age .Conclusions: Application of appropriate arousal procedures improves recovery of consciousness in patients with prolonged coma.

  7. The Effects of Alcohol, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Arousal on the Dating Aggression Intentions of Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have both been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one’s emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects o...

  8. CNS- and ANS-arousal predict response to antidepressant medication: Findings from the randomized iSPOT-D study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Tränkner, Anja; Surova, Galina; Gevirtz, Richard; Gordon, Evian; Hegerl, Ulrich; Arns, Martijn

    2016-02-01

    Arousal systems are one of the recently announced NIMH Research Domain Criteria to inform future diagnostics and treatment prediction. In major depressive disorder (MDD), altered central nervous system (CNS) wakefulness regulation and an increased sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity have been identified as biomarkers with possible discriminative value for prediction of antidepressant treatment response. Therefore, the hypothesis of a more pronounced decline of CNS and ANS-arousal being predictive for a positive treatment outcome to selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) treatment was derived from a small, independent exploratory dataset (N = 25) and replicated using data from the randomized international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment Response in Depression (iSPOT-D). There, 1008 MDD participants were randomized to either a SSRI (escitalopram or sertraline) or a serotonin-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor (SNRI-venlafaxine) arm. Treatment response was established after eight weeks using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. CNS-arousal (i.e. electroencephalogram-vigilance), ANS-arousal (heart rate) and their change across time were assessed during rest. Responders and remitters to SSRI treatment were characterized by a faster decline of CNS-arousal during rest whereas SNRI responders showed a significant increase of ANS-arousal. Furthermore, SSRI responders/remitters showed an association between ANS- and CNS-arousal regulation in comparison to non-responders/non-remitters while this was not the case for SNRI treatment arm. Since positive treatment outcome to SSRI and SNRI was linked to distinct CNS and ANS-arousal profiles, these predictive markers probably are not disorder specific alterations but reflect the responsiveness of the nervous system to specific drugs. PMID:26714202

  9. A Streetcar Named "Derousal"? A Psychophysiological Examination of the Desire-Arousal Distinction in Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Sabina; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that desire and arousal problems are highly interrelated in women. Therefore, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) were removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and a new diagnostic category, female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD), was created to include both arousal and desire difficulties. However, no research has tried to distinguish these problems based on psychosocial-physiological patterns to identify whether unique profiles exist. This study compared psychosocial-physiological patterns in a community sample of 84 women meeting DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 ) criteria for HSDD (n = 22), FSAD (n = 18), both disorders (FSAD/HSDD; n = 25), and healthy controls (n = 19). Women completed self-report measures and watched neutral and erotic films while genital arousal (GA) and subjective arousal (SA) were measured. Results indicated that GA increased equally for all groups during the erotic condition, whereas women with HSDD and FSAD/HSDD reported less SA than controls or FSAD women. Women in the clinical groups also showed lower concordance and greater impairment on psychosocial variables as compared to controls, with women with FSAD/HSDD showing lowest functioning. Results have important implications for the classification and treatment of these difficulties. PMID:26457746

  10. Differences in the central-nervous processing of olfactory stimuli according to their hedonic and arousal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, A; Negoias, S; Härtwig, S; Gerber, J; Iannilli, E; Warr, J; Hummel, T

    2016-06-01

    Given the strong relationship between human olfaction and emotion, it is not surprising that numerous studies have investigated human response to hedonic and arousing qualities of odors. However, neuropsychological research addressed rather the pleasant-unpleasant, and not the arousing-calming dimension of emotional states generated by odorants. The purpose of the presented fMRI study was to evaluate the differences in cerebral processing of olfactory stimuli, focusing on both of these dimensions of emotional experiences, i.e., pleasantness and arousal. We investigated the patterns of activation generated by odors differing in hedonic tone and generated arousal while controlling the stimuli intensity. This design allowed for a new insight to the emotional odor processing with imaging techniques. The pleasantness was related to activation in the cingulate gyrus, the insula, the hippocampal area, the amygdala, and the superior temporal gyrus, whereas arousal affected activation in the thalamic relay. The present study showed also that the emotional states generated by arousing qualities of odorants are an important determinant of magnitude of cerebral activation. PMID:26968764

  11. Cognitive flexibility, heart rate variability, and resilience predict fine-grained regulation of arousal during prolonged threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Lea K; McCall, Cade; Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2016-06-01

    Emotion regulation in the ongoing presence of a threat is essential for adaptive behavior. Threatening situations change over time and, as a consequence, require a fine-tuned, dynamic regulation of arousal to match the current state of the environment. Constructs such as cognitive flexibility, heart rate variability, and resilience have been proposed as resources for adaptive emotion regulation, especially in a moment-to-moment fashion. Nevertheless, none of these constructs has been empirically related to the dynamic regulation of arousal as it unfolds over the course of a prolonged threatening episode. Here, we do so by placing participants in a threatening and evolving immersive virtual environment called Room 101, while recording their skin conductance. Subsequently, participants rated their subjective arousal continuously over the course of the experience. Participants who had shown greater cognitive flexibility in a separate task (i.e., fewer task-switching costs when switching to evaluating the valence of positive stimuli) showed better regulation of physiological arousal (skin conductance level), during less-threatening phases of Room 101. Individuals with higher trait resilience and individuals with higher resting heart rate variability showed more regulation in terms of their subjective arousal experience. The results indicate that emotional, cognitive, and physiological flexibility support nuanced adaptive regulation of objective and experienced arousal in the ongoing presence of threats. Furthermore, the results indicate that these forms of flexibility differentially affect automatic and objective versus reflective and subjective processes. PMID:26899260

  12. Experimental evidence for the effects of the Demand-Control model on the cognitive arousal: An EEG based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Kamel, Nidal; Saad, Naufal; Nandagopal, D Nanda

    2015-08-01

    The Demand-Control (DC) model has been extensively researched to find the imbalance of demand and control that cause work-related stress. Past research has been exclusively dedicated to evaluate the impact of this model on employees' well-being and job environment. However, the impact of high demands (strain hypothesis) and the influence of control (buffer hypothesis) on cognitive arousal have yet to be identified. We aimed to fill this void by measuring the influence of the DC model on the cognitive arousal. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded to extract the cognitive arousal in an experiment that implemented the DC model. The experiment comprised four conditions having combination of varying demand and control. The strain and the buffer hypothesis were separately validated by the cognitive arousal in association with the task performance and subjective feedbacks. Results showed the maximum arousal and the worst performance occurred in high demand and low control condition. Also high control proved to significantly lower arousal and improved performance than in low control condition with high demand. PMID:26737668

  13. Descending projections of the hamster intergeniculate leaflet: relationship to the sleep/arousal and visuomotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.

    2005-01-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. However, its extensive anatomical connections suggest that it may regulate other systems, particularly those for visuomotor function and sleep/arousal. Here, descending IGL-efferent pathways are identified with the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, with projections to over 50 brain stem nuclei. Projections of the ventral lateral geniculate are similar, but more limited. Many of the nuclei with IGL afferents contribute to circuitry governing visuomotor function. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. Other target nuclei are known to be involved in the regulation of sleep, including the lateral dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum. The dorsal raphe also receives projections from the IGL and may contribute to both sleep/arousal and visuomotor function. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it. The potential involvement of the IGL with the sleep/arousal system is further buttressed by existing evidence showing IGL-efferent projections to the ventrolateral preoptic area, dorsomedial, and medial tuberal hypothalamus. In addition, the great majority of all regions receiving IGL projections also receive input from the orexin/hypocretin system, suggesting that this system contributes not only to the regulation of sleep, but to eye movement control as well.

  14. Eyelid Opening with Trigeminal Proprioceptive Activation Regulates a Brainstem Arousal Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Matsuo

    Full Text Available Eyelid opening stretches mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle to activate the proprioceptive fiber supplied by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. This proprioception induces reflex contractions of the slow-twitch fibers in the levator palpebrae superioris and frontalis muscles to sustain eyelid and eyebrow positions against gravity. The cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons in the mesencephalon potentially make gap-junctional connections with the locus coeruleus neurons. The locus coeruleus is implicated in arousal and autonomic function. Due to the relationship between arousal, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and skin conductance, we assessed whether upgaze with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation activates sympathetically innervated sweat glands and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we examined whether 60° upgaze induces palmar sweating and hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex in 16 subjects. Sweating was monitored using a thumb-mounted perspiration meter, and prefrontal cortex activity was measured with 45-channel, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and 2-channel NIRS at Fp1 and Fp2. In 16 subjects, palmar sweating was induced by upgaze and decreased in response to downgaze. Upgaze activated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex with an accumulation of integrated concentration changes in deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin levels in 12 subjects. Upgaze phasically and degree-dependently increased deoxyhemoglobin level at Fp1 and Fp2, whereas downgaze phasically decreased it in 16 subjects. Unilateral anesthetization of mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle used to significantly reduce trigeminal proprioceptive evocation ipsilaterally impaired the increased deoxyhemoglobin level by 60° upgaze at Fp1 or Fp2 in 6 subjects. We concluded that upgaze with strong trigeminal proprioceptive evocation was sufficient to phasically activate sympathetically

  15. Childhood trauma is associated with altered cortical arousal: insights from an EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Margaret Howells

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood trauma is associated with psychiatric disorders, yet the underlying psychobiological mechanisms that account for this link are not well understood. Alterations in cortical arousal may, however, play a key role in mediating this association. We hypothesised that childhood trauma would be associated with alterations in arousal during a task that required sustained attention and behavioural inhibition. Methods: Fifty-three healthy adults completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire which assesses physical neglect, emotional neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and denial of childhood trauma. These individuals underwent cortical (electroencephalography, EEG and peripheral (heart rate, skin conductance responses, salivary cortisol physiological recordings at rest (eyes open and eyes closed and during performance of a visual go/no-go (GNG task. Associations between reported childhood trauma and physiological measures were determined. Results: Physical and emotional neglect were correlated with decreased left parietal tonic α band power during resting conditions and during the GNG task. Emotional abuse was correlated with decreased right frontal α band power during rest, increased θ band power during the GNG task and cortisol at the end of the testing session. Physical and sexual abuse was correlated with delayed P300 latency and enhanced P300 amplitude during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. The denial scale was correlated with a decrease in θ and increase in α band power during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that childhood trauma is associated with altered cortical arousal and that the pattern of this association is dependent on the form of childhood trauma experienced.

  16. Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Dorit; Krupp, Jurian; Scherner, Gerold; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M

    2016-07-01

    In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Seto (2012) conceptualized pedophilia as a sexual age orientation characterized by an early onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. However, empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present study examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively. Non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help were recruited within the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2013, 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained for 121 of the participants. The average time between the first and last assessment was approximately 29 months. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined the between-group rank-order and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests examined the within-individual mean-level stability. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men. PMID:27113471

  17. Effects of Lidocaine with Epinephrine on Fear Related Arousal Among Dental Phobics

    OpenAIRE

    Fiset, Louis; Ramsay, Douglas; Milgrom, Peter; Weinstein, Philip

    1986-01-01

    The effects of 2% lidocaine containing 72 μg epinephrine on fear related arousal were tested using a cross-over design on dental patients fearful of injections and other dental procedures. Heart rate and body movement in the dental operatory were monitored, and subjects' self-reported upset in the Epinephrine condition than in the No-Epinephrine condition (F = 4.8, p = .04), but the clinical significance was negligible. No interaction between initial fear levels and the drug condition could b...

  18. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: Confluent Patient History of Agitated Depression, Paroxetine Cessation, and a Tarlov Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eibye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient’s symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient’s symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy.

  19. A computerized algorithm for arousal detection in healthy adults and patients with Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2012-01-01

    arousals from non-rapid eye movement (REM) and REM sleep, independent of the subject's age and disease. The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG, and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using...... polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 24 subjects. Eight of the subjects were diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD) and the rest (16) were healthy adults in various ages. The performance of the algorithm was validated in 3 settings: testing on the 8 patients with PD using the leave-one-out method...

  20. Arousability and Dispositional optimism in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Nosková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focuses at aspects of resistance to psychical stress in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse stimulant effect. The first part includes knowledge about cycling of handicapped and the effect of stimulants at the sports achievement. The article also describes selected constructs of resistance to the psychical stress, like dispositional optimism. The empirical part includes descriptive data from respondents from sports environment. The data on the level of arousability and dispositional optimism are interpreted in the context of substance use by respondents to effect sports achievement. The data are compared with the data of cyclists without handicap.

  1. Novelty-Induced Emotional Arousal Modulates Cannabinoid Effects on Recognition Memory and Adrenocortical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Morena, Maria; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Trezza, Viviana; Chiarotti, Flavia; Schelling, Gustav; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Roozendaal, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that cannabinoid drugs can influence cognitive performance, the findings—describing both enhancing and impairing effects—have been ambiguous. Here, we investigated the effects of posttraining systemic administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg) on short- and long-term retention of object recognition memory under two conditions that differed in their training-associated arousal level. In male Sprague-Dawley rats that ...

  2. Classification model of arousal and valence mental states by EEG signals analysis and Brodmann correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Rodriguez Aguinaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to perform emotional states classification by the analysis of EEG signals, wavelet decomposition and an electrode discrimination process, that associates electrodes of a 10/20 model to Brodmann regions and reduce computational burden. The classification process were performed by a Support Vector Machines Classification process, achieving a 81.46 percent of classification rate for a multi-class problem and the emotions modeling are based in an adjusted space from the Russell Arousal Valence Space and the Geneva model.

  3. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

  4. Effects of depressive symptoms and experimentally adopted schemas on sexual arousal and affect in sexually healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffel, Stephanie W; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-04-01

    The present study examined the effects of depressive mood symptoms and experimentally adopted sexual schemas on women's sexual arousal and affect. Women's vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in response to sexually explicit visual material in a laboratory setting. At baseline on a self-report measure, women with depressive mood symptoms (n = 28) reported significantly lower sexual desire than women with normal mood (n=28), but no significant differences in arousal, orgasm, satisfaction, or pain. Participants were asked to adopt both a positive and negative sexual self-schema prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Women in both mood groups demonstrated significantly greater subjective sexual arousal, vaginal response, and positive affect in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition when controlling for anxiety. There were no main effects for mood symptoms. These findings support an information processing conceptualization of sexual arousal and suggest that an acute dose of cognitive sexual schemas can significantly impact subsequent sexual and affective responses. Implications of findings for the assessment and treatment of sexual dysfunction are noted. PMID:16752119

  5. Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Tyler B; Emery, Noah N

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) × 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions. PMID:25808719

  6. Low cognitive load and reduced arousal impede practice effects on executive functioning, metacognitive confidence and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon A; Kleitman, Sabina; Aidman, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of low cognitive workload and the absence of arousal induced via external physical stimulation (motion) on practice-related improvements in executive (inhibitory) control, short-term memory, metacognitive monitoring and decision making. A total of 70 office workers performed low and moderately engaging passenger tasks in two successive 20-minute simulated drives and repeated a battery of decision making and inhibitory control tests three times—before, between and after these drives. For half the participants, visual simulation was synchronised with (moderately arousing) motion generated through LAnd Motion Platform, with vibration levels corresponding to a well-maintained unsealed road. The other half performed the same simulated drive without motion. Participants' performance significantly improved over the three test blocks, which is indicative of typical practice effects. The magnitude of these improvements was the highest when both motion and moderate cognitive load were present. The same effects declined either in the absence of motion (low arousal) or following a low cognitive workload task, thus suggesting two distinct pathways through which practice-related improvements in cognitive performance may be hampered. Practice, however, degraded certain aspects of metacognitive performance, as participants became less likely to detect incorrect decisions in the decision-making test with each subsequent test block. Implications include consideration of low cognitive load and arousal as factors responsible for performance decline and targets for the development of interventions/strategies in low load/arousal conditions such as autonomous vehicle operations and highway driving. PMID:25549327

  7. Enhancing emotional experiences to dance through music: the role of valence and arousal in the cross-modal bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that emotional responses to stimuli presented to one perceptive modality (e.g. visual are modulated by the concurrent presentation of affective information to another modality (e.g. auditory – an effect known as the cross-modal bias. However, the affective mechanisms mediating this effect are still not fully understood. It remains unclear what role different dimensions of stimulus valence and arousal play in mediating the effect, and to what extent cross-modal influences impact not only our perception and conscious affective experiences, but also our psychophysiological emotional response. We addressed these issues by measuring participants’ subjective emotion ratings and their Galvanic Skin Responses in a cross-modal affect perception paradigm employing videos of ballet dance movements and instrumental classical music as the stimuli. We chose these stimuli to explore the cross-modal bias in a context of stimuli (ballet dance movements that most participants would have relatively little prior experience with. Results showed (i that the cross-modal bias was more pronounced for sad than for happy movements, whereas it was equivalent when contrasting high vs. low arousal movements, and (ii that movement valence did not modulate participants’ GSR, while movement arousal did such that GSR was potentiated in the case of low arousal movements with sad music and when high arousal movements were paired with happy music. Results are discussed in the context of the cross-modal affect perception literature and with regards to implications for the art community.

  8. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Clamor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N=104; Mage=27.7 years, SD=11.2, range 18–70. Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses.

  9. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril C Grueter

    Full Text Available Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a 'pornographic' effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation.

  10. Emotional arousal, blood glucose levels, and memory modulation: three laboratory exercises in cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between emotional arousal and cognition in humans represent an important field in cognitive neuroscience. Studies examining the characteristics of emotion-induced memory enhancement and the mechanisms through which these effects occur are becoming increasingly common. This article describes three affordable laboratory exercises of relevance to the growing interest in this field. Specifically, Experiment one reviews a protocol for examining memory, hypermnesia, reminiscence, and primacy/recency effects for emotional and neutral words. Experiments two and three provide opportunities to examine the relationships between blood glucose level and memory for either a list of pictures or the spatial location of pictures. Each laboratory exercise contains a certain amount of flexibility and is malleable to the specific needs of the instructor. For example, the use of blood glucose monitoring may be of value to a variety of different exercises examining stress and/or emotional arousal and the stimuli used in each of the protocols may be varied, creating opportunities for a number of different novel exercises. A series of questions have been provided at the end of each exercise in order to help stimulate inclass discussion. The potential application of this line of research in cognitive neuroscience is conveyed through a list of references where glucose has been used to attenuate cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease, age-related cognitive decline, and other neuropsychological conditions. PMID:23493939

  11. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: a meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambourne, Kate; Tomporowski, Phillip

    2010-06-23

    The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance were examined using meta-analytic techniques. The overall mean effect size was dependent on the timing of cognitive assessment. During exercise, cognitive task performance was impaired by a mean effect of -0.14. However, impairments were only observed during the first 20min of exercise. Otherwise, exercise-induced arousal enhanced performance on tasks that involved rapid decisions and automatized behaviors. Following exercise, cognitive task performance improved by a mean effect of 0.20. Arousal continued to facilitate speeded mental processes and also enhanced memory storage and retrieval. Positive effects were observed following exercise regardless of whether the study protocol was designed to measure the effects of steady-state exercise, fatiguing exercise, or the inverted-U hypothesis. Finally, cognitive performance was affected differentially by exercise mode. Cycling was associated with enhanced performance during and after exercise, whereas treadmill running led to impaired performance during exercise and a small improvement in performance following exercise. These results are indicative of the complex relation between exercise and cognition. Cognitive performance may be enhanced or impaired depending on when it is measured, the type of cognitive task selected, and the type of exercise performed. PMID:20381468

  12. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C.; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a ‘pornographic’ effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  13. Being watched by others eliminates the effect of emotional arousal on inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin eYu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychological effect of being watched by others has been proven a powerful tool in modulating social behaviors (e.g., charitable giving and altering cognitive performance (e.g., visual search. Here we tested whether such awareness would affect one of the core elements of human cognition: emotional processing and impulse control. Using an emotion stop-signal paradigm, we found that viewing emotionally-arousing erotic images before attempting to inhibit a motor response impaired participants’ inhibition ability, but such an impairing effect was completely eliminated when participants were led to believe that their facial expressions were monitored by a webcam. Furthermore, there was no post-error slowing in any of the conditions, thus these results cannot be explained by a deliberate speed-accuracy tradeoff or other types of conscious shift in strategy. Together, these findings demonstrate that the interaction between emotional arousal and impulse control can be dependent on one’s state of self-consciousness. Furthermore, this study also highlights the effect that the mere presence of the experimenter may have on participants’ cognitive performance, even if it’s via a webcam.

  14. Being watched by others eliminates the effect of emotional arousal on inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Tseng, Philip; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effect of being watched by others has been proven a powerful tool in modulating social behaviors (e.g., charitable giving) and altering cognitive performance (e.g., visual search). Here we tested whether such awareness would affect one of the core elements of human cognition: emotional processing and impulse control. Using an emotion stop-signal paradigm, we found that viewing emotionally-arousing erotic images before attempting to inhibit a motor response impaired participants' inhibition ability, but such an impairing effect was completely eliminated when participants were led to believe that their facial expressions were monitored by a webcam. Furthermore, there was no post-error slowing in any of the conditions, thus these results cannot be explained by a deliberate speed-accuracy tradeoff or other types of conscious shift in strategy. Together, these findings demonstrate that the interaction between emotional arousal and impulse control can be dependent on one's state of self-consciousness. Furthermore, this study also highlights the effect that the mere presence of the experimenter may have on participants' cognitive performance, even if it's only a webcam. PMID:25653635

  15. A relook at the motor vehicle buyer after the purchase: dissonance arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957 theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported dissonance, effort, congruence with self-concept, price, persuasiveness, and level of confidence during purchases. The results contribute to a better understanding of human behaviour and cognitions thereby, enabling the development of effective marketing strategies to enhance post-purchase satisfaction. Opsomming Hierdie studie is gebaseer op Leon Festinger (1957 se teorie van kognitiewe dissonansie, wat die relatiewe krag van verskeie opwekkingsfaktore, die impak van prys, asook die sielkundige toestande evalueer wat vir dissonansie-opwekking vereis word soos byvoorbeeld inspanning uitgeoefen. Die empiriese analise is uitgevoer op n steekproef van 200 eienaars van nuwe motorvoertuie. Agt dimensies het n betekenisvolle impak op die vlak van kognitiewe dissonansie uitgeoefen naamlik, hoe bewus verbruikers van hulle verwagtinge is, verwagtinge wat onbevestig is, dissonansie wat gerapporteer word, inspanning, ooreenstemming met die eienaar se selfbeeld, prys, hoe oorredend die verkoper is en die koper se vlak van selfvertroue gedurende die aankope. Die resultate dra by tot n beter begrip van menslike gedrag en van kognisies en bevorder daardeur die ontwikkeling van doeltreffende bemarkingstrategie- om na-verkooptevredenheid te verhoog.

  16. Enhanced sympathetic arousal in response to FMRI scanning correlates with task induced activations and deactivations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Muehlhan

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI triggers distress and neuroendocrine response systems. Prior studies have revealed that sympathetic arousal increases, particularly at the beginning of the examination. Against this background it appears likely that those stress reactions during the scanning procedure may influence task performance and neural correlates. However, the question how sympathetic arousal elicited by the scanning procedure itself may act as a potential confounder of fMRI data remains unresolved today. Thirty-seven scanner naive healthy subjects performed a simple cued target detection task. Levels of salivary alpha amylase (sAA, as a biomarker for sympathetic activity, were assessed in samples obtained at several time points during the lab visit. SAA increased two times, immediately prior to scanning and at the end of the scanning procedure. Neural activation related to motor preparation and timing as well as task performance was positively correlated with the first increase. Furthermore, the first sAA increase was associated with task induced deactivation (TID in frontal and parietal regions. However, these effects were restricted to the first part of the experiment. Consequently, this bias of scanner related sympathetic activation should be considered in future fMRI investigations. It is of particular importance for pharmacological investigations studying adrenergic agents and the comparison of groups with different stress vulnerabilities like patients and controls or adolescents and adults.

  17. Orexin-a regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Orexins, hypothalamic neuropeptieds, are involved in modulation of food intake and arousal state. To examine further physiological roles of orexin in brain function, the effects of centrally administered orexin- A on body temperature was investigated in rats. Assessed by a telemetry-sensor system implanted into the abdominal cavity, infusion of orexin-A into the third cerebroventricle increased body temperature in a dose-responsive manner. Cumulative ambulatory activity was concomitantly increased during 6 h but not 12 h after administration of orexin-A. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA in brown adipose tissue, as a marker for peripheal thermogenesis which affects body temperature, failed to increase after orexin-A administration. Expression of UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle but not UCP 2 in white adipose tissue was upregulated by infusion of orexin-A. The resulting information indicates that orexin neuron regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal system independently of peripheral thermogenesis through the BAT UCP1.

  18. Effects of increasing and decreasing physiological arousal on anticipation timing performance during competition and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Smith, Mike; Bryant, Elizabeth; Eyre, Emma; Cook, Kathryn; Hankey, Joanne; Tallis, Jason; Clarke, Neil; Jones, Marc V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the effects of changes in physiological arousal on timing performance can be accurately predicted by the catastrophe model. Eighteen young adults (8 males, 10 females) volunteered to participate in the study following ethical approval. After familiarisation, coincidence anticipation was measured using the Bassin Anticipation Timer under four incremental exercise conditions: Increasing exercise intensity and low cognitive anxiety, increasing exercise intensity and high cognitive anxiety, decreasing exercise intensity and low cognitive anxiety and decreasing exercise intensity and high cognitive anxiety. Incremental exercise was performed on a treadmill at intensities of 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% heart rate reserve (HRR) respectively. Ratings of cognitive anxiety were taken at each intensity using the Mental Readiness Form 3 (MRF3) followed by performance of coincidence anticipation trials at speeds of 3 and 8 mph. Results indicated significant condition × intensity interactions for absolute error (AE; p = .0001) and MRF cognitive anxiety intensity scores (p = .05). Post hoc analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in AE across exercise intensities in low-cognitive anxiety conditions. In high-cognitive anxiety conditions, timing performance AE was significantly poorer and cognitive anxiety higher at 90% HRR, compared to the other exercise intensities. There was no difference in timing responses at 90% HRR during competitive trials, irrespective of whether exercise intensity was increasing or decreasing. This study suggests that anticipation timing performance is negatively affected when physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety are high. PMID:25469534

  19. Relations between trait impulsivity, behavioral impulsivity, physiological arousal, and risky sexual behavior among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefinko, Karen J; Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Walsh, Erin C; Adams, Zachary W; Lynam, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252

  20. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a 'pornographic' effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  1. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects. PMID:24729134

  2. Can the distress-signal and arousal-reduction views of crying be reconciled? Evidence from the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Michelle C P; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2007-05-01

    Theorists have staked out two ostensibly opposing views of human crying as either an arousing behavior that signals distress or a soothing behavior that reduces arousal after distress. The present study examined whether these views of crying might be reconciled by attending to physiological changes that unfold over crying episodes. Sixty female students watched neutral and cry-eliciting films while autonomic physiology, including respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period, was assessed. Crying participants exhibited heart rate increases that rapidly subsided after crying onset. Crying onset was also associated with increases in respiratory sinus arrhythmia and slowed breathing. All crying effects subsided by 4 minutes after onset. It is possible that crying is both an arousing distress signal and a means to restore psychological and physiological balance, depending on how and when this complex behavior is interrogated. PMID:17516822

  3. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play. PMID:19280624

  4. Extent and time-course of competition in visual cortex between emotionally arousing distractors and a concurrent task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweese, Menton M; Müller, Matthias; Keil, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally arousing cues automatically attract attentional resources, which may be at the cost of processing task-related information. Of central importance is how the visual system resolves competition for processing resources among stimuli differing in motivational salience. Here, we assessed the extent and time-course of competition between emotionally arousing distractors and task-related stimuli in a frequency-tagging paradigm. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were evoked using random-dot kinematograms that consisted of rapidly flickering (8.57 Hz) dots, superimposed upon emotional or neutral distractor pictures flickering at 12 Hz. The time-varying amplitude of the ssVEP evoked by the motion detection task showed a significant reduction to the task-relevant stream while emotionally arousing pictures were presented as distractors. Competition between emotionally arousing pictures and moving dots began 450 ms after picture onset and persisted for an additional 2600 ms. Competitive effects of the overlapping task and picture stream revealed cost effects for the motion detection task when unpleasant pictures were presented as distractors between 450 and 1650 ms after picture onset, where an increase in ssVEP amplitude to the flickering picture stimulus was at the cost of ssVEP amplitude to the flickering dot stimulus. Cost effects were generalized to all emotionally arousing contents between 1850 and 3050 ms after picture onset, where the greatest amount of competition was evident for conditions in which emotionally arousing pictures, compared to neutral, served as distractors. In sum, the processing capacity of the visual system as measured by ssVEPs is limited, resulting in prioritized processing of emotionally relevant cues. PMID:26790572

  5. Classical conditioning of sexual arousal in women and men: effects of varying awareness and biological relevance of the conditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Turner, Stefanie L

    2004-02-01

    Classical conditioning of sexual arousal has previously been demonstrated in human males but not in females. This study explored the role of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning in the activation of genital sexual arousal in both women and men, and assessed the effects of varying conditioned stimulus (CS) duration (subliminal/conscious) and relevance (sexually relevant/irrelevant). Twenty-seven female and 29 male participants received either subliminal or conscious presentations of a photograph of either a sexually relevant (abdomen of the opposite sex) or irrelevant (gun) CS+, which was followed by the unconditioned stimulus (US-erotic film clip). A CS-, a stimulus not paired with the US, was also included in the 11 conditioning trials. Ten participants were assigned to a control group that received unpaired presentations of the CS+, CS-, and the US. Both women and men showed more evidence of conditioning to the abdomen than to the gun when the CS was presented subliminally. When consciously perceived CSs were used, however, gender differences emerged. Men again showed the expected cue-to-consequence specificity but women showed the opposite effect, that is, conditioned arousal to the sexually irrelevant rather than to the relevant CS. The latter finding may be due to increased autonomic nervous system arousal associated with the irrelevant CS (gun). Skin conductance responses indicated more general arousal to the gun than to the male abdomen in women. This is the first study to compare the effects of a subliminal and conscious CS and to find classical conditioning of sexual arousal in women. PMID:14739689

  6. Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Frank, Craig L.; Turner, Gregory G.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Kurta, Allen; Britzke, Eric R.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Darling, Scott R.; Stihler, Craig W.; Hicks, Alan C.; Jacob, Roymon; Grieneisen, Laura E.; Brownlee, Sarah A.; Muller, Laura K.; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease that has killed over 5.5 million hibernating bats, is named for the causative agent, a white fungus (Geomyces destructans (Gd)) that invades the skin of torpid bats. During hibernation, arousals to warm (euthermic) body temperatures are normal but deplete fat stores. Temperature-sensitive dataloggers were attached to the backs of 504 free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in hibernacula located throughout the northeastern USA. Dataloggers were retrieved at the end of the hibernation season and complete profiles of skin temperature data were available from 83 bats, which were categorized as: (1) unaffected, (2) WNS-affected but alive at time of datalogger removal, or (3) WNS-affected but found dead at time of datalogger removal. Histological confirmation of WNS severity (as indexed by degree of fungal infection) as well as confirmation of presence/absence of DNA from Gd by PCR was determined for 26 animals. We demonstrated that WNS-affected bats aroused to euthermic body temperatures more frequently than unaffected bats, likely contributing to subsequent mortality. Within the subset of WNS-affected bats that were found dead at the time of datalogger removal, the number of arousal bouts since datalogger attachment significantly predicted date of death. Additionally, the severity of cutaneous Gd infection correlated with the number of arousal episodes from torpor during hibernation. Thus, increased frequency of arousal from torpor likely contributes to WNS-associated mortality, but the question of how Gd infection induces increased arousals remains unanswered.

  7. Children’s Play as a Context for Managing Physiological Arousal and Learning Emotion Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter LaFreniere

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine children’s play as a context for managing physiological arousal and learning to regulate strong emotions. I define emotion regulation as the process by which children monitor and control their emotional states and their expression to adapt to different social situations or demands. Age trends and gender differences in emotion regulation problems and competencies are described. I then review the development of play, deprivation studies, and the biological functions of different forms of play in primates before discussing children’s play. Vigorous social play benefits children by promoting the development of communication, perspective-taking and emotion regulation skills. For boys especially, rough-and-tumble play in early childhood provides a scaffold for learning emotion regulation skills related to managing anger and aggression.

  8. Effects of Perceptual Uncertainty on Arousal and Preference Across Different Visual Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Friis-Olivarius, Morten; Jacobsen, Catrine;

    2012-01-01

    To what extent can simple contextual events affect preference? In this study, three tests were applied to assert whether contextual unpredictability has a negative effect on preference for novel visual items. By asking subjects to rate their first impressions of novel brand logos while playing...... simple sounds, Study 1 shows that brand logos coupled to unpredictable sounds were rated less favorably than logos presented with a predictable sound. In Study 2, this effect is found to be equally strong for abstract art paintings. Finally, Study 3 demonstrates that the negative effect of unpredictable...... sounds on preference is associated with a stronger arousal response, as indexed by pupil dilation responses. These results suggest that unpredictable sounds engage an emotional response that affects the first impression of a concurrently presented visual object. We discuss these findings in light...

  9. Transmitter modulation of spike-evoked calcium transients in arousal related neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Leonard, Christopher S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) influence behavioral and motivational states through their projections to the thalamus, ventral tegmental area and a brainstem 'rapid eye movement (REM)-induction' site. Action potential......-evoked intracellular calcium transients dampen excitability and stimulate NO production in these neurons. In this study, we investigated the action of several arousal-related neurotransmitters and the role of specific calcium channels in these LDT Ca(2+)-transients by simultaneous whole-cell recording and calcium......-protein-coupled inward rectifier (GIRK) channels and was not inhibited by nifedipine, omega-conotoxin GVIA or omega-agatoxin IVA, which block L-, N- and P/Q-type calcium channels, respectively. In contrast, SNX-482 (100 nm), a selective antagonist of R-type calcium channels containing the alpha1E (Cav2.3) subunit...

  10. Psychophysiological arousal and inter- and intraindividual differences in risk-sensitive decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Bettina; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Clark, Luke

    2016-06-01

    The current study assessed peripheral responses during decision making under explicit risk, and tested whether intraindividual variability in choice behavior can be explained by fluctuations in peripheral arousal. Electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) were monitored in healthy volunteers (N = 68) during the Roulette Betting Task. In this task, participants were presented with risky gambles to bet on, with the chances of winning varying across trials. Hierarchical Bayesian analyses demonstrated that EDA and HR acceleration responses during the decision phase were sensitive to the chances of winning. Interindividual differences in this peripheral reactivity during risky decision making were related to trait sensitivity to punishment and trait sensitivity to reward. Moreover, trial-by-trial variation in EDA and HR acceleration responses predicted a small portion of intraindividual variability in betting choices. Our results show that psychophysiological responses are sensitive to explicit risk and can help explain intraindividual heterogeneity in choice behavior. PMID:26927730

  11. Underarousal in Adult ADHD: How Are Peripheral and Cortical Arousal Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah Nicole; Strehl, Ute

    2016-07-01

    In children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a general slowing of spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity and a decrease of event-related potential amplitudes such as the contingent negative variation (CNV) are observed. Additionally, some studies have reported decreased skin conductance level (SCL) in this clinical population leading to the hypothesis of a peripheral hypoarousal, which may be a target of biofeedback treatment in addition to or instead of neurofeedback. To our knowledge, the relationship between SCL and CNV has not been simultaneously investigated in one experiment. Using the theoretical background of the hypoarousal model, this article aims to gain more insight into the differences and correlations of cortical (CNV) and peripheral (SCL) arousal in adults with ADHD. A sample of 23 adults with ADHD and 22 healthy controls underwent an auditory Go-NoGo task with simultaneous 22-channel EEG and SCL recordings. Reaction time (RT) and reaction time variability (RTV) were also measured to assess task performance. Significantly decreased CNV amplitude and significantly higher RTV were observed in the ADHD group, reflecting cortical underarousal and problems with sustained attention. No significant correlation between peripheral underarousal and cortical underarousal was observed in the ADHD group or the control group. The observed cortical underarousal reflected in the decreased CNV supports the notion of a reduced CNV amplitude as a possible biomarker for ADHD. However, the connection between cortical and peripheral arousal is not as clear as is suggested in previous research investigating both separately. Implications of these results for new treatment options for ADHD such as biofeedback are discussed. PMID:25802473

  12. Relative contribution of expectancy and immediate arousal to the facilitatory effect of an auditory accessory stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Del-Fava

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available An auditory stimulus speeds up a digital response to a subsequent visual stimulus. This facilitatory effect has been related to the expectancy and the immediate arousal that would be caused by the accessory stimulus. The present study examined the relative contribution of these two influences. In a first and a third experiment a simple reaction time task was used. In a second and fourth experiment a go/no-go reaction time task was used. In each of these experiments, the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms for one group of male and female volunteers (G Fix. For another group of similar volunteers (G Var the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 25% of the trials, by 1000 ms in 25% of the trials and was not followed by the target stimulus in 50% of the trials (Experiments 1a and 1b or preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 6% of the trials and by 1000 ms in 94% of the trials (Experiments 2a and 2b. There was a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus for G Fix in the four experiments. There was also a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus at the 200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony for G Var in Experiments 1a and 1b but not in Experiments 2a and 2b. The facilitatory effects observed were larger in the go/no-go task than in the simple task. Taken together, these results suggest that expectancy is much more important than immediate arousal for the improvement of performance caused by an accessory stimulus.

  13. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. PMID:24125786

  14. Development of SCN connectivity and the circadian control of arousal: a diminishing role for humoral factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Gall

    Full Text Available The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN is part of a wake-promoting circuit comprising the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH and locus coeruleus (LC. Although widely considered a "master clock," the SCN of adult rats is also sensitive to feedback regarding an animal's behavioral state. Interestingly, in rats at postnatal day (P2, repeated arousing stimulation does not increase neural activation in the SCN, despite doing so in the LC and DMH. Here we show that, by P8, the SCN is activated by arousing stimulation and that selective destruction of LC terminals with DSP-4 blocks this activational effect. We next show that bidirectional projections among the SCN, DMH, and LC are nearly absent at P2 but present at P8. Despite the relative lack of SCN connectivity with downstream structures at P2, day-night differences in sleep-wake activity are observed, suggesting that the SCN modulates behavior at this age via humoral factors. To test this hypothesis, we lesioned the SCN at P1 and recorded sleep-wake behavior at P2: Day-night differences in sleep and wake were eliminated. We next performed precollicular transections at P2 and P8 that isolate the SCN and DMH from the brainstem and found that day-night differences in sleep-wake behavior were retained at P2 but eliminated at P8. Finally, the SCN or DMH was lesioned at P8: When recorded at P21, rats with either lesion exhibited similarly fragmented wake bouts and no evidence of circadian modulation of wakefulness. These results suggest an age-related decline in the SCN's humoral influence on sleep-wake behavior that coincides with the emergence of bidirectional connectivity among the SCN, DMH, and LC.

  15. Melanopsin Regulates Both Sleep-Promoting and Arousal-Promoting Responses to Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K. E.; Hughes, Steven; Jagannath, Aarti; Hankins, Mark W.; Bannerman, David M.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.; Nolan, Patrick M.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.

    2016-01-01

    Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4)-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elevated corticosterone, a response that is not compatible with sleep. To investigate these contradictory findings and to dissect the relative contribution of pRGCs and rods/cones, we assessed the effects of light of different wavelengths on behaviourally defined sleep. Here, we show that blue light (470 nm) causes behavioural arousal, elevating corticosterone and delaying sleep onset. By contrast, green light (530 nm) produces rapid sleep induction. Compared to wildtype mice, these responses are altered in melanopsin-deficient mice (Opn4-/-), resulting in enhanced sleep in response to blue light but delayed sleep induction in response to green or white light. We go on to show that blue light evokes higher Fos induction in the SCN compared to the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), whereas green light produced greater responses in the VLPO. Collectively, our data demonstrates that nocturnal light exposure can have either an arousal- or sleep-promoting effect, and that these responses are melanopsin-mediated via different neural pathways with different spectral sensitivities. These findings raise important questions relating to how artificial light may alter behaviour in both the work and domestic setting. PMID:27276063

  16. Beyond mean values: Quantifying intraindividual variability in pre-sleep arousal and sleep in younger and older community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kristy D; Tighe, Caitlan A; Dautovich, Natalie D; McCrae, Christina S

    2015-01-01

    Intraindividual variability is an often understudied aspect of health outcomes research that may provide additional, complementary information to average values. The current paper aims to further our understanding of intraindividual variability in health research by presenting the results of a daily diary study of sleep and pre-sleep arousal. Pre-sleep arousal is often implicated in poor sleep outcomes, although the arousal-sleep association is not uniform across age groups. The examination of intraindividual variability in different age groups may provide a more complete understanding of these constructs, which, in turn, can inform future research. The overall objectives of the current study are to quantify the amount of intraindividual variability in pre-sleep arousal and sleep and to examine age differences in this variability. A sample of older (n=50) and younger (n=50) adults recruited from North Central Florida and online completed 14-consecutive-day diaries assessing pre-sleep arousal and sleep outcomes. Significant age differences were found for sleep and pre-sleep arousal; older adults displayed poorer, more variable sleep for the majority of sleep outcomes, and higher levels of pre-sleep arousal than younger adults. The high amount of intraindividual variability has implications for the assessment of pre-sleep arousal and sleep across age groups. PMID:26483939

  17. Sexual Arousal and Self-Control: Results from a Preliminary Experimental Test of the Stability of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jeffrey; Kunzi, Tasha

    2012-01-01

    A central proposition of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Theory of Crime is the relative stability of low self-control, however research on "self-control strength" suggests that it may vary across contexts. The current study examines these differing conceptions by randomly assigning participants to one of two sexual arousal conditions or…

  18. Emotion and Multimedia Learning: An Investigation of the Effects of Valence and Arousal on Different Modalities in an Instructional Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sungwon; Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Previous emotion studies in education have focused mainly on the superiority of positive emotion for learning performance (e.g., enjoyment) over negative emotion (e.g., fear). However, few studies have considered different arousal levels in terms of learners' emotion. For example, the effects of calm positive or negative emotion have not been…

  19. Ascending control of arousal and motivation: role of nucleus incertus and its peptide neuromodulators in behavioural responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Gundlach, A L

    2015-06-01

    Arousal is a process that involves the activation of ascending neural pathways originating in the rostral pons that project to the forebrain through the midbrain reticular formation to promote the activation of key cortical, thalamic, hypothalamic and limbic centres. Established modulators of arousal include the cholinergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic networks originating in the pons and midbrain. Recent data indicate that a population of largely GABAergic projection neurones located in the nucleus incertus (NI) are also involved in arousal and motivational processes. The NI has prominent efferent connections with distinct hypothalamic, amygdalar and thalamic nuclei, in addition to dense projections to key brain regions associated with the generation and pacing of hippocampal activity. The NI receives strong inputs from the prefrontal cortex, lateral habenula and the interpeduncular and median raphe nuclei, suggesting it is highly integrated in circuits regulating higher cognitive behaviours (hippocampal theta rhythm) and emotion. Anatomical and functional studies have revealed that the NI is a rich source of multiple peptide neuromodulators, including relaxin-3, and may mediate extra-hypothalamic effects of the stress hormone corticotrophin-releasing factor, as well as other key modulators such as orexins and oxytocin. This review provides an overview of earlier studies and highlights more recent research that implicates this neural network in the integration of arousal and motivated behaviours and has begun to identify the associated mechanisms. Future research that should help to better clarify the connectivity and function of the NI in major experimental species and humans is also discussed. PMID:25612218

  20. Influence of Caffeine Ingestion on Perceived Mood States, Concentration, and Arousal Levels during a 75-Min University Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During "week" 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science students were…

  1. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Heiman; H. Rupp; E. Janssen; S.K. Newhouse; M. Brauer; E. Laan

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two s

  2. Rape Myth Acceptance and Rape Proclivity: Expected Dominance Versus Expected Arousal as Mediators in Acquaintance-Rape Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G. Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of…

  3. The amplitude and phase precision of 40 Hz auditory steady-state response depend on the level of arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Mørup, Morten; Parnas, Josef; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Arnfred, Sidse

    2007-01-01

    arousal" condition subjects were sitting in a reclined position with eyes closed and the lights turned off. The 64-channel EEG data was wavelet transformed and the amplitude and phase precision of the wavelet transformed evoked potential were decomposed by the recently proposed multi-subject non...

  4. An Integrative Process Approach on Judgment and Decision Making: The Impact of Arousal, Affect, Motivation, and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate the findings from various research traditions on human judgment and decision making, focusing on four process variables: arousal, affect, motivation, and cognitive capacity/ability. We advocate a broad perspective referred to as the integrative process approach (IPA) of decision making, in which these process…

  5. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study. PMID:21514299

  6. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  7. Habituation of Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus paryii to handling and movement during torpor to prevent artificial arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri L Christian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hibernation is a unique physiological adaptation characterized by periods of torpor that consist of repeated, reversible and dramatic reductions of body temperature, metabolism and blood flow. External and internal triggers can induce arousal from torpor in the hibernator. Studies of hibernating animals often require that animals be handled or moved prior to sampling or euthanasia but this movement can induce changes in the hibernation status of the animal. In fact, it has been demonstrated that movement of animals while they are hibernating is sufficient to induce an artificial arousal, which can detrimentally alter experimental findings obtained from animals assumed to be torpid. Therefore, we assessed a method to induce habituation of torpid hibernators to handling and movement to reduce inadvertent arousals. A platform rocker was used to mimic motion experienced during transfer of an animal and changes in respiratory rate (RR were used to assess responsiveness of torpid Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, Urocitellus paryii. We found that movement alone did not induce a change in RR, however, exposure to handling induced an increase in respiratory rate (RR in almost all AGS. This change in RR was markedly reduced with increased exposures, and all AGS exhibited a change in RR≤1 by the end of the study. AGS habituated faster mid-season compared to early in the season, which mirrors other assessments of seasonal variation of torpor depth. However, AGS regained responsiveness when they were not exposed to daily handling. While AGS continued to undergo natural arousals during the study, occurrence of a full arousal was neither necessary for becoming habituated nor detrimental to the time required for habituation. These data suggest that even when torpid, AGS are able to undergo mechanosensory habituation, one of the simplest forms of learning, and provides a reliable way to reduce the sensitivity of torpid animals to handling.

  8. Habituation of Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) to handling and movement during torpor to prevent artificial arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Sherri L; Rasley, Brian T; Roe, Tanna; Moore, Jeanette T; Harris, Michael B; Drew, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Hibernation is a unique physiological adaptation characterized by periods of torpor that consist of repeated, reversible, and dramatic reductions of body temperature, metabolism, and blood flow. External and internal triggers can induce arousal from torpor in the hibernator. Studies of hibernating animals often require that animals be handled or moved prior to sampling or euthanasia but this movement can induce changes in the hibernation status of the animal. In fact, it has been demonstrated that movement of animals while they are hibernating is sufficient to induce an artificial arousal, which can detrimentally alter experimental findings obtained from animals assumed to be torpid. Therefore, we assessed a method to induce habituation of torpid hibernators to handling and movement to reduce inadvertent arousals. A platform rocker was used to mimic motion experienced during transfer of an animal and changes in respiratory rate (RR) were used to assess responsiveness of torpid Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, Urocitellus parryii). We found that movement alone did not induce a change in RR, however, exposure to handling induced an increase in RR in almost all AGS. This change in RR was markedly reduced with increased exposures, and all AGS exhibited a change in RR ≤ 1 by the end of the study. AGS habituated faster mid-season compared to early in the season, which mirrors other assessments of seasonal variation of torpor depth. However, AGS regained responsiveness when they were not exposed to daily handling. While AGS continued to undergo natural arousals during the study, occurrence of a full arousal was neither necessary for becoming habituated nor detrimental to the time required for habituation. These data suggest that even when torpid, AGS are able to undergo mechanosensory habituation, one of the simplest forms of learning, and provides a reliable way to reduce the sensitivity of torpid animals to handling. PMID:24847278

  9. The combination of perception of other individuals and exogenous manipulation of arousal enhances social facilitation as an aftereffect: re-examination of Zajonc’s drive theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi eUkezono

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Zajonc’s drive theory postulated that arousal enhanced through the perception of the presence of other individuals plays a crucial role in social facilitation (Zajonc, 1965. Here, we conducted two experiments to examine whether the elevation of arousal through a stepping exercise as an exogenous factor in front of others causes social facilitation of a cognitive task in a condition where the presence of others did not elevate the arousal level. In experiment 1, as an aftereffect of social stimulus, we manipulated the presence or absence of others and arousal enhancement before participants conducted the primary cognitive task. The results showed that the strongest social facilitation was induced by the combination of the perception of others and arousal enhancement. In experiment 2, we manipulated these factors by adding the presence of another person during the task. The results showed that the effect of the presence of the other during the primary task is enough on its own to produce facilitation of task performance regardless of arousal enhancement as an aftereffect of social stimulus. Our study therefore extends the framework of Zajonc’s drive theory in that the combination of the perception of others and enhanced arousal as an aftereffect was found to induce social facilitation especially when participants did not experience the presence of other while conducting primary task.

  10. Looking at the other side of the coin: a meta-analysis of self-reported emotional arousal in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, Katiah; Strauss, Gregory P; Cohen, Alex S

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities in emotional experience have long been viewed as core features of schizophrenia. Numerous studies indicate that people with schizophrenia report less pleasure than controls when reporting non-current feelings using trait, hypothetical, prospective, and retrospective emotional self-report formats; however, current research has demonstrated that schizophrenia patients and controls do not differ in their subjective reactions to emotional stimuli in most laboratory studies. Although substantial attention has been paid to studies examining self-reported valence in schizophrenia, subjective reports of arousal in response to affective stimuli have been neglected. Understanding the role of arousal in schizophrenia is imperative given that valence and arousal are differentially associated with physiological and behavioral responses. To understand the role of self-reported arousal, a meta-analysis of 26 published studies employing laboratory emotion induction paradigms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls was conducted. Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed electronic databases and reference lists from identified articles were used as data sources. Using a random effects model, analyses demonstrated that controls and people with schizophrenia reported similar levels of subjective arousal in response to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli; however, people with schizophrenia reported experiencing greater arousal than controls in response to neutral stimuli. Furthermore, moderator analyses suggested that gender and methodological factors, such as rating scale and stimulus type, may affect these patterns of results and play a key role in determining whether patients and controls differ in self-reported arousal. PMID:23040736

  11. The stressed eyewitness: the interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-01-01

    Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic) arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses' memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (1) the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal), and (2) stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode. We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant post-event stress × thematic arousal × centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation. PMID:22936900

  12. The stressed eyewitness: The interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Echterhoff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses’ memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (a the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal, and (b stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode. We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test. Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant thematic arousal x post-event stress x centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation.

  13. Neonatal brainstem function and 4-month arousal-modulated attention are jointly associated with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ira L; Gardner, Judith M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Phan, Ha T T; Kittler, Phyllis; Gomez, Tina Rovito; Gonzalez, Maripaz G; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Parab, Santosh; Barone, Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The authors evaluated the contribution of initially abnormal neonatal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and 4-month arousal-modulated attention visual preference to later autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates. A longitudinal study design was used to compare NICU graduates with normal ABRs (n = 28) to those with initially abnormal ABRs (n = 46) that later resolved. At 4 months postterm age, visual preference (measured after feeding) for a random check pattern flashing at 1, 3, or 8 Hz and gestational age (GA) served as additional predictors. Outcome measures were PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) scores at 3.4 years (standard deviation = 1.2), and developmental quotients (DQ) obtained around the same age with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS). Preferences for higher rates of stimulation at 4 months were highly correlated with PDDBI scores (all P-values measure most associated with a diagnosis of autism. For those with abnormal ABRs, increases in preference for higher rates of stimulation as infants were linked to nonlinear increases in severity of ASD at 3 years and to an ASD diagnosis. Abnormal ABRs were associated with later reports of repetitive and ritualistic behaviors irrespective of 4-month preference for stimulation. The joint occurrence of initially abnormal neonatal ABRs and preference for more stimulation at 4 months, both indices of early brainstem dysfunction, may be a marker for the development of autism in this cohort. PMID:23165989

  14. Negative stereotype activation alters interaction between neural correlates of arousal, inhibition and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Cox, Christine L; Schmader, Toni; Ryan, Lee

    2012-10-01

    Priming negative stereotypes of African Americans can bias perceptions toward novel Black targets, but less is known about how these perceptions ultimately arise. Examining how neural regions involved in arousal, inhibition and control covary when negative stereotypes are activated can provide insight into whether individuals attempt to downregulate biases. Using fMRI, White egalitarian-motivated participants were shown Black and White faces at fast (32 ms) or slow (525 ms) presentation speeds. To create a racially negative stereotypic context, participants listened to violent and misogynistic rap (VMR) in the background. No music (NM) and death metal (DM) were used as control conditions in separate blocks. Fast exposure of Black faces elicited amygdala activation in the NM and VMR conditions (but not DM), that also negatively covaried with activation in prefrontal regions. Only in VMR, however, did amygdala activation for Black faces persist during slow exposure and positively covary with activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while negatively covarying with activation in orbitofrontal cortex. Findings suggest that contexts that prime negative racial stereotypes seem to hinder the downregulation of amygdala activation that typically occurs when egalitarian perceivers are exposed to Black faces. PMID:21954239

  15. Determination of Nonprototypical Valence and Arousal in Popular Music: Features and Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Rigoll

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood of Music is among the most relevant and commercially promising, yet challenging attributes for retrieval in large music collections. In this respect this article first provides a short overview on methods and performances in the field. While most past research so far dealt with low-level audio descriptors to this aim, this article reports on results exploiting information on middle-level as the rhythmic and chordal structure or lyrics of a musical piece. Special attention is given to realism and nonprototypicality of the selected songs in the database: all feature information is obtained by fully automatic preclassification apart from the lyrics which are automatically retrieved from on-line sources. Further more, instead of exclusively picking songs with agreement of several annotators upon perceived mood, a full collection of 69 double CDs, or 2 648 titles, respectively, is processed. Due to the severity of this task; different modelling forms in the arousal and valence space are investigated, and relevance per feature group is reported.

  16. Stay calm! Regulating emotional responses by implementation intentions: Assessing the impact on physiological and subjective arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; van Reekum, Carien M

    2016-09-01

    Implementation intention (IMP) has recently been highlighted as an effective emotion regulatory strategy. Most studies examining the effectiveness of IMPs to regulate emotion have relied on self-report measures of emotional change. In two studies we employed electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) in addition to arousal ratings (AR) to assess the impact of an IMP on emotional responses. In Study 1, 60 participants viewed neutral and two types of negative pictures (weapon vs. non-weapon) under the IMP "If I see a weapon, then I will stay calm and relaxed!" or no self-regulatory instructions (Control). In Study 2, additionally to the Control and IMP conditions, participants completed the picture rating task either under goal intention (GI) to stay calm and relaxed or warning instructions highlighting that some pictures contain weapons. In both studies, participants showed lower EDA, reduced HR deceleration and lower AR to the weapon pictures compared to the non-weapon pictures. In Study 2, the IMP was associated with lower EDA compared to the GI condition for the weapon pictures, but not compared to the weapon pictures in the Warning condition. ARs were lower for IMP compared to GI and Warning conditions for the weapon pictures. PMID:26219461

  17. Combined site-specific sacral neuromodulation and pudendal nerve release surgery in a patient with interstitial cystitis and persistent arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Georgina Louise; Vancaillie, Thierry Georges

    2016-01-01

    A variety of neuromodulation approaches have been described for the management of pelvic neuropathies, including interstitial cystitis, pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The benefits of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuromodulator has yet to be explored for these patients. In this report, we describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a complex pelvic neuropathy resulting in urinary, sexual and gastro-intestinal dysfunction. She presented with an established diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; however, she also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The patient underwent implantation of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuoromodulation device at the time of surgical decompression of the pudendal nerves. An impressive clinical response followed. This case demonstrates a unique clinical presentation and highlights the value of a combined surgical and neuromodulatory approach in the management of patients with complex pelvic neuropathies. PMID:27284095

  18. Neuronal activity in primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex signals task conflict and predicts adjustments in pupil-linked arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebitz, R. Becket; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Whether driving a car, shopping for food, or paying attention in a classroom of boisterous teenagers, it’s often hard to maintain focus on goals in the face of distraction. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in regulating the conflict between goals and distractors. Here we show for the first time that single dACC neurons signal conflict between task goals and distractors in the rhesus macaque, particularly for biologically-relevant social stimuli. For some neurons, task conflict signals predicted subsequent changes in pupil size—a peripheral index of arousal linked to noradrenergic tone—associated with reduced distractor interference. dACC neurons also responded to errors and these signals predicted adjustments in pupil size. These findings provide the first neurophysiological endorsement of the hypothesis that dACC regulates conflict, in part, via modulation of pupil-linked processes such as arousal. PMID:25654259

  19. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Orekhova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs and magnetic fields (ERFs may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response - automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN, and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component, - found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, ‘sensory gating’ studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants “at risk” who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions.

  20. Assessing a dysphoric arousal model of acute stress disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of rape and bank robbery victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Hansen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the introduction of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD into the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV research has focused on the ability of ASD to predict PTSD rather than focusing on addressing ASD's underlying latent structure. The few existing confirmatory factor analytic (CFA studies of ASD have failed to reach a clear consensus regarding ASD's underlying dimensionality. Although, the discrepancy in the results may be due to varying ASD prevalence rates, it remains possible that the model capturing the latent structure of ASD has not yet been put forward. One such model may be a replication of a new five-factor model of PTSD, which separates the arousal symptom cluster into Dysphoric and Anxious Arousal. Given the pending DSM-5, uncovering ASD's latent structure is more pertinent than ever. Objective:Using CFA, four different models of the latent structure of ASD were specified and tested: the proposed DSM-5 model, the DSM-IV model, a three factor model, and a five factor model separating the arousal symptom cluster. Method:The analyses were based on a combined sample of rape and bank robbery victims, who all met the diagnostic criteria for ASD (N = 404 using the Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Results:The results showed that the five factor model provided the best fit to the data. Conclusions:The results of the present study suggest that the dimensionality of ASD may be best characterized as a five factor structure which separates dysphoric and anxious arousal items into two separate factors, akin to recent research on PTSD's latent structure. Thus, the current study adds to the debate about how ASD should be conceptualized in the pending DSM-5.

  1. Auditory affective norms for German: testing the influence of depression and anxiety on valence and arousal ratings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Kanske

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of emotional speech perception and emotional prosody necessitates stimuli with reliable affective norms. However, ratings may be affected by the participants' current emotional state as increased anxiety and depression have been shown to yield altered neural responding to emotional stimuli. Therefore, the present study had two aims, first to provide a database of emotional speech stimuli and second to probe the influence of depression and anxiety on the affective ratings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 120 words from the Leipzig Affective Norms for German database (LANG, which includes visual ratings of positive, negative, and neutral word stimuli. These words were spoken by a male and a female native speaker of German with the respective emotional prosody, creating a total set of 240 auditory emotional stimuli. The recordings were rated again by an independent sample of subjects for valence and arousal, yielding groups of highly arousing negative or positive stimuli and neutral stimuli low in arousal. These ratings were correlated with participants' emotional state measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS. Higher depression scores were related to more negative valence of negative and positive, but not neutral words. Anxiety scores correlated with increased arousal and more negative valence of negative words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results underscore the importance of representatively distributed depression and anxiety scores in participants of affective rating studies. The LANG-audition database, which provides well-controlled, short-duration auditory word stimuli for the experimental investigation of emotional speech is available in Supporting Information S1.

  2. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Szczygieł Dorota; Maruszewski Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43) a...

  3. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen B R E; van Steenbergen, Henk; Kedar, Tomer; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part) simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect) decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable. PMID:24523690

  4. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: Empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B.R.E. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable.

  5. Nuclear power threats, public opposition and green electricity adoption: Effects of threat belief appraisal and fear arousal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the extent to which willingness to oppose nuclear power and intention to adopt green electricity are related to the cognitive and emotional appraisal of threats deriving from nuclear power. The analysis draws on a theoretical framework which introduces emotional fear arousal as a direct behavioural antecedent of coping behaviour into a model based on cognitive centred Protection Motivation Theory (PMT, Maddux and Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1983) and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM, Witte, 1992, 1998). Hypothesized relations are tested in a nationally representative online study conducted in April and May 2012, one year after the Fukushima accident. Results support the hypothesized influences of perceived threat, fear arousal and perceived coping efficacy. Support for the proposed effects of fear control is rather limited. Findings contribute to extending previous knowledge on the role of cognitive and emotional appraisal processes induced by awareness of threats from nuclear power as behavioural antecedents of both opposing nuclear power and adopting green electricity. Findings of the study have implications for nuclear power policy and activism, as well as for institutional and commercial promoters of voluntary residential green electricity adoption. - Highlights: • Nationally representative online survey on nuclear power conducted in Spain in April and May 2012. • Opposition to nuclear power and green electricity adoption are related to threat beliefs. • Emotional fear arousal motivates nuclear opposition and green electricity uptake. • Significant behavioural effects of coping efficacy are confirmed. • Influences of fear control on behaviour intentions are rather weak

  6. Cybersex addiction: Experienced sexual arousal when watching pornography and not real-life sexual contacts makes the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Pekal, Jaro; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Background and aims Cybersex addiction is discussed controversially, while empirical evidence is widely missing. With respect to its mechanisms of development and maintenance Brand et al. (2011) assume that reinforcement due to cybersex should lead to the development of cue-reactivity and craving explaining recurrent cybersex use in the face of growing but neglected negative consequences. To support this hypothesis, two experimental studies were conducted. Methods In a cue-reactivity paradigm 100 pornographic cues were presented to participants and indicators of sexual arousal and craving were assessed. The first study aimed at identifying predictors of cybersex addiction in a freely recruited sample of 171 heterosexual males. The aim of the second study was to verify the findings of the first study by comparing healthy (n = 25) and problematic (n = 25) cybersex users. Results The results show that indicators of sexual arousal and craving to Internet pornographic cues predicted tendencies towards cybersex addiction in the first study. Moreover, it was shown that problematic cybersex users report greater sexual arousal and craving reactions resulting from pornographic cue presentation. In both studies, the number and subjective quality of real-life sexual contacts were not associated to cybersex addiction. Discussion The results support the gratification hypothesis, which assumes reinforcement, learning mechanisms, and craving to be relevant processes in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Poor or unsatisfying sexual real-life contacts cannot sufficiently explain cybersex addiction. Conclusions Positive reinforcement in terms of gratification plays a major role in cybersex addiction. PMID:26165929

  7. "Not for all the tea in China!" political ideology and the avoidance of dissonance-arousing situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hannah Nam

    Full Text Available People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance. According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a "better president." This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences. The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed.

  8. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions. PMID:24799137

  9. Effects of Instructions and Biofeedback on EEG-Alpha Production and the Effects of EEG-Alpha Biofeedback Training for Controlling Arousal in a Subsequent Stressful Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, David S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate that the instructions (and related information concerning alpha) rather than the biofeedback are critical in alpha biofeedback training and that this training does not appear to have utility for controlling arousal under stress. (Author)

  10. Metabolic regulation and behavior: how hunger produces arousal - an insect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic state affects the level of general activity of an organism. Satiety is related to relaxation while hunger is coupled to elevated activity which supports the chance to balance the energy deficiency. The unrestricted food availability in modern industrial nations along with no required locomotor activity are risk factors to develop disorders such as obesity. One of the strategies to find new targets for future treatment of metabolic disorders in men is to gain detailed knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in less complex, i.e. invertebrate systems. This review reports recent molecular studies in insects about how hunger signals may be linked to global activation. Adipokinetic peptide hormones (AKHs) are the insect counterpart to the mammalian glucagon. They are released upon lack of energy and mobilize internal fuel reserves. In addition, AKHs stimulate the locomotor activity which involves their activity within the central nervous system. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana various neurons express the AKH receptor. Some of these, the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons belonging to a general arousal system, release the biogenic amine octopamine, the insect counterpart to mammalian adrenergic hormones. The two Periplaneta AKHs activate Gs proteins, and AKH I also potently activates Gq proteins. AKH I and - less effectively - AKH II accelerate spiking of DUM neurons via an increase of a pacemaking Ca2+ current. Systemically injected AKH I stimulates locomotion in contrast to AKH II. This behavioral difference corresponds to the different effectiveness of the AKHs on the level of G-proteins. PMID:18220952

  11. Arousal state feedback as a potential physiological generator of the ultradian REM/NREM sleep cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A; Klerman, E B

    2013-02-21

    Human sleep episodes are characterized by an approximately 90-min ultradian oscillation between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep stages. The source of this oscillation is not known. Pacemaker mechanisms for this rhythm have been proposed, such as a reciprocal interaction network, but these fail to account for documented homeostatic regulation of both sleep stages. Here, two candidate mechanisms are investigated using a simple model that has stable states corresponding to Wake, REM sleep, and NREM sleep. Unlike other models of the ultradian rhythm, this model of sleep dynamics does not include an ultradian pacemaker, nor does it invoke a hypothetical homeostatic process that exists purely to drive ultradian rhythms. Instead, only two inputs are included: the homeostatic drive for Sleep and the circadian drive for Wake. These two inputs have been the basis for the most influential Sleep/Wake models, but have not previously been identified as possible ultradian rhythm generators. Using the model, realistic ultradian rhythms are generated by arousal state feedback to either the homeostatic or circadian drive. For the proposed 'homeostatic mechanism', homeostatic pressure increases in Wake and REM sleep, and decreases in NREM sleep. For the proposed 'circadian mechanism', the circadian drive is up-regulated in Wake and REM sleep, and is down-regulated in NREM sleep. The two mechanisms are complementary in the features they capture. The homeostatic mechanism reproduces experimentally observed rebounds in NREM sleep duration and intensity following total sleep deprivation, and rebounds in both NREM sleep intensity and REM sleep duration following selective REM sleep deprivation. The circadian mechanism does not reproduce sleep state rebounds, but more accurately reproduces the temporal patterns observed in a normal night of sleep. These findings have important implications in terms of sleep physiology and they provide a parsimonious explanation for the

  12. Self-rated arousal concurrent with the antidepressant response to total sleep deprivation of patients with a major depressive disorder: a disinhibition hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Burg, W. van den; Beersma, D. G. M.; Bouhuys, A.L.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den

    1992-01-01

    In view of the opposing theories regarding the arousing or de-arousing action of total sleep deprivation (TSD) in producing antidepressant effects, 23 patients with a major depressive disorder were deprived of a night’s sleep twice weekly for two weeks, and self-rated their condition 38 times using von Zerssen’s scale for depression and, concurrently, Thayer’s Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL). Transient relief of depression after TSD, indicated by eight patients, was mimi...

  13. Beyond mean values: Quantifying intraindividual variability in pre-sleep arousal and sleep in younger and older community-dwelling adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji, Kristy D.; Tighe, Caitlan A.; Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    Intraindividual variability is an often understudied aspect of health outcomes research that may provide additional, complementary information to average values. The current paper aims to further our understanding of intraindividual variability in health research by presenting the results of a daily diary study of sleep and pre-sleep arousal. Pre-sleep arousal is often implicated in poor sleep outcomes, although the arousal–sleep association is not uniform across age groups. The examination o...

  14. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the e...

  15. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  16. The roles of sex, anxious reactivity to bodily arousal, and anxiety sensitivity in coping motives for cigarette smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Rojas, Sasha M; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-06-01

    Evidence suggests that smoking to cope among adolescents is associated with a number of problematic outcomes (e.g., greater smoking frequency, higher rates of dependence). It is thus imperative to better understand factors that may increase the likelihood of smoking to cope among adolescents. Research suggests anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with smoking to cope among adults, although the link between AS and coping motives for cigarette use among youth is less clear. Gender differences have also been noted in AS. The current study investigates this association using a biological challenge paradigm. Specifically, the indirect effects of anxious reactivity to bodily arousal on the relation between the physical and mental AS factors and coping motives for cigarette smoking were examined within a sample of 108 adolescent cigarette smokers. Gender was examined as a moderator. Results suggested significant indirect effects of self-reported anxiety in response to bodily arousal on the relation between physical AS and coping motives for cigarette smoking. This indirect effect was moderated by gender, such that it was significant for females but not males. Models examining AS mental concerns and psychophysiological responding to the challenge were not significant. These results suggest that, relative to their low AS counterparts, female adolescents high in physical concerns respond with elevated anxiety in response to interoceptive arousal and, in turn, endorse elevated coping-related smoking motives. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for understanding the nature and origins of coping-related smoking motives and how such information can be used to inform intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054780

  17. Toward an In Vivo Neuroimaging Template of Human Brainstem Nuclei of the Ascending Arousal, Autonomic, and Motor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Edlow, Brian L; Eichner, Cornelius; Setsompop, Kawin; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Brown, Emery N; Kinney, Hannah C; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

    2015-12-01

    Brainstem nuclei (Bn) in humans play a crucial role in vital functions, such as arousal, autonomic homeostasis, sensory and motor relay, nociception, sleep, and cranial nerve function, and they have been implicated in a vast array of brain pathologies. However, an in vivo delineation of most human Bn has been elusive because of limited sensitivity and contrast for detecting these small regions using standard neuroimaging methods. To precisely identify several human Bn in vivo, we employed a 7 Tesla scanner equipped with multi-channel receive-coil array, which provided high magnetic resonance imaging sensitivity, and a multi-contrast (diffusion fractional anisotropy and T2-weighted) echo-planar-imaging approach, which provided complementary contrasts for Bn anatomy with matched geometric distortions and resolution. Through a combined examination of 1.3 mm(3) multi-contrast anatomical images acquired in healthy human adults, we semi-automatically generated in vivo probabilistic Bn labels of the ascending arousal (median and dorsal raphe), autonomic (raphe magnus, periaqueductal gray), and motor (inferior olivary nuclei, two subregions of the substantia nigra compatible with pars compacta and pars reticulata, two subregions of the red nucleus, and, in the diencephalon, two subregions of the subthalamic nucleus) systems. These labels constitute a first step toward the development of an in vivo neuroimaging template of Bn in standard space to facilitate future clinical and research investigations of human brainstem function and pathology. Proof-of-concept clinical use of this template is demonstrated in a minimally conscious patient with traumatic brainstem hemorrhages precisely localized to the raphe Bn involved in arousal. PMID:26066023

  18. Interactions Between Epinephrine, Ascending Vagal Fibers and Central Noradrenergic Systems in Modulating Memory for Emotionally Arousing Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric L. Williams

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that exposure to emotionally laden events initiates secretion of the arousal related hormone epinephrine in the periphery. These neuroendocrine changes and the subsequent increase in peripheral physiological output play an integral role in modulating brain systems involved in memory formation. The impermeability of the blood brain barrier to epinephrine represents an important obstacle in understanding how peripheral hormones initiate neurochemical changes in the brain that lead to effective memory formation. This obstacle necessitated the identity of a putative pathway capable of conveying physiological changes produced by epinephrine to limbic structures that incorporate arousal and affect related information into memory. A major theme of the proposed studies is that ascending fibers of the vagus nerve may represent such a mechanism. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the contribution of ascending vagal fibers in modulating memory for responses learned under behavioral conditions that produce emotional arousal by manipulating appetitive stimuli. A combination of electrophysiological recording of vagal afferent fibers and in vivo microdialysis was employed in a second study to simultaneously assess how elevations in peripheral levels of epinephrine affect vagal nerve discharge and the subsequent potentiation of norepinephrine release in the basolateral amygdala. The final study used double immunohistochemistry labeling of c-fos and dopamine beta hydroxylase, the enzyme for norepinephrine synthesis to determine if epinephrine administration alone or stimulation of the vagus nerve at an intensity identical to that which improved memory in Experiment 1 produces similar patterns of neuronal activity in brain areas involved in processing memory for emotional events. Findings emerging from this collection of studies establish the importance of ascending fibers of the vagus nerve as an essential pathway for conveying the

  19. Acute effects of caffeine supplementation on cortical arousal, anxiety, physiological response and marksmanship in close quarter combat

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Suárez, Vicente Javier; Robles Pérez, José Juan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have researched the ergogenic effect of caffeine in different shooting actions, but none of them in a stressful combat action. This study aimed to analyse the effect of a dose of 400 mg of caffeine monohydrate on the psycho-physiological response and marksmanship of soldiers in close quarter combat. We analysed the heart rate, blood lactate concentration, cortical arousal, state anxiety and marksmanship of 19 soldiers in the Spanish Army (38.9 ± 4.1 years; 177.4 ± 5.3 cm; 78....

  20. The interaction of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention affects genital, but not subjective, sexual arousal in sexually functional women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques; Bergh, Simone

    2008-04-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention on genital and subjective sexual arousal of sexually functional, healthy women during presentation of audiovisual erotic stimuli. Psychophysiological sexual response was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Experiential aspects of sexual arousal were measured both during stimulus presentation and retrospectively after stimulus offset. Trait level of sexual self-focus was measured with the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale. State self-focus was induced by switching on a TV camera that pointed at the participant's face and upper torso. A manipulation check revealed that both groups experienced equally elevated levels of self-focused attention of their physical appearance. Induction of state self-focus per se did not affect genital responses, but an interaction effect of self-focus and participants' level of trait sexual self-focus was revealed. Compared with women with low scores on this trait, women with high scores exhibited smaller genital responses when state self-focus was induced. Both groups did not differ when no self-focus was induced. Increase of state self-focus did not affect subjective sexual arousal, but participants with a high level of trait sexual self-focus reported stronger subjective arousal, compared with those with low trait level. The results were discussed with reference to previous work in this field. Some implications for treatment of sexual arousal disorder were discussed. PMID:18325482

  1. Cul3 and the BTB adaptor insomniac are key regulators of sleep homeostasis and a dopamine arousal pathway in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Pfeiffenberger

    Full Text Available Sleep is homeostatically regulated, such that sleep drive reflects the duration of prior wakefulness. However, despite the discovery of genes important for sleep, a coherent molecular model for sleep homeostasis has yet to emerge. To better understand the function and regulation of sleep, we employed a reverse-genetics approach in Drosophila. An insertion in the BTB domain protein CG32810/insomniac (inc exhibited one of the strongest baseline sleep phenotypes thus far observed, a ~10 h sleep reduction. Importantly, this is coupled to a reduced homeostatic response to sleep deprivation, consistent with a disrupted sleep homeostat. Knockdown of the INC-interacting protein, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cul3, results in reduced sleep duration, consolidation, and homeostasis, suggesting an important role for protein turnover in mediating INC effects. Interestingly, inc and Cul3 expression in post-mitotic neurons during development contributes to their adult sleep functions. Similar to flies with increased dopaminergic signaling, loss of inc and Cul3 result in hyper-arousability to a mechanical stimulus in adult flies. Furthermore, the inc sleep duration phenotype can be rescued by pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis. Taken together, these results establish inc and Cul3 as important new players in setting the sleep homeostat and a dopaminergic arousal pathway in Drosophila.

  2. Respiratory component of the orienting reflex: a novel sensitive index of sensory-induced arousal in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EugeneNalivaiko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the integrated response to a novel stimulus (orienting reflex includes behavioral (head turning etc and well-characterized physiological components (changes in heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and EEG patterns. In rodents, the physiological components of the orienting reflex include changes in heart rate and cutaneous vasoconstrictor tone, but respiratory changes have so far not been systematically documented. In the present study conducted in adult male Wistar rats, the orienting reflex was elicited by 60-dB acoustic tones while animals were in a whole-body plethysmograph for respiratory recordings. In addition to respiration, in different groups of animals we concurrently recorded either EEG, or heart rate (both by biotelemetry, or tail blood flow (using ultrasound Doppler. Acoustic stimuli provoked vigorous tachypnoeic responses with respiratory rate rising from 80-100 to 450-650 cpm, and with small and variable changes in tidal volume. This respiratory arousal response was often, but not always, accompanied by EEG desynchronization and by variable tail vasoconstriction, and by small and inconsistent changes in the heart rate. We conclude that tachypnoeic responses are a new highly sensitive index of sensory-induced arousal.

  3. Time-Course Analysis of the Neuroanatomical Correlates of Sexual Arousal Evoked by Erotic Video Stimuli in Healthy Males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Gwang Won; Baek, Han Su; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

  4. Time-Course Analysis of the Neuroanatomical Correlates of Sexual Arousal Evoked by Erotic Video Stimuli in Healthy Males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal

  5. The arousing power of everyday materials: an analysis of the physiological and behavioral responses to visually and tactually presented textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzi, Roberta; Gallace, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that during multisensory perception, vision frequently dominates over the other sensory modalities. However, it is still unclear whether sensory dominance also implies the generation of a greater state of arousal. Here, we assess the psycho-physiological reactions to different materials when presented tactually (Group 1) or visually (Group 2). In Group 1, the participants' forearm was stroked with different textures (satin, tinfoil, leather, sandpaper and abrasive sponge), by either a male or a female experimenter. The speed of stimulation was set to elicit a vigorous response of C-tactile afferents, involved in the perception of the more pleasant aspects of touch. The participants were asked to rate the pleasantness of the stimulation. In Group 2, the same textures were presented only visually, and the participants were asked to rate the imagined pleasantness of being touched by those stimuli. Skin conductance responses were recorded in both groups. The results revealed that the tactile presentation of the stimuli led to higher skin conductance responses than the visual presentation; this difference was higher for women than for men. Smooth materials were perceived as more pleasant than rough materials, but no differences in terms of skin conductance responses were found among them. Moreover, the textures were rated as less pleasant when presented visually than when presented tactually. These findings are relevant to understand how physiological arousal is modulated by different senses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in hedonic tactile perception. PMID:26842855

  6. 14C-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the ground squirrel brain during entrance to and arousal from hibernation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuronal activity underlying various phases of the mammalian hibernation cycle was investigated using the 14C-2-deoxyglucose (2DG) method. Relative 2DG uptake (R2DGU) values were computed for 96 brain regions across 7 phases of the hibernation cycle: euthermia, 3 body temperature (Tb) intervals during entrance into hibernation, stable deep hibernation, and 2 Tb intervals during arousal from hibernation. Multivariate statistical techniques were employed to identify objectively groups of brain regions whose R2DGU values showed a similar pattern across all phases of hibernation. Factor analysis revealed that most of the variability in R2DGU values for the 96 brain regions across the entire cycle could be accounted for by 3 principal factors. These factors could accurately discriminate the various phases of hibernation on the basis of the R2DGU values alone. Three hypothalamic and 3 cortical regions were identified as possibly mediating the entrance into hibernation because they underwent a change in R2DGU early in entrance into hibernation and loaded strongly on one of the principal factors. Another 4 hypothalamic regions were similarly identified as possibly causally involved in the arousal from hibernation. These results, coupled with characteristic changes in ordinal rank of the 96 brain regions in each phase of hibernation, support the concept that mammalian hibernation is an active, integrated orchestration of neurophysiological events rather than a state entered through a passive process

  7. Arousal from sleep - The physiological and subjective effects of a 15 dB/A/ reduction in aircraft flyover noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levere, T. E.; Davis, N.

    1977-01-01

    The present research was concerned with whether or not a 15 dB(A) reduction in overall noise level would lessen the sleep disturbing properties of jet aircraft flyover noise and, if less disturbing, whether this would be subjectively appreciated by the sleeping individual. The results indicate that a reduction of 15 dB (A) does result in less sleep disruption but only during sleep characterized by fast-wave electroencephalographic activity. During sleep characterized by slow-wave electroencephalographic activity, such a reduction in the sleep-disturbing properties of jet aircraft noise has little effect. Moreover, even when effective during fast-wave sleep, the decreased arousal produced by the lower noise levels is not subjectively appreciated by the individual in terms of his estimate of the quality of his night's sleep. Thus, reducing the overall noise level of jet aircraft flyovers by some 15 dB(A), is, at best, minimally beneficial to sleep.

  8. The Emotional States of the Consumer in Stores: The PA (Pleasure-Arousal Adapted to the Algerian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina ELBACHIR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the proposal of a scale for measuring emotional states experienced within a point of sale, for non-English speaking consumers. Since the validity of the measuring instruments may affect the relevance and quality of managerial decisions, the development of a sufficiently reliable measurement that take into account the specificity of a country becomes necessary. Following a literature review that allowed us to highlight existing measuring instruments of emotional states and their disadvantages, we have developed a measurement scale based on two emotional dimensions: pleasure and arousal (stimulation. Following the Churchill Paradigm, the results of our analysis show that the reliability and construct validity of our scale were improved.

  9. Assessing posttraumatic stress disorder's latent structure in elderly bereaved European trauma survivors: evidence for a five-factor dysphoric and anxious arousal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; O'Connor, Maja; Elklit, Ask; Elhai, Jon D

    2013-10-01

    The three-factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, is not supported in the empirical literature. Two alternative four-factor models have received a wealth of empirical support. However, a consensus regarding which is superior has not been reached. A recent five-factor model has been shown to provide superior fit over the existing four-factor models. The present study investigated the fit of the five-factor model against the existing four-factor models and assessed the resultant factors' association with depression in a bereaved European trauma sample (N = 325). The participants were assessed for PTSD via the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and depression via the Beck Depression Inventory. The five-factor model provided superior fit to the data compared with the existing four-factor models. In the dysphoric arousal model, depression was equally related to both dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing, whereas depression was more related to dysphoric arousal than to anxious arousal. PMID:24080678

  10. The role of nucleus accumbens core/shell in sleep-wake regulation and their involvement in modafinil-induced arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hong Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that modafinil promotes wakefulness via dopamine receptor D(1 and D(2 receptors; however, the locus where dopamine acts has not been identified. We proposed that the nucleus accumbens (NAc that receives the ventral tegmental area dopamine inputs play an important role not only in reward and addiction but also in sleep-wake cycle and in mediating modafinil-induced arousal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we further explored the role of NAc in sleep-wake cycle and sleep homeostasis by ablating the NAc core and shell, respectively, and examined arousal response following modafinil administration. We found that discrete NAc core and shell lesions produced 26.5% and 17.4% increase in total wakefulness per day, respectively, with sleep fragmentation and a reduced sleep rebound after a 6-hr sleep deprivation compared to control. Finally, NAc core but not shell lesions eliminated arousal effects of modafinil. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the NAc regulates sleep-wake behavior and mediates arousal effects of the midbrain dopamine system and stimulant modafinil.

  11. Sexual Response in Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Controlled Laboratory Study Measuring Vaginal Blood Flow and Subjective Sexual Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Stephanie; Ter Kuile, Moniek; Enzlin, Paul; Dekkers, Olaf; van Dijk, Marieke; Weijenborg, Philomeen

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that women with diabetes mellitus are at higher risk to develop sexual dysfunctions. In the current study, we hypothesized that lower genital arousal response-as a consequence of diabetes-related damage to nerves and blood vessels-might play a part in these higher prevalence rates. Vaginal blood flow, subjective sexual response, and clitoral sensitivity were compared between women with diabetes and healthy controls, and associations with diabetes complications were investigated. In pre- and postmenopausal women with type 1 diabetes (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 46), vaginal blood flow was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA). VPA was assessed at rest, during erotic film viewing, and during vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. Subjective sexual arousal was measured using a questionnaire. Clitoral sensitivity was assessed by a vibration perception test. Data on diabetes complications were obtained from medical records, and neuropathy was assessed by quantitative sensory testing. VPA, subjective sexual arousal, and clitoral sensitivity were not significantly different between women with diabetes and controls. Nevertheless, women with diabetes who had retinopathy showed significantly lower VPA than women without retinopathy, and women with diabetes who had neuropathy showed significantly higher sensation thresholds for vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. The results do not support the hypothesis of a disrupted genital arousal response in women with diabetes. However, the observed associations between retinopathy and vaginal blood flow, and between neuropathy and clitoral sensitivity, suggest that diabetes-related complications might adversely affect the physiological basis of female sexual response. PMID:26054485

  12. Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity. PMID:21117979

  13. The Appetite-Inducing Peptide, Ghrelin, Induces Intracellular Store-Mediated Rises in Calcium in Addiction and Arousal-Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons in Mouse Brain Slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Katrine; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a gut and brain peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in motivated behavior and regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is involved in appetitive behavior and control of the arousal state of an organism, and accordingly, behaviora...

  14. Emotional Arousal and Regulation: Further Evidence of the Validity of the "How I Feel" Questionnaire for Use with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea; Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica; Caprin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability to understand and manage emotional experience is critical to children's health. This study confirmed the validity of the How I Feel (HIF) Questionnaire, a measure of children's emotional arousal and regulation, exploring its associations with measures of emotional and social functioning. Methods: The sample was comprised of…

  15. The dynamic opponent relativity model: an integration and extension of capacity theory and existing theoretical perspectives on the neuropsychology of arousal and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Clinton S; Harrison, Patti Kelly; Harrison, David W

    2015-01-01

    Arousal theory as discussed within the present paper refers to those mechanisms and neural systems involved in central nervous system activation and more specifically the systems involved in cortical activation. Historical progress in the evolution of arousal theory has led to a better understanding of the functional neural systems involved in arousal or activation processes and ultimately contributed much to our current theories of emotion. Despite evidence for the dynamic interplay between the left and right cerebral hemispheres, the concepts of cerebral balance and dynamic activation have been emphasized in the neuropsychological literature. A conceptual model is proposed herein that incorporates the unique contributions from multiple neuropsychological theories of arousal and emotion. It is argued that the cerebral hemispheres may play oppositional roles in emotion partially due to the differences in their functional specializations and in their persistence upon activation. In the presence of a threat or provocation, the right hemisphere may activate survival relevant responses partially derived from hemispheric specializations in arousal and emotional processing, including the mobilization of sympathetic drive to promote heightened blood pressure, heart rate, glucose mobilization and respiratory support necessary for the challenge. Oppositional processes and mechanisms are discussed, which may be relevant to the regulatory control over the survival response; however, the capacity of these systems is necessarily limited. A limited capacity mechanism is proposed, which is familiar within other physiological systems, including that providing for the prevention of muscular damage under exceptional demand. This capacity theory is proposed, wherein a link may be expected between exceptional stress within a neural system and damage to the neural system. These mechanisms are proposed to be relevant to emotion and emotional disorders. Discussion is provided on the

  16. Effects of emotional valence and arousal on acoustic duration reproduction assessed via the ‘dual klepsydra model’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri eWackermann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report results of an acoustic duration reproduction task with stimulus duration of 2, 4 and 6 s, using 45 emotionally negative, positive, and neutral sounds from the International Affective Digitized Sounds System, in a sample of 31 young healthy participants. To investigate the influence of induced emotions on perceived duration, the effects of emotional modulation were quantified in two ways: (i via model-free indices (aggregated ratios of reproduced times, and (ii via dual klepsydra model (DKM-based estimates of parameters of internal time representation. Both data-analytic approaches reveal an effect of emotional valence/arousal, namely, a significantly longer reproduction response for emotional stimuli than for the neutral stimuli. The advantage of the DKM-based approach is its ability to disentangle stimulus-related effects, which are represented by ‘flow intensities’, from general effects which are due to the lossy character of temporal integration. We explain the rationale of the DKM-based strategy and interpret the observed effect within the DKM framework as transient increase of internal ’flows’. This interpretation is in line with recent conceptualizations of an ‘embodiment’ of time where the model-posited flows correspond to the ongoing stream of interoceptive (bodily neural signals. Neurophysiological findings on correlations between the processing of body signals and the perception of time provide cumulative evidence for this working hypothesis.

  17. Arousal Regulation and Affective Adaptation to Human Responsiveness by a Robot that Explores and Learns a Novel Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHiolle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a ``baby'' robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a ``caregiver'' to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a the differences between two ``idealized'' robot profiles -- a ``needy'' and an ``independent'' robot -- in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the ``stress'' (arousal produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness -- ``responsive'' and ``non-responsive'' -- to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (bbring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to textit{adapt/} its regulatory behavior along the ``needy'' and ``independent'' axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot.

  18. Fuzzy Case-Based Reasoning in Product Style Acquisition Incorporating Valence-Arousal-Based Emotional Cellular Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqian Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional cellular (EC, proposed in our previous works, is a kind of semantic cell that contains kernel and shell and the kernel is formalized by a triple- L = , where P denotes a typical set of positive examples relative to word-L, d is a pseudodistance measure on emotional two-dimensional space: valence-arousal, and δ is a probability density function on positive real number field. The basic idea of EC model is to assume that the neighborhood radius of each semantic concept is uncertain, and this uncertainty will be measured by one-dimensional density function δ. In this paper, product form features were evaluated by using ECs and to establish the product style database, fuzzy case based reasoning (FCBR model under a defined similarity measurement based on fuzzy nearest neighbors (FNN incorporating EC was applied to extract product styles. A mathematical formalized inference system for product style was also proposed, and it also includes uncertainty measurement tool emotional cellular. A case study of style acquisition of mobile phones illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  19. Arousal and stability - The effects of five new sympathomimetic drugs suggest a new principle for the prevention of space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.; Calkins, D. S.; Mandell, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Sympathomimetic agents are frequent components in antimotion-sickness drug combinations because of their usefulness in counteracting the sedation caused by stressful motion or resulting from the administration of other antimotion-sickness drugs. The noradrenergic neurochemistry of the brain's arousal-attentional systems prompted us to evaluate the efficacy of five new sympathomimetic drugs and to further define the role of arousal in susceptibility to motion. Subjects were orally administered methamphetamine (20 mg), phenmetrazine (25 mg), phentermine (37.5 mg), methylphenidate (20 mg), or pemoline (75 mg) 2 h prior to taking a Staircase Profile Test. All of the drugs increased resistance to stressful coriolis stimulation by 80-120 percent. Methylphenidate and pemoline showed fewer side effects. These findings, interpreted in conjunction with the documented inefficacy of most anticholinergic and antihistaminergic drugs tested to date, suggest that sympathomimetic drugs or a generalized state of arosusal can inhibit the development of motion sickness.

  20. Understanding Liking in Relation to Sensory Characteristics, Consumer Concept Associations, Arousal Potential and "Appropriateness for Use" Using Apple Juice as an Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender L P; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen;

    2016-01-01

    appropriateness for use regardless of use situation. Practical Applications: Food producers can use the information to understand how a food product's sensory characteristics, consumer concept associations, arousal potential and appropriateness for use influence liking. This information is useful in new food......It is crucial to understand influential parameters for acquisition of consumer liking to ensure succesful product introduction and competativeness in the marketplace. This article aims to study and understand liking in relation to sensory characteristics, consumer concept associations, arousal...... potential and appropriateness for use using apple juices as an application. First, a laboratory panel (n=15: F=10, M=5) determined the sensory profile of the apple juices using the methods Partial Napping and Ultra Flash Profiling based on taste and flavor. Next, consumers (n=196: F=136, M=60) evaluated key...

  1. The relationship of male self-report of rape supportive attitudes, sexual fantasy, social desirability and physiological arousal to sexually coercive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J; Bigwood, S J

    1997-12-01

    Studies have supported the finding that sexually coercive behavior exists between males and females on college campuses and that when women say "no" to sexual behavior, men do not believe them. This study utilized penile plethysmography to investigate male sexual arousal to rape myth scenarios in a college population. The scenarios portrayed a woman who said "no" to sexually coercive intercourse behavior by a male. Results indicated that a low level of social desirability, sexual fantasies involving group sexual activity, as well as hurting and being hurt by a partner were associated with greater levels of physiological responding to coercive stimuli. Supportive attitudes about rape showed no relationship with physiological responding, yet did correlate with the sexual fantasy of being hurt by a partner, which was itself related to increased sexual arousal to sexually coercive audio stimuli. PMID:9403397

  2. The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract Intellectual Ability on Men’s and Women’s Go/No-Go Task Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Macapagal, Kathryn R.; JANSSEN, ERICK; Fridberg, Daniel J; Finn, Peter R.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    While a number of studies have assessed the role of personality traits, situational variables, and drug use on sexual risk behaviors, fewer studies have employed experimental methods to examine cognitive processes that may underlie risky sexual decision making. This study used a go/no-go paradigm to examine how individual difference variables and sexual arousal influence discrimination learning and sexual and nonsexual decision making. A total of 28 men (M age = 20 years) and 25 women (M age ...

  3. Is There a Relationship Between Tic Frequency and Physiological Arousal? Examination in a Sample of Children with Co-Occurring Tic and Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Conelea, Christine A.; Ramanujam, Krishnapriya; Walther, Michael R.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is the contextual variable most commonly implicated in tic exacerbations. However, research examining associations between tics, stressors, and the biological stress response has yielded mixed results. This study examined whether tics occur at a greater frequency during discrete periods of heightened physiological arousal. Children with co-occurring tic and anxiety disorders (n = 8) completed two stress induction tasks (discussion of family conflict, public speech). Observational (tic ...

  4. The impact of threat appeals on fear arousal and driver behavior: a meta-analysis of experimental research 1990-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N Carey

    Full Text Available The existing empirical research exploring the impact of threat appeals on driver behavior has reported inconsistent findings. In an effort to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the experimental findings, meta-analytic techniques were employed to examine the impact of threat-based messages on fear arousal and on lab-based indices of driving behavior. Experimental studies (k = 13, N = 3044, conducted between 1990 and 2011, were included in the analyses. The aims of the current analysis were (a to examine whether or not the experimental manipulations had a significant impact on evoked fear, (b to examine the impact of threat appeals on three distinct indices of driving, and (c to identify moderators and mediators of the relationship between fear and driving outcomes. Large effects emerged for the level of fear evoked, with experimental groups reporting increased fear arousal in comparison to control groups (r = .64, n = 619, p<.01. The effect of threat appeals on driving outcomes, however, was not significant (r = .03, p = .17. This analysis of the experimental literature indicates that threat appeals can lead to increased fear arousal, but do not appear to have the desired impact on driving behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of threat-based road safety campaigns and future directions for experimental research in this area.

  5. Anxiety sensitivity and post-traumatic stress reactions: Evidence for intrusions and physiological arousal as mediating and moderating mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Fan, Qianqian

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of research has implicated anxiety sensitivity (AS) and its dimensions in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanism(s) that may account for the association between AS and PTSD remains unclear. Using the "trauma film paradigm," which provides a prospective experimental tool for investigating analog intrusion development, the present study examines the extent to which intrusions mediate the association between AS and the development of posttraumatic stress reactions. After completing a measure of AS and state mood, unselected participants (n = 45) viewed a 10 min film of graphic scenes of fatal traffic accidents and then completed a second assessment of state mood. Participants then kept a daily diary to record intrusions about the film for a one-week period. Post-traumatic stress reactions about the film were then assessed after the one-week period. The results showed that general AS and physical and cognitive concerns AS predicted greater post-traumatic stress reactions about the film a week later. Furthermore, the number of intrusions the day after viewing the traumatic film, but not fear and disgust in response to the trauma film, mediated the association between general AS (and AS specifically for physical and cognitive concerns) and post-traumatic stress reactions a week later. Subsequent analysis also showed that physiological arousal during initial exposure to the traumatic film moderated the association between general AS and the number of intrusions reported the day after viewing the film. The implications of these analog findings for conceptualizing the mechanism(s) that may interact to explain the role of AS in the development of PTSD and its effective treatment are discussed. PMID:26121496

  6. Carcinogenesis switched on by DNA cross-link between complementary bases aroused by aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Qianhuan; LU Ping; PENG Shaohua; ZHANG Qingrong

    2003-01-01

    The di-region theory put forward by Dai Qianhuan, a molecular mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis, concluded that the carcinogenesis induced by most of the environmental carcinogens is switched on by the cross-linking between DNA complementary bases aroused by the bifunctional alkylation of their metabolic intermediates. It was evidenced in this paper with DNA filter elution method that one carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxin G1, four carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, N-nitrosodiethyl-amine, N-nitrosodibutyl-amine, N-nitrosomorpholine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, one carcinogenic diazo color, 4-dimethylaminodiazobenzene and one carcinogenic nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound, quinoline, all induced DNA interstrands cross-linking with dosage correlation after metabolic activation. However, the non-carcinogens in corresponding series for control, aflatoxin B2, N-nitroso-diphenylamine, 4′-bromo-4-dimethylaminodiazobenzene and isoquinoline, cannot induce DNA interstrands cross-linking at all in the same condition. A method for the determination of cross-linking ratio between DNA complementary bases in total DNA interstrands cross-linking, which has no monitoring measure as yet, has been established for the first time based upon a 24 hour repairing experiment. The DNA complementary pair cross-linking ratio induced by a metabolized carcinogen is correlated with its carcinogenic potential. It may be concluded that the mutations including point and frameshift mutagenesis induced by aflatoxin and other carcinogens are switched on by their corresponding cross-linking base pair between complementary bases. Therefore, the di-region theory is a reasonable molecular mechanism for chemical, endogenous and physical carcinogenesis.

  7. Acute alcohol effects on attentional bias are mediated by subcortical areas associated with arousal and salience attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Kyriaki; Field, Matt; Critchley, Hugo; Duka, Theodora

    2013-06-01

    Acute alcohol ingestion increases attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli; however, the underlying cognitive and brain mechanisms remain unknown. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with performance of a dual task that probed attentional distraction by alcohol-related stimuli during 'conflict' processing: the Concurrent Flanker/Alcohol-Attentional bias task (CFAAT). In this task, an Eriksen Flanker task is superimposed on task-unrelated background pictures with alcohol-associated or neutral content. Participants respond to the direction of a central 'target' arrow and ignore adjacent congruent (low cognitive load) or incongruent (high cognitive load) 'flanking' arrows. Using a between-subject design, 40 healthy moderate-to-heavy social drinkers received either no alcohol (placebo), 0.4 g/kg (low dose), or 0.8 g/kg (high dose) of alcohol, and underwent fMRI while performing the CFAAT. The low alcohol dose, relative to placebo, increased response latencies on trials with alcohol-associated backgrounds and, under low cognitive load, increased the activity evoked by these pictures within a medial hypothalamic region. Under high cognitive load, the low alcohol dose, relative to placebo, elicited greater activity within a more lateral hypothalamic region, and reduced activity within frontal motor areas. The high alcohol dose, relative to placebo, did not reliably affect response latencies or neural responses to background images, but reduced overall accuracy under high cognitive load. This effect correlated with changes in reactivity within medial and dorsal prefrontal cortices. These data suggest that alcohol at a low dose primes attentional bias to alcohol-associated stimuli, an effect mediated by activation of subcortical hypothalamic areas implicated in arousal and salience attribution. PMID:23361162

  8. Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of the African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 Months of Aestivation in Air or 1 Day of Arousal from 6 Months of Aestivation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiong, Kum C.; Ip, Yuen K.; Wai P Wong; Shit F Chew

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During t...

  9. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  10. Abnormal pre-attentive arousal in young children with autism spectrum disorder contributes to their atypical auditory behavior: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A Stroganova

    Full Text Available Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks ('S1' and 'S2' separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI and much longer (8-10 sec S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the 'tangential' P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the 'radial' N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1 reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1 and 2 an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD.

  11. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  12. On the mutual effects of pain and emotion: facial pain expressions enhance pain perception and vice versa are perceived as more arousing when feeling pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicherts, Philipp; Gerdes, Antje B M; Pauli, Paul; Wieser, Matthias J

    2013-06-01

    Perception of emotional stimuli alters the perception of pain. Although facial expressions are powerful emotional cues - the expression of pain especially plays a crucial role for the experience and communication of pain - research on their influence on pain perception is scarce. In addition, the opposite effect of pain on the processing of emotion has been elucidated even less. To further scrutinize mutual influences of emotion and pain, 22 participants were administered painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli while watching dynamic facial expressions depicting joy, fear, pain, and a neutral expression. As a control condition of low visual complexity, a central fixation cross was presented. Participants rated the intensity of the thermal stimuli and evaluated valence and arousal of the facial expressions. In addition, facial electromyography was recorded as an index of emotion and pain perception. Results show that faces per se, compared to the low-level control condition, decreased pain, suggesting a general attention modulation of pain by complex (social) stimuli. The facial response to painful stimulation revealed a significant correlation with pain intensity ratings. Most important, painful thermal stimuli increased the arousal of simultaneously presented pain expressions, and in turn, pain expressions resulted in higher pain ratings compared to all other facial expressions. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of pain and emotion is bidirectional with pain faces being mostly prone to having mutual influences, and support the view of interconnections between pain and emotion. Furthermore, the special relevance of pain faces for the processing of pain was demonstrated. PMID:23541426

  13. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of brain activity associated with visual sexual arousal in males and females: 3.0 tesIa functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study utilized 3.0 Tesla functional MR imaging to identify and quantify the activated brain regions associated with visually evoked sexual arousal, and also to discriminate the gender differences between the cortical activation patterns in response to sexual stimuli. A total of 24 healthy, right-handed volunteers, 14 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23), with normal heterosexual function underwent functional MRI on a 3.0T MR scanner (Forte, Isole technique, Korea). The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 3- minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 1-minute rest. The fMRI data was obtained from 20 slices (5 mm slice thickness, no gap) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line on the sagittal plane, giving a total of 2,100 images. The brain activation maps and the resulting quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping program, SPM 99. The mean-activated images were obtained from each individual activation map using one sampled t-test. The FALBA program, which is a new algorithm based on the pixel differentiation method, was used to identify and quantify the brain activation and lateralization indices with respect to the functional and anatomical terms. In both male and female volunteers, significant brain activation showed in the limbic areas of the parahippocampal gyrus, septal area, cingulate gyrus and thalamus. It is interesting to note that the septal areas gave a relatively lower activation ratio with high brain activities. On the contrary, the putamen, insula cortex, and corpus callosum gave a higher activation ratio with low brain activities. In particular, brain activation in the septal area, which was not reported in the previous fMRI studies under 1.5 Tesla, represents a distinct finding of this study using 3.0T MR scanner. The overall lateralization index of activation shows left predominance (LI= 35.3%) in

  14. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of brain activity associated with visual sexual arousal in males and females: 3.0 tesIa functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Eun, Sung Jong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Park, Kwang Sung [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    The present study utilized 3.0 Tesla functional MR imaging to identify and quantify the activated brain regions associated with visually evoked sexual arousal, and also to discriminate the gender differences between the cortical activation patterns in response to sexual stimuli. A total of 24 healthy, right-handed volunteers, 14 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23), with normal heterosexual function underwent functional MRI on a 3.0T MR scanner (Forte, Isole technique, Korea). The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 3- minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 1-minute rest. The fMRI data was obtained from 20 slices (5 mm slice thickness, no gap) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line on the sagittal plane, giving a total of 2,100 images. The brain activation maps and the resulting quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping program, SPM 99. The mean-activated images were obtained from each individual activation map using one sampled t-test. The FALBA program, which is a new algorithm based on the pixel differentiation method, was used to identify and quantify the brain activation and lateralization indices with respect to the functional and anatomical terms. In both male and female volunteers, significant brain activation showed in the limbic areas of the parahippocampal gyrus, septal area, cingulate gyrus and thalamus. It is interesting to note that the septal areas gave a relatively lower activation ratio with high brain activities. On the contrary, the putamen, insula cortex, and corpus callosum gave a higher activation ratio with low brain activities. In particular, brain activation in the septal area, which was not reported in the previous fMRI studies under 1.5 Tesla, represents a distinct finding of this study using 3.0T MR scanner. The overall lateralization index of activation shows left predominance (LI= 35.3%) in

  15. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  16. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Nam Gil [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  17. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kron

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2. In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to

  18. Zolpidem-Induced Arousal by Paradoxical GABAergic Stimulation: A Case Report With F-18 Flumazenil Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changjae; Nam, Ki Yeun; Park, Jin Woo; Lee, Ho Jun

    2016-01-01

    Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine drug that has selectivity for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. We experienced paradoxical effect of zolpidem in a 48-year-old male patient with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury after cardiac arrest. The patient was in stupor and could not communicate. His Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was E2M4V2 and Rancho Los Amigos (RLA) was grade III to IV. Zolpidem was prescribed to induce sedation but paradoxically, he became alert (GCS 15, RLA VII) and was able to communicate. The arousal lasted for 2 hours repeatedly following each administration of the medication. While he was alert, electroencephalogram showed the reversal of slow wave into beta range fast activity and F-18 flumazenil positron emission tomography (PET) showed increased GABAergic receptor activity in both frontoparietotemporal cortices. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) also showed increased cerebral perfusion and reversal of cerebellar diaschisis. PMID:26949686

  19. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  20. Differential actions of orexin receptors in brainstem cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons revealed by receptor knockouts: implications for orexinergic signaling in arousal and narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChristopherSLeonard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orexin neuropeptides influence multiple homeostatic functions and play an essential role in the expression of normal sleep-wake behavior. While their two known receptors (OX1 and OX2 are targets for novel pharmacotherapeutics, the actions mediated by each receptor remain largely unexplored. Using brain slices from mice constitutively lacking either receptor, we used whole-cell and Ca2+ imaging methods to delineate the cellular actions of each receptor within cholinergic (laterodorsal tegmental nucleus; LDT and monoaminergic (dorsal raphe; DR and locus coeruleus; LC brainstem nuclei – where orexins promote arousal and suppress REM sleep. In slices from OX2-/- mice, orexin-A (300 nM elicited wild-type responses in LDT, DR and LC neurons consisting of a depolarizing current and augmented voltage-dependent Ca2+ transients. In slices from OX1-/- mice, the depolarizing current was absent in LDT and LC neurons and was attenuated in DR neurons, although Ca2+-transients were still augmented. Since orexin-A produced neither of these actions in slices lacking both receptors, our findings suggest that orexin-mediated depolarization is mediated by both receptors in DR, but is exclusively mediated by OX1 in LDT and LC neurons, even though OX2 is present and OX2 mRNA appears elevated in brainstems from OX1-/- mice. Considering published behavioral data, these findings support a model in which orexin-mediated excitation of mesopontine cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons contributes little to stabilizing spontaneous waking and sleep bouts, but functions in context-dependent arousal and helps restrict muscle atonia to REM sleep. The augmented Ca2± transients mediated by both receptors appeared mediated by influx via L-type Ca2+ channels, which is often linked to transcriptional signaling. This could provide an adaptive signal to compensate for receptor loss or prolonged antagonism and may contribute to the reduced severity of narcolepsy in single receptor

  1. A phase 2a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial to investigate the efficacy, safety, and toleration of CP-866,087 (a high-affinity mu-opioid receptor antagonist) in premenopausal women diagnosed with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orri, Miguel; Abraham, Lucy; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a condition that can affect women of all ages and have a significant negative impact on emotional well-being.......Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a condition that can affect women of all ages and have a significant negative impact on emotional well-being....

  2. Differential gene expression in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 months of aestivation in air or 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kum C Hiong

    Full Text Available The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of

  3. Transtorno da excitação genital persistente: uma revisão da literatura Persistent genital arousal disorder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Martinho Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre o transtorno da excitação genital persistente (TEGP, um quadro clínico que acomete somente mulheres, recentemente descrito na literatura, caracterizado por sinais fisiológicos de excitação sexual sem a presença de desejos ou estímulos sexuais. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão sistemática com busca nas bases científicas PubMed, ISI, SciELO e PsycInfo. Do total de artigos encontrados, 27 foram selecionados para integrar esta revisão. RESULTADOS: Os artigos, em sua maioria, são relatos de casos. Apesar de algumas hipóteses diagnósticas terem sido propostas, ainda não existe consenso sobre etiologia, fatores de risco e epidemiologia desse transtorno. A literatura aponta para uma correlação positiva entre a presença do transtorno e quadros depressivos, ansiosos e sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos. CONCLUSÃO: Há necessidade de estudos mais amplos para o melhor entendimento desse quadro clínico. É possível que muitos casos passem despercebidos pelos profissionais de saúde por desconhecimento dos critérios diagnósticos.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on persistent genital arousal disorder, a clinical syndrome that affects only women, recently described in the literature, characterized by symptoms of physiological arousal in the absence of desire or sexual stimulation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and search of the scientific basis PubMed, ISI, SciELO and PsycInfo. Of the total number of articles found, 27 were selected to incorporate this review. RESULTS: Most articles are reports of cases. Although some diagnostic hypotheses have been proposed, there is no consensus yet on the etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of the disorder. The literature suggests a positive relationship between the presence of the disorder and depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for further studies for better understanding of this

  4. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sanyal

    Full Text Available Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  5. In vivo functional connectome of human brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, autonomic and motor systems by high spatial resolution 7 Tesla fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Eichner, Cornelius; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Setsompop, Kawin; Brown, Emery N.; Hamalainen, Matti S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Object To map the in vivo human functional connectivity of several brainstem nuclei with the rest of the brain by using seed-based correlation of ultra-high magnetic field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Materials and Methods We used the recently developed template of 11 brainstem nuclei derived from multi-contrast structural MRI at 7 Tesla as seed regions to determine their connectivity to the rest of the brain. To achieve this, we utilized the increased contrast-to-noise ratio of 7 Tesla fMRI compared to 3 Tesla and the time efficient simultaneous multi-slice imaging to cover the brain with high spatial resolution (1.1 mm-isotropic nominal resolution) while maintaining a short repetition time (2.5 s). Results The delineated Pearson’s correlation-based functional connectivity diagrams (connectomes) of 11 brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, motor and autonomic systems from 12 controls are presented and discussed in the context of existing histology and animal work. Conclusion Considering that the investigated brainstem nuclei play a crucial role in several vital functions, the delineated preliminary connectomes might prove useful for future in vivo research and clinical studies of human brainstem function and pathology, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, Parkinson’s disease and other motor disorders. PMID:27126248

  6. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seok Kyun; Kim, Gwang Won; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Gwang Woo [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jong Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Kwun [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.

  7. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation. PMID:23861759

  8. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.

  9. The effectiveness of selected Tai Chi exercises in a program of strategic rehabilitation aimed at improving the self-care skills of patients aroused from prolonged coma after severe TBI

    OpenAIRE

    Mańko, Grzegorz; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mirski, Andrzej; Kłosiński, Michał

    2013-01-01

    Background Difficulties in self-care constitute a very common problem for patients recovering from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, and a major factor reducing their quality of life. Effective new rehabilitation programs that would help solve this problem are urgently needed. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate improvement in this respect in a group of patients aroused from prolonged coma who participated in a goal-oriented rehabilitation program (Rehab-3), enhanced with selected ...

  10. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at four-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  11. Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. PMID:24534418

  12. Should Homosexuality Arouse Therapeutic Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Kurt

    1977-01-01

    With homosexuals, counseling toward self-acceptance is advisable; counseling toward heterosexual adjustment is feasible only as a second-best choice and should be combined with continued efforts of counseling of the first type. Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December…

  13. Estimation of Ground Settlement Aroused by Soft Soil Excavation%软土基坑周围地表沉降估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 邹豫皖

    2014-01-01

    With the development of underground space exploitation , excavations and excavation problem-sare becoming more and more , and the ground settlement which caused by the deflection of the supporting system during excavation has been paid much attention .Based on analyzing and summarizing the method to calculate the ground settlement around the soft soil excavation , this paper has calculated the circumferential ground settlement deformation as Peck method , which is fitted in terms of exponential curves .The proposed method was verified by comparing the predictive results with the measured data of two excavations in Shanghai , which proves to be a practical method for estimating ground settlement aroused by soft soil excavation and it can be a guidance to the similar engineering .%随着地下空间开发利用规模的加大,基坑工程的数量越来越多,基坑工程问题也越来越多,因此在软土地区由基坑开挖引起的地表沉降越来越受到人们的重视。本文通过上海地区基坑工程实例,在分析总结基坑周围地表沉降变形计算方法的基础上,采用Peck法按指数曲线拟合得出基坑周围地表沉降变形,同时将支护结构变形诱发的地表沉降与实测沉降进行比较。结果表明,该法对基坑周围地表沉降的预测和周围环境的损害预防具有一定的实用性和可靠性,对以后的工程有一定的借鉴意义。

  14. A Problematic Family Reunion of a Chinese-American in China: Issues of Face Abstract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses thr...%ract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson ...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹凤琴

    2012-01-01

    As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) and Ting-Toomey and Kurogi(1998) respectively. Lastly, by focusing on the relationship between the rapport-threatening behavior and the face, this paper intends to cultivate our awareness of face and highlight the harmonious interpersonal relationship between different cultures.

  15. 论课堂教学中大学生学习动机的培养和激发%On the Arousal and Cultivation of Learning Motivation of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红辉

    2012-01-01

    学习动机是大学生学习的内在动力,目前大学生的学习动机存在动机缺乏、强度不足、倾向偏差等问题。已有的关于大学生学习动机培养和激发的研究侧重于创造外部诱因,但光强调外在诱因是不够的。学习动机本身是一种内在的心理过程,由期待因素、价值因素和情感因素三种心理成分构成。在教学过程中,要培养和激发大学生的学习动机,应该从构成学习动机的内在因素着手。%Learning motivation is the inner driving force for college students.Problems such as absent-motivated,under-motivated and deviate-motivated existed among college students.The previous studies on the arousal and cultivation of college students' learning motivation were centered on the creation of extrinsic incentives at the expense of other factors.Learning motivation is an internal psychological process involving expectancy,value and emotion factors.Dealing with intrinsic factors should precede the arousal and cultivation of college students' learning motivation in the teaching.

  16. 浅谈在课堂上激发学生的数学学习兴趣%On How to Arouse Students' Interest in Maths Learning in Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊蓉

    2011-01-01

    Interest is a powerful motivation of pursuing study,work and any other activities.Based on psychological and pedagogy knowledge as well as practical teaching experience,this paper explains how to arouse students' interest in learning maths in class from five aspects aiming to help students study maths more happily.%兴趣是人从事学习、工作和其它一切活动的巨大动力。本文结合心理学、教育学知识和教学中的实践经验,从五个方面浅谈如何在课堂上激发学生的数学学习兴趣。

  17. Investigation of Sleep Bruxism Relating to Micro-arousals and Cardiac Sympathetic Activities%夜磨牙与微觉醒及心脏交感神经活动的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟才; 王海波; 陈威; 李强

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) is associated with sleep micro- arousals (MA), and analyze the association between RMMA of sleep bruxism patients (RMMA/SB) and autonomic cardiac activity. Methods: Thirty SB subjects and thirty control subjects for two consecutive nights were performed by polygraphic recordings. MA index and RMMA index were scored. The mean heart rate from a series of 10 cardiac cycles was calculated at 60, 40, 20 and 5 sec before RMMA onset respectively. To assess a transient beat-to-beat heart rate change in relation to the RMMA onset, heart rate from 5 cardiac cycles before and 5 cycles after the onset were also calculated. Results: Sleep bruxism (SB) subjects showed a higher incidence of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) than control subjects (6.10±1.05 vs. 1.81 ±0.39, P<0.0001). However, no difference was found in according to their micro-arousal index(7.72±1.21 vs.7.53±1.33, P=0.5641). RMMA/SB was associated with sleep micro-arousals. In both groups, transient heart rate acceleration was observed in relation to the onset of RMMA episodes. Conclusion: RMMA is associated with sleep micro-arousals. In SB subjects, a clear increase in sympathetic activity precedes SB onset.%目的:研究夜磨牙(sleep bruxism,SB)患者睡眠期咀嚼肌节律性运动(RMMA)发生的微觉醒机制.方法:对30名夜磨牙患者、30名正常人进行连续2夜的多导睡眠监测,研究RMMA事件与微觉醒(MA)的时间相关性;比较2组间RMMA指数及MA指数的差异;RMMA事件发生前60 s、前40 s、前20 s、前5s,共5个时间点的各连续10个心动周期的平均心率,以及RMMA事件发生前后各5个心动周期的心率变化.结果:夜磨牙症患者微觉醒指数(7.72±1.21)与正常对照相似(7.53±1.33,P=0.5641);但咀嚼肌节律性运动频率,即磨牙指数[(6.10±1.05)次/h]约3倍于正常对照组[(1.81±0.39)次/h,P<0.0001)].RMMA事件与MA存在高度时间相关

  18. Temporal Dynamics of Affective Responding to Affect Arousals in Resilient Individuals:A Behavioral Study%高心理弹性者情绪唤起反应变化的时间动态特征:行为学证据*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席居哲; 左志宏; 唐晓艳; 马伟军

    2015-01-01

    基于情绪时间动态视角探索高心理弹性者积极情绪、消极情绪唤起反应变化的特征,可为心理弹性科学提供情绪过程机制方面的证据。利用成人心理弹性量表( RSA)从232名大学生中筛选实验被试,有34名高心理弹性者和33名低心理弹性者参加实验。利用积极情绪消极情绪检查表( PA-NAS)、情绪(积极和消极)唤起视频材料和自编情绪自评表,分别测量和比较不同心理弹性被试情绪基线及积极、消极情绪唤起反应变化进程的时间动态差异。结果发现:与低心理弹性组相比,高心理弹性者的积极情绪基线水平高,消极情绪基线水平低,情绪平衡度基线高;高心理弹性者对积极情绪、消极情绪唤起均相对更为敏感,积极情绪唤起后恢复相对较缓,消极情绪唤起后恢复相对较快。提示更多、更长时的积极情绪唤起获益和更快的消极情绪唤起回复,是更具适应性的个体情绪时间动态特征,这种特征有助于个体保持高水平的情绪平衡度,利于当事者进行有效的压力/逆境应对。%The present study aims to explore the temporal dynamics of affective responding to positive af-fect arousals and negative affect arousals among resilient college students in comparison with non-resilient ones. Sixty-seven college students ( 34 are of high resilience and 33 of low resilience) who participated in the experiments of positive or negative affect arousal were screened out according to the scores of Resilience Scale for Adult ( RSA) . Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule ( PANAS) ,video clips for affect arousals and self-developed self-rating affect schedule were used to measure and compare baselines of affects,the temporal dynamics of affective responding to affect arousals between the resilient and the non-resilient. The results indi-cated that high resilient individuals not only had a higher baseline of positive affect

  19. 来源记忆研究综述:基于情绪状态、效价和唤醒度%A Review on Source Memory:Based on EmotionalState,Valence and Arousal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦洪涛; 孙新梅

    2015-01-01

    Source memory refers to the memory of an event’s context.Studies have shown that emotions may have different effects on the source memory.Based on emotional state,valence and arousal,this article reviews some previous research findings about emotions and source memory,analyzes the possible reasons for inconsistent re-sults,and prospects the directions of future research.%来源记忆是对事件相关背景的记忆。已有研究表明,情绪对来源记忆会产生不同的影响。基于情绪状态、情绪刺激效价和唤醒度来梳理情绪影响来源记忆的相关实验研究,分析结果不一致的可能原因,并展望未来的研究方向。

  20. Pygmalion: Arousal of Consciousness in Women's Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽涛

    2009-01-01

    Pygmalion is written by George Bernard Shaw, who is famous for enlightening the western feminist literature and criticism. This thesis discusses the independence of a flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, who learned language from a phonetics expert, Professor Higgins. She was transformed into a proper lady by correcting her pronunciations and manners. But she found that language was not important to a person' s identity for she was stir treated as a flower girl. So she decided to strive for her own rights of being independent and calling for equality.

  1. The conditioning of human sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W; Plaud, J J

    1994-06-01

    Although most theories of human sexual behavior claim that much normal sexual behavior is learned, and theories of the etiology and modification of paraphilic and dysfunctional sexual behavior also claim that abnormal sexual behavior is learned and can be counterconditioned, there is no systematic review examining the relationship between conditioning and human sexual behavior. We review research addressing whether habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning processes are involved in human sexual behavior. We conclude that, due to the methodological problems of extant studies, the basis for asserting the existence of relationships between habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and sexual behavior is tenuous. PMID:8024444

  2. Detection of arousals in Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul;

    2011-01-01

    suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 8 patients...

  3. The analysis on comorbidity cases with post-traumatic stress disorder aroused by Wenchuan Earthquake%汶川地震所致创伤后应激障碍患者的共病分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔利军; 梁光明; 马弘; 栗克清; 于欣; 严保平; 程章; 刘永桥; 马宁; 杨磊; 党卫民; 韩彦超; 何鸣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder aroused by Wenchuan earthquake and related factors on comorbidity. Method: Parts of heavy victims of An County and Pingwu and Beichuan residents were interviewed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders(SCID-I/P). Results; 138 people were diagnosed as PTSD, 90 of whom (65.2%) had comorbidity with other mental disorder, namely ,42. 8% major depressive disorder, 12. 3% specific phobia, 10. 9% panic attack. People with close relatives dead in the earthquake showed higher comorbid major depressive disorder ( n = 35 ) than those without close relative dead (n =24) (x2 = 4.16,P =0.04). Conclusion;62.5% patients with PTSD show comorbidity with other mental disorder, of which major depressive disorder, specific phobia and panic attack were most. The comorbidity was associated with age,close relatives dead in the earthquake can increase the risk of comorbidity with major depressive disorder.%目的:了解汶川地震部分极重灾区所致创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)患者共病其他精神障碍的情况,以及影响共病的因素. 方法:采用方便取样,对四川省绵阳市所辖的安县、平武县及北川县部分受灾群众进行调查,以DSM-Ⅳ-TR轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查(SCID-I/P)为诊断工具. 结果:共138例诊断PTSD,其中90例共病其他精神障碍,共病率65.2%;42.8%患者共病重性抑郁障碍,12.3%共病特殊恐怖症,10.9%共病惊恐发作;40 ~59岁共病率最高为70.4%(x2=5.94,P=0.05),有亲人死亡者共病抑郁症35例,明显高于无亲人死亡者24例,两者差异有统计学意义(x2=4.16;P=0.04). 结论:65.2% PTSD患者共病其他精神障碍,以共病重性抑郁障碍、特殊恐怖症、惊恐发作最多见,共病率与年龄相关,地震中有亲人死亡将增加PTSD共病抑郁症风险.

  4. Characteristic analysis of disturbance aroused by solar array tracking drive%太阳能电池阵跟踪驱动过程扰振特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仕尧; 谢燕; 雷勇军

    2014-01-01

    太阳能电池阵对日跟踪驱动过程所产生的扰动是限制高精度航天器技术指标提高的主要因素之一。为获取驱动扰动的规律性特征,本文将太阳能电池阵及其驱动装置考虑为相互耦合的整体系统,从主要驱动环节出发建立其机电一体化扰振分析模型和Simulink动力学仿真模块,通过试验算例验证模型正确性,并分析了电池阵刚柔耦合和质心偏置等因素对扰振特性的影响。结果表明:转速波动将激起电池阵低阶扭振模态,扰动频谱具有步进电动机驱动和柔性结构振动的频率特性,但扭振扰动对刚体运动规律影响很小;质心偏置会引起电池阵平动与转动耦合的空间振动,激扰面外弯曲振型,改变扰振频率分布和放大扰振分量幅值。%The disturbance,aroused by sun-tracking drive of solar array,has become one of the major barriers for improving the performance of high-precision spacecraft.With the aim to obtain the regular characteristics of this disturbance,the solar array and the drive assembly were considered as a couping system and an electromechanical integration model and a dynamic simulation program are presented based on the major aspects of main driving steps and the Simulink software platform..The correctness was verified by comparing the experiment results,and the effects of solar array rigid-flexible coupling and the centroid bias to disturbance characteristics were analyzed.The results indicate that the rotation speed fluctuation can activate low order torsion modes of solar array,and disturbance spectrums include both frequency characteristics of motor driving and structure vibration,but torsion vibration has little effect on rotation angle.The centroid bias of solar array can motivate translational-rotational coupling vibration,activate out-of-plane bending modes,change the distribution of disturbance spectrum,and increase the amplitude of disturbance.

  5. 冬季两项运动员赛前情绪、心理唤醒与流畅状态的关系%The Relationship of Pre-match Emotion and Mental Arousal and Fluent State of the Biathlon’s Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馨婷; 杨阿丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The research aim at revealing the characteristics and their relationship of pre-match emotion and mental arousal and fluent state of the Biathlon athletes in order to providing empirical evidence for athletes’ mental training and mental intervention. Re-sults: (1) The Biathlon athletes’ score was low in loss of consciousness. The male athletes’ score was significantly higher than that of fe-male athletes in challenge skill balance, loss of consciousness, physical / emotional state and the total flow state. The old age group of athletes’ score was significantly higher than that of the younger group in physical / emotional state. The national team athletes’ positive mental arousal score was significantly higher than that of the non national team. Non national team athletes’ individual failure anxiety score was significantly higher than that of the national team. Self confidence, positive mental arousal, fluent state is significantly related and the positive mental arousal plays a partial mediating role in self-confidence and fluent state. Conclusion: Self-confidence and positive mental arousal are important influence factors of the Biathlon athletes’ fluent state.%目的::本研究旨在揭示冬季两项运动员赛前情绪、心理唤醒与流畅状态的特征及其相互关系,以期为我国冬季两项运动员的心理训练和干预提供实证依据。方法:采用问卷法对我国30名冬季两项运动员进行调查。结果:(1)冬季两项运动员自我意识丧失得分较低,男运动员挑战—技能平衡、自我意识丧失、身体/情绪状况和流畅状态总分得分显著高于女运动员,高龄组运动员身体/情绪状况得分显著高于低龄组运动员,国家队运动员正性心理唤醒得分显著高于非国家队运动员,非国家队运动员的个体失败焦虑得分显著高于国家队运动员;(2)自信心、正性唤醒与流畅状态显著相关,正性唤醒在自信

  6. Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or d...

  7. An English Learning Platform for Kids Based on Arousing - interest and its Practice%基于兴趣激发的幼儿英语学习平台的研究与实践--以湖南省内幼儿园为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常笑

    2015-01-01

    近年来我国幼儿英语教育蓬勃兴起,然而幼儿英语教育现状不尽人意,其中一个重要的原因是幼儿学习英语的兴趣不高。而兴趣是最好的老师,可见,幼儿英语教学的首要目标应是培养幼儿英语学习的兴趣。本研究采用问卷调查法、访谈法对湖南省长沙市、汨罗市和永州市的十二所幼儿园教师、学生和家长三个层面进行调查,分析幼儿英语学习的现状,探索影响幼儿英语学习兴趣的主要因子,研究激发幼儿英语学习兴趣的有效路径。研究发现:提升教师的形象,注重教师的性格、态度,丰富教学内容,采用现代的教学手段、教学方式,外教、家长的参与以及学生的自信心和对成败的正确归因都是激发幼儿英语学习兴趣的关键。%There springs up a tide of English education for kids in China,but its situation is less than satisfac-tory owing to an important factor of kids' inactive learning interest. Obviously,the first job to do is to arouse kids' English learning interest as it is the best teacher. This paper introduces,based on investigation among English teachers,kids and parents of 12 kindergartens in Changsha,Miluo and Yongzhou,Hunan Province,by question-naire and interviewing,the analysis of its present situation,exploration of affecting factors,and some effective methods for arousing interest. The results show,promoting teachers'image and laying emphasis on their personality and manners,abounding the contents of courses,adopting modern teaching methods and approaches,participating with foreign teachers and parents,and kids' self - confidence and correct attitudes towards success or failure,will be significant to arouse kids' learning interest.

  8. A study on the differences in ERP during sexual arousal elicited by different types of sexual picture in adult men%不同内容性刺激诱发成年男性性唤起的事件相关电位差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘典英; 刘明矾; 刘建平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the differences in event related potential(ERP) during sexual arousal elicited by different types of sexual picture in adult men.Methods An implicitly emotional task and a modified oddball paradigm were used.The differences were recorded in EEG with ERP when sexual arousal was induced by heterosexual couple erotic picture,male erotic picture and female erotic picture in fifteen health men.Results The amplitudes of N2 at Fz and P3 at Pz induced by male-female erotic picture ((2.32 ± 1.70) μV,(16.62 ± 2.16) μV),male erotic picture ((1.58 ± 1.33) μ V,(15.82 ± 1.64)μV) and female erotic picture ((1.23 ± 1.47)μV,(14.54 ± 2.00)μV)were not significant differences (P > 0.05).But the amplitudes of N2 and P3 elicited by neutral human picture((-6.01 ± 1.35)μV,(11.36 ± 1.81) μV) were smaller than each type erotic picture (P < 0.05).There was statistical significance in PSW at Cz elicited by different types of erotic picture.The PSW elicited by male-female erotic picture((12.59 ± 1.13)μV) was significantly higher than female erotic picture((10.38 ±0.76) μV) and male erotic picture((8.80 ±0.89) μV) (P<0.05).However,there was no significant difference in PSW component between male erotic picture and female erotic picture.Conclusion The level of sexual arousal elicited by explicit heterosexual couple erotic pictures is highest and the attention also maintains longest in heterosexual male.%目的 探讨不同内容视觉性刺激诱发成年男性性唤起时事件相关电位特征的差异.方法 采用内隐情绪诱发任务和改进后的双选择Oddball范式,利用事件相关电位技术,记录男-女色情图片、男性裸体图片与女性裸体图片诱发15名健康成年男性性唤起时脑电生理变化的差异.结果 三类性图片诱发额中央区(Fz) N2波幅、顶中央区(Pz)P3波幅[分别为:男-女性活动图片(2.32±1.70) μ V、(16.62±2.16) μV;男性裸体图片(1.58±1.33) μV、(15.82±1.64)

  9. Roles of orexin in modulating arousal, feeding and motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakurai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Orexin deficiency results in narcolepsy in humans, dogs, and rodents, suggesting that the orexin system is particularly important for maintenance of wakefulness. However, orexin neurons are ‘multi-tasking’ neurons that regulate sleep/wake states as well as feeding behavior, emotion, and reward processes. Orexin deficiency causes abnormalities in energy homeostasis, stress-related behavior, and reward systems. Orexin excites waking-active monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons in the hypothalamus and brain stem regions to maintain a long, consolidated waking period. Orexin neurons also have reciprocal links with the hypothalamic nucleus, which regulates feeding. Moreover, the responsiveness of orexin neurons to peripheral metabolic cues suggests that these neurons have an important role as a link between energy homeostasis and vigilance states. The link between orexin and the ventral tegmental nucleus serves to motivate an animal to engage in goal-directed behavior. This review focuses on the interaction of orexin neurons with emotion, reward, and energy homeostasis systems. These connectivities are likely to be highly important to maintain proper vigilance states.

  10. Psychopathy and Incapacity to Love: Role of Physiological Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Akiho

    2011-01-01

    Psychopathy is a rare and unique disorder, primarily associated with an emotional deficiency and an inclination towards violent antisocial behavior. Among the various symptoms, the affective experience of the incapacity for love has received little empirical attention, despite having been established as one of Cleckleyâ s 16 classic characteristics. Moreover, the role of physiological responding in their romantic experiences has yet to be examined. The proposed study examined physiological r...

  11. Reciprocity and Emotions: Arousal, Self-Reports, and Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Bornstein, Gary; Hopfensitz, Astrid; Winden, Frans van

    2004-01-01

    Although reciprocity is a key concept in the social sciences, it is still unclear why people engage in costly reciprocation. In this study, physiological and self-report measures were employed to investigate the role of emotions, using the Power-to-Take Game. In this 2-person game, player 1 can claim any part of player 2's resources, and player 2 can react by destroying some (or all) of these resources thus preventing their transfer to player 1. Both physiological and self-report measures wer...

  12. A hazard to health? Fine particles arouse worldwide interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, J.; Oesch, P.

    1998-07-01

    The most recent studies show that particles contained in the air that we breathe may have harmful effects on the health of asthmatics, children and old people in particular. Particle material found in ambient air is formed by emissions resulting from traffic, industry and other use of fuels. Nature`s own sources also have a significant effect on particle concentrations. The mechanisms by which fine particles may produce negative health effects are so far unknown. At present it is therefore impossible to assess the effects of emissions of fine particles resulting, for instance, from the use of fossil fuels

  13. Early brain-body impact of emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Lassonde, Maryse; Collignon, Olivier; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Robert, Manon; Rigoulot, Simon; Honore, Jacques; Lepore, Franco; Sequeira, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain-body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, who...

  14. Early Brain-Body Impact of Emotional Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Lassonde, Maryse; Collignon, Olivier; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Robert, Manon; Rigoulot, Simon; Honoré, Jacques; Lepore, Franco; Sequeira, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, who...

  15. Early brain-body impact of emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Maryse Lassonde; Olivier Collignon; Henrique Sequeira

    2010-01-01

    Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specificall...

  16. Detection of arousals in Parkinson’s disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul;

    2011-01-01

    suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD). The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 8 patients...

  17. Arousal, Executive Control and Decision Making in Compulsive Buying Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Zöega; Zuraigat, Farah Qureshi; Jacobsen, Catrine;

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actua......, products of interest (e.g. fashion items) produce bottom-up emotional responses that skews the decision-making process, leading CBD sufferers to make bad purchase decisions....... psychological and physiological mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. By comparing subjects with CBD to a control group, we find that CBD is not associated with lower performance on executive function or emotional responses. Rather, an observed increase in willingness to pay (WTP) specifically for fashion...... products was associated with a stronger emotional response in CBD subjects, while no relationship between emotions and WTP could be observed in healthy controls. This suggests that CBD, instead of being tentatively classified as an ICD, should rather be understood as a behavioral addiction. By this token...

  18. Music, Mind, and Morality: Arousing the Body Politic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson, Philip; Carroll, Noel

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the conversation that, given the recent developments in the philosophy of mind, especially in terms of its cognitive turn, one task for philosophers of music might be to begin to speculate about the properties of music and organized sound that enable them to perform their various moral and cultural roles. The…

  19. Electroencephalographic Brain Dynamics of Memory Encoding in Emotionally Arousing Context

    OpenAIRE

    Uribe, Carlos Enrique; Garcia, Ana; Tomaz, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Emotional content/context enhances declarative memory through modulation of encoding and retrieval mechanisms. At encoding, neurophysiological data have consistently demonstrated the subsequent memory effect in theta and gamma oscillations. Yet, the existing studies were focused on the emotional content effect and let the emotional context effect unexplored. We hypothesized that theta and gamma oscillations show higher evoked/induced activity during the encoding of visual stimuli when deliver...

  20. Nuclear energy and public opinion: arousal of a myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explain why an individual or the public opinion is in favour or against the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, one should not only consider the dimension of the involved risk, as radiation protection and safety experts will often do. Many other dimensions should be considered all the more as the nuclear problem is gaining importance on a national level, becoming the topic of the day in press and other media and the subject of 'definite' position from political parties and social groups. An investigation carried out within the Protection Division of the French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A.) has made it possible to specify the socio-cultural dimensions at the origin of the attitudes taken on the nuclear problem in France. The nuclear topic was therefore compared with other present topics interesting public opinion; this comparison was made possible by means of an attitude survey covering various social groups. A model of social perception was thus developed

  1. Habituation of cognitive and physiological arousal and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, P S; Shean, G D

    1997-12-01

    This study examined differences in habituation between high and low socially anxious Ss. Participants gave three impromptu speeches, each separated by a brief rest interval. Skin conductance and heart rate were monitored during the speeches. Following each speech participants completed self-ratings of nervousness, heart rate, and palmar sweat activity as well as a modified Social Interaction Self Statement Test. Low anxious controls showed significant reduction of negative expectations and self-reported nervousness, heart rate, and sweat activity across the three trials. Actual heart rate of low-anxious subjects also decreased significantly across trials. In contrast, high anxious subjects did not evidence significant decreases in any of the above measures of anxiety and stress across the three trials. Skin conductance measures increased across trials for both groups, but increased more for the high anxious group than low-anxious controls. Results indicate that high anxiety participants are slow to decrease cognitive and autonomic responsiveness to stressful social situations. PMID:9465444

  2. Study on the Effect mechanism of Locus of Control and Time Management Disposition of College Athletes’ Training of Avoidance and Arousal Procras-tination%时间管理倾向和心理控制源对大学生运动员回避性、唤起性训练拖延行为的影响机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉

    2015-01-01

    利用结构方程模型法,对780名大学生运动员进行测试,研究时间管理倾向和心理控制源对大学生运动员回避性与唤起性训练拖延行为的不同影响机制。研究结论:(1)心理控制源通过内控型负向直接作用和机控型正向直接作用来影响唤起性训练拖延行为;通过权控型正向直接作用影响回避性训练拖延行为。(2)时间管理倾向以IPC心理控制源的机控型和内控型为中介负向影响唤起性训练拖延行为,且以内控型中介完全作用途径为主;通过IPC心理控制源的权控型为中介负向作用和时间管理倾向直接作用影响回避性训练拖延行为,且以时间管理倾向直接作用为主要影响途径。%The article used structural equation modeling method,to test the 780 students athletes,to study the time management disposition and locus of control on the train-ing effect of avoidance and arousal delays. Conclusions:( 1 ) locus of control by direct and internal control the neg-ative effects and Machine-controlled effects evoke positive direct action training delays,By controlled positive direct effects of the right delay avoidance training. ( 2 ) time management disposition in IPC locus of control, machine control and internal control-mediated negative influence on sexual kicks train delays, and intermediate-control is the main path-oriented. Through IPC locus of control pow-er for intermediate negative role or time management di-rectly affected the avoidance training delays, and time management directly effect is the main path.

  3. Is pain patients' psychophysiological arousal while watching their videotaped medical interview similar to their arousal during participation in this medical interview?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, W.; Finset, A.; Holt, E.; Lauritzen Stensrud, T.; Bensing, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Showing videos of medical consultation as a proxy for participation is being increasingly applied in research in order to let patients (re-)experience social interaction in medical settings. If subjects do indeed experience the interaction process when watching this on video, then they should show s

  4. A Zoo-housed Chimpanzee’s (Pan troglodytes) Responses to Potentially Arousing Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, Jennifer; Vedder, Cory E.

    2013-01-01

    In Experiment 1, we wished to determine whether a singly-housed adult male captive chimpanzee could discriminate the behavioral categories of sex and aggression. He was reinforced for selecting sexual rather than aggressive images on a touch-screen computer in a two-choice discrimination paradigm. He showed no discrimination after 24 sessions with non-human photos, but immediately selected human sexual images at above-chance levels. To explore whether this differential discrimination was due ...

  5. Reward Deficiency Syndrome: Attentional/Arousal Subtypes, Limitations of Current Diagnostic Nosology, and Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Justin Modestino; Kenneth Blum; Marlene Oscar-Berman; Gold, Mark S.; Drake D. Duane; Sarah G.S. Sultan; Auerbach, Sanford H.

    2015-01-01

    We theorise that in some cases Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) predisposes to narcolepsy and hypersomnia, and that there may be a shared pathophysiology with various addictions [Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)]. Reticence to acknowledge such connections may be due to a narrow nosological framework. Additionally, we theorise that the development of narcolepsy on a baseline of ADHD/RDS leads to an additional assault on the dopaminergic reward system in such individuals. In this...

  6. Does twitter song amplitude signal male arousal in redwings (Turdus iliacus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, H.M.; Balsby, T.J.S.; Espmark, Y.O.;

    2010-01-01

    Bird songs may vary in amplitude for several reasons. Variations due to differences in environmental conditions are well known but whether signal information varies with song amplitude is less well known. In some species quiet songs are heard as a soft twitter. These twitter songs are common in T...

  7. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citris aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Zijlstra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi

  8. Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Bulbulia, Joseph;

    2011-01-01

    Collective rituals are present in all known societies, but their function is a matter of long-standing debates. Field observations suggest that they may enhance social cohesion and that their effects are not limited to those actively performing but affect the audience as well. Here we show physio...

  9. Fear Arousing Persuasive Communication: The Use of Threat and Coping Appraisal in Breast Cancer Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Karuoya Simon Njoroge; Helen Mberia

    2014-01-01

    At present, breast cancer is having a severe effect in Kenya and it forms a serious threat to Kenyan women. In Kenya, breast cancer is the most common reproductive organ cancer which contributed 23% of all female cancers with one out of every nine women being diagnosed with advanced breast cancer (Neondo, 2006). According to the regional cancer registry at Kenya Medical Research Institute, about 80% of reported cases of cancer in Kenya are diagnosed at advanced stages, when very little can be...

  10. Social and Nonsocial Content Differentially Modulates Visual Attention and Autonomic Arousal in Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Christopher J.; Eliza Bliss-Moreau; Platt, Michael L.; Amaral, David G.

    2011-01-01

    The sophisticated analysis of gestures and vocalizations, including assessment of their emotional valence, helps group-living primates efficiently navigate their social environment. Deficits in social information processing and emotion regulation are important components of many human psychiatric illnesses, such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety disorder. Analyzing the neurobiology of social information processing and emotion regulation requires a multidisciplinary approach that ben...

  11. The DSM-5 criteria, level of arousal and delirium diagnosis: Inclusiveness is safer

    OpenAIRE

    CUNNINGHAM, COLM

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background Delirium is a common and serious problem among acutely unwell persons. Alhough linked to higher rates of mortality, institutionalisation and dementia, it remains underdiagnosed. Careful consideration of its phenomenology is warranted to improve detection and therefore mitigate some of its clinical impact. The publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5) provides an opportunity to examine t...

  12. Degeneration in Arousal Neurons in Chronic Sleep Disruption Modeling Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Zhan, Guanxia; Xin, Ryan; Veasey, Sigrid C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disruption (CSD) is a cardinal feature of sleep apnea that predicts impaired wakefulness. Despite effective treatment of apneas and sleep disruption, patients with sleep apnea may have persistent somnolence. Lasting wake disturbances in treated sleep apnea raise the possibility that CSD may induce sufficient degeneration in wake-activated neurons (WAN) to cause irreversible wake impairments. Implementing a stereological approach in a murine model of CSD, we found reduced neurona...

  13. How Prevalent Is Wishful Thinking? Misattribution of Arousal Causes Optimism and Pessimism in Subjective Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosgerau, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    People appear to be unrealistically optimistic about their future prospects, as reflected by theory and research in the fields of psychology, organizational behavior, behavioral economics, and behavioral finance. Many real-world examples (e.g., consumer behavior during economic recessions), however, suggest that people are not always overly…

  14. Sexual dimorphism in locus coeruleus dendritic morphology: A structural basis for sex differences in emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Bangasser, Debra; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Garachh, Veraaj; Hanhauser, Emily; Valentino, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, affect a disproportionate number of women. We previously demonstrated that the major brain norepinephrine (NE)-containing nucleus, locus coeruleus (LC) is more sensitive to stressors and to the stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in female compared to male rats. Because the LC-NE system is a stress-responsive system that is thought to be dysregulated in affective disorders, sex differences in L...

  15. Arousal modulates auditory attention and awareness: insights from sleep, sedation, and disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between attention and consciousness is frequently tested in altered states of consciousness, including transitions between stages of sleep and sedation, and in pathological disorders of consciousness (DoC; the vegetative and minimally conscious states; VS and MCS). One of the most widely used tasks to assess cognitive processing in this context is the auditory oddball paradigm, where an infrequent change in a sequence of sounds elicits, in awake subjects, a characteristic EEG event-related potential called the mismatch negativity, followed by the classic P300 wave. The latter is further separable into the slightly earlier, anterior P3a and the later, posterior P3b, thought to be linked to task-irrelevant "bottom-up" and task-oriented "top-down" attention, respectively. We discuss here the putative dissociations between attention and awareness in DoC, sedation and sleep, bearing in mind the recently emerging evidence from healthy volunteers and patients. These findings highlight the neurophysiological and cognitive parallels (and differences) across these three distinct variations in levels of consciousness, and inform the theoretical framework for interpreting the role of attention therein. PMID:22403565

  16. Arousal modulates auditory attention and awareness: insights from sleep, sedation and disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SrivasChennu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between top-down, bottom-up attention and consciousness is frequently tested in altered states of consciousness, including transitions between stages of sleep and sedation, and in pathological disorders of consciousness (the vegetative and minimally conscious states; VS and MCS. One of the most widely used tasks to assess cognitive processing in this context is the auditory oddball paradigm, where an infrequent change in a sequence of sounds elicits, in awake subjects, a characteristic EEG event-related potential (ERP called the mismatch negativity (MMN, followed by the classic P300 wave. The latter is further separable into the slightly earlier, anterior P3a and the later, posterior P3b, linked to bottom-up and top-down attention, respectively. We discuss here the putative dissociations between attention and awareness in disorders of consciousness, sedation and sleep, bearing in mind the recently emerging evidence from healthy volunteers and patients. These findings highlight the neurophysiological and cognitive parallels (and differences across these three distinct variations in levels of consciousness, and inform the theoretical framework for interpreting the role of attention therein.

  17. Arousal modulates auditory attention and awareness: insights from sleep, sedation and disorders of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    SrivasChennu; TristanABekinschtein

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between top-down, bottom-up attention and consciousness is frequently tested in altered states of consciousness, including transitions between stages of sleep and sedation, and in pathological disorders of consciousness (the vegetative and minimally conscious states; VS and MCS). One of the most widely used tasks to assess cognitive processing in this context is the auditory oddball paradigm, where an infrequent change in a sequence of sounds elicits, in awake subjects, a charac...

  18. Combining Semantic and Acoustic Features for Valence and Arousal Recognition in Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadogan, Seliz; Larsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of affect in speech has attracted a lot of interest recently; especially in the area of cognitive and computer sciences. Most of the previous studies focused on the recognition of basic emotions (such as happiness, sadness and anger) using categorical approach. Recently, the focus...

  19. Sex Differences in Guanfacine Effects on Drug Craving and Stress Arousal in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Helen C.; Morgan, Peter T.; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Currently, no FDA-approved medication exists for the treatment of cocaine use disorder. Furthermore, as women become increasingly more at risk for the consequences of cocaine addiction, the need to establish better-tailored treatment medications is paramount. We examine the effects of the alpha2 adrenergic agonist, guanfacine HCl, on responses to stress and drug cue in a group of cocaine-dependent men and women who also abuse alcohol and nicotine. Forty early abstinent treatment-seeking cocai...

  20. How to Handle Anxiety: The Effects of Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Suppression Strategies on Anxious Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Heering, Sanna; Sawyer, Alice T.; Asnaani, Anu

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that reappraisal strategies are more effective than suppression strategies for regulating emotions. Recently, proponents of the acceptance-based behavior therapy movement have further emphasized the importance of acceptance-based emotion regulation techniques. In order to directly compare these different emotion regulation strategies, 202 volunteers were asked to give an impromptu speech in front of a video camera. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three grou...

  1. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts empathic concern and autonomic arousal while perceiving harm to others

    OpenAIRE

    Karen E. Smith; Porges, Eric C.; Norman, Greg J.; Connelly, Jessica J.; Decety, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin and the gene for the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in the modulation of various social behaviors, including those related to empathy and sensitivity to others. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that genetic variation in OXTR is associated with autonomic reactions when perceiving others in distress. We also explore the possibility that individual disposition in empathic concern would differ by OXTR genotype. To add...

  2. Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulbulia, JosephA.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe;

    2013-01-01

    Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual...

  3. Avoidance of Emotionally Arousing Stimuli Predicts Social-Perceptual Impairment in Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Ben; Chilvers, Rebecca; Skuse, David

    2008-01-01

    We combined eye-tracking technology with a test of facial affect recognition and a measure of self-reported social anxiety in order to explore the aetiology of social-perceptual deficits in Asperger's syndrome (AS). Compared to controls matched for age, IQ and visual-perceptual ability, we found a group of AS adults was impaired in their…

  4. Determination of Nonprototypical Valence and Arousal in Popular Music: Features and Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Rigoll; Björn Schuller; Johannes Dorfner

    2010-01-01

    Mood of Music is among the most relevant and commercially promising, yet challenging attributes for retrieval in large music collections. In this respect this article first provides a short overview on methods and performances in the field. While most past research so far dealt with low-level audio descriptors to this aim, this article reports on results exploiting information on middle-level as the rhythmic and chordal structure or lyrics of a musical piece. Special attention is given to rea...

  5. The Association of Therapist Empathy and Synchrony in Vocally Encoded Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Imel, Zac E; Barco, Jacqueline S.; Brown, Halley J.; Baucom, Brian R.; Kircher, John C.; Baer, John S.; Atkins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is a critical ingredient in motivational interviewing (MI) and in psychotherapy generally. It is typically defined as the ability to experience and understand the feelings of another. Basic science indicates that empathy is related to the development of synchrony in dyads. However, in clinical research, empathy has proved difficult to operationalize and measure, and has mostly relied on the felt sense of observers, clients, or therapists. We extracted estimates of therapist and standa...

  6. Serotonergic systems associated with arousal and vigilance behaviors following administration of anxiogenic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, J K; Johnson, P L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    analysis revealed that at the mid-rostrocaudal level, caffeine and FG-7142 had convergent effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons that were restricted to a previously undefined region, which we have named the shell region of the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRDSh), that overlaps the...

  7. Novelty-induced emotional arousal modulates cannabinoid effects on recognition memory and adrenocortical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campolongo, P.; Morena, M.; Scaccianoce, S.; Trezza, V.; Chiarotti, F.; Schelling, G.; Cuomo, V.; Roozendaal, B.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that cannabinoid drugs can influence cognitive performance, the findings-describing both enhancing and impairing effects-have been ambiguous. Here, we investigated the effects of posttraining systemic administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.

  8. Oxytocin is associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms in Chinese male earthquake survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Chengqi Cao; Li Wang; Richu Wang; Yulan Qing; Jianxin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex and severe mental disorder triggered by exposure to an extraordinarily traumatic event. Human and animal studies have implied the functional role of the oxytocin system in the development of PTSD (Cochran, Fallon, Hill, & Frazier, 2013; Koch et al., 2014; Olff, 2012). Specification of the role of the oxytocin system in the emergence and progression of PTSD symptomatology would provide evidence to inform both theory and clinical pra...

  9. Reappraising Stress Arousal Improves Performance and Reduces Evaluation Anxiety in Classroom Exam Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Peters, Brett J.; Greenwood, Emily J.; Altose, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    For students to thrive in the U.S. educational system, they must successfully cope with omnipresent demands of exams. Nearly all students experience testing situations as stressful, and signs of stress (e.g., racing heart) are typically perceived negatively. This research tested the efficacy of a psychosituational intervention targeting cognitive…

  10. Reward Deficiency Syndrome: Attentional/Arousal Subtypes, Limitations of Current Diagnostic Nosology, and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Justin Modestino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We theorise that in some cases Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD predisposes to narcolepsy and hypersomnia, and that there may be a shared pathophysiology with various addictions [Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS]. Reticence to acknowledge such connections may be due to a narrow nosological framework. Additionally, we theorise that the development of narcolepsy on a baseline of ADHD/RDS leads to an additional assault on the dopaminergic reward system in such individuals. In this study, we propose to test these hypotheses by using a combination of broad genetic screening, and neuroimaging with and without pharmacological intervention, in those with pure ADHD, pure narcolepsy, and the combined ADHD-narcolepsy phenotype. Results of this proposed study may reveal a common pathophysiology of ADHD, narcolepsy and RDS, and perhaps an additional compromise to the reward system in those with combined ADHD-narcolepsy. If the evidence supports the hypothesis that indeed there is a shared pathophysiology for narcolepsy with RDS and thus its subtype ADHD, early intervention/preventative treatment amongst those with ADHD may be beneficial with the putative dopaminergic compound KB220Z™.

  11. Evaluation of Children with Selective Mutism and Social Phobia: A Comparison of Psychological and Psychophysiological Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brennan J.; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Although children with social phobia (SP) and selective mutism (SM) present similarly in a clinical setting, it remains unclear whether children with SM are unable to speak due to overwhelming anxiety, or whether withholding speech functions as an avoidance mechanism. A total of 35 children (ages 5-12 years) with either SM (n = 10), SP (n = 11),…

  12. Arousability and Dispositional optimism in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Nosková; Helena Záškodná

    2013-01-01

    The article is focuses at aspects of resistance to psychical stress in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse stimulant effect. The first part includes knowledge about cycling of handicapped and the effect of stimulants at the sports achievement. The article also describes selected constructs of resistance to the psychical stress, like dispositional optimism. The empirical part includes descriptive data from resp...

  13. Positive effects of noise on cognitive performance: Explaining the moderate brain arousal model

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlund, Göran; Sikström, Sverker

    2008-01-01

    Distractors and environmental noise has long been regarded as detrimental for different kinds of cognitive processing. In particular children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are extremely sensitive to distraction from task irrelevant stimuli. However, recently the opposite has been shown in an empirical study by Söderlund et al. (2007). Exposure to auditory white noise facilitated cognitive performance in ADHD children whereas control children performed worse in the noise...

  14. Reconceptualising women’s sexual desire and arousal in DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013 was the culmination of more than a decade of work by the APA DSM-5 task force and Work Groups. From 2007 to 2013, I served as a member of the Sexual Dysfunctions subworkgroup, part of the Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders workgroup. In the area of sexual disorders, some of the most significant changes were made in diagnostic categories for female sexual dysfunction. The DSM-IV ...

  15. Emotion regulation, physiological arousal and PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Laura; Wild, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective studies suggest a link between PTSD and difficulty regulating negative emotions. This study investigated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and the ability to regulate negative emotions in real-time using a computerised task to assess emotion regulation. Method Trauma-exposed ambulance workers (N = 45) completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and depression. Participants then completed a computer task requiring them to enhance, decrease or ...

  16. Patients with severe acquired brain injury show increased arousal in tilt-table training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberholt, Christian G; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are often mobilised using a tilt-table. Complications such as orthostatic intolerance have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if using a tilt-table was feasible for mobilising patients with severe ABI admitted for...

  17. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.

  18. Anxiety Arouses in Birds Paradise%小鸟天堂的忧虑(散文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱英球

    2003-01-01

      已是初冬了,我的故乡广东江门仿佛依旧生活在早春的时节里,地里的蔬菜,街道两旁的绿树,东湖公园里的花圃,依然那样生机勃勃,争奇斗艳.然而,当我游罢家乡的"小鸟天堂",心中却油然掠过一缕淡淡的忧丝.……

  19. Arousal from sleep by noises from aircraft with and without acoustically treated nacelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J. S.; Peeler, D. J.; Dobbs, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The electroencephalographic and behavioral responses during sleep of four subjects, aged 46 to 58 years, to three types of noises were tested over 14 consecutive nights. The stimuli were two DC-8 jet landing noises (each 30 seconds in duration and coming from DC-8 aircraft with and without acoustical treatment on the engine nacelles) and a 4-second burst of pink noise. Each of the noises was tested at nominal intensities of 61 and 79 dBA. Other physical descriptors of the noises were measured or computed. The results indicate that for an equivalent degree of sleep disruption, noise form the jet aircraft with untreated nacelles must be about 6 dBA less intense than the jet with acoustically treated nacelles. Predictions of the effects of noise on sleep appear, tentatively, to attain the highest accuracy when the physical descriptor of noise intensity includes information about the impulsive characteristics of that noise as well as its long-term spectral content.

  20. Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Catharine; Cooper, Peter; Allen, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The ...

  1. Atypical sympathetic arousal in children with autism spectrum disorder and its association with anxiety symptomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Panju, Sakeena; Brian, Jessica; Dupuis, Annie; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Kushki, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with autonomic atypicalities, although the nature of these differences remains largely unknown. Moreover, existing literature suggests large variability in autonomic function in ASD, motivating the need to examine the existence of subgroups that exhibit more homogeneous autonomic features. Methods Electrodermal activity (EDA), a non-invasive physiological indicator of autonomic activity, was measured in typically developing childre...

  2. Arousal state feedback as a potential physiological generator of the ultradian REM/NREM sleep cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A. J. K.; Robinson, P. A.; Klerman, E. B.

    2012-01-01

    Human sleep episodes are characterized by an approximately 90-minute ultradian oscillation between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep stages. The source of this oscillation is not known. Pacemaker mechanisms for this rhythm have been proposed, such as a reciprocal interaction network, but these fail to account for documented homeostatic regulation of both sleep stages. Here, two candidate mechanisms are investigated using a simple model that has stable states corresponding to W...

  3. Musical hand shaker toward sustainable behavioral changes : Designing of persuasive interaction through emotion arousing

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    Context. This paper aims to investigate the potential of sustainable interaction system by employing persuasive design process. Sustainable Human Computer Interaction community (HCI) strives to find effective ways to change human behavior toward pro-environment. The sustainable HCI community seems to propose ambient display interface as one of its major interaction methods, which have an impact in quiet and static surroundings. However, when it comes to crowded public places where public reso...

  4. AROUSAL-RELATED P3a TO NOVEL AUDITORY STIMULI IS ABOLISHED BY MODERATELY LOW ALCOHOL DOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Halgren, Eric; Maltzman, Irving

    2001-01-01

    Concurrent measures of event-related potentials (ERPs) and skin conductance responses were obtained in an auditory oddball task consisting of rare target, rare non-signal unique novel and frequent standard tones. Twelve right-handed male social drinkers participated in all four cells of the balanced placebo design in which effects of beverage and instructions as to the beverage content (expectancy) were independently manipulated. The beverage contained either juice only, or vodka mixed with j...

  5. Emotional Responses to Odors in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Autonomic Arousal, Facial Behavior and Self-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legisa, Jasna; Messinger, Daniel S.; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8-14 years) with…

  6. Respiratory Component of the Orienting Reflex: A Novel Sensitive Index of Sensory-Induced Arousal in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene eNalivaiko; Evgeny eBondarenko; Andreas eLidstrom; Barry, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    In humans, the integrated response to a novel stimulus (orienting reflex) includes behavioral (head turning etc) and well-characterized physiological components (changes in heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and EEG patterns). In rodents, the physiological components of the orienting reflex include changes in heart rate and cutaneous vasoconstrictor tone, but respiratory changes have so far not been systematically documented. In the present study conducted in adult male Wistar rats, t...

  7. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  8. Effects of extroversion and neuroticism on learning and memory: a test of Eysenck's theory of individual differences in arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, W F; Garske, J P

    1976-09-01

    Forty Ohio University female undergraduates were classified as stable extroverts, neurotic extroverts, stable introverts, and neurotic introverts, as measured by the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Subjects were asked to learn four paired-associate lists-two forms of both simple and difficult lists. The dependent variables were errors in the learning of the lists to criterion and recall scores at short-term (15 second) and long-term (15 minute) recall intervals. The hypothesized interactions were not significant. Explanations for the negative findings involved the methodology and the questionable applicability of Eysenck's biologically based personality dimensions for defining individual differences in learning and recall. PMID:994063

  9. Is skin conductance a predictor of arousal, noxious stimuli and pain in the sedated and anaesthetized patient?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Hudledningsevne som mål på smertefulle stimuli. Lege og forsker Ann Christin Gjerstad har sett på en metode for å oppdage ubehag og smerte hos pasienter som ligger på sykehus og av ulike grunner ikke kan meddele seg på vanlig måte. Dette er gjort ved hjelp av hudledningsevne som måler svetteutsondring i håndflater eller under føttene. En fryktet komplikasjon for pasienter som skal gjennom et sykehusopphold er muligheten for å oppleve smerte uten mulighet til å få kommunisert dette ti...

  10. The effects of hostility and arousal on facial affect perception : a test of a neuropsychological model of hostility

    OpenAIRE

    Herridge, Matthew L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the field of psychology, hostility has historically been a heavily researched affective construct. The purpose of this experiment was to test hypotheses derived from a neuropsychological model of hostility utilizing two common research paradigms from the extant literatures on hostility's cognitive and physiological correlates. This was accomplished by testing an integral component of a previously proposed neuropsychological model of hostility (Herridge & Harrison, 1994). The purpose of...

  11. Feeling Present in Arousing Virtual Reality Worlds: Prefrontal Brain Regions Differentially Orchestrate Presence Experience in Adults and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Speck, Dominique; Wettstein, Denise; Masnari, Ornella; Beeli, Gian; Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is a powerful tool for simulating aspects of the real world. The success of VR is thought to depend on its ability to evoke a sense of “being there”, that is, the feeling of “Presence”. In view of the rapid progress in the development of increasingly more sophisticated virtual environments (VE), the importance of understanding the neural underpinnings of presence is growing. To date however, the neural correlates of this phenomenon have received very scant attention. An f...

  12. Feeling present in arousing virtual reality worlds: prefrontal brain regions differentially orchestrate presence experience in adults and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is a powerful tool for simulating aspects of the real world. The success of VR is thought to depend on its ability to evoke a sense of "being there", that is, the feeling of "Presence". In view of the rapid progress in the development of increasingly more sophisticated virtual environments (VE, the importance of understanding the neural underpinnings of presence is growing. To date however, the neural correlates of this phenomenon have received very scant attention. An fMRI-based study with 52 adults and 25 children was therefore conducted using a highly immersive VE. The experience of presence in adult subjects was found to be modulated by two major strategies involving two homologous prefrontal brain structures. Whereas the right DLPFC controlled the sense of presence by down-regulating the activation in the egocentric dorsal visual processing stream, the left DLPFC up-regulated widespread areas of the medial prefrontal cortex known to be involved in self-reflective and stimulus-independent thoughts. In contrast, there was no evidence of these two strategies in children. In fact, anatomical analyses showed that these two prefrontal areas have not yet reached full maturity in children. Taken together, this study presents the first findings that show activation of a highly specific neural network orchestrating the experience of presence in adult subjects, and that the absence of activity in this neural network might contribute to the generally increased susceptibility of children for the experience of presence in VEs.

  13. Neural correlate of spatial presence in an arousing and noninteractive virtual reality: an EEG and psychophysiology study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Valko, Lilian; Esslen, Michaela; Jäncke, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Using electroencephalography (EEG), psychophysiology, and psychometric measures, this is the first study which investigated the neurophysiological underpinnings of spatial presence. Spatial presence is considered a sense of being physically situated within a spatial environment portrayed by a medium (e.g., television, virtual reality). Twelve healthy children and 11 healthy adolescents were watching different virtual roller coaster scenarios. During a control session, the roller coaster cab d...

  14. My views on English Language Teaching--How to Arouse Students’Interest in the English Language Teaching?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of foreign language teaching is to enable the students to use the foreign language in work of life when necessary. Thus we should teach language in the way that is used in the real world. But the basic precondition is that learner must be interested in foreign language. In my opinion, during the English learning process,“interest is the best teacher”. But many students don’t like to learn English, the reason is that they are not interested in English. Therefore, a suc-cessful language teacher must know how to raise students’interest in learning English, make them enjoy learning English. In addition, the language teaching method is very important, it must renew continuously, teachers should use the vivid and diverse teaching method to organize students to participate in extensive language practice activities, so as to improve stu-dents’study enthusiasm.

  15. Interactions between Brainstem Noradrenergic Neurons and the Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Modulating Memory for Emotionally Arousing Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Erin C.; Williams, Cedric L.

    2011-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens shell (NAC) receives axons containing dopamine-[beta]-hydroxylase that originate from brainstem neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Recent findings show that memory enhancement produced by stimulating NTS neurons after learning may involve interactions with the NAC. However, it is unclear whether these…

  16. Arousal Regulation and Affective Adaptation to Human Responsiveness by a Robot that Explores and Learns a Novel Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine eHiolle; Matthew eLewis; Lola eCañamero

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a ``baby'' robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a ``caregiver'' to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two ``idealized'' robot profiles -- a ``needy...

  17. 'For men arousal is orientation': Bodily truthing, technosexual scripts, and the materialization of sexualities through the phallometric test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidzunas, Tom; Epstein, Steven

    2015-04-01

    We trace the history of the phallometric test--which measures erections of men exposed to visual erotic stimuli to characterize sexualities--in order to account for its functioning as a 'truthing technology'. On the basis of a content analysis of 410 key scientific journal article abstracts, we argue that since its invention in Czechoslovakia in the 1950s, phallometry has been employed within three distinct assemblages: as a test of predominance of sexual desire, as a test for therapeutic efficacy, and as a threshold test of sexual risk. Drawing on works of theorists of materialization and proponents of script theory, we argue that within each assemblage phallometric testing materializes male desire and renders it measurable via a 'technosexual script'. We consider the performative effects of phallometry in establishing scientific conceptions of normal and abnormal sexualities. At the same time, through attention to debates among practitioners and broader controversies surrounding the employment of phallometry, we examine the limits of researchers' abilities to establish the broader credibility of the test and capture the phenomenon of sexual desire. This analysis contributes to the study of truthing technologies (or 'truth machines') as a class, while also helping to build bridges between science and technology studies and sexuality studies. PMID:26477205

  18. An Analysis of Arousing for Tourist Motive%浅析旅游动机的激发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付邦道

    2003-01-01

    本文分析了影响旅游动机的因素,指出激发旅游动机必须以分析旅游地与客源地空间相互作用的三个条件(互补性、替代性和可达性)为基础,采取相应措施,增强旅游地吸引力.

  19. 从听课中引发的探索性思考%Explorative Reflections Aroused by Class Visiting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宏晔

    2014-01-01

    教学是一门艺术,听课也是一门艺术,教学相长越来越受到人们的重视和关注,其实“教”与“听”、“教”与“评”也是相辅相成的。“听”是“评”的基础,“评”是“听”的反映。怎么“听”、怎么“评”这是值得我们思考和探索的问题。听课、评课是教学研究的有效手段,在大力倡导开展教学研究的今天,广泛开展听课评课活动、研究并改进教学中存在的问题显得尤其重要。本文针对听课、评课的相关问题,进行一点探索性的思考。%Teaching is an art,and class visiting is also an art,and teaching benefits teachers as well as students has been given more and more attention, so in fact, "teaching" and "listening","teaching" and "evaluation" are also mutually complementary."Listening"is the basis of"evaluation", while"evaluation"is the reflection of"listening". How to"listen"and how to"evaluation"are problems worthy of thinking and exploring. Class visiting and lesson evaluation are effective means of teaching research, and in today's vigorous implementation of teaching research, to widely carry out class visiting and lesson evaluation activities, research and improve problems existing in teaching are particularly im-portant. In view of relevant issues of class visiting and lesson e-valuation, this paper did some explorative reflections.

  20. My views on English Language Teaching——How to Arouse Students’ Interest in the English Language Teaching?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of foreign language teaching is to enable the students to use the foreign language in work of life when necessary.Thus we should teach language in the way that is used in the real world.But the basic precondition is that learner must be interested in foreign language.In my opinion,during the English learning process,"interest is the best teacher".But many students don’t like to learn English,the reason is that they are not interested in English.Therefore,a successful language teacher must know how to raise students’interest in learning English,make them enjoy learning English.In addition,the language teaching method is very important,it must renew continuously,teachers should use the vivid and diverse teaching method to organize students to participate in extensive language practice activities,so as to improve students’study enthusiasm.

  1. Arousing "Gentle Passions" in Young Adolescents: Sustained Experimental Effects of Value Affirmations on Prosocial Feelings and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Reijntjes, Albert

    2012-01-01

    When people reflect on their important values, they may become more attuned to the needs of others. Two longitudinal field experiments examined whether a subtle value-affirmation manipulation can initiate relatively enduring increases in young adolescents' prosocial feelings (Study 1; M [subscript age] = 12.9) and prosocial behaviors (Study 2; M…

  2. Effects of emotional valence and arousal on acoustic duration reproduction assessed via the “dual klepsydra model”

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Meissner; Dharol Tankersley; Marc Wittmann

    2014-01-01

    We report results of an acoustic duration reproduction task with stimulus duration of 2, 4 and 6 s, using 45 emotionally negative, positive, and neutral sounds from the International Affective Digitized Sounds System, in a sample of 31 young healthy participants. To investigate the influence of induced emotions on perceived duration, the effects of emotional modulation were quantified in two ways: (i) via model-free indices (aggregated ratios of reproduced times), and (ii) via dual klepsydra ...

  3. Acute Alcohol Effects on Attentional Bias are Mediated by Subcortical Areas Associated with Arousal and Salience Attribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaou, Kyriaki; Field, Matt; Critchley, Hugo; Duka, Theodora

    2013-01-01

    Acute alcohol ingestion increases attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli; however, the underlying cognitive and brain mechanisms remain unknown. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with performance of a dual task that probed attentional distraction by alcohol-related stimuli during ‘conflict' processing: the Concurrent Flanker/Alcohol-Attentional bias task (CFAAT). In this task, an Eriksen Flanker task is superimposed on task-unrelated background pictures with alcoho...

  4. Effects of Prenatal Sensory-Evoked Arousal on Postnatal Behavior and Perceptual Responsiveness in Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Gregory Durelle

    2002-01-01

    Prenatal sensory stimulation can have facilitative or interfering effects upon subsequent perceptual learning and development in bobwhite quail. Exposure to moderate amounts of unimodal prenatal sensory stimulation has been shown to accelerate early intersensory responsiveness, while exposure to concurrent prenatal bimodal sensory stimulation has been shown to interfere with perceptual learning and development. An immediate mechanism that may underlie this developmental intersensory interfe...

  5. Storybook-Induced Arousal and Preschoolers' Empathic Understanding of Negative Affect in Self, Others, and Animals in Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Preschool children listened to a children's storybook about an animal character, with reading being terminated prior to, or after, problem resolution. The children's empathic understanding of how the animal character felt was assessed, and they were then asked to draw, with strength of pressure on the page (as evident on attached carbon copies)…

  6. A physics lesson aroused by Southeast Asian tsunami%由东南亚海啸引发的一堂物理课

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昭曜; 张元清; 刘守渔

    2005-01-01

    印度洋海啸被认为是一次"全球性地球物理学事件".通过对"海啸的物理学"的教学设计,利用从互联网收集的最新资料,结合学生的物理知识,对海啸中的物理现象作了计算和分析.

  7. Some Thiking Aroused From the Landing of the Korean TV Drama%韩剧登陆引发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚知敏

    2006-01-01

    1993年以前,人们对韩剧基本上没有什么概念,那时候业内人士很珍惜当时宽松的艺术氛围,都在埋头发展本土影视事业,电视剧生产由上下集的单本剧和三至八集的中篇连续剧正在向二十集的长篇电视连续剧快速过渡。那时候,西方的规模化生产和高投入高产出模式,是我们开始研究探讨的生产目标,周边国家除日本、印度电影的拍摄理念之外,电视剧产业说实在的还没有哪一个国家能引起我们的足够注意。直到1993年,央视引进首部韩国长篇电视连续剧《嫉妒》并安排播出,这是韩剧第一次登陆内地荧屏。可是,由于大家对韩剧还没有什么印象,也可能是当时媒体对开播前的宣传力度不够,观众对该剧反应平平。真正让内地观众认识到韩剧魅力的是1997年的一部《爱情是什么》,该剧在央视八套播出,收视率在当时高达4.2%,正是由于该剧的播出,韩剧热开始升温并逐渐扩散,可以说,1997年是韩剧收视热的真正开始。

  8. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy versus sad music

    OpenAIRE

    Line eGebauer; Joshua eSkewes; Gitte eWestphael; Pamela eHeaton; Peter eVuust

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing o...

  9. Reflections Aroused by Middle School Students' Resistance against School Uniform%中学生抗拒校服所引发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宏娟

    2015-01-01

    当下关于中学生抗拒一成不变的学校校服的话题,一直争议不断。随着时代的发展、社会的进步,学生、家长和学校对学生校服的关注度越来越高。校服作为学生身份、校园文化、团队精神的有效载体,有其存在的必要性。但传统校服本身材料、样式等方面存在的问题,使得学校需要从学校文化、学生心理、社会发展、国际差异、家长意愿等多方面考虑学生校服的创新。在充分吸取学生、家长和社会意见的基础上,实现我国中学生校服质的飞跃。%Currently, middle school students' resistance against the changeless school uniform has always been controversial. With the development of the times and the progress of the society, students, parents and schools pay more and more attention to school uniform. The school uniform is an effective carrier of stu-dents' identify, campus culture and teamwork, so its existence is necessary. But due to the problems in the materials and styles of traditional school uniforms themselves, schools need to consider the innovation of students' school uniforms from campus culture, students' psychology, social development, international differ-ences and parents' inclination. Based on taking the advice of stu-dents, parents and the society, school uniforms for Chinese mid-dle school students will achieve a qualitative leap.

  10. Evaluation of the Driver's Temporary Arousal Level by Facial Skin Thermogram—Effect of Surrounding Temperature and Wind on the Thermogram—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryo; Nozawa, Akio; Tanaka, Hisaya; Mizuno, Tota; Ide, Hideto

    Recently, established transportation system is actively done to the research on ITS that starts achieving a more excellent traffic environment by using most-advanced information and communications technology. We studied the method of evaluating physiologycal state of human based on facial skin thermal image analysis. However it is said that facial skin thermogram have a susceptibility to environmental variation. In this paper, how much the facial skin thermogram effected the influence of the outside environment was examined. As a result, when there is no stressor from the outside, the environmental variation can be removed by calculating the temperature of ( nasal - forehead ). On the other hand, in the case of giving subject the stressor, the change of temperature appeared only nose.

  11. How to arouse the interests of students in learning plant biology%如何激发学生学习植物生物学的兴趣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敏; 葛继稳; 侯新东

    2012-01-01

    植物生物学是生物科学的主要专业基础课之一,内容繁多,学生容易感到枯燥乏味.从灵活运用教学方法和网络资源、丰富实践教学形式、用成功的体验激发学生等方面出发,针对如何激发学生学习兴趣进行了植物生物学教学的初步改革和探讨.%Plant biology is one of the main basic courses of biological science, but students are easy to feel boring because of its various content. This article preliminarily proposes some teaching reforms to the question that how to stimulate students' interest in studying plant biology, such as flexible using of the teaching methods and network resources, diversified teaching practice, inspiring students through the successful experience and so on.

  12. 如何调动学生学习生物的积极性%How to Arouse Students' Initiative of Learning Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀霞

    2011-01-01

    The decisive factor in implementing biology teaching and improving students' enthusiasm of learning biology is to establish equal and friendly relationship between teachers and students, create democratic and harmonious teaching atmosphere and play students' subjective role; upright attitude and motivate interest; seeing and observing teaching makes students easy to understand and learn; wittily apply language art to improve students' memorizing ability; cultivate students' good learning habits and improve learning effect; combine theory and practice and concern life, so that students can realize the meaning of learning biology.%搞好生物教学,提高学生学习生物的热情关键要做到建立平等友爱的师生关系,创设民主和谐的教学气氛,发挥学生主体作用;端正态度,激发兴趣;“看、观”教学,让学生易懂易学;巧妙运用语言艺术,提高学生记忆力;培养学生良好的学习习惯,提高学习效率;理论联系实际,关注生活,让学生体验到学习生物学的意义。

  13. Olfaction, Emotion, and the Amygdala: arousal-dependent modulation of long-term autobiographical memory and its association with olfaction: beginning to unravel the Proust phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is set apart from other sensory modalities. Odours possess the capacity to trigger immediately strong emotional memories. Moreover, odorous stimuli provide a higher degree of memory retention than other sensory stimuli. Odour perception, even in its most elemental form - olfaction - already involves limbic structures. This early involvement is not paralleled in other sensory modalities. Bearing in mind the considerable connectivity with limbic structures, and the fact that an activation of the amygdala is capable of instantaneously evoking emotions and facilitating the encoding of memories, it is unsurprising that the sense of smell has its characteristic nature. The aim of this review is to analyse current understanding of higher olfactory information processing as it relates to the ability of odours to spontaneously cue highly vivid, affectively toned, and often very old autobiographical memories (episodes known anecdotally as Proust phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the diversity of functions attributed to the amygdala. Its role in modulating the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory is investigated with reference to lesion, electrophysiological, immediate early gene, and functional imaging studies in both rodents and humans. Additionally, the influence of hormonal modulation and the adrenergic system on emotional memory storage is outlined. I finish by proposing a schematic of some of the critical neural pathways that underlie the odour-associated encoding and retrieval of emotionally toned autobiographical memories.

  14. Sex differences in the neurobiology of fear conditioning and extinction: a preliminary fMRI study of shared sex differences with stress-arousal circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Lebron-Milad Kelimer; Abbs Brandon; Milad Mohammed R; Linnman Clas; Rougemount-Bücking Ansgar; Zeidan Mohammed A; Holt Daphne J; Goldstein Jill M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and brain-stem subregions are implicated in fear conditioning and extinction, and are brain regions known to be sexually dimorphic. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate sex differences in brain activity in these regions during fear conditioning and extinction. Methods Subjects were 12 healthy men comparable to 12 healthy women who underwent a 2-day experiment in a 3 T MR scanner. Fear...

  15. Sex differences in the neurobiology of fear conditioning and extinction: a preliminary fMRI study of shared sex differences with stress-arousal circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebron-Milad Kelimer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and brain-stem subregions are implicated in fear conditioning and extinction, and are brain regions known to be sexually dimorphic. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate sex differences in brain activity in these regions during fear conditioning and extinction. Methods Subjects were 12 healthy men comparable to 12 healthy women who underwent a 2-day experiment in a 3 T MR scanner. Fear conditioning and extinction learning occurred on day 1 and extinction recall occurred on day 2. The conditioned stimuli were visual cues and the unconditioned stimulus was a mild electric shock. Skin conductance responses (SCR were recorded throughout the experiment as an index of the conditioned response. fMRI data (blood-oxygen-level-dependent [BOLD] signal changes were analyzed using SPM8. Results Findings showed no significant sex differences in SCR during any experimental phases. However, during fear conditioning, there were significantly greater BOLD-signal changes in the right amygdala, right rostral anterior cingulate (rACC and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC in women compared with men. In contrast, men showed significantly greater signal changes in bilateral rACC during extinction recall. Conclusions These results indicate sex differences in brain activation within the fear circuitry of healthy subjects despite similar peripheral autonomic responses. Furthermore, we found that regions where sex differences were previously reported in response to stress, also exhibited sex differences during fear conditioning and extinction.

  16. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy versus sad music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Westphael, Gitte Gülche;

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated...... with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing of music, is less clear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural correlates...... of emotion recognition in music in high-functioning adults with ASD and neurotypical adults. Both groups engaged similar neural networks during processing of emotional music, and individuals with ASD rated emotional music comparable to the group of neurotypical individuals. However, in the ASD group...

  17. Assessing the fit of the Dysphoric Arousal model across two nationally representative epidemiological surveys: The Australian NSMHWB and the United States NESARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour, C.; Carragher, N.; Elhai, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Since the initial inclusion of PTSD in the DSM nomenclature, PTSD symptomatology has been distributed across three symptom clusters. However, a wealth of empirical research has concluded that PTSD's latent structure is best represented by one of two four-factor models: Numbing or Dysphoria. Recen...

  18. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy vs. sad music

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Westphael, Gitte; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing o...

  19. Assessing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder's Latent Structure in Elderly Bereaved European Trauma Victims: Evidence for a Five Factor Dysphoric and Anxious Arousal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour, Cherie; O'Connor, Maja; Elklit, Ask;

    2013-01-01

    The three-factor structure of PTSD specified by the DSM-IV is not supported in the empirical literature. Two alternative four-factor models have received a wealth of empirical support. However, a consensus regarding which is superiorhas not been reached. A recent five-factor model has been shown ...

  20. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seok-Kyun; Kim, Gwang-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Kang, Heoung-Keun; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. Materials and Methods A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with bot...