WorldWideScience

Sample records for aromatischen kohlenwasserstoffen pahs

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their transfer into and dislocation within soil; Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) und ihre Verlagerung im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, H.W.; Niehaus, R.; Mueller, U.; Bueker, I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In order to assess the terrestrial hazard potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it is vital to investigate their nuisance concentrations and deposition to soil and plants as well as their dislocation in soil. This was the object of the first part of the research programme ``Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution``, conducted by the national research institutions. It was headed ``Analysis of exposure`` and comprised the following individual contributions: 1. Integrated long-term measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil air at ground level (FZJ), 2. Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations at the Scheyern experimental station as well as at the motorway by-passing Munich to the east (A 99), near Kirchheim (GSF), 3. Investigations regarding PAH exposure via the air pathway and inclusion of acquired data in substance flows made up for the east-German dry zone (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ), 4. Simulation of PAH concentration and deposition in south-western Germany (FZK). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) im terrestrischen Bereich sind daher Untersuchungen ueber die Immissionskonzentrationen und die Deposition auf Boeden und Pflanzen sowie ueber ihre Verlagerung im Boden von essentieller Bedeutung. Die Bearbeitung dieser Thematik erfolgte im Teilbereich I `Eintragsanalyse` des AGF-Programms `Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen` mit folgenden Einzelbeitraegen: 1. Integrierende Langzeitmessung von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in bodennaher Luft, (FZJ) 2. Bestimmung der PAH-Immissionskonzentrationen am Versuchsgut Scheyern sowie an der oestlichen Autobahnumgehung von Muenchen (A 99) bei Kirchheim, (GSF) 3. Untersuchungen zum Eintrag von PAH ueber den Luftpfad und Einbeziehung der Daten in Stoffkreislaeufe im Mitteldeutschen Trockengebiet (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ) 4. Simulation der PAH-Konzentration und

  2. Contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Hamburg`s upper soil; Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Hamburger Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gras, B.; Jaeger, C.; Sievers, S.

    1996-11-01

    In 1993/95, a programme of investigations covering the area of Hamburg was carried out to determine the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the upper soil. This programme of measurements was intended to give an overview of the general loading situation in an inhabited area and to show main points of loading. One also intended to consider how great the effect of the type of use of an area is on the PAH contents and whether information on the sources can be derived from the PAH patterns. Soil mixture samples were taken from depths of 0-10 cm and in worked areas from depths of 0-30 cm at 108 sites distributed over the city area of Hamburg, and these were examined for 19 individual PAH materials (PAH (EPA) plus 1 and 2 methyl naphthalene and Benzopyrene). Differently exposed and used sites were included in this programme. Industrial, traffic, residential areas, small gardens, agriculture, flood meadows, woods/parks, nature protection and other green areas (fallow land, meadows). (orig.) [Deutsch] 1993/95 wurde in Hamburg ein flaechendeckendes Untersuchungsprogramm zur Ermittlung der Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Oberboeden durchgefuehrt. Dieses Messprogramm sollte einen Ueberblick ueber die generelle Belastungssituation in einem Ballungsraum geben und ggfs. Belastungsschwerpunkte aufzeigen. Es sollte ausserdem betrachtet werden, wie gross der Einfluss der jeweiligen Nutzungsart einer Flaeche auf die PAK-Gehalte ist und ob sich aus den PAK-Mustern in Oberboeden Hinweise auf Quellen ableiten lassen. An 108 Standorten verteilt ueber das Hamburger Stadtgebiet wurden aus 0-10 cm und bei bearbeiteten Flaechen aus 0-30 cm Tiefe Bodenmischproben entnommen und auf 19 PAK-Einzelstoffe untersucht (PAK(EPA) zzgl. 1- und 2-Methylnaphthalin sowie Benzo(e)pyren). In das Programm wurden unterschiedlich exponierte und genutzte Standorte einbezogen: Industrie, Verkehr, Wohngebiete, Kleingaerten, Landwirtschaft

  3. Controlled composting of waste wood contaminated with PAH; Untersuchungen zur gesteuerten Rotte von mit polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) kontaminiertem Altholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbricht, H.

    2002-07-01

    The author investigated the potential and limits of microbial pollutant degradation in PAH-polluted waste wood by composting. The conditions in which autochthonic micro-organisms are able to decomposite the PAH contained in wood by solid phase fermentation were investigated. The focus was on phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene, all of which are used as protective materials (disinfestants) for wood. The results were verified on contaminated waste wood, including an analytical investigations of decomposition of PAH of the EPA catalogue. Boundary conditions for achieving high rates of PAH decomposition were investigated. [German] Generelles Ziel der Arbeit war die Untersuchung der Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen des mikrobiellen Schadstoffabbaus in PAK-belastetem Altholz durch Kompostierung und die Pruefung auf Anwendbarkeit der Erkenntnisse in technischen Verfahren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde untersucht, unter welchen Bedingungen die autochthonen Mikroorganismen in der Lage sind, an das Holz gebundene PAK durch Feststofffermentation abzubauen. Als Schwerpunkt wurde zunaechst der Abbau der im zum Holzschutz verwendetem Teeroel vorkommenden PAK Phenanthren, Anthracen und Pyren untersucht. Eine Verifizierung der Ergebnisse erfolgte mit real kontaminiertem Altholz, dabei wurde der Abbau der PAK der EPA-Liste analytisch verfolgt. Es sollten geeignete Randbedingungen gefunden werden, um im Festphasensystem hohe Abbauraten der PAK zu erreichen. (orig.)

  4. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A.; Wiedenmann, M.; Maguhn, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  5. Influence of tensides and lipophilic substrates on the biological availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); Ueber dem Einfluss von Tensiden und lipophilen Substraten auf die Bioverfuegbarkeit von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C.J. von; Kleespies, M.; Eschner, C.; Webb, L.; Groeneweg, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). IBT-3/ICG-6

    1997-12-31

    The objects of the study were as follows: isolation and characterization of PAH-degrading micro-organisms from lysimeters; tests relating to the experimental simulation of the conditions permitting pollutant degradation in soil; investigation of the influence of tensides and other dissolved organic compounds on the biological availability and degradation of PAHs. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] - Isolierung und Charakterisierung PAK-abbauender Mikroorganismen aus Lysimetern; Versuche zur experimentellen Simulation der Bedingungen, unter denen der Abbau von Schadstoffen im Boden erfolgt. - Untersuchung des Einflusses von Tensiden und anderen geloesten organischen Verbindungen auf Bioverfuegbarkeit und Abbau von PAK. (orig./SR)

  6. Water pollution potential of mineral oils with high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extracts); Untersuchungen zur Wassergefaehrdung durch Mineraloele mit hohen Gehalten an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (Heizoel Schwer und Extrakte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, G. [Mobil Schmierstoff GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    A data base on highly aromatic mineral oils has been compiled to classify mineral oil products according to their water-pollution potential (water hazard class or Wassergefaehrdungsklasse, WGK). This activity has been undertaken through the Commission for Water Hazardous Materials (Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe, KBwS). In this special case, highly aromatic mineral oils containing a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, PAK) were evaluated. A test method for measuring the elution potential of PAK into water was developed on petroleum products with high viscosity and high freeze point. This method was applied to determine the solubility of 23 PAK (including 16 PAK according to EPA 610 and 6 PAK according to the German drinking water regulation (Trinkwasserverordnung, TVO)) from heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extract in the aqueous phase. For the 6 PAK, according to TVO, a sum limit of 0,2 {mu}g/l in drinking water is permitted by German legislation. This limit was not exceeded in any of the water phases examined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Einstufung von Mineraloelprodukten in die Wassergefaehrdungsklassen (WGK) durch die Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe ist es notwendig, Basisdaten zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Im speziellen Fall handelt es sich um die Bewertung von Mineraloelen, die sich durch einen hohen Gehalt an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) auszeichnen. Zur Eluierbarkeit von PAK`s aus Produkten mit hoher Viskosiaet bzw. mit hohem Stockpunkt wurde eine Pruefmethode entwickelt. Diese Methode wurde zur Bestimmung der Loeslichkeit von 23 PAK`s (16 PAK`s nach EPA-Liste incl. 6 PAK`s der TVO) aus den Mineraloelen Heizoel Schwer und Neutralextrakt in der Wasserphase eingesetzt. Fuer die PAK der TVO ist in der TVO ein Summengrenzwert von 0,2 {mu}g/l Trinkwasser angegeben. Dieser Grenzwert wurde in keiner der untersuchten Wasserphasen ueberschritten. (orig.)

  7. Simulation of the propagation and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for a winter-time period in Baden-Wuerttemberg; Simulation der Ausbreitung und Deposition von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen fuer eine Winterepisode in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nester, K. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1997-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the group of environmentally hazardous substances because of their cancerogenous effect. They occur both as gases and in particulate form and are released by man into the atmosphere as combustion products. They play a role not only in the atmosphere but also in soil. An essential process permitting these substances to penetrate into the soil is by deposition from the atmosphere.- The study had the aim of assessing atmospheric PAH deposition to the soil. The outcome is used to simulate PAH behaviour in soil, a task which also forms part of the interlaboratory project `soil`. As PAHs are regularly measured only in a few places, PAH transfer from atmosphere to soil needs to be numerically modelled. That the model can do this was first of all to be demonstrated for a short period. The result is described in the paper. Subsequently, statements regarding long-term PAH transfer are attempted. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Polycyklischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) gehoeren wegen ihrer kanzerogenen Wirkungen zu den umweltbelastenden Substanzen. Sie treten sowohl als Gase als auch als Partikel auf und werden antropogen als Verbrennungsprodukte in die Atmosphaere freigesetzt. Neben ihrer Wirkung in der Atmosphaere spielen sie im Boden eine Rolle. Ein wesentlicher Prozess, der diese Substanzen in den Boden gelangen laesst, ist die Deposition aus der Atmosphaere zum Boden. Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, den atmosphaerischen Eintrag der PAK in den Boden zu bestimmen. Dieser Eintrag dient der Simulation des Verhaltens der PAK im Boden, der ebenfalls Bestandteil des Verbundprojekts `Boden` war. Da es nur wenige Stellen gibt, an denen regelmaessig PAK`s gemessen werden, ist es notwendig, den PAK Eintrag aus der Atmosphaere zum Boden mittels Modellrechnungen abzuschaetzen. Dabei sollte zunaechst fuer eine kurze Episode gezeigt werden, dass das Modell in der Lage ist, dies zu leisten. Dieses Ergebnis wird im folgenden vorgestellt

  8. Regulation of FoxO transcription factors by environmental NO(x). Influence of metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Regulation von FoxO-Transkriptionsfaktoren durch Umweltnoxen. Einfluss von Metallionen und polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Anna

    2009-12-15

    FoxO transcription factors are crucial modulators of various cellular processes, controlling the expression of target genes such as those coding for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and selenoprotein P (SeP), thereby supporting defense against oxidative stress. Environmental stimuli such as heavy metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) modulate signaling pathways both by interaction with proteins or by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exposure of hepatoma cells to nickel ions at subcytotoxic doses did not translate into modulation of FoxO activity despite an activation of the Ser/Thr-kinase Akt. The cellular response to nickel ions under these conditions is most likely independent of the formation of ROS, since there were no increased levels of glutathione disulfide detectable. FoxO activity was then found to be modulated in response to exposure of cells to PAH or the tryptophan photoproduct FICZ. Both PAH and FICZ caused an increased activity of a FoxO-responsive promoter construct as well as of glucose 6-phosphatase promoter activity. In contrast, the activities of promoters of genes coding for MnSOD or SeP were decreased in response to exposure to the PAH 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC). In line with the promoter effects, 3-MC also decreased steady-state levels of SeP mRNA. The response of the SeP promoter to 3-MC was abrogated by point mutations introduced at the two identified FoxO binding elements of the SeP promoter, implying that interaction of FoxO proteins with these sites is essential for the downregulation of promoter activity. In addition to FoxO activity being modulated by xenobiotics, it was then demonstrated that FoxO expression was also modulated by exposure of cells to PAH or FICZ. FoxO4 mRNA levels were downregulated in hepatoma cells exposed to 3-MC or FICZ. Similarly, insulin treatment caused a downregulation of mRNA levels of FoxO 1a, 3a and 4 in hepatoma cells. (orig.)

  9. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in deposited waste using GC-MSD. Bestimmung von polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in Deponiegut mittels GC-MSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffert, U. (chemlab, Gesellschaft fuer Analytik und Umweltberatung mbH, Bensheim (Germany). Abt. ' ' Organische Analytik' ' ); Kolb, M. (Fachhochschule Aalen (Germany)); Stoerk, H. (chemlab, Gesellschaft fuer Analytik und Umweltberatung mbH, Bensheim (Germany))

    1999-06-01

    The articel describes an analysis method for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in deposited waste. The single steps are described very detailed: sample preparation by extraction, evaporation, flash-chromatography (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]), quantitative analysis by GC-MSD. (SR)

  10. Phenylacetylene and PAH

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the last decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other related aromatic compounds, such as ionized PAHs, have received considerable attention from astronomers, astrobiologists, environmentalists, and the combustion community. In the interstellar medium, PAH like species account for up to 10% of ...

  11. PAH processing in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micelotta, Elisabetta Rita

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common chemical compounds on Earth. These big molecules are naturally present in crude oil and coal deposits, and are also formed by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels, hence they are found in car exhaust, cigarette smoke and

  12. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  13. (PAHS), ANTHRACENE IN DIFFERENT V

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-02

    Mar 2, 2011 ... toxicological compounds. In the past decade, PAHs have drawn considerable ... hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A suitable procedure for the extraction of PAHs from the fish .... GC-MS Analysis and Program. The GC-MS analysis of the crude extract of fish ...

  14. Influence of PAH speciation in soils on vegetative uptake of PAHs using successive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shu-Kai

    2016-12-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) speciation in soils and the relationship between PAH speciation in soils and the accumulation of PAHs in vegetables have rarely been reported. In this study, the organic solvent extractable PAHs in soils, PAHs that bind to endogenetic soil humus, soil properties, and PAHs in B. chinensis were comprehensively studied. Mobile fulvic acid (FA) and crude humin preferred adsorbing 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs whereas stable humic acid (HA) preferred adsorbing 5-ring PAHs. The PAH speciation in soils was in the order of organic solvent extractable PAHs (59.08%)>humin-bound PAHs (26.20%)>FA-bound PAHs (10.03%)>HA-bound PAHs (4.68%). The relative amounts of FA-bound PAHs versus HA-bound PAHs were linked to soil type. FA-bound PAHs and humin mineral-bound PAHs had a positive correlation with fine particles and were preferentially accumulated in B. chinensis. Other speciation was preferentially retained in soils and adsorbed onto the surface of and within coarse particles. The PAHs in vegetables were ideally forecasted using solvent extractable PAHs, FA-bound PAHs, and soil properties (silt, moisture, and pH). The FA-bound PAHs were more soluble in water and can be easily taken up by plants together with water and nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PAHs in Translucent Interstellar Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.

    2011-05-01

    We discuss the proposal of relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in translucent interstellar clouds. The spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase PAHs have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. This comparison provides - for the first time - accurate upper limits for the abundances of specific PAH molecules along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from IR observations alone. The comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations leads to two major findings: (1) a finding specific to the individual molecules that were probed in this study and, which leads to the clear and unambiguous conclusion that the abundance of these specific neutral PAHs must be very low in the individual translucent interstellar clouds that were probed in this survey (PAH features remain below the level of detection) and, (2) a general finding that neutral PAHs exhibit intrinsic band profiles that are similar to the profile of the narrow DIBs indicating that the carriers of the narrow DIBs must have close molecular structure and characteristics. This study is the first quantitative survey of neutral PAHs in the optical range and it opens the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. // Reference: F. Salama et al. (2011) ApJ. 728 (1), 154 // Acknowledgements: F.S. acknowledges the support of the NASA's Space Mission Directorate APRA Program. J.K. acknowledges the financial support of the Polish State (grant N203 012 32/1550). The authors are deeply grateful to the ESO archive as well as to the ESO staff members for their active support.

  16. [PAH exposure in asphalt workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Siria; Sarnico, Michela; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Barbieri, P G

    2010-01-01

    There has been interest in evaluating the potential carcinogenicity of bitumen fumes in asphalt workers since the 1960's. The IARC classified air-refined bitumens as possible human carcinogens, while coal-tar fumes were classified as known carcinogens. Occupational/environmental PAH exposure can be measured by several urinary markers. Urinary 1-OHP has become the most commonly used biological marker of PAH exposure in asphalt workers. The aim of this study was to assess asphalt workers' exposure levels by monitoring 1-OHP urinary excretion and compare this data with those of non-occupationally exposed subjects. We investigated three groups of asphalt workers: 100 in summer 2007, 29 in winter 2007, and 148 during summer 2008 and compared 1-OHP urinary concentrations using Kruskall-Wallis test. Median 1-OHP urinary concentrations during the three biomonitoring sampling periods were 0.65, 0.17 and 0.53 microg/g creatinine respectively. There was a significant difference in 1-OHP values between the three groups (p < 0.001). our study showed that PAH exposure of asphalt workers' is higher than that observed in the general population and in workers in urban areas. Our results suggest that PAH exposure in the three groups studied is not sufficiently kept under control by the use of personal protective equipment and that biomonitoring is useful in evaluating PAH exposure and for risk assessment. Regulations need to be enforced for workers exposed to cancer risk, such as the register of workers exposed to carcinogens.

  17. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  18. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  19. PAH phytoremediation: rhizodegradation or rhizoattenuation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, S; Leglize, P; Morel, J L

    2014-01-01

    Dealing with soil contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POP) is an increasing concern amplified by both regulatory constraints and the dramatic impact of human activities on the soil resource. The most used management options are treatments which totally eradicate the toxic compounds targeted. When possible, environmental-friendly processes should be used, and recent years have seen the emergence of green technologies using biological energies involving microorganisms (bioremediation) and plants (phytoremediation). Research has focused on phytoremediation and many have presented this technology as the process ideally combining efficiency, low cost and environmental acceptance. However, the applicability of phytoremediation on soils contaminated by bio-recalcitrant organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), has not yet proved as successful as expected. We propose here a review and discussion of the overall question of PAH status in soil and their potential for treatment. The limits and applicability of bioremediation technologies are discussed, and the specific beneficial effect of plants is objectively evaluated with a special interest to processes which lead to rhizoattenuation. Given the PAH high affinity to soil organic matter, availability is the main limitation to phytoremediation. In this context, bioavailability quantification remains an issue as well as the characterization of the recalcitrant fraction.

  20. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

  1. Interstellar dehydrogenated PAH anions: vibrational spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter; Gour, Nand Kishor

    2018-03-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules exist in diverse forms depending on the local physical environment. Formation of ionized PAHs (anions and cations) is favourable in the extreme conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides in their pure form, PAHs are also likely to exist in substituted forms; for example, PAHs with functional groups, dehydrogenated PAHs etc. A dehydrogenated PAH molecule might subsequently form fullerenes in the ISM as a result of ongoing chemical processes. This work presents a density functional theory (DFT) calculation on dehydrogenated PAH anions to explore the infrared emission spectra of these molecules and discuss any possible contribution towards observed IR features in the ISM. The results suggest that dehydrogenated PAH anions might be significantly contributing to the 3.3 μm region. Spectroscopic features unique to dehydrogenated PAH anions are highlighted that may be used for their possible identification in the ISM. A comparison has also been made to see the size effect on spectra of these PAHs.

  2. Small phosphatidate phosphatase (TtPAH2) of Tetrahymena ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a specific role ofTtPAH2 in respiration. Overall, our results indicate that TtPAH2 possesses the minimal function of PAH protein family inrespiration. We suggest that the amino acid sequences absent from TtPAH2 but present in all other known PAH homologsare critical for lipid homeostasis and membrane biogenesis.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and crabs in the mangrove ecosystems of Zanzibar. Sediments and crabs from eight sampling sites were analysed for eleven selected PAHs. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonication, ...

  4. Determination of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Part project 11: Practice-oriented adaption and field testing of various automatic measuring devices; Messung polycyclischer aromatischer Verbindungen. Teilvorhaben 11: Praxisbezogene Anpassung und Felderprobung verschiedener automatischer Messeinrichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbring, P.; Jockel, W.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine various automatic emission measuring devices. The task was to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on-line. The following measuring devices were used: photoelectric aerosol sensor; emission mass spectrometer; laser-induced aerosol fluorescence; chemical ionisation mass spectrometer; photoelectric aerosol sensor. Most of the above-named measuring devices for automatic PAH monitoring had already demonstrated their general suitability in the course of extensive studies carried out in precursor projects. The next step, performed in this study, was to test the measuring devices` fitness for use. First, practice-oriented laboratory tests were carried out on the devices, whose measuring principles are incidentally highly diverse. These tests focussed on the identification of process parameters (e.g., detection limit, cross-sensitivity, availability, drift behaviour) and examination of the devices` analysis function and hence of their calibratability. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] In diesem Vorhaben wurden verschiedene automatisch arbeitende Emissionsmesseinrichtungen untersucht. Die Aufgabenstellung bestand in der on-line-Bestimmung von polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK). Dazu standen folgende Messeinrichtungen zur Verfuegung: - Photoelektrischer Aerosolsensor - Emissionsmassenspektrometer - Laserinduzierte Aerosolfluoreszenz - Chemisches Ionisationsmassenspektrometer - Photoelektrischer Aerosolsensor. Aus den umfangreichen Untersuchungen im Rahmen der Vorlaeuferprojekte ist die prinzipielle Einsatzfaehigkeit der meisten der oben genannten Messeinrichtungen zur automatisierbaren PAK-Kontrolle bekannt. Ziel des Vorhabens war es, die Praxistauglichkeit dieser auf den unterschiedlichsten Messprinzipien basierenden Messeinrichtungen zu untersuchen. Dazu waren zunaechst Labortests vorzunehmen. Diese Pruefungen erfolgen praxisorientert mit den Schwerpunkten: - Ermittlung von Verfahrenskenngroessen (z. B

  5. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.uk [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: > Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. > Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. > Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  6. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.

    2014-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average PAH concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average PAH concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-PAH compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the PAH and nitro-PAH compounds, the oxy-PAHs could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-PAH compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day. A correlation matrix was used to explore the origins of the different compounds. The data suggested that during the daytime, direct emissions (mainly in vehicle exhaust) contributed to the presence of PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs in air. Photochemical production also appeared to be a source of the majority of nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, while photolysis could have contributed to removal of the nitro-PAHs during the daytime. At night, sugar cane burning emissions were the primary source of the PAHs and nitro-PAHs, with additional sources also contributing to the levels of oxy-PAHs in the atmosphere.

  7. Urban sprawl leaves its PAH signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Furlong, E.T.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in PAHs, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of PAHs in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. PAH contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by previous coring studies that reported decreasing concentrations of PAHs after reaching highs in the 1950s. Concurrent with the increase in concentrations is a change in the assemblage of PAHs that indicates the increasing trends are driven by combustion sources. The increase in PAH concentrations tracks closely with increases in automobile use, even in watersheds that have not undergone substantial changes in urban land-use levels since the 1970s.The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in PAHs, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of PAHs in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. PAH contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by

  8. A PAH growth mechanism and synergistic effect on PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2013-09-01

    A reaction mechanism having molecular growth up to benzene for hydrocarbon fuels with up to four carbon-atoms was extended to include the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to coronene (C24H12). The new mechanism was tested for ethylene premixed flames at low (20torr) and atmospheric pressures by comparing experimentally observed species concentrations with those of the computed ones for small chemical species and PAHs. As compared to several existing mechanisms in the literature, the newly developed mechanism showed an appreciable improvement in the predicted profiles of PAHs. The new mechanism was also used to simulate PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene to study the effects of mixing propane and benzene in the fuel stream. In the ethylene-propane flames, existing experimental results showed a synergistic effect in PAH concentrations, i.e. PAH concentrations first increased and then decreased with increasing propane mixing. This PAH behavior was successfully captured by the new mechanism. The synergistic effect was predicted to be more pronounced for larger PAH molecules as compared to the smaller ones, which is in agreement with experimental observations. In the experimental study in which the fuel stream of ethylene-propane flames was doped with benzene, a synergistic effect was mitigated for benzene, but was observed for large PAHs. This effect was also predicted in the computed PAH profiles for these flames. To explain these responses of PAHs in the flames of mixture fuels, a pathway analysis has been conducted, which show that several resonantly stabilized species as well as C4H4 and H atom contribute to the enhanced synergistic behaviors of larger PAHs as compared to the small ones in the flames of mixture fuels. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  9. PAH in the laboratory and interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowiak, T.J.; Flickinger, G.C.; Boyd, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The theory that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a constituent of the interstellar medium, and a source of the IR emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 microns is being studied using PAH containing acid insoluble residue of the Orgueil CI meteorite and coal tar. FTIR spectra of Orgueil PAH material that has undergone thermal treatment, and a solvent insoluble fraction of coal tar that has been exposed to hydrogen plasma are presented. The UV excided luminescence spectrum of a solvent soluble coal tar film is also shown. Comparison of the lab measurements with observations appears to support the interstellar PAH theory, and shows the process of dehydrogenation expected to take place in the interstellar medium

  10. PAH Spectroscopy: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery in the 1970's, astronomers, astrophysicists and astrochemists have been intrigued by the nearly ubiquitous unidentified infrared emission (UIR) bands. In the 1980's, investigators determined the most probably source of these emissions was a family of molecules known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or simply PAHs. In order to better understand these interstellar IR features and utilize them as chemical probes of the cosmos, laboratory spectroscopists have spent the last three decades investigating the spectroscopy of PAHs under astrophysically relevant conditions. This presentation will discuss the similarities and differences in the spectroscopic properties of PAHs as one goes from the Far to Mid to Near infrared wavelength regions and probe the changes observed in PAH spectra as they go from neutral to ionized molecules suspended in an inert gas matrix, to PAHs in a water ice matrix and as a thin film. In selected instances, the experimental results will be compared to theoretical values. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on the future directions of PAH spectroscopy.

  11. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blends application on modern passenger cars. Part 3: Impact on PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Fontaras, Georgios; Ampatzoglou, Dimitrios; Kousoulidou, Marina; Stournas, Stamoulis; Samaras, Zissis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the impact of five different types of methyl esters on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), nitrated-PAH and oxygenated PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, according to the European regulation. Each of the five different biodiesels was blended with EN590 diesel at a proportion of 10-90% v/v (10% biodiesel concentration). The vehicle was a Euro 3 compliant common-rail diesel passenger car. Emission measurements were performed over the NEDC and compared with those of the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. The experimental results showed that the addition of biodiesel led to some important increases in low molecular-weight PAHs (phenanthrene and anthracene) and to both increases and reductions in large PAHs which are characterised by their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Nitro-PAHs were found to reduce with biodiesel whereas oxy-PAH emissions presented important increases with the biodiesel blends. The impact of biodiesel source material was particularly clear on the formation of PAH compounds. It was found that most PAH emissions decreased as the average load and speed of the driving cycle increased. Cold-start conditions negatively influenced the formation of most PAH compounds. A similar trend was observed with particulate alkane emissions. - This investigation is a contribution to the understanding the impact of different biodiesels on the formation of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs over different driving conditions.

  12. Removing PAH's with cells on fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyde, R.

    1996-01-01

    There are over 1,500 sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gas plants. White rot fungi degrade PAH's in soil, but the problem is to supply oxygen needed for growth of the fungus. When old cardboard boxes are buried with the fungus, oxygen is entrapped in the corrugations. A method for growing the fungus quickly is also described. Pseudomonade also degrade PAH and several strains of this bacterium have been grown on fibers. The fibers have high area, and when Celite is entrapped in the fibers, more area is provided

  13. ASSESSING RISKS FROM PHOTOACTIVATED TOXICITY OF PAHS TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most ubiquitous classes of environmental contaminants. Although most PAHs are toxic only at concentrations large enough to cause narcosis, the toxicity of some can be greatly enhanced through mechanisms that involve molecul...

  14. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lizhong; Zhang Ming

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation

  15. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Ming [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zhangming@zju.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation.

  16. Atmospheric concentrations of particulate phase of PAHs and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A GFF filters was used as instrument of data collection. PAHs possess very characteristics UV absorbance spectra that are unique for each ring structure. This property is employed in data analysis for various PAHs identification and quantification. Source identification of ambient PAHs is achieved by ratios of individual ...

  17. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie

    1996-01-01

    hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p

  18. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of selected PAH`s in sediments near a petroleum refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W.R.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for a number of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along a gradient from a petroleum refinery`s wastewater diffuser. These data were used to calculate the potential risk to aquatic organisms using probabilistic modeling and Monte Carlo sampling procedures. Sediment chemistry data were used in conjunction with estimates of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors and Non-Polar Narcosis Theory to predict potential risk to bivalves. Bivalves were the receptors of choice because of their lack of a well-developed enzymatic system for metabolizing PAHs. Thus, they represent a species of higher inherent risk of adverse impact. PAHs considered in this paper span a broad range of octanol-water partition coefficients. Results indicate negligible risk of narcotic effects from PAHs existing near the refinery wastewater discharge.

  19. PAH and N-PAH in the urban atmosphere of Rome and Milan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Zagari, M.

    1998-01-01

    Particulated PAH and nitrated-PAH (N-PAH) have been measured in urban areas of Rome and Milan to assess the exposure of the population to carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds. We found that the index of benz(a)pyrene equivalence of carcinogenic power and the levels of 1-nitropyrene and 2-nitro fluoranthene might represent a genotoxic risk for human health even when benz(a)pyrene does not exceed the reference levels established by Italian law. A new couple of indices (1-nitropyrene and 2-nitro fluoranthene content) is proposed to account for the risk arising from N-PAH emitted from vehicle exhaust gas or produced by photochemical reactions [it

  20. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil production activities take place were analyzed for the presence of 16 US EPA priority polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) namely: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, ...

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by laccase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laccase enzyme was produced from an isolate of the white rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum Chaaim-001 BCU. The enzyme was subsequently evaluated for its degradative ability towards sixteen types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The G. lucidum laccase degraded antracene completely with or without a ...

  2. Bioremediation of PAH polluted soils: column studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, R.O. [Dept. of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Trepte, B.S. [Angpannefoereningen AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Background. Due to spills, discharges and leakage, the gaswork site at Husarviken in Stockholm is today the largest (36 ha) creosote-contaminated site in Sweden. The main pollutants are creosote, lead and mercury. The remediation costs are estimated to be as high as US $125 million. It is thus of great interest to find more cost effective remediation methods. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate i) if the addition of NTA, EDTA, nitrate, iron and dry yeast would enhance the bioremediation rate of a complex organic pollutant like PAH and, if so, at what concentrations they would be most efficient, ii) the effect on PAH reduction when larger dimensions of the column is used to diminish the effect of water passing along the sides of the column, iii) long-term effects on the reduction of PAH in field-contaminated soil with high concentrations. Materials and Methods. Creosote-contaminated soil from the Husarviken gaswork site was treated with aerated water in column experiments at room temperature. Three column experiments were performed in 2 and 100 L of homogenised soil samples percolated by recirculating flushing water. Fluoranthene was analysed as a representative of the overall degradation of PAH in the columns. (orig.)

  3. PAH and N-PAH in the urban atmosphere of Rome and Milan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecinato, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Zagari, M. [CNR, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy). Ist. sull`Inquinamento Atmosferico

    1998-05-01

    Particulated PAH and nitrated-PAH (N-PAH) have been measured in urban areas of Rome and Milan to assess the exposure of the population to carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds. We found that the index of benz(a)pyrene equivalence of carcinogenic power and the levels of 1-nitropyrene and 2-nitro fluoranthene might represent a genotoxic risk for human health even when benz(a)pyrene does not exceed the reference levels established by Italian law. A new couple of indices (1-nitropyrene and 2-nitro fluoranthene content) is proposed to account for the risk arising from N-PAH emitted from vehicle exhaust gas or produced by photochemical reactions. [Italiano] I PAH e i N-PAH particellari sono stati misurati nelle aree urbane di Milano e Roma per valutare l`esposizione delle popolazioni a specie cancerogeniche e mutageniche. I risultati indicano che l`indice di equivalenza di potere cancerogeno riferita al benz(a)pirene ed i livelli di 1-nitropirene e 2-nitrofluorantene possono rappresentare un rischio genotossico per la salute umana anche quando il benz(a)pirene non supera i livelli di riferimento stabiliti dal Ministero dell`Ambiente. E` proposta l`assunzione di una nuova coppia di indici (contenuto di 1-nitropirene e 2-nitrofluorantene) per valutare la mutagenicita` associata alle emissioni autoveicolari o alla reattivita` fotochimica.

  4. PAHs in polystyrene food contact materials: An unintended consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Qi; Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui

    2017-12-31

    Eight low-ring PAHs were detected in 21 polystyrene (PS) food contact materials (FCMs) samples while high-ring PAHs (>4 rings) were not found. This is because the reaction pathway for formation of high-ring PAHs consists of more steps than it does for low-high PAHs. The concentrations of Σ 8 PAH were from 18.9±5.16ng/g for product colorless fruit fork to 476±52.0ng/g for foam instant noodle container. These data were far beyond levels of PAHs in other plastics. Of the eight PAHs detected, Phe had the highest average concentration, followed by Nap. These two PAHs collectively accounted for over 80% of the Σ 8 PAH concentrations in all PS FCMs. Levels of Σ 8 PAH in expanded PS FCMs were higher than those in extruded ones due to utilization of foaming agent. The concentrations of Σ 8 PAH were lower in colorless PS FCMs than in colored ones. Auxochromes and chromophores contributed to the change of short-chain hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbon. Simulated migration values of PAHs from PS FCMs to food varied widely. The migration value of Σ 8 PAH with maximum probability was below 10ng/g, which the maximum tolerated migration level for substance according to the European Union standards. However, higher migration values were possible and the potential health risk should still be concerned because the simulated migration displayed a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, water was used as food simulant would always lead to an underestimate of PAHs migration to real daily food, and then lead to an underestimate of risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  6. Evaluation of PAH and PCB in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, D.; Delschen, T.

    1994-01-01

    The soil data obtained should be regarded as provisional, as there is still insufficient knowledge on the influence of accompanying substances such as organic solvents on the transfer behaviour and mobility of the soil pollutants under consideration. Moreover, the significance of metabolic processes in soils and plants is largely still unknown. There are no generally accepted standards for BCB and PAH analysis in soil and plants. The diversity in methods applied has led to widely disparate results. The data situation for PAH is so heterogeneous as to allow test results to be derived solely for benzo[a]pyrene. It will be a task for the future to clarify the extent to which other substances must be taken into account here, e.g., with respect to toxicity and availability. (orig.) [de

  7. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  8. Search of microorganisms that degrade PAHs under alkaline conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, A.; Gemende, B. [Westsaechsische Hochschule Zwickau, Fachbereich Physikalische Technik/Informatik, D-08012 Zwickau (Germany); Krausse, S. [Hochschule Mittweida, Umwelttechnik/Wasser- und Abwassertechnik, Technikumplatz 17, D-09648 Mittweida (Germany); Mueller, R.H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Umweltmikrobiologie, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial strains were enriched from building rubble contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These strains were studied as an inoculum in bioremediation processes with contaminated building rubble. The selection criteria for the bacteria were broad profiles in PAH degradation, stable expression of the traits and tolerance to alkaline conditions. Various strains of Micrococcus sp., Dietzia sp., Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. met the selection criteria. In general, degradative activity was limited at higher pH values. Strains of Micrococcus were suitable for practical use as complete degradation of various PAHs was observed at pH values exceeding 10. Strains of Dietzia sp. showed broad PAH degradation profile, but in some cases degradation came to a halt leaving some of the PAHs unutilized. With Dietzia sp. this could be due to inhibitory effects from the accumulation of toxic PAH metabolic products and/or growth-limiting media conditions. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Bioventing PAH contamination at the Reilly Tar Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleman, B.C.; Hinchee, R.E.; Brenner, R.C.; McCauley, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale bioventing demonstration has been in progress since November 1992 to determine if bioventing is an effective remediation treatment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Reilly Tar and Chemical Corporation site in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was selected for this demonstration. The location is the site of a former coal tar refinery and wood-preserving facility at which creosote in mineral oil served as the primary preservative. The goal of the project is to achieve 10% greater PAH removal over background degradation for each year of the 3-year study. Respiration measurements were made to estimate PAH biodegradation as a means of monitoring the progress of the technology. These measurements indicated that 13.4% and 17.3% degradation of the total PAH was possible during the first year and second year, respectively. Although not all of the respiration can be attributed conclusively to PAH metabolism, strong correlations were found between the PAH concentration and biodegradation rates

  10. PAH in Some Brands of Tea and Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navaratnam, Marin Arosha; Jewula, J.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee were investigated with focus on four PAHs (PAH4), classified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators; benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (Ba......P). PAH4 from samples of 18 brands of tea leaves and 13 brands of coffee were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by highly automated clean up steps for gel permeation chromatography (SX-3) and solid phase extraction (500mg silica). GC-MS were applied for detection of PAH4. The limit...... of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.1–0.3 μg/kg with recoveries from 94–106% for PAH4. Concentrations of PAH4 followed the pattern of the total sum of 25 PAHs with higher concentrations with a maximum of 115 μg/kg in tea leaves compared to 5.1 μg/kg in coffee. The highest PAH4 levels were found in black tea...

  11. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthike, Halambage Upul; Tecon, Robin; Van Kooten, Gerry; Van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Harms, Hauke; Wells, Mona; Short, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (approximately 4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable.

  12. Factors governing sediment quality (PAH) in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwientek, Marc; Rügner, Hermann; Scherer, Ulrike; Rode, Michael; Grathwohl, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The contamination of riverine sediments and suspended matter with hydrophobic pollutants is typically associated with urban land use. It is, however, rarely related to the sediment supply of the watershed. We show for a suite of catchments in two regions of Germany with contrasting land use and geology, that the contamination of suspended particles with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be predicted based on the ratio of inhabitants residing within the catchment and the catchment's sediment yield. The applicability of this concept is demonstrated for catchments ranging in size from 100 to >3000 km2. This implies that the loading of particles with PAH is more or less time invariant which is also indicated by long term measurements from sub catchments of the upper Neckar River in Southwest Germany. Data on sediment yields are rare and the installation of appropriate measurement stations is expensive, the establishment of data series time-consuming. Therefore, modeling of sediment yields based on the universal soil loss equation is proposed. Although this method lacks a physical basis, it is feasible at larger scales and is shown to lead to reasonable results at low costs. The importance of catchment properties in terms of sediment supply and the implications of the presented concept for water resources management are discussed. For instance, it may easily be used to estimate the vulnerability of river systems to particle-associated urban pollutants with similar input pathways as the PAH or to indicate if contaminant point sources such as sites of legacy pollution exist in a river catchment.

  13. Accumulation in mussels of PAH mobilized from contaminated seabed; Akkumulering i blaaskjell av PAH mobilisert fra forurenset sjoebunn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, T.; Konieczny, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    In Norway there are several smelters, some older ones, which have caused contamination of sediments and marine organisms with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There are significant amounts of PAH in the bottom sediments of many fjords which have been used as recipients for the waste water from the plants, especially close to the factories. This report discusses how intake of PAH in mussels was investigated as part of an experiment to map the release of PAH from contaminated seabed. Shell populations were placed downstream ``undisturbed sections`` of the bottoms of three Norwegian fjords in experiments with flowing water. The concentrations of PAH in the shells correlated positively with concentrations in the water and in the test sediments, and with the total amount of material suspended at the outlet. The PAH level increased gradually during the first three months and then leveled out during the next three. The Saudafjord had the most biologically available PAH and the fastest leveling out of the concentration, which may be due to a greater TOC (total organic carbon) in its sediments. The shells accumulated carcinogenic PAH selectively compared to the water, but not compared to the sediments. Increased bioturbation and long exposure gave an other PAH composition in the shells than in the water they were exposed to. 27 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC-MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved+particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The PAH Emission Characteristics of the Reflection Nebula NGC 2023

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Els [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Wolfire, Mark G., E-mail: epeeters@uwo.ca [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    We present 5–20 μ m spectral maps of the reflection nebula NGC 2023 obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph SL and SH modes on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, which reveal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), C{sub 60}, and H{sub 2} superposed on a dust continuum. We show that several PAH emission bands correlate with each other and exhibit distinct spatial distributions that reveal a spatial sequence with distance from the illuminating star. We explore the distinct morphology of the 6.2, 7.7, and 8.6 μ m PAH bands and find that at least two spatially distinct components contribute to the 7–9 μ m PAH emission in NGC 2023. We report that the PAH features behave independently of the underlying plateaus. We present spectra of compact, oval PAHs ranging in size from C{sub 66} to C{sub 210}, determined computationally using density functional theory, and we investigate trends in the band positions and relative intensities as a function of PAH size, charge, and geometry. Based on the NASA Ames PAH database, we discuss the 7–9 μ m components in terms of band assignments and relative intensities. We assign the plateau emission to very small grains with possible contributions from PAH clusters and identify components in the 7–9 μ m emission that likely originate in these structures. Based on the assignments and the observed spatial sequence, we discuss the photochemical evolution of the interstellar PAH family as the PAHs are more and more exposed to the radiation field of the central star in the evaporative flows associated with the Photo-Dissociation Regions in NGC 2023.

  16. Levels of PAHs in shrimps, Penaeus monodon from Jones Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High concentrations were recorded during the rainy season and during the first quarter of the year. The investigated samples were classified as minimally contaminated when compared with FDA levels of PAHs in shrimp samples. Distribution patterns showed that PAHs with 3 and 4 rings dominated confirming the pyrogenic ...

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some Trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some Trace metals in Yam, Cassava, Orange and Papaya from two Oil and Gas Flaring Impacted Communities in Southern Nigeria. ... metals in response to contamination. Keywords: PAHs levels; Hydrocarbon contaminant exposure; Food safety; Fruits and tubers.

  18. Determination of some carcinogenic PAHs with toxic equivalency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    several factors. Slow degradation of these PAHs pose a potential risk to human being coming in con- tact with contaminated roadside soil (Cornelissen et al. 1998) ..... was directly related. Figure 3(a and b) indicated that average concentration of individual PAHs was higher during autumn and summer as compared to winter ...

  19. Investigating the temporal trends in PAH, PCB and OCP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also noted that the winter season generally exhibited higher contaminant concentrations for most compounds studied, which likely reflects the seasonality of their atmospheric deposition. An attempt was also made to identify possible sources of PAH contaminants in the dam by examining PAH ratios. These diagnostic ...

  20. Determination of some carcinogenic PAHs with toxic equivalency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The database generated from this study will be of immense importance in characterizing roadside soil with respect to PAHs in developing city environment of. India. ..... Winter. Summer. Concentration of PAHs (in µg g-1 ). Seasonal variation. Football Chowk. Workshop Chowk. Patel Chowk. Maqsuda Chowk. Mission Chowk.

  1. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of the Grand-Lahou lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire) was investigated using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total concentrations of PAHs were between 1.55 and 437.52 μg/g in the dry season. Pyrene, benzo (b) ...

  2. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to

  3. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone hygi...

  4. Biodegradation of PAHs by fungi in contaminated-soil containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the presence of cadmium and nickel in the soil affected the activity of the enzymes produced by the fungi, no significant decrease in PAH degradation was found in the contaminated soil containing 50 or 100 mg kg-1 of Cd and Ni. However, at 300 and 500 mg kg-1, degradation of the PAHs by the fungi was ...

  5. ON THE VIABILITY OF THE PAH MODEL AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are widely considered the preferred candidate for the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission bands observed in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes. In this paper, we report the results of fitting a variety of non-PAH spectra (silicates, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, coal, and even artificial spectra) using the theoretical infrared spectra of PAHs from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. We show that these non-PAH spectra can be well fitted by PAH mixtures. This suggests that a general match between astronomical spectra and those of PAH mixtures does not necessarily provide definitive support for the PAH hypothesis

  6. Electrochemical Oxidation of PAHs in Water from Harbor Sediment Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    confirmed that the removal rate of the two-ring structured naphthalene was significantly faster compared to the four-ring structured compounds fluoranthene and pyrene. In a Na2SO4 inert electrolyte, all three PAHs were degraded by direct electrochemical oxidation at the anode surface, but the removal rates...... to contamination by PAH, heavy metals, TBT etc. In Denmark, contaminated harbor sediment is pumped ashore to inland lakes or upland sites where treatment of the runoff water is required before discharge to the recipient. In this study, electrochemical oxidation (EO) has been investigated as a method for treatment...... of the discharge water addressing primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are by-products of incomplete combustion of organic materials with recalcitrant and strong mutagenic/carcinogenic properties, due to their benzene analogue structures. PAHs are hydrophobic compounds and their persistence...

  7. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Environmentally Relevant Oxygenated PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, Andrea; Goodale, Britton; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael; Swanson, Annika; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban air, dust and in the soil of most industrial coal gassification, coal burning, coke production and wood preservation sites (Howsam and Jones 1998). It is widely recognized that PAHs pose risks to human health,having been associated with increased risks of systemic inflammation (Delfino et al. 2010), cardiopulmonary mortality (Lee et al. 2011; Lewtas 2007) and lung cancer mortality (Grant 2009; Hoshuyama et al. 2006). The potential risks may be especially acute for the developing fetus and infant where PAH exposures have been linked to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, in-utero mortality and lower intelligence (Dejmek et al. 1999; Dejmek et al. 2000; Perera et al. 1999; Perera et al. 2009; Perera et al. 2006; Perera et al. 1998; Wu et al. 2010). Despite the more than two decades of intensive study devoted to parent PAHs, they are only part of the hazard spectrum from PAH contamination.

  8. Modulation of the effect of prenatal PAH exposure on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood by plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Camann, David; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P

    2009-08-01

    The fetus is more susceptible than the adult to the effects of certain carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Nutritional factors, including antioxidants, have been shown to have a protective effect on carcinogen-DNA adducts and cancer risk in adults. We investigated whether the effect of prenatal airborne PAH exposure, measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, on the level of PAH-DNA adducts in a baby's cord blood is modified by the concentration of micronutrients in maternal and cord blood. The micronutrients examined were: retinol (vitamin A), alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol (vitamin E), and carotenoids. With the use of multiple linear regression, we found a significant interaction between prenatal PAH exposure and cord blood concentration of alpha-tocopherol and carotenoids in predicting the concentration of PAH adducts in cord blood. The association between PAH exposure and PAH adducts was much stronger among those with low alpha-tocopherol (beta = 0.15; P = 0.001) and among those with low carotenoids (beta = 0.16; P < 0.001) compared with babies with high levels of these micronutrients (among those with high alpha-tocopherol: beta = 0.05; P = 0.165; among those with high carotenoids: beta = 0.06; P = 0.111). These results suggest a protective effect of micronutrients on the DNA damage and potential cancer risk associated with prenatal PAH exposure.

  9. Mapping PAH sizes in NGC 7023 with SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croiset, B. A.; Candian, A.; Berné, O.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. NGC 7023 is a well-studied reflection nebula, which shows strong emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in the form of aromatic infrared bands (AIBs). The spectral variations of the AIBs in this region are connected to the chemical evolution of the PAH molecules which, in turn, depends on the local physical conditions. Aims: Our goal is to map PAH sizes in NGC 7023 with respect to the location of the star. We focus on the north west (NW) photo-dissociation region (PDR) and the south PDR of NGC 7023 to understand the photochemical evolution of PAHs, using size as a proxy. Methods: We use the unique capabilities of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to observe a 3.2' × 3.4' region of NGC 7023 at wavelengths that we observe with high spatial resolution (2.7'') at 3.3 and 11.2 μm. We compare the SOFIA images with existing images of the PAH emission at 8.0 μm (Spitzer), emission from evaporating very small grains (eVSG) extracted from Spitzer-IRS spectral cubes, the extended red emission (Hubble Space Telescope and Canadian French Hawaiian Telescope), and H2 (2.12 μm). We create maps of the 11.2/3.3 μm ratio to probe the morphology of the PAH size distribution and the 8.0/11.2 μm ratio to probe the PAH ionization. We make use of an emission model and of vibrational spectra from the NASA Ames PAH database to translate the 11.2/3.3 μm ratio to PAH sizes. Results: The 11.2/3.3 μm ratio map shows the smallest PAH concentrate on the PDR surface (H2 and extended red emission) in the NW and south PDR. We estimated that PAHs in the NW PDR bear, on average, a number of carbon atoms (Nc) of ~70 in the PDR cavity and ~50 at the PDR surface. In the entire nebula, the results reveal a factor of 2 variation in the size of the PAH. We relate these size variations to several models for the evolution of the PAH families when they traverse from the molecular cloud to the PDR. Conclusions: The high-resolution PAH size map

  10. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haritash, A.K., E-mail: akharitash@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India); Kaushik, C.P. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} (aerobic) or CH{sub 4} (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  11. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritash, A.K.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H 2 O, CO 2 (aerobic) or CH 4 (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate can

  12. PAH exposure through soil ingestion: Combining digestion models and bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Verstraete, W. [Ghent University (BE).Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Siciliano, S.D. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). Department of Soil Science

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants through soil ingestion is an important issue in current health risk assessment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or their metabolites pose risks to humans due to their toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or even (anti)estrogenic properties. PAH mobilization from a soil matrix (49.1{+-}1.5 mg PAH/kg DW) was assessed using a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). PAH GC-MS analysis was performed on the pellet and supernatant of SHIME digests and gave 101, 92, 89 and 97% recovery for water, stomach, duodenal and colon digests, respectively. PAH release was highest for the water extract (0.51%) and the stomach digestion (0.44%). Lower mobilized fractions in the duodenum (0.13%) and colon (0.30%) digests could be attributed to PAH complexation with bile salts, dissolved organic matter or colon microbiota. The digestion model provides us with relevant information to what extent soil bound PAHs are mobilized in the gastrointestinal tract and thus reach the gut wall, prior to absorption. (orig.)

  13. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios have recently come into common use as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. Some diagnostic ratios are based on parent PAHs, others on the proportions of alkyl-substituted to non-substituted molecules. The ratios are applicable to PAHs determined in different environmental media: air (gas + particle phase), water, sediment, soil, as well as biomonitor organisms such as leaves or coniferous needles, and mussels. These ratios distinguish PAH pollution originating from petroleum products, petroleum combustion and biomass or coal burning. The compounds involved in each ratio have the same molar mass, so it is assumed they have similar physicochemical properties. Numerous studies show that diagnostic ratios change in value to different extents during phase transfers and environmental degradation. The paper reviews applications of diagnostic ratios, comments on their use and specifies their limitations. - Highlights: ► PAH diagnostic ratios may identify pollution coming from petroleum spills, fuel combustion and coal or biomass burning. ► They are sensitive to changes during PAHs environmental fate processes. ► Some diagnostic ratios are of limited value due to fast photodegradation of one of the compounds. - The paper reviews PAH diagnostic ratios that are applied to identify pollution emission originating from petroleum products, fuel combustion or coal and biomass burning.

  14. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Takada, Hideshige; Tsutsumi, Shinobu; Ohno, Kei; Yamada, Junya; Kouno, Eriko; Kumata, Hidetoshi

    2002-05-01

    This is the first publication on the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine and coastal sediments in South East Asia where the rapid transfer of land-based pollutants into aquatic environments by heavy rainfall and runoff waters is of great concern. Twenty-nine Malaysian riverine and coastal sediments were analyzed for PAHs (3-7 rings) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Total PAHs concentrations in the sediment ranged from 4 to 924 ng/g. Alkylated homologues were abundant for all sediment samples. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), an index of petrogenic PAHs contribution, was more than unity for 26 sediment samples and more than 3 for seven samples for urban rivers covering a broad range of locations. The MP/P ratio showed a strong correlation with the total PAHs concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.74. This ratio and all other compositional features indicated that Malaysian urban sediments are heavily impacted by petrogenic PAHs. This finding is in contrast to other studies reported in many industrialized countries where PAHs are mostly of pyrogenic origin. The MP/P ratio was also significantly correlated with higher molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene, suggesting unique PAHs source in Malaysia which contains both petrogenic PAHs and pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and hopanes fingerprints indicated that used crankcase oil is one of the major contributors of the sedimentary PAHs. Two major routes of inputs to aquatic environments have been identified: (1) spillage and dumping of waste crankcase oil and (2) leakage of crankcase oils from vehicles onto road surfaces, with the subsequent washout by street runoff. N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), a molecular marker of street dust, was detected in the polluted sediments. NCBA and other biomarker profiles confirmed our hypothesis of the input from street dust contained the leaked crankcase oil. The fingerprints excluded crude oil

  15. Cooling of PAH cations studied with an electrostatic storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jérôme; Chen, Li; Brédy, Richard; Ji, Mingchao; Ortéga, Céline; Matsumoto, Jun; Martin, Serge

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the production of molecular PAH cations using an ECR ion source and their subsequent cooling studied with an electrostatic storage ring, the Mini-Ring on a time range up to 10 ms. We show that the ECR ion source can produce high currents of small PAH cation, here naphthalene and anthracene cations. Then, we report experimental result for the cooling of three PAH cations (anthracene, naphthalene and pyrene) stored in our compact electrostatic storage ring (the Mini-Ring). We show that the Poincaré recurrent fluorescence plays a major role in the cooling process of those PAH cations. We show that for a given internal energy, the cooling rate is much smaller for pyrene than for anthracene and naphthalene. We conclude that the Poincaré recurrent fluorescence is less efficient due to smaller oscillator strength of the D2-D0 electronic transition for pyrene.

  16. Deuterium Enrichment of PAHs by VUV Irradiation of Interstellar Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Gillette, J. Seb; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory results demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) rapidly exchange their hydrogen atoms with those of nearby molecules when they are frozen into low-temperature ices and exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. As a result, PAHs quickly become deuterium-enriched when VUV irradiated in D-containing ices. This mechanism has important consequences for several astrophysical issues owing to the ubiquitous nature of PAHs in the interstellar medium. For example, this process may explain the deuterium enrichments found in PAHs in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These results also provide general predictions about the molecular siting of the deuterium on aromatic materials in meteorites if this process produced a significant fraction of their D-enrichment.

  17. Determination of some carcinogenic PAHs with toxic equivalency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Five ringed PAHs were found in higher concentration in all seasons. Dib(ah)A and B(a)P were the two individual PAHs found in highest concentration during summer, winter and autumn seasons. Two tailed T-test was applied for authenticity of the results. Toxic equivalency factor of B(a)P and Dib(ah)A was ...

  18. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  19. Ethanol-enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.; Ong, S.K.; Golchin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is highly challenging because of the low solubility and strong sorption properties of PAHs to soil organic matter. Two PAH-contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were pretreated with ethanol to enhance the bioavailability of PAH compounds. The biodegradation of various PAHs in the pretreated soils was assessed using soil slurry reactor studies. The time needed to degrade 90% of the total PAH in the pretreated soils was at least 5 days faster than soils that were not pretreated with ethanol. A distinctive advantage with the pretreatment of soils with ethanol was the enhanced removal of 4-ring compounds such as chrysene. Approximately 90% of chrysene in the ethanol-treated soils were removed within 15 days while soils without pretreatment needed more than 30 days to obtain similar removal levels. After 35 days of biotreatment in the slurry reactors, approximately 40% of benzo(a)pyrene were removed in the ethanol-treated soils while only 20% were removed in soils not pretreated with ethanol

  20. Resuspension of particulate matter and PAHs from street dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuzevicius, D.; Kliucininkas, L.; Prasauskas, T.; Krugly, E.; Kauneliene, V.; Strandberg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Winter street sanding activities in northern countries are often associated with elevated pollution by particulate matter. There are indications that street dust may act as a source of particle-bound PAHs. However, very few studies have addressed the resuspension potential of PAHs from street dust. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess emissions of particulate matter and PAHs from street dust by laboratory-scale simulation of particle resuspension. Increases in air velocity caused proportional increases in air-borne PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM total concentrations, while the concentrations of PAHs associated with resuspended particles did not show clear statistically significant dependence on air velocity. A substantial difference in particle and PAH resuspension was observed between dust from the city center street and dust from the connecting street. The data obtained in the present study indicate that street dust may be a significant source not only of PMs but also of particle-bound PAHs in ambient air.

  1. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  2. Enhanced Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heterocyclic PAHs in Industrially Contaminated Soil after Passive Dosing of a Competitive Sorbate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humel, Stefan; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Sumetzberger-Hasinger, Marion

    2017-01-01

    To assess the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is important to understand the binding mechanisms between specific soil constituents and the organic pollutant. In this study, sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) was applied to quantify the accessible PAH fraction...... in industrially contaminated soil with and without passive dosing of a competitive sorbate. SBE experiments revealed an accessible PAH fraction of 41 ± 1% (∑16 US EPA PAHs + 5 further PAHs). The passive dosing of toluene below its saturation level revealed competitive binding and resulted in an average increase.......4% PAH. We explain increased PAH desorption after addition of toluene by competitive adsorption to high-affinity sorption sites while acknowledging that toluene could additionally have increased PAH mobility within the soil matrix. Findings suggest that the presence of copollutants at contaminated sites...

  3. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    Road runoff is an important source of pollution to the aquatic environment, and sedimentation ponds have been installed to mitigate effects on the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a) fish from sedimentation ponds were affected by road pollution and; b...... populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also...... an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of PAH levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA PAHs in sediments...

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in meat products and estimated PAH intake by children and general population in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene and 11 other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from 322 commercial cured meat products and 14 home-grilled meat samples as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme during 2001-2005. The maximum acceptable concentration of 5 ?g kg-1 for benzo(a)pyrene was exceeded in 3.4% of analyzed samples. Highest PAH concentrations were detected in home-grilled pork samples. Using of disposable grilling unit resulted ...

  5. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-08-15

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in meat products and estimated PAH intake by children and the general population in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinik, M; Tamme, T; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Tenno, T; Kiis, A

    2007-04-01

    The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and 11 other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from 322 commercial, cured meat products and 14 home-grilled meat samples as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme during 2001-2005. The maximum acceptable concentration of 5 microg kg(-1) for benzo[a]pyrene was exceeded in 3.4% of samples. The highest PAH concentrations were detected in home-grilled pork samples. Using of disposable grilling unit resulted in 1.6 times higher PAH concentrations compared to the traditional wood-burning grill. The average intake of benzo[a]pyrene and sum of 12 PAHs from meat products was estimated for children (age 1-16 years) on the basis of an individual food consumption questionnaire and, for the general population, based on national food consumption data. The highest total PAH concentrations detected were 16 microg kg(-1) in smoked meat and ham, 19 microg kg(-1) in smoked sausage and 6.5 microg kg(-1) in smoked chicken samples. Since smoking and grilling are prevalent meat-cooking methods in Estonia, the impact of meat products is assessed to be significant in overall PAH intake.

  7. Development of an analysis method for determining chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine sediments and suspended matter giving particular consideration to supercritical fluid extraction; Entwicklung eines Analysenverfahrens zur Bestimmung von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in marinen Sedimenten und Schwebstoffen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der ueberkritischen Fluidextraktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzenbach, D.

    1997-11-01

    diesem Grund soll das gesamte Verfahren und dessen Einzelschritte unter diesem Gesichtspunkt ueberprueft und gegebenenfalls verbessert werden. Fuer die Probennahme von marinen Schwebstoffen soll ein Verfahren erarbeitet werden, das eine effiziente Abtrennung moeglichst kleiner suspendierter Partikel aus Seewasser ermoeglicht. Mit dem entwickelten Analysenverfahren sollen aktuelle Aspekte der Meereschemie zu Quellen, Transport, Verteilung und Verbleib von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in der marinen Umwelt behandelt werden. (orig.)

  8. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μ m IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μ m IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.

  9. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Pulau Tinggi, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ezzati Sulhi Abdul; Halim, Izzyan Syazwani Abdul; Ali, Masni Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Surface sediments samples were collected at 11 stations around the Pulau Tinggi, Johor in September 2015. A total of 15 PAHs were determined and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations of surface sediments from Pulau Tinggi ranged from 39.61 ng/g to 149.2 ng/g and they were classified as being in low to moderate pollution range. Individual PAH analysis showed that two and three rings PAHs were the most frequently detected isomers and accounted for 22 - 46% of the total PAH concentrations. The sources of PAHs were evaluated by employing diagnostic ratiosof specific PAH compounds.PAH ratios analysis showed a prevalence of pyrogenic PAH origin at most of the stations with exception of only a few stations.

  10. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-02-01

    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination.

  11. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of surface soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is problematic in terms of the large areas and volumes of polluted soil. The levels and effects of diffuse PAH pollution at a motorway site were investigated. Surface soil was sampled with increasing distance from...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...

  12. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  13. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f {sub i} ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  14. PAHs sensitivity of picophytoplankton populations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith

    2018-04-25

    In this study, we investigated the in situ responses of Red Sea picophytoplankton, the dominant phytoplankton group in the oligotrophic ocean, to two toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene and pyrene. The experiments were conducted across a latitudinal gradient of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, an area sensitive to oil pollution. We observed significant adverse effects on the growth and abundance of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes, at all stations sampled. Prochlorococcus, which was abundant only at one of the stations, also appeared to be affected. Pyrene was found to be more toxic to phytoplankton at all stations. In general, picoeukaryotes exhibited higher sensitivity to PAHs than Synechococcus. Populations in the highly oligotrophic Northern region of the Red Sea were more tolerant to PAHs, presumably influenced by the natural selection of more resistant strains of phytoplankton due to the prolonged exposure to PAHs. Toxicity threshold values estimated here are higher than those reported for picophytoplankton from other oligotrophic marine waters and exceed by far the natural levels of PAHs in many oceans. Our findings reveal a possible adaptation of picophytoplankton populations to oil-related contaminants, which may clearly influence their spatial distribution patterns in the Red Sea.

  15. The formation of aromatics and PAH's in laminar flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, N M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    1999-01-01

    The formation of aromatics and PAH's is an important problem in combustion. These compounds are believed to contribute to the formation of soot whose emission from diesel engines is regulated widely throughout the industrial world. Additionally, the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of many aromatics and PAH species from stationary industrial burners, under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The above emission regulations have created much interest in understanding how these species are formed in combustion systems. Much previous work has been done on aromatics and PAH's. The work is too extensive to review here, but is reviewed in Reference 1. A few recent developments are highlighted here. McEnally, Pfefferle and coworkers have studied aromatic, PAH and soot formation in a variety of non-premixed flames with hydrocarbon additives[2-4]. They found additives that contain a C5 ring increase the concentration of aromatics and soot[4]. Howard and coworkers have studied the formation of aromatic and PAH's in low pressure, premixed, laminar hydrocarbon flames. They found the cyclopentadienyl radical to be a key species in naphthalene formation in a fuel-rich, benzene/Ar/O2 flame[5

  16. Dermal tumorigen PAH and complex mixtures for biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Ho, C.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen commercially available, commonly reported four-five ring dermal tumorigen PAHs, were determined in a set of complex mixtures consisting of crude and upgraded coal liquids, and petroleum crude oils and their distillate fractions. Semi-preparative scale, normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic fractionation followed by capillary column gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used for the measurements. Deuterated or carbon-14 labeled PAH served as internal standards or allowed recovery corrections. Approaches for the preparation and measurement of radiolabeled PAH were examined to provide chemical probes for biological study. Synthetic routes for production of 14 C labeled dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene and 14 C- or 3 H 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene are being studied to provide tracers for fundamental studies in tracheal transplant and skin penetration systems. (DT)

  17. PAHs in corn grains submitted to drying with firewood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Rafael Friedrich; Dionello, Rafael Gomes; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Barrionuevo, Simone; Radunz, Lauri Lourenço; Reichert Júnior, Francisco Wilson

    2017-01-15

    Grain drying using firewood as fuel for air heating, with direct fire, is still widely used in Brazil. The combustion of organic material, such as wood, can generate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known to have carcinogenic potential. In the present work corn grain drying was carried out at three drying air temperatures: 60°C, 60/80°C and 80°C. Following the drying process, the presence and quantification of PAH in the corn grains was investigated. After extracting the PAHs of the matrix, the material was subjected to analysis by gas chromatography with mass detector. he results showed the presence of seven compounds: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporal evolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from wastewater treatment plants: comparison between PAHs and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, P; Callejón, M; Alonso, E; Jiménez, J C; Guiraúm, A

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results on the presence and temporal variability of the 16 PAHs recommended by the EPA in primary, secondary and digested sewage sludge over a year. The sewage sludges originated from the Guadalete wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) site in Jerez de la Frontera (Cádiz, Spain). These organic pollutants have been extracted from the sewage sludge by microwave energy. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array (HPLC-DAD) or fluorescence (HPLC-FL) detectors have been used. The results showed that total PAHs concentration varied between 1,945 ng g(-1) dry matter (DM) for primary sludges collected in March and 10,100 ng g(-1) DM for primary sludge collected in June. Generally, concentrations of PAHs were higher in compost and digested sludge than in fresh one. On the other hand, the highest concentration of PAHs were found on summer. This thing is associated to the traffic increase from inland zones to the coast (Jerez de la Frontera is very near to beaches). Finally, this paper present a comparative study of the American an European legislation concluding that the limits of concentrations established are not exceeded. In addition heavy metals were analysed. The origin of PAHs and heavy metals seems to be different.

  19. Intestinal metabolism of PAH: in vitro demonstration and study of its impact on PAH transfer through the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavret, Severine; Feidt, Cyril

    2005-01-01

    Food would seem to be one of the main ways of animal and human contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In vivo studies suggest a transfer in intestinal epithelium by diffusion, which appears extensively governed by the physicochemical properties of PAHs, particularly lipophilicity. However, other mechanisms, such as metabolism, are considered to intervene. Our work aimed at testing in vitro intestinal metabolism and defining its impact on transepithelial transport of PAHs. Caco-2 cells were cultivated on permeable filters and incubated with 14 C-labeled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), pyrene (Pyr), and phenanthrene (Phe), which differ in their physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cells were able to metabolize the compounds. In basal media, Phe appeared to be the least hydroxylated molecule (45% after a 6-h exposure), followed by Pyr (65%) and finally BaP (96%). Inhibition of PAH metabolism showed a determinant effect on kinetics profiles. Transfer in the basal compartment of BaP, Pyr, and Phe radioactivities was, respectively, 26, 4, and 2 times lower with inhibitors, corroborating that intestinal metabolism of PAHs would have a positive impact on their transfer, an impact that increased with their lipophilicity. Furthermore, after a 6-h incubation, metabolites were also detected in apical medium. These findings suggested that intestinal metabolism might play a key role in intestinal barrier permeability and thus in the bioavailability of tested micropollutants

  20. Recent Progress in DIB Research: Survey of PAHS and DIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.

    2013-01-01

    The spectra of several neutral and ionized PAHs isolated in the gas phase at low temperature have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars [1, 2]. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data provide upper limits for the abundances of specific neutral PAH molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations alone. We present the characteristics of the laboratory facility (COSmIC) that was developed for this study and discuss the findings resulting from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. COSmIC combines a supersonic free jet expansion with discharge plasma and high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy and provides experimental conditions that closely mimic the interstellar conditions. The column densities of the individual neutral PAH molecules and ions probed in these surveys are derived from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data lead to clear and unambiguous conclusions regarding the expected abundances for PAHs of various sizes and charge states in the interstellar environments probed in the surveys. Band profile comparisons between laboratory and astronomical spectra lead to information regarding the molecular structures and characteristics associated with the DIB carriers in the corresponding lines-of-sight. These quantitative surveys of neutral and ionized PAHs in the optical range open the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs and complex organics in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments.

  1. Abundance, composition, and vertical transport of PAHs in marsh sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Helen K; Xu, Li; Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons continue to persist in Wild Harbor, West Falmouth, MA, following a spill of No. 2 fuel oil in 1969 from the barge Florida. Recent analysis of marsh sediments revealed that residues of degraded oil are present with concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons as high as approximately 9 mg g(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute only a minor fraction of these residues with maximum concentrations of 134 mirog g(-1), but their fate is of interest because of their potential toxicity to organisms. As compared to typical unweathered No. 2 fuel oil, the current distribution of PAHs in the sediments reflects substantial weathering by abiotic and biotic processes, specifically a preferential loss of naphthalenes relative to phenanthrenes, as well as isomer-specific biodegradation of alkylated PAHs. Based on comparison to results from an earlier study, it appears that little or no change has occurred to the distribution of PAHs since 1989, indicating that weathering at this site has stalled or is now proceeding at a significantly slower rate. To assess whether sediment-water partitioning and molecular diffusion in the interstitial medium are now the dominant processes controlling the vertical distribution of PAHs, downcore profiles were compared to a numerical model. While in some cases the model accurately reproduced the measured data, there were instances where the distribution of PAHs was slightly under or overestimated. Reasons for these discrepancies are discussed and are likely due to bioturbation, colloid-facilitated transport, or both. Assessment of the influence of these processes on the spilled oil expands our understanding of the overall fate of these compounds and their potential long-term effects on the environment.

  2. Strong Impact on the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Community of a PAH-Polluted Soil but Marginal Effect on PAH Degradation when Priming with Bioremediated Soil Dominated by Mycobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Schmidt, Stine; Hybholdt, Trine K.

    2007-01-01

    Bioaugmentation of soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often disappointing because of the low survival rate and low activity of the introduced degrader bacteria. We therefore investigated the possibility of priming PAH degradation in soil by adding 2% of bioremediated soil...... with a high capacity for PAH degradation. The culturable PAH-degrading community of the bioremediated primer soil was dominated by Mycobacterium spp. A microcosm containing pristine soil artificially polluted with PAHs and primed with bioremediated soil showed a fast, 100- to 1,000-fold increase in numbers...... of culturable phenanthrene-, pyrene-, and fluoranthene degraders and a 160-fold increase in copy numbers of the mycobacterial PAH dioxygenase gene pdo1. A nonpolluted microcosm primed with bioremediated soil showed a high rate of survival of the introduced degrader community during the 112 days of incubation...

  3. Biological risk and pollution history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zhou, Xizhen; Xia, Lihua; Geng, Xinhua

    2014-08-15

    Chinese government has taken various measures to alleviate pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Pearl River Delta since the economic reform in 1978, but the effectiveness of these measures remains largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the biological risk and pollution history of PAHs by measuring the concentrations of 28 PAHs in the surface and core sediments, respectively, in Nansha mangrove. Results found that the biological risk of PAHs was low without obvious spatial variation. The PAH concentration along the depth gradient indicated that PAH pollution was stabilized since the early 1990s while the source of PAHs has gradually changed from combustion of coal to petroleum products. This implied that the mitigation measures taken by the Chinese government were effective. Compared to marine bottom sediment, we propose that using mangrove sediment can provide a more accurate and precise estimate of pollution history of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  6. Quantification of PAHs and oxy-PAHs on airborne particulate matter in Chiang Mai, Thailand, using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgraeve, Christophe; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; De Wispelaere, Patrick; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 oxygenated PAHs (of which 4 diketones, 3 ketones, 4 aldehydes and one anhydride) on atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The magnetic sector mass spectrometer was run in multiple ion detection mode (MID) with a mass resolution above 10 000 (10% valley definition) and allows for a selective accurate mass detection of the characteristic ions of the target analytes. Instrumental detection limits between 0.04 pg and 1.34 pg were obtained for the PAHs, whereas for the oxy-PAHs they ranged between 0.08 pg and 2.13 pg. Pressurized liquid extraction using dichloromethane was evaluated and excellent recoveries ranging between 87% and 98% for the PAHs and between 74% and 110% for 10 oxy-PAHs were obtained, when the optimum extraction temperature of 150 °C was applied. The developed method was finally used to determine PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentration levels from particulate matter samples collected in the wet season at 4 different locations in Chiang Mai, Thailand (n = 72). This study brings forward the first concentration levels of oxy-PAHs in Thailand. The median of the sum of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentrations was 3.4 ng/m3 and 1.1 ng/m3 respectively, which shows the importance of the group of the oxy-PAHs as PM10 constituents. High molecular weight PAHs contributed the most to the ∑PAHs. For example, benzo[ghi]perylene was responsible for 30-44% of the ∑PAHs. The highest contribution to ∑oxy-PAHs came from 1,8-napthalic anhydride (26-78%), followed by anthracene-9,10-dione (4-27%) and 7H-benzo[de]anthracene-7-one (6-26%). Indications of the degradation of PAHs and/or formation of oxy-PAHs were observed.

  7. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM10- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM10 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM10 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM10 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparative effects of several cyclodextrins on the extraction of PAHs from an aged contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Trujillo, M.A.; Morillo, E.; Villaverde, J.; Lacorte, S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of an aged contaminated soil and to propose remediation techniques using cyclodextrins (CDs). Four CDs solutions were tested as soil decontamination tool and proved more efficient in extracting PAHs than when an aqueous solution was used; especially two chemically modified CDs resulted in higher extraction percentages than natural β-CD. The highest extraction percentages were obtained for 3-ring PAHs, because of the appropriate size and shape of these compounds relative to those of the hydrophobic cavities of the CDs studied. A detailed mechanistic interpretation of the chemical modification of CDs on the extraction of the different PAHs has been performed, and connected with the role that the different hydrophobicities of the PAHs play in the extraction behaviour observed for the 16 PAHs, limiting their accessibility and the remaining risk of those PAHs not extractable by CDs. -- Highlights: ► Four cyclodextrins (CDs) solutions were tested as soil decontamination tool for PAHs. ► Extractions with CDs were higher than with electrolyte, especially with synthetic CDs. ► Extraction capacity depends on the adequate size of PAHs and CDs hydrophobic cavity. ► 2–3 ring PAHs, the more abundant in the soil, were extracted in higher percentages. ► CDs extract preferably the less hydrophobic and more potentially toxic PAHs. -- Cyclodextrin solutions are useful and interesting tools for the decontamination of soils polluted by PAHs

  9. PAH in Barbecued Meat from Restaurants and by Home-Grilling in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Meinert, L.; Aaslyng, M.

    2011-01-01

    Barbecuing or grilling is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Thirty home-grilled meat samples (beef, pork and chicken) and 86 commercial grilled meat samples (beef, pork, chicken, salmon, lamb and calf) were analyzed for 23 PAH including PAH 4 (benzo[a]pyr...

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  11. Relation between PAH and black carbon contents in size fractions of Norwegian harbor sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, Amy M.P.; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D.

    2006-01-01

    Distributions of total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in different particle size fractions for four Norwegian harbor sediments. The total PAH (16-EPA) concentrations ranged from 2 to 113 mg/kg dry weight with the greatest fraction of PAH mass in the sand fraction for three of the four sediments. TOC contents ranged from 0.84% to 14.2% and BC contents from 0.085% to 1.7%. This corresponds to organic carbon (OC = TOC - BC) contents in the range of 0.81-14% and BC:TOC ratios of 1.3-18.1%. PAH isomer ratios suggested that the PAH in all four sediments were of pyrogenic origin. Furthermore, stronger correlations between PAH versus BC (r 2 = 0.85) than versus OC (r 2 = 0.15) were found. For all size fractions and bulk sediments, the PAH-to-BC ratios for the total PAHs were on average 6 ± 3 mg PAH/g BC. These results suggest that PAH distributions were dominated by the presence of BC, rather than OC. As sorption to BC is much stronger than sorption to OC, this may result in significantly lower dissolved concentrations of PAH than expected on the basis of organic carbon partitioning alone. - PAH contents correlated better with black carbon than organic carbon for four Norwegian harbor sediments

  12. Temporal variability in sediment PAHs accumulation in the northern Gulf of Mexico Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bam, W.; Maiti, K.; Adhikari, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous group of organic pollutants, some of which are known to be toxic, and/or carcinogenic to humans. The major source of these PAHs into the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) are Mississippi River discharge, coastal erosion, atmospheric deposition, and numerous natural oil seeps and spills. In addition to these background source of PAHs, the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in 2010 added 21,000 tons of PAHs into the NGOM water. In this study, we measured PAHs distribution and accumulation rates in coastal sediments near the Mississippi River mouth in 2011 and 2015 to understand the effect of DWH oil spill in PAHs accumulation in coastal sediments. Sediment cores were collected and sliced at 1 cm interval to measure PAHs concentration, and to estimate 210Pb-based sedimentation and the PAHs' accumulation rates. The results showed that the sediment deposition rates in this region varied between 0.5 to 0.9 cm/yr. The results also showed that the concentration of total PAHsPAH43) and their accumulation rates vary between 68 - 100 ng g-1 and 7 - 160 ng cm-2 yr-1, respectively. While the PAHs accumulation rate in coastal sediment varied over the years, there is no significant variation in PAHs accumulation rate before and after the DWH oil spill.

  13. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius and Pleurotus ostreatus on the degradation of PAHs in spent and fresh cutting fluids (SCF and FCF) contaminated soils was investigated. Different weights of soil samples were contaminated with varying composition (10, 20 or 30%) of spent and fresh cutting fluids separately then ...

  14. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    , which has been designed according to standard design criteria for several decades. The study will focus on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The long-term simulation of input of flow and pollution to the ponds will be a hind cast based on time series of historical...

  15. Inclusion of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The internal surface of an Mg-Al layered double hydroxide has been functionalized by anchoring carboxy-methyl derivatized -cyclodextrin cavities to the gallery walls. Neutral polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been included within the functionalized solid by driving the hydrophobic aromatic molecules from ...

  16. Investigating the temporal trends in PAH, PCB and OCP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-09

    May 9, 2013 ... mation on application of passive sampling in South Africa is available in the literature. This study was ..... molecular weight PAHs in the current study were on average up to 2 orders of magnitude lower ..... VAN REI WF (1987) The Hartbeespoort dam – a magnet to millions? In: Thornton JA and Walmsley RD ...

  17. Effect of Smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike,. P.M.B 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The effects of smoking on proximate composition, energy values and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias ...

  18. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using rhizosphere technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D.

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective. PMID:26221084

  19. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research investigation was aimed at monitoring the levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Korean ambient air, pine needle, and soil. Samples were collected from two large industrial zones of An-san city namely Sihwa and Banwal, both these industrial zones were further divided into major and ...

  20. PAHs in Soils and Sediments: A Temporary Problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Sims, R.C.; Sims, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils and sediments have been the subject of investigations and characterization for more than 25 years. Are the results of these investigations sufficient to solve the problem? Based on several investigations of landfarming at Wageningen-UR and

  1. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... activity, and Pseudotrametes gibbosa had significant potential due to its higher laccase production and more potent degradation of PAHs. This study provides technical support for pollution amelioration using aboriginal white-rot fungus. Key words: White-rot fungus, laccase, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, degradation.

  2. Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Molecular ratio analyses also show that petroleum origin is the chief source of PAHs contamination in all samples except in the control ... samples have been contaminated with these priority pollutants, with mean values ranging from ..... Surface Marine Sediments: a Comparison to. Potential Local Sources in Todos Santos ...

  3. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs using rhizosphere technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bisht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e.polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.

  4. Effect of smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of smoking on proximate composition, energy values and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Crude protein was higher in the tilapia sample for both raw and smoked samples.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  6. Small phosphatidate phosphatase (TtPAH2) of Tetrahymena ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anoop Narayana Pillai

    2017-10-03

    Oct 3, 2017 ... TtPAH2-GFP was transformed into wild-type Tetrahymena cells by electroporation. Transformants were selected with. 100 lg/mL paromomycin sulfate and induced with 1 lg/mL cadmium chloride. 2.4 Generation of DTtpah2 Tetrahymena strain. Macronuclear gene knockout was performed as previously.

  7. Cosmic PAHs: from infrared astronomy to laboratory astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joblin, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Astronomers consider polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to be the smallest dust particles and they use their infrared emission features, the aromatic infrared bands (AIBs), as a diagnostic of physical conditions in regions of star formation from the small scales of protoplanetary disks to the large scales of galaxies. This topic has to face several obstacles. One is the lack of identification of specific PAH species. Another one is that the AIB features carry not only information on the chemical diversity of species but also on photophysical processes involved in the relaxation of PAHs after having been energized by the absorption of UV photons from stars. In this presentation, I will discuss how we can progress in the analysis of the observed AIB spectrum by addressing both the photophysics of isolated PAHs and the formation and evolution of these molecules in cosmic environments. This is achieved by the combination of astronomical models with detailed investigation of molecular processes. The study of these processes has stimulated the development of dedicated laboratory setups and theoretical simulations at the forefront of molecular physics. I will more specifically present the opening given by ERC Synergy project Nanocosmos and the perspectives with the coming James Webb telescope.

  8. PAH desorption from river floodplain soils using supercritical fluid extraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, Y.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Hofmann, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2008), s. 745-752 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pahs * slow desorption * carbonaceous materials Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.135, year: 2008

  9. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-03-01

    Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world's third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (pmarijuana users than in nonusers. We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Content in Cattle Hides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Full-text Available Online at ... concentrations were higher in the consumer ready singed washed hide and meat samples compared to the EU limit. ... the EU limits. The results indicate that the use of rubber tyres for singeing cattle hides and meat can deposit dangerous levels of PAHs which puts consumers of such products ...

  11. Seasonal variation of PAHs in marshy sediments from Warri City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation was used to analyse the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marshy sediments in Warri city, Niger Delta region in Southern Nigeria. Sediment samples were collected from four locations in the city and labelled ST 1, ST 2, ST 3 and ST 4. Control samples were also collected 20 km.

  12. PAHs, OCPs and PCBs in sediments from three catchments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the comparison of chemical concentrations to international sediment quality guidelines, PAH, OCP and PCB concentrations in most sediment samples posed a low risk to sediment-dwelling organisms. However, in some instances the risk was moderate or high. It is recommended that these compounds be ...

  13. Improving bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils by thermal pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous sites and large volumes of sediments in the Netherlands are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are of great concern because of their

  14. PAH features within few hundred parsecs of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J. J.; Hönig, S. F.; Rakshit, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Asmus, D.; Gandhi, P.; Kishimoto, M.; Smette, A.; Tristram, K. R. W.

    2017-09-01

    Spectral features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules observed in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range are typically used to infer the amount of recent and ongoing star formation on kiloparsec scales around active galactic nuclei (AGN) where more traditional methods fail. This method assumes that the observed PAH features are excited predominantly by star formation. With current ground-based telescopes and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, much smaller spatial scales can be probed and we aim at testing if this assumption still holds in the range of few tens to few hundreds of parsecs. For that, we spatially map the emitted 11.3 μm PAH surface flux as a function of distance from 0.4-4 arcsec from the centre in 28 nearby AGN using ground-based high-angular-resolution mid-IR spectroscopy. We detect and extract the 11.3 μm PAH feature in 13 AGN. The fluxes within each aperture are scaled to a luminosity-normalized distance from the nucleus to be able to compare intrinsic spatial scales of AGN radiation spanning about two orders of magnitude in luminosity. For this, we establish an empirical relation between the absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity and the sublimation radius in these sources. Once normalized, the radial profiles of the emitted PAH surface flux show similar radial slopes, with a power-law index of approximately -1.1, and similar absolute values, consistent within a factor of a few of each other as expected from the uncertainty in the intrinsic scale estimate. We interpret this as evidence that the profiles are caused by a common compact central physical process, either the AGN itself or circumnuclear star formation linked in strength to the AGN power. A photoionization-based model of an AGN exciting dense clouds in its environment can reproduce the observed radial slope and confirms that the AGN radiation field is strong enough to explain the observed PAH surface fluxes within ∼10-500 pc of the nucleus. Our results advice caution

  15. In situ treatment of soil contaminated with PAHs and phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.; Dev, H.; Chang, J.; Houthoofd, J.

    1992-01-01

    The wood preserving industry uses more pesticides than any other industry worldwide. The major chemicals used are creosote, pentachlorophenol, and CCA (copper, chrome and arsenate). It is reported that between 415 to 550 creosoting operations within the United States consume approximately 454,000 metric tons of creosote annually. When properly used and disposed off, creosote does not appear to significantly threaten human health. However, due to improper disposal and spillage at old facilities, creosote and other wood preserving chemicals have found their way into surface soils. Active wood preserving sites generate an estimated 840 to 1530 dry metric tons of hazardous contaminated sludge annually, which is classified as KOOL. Creosote, obtained from coal tar, contains a large number of chemical components. The three main families of compounds represented in creosote are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenolic, and heterocyclic compounds. Creosote is composed of approximately 85% PAHs, 10% phenolic compounds and 5% heterocyclic compounds. There are approximately a total of 17 PAHs present in creosote. The four most prominent compounds belonging to the PAH family are naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These four compounds represent approximately 52% of the total PAHs present in creosote. There are approximately 12 different phenolic compounds present in creosote among which phenol is the most abundant, representing 20% of the total phenolics. In addition, the various isomers of cresol represent about 20% and pentachlorophenol (PCP) represents 10% of the total phenolics. There are approximately 13 different heterocyclic compounds are the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the total heterocyclics. All of these compounds possess toxic properties and some of them, for example, PCP, when subjected to high temperature environments are suspected precursors in the formation of dioxins

  16. Characteristics of particulate PAHs during a typical haze episode in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jihua; Guo, Songjun; Ma, Yongliang; Duan, Jingchun; Cheng, Yuan; He, Kebin; Yang, Fumo

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 2.5 and TSP were measured in Guangzhou during a typical haze episode. This episode included NH (non-haze, 3 days), HFN (haze when air masses from north and northeast, 6 days) and HFS (haze when air masses from south, 4 days). The air quality in HFN was much worse than that in NH and HFS. The total average concentrations of PAHs in PM 2.5 were 13.25 ng m -3, 59.82 ng m -3 and 13.09 ng m -3 in NH, HFN and HFS, respectively. It indicated PAH pollution had been substantially aggravated by HFN. PAHs(5 + 6) were the most abundant compounds in HFN and HFS, which accounted for 55-75% of total concentration of PAHs, while PAHs(3 + 4) were the most abundant compounds in NH, which accounted for 54-67% of total concentration of PAHs. TEF (Toxic Equivalency Factors)-adjusted concentrations of 13 particulate PAHs were very high in HFN, indicating high health risks to humans for PAH exposure in HFN. The characteristic ratios of PAHs indicated coal combustion and traffic emission were the major contributors to PAHs in HFN and HFS. The concentrations of particulate PAHs in haze episode were strongly affected by wind speed and wind direction. PAHs in NH could be from long-range transport with high north wind speed, while local emission could be the main contributor of particle-associated PAHs in HFN. The transport speed of air masses was found to play an important role on PAH concentrations.

  17. Splicing of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) exon 11 is vulnerable - Molecular pathology of mutations in PAH exon 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    In about 20-30% of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, phenylalanine (Phe) levels can be controlled by cofactor 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) administration. The phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotype has a predictive value concerning BH(4)-response and therefore a correct assessment of the mutation...

  18. The relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Tang, Deliang; Rauh, Virginia; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Spengler, John; Camann, David; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-07-01

    In a birth cohort study, we have assessed the dose-response relationship between individual measurements of prenatal airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and specific PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood adjusted for maternal blood adducts and season of birth. The study uses data from an earlier established birth cohort of children in Krakow. The final analysis included 362 pregnant women who gave birth to term babies and had complete data on personal exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy to eight airborne PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as well as DNA adducts, both in maternal and cord blood. The relation between cord blood PAH-DNA adducts and airborne prenatal PAH exposure was non-linear. Although cord blood PAH-DNA adducts were significantly associated with the B[a]P exposure categorized by tertiles (non-parametric trend z=3.50, P<0.001), the relationship between B[a]P and maternal blood adducts was insignificant (z=1.63, P=0.103). Based on the multivariable linear regression model, we estimated the effect of the prenatal airborne B[a]P on the level of cord blood adducts. In total, 14.8% of cord blood adducts variance was attributed to the level of maternal adducts and 3% to a higher prenatal B[a] exposure above 5.70 ng/m(3). The calculated fetal/maternal blood adduct ratio (FMR) linearly increased with B[a]P exposure (z=1.99, P=0.047) and was highest at B[a]P concentrations exceeding 5.70 ng/m(3). In conclusion, the results support other findings that transplacental exposure to B[a]P from maternal inhalation produces DNA damage in the developing fetus. It also confirms the heightened fetal susceptibility to prenatal PAH exposure that should be a matter of public health concern, particularly in the highly polluted areas, because DNA adducts represent a pro-carcinogenic alteration in DNA. The continuation of this birth cohort study will assess the possible health effects of fetal DNA damage on the health of children and help in

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) AND PAH-DNA ADDUCTS IN CORD BLOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.; Tang, Deliang; Rauh, Virginia; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Spengler, John; Camann, David; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    In a birth cohort study, we have assessed the dose-response relationship between individual measurements of prenatal airborne PAH exposure and specific PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood adjusted for maternal blood adducts and season of birth. The study uses data from an earlier established birth cohort of children in Krakow. The final analysis included 362 pregnant women who gave birth to term babies and had complete data on personal exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy to eight airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as well as DNA adducts, both in maternal and cord blood. The relation between cord blood PAH-DNA adducts and airborne prenatal PAH exposure was non-linear. While cord blood PAH-DNA adducts were significantly associated with the B[a]P exposure categorized by tertiles (nonparametric trend z = 3.50, p < 0.001), the relationship between B[a]P and maternal blood adducts was insignificant (z = 1.63, p = 0.103). Based on the multivariable linear regression model we estimated the effect of the prenatal airborne B[a]P on the level of cord blood adducts. In total, 14.8% of cord blood adducts variance was attributed to the level of maternal adducts and 3% to a higher prenatal B[a] exposure above 5.70 ng/m3. The calculated fetal/maternal blood adducts ratio (FMR) linearly increased with the B[a]P exposure (z = 1.99, p = 0.047) and was highest at B[a]P concentrations exceeding 5.70 ng/m3. In conclusion, the results support other findings that transplacental exposure to B[a[P from maternal inhalation produces DNA damage in the developing fetus. It also confirms the heightened fetal susceptibility to prenatal PAH exposure that should be a matter of public health concern particularly in the highly polluted areas because DNA adducts represent a pro-carcinogenic alteration in DNA The continuation of this birth cohort study will assess the possible health effects of fetal DNA damage on health of children and help in

  20. Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, J. H.; Højgård, A.

    2010-01-01

    were also tested in a pilot plant study with smoked trout as a model fish. In addition to confirming that increased combustion temperatures and usage of common alder in comparison with beech increased Sigma PAH25, it was also revealed that the PAH concentration decreased in the order fish skin >> outer...... smoking, and for other fish species direct smoking leads to higher sigma PAH25 than indirect smoking. Also, the usage of common alder increases the PAH contamination compared with beech. The effects of smoking time, combustion temperatures, and two types of smoke-generating material on the Sigma PAH25...

  1. PAHs contamination in bank sediment of the Yamuna river, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Tripti; Khillare, P S; Shridhar, Vijay

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the distribution, concentration trend and possible sources of PAHs in bank sediment of river Yamuna in Delhi, India. The levels of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in the sediment fraction Tax Office (ITO) was found to be the hotspot attaining highest concentration. Predominance of 2-4 ring PAHs suggests a relatively recent local sources of PAHs in the study area. Moreover, molecular indices based source apportionment also illustrates pyrogenic source fingerprint of PAHs. No significant temporal trend was observed.

  2. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  3. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs. PMID:26265155

  4. Emission characterization and δ{sup 13}C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China); Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Hong [Anhui Department of Environmental Protection, Anhui Academy of Environmental Science, Hefei 230071 (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1} compared with PM{sub 2.5–10}. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM{sub 2.5–10}), intermediate (PM{sub 1–2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 1}) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1}. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high

  5. Decontamination of PAH polluted soils by fungi. Subproject: PAH degradation balance and testing of the extended laboratory process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, R.; Zadrazil, F.; Wolter, M.; Bahadir, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the research project was first to select a fungus with a high potential for mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and a good ability to colonize different soils. The application of this fungus for a degradation of PAH in soil had to be tested. In a screening of 57 white rot fungi the fungus Pleurotus sp. Florida fulfilled these requirements best. In pure culture it was able to metabolize and mineralize highly condensed 4-6 ring PAH to a great extent. For instance, up to 50% of 14 C-pyrene or 39% of 14 C-benzo(a)pyrene was mineralized to 14 CO 2 within 15 weeks. If different carriers for 14 C-pyrene were used the mineralization correlated with the bioavailability, which was characterized by the desorption of the compound from the carriers with water. The mineralization of 14 C-pyrene, 14 C-benz(a)anthracene; 14 C-benzo(a)-pyrene and 14 C-dibenz(a, h)anthracene in native soils showed that a colonization with Pl. sp Florida inhibited the degradation of the less recalcitrant 14 C-pyrene by the indigenous soil microflora. However, the mineralization of the carcinogenic, very recalcitrant and high condensed 14 C-PAH was considerably supported by the fungus. Therefore this capabilities of the fungus could not be proven in a joint medium-scale soil experiment (0.8 m 3 soil) which had been conducted within a parmership with scientists in Jena and an industriell firm. Because of safety aspects only the low condensed less recalcitrant PAH could be applied in this experiment. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chi; Ouyang Zhiyun; Wang Meie; Chen Weiping; Jiao Wentao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree–shrub–herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. - Highlights: ► Land use did not affect PAHs in soils except for areas adjacent to industrial sources. ► Tree–shrub–herb and woodland cover amass more PAHs in soils than grassland cover. ► Urban development and soil property factors had little effect on PAHs in soils. - Industrial emissions aside, vegetative cover is the dominant factor controlling accumulation of PAHs in urban green space soils.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.

  8. Interspecies and spatial trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscales, Jose L.; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob; Calabuig, Pascual; Jimenez, Begona

    2011-01-01

    PAHs were analyzed in the liver of 5 species of pelagic seabirds (Procellariiformes) from the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The main objective was to assess the trophic and geographic trends of PAHs in seabirds to evaluate their suitability as bioindicators of chronic marine pollution by these compounds. Although higher levels of PAHs have been described in the Mediterranean compared to other oceanic regions, we did not find significant spatial patterns and observed only minor effects of the geographic origin on seabird PAHs. However, we found significant higher PAH levels in petrel compared to shearwater species, which could be related to differences in their exploitation of mesopelagic and epipelagic resources, respectively, and the vertical dynamic of PAHs in the water column. Overall, although this study enhances the need of multi-species approaches to show a more comprehensive evaluation of marine pollution, seabirds emerged as poor indicators of pelagic chronic PAH levels. - Highlights: → PAHs in pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology. → Geographic origin shows a minor effect over PAH levels in pelagic seabirds. → Pelagic seabirds seem to be poor indicators of chronic PAH levels. - PAH levels in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology but a minor influence of their geographic origin.

  9. Watershed-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligaray, Mayzonee; Baek, Sang Soo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    PAHs are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of PAHs were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring PAHs concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of PAHs. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea. The hydrologic module of the SWAT was calibrated, and further used to simulate the fate and transport of PAHs in soil and waterbody. The model demonstrated that the temporal or seasonal variation of PAHs in soil and waterbody can be well reproduced. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of PAHs showed that urban areas in TR watershed have the highest PAH loadings compared to rural areas. Sensitivity analyses of the PAH soil and PAH water parameters were also able to determine the critical processes in TR watershed: degradation, deposition, volatilization, and wash off mechanism. We hope that this model will be able to aid the stakeholders in: regulating PAH concentrations emitted by various sources; and also apply the model to other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

  10. Watershed-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligaray, Mayzonee; Baek, Sang Soo [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hye-Ok [Disaster Scientific Investigation Division, National Disaster Management Research Institute, 365 Jongga-ro Jung-gu, Ulsan 44538 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Deuk, E-mail: sdchoi@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khcho@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    PAHs are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of PAHs were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring PAHs concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of PAHs. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea. The hydrologic module of the SWAT was calibrated, and further used to simulate the fate and transport of PAHs in soil and waterbody. The model demonstrated that the temporal or seasonal variation of PAHs in soil and waterbody can be well reproduced. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of PAHs showed that urban areas in TR watershed have the highest PAH loadings compared to rural areas. Sensitivity analyses of the PAH soil and PAH water parameters were also able to determine the critical processes in TR watershed: degradation, deposition, volatilization, and wash off mechanism. We hope that this model will be able to aid the stakeholders in: regulating PAH concentrations emitted by various sources; and also apply the model to other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

  11. Sources and potential health risk of gas phase PAHs in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoxuan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ding, Zhongyuan; Huang, Tao; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Gas phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China were determined during heating and non-heating seasons, respectively, using passive air samplers. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were chosen as the sampling medium. Fifteen PAHs out of the 16 PAHs classified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were detected in this field sampling investigation. The atmospheric levels of sampled PAHs were higher at urban sites than that at rural sites among 14 sampling sites and increased during heating season. The highest concentration (11.34 ng m(-3)) was observed in Lanzhou during the heating season, the capital and largest industrial city of Gansu Province. PAH contamination in air was dominated by three aromatic ring congeners. Possible sources of PAHs were apportioned using PAH species ratios and the principle component analysis (PCA) combined with a multiple linear regression (MLR) method. Fossil fuel consumption was identified to be the predominant source of PAHs over Hexi Corridor, accounting for 43 % of the concentration of total (15) PAHs. Backward and forward trajectory and cluster analysis were also carried out to identify potential origins of PAHs monitored at several urban and rural sites. Lung cancer risk of local residents to gas phase PAHs via inhalation exposure throughout the province was found to be around a critical value of the lung cancer risk level at 10(-6) recommended by the U.S. EPA risk assessment guideline.

  12. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia: A review from 1999 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.-F.; Fang, G.-C.; Chen, J.-C.; Wu, Y.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia. - This work summarizes the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia

  13. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  14. Ecotoxicological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soil of Isfahan metropolis, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Khabazi, S; Lahijanzadeh, A; Kermani, M

    2015-04-01

    Concentration, distribution, probable sources, and health risks of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 52 soil samples collected within a radius 50 km from Isfahan metropolis center. Total concentration of PAHs ranged from 57.70 to 11,730.08 μg/kg averaging 2,000.56 μg/kg. Spatial PAH profiles were site-specific and higher concentration of PAHs was observed in the vicinity of industrial zones within Isfahan metropolis. The molecular indices, ring classes, and principal component analysis indicated that the sources of PAHs were both geogenic and pyrogenic. The incremental lifetime cancer risks of exposure to soil PAHs for adults and children living in the study area were 2.3×10(-2) and 2.2×10(-3), respectively. The results suggest that current PAHs levels in Isfahan metropolis soil are highly carcinogenic and may hold a serious health risk for local resident.

  15. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shuhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  16. Ca2+ promoted the low transformation efficiency of plasmid DNA exposed to PAH contaminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxing Kang

    Full Text Available The effects of interactions between genetic materials and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on gene expression in the extracellular environment remain to be elucidated and little information is currently available on the effect of ionic strength on the transformation of plasmid DNA exposed to PAHs. Phenanthrene and pyrene were used as representative PAHs to evaluate the transformation of plasmid DNA after PAH exposure and to determine the role of Ca(2+ during the transformation. Plasmid DNA exposed to the test PAHs demonstrated low transformation efficiency. In the absence of PAHs, the transformation efficiency was 4.7 log units; however, the efficiency decreased to 3.72-3.14 log units with phenanthrene/pyrene exposures of 50 µg · L(-1. The addition of Ca(2+ enhanced the low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAHs. Based on the co-sorption of Ca(2+ and phenanthrene/pyrene by DNA, we employed Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and mass spectrometry (MS to determine the mechanisms involved in PAH-induced DNA transformation. The observed low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to either phenanthrene or pyrene can be attributed to a broken hydrogen bond in the double helix caused by planar PAHs. Added Ca(2+ formed strong electrovalent bonds with "-POO(--" groups in the DNA, weakening the interaction between PAHs and DNA based on weak molecular forces. This decreased the damage of PAHs to hydrogen bonds in double-stranded DNA by isolating DNA molecules from PAHs and consequently enhanced the transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAH contaminants. The findings provide insight into the effects of anthropogenic trace PAHs on DNA transfer in natural environments.

  17. Distribution of PAHs and the PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea sediments of the high-latitude Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bai, X.; Sheng, H.; Jiao, L.; Zhou, H.; Shao, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common organic pollutants that can be transferred long distances and tend to accumulate in marine sediments. However, less is known regarding the distribution of PAHs and their natural bioattenuation in the open sea, especially the Arctic Ocean. In this report, sediment samples were collected at four sites from the Chukchi Plateau to the Makarov Basin in the summer of 2010. PAH compositions and total concentrations were examined with GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 EPA-priority PAHs varied from 2.0 to 41.6 ng g-1 dry weight and decreased with sediment depth and movement from the southern to the northern sites. Among the targeted PAHs, phenanthrene was relatively abundant in all sediments. The 16S rRNA gene of the total environmental DNA was analyzed with Illumina high-throughput sequencing (IHTS) to determine the diversity of bacteria involved in PAH degradation in situ. The potential degraders including Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, Colwellia, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Salinisphaera and Shewanella, with Dietzia as the most abundant, occurred in all sediment samples. Meanwhile, enrichment with PAHs was initiated onboard and transferred to the laboratory for further enrichment and to obtain the degrading consortia. Most of the abovementioned bacteria in addition to Hahella, Oleispira, Oceanobacter and Hyphomonas occurred alternately as predominant members in the enrichment cultures from different sediments based on IHTS and PCR-DGGE analysis. To reconfirm their role in PAH degradation, 40 different bacteria were isolated and characterized, among which Cycloclasticus Pseudomonas showed the best degradation capability under low temperatures. Taken together, PAHs and PAH-degrading bacteria were widespread in the deep-sea sediments of the Arctic Ocean. We propose that bacteria of Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinomonas and Dietzia may

  18. UV action spectroscopy of protonated PAH derivatives. Methyl substituted quinolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klærke, Benedikte; Holm, Anne; Andersen, Lars Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the production of molecular photofragments upon UV excitation of PAH derivatives, relevant for the interstellar medium. Methods. The action absorption spectra of protonated gas-phase methyl-substituted quinolines (CH3−C9H7NH+) have been recorded in the 215–338 nm spectral range...... using the electrostatic storage ring ELISA, an electrospray ion source and 3 ns UV laser pulses. Results. It is shown that the absorption profile is both redshifted and broadened when moving the methyl group from the heterocycle containing nitrogen to the homoatomic ring. The absorption profiles...... the estimated IR relaxation time. Photophysical properties of both nitrogen containing and methyl-substituted PAHs are interesting in an astrophysical context in connection with identifying the aromatic component of the interstellar medium....

  19. Heterogeneous ozonation reactions of PAHs and fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.

    2018-02-01

    Numerous studies have examined the oxidation of PAHs found in diesel particulate matter (PM) by ozone, but no studies have investigated the ozone oxidation of biodiesel exhaust PM. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), found in high abundance in biodiesel PM, can potentially alter the kinetics of the reactions between atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and particle-phase PAHs. In this study, the heterogeneous reactivity of 16 EPA PAHs upon 24 h exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone in the presence (PAH + FAMES) and absence (PAH-only) of FAMEs was investigated at room temperature and 50% relative humidity. The ozone-reactivity of the PAHs detected in 20% biodiesel (B20) exhaust PM was also investigated. In the absence of FAMEs, the pseudo-first order ozone reaction rate constant, kO 3 , of PAHs varied from 0.086 ± 0.030 hr-1 (chrysene) to 0.184 ± 0.078 hr-1 (anthracene). In the presence of FAMEs, kO 3 of the PAHs varied between 0.013 ± 0.012 hr-1 (benzo[b]fluoranthene) and 0.168 ± 0.028 hr-1 (benzo[a]pyrene), and with the exception of benzo[a]pyrene, the kO 3 of PAHs were 1.2-8 times lower compared to those obtained during the PAH-only ozone exposure. Only one PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), did not show a significant change in kO3 with addition of FAMEs. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, the only PAHs detected in the B20 PM, had kO 3 values about 4 times lower in B20 PM than those obtained when spiked PAHs-only were exposed to ozone. The kO 3 values of phenanthrene and fluoranthene in the B20 PM were 2 times higher than rates obtained when the PAH mix was exposed to ozone in the presence of the FAMEs. In contrast, pyrene's kO 3 in the B20 PM was about 2 times lower than that obtained for the PAH + FAMEs exposure. Observed differences in PAH behavior demonstrate individual PAH heterogeneous reactivity with gas-phase ozone is sensitive to PAH (vapor pressure, solubility/sorption to matrix components, chemical reactivity) as well as substrate properties (PAH and O3 diffusivity

  20. PAHs in Indian diet: Assessing the cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Agarwal, Tripti

    2018-07-01

    Food products such as bread, biscuits, tea, coffee, oils, chocolates, grapes, pepper and fishes belonging to different categories represent a significant part of everyday diet in India and other countries having variable cooking techniques. In this study, we evaluated cancer risks of long term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through consumption of these products for eight societal groups in India. Total concentrations of PAHs in these products from India ranged from 0.18 to 61967 μg kg -1 and the cancer risk values for the eight sections of Indian population ranged between 7.63E-10 to 5.05E+00, indicating product specific distribution of risk from non-significant to significant levels. Cereals, vegetables and decoctions contributed majorly to cancer risk and the most susceptible group identified was children. The spread of risk estimates followed Burr and Exponential distributions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to develop information on the health risk faced by Indian population through dietary PAHs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Senyawa polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbon (PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs compound at Jakarta Bay seawater were carried out on July 2011. The objectives of this research were to measure the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, concentration of individual PAH compound, and to identify sources of PAH compound in seawater. PAH compound concentration was measured by Gas Chromatography (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound were identified by diagnostic ratio analysis. The results show that the concentration of PAH compound in the middle of Jakarta Bay was higher compared to the west and the east. In the west and middle of Jakarta Bay, it is found that 11 PAH types, and 10 types in the east. Individual PAH compound dominated by high moleculer weight of PAH Benzo(aAnthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(bFluoranthene, Benzo(aPyrene, dan Indeno(123-cd Pyrene. The results of PAH compound ratio individual analysis showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound at Jakarta Bay seawater came from oil spill and incomplete combustion mixture of organic material such as wood, grass, fuel oil, and fuel industry combustion activity.

  2. Senyawa polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbon (PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs compound at Jakarta Bay seawater were carried out on July 2011. The objectives of this research were to measure the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, concentration of individual PAH compound, and to identify sources of PAH compound in seawater. PAH compound concentration was measured by Gas Chromatography (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound were identified by diagnostic ratio analysis. The results show that the concentration of PAH compound in the middle of Jakarta Bay was higher compared to the west and the east. In the west and middle of Jakarta Bay, it is found that 11 PAH types, and 10 types in the east. Individual PAH compound dominated by high moleculer weight of PAH Benzo(aAnthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(bFluoranthene, Benzo(aPyrene, dan Indeno(123-cd Pyrene. The results of PAH compound ratio individual analysis showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound at Jakarta Bay seawater came from oil spill and incomplete combustion mixture of organic material such as wood, grass, fuel oil, and fuel industry combustion activity.

  3. [The mutation analysis of PAH gene and prenatal diagnosis in classical phenylketonuria family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yousheng; Hao, Shengju; Yao, Fengxia; Sun, Qingmei; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Tao; Huang, Shangzhi

    2014-12-01

    To characterize the mutation spectrum of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene and perform prenatal diagnosis for families with classical phenylketonuria. By stratified sequencing, mutations were detected in the exons and flaking introns of PAH gene of 44 families with classical phenylketonuria. 47 fetuses were diagnosed by combined sequencing with linkage analysis of three common short tandem repeats (STR) (PAH-STR, PAH-26 and PAH-32) in the PAH gene. Thirty-one types of mutations were identified. A total of 84 mutations were identified in 88 alleles (95.45%), in which the most common mutation have been R243Q (21.59%), EX6-96A>G (6.82%), IVS4-1G>A (5.86%) and IVS7+2T>A (5.86%). Most mutations were found in exons 3, 5, 6, 7, 11 and 12. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of these three STR markers was 0.71 (PAH-STR), 0.48 (PAH-26) and 0.40 (PAH-32), respectively. Prenatal diagnosis was performed successfully with the combined method in 47 fetuses of 44 classical phenylketonuria families. Among them, 11 (23.4%) were diagnosed as affected, 24 (51.1%) as carriers, and 12 (25.5%) as unaffected. Prenatal diagnosis can be achieved efficiently and accurately by stratified sequencing of PAH gene and linkage analysis of STR for classical phenylketonuria families.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of PAH sorptive changes in soil by Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sangchul; Cutright, Teresa J

    2004-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of sorbent modification by synthetic, chemical/thermal weathering on the sorptive behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A clean sandy-clay-loam soil was subjected to Soxhlet extraction and PAH sorptive phenomena were evaluated based on quantity and quality changes in soil organic matter (SOM) and clay minerals. Critical changes in sorption capacity were found to depend on the initial PAH concentrations. Above 7 mg/l, weathering increased the PAH in comparison to that of unmodified soil, whereas it decreased when applied below this concentration. Similarly, less PAH was desorbed from the altered soil when PAH was applied above 7 mg/l. Therefore, when PAH was applied below 7 mg/l, quantitative reduction of sorbent amount (i.e., SOM and clay minerals) by soil weathering governed PAH sorptive behavior. However, when the PAH was applied above the critical limit, qualitative modifications in the sorbents facilitated an opposite trend. Sorbent swelling, removal of competing compounds, and possible changes in surface characteristics by Soxhlet extraction, together with increased concentration gradient effects were factors that resulted in dissimilar PAH sorptive phenomena, pivoting at the critical concentration.

  5. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. -- Highlights: • The alternative and advancement in extraction agents to remove PAHs from soil using soil washing technology is summarised. • The soil regulations for PAH level in various countries are summarized for reference to researchers. • The concentration levels of PAHs in soil at present and the need for soil remediation is presented. -- The efficiency of the extraction agent plays a significant role in soil washing of PAH-contaminated soil

  6. Genotoxicity of oxy-PAHs to Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos assessed using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subham; Cao, Austin; Mauer, Brittany; Yan, Beizhan; Uno, Seiichi; McElroy, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have long been recognized as important environmental toxicants. Despite a plethora of information on the fate and effects of parent PAHs, relatively little is known about the environmental fate and toxicity of ketone- and quinone-substituted PAH oxidation products (termed oxy-PAHs), particularly in the aquatic environment. This study begins to fill that gap using embryos of the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model species. The genotoxic potential of two environmentally relevant oxy-PAHs, acenaphthenequinone and 7,12-benz[a]anthracenquinone, was assessed using the comet assay. We found that both oxy-PAHs could cause significant increases in DNA damage after only 48 h of exposure at the lowest concentrations tested (5 μg/L). Comparisons of the genotoxic potential between these oxy-PAHs and their corresponding parent PAHs (acenaphthene and benz[a]anthracene) and a well-known mutagenic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene, indicated similar potencies among all five of these compounds, particularly after longer (7 day) exposures. This study demonstrates the mutagenic potential of oxy-PAHs to an in vivo fish embryo model and points out the need for further study of their environmental occurrence and biologic effects.

  7. The effect of sewage sludge fertilization on the concentration of PAHs in urban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołejko, Elżbieta; Wydro, Urszula; Jabłońska-Trypuć, Agata; Butarewicz, Andrzej; Łoboda, Tadeusz

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses sources of sixteen PAHs - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urbanized areas by using selected diagnostic ratios. Simultaneously, an attempt was made to determine how sewage sludge changes PAHs content in urbanized areas soils. In the experiment three lawns along the main roads in Bialystok with different traffic intensity, three doses of sewage sludge and two years of study were considered. There was no effect of fertilization with sewage sludge on the sum of 16 PAHs in urban soil samples, nevertheless, the sum of 16 PAHs was reduced from 2.6 in 2011 to 2.3 mg/kg in 2012. Among 16 tested PAHs compounds, benzo[a]pyrene was the most dominant compound in samples collected in both years - about 15% of all PAHs. The results suggest that application of sludge into the soil did not influence the concentration of 2-3-ring, 4-ring and 5-6-ring PAHs. For the objects fertilized with a dose 150.0 Mg/ha, of sludge the total sum of potentially carcinogenic PAHs in the urban soil lowered by approximately 68% in comparison with the control plots. PAHs contamination of the urban soil samples resulted from the influence of coal, petroleum and biomass combustion. Moreover, PAHs can enter soil via at mospheric deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating sources of PAHs in urban streams based on land use and biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Sofia; Gonzalez, Carla; Vieira, Rute; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2011-04-15

    Toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be found in wastewaters and sewages released from industries and/or urban areas. When discharged untreated to stream waters, they can be a problem to human health. This work represents the first attempt to use PAH and metal concentrations in aquatic moss transplants together with land-use information to identify water pollution sources in urban areas. To do this, the moss Fontinalis antipyretica was collected from a natural stream and transplanted to four different streams in a densely populated area of Lisbon, Portugal. After three months of exposure, mosses were collected and analyzed for metals and for the 16 priority PAHs recommended by the U.S. EPA. Urban streams seem to have a scattered contamination of 6-ring PAHs. Correlations among land-use, metal concentrations, and PAH concentrations indicated that areas occupied by activities of tertiary and industrial sectors had higher PAH concentrations in transplanted mosses, mainly for the sum of the 16 EPA-PAHs and for the 2-, 3- and 5-ringed PAHs, than areas occupied by urban and wooded areas. These PAHs were associated with enhanced Zn and Cu and land use activities that linked the sites to high traffic density. Industrial land use influences PAH concentration in water up to 1000 m of distance from the stream, whereas tertiary sector land use influences it up to 500 m.

  9. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination. - Biomonitoring PAHs in atmosphere using F. benghalensis leaves for its temporal and seasonal variation is cost effective as well as easier

  10. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar [Pollution Ecology Research Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Tripathi, B.D. [Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: sntshprjpt@rediffmail.com

    2008-02-15

    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination. - Biomonitoring PAHs in atmosphere using F. benghalensis leaves for its temporal and seasonal variation is cost effective as well as easier.

  11. Evidence for the Presence of Hn-PAHs in Post AGB Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be ubiquitous in space therefore represent an important class of molecules for the field of astrochemistry. PAHs are relatively stable under interstellar conditions, account for a significant fraction of the known Universe's molecular carbon inventory, and are believed responsible for numerous telltale interstellar infrared emission bands. PAHs can be subdivided into numerous classes, one of which is Hydrogenated PAHs (Hn-PAHs). Hn-PAHs are multi-ringed partially aromatic compounds with excess hydrogenation, leading to a partial disruption of the aromatic system. The infrared spectra of these compounds produce telltale signatures that make them distinct from ordinary aromatic or aliphatic molecules (or a mixture of both). Hn-PAHs may be an important subclass of PAHs that could explain the spectra of some astronomical objects with anomalously large 3.4 micron features. The 3.4 micron feature observed in these objects may be associated with the aliphatic C-H stretching vibrations of the excess hydrogen. If this presumption is correct, we also expect to observe methylene scissoring modes at 6.9 microns. We have recently conducted a series of follow-up observations to compliment our laboratory experiments into the properties of Hn-PAHs. Here we present our laboratory and observational results in support of the hypothesis that Hn-PAHs are a viable candidate molecule as the emission source for numerous post-asymptotic giant branch objects with abnormally large 3.4 micron features.

  12. Effects of carbon substrate enrichment and DOC concentration on biodegradation of PAHs in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, G; Zerhouni, P

    2003-01-01

    Two common reasons to explain slow environmental biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), namely lack of appropriate carbon sources for microbial growth and limited bioavailability of PAHs, were tested in a laboratory bioassay using a creosote-contaminated soil. The soil, containing a total of 8 mg g-1 of 16 PAHs, was sieved and incubated in bottles for 45 days. The first explanation was tested by enrichment with the analogue anthracene and the non-analogue myristic acid, and both failed to stimulate degradation of all PAHs except anthracene. The second explanation was tested by addition of different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with effects depending on the DOC concentration and the molecular size of the PAH. The degradation was enhanced from 10 to 35% for 12 PAHs when the soil was saturated. The degraded amounts of individual PAHs were proportional to their concentration in the soil. The slow in situ degradation of PAHs was enhanced by more than three times by adding water as a solvent. Addition of DOC facilitated the degradation of four- to six-ring PAHs. Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites may be facilitated by creating water-saturated conditions but retarded by addition of other carbon substrates, such as analogue compounds.

  13. Characteristics of PAHs from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Li, Jing; Wu, Bobo; Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Cooking fumes are an important indoor source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because indoor pollution has a more substantial impact on human health than outdoor pollution, PAHs from cooking fumes have drawn considerable attention. In this study, 16 PAHs emitted through deep-frying and frying methods using rapeseed, soybean, peanut, and olive oil were examined under a laboratory fume hood. Controlled experiments were conducted to collect gas- and particulate-phase PAHs emitted from the cooking oil fumes, and PAH concentrations were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that deep-frying methods generate more PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (1.3 and 10.9 times, respectively) because they consume greater volumes of edible oil and involve higher oil temperatures relative to those of frying methods. In addition, the total B[a]Peq concentration of deep-frying is 2.2-fold larger than that of frying. Regarding the four types of edible oils studied, rapeseed oil produced more PAH emission than the other three oil varieties. For all of the cooking tests, three- and four-ringed PAHs were the main PAH components regardless of the food and oil used. Concerning the PAH partition between gas and particulate phase, the gaseous compounds accounted for 59-96 % of the total. Meanwhile, the particulate fraction was richer of high molecular weight PAHs (five-six rings). Deep-frying and frying were confirmed as important sources of PAH pollution in internal environments. The results of this study provide additional insights into the polluting features of PAHs produced via cooking activities in indoor environments.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of Xiamen, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jinping [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Guangdong Environmental Monitoring Centre, Guangzhou 510308 (China); Zhang, Fuwang; Xu, Lingling [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jinsheng, E-mail: jschen@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xu, Ya [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2011-11-15

    An intensive sampling program was conducted from October 2008 to September 2009 at the five different environmental sites in Xiamen, Fujian Province, to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the gaseous and particulate phase, respectively. The PAHs concentrations at different sites were quite distinct during four seasons. The average concentrations of PAHs in winter were about 8.4 times higher than those in spring, and the concentrations of background were 0.56 times lower than those of industrial area. In addition, the higher temperature in summer affected the particle/gas partitioning of PAHs and led to the higher concentrations of gaseous PAHs. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs, which were employed to indicate the primary sources of PAHs in Xiamen, showed that the traffic vehicle exhaust was the largest contributor and the primary source for PAHs in Xiamen, especially in urban area; while the stationary combustion processes, such as petrochemical factories and power plants, were mainly responsible for PAHs sources in the industrial areas. The health risk of PAHs in the particulate phase was higher than those of the gaseous phase at the five sampling sites. The average toxic equivalent (BaP{sub eq}) of the benzo[a]pyrene values for PAHs were 0.14, 0.32, 1.38 and 3.59 ng m{sup -3} in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Furthermore, the results of average BaP{sub eq} in all four seasons indicated that the health risks of particulate PAHs were higher than those of the gaseous PAHs at different sampling sites.

  15. Biodiesel emissions profile in modern diesel vehicles. Part 2: Effect of biodiesel origin on carbonyl, PAH, nitro-PAH and oxy-PAH emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Boutsika, Vasiliki; Stournas, Stamoulis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    2011-01-15

    In the present study, the effects of different biodiesel blends on the unregulated emissions of a Euro 4 compliant passenger car were examined. Two fresh and two oxidized biodiesel fuels of different source materials were blended with an ultra low sulphur automotive diesel fuel at proportions of 10, 20, and 30% v/v. Emission measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with a constant volume sampling (CVS) technique, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the Artemis driving cycles. The experimental results revealed that the addition of biodiesel led to important increases in most carbonyl compounds. Sharp increases were observed with the use of the oxidized biodiesel blends, especially those prepared from used frying oil methyl esters. Similar to carbonyl emissions, most PAH compounds increased with the addition of the oxidized biodiesel blends. It can be assumed that the presence of polymerization products and cyclic acids, along with the degree of unsaturation were the main factors that influenced carbonyl and PAH emissions profile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of interactions between PAH exposure and genetic polymorphisms on PAH-DNA adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative PAH found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. PAHs bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between PAH-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in previous experimental and epidemiologic studies. Several genes have been shown to play an important role in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs, including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. Here, we have explored interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 17 polymorphisms in these genes (rs2198843, rs1456432, rs4646903, rs4646421, rs2606345, rs7495708, rs2472299, rs162549, rs1056837, rs1056836, rs162560, rs10012, rs2617266, rs2719, rs1622002, rs140194, and gene deletion GSTM1-02) and haplotypes on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 547 newborns and in maternal blood of 806 mothers from three different self-described ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed between certain genetic polymorphisms and CYP1A1 haplotype and PAHs in mothers and their newborns in the three ethnic groups. However, with our limited sample size, the current findings are suggestive only, warranting further study.

  17. Mobile sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH: Results of samples collected in a roadway tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, B.A. Jr.; Gordon, G.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A recent review article emphasized the need for further characterizations of the carbonaceous fraction of mobile source emissions, particularly with the impending removal of lead alkyl octane boosters and bromine-containing lead scavengers from regular leaded gasolines. The lead and bromine emitted from the combustion of these fuels have been used as tracers of mobile source emissions for a number of years. Single vehicle emission studies have shed light on the relationship between engine operating parameters and the chemical characteristics of the emissions but they are not suitable for use in source apportionment studies which require emission data from a large number of different vehicles. Air particulate samples collected near a busy highway or in a roadway tunnel would be more appropriate for use in estimating the mobile source contribution of organic compounds to a region. Suspended particle samples collected in a heavily-travelled roadway tunnel (Baltimore Harbor Tunnel, Baltimore, Maryland) were characterized for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some nitro-PAH by gas and liquid chromatographic techniques. These samples included those collected on Teflon filters and on glass fiber filters for investigating any differences in samples collected on an inert (Teflon) and more reactive (glass-fiber) medium. All samples collected on Teflon were backed-up with polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) which trapped any inherent vapor-phase PAH as well as any compounds ''blown-off'' the particles during collection

  18. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We quantified the efficacy of slow-release permanganate-paraffin candles to degrade and mineralize PAHs. ► 14 C-labeled PAHs were used to quantify both adsorption and transformation. ► Permanganate-treated PAHs were more biodegradable in soil microcosms. ► A flow-through candle system was used to quantify PAH removal in urban runoff. - Abstract: Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin–KMnO 4 ) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2–4 h. Using 14 C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO 2 ), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet–dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to

  19. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases (AKRs in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH-catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quiniones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  20. Source identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the urban environment of İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günay Kural

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, İstanbul-Tuzla Region atmosphere is selected as the working area because of this region contains shipyards and shipyard-related side product industries. To examine the PAHs as atmospheric inputs, 46 ambient air samples were collected in Tuzla region of Istanbul, Turkey at 2010. The sample collection was carried out as monthly. Additionally, the volume of the air was drawn and meteorological data recorded. The PAH concentrations were classified as hot and cold season samples. Due to the particle-bond character of PAHs and condensation in cold, the high concentrations were encountered in winter months. Monthly average total PAH concentrations fluctuated between 7.4 ng m-3 (in March-0.05 ng m-3 (in August. The concentrations of total PAHs in cold season were almost hundred times higher than those in hot season. The fossil fuel (gasoline and diesel fuel combustion was found to be the main source of PAHs.

  1. Study of PAH emission from the solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.; Kukharchyk, Tamara I.; Khomich, Valery S.

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for and results of a test study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a few types of solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces of various designs typical for Belarus are discussed. Greatest levels of PAH emission were detected from domestic wastes and wood waste combustion. Lowest levels of PAH emission are from peat briquette combustion. It was found that PAH concentration in off-gases from firewood combustion also varies significantly depending on the type of wood: the highest values of PAH are typical for waste gases from birch firewood combustion in comparison with pine firewood combustion. Draft PAH emission factors are proposed with intended application for emission inventory of such installations

  2. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine invertebrates N. diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    , bioavailability and biotransformation. Measurement of pyrene metabolites, primarily 1-hydroxypyrene, in excretory products has gained considerable attention as a potential biomarker and is widely used to study PAH exposure in humans and animals. Reports on 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for PAH exposure in marine......Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, persistent and toxic contaminants in the marine environment. Uptake of PAHs by marine deposit-feeding invertebrates can be determined by screening for PAH-derived metabolites. Methods for detection and quantification of PAH metabolites may...... invertebrates is on the other hand practically non-existing. The present study investigated formation of pyrene metabolites in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor, with special attention given to the detection of 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-hydroxypyrene was identified in tissues of Nereis diversicolor exposed...

  3. PAH dissipation in a contaminated river sediment under oxic and anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantin, C.; Joner, E.J.; Portal, J.M.; Berthelin, J.

    2005-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to compare PAH degradation in a polluted river sediment under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and to investigate whether input of fresh organic material (cellulose) could enhance such degradation. All measurements were checked against abiotic control treatments to exclude artifacts of sample preparation and non-biological processes like aging. Three- and four-ring PAHs could be degraded by the indigenous microbial community under aerobic conditions, but anaerobic metabolism based on iron and sulphate reduction was not coupled with PAH degradation of even the simplest 3-ring compounds like phenanthrene. Cellulose addition stimulated both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, but had no effect on PAH dissipation. We conclude that natural attenuation of PAHs in polluted river sediments under anaerobic conditions is exceedingly slow. Dredging and biodegradation on land under aerobic conditions would be required to safely remediate and restore polluted sites. - Natural attenuation of PAHs under anaerobic conditions is exceedingly slow

  4. Distribution and Source of Sedimentary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs in River Sediment of Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinawati Rinawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and source identification of sedimentary PAHs from 13 rivers running through Jakarta City were investigated. Freeze-dried sediment samples were extracted by pressurized fluid extraction and purified by two-step of column chromatography. PAHs were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. High concentrations of PAHs, ranging from 1992 to 17635 ng/g-dw, were observed at all sampling locations. Ratios of alkylated PAHs to parent PAHs exhibited both petrogenic and pyrogenic signatures with predominantly petrogenic inputs. High hopanne concentrations (4238-40375 ng/g dry sediment supported the petrogenic input to Jakarta’s rivers. The high concentration of PAHs is indicator for organic micropollutant in the aquatic urban environment in Jakarta that may have the potential to cause adverse effect to the environment.

  5. Bacteria from wheat and cucurbit plant roots metabolize PAHs and aromatic root exudates: Implications for rhizodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Cairn S; Smets, Barth F

    2017-10-03

    The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria that degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits; however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in PAH-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls. Bacteria were isolated from plant roots (rhizobacteria) and selected for growth on anthracene and chrysene on PAH-amended plates. Rhizosphere isolates metabolized 3- and 4-ring PAHs and PAH catabolic intermediates in liquid incubations. Aromatic root exudate compounds, namely flavonoids and simple phenols, were also substrates for isolated rhizobacteria. In particular, the phenolic compounds-morin, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic acid-appear to be linked to bacterial degradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs in the rhizosphere.

  6. Formation of nitro-PAHs from the heterogeneous reaction of ambient particle-bound PAHs with NO3/N2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, K.; Jariyasopit, N.; Simonich, S. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAHs) have been shown to be mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian assays and are classified as probable human carcinogens. Semi-volatile PAHs partition between the gas and particulate phases, depending on their liquid-phase vapor pressures and ambient temperatures. These PAHs have been extensively measured in ambient particulate matter and can ultimately undergo long-range transport from source regions (e.g., China to the western USA) (1). During transport these particle-bound PAHs may undergo reaction with NO3/N2O5 to form nitro-PAH derivatives. Previous studies of heterogeneous nitration of PAHs have used particles composed of graphite, diesel soot, and wood smoke (2-4). This study investigates the heterogeneous formation of nitro-PAHs from ambient particle-bound PAHs from Beijing, China and sites located within the Los Angeles air basin. These ambient particle samples, along with filters coated with isotopically labeled PAHs, were exposed to a mix of NO2/NO3/N2O5 in a 7000 L Teflon chamber, with analysis focused on the heterogeneous formation of molecular weight 247 and 273 nitro-PAHs. The heterogeneous formation of certain nitro-PAHs (including1-nitropyrene and 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene) was observed for some, but not all, ambient samples. Formation of nitro-PAHs typically formed through gas-phase reactions (2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene) was not observed. The effect of particle age and local photochemical conditions during sampling on the degree of nitration in environmental chamber reactions, as well as ambient implications, will be presented. 1. Primbs, T.; Simonich, S.; Schmedding, D.; Wilson, G.; Jaffe, D.; Takami, A.; Kato, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Kajii, Y. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 3551-3558. 2. Esteve, W.; Budzinski, H.; Villenave, E. Atmospheric Environment 2004, 38, 6063-6072. 3. Nguyen, M.; Bedjanian, Y.; Guilloteau, A. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 2009, 62

  7. Increased formation of carcinogenic PAH metabolites in fish promoted by nitrite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Rajamanickam, R.; Wahidullah, S.

    -. The concentrations of the two test toxicants (PAH and nitrite) used were well within the range of field-measured levels (COMAPS, 2002). Biotransformation of PAH in the exposed fish was followed with the help of biomarkers namely, 7-ethoxyresorufin O...-deethylase (EROD) activity and biliary PAH metabolites. The liver somatic index (LSI) was used to determine the physiological status of the fish. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Exposure protocol Juvenile Oreochromis mossambicus (8.6 to 11g) obtained...

  8. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  9. Impact of soil organic matter on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, N.; Xue, M. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tao, S., E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.c [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-06-15

    The knowledge on the distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soils can provide better understanding for their fate in the environment. In the present study, the n-butanol extraction and humic fractionation were applied to investigate the impact of SOM on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicated that 80.5%-94.8% of the target PAHs could be extracted by n-butanol and 63.1%-94.6% of PAHs were associated with fulvic acid (FA). Concentrations of un-extracted PAHs increased significantly with the increasing soil organic matter (SOM), however, such an association was absent for the extractable fractions. The results suggested that the sequestration played a critical role in the accumulation of PAHs in soils. SOM also retarded the diffusion of PAHs into the humin fractions. It implied that sequestration in SOM was critical for PAH distribution in soils, while the properties of PAH compounds also had great influences. - Soil organic matter played an important role in the distribution of PAHs in soils through sequestration.

  10. Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs in the Far Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR PAH bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of PAHs, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.

  11. Evolution of bacterial community during bioremediation of PAHs in a coal tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, C.; Ryngaert, A.; Perie, F.; Diels, L.; Damidot, D. [University of Lille, Lille (France)

    2010-11-15

    The monitoring of a windrow treatment applied to soil contaminated by mostly 2, 3- and 4-ring PAHs produced by coal tar distillation was performed by following the evolution of both PAH concentration and the bacterial community. Total and PAH-degrading bacterial community structures were followed by 165 rRNA PCR-DGGE in parallel with quantification by bacterial counts and 16 PAH measurements. Six months of biological treatment led to a strong decrease in 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAH concentrations (98, 97 and 82%, respectively). This result was associated with the activity of bacterial PAH-degraders belonging mainly to the Gamma proteobacteria, in particular the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genera which were detected over the course of the treatment. This group was considered to be a good bioindicator to determine the potential PAH biodegradation of contaminated soil. Conversely other species like the Beta proteobacteria were detected after 3 months when 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs were almost completely degraded. Thus presence of the Beta proteobacteria group could be considered a good candidate indicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment of this type of PAH contaminated soil.

  12. Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the rhizosphere: Synthesis through meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Bin; He Yan; Chen Huaihai; Xu Jianming; Rengel, Zed

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread and persistent organic pollutants with high carcinogenic effect and toxicity; their behavior and fate in the soil-plant system have been widely investigated. In the present paper, meta-analysis was used to explore the interaction between plant growth and dissipation of PAHs in soil based on the large body of published literature. Plants have a promoting effect on PAH dissipation in soils. There was no difference in PAH dissipation between soils contaminated with single and mixed PAHs. However, plants had a more obvious effect on PAH dissipation in freshly-spiked soils than in long-term field-polluted soils. Additionally, a positive effect of the number of microbial populations capable of degrading PAHs was observed in the rhizosphere compared with the bulk soil. Our meta-analysis established the importance of the rhizosphere effect on PAH dissipation in variety of the soil-plant systems. - The meta-analysis provides the first quantitative evidence of the positive effect of rhizosphere processes on PAH dissipation.

  13. The investigation of reducing PAHs emission from coal pyrolysis by gaseous catalytic cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Chun; Li, Guanlong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.

  14. Cell size dependence of additive versus synergetic effects of UV radiation and PAHs on oceanic phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeveste, Pedro; Agusti, Susana; Dachs, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' (PAHs) toxicity is enhanced by the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which levels have arisen due to the thinning of the ozone layer. In this study, PAHs' phototoxicity for natural marine phytoplankton was tested. Different concentrations of a mixture of 16 PAHs were added to natural phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Oceans and exposed to natural sunlight received in situ, including treatments where the UVR bands were removed. PAHs' toxicity was observed for all the phytoplankton groups studied in all the waters and treatments tested, but only for the pico-sized group a synergetic effect of the mixture and UVR was observed (p = 0.009). When comparing phototoxicity in phytoplankton from oligotrophic and eutrophic waters, synergy was only observed at the oligotrophic communities (p = 0.02) where pico-sized phytoplankton dominated. The degree of sensitivity was related to the trophic degree, decreasing as Chlorophyll a concentration increased. - Highlights: → The smallest picocyanobacteria were the most sensitive to PAHs and UVR. → PAHs-UVR synergism for the picophytoplankton and the oligotrophic communities. → PAHs-UVR additivity for the nanophytoplankton and the eutrophic communities. → An irradiance threshold is suggested to determine the joint action of UVR and PAHs. - Cell size and UVR levels determine additive/synergetic effects of PAHs and UVR to oceanic phytoplankton.

  15. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contamination in Different Environmental Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un Hyuk Yim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon.

  16. The Investigation of Reducing PAHs Emission from Coal Pyrolysis by Gaseous Catalytic Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.

  17. PAHs pollution from traffic sources in air of Hangzhou, China: trend and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Zhong; Wang, Jing

    2005-01-01

    PAHs pollution in air of arterial roads was investigated from October 1998 to October 2001 in Hangzhou, China. The results showed that sigma10 PAHs was 13-36 microg/m3, among which, BaP, a strong carcinogenic kind ranged from 0.034 microg/m3 to 0.12 microg/m3. PAHs pollutions in four seasons were winter > autumn > spring-summer. The annual averages of sigmaPAHs concentration were 25 microg/m3 for 1999, 28 microg/m3 for 2000, and 29 microg/m3 for 2001, respectively. Leaded gasoline was banned in December 1998 in Hangzhou, thus comparative measurements with PAHs in leaded and lead-free gasoline powered motor exhausts made it certain that the use of lead-free gasoline leaded to a heavier PAHs pollution in roadside air from December, 1998, in China, and sigmaPAHs in air samples after the lead-banning were more than twice of that in samples before the action. For the large contribution of vehicle discharge to air pollution in roadside, further research was performed to suggest the factors influencing PAHs distribution in vehicle exhaust in order to control air pollution effectively. Compared to gasoline engines, emissions from diesel engines were less toxic, although they might produce more PAHs. Of the same vehicular and oil type, automobiles of longer mileages produced more toxic PAHs. PAHs distributions in the vehicular exhausts were related to the oil type. Large difference was found in the abundance of 3-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs between exhausts from gasoline and diesel oil engines. Diesel oil engines produced relative lighter PAHs such as NAPH, ACEN, FLUOR, while gasoline engines emitted heavier kinds such as BkF, IN and BP. The automobile produced more PAHs with the increase of mileage especially FLUR, PY, BaP, BP. Some significant ratios for traffic source in Hangzhou such as PHEN/AN, FLUR/PY, IN/BP were 0.50-4.3, 0.58-7.4, 0.51-1.5, respectively. A source fingerprint for vehicle exhausts of a mixture of vehicle and oil types in the city district for light

  18. Biological impact of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ePAHs) as endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Dong, Sijun; Wang, Hongou; Tao, Shu; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are often detected in the environment and are regarded as endocrine disruptors. We here designated mixtures of PAHs in the environment as environmental PAHs (ePAHs) to discuss their effects collectively, which could be different from the sum of the constituent PAHs. We first summarized the biological impact of environmental PAHs (ePAHs) found in the atmosphere, sediments, soils, and water as a result of human activities, accidents, or natural phenomena. ePAHs are characterized by their sources and forms, followed by their biological effects and social impact, and bioassays that are used to investigate their biological effects. The findings of the bioassays have demonstrated that ePAHs have the ability to affect the endocrine systems of humans and animals. The pathways that mediate cell signaling for the endocrine disruptions induced by ePAHs and PAHs have also been summarized in order to obtain a clearer understanding of the mechanisms responsible for these effects without animal tests; they include specific signaling pathways (MAPK and other signaling pathways), regulatory mechanisms (chromatin/epigenetic regulation, cell cycle/DNA damage control, and cytoskeletal/adhesion regulation), and cell functions (apoptosis, autophagy, immune responses/inflammation, neurological responses, and development/differentiation) induced by specific PAHs, such as benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benz[l]aceanthrylene, cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, 3-methylcholanthrene, perylene, phenanthrene, and pyrene as well as their derivatives. Estrogen signaling is one of the most studied pathways associated with the endocrine-disrupting activities of PAHs, and involves estrogen receptors and aryl hydrocarbon receptors. However, some of the actions of PAHs are contradictory, complex, and unexplainable. Although several possibilities have been suggested, such as direct interactions between PAHs and

  19. Seasonal Trend of PAHs Concentrations in Farmed Mussels from the Coastal Areas of the Naples, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; Perugini, Monia; Lambiase, Sara; Conte, Annamaria; Baldi, Loredana; Amorena, Michele

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on the results about the chemical pollution pressure in the Gulf of Naples and nearby coastal areas. Farmed mussels were analysed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results documented a decreasing trend in the PAHs levels respect to the past years. The Bay of Pozzuoli remains as the most contaminated site within the Lucrino area with the highest reported number of samples exceeding the benzo(a)pyrene and PAHs sum limits. All the samples with concentrations above the European regulatory limit were collected in the winter period illustrating a seasonal trend of PAHs distribution in mussels during the 4 years investigated.

  20. Pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in sediments and organisms from Salina Cruz Port, Oaxaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Villanueva, S.; Diaz, G.; Pica, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence and levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in [sediments and biota from the Port of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca; were evaluated by means of gas capillary chromatography using columns of high resolution. The results show a seasonal variability of the PAH's concentrations in sediments being higher in the port area and lower in oceanic sediments. The increase of the PAH's levels in Crassostrea iridiscens and Penaeus stylirostris is important and related to the bioaccumulation process. The presence of PAH's conformed by 4 y 5 benzene rings in these species must be noted specially because they have carcinogenic properties and their effects on the local fisheries should be considered. (Author)

  1. Cell size dependence of additive versus synergetic effects of UV radiation and PAHs on oceanic phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeveste, Pedro, E-mail: pecheveste@imedea.uib-csic.es [Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados, Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles, Illes Balears (Spain); Agusti, Susana [Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados, Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles, Illes Balears (Spain); Dachs, Jordi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' (PAHs) toxicity is enhanced by the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which levels have arisen due to the thinning of the ozone layer. In this study, PAHs' phototoxicity for natural marine phytoplankton was tested. Different concentrations of a mixture of 16 PAHs were added to natural phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Oceans and exposed to natural sunlight received in situ, including treatments where the UVR bands were removed. PAHs' toxicity was observed for all the phytoplankton groups studied in all the waters and treatments tested, but only for the pico-sized group a synergetic effect of the mixture and UVR was observed (p = 0.009). When comparing phototoxicity in phytoplankton from oligotrophic and eutrophic waters, synergy was only observed at the oligotrophic communities (p = 0.02) where pico-sized phytoplankton dominated. The degree of sensitivity was related to the trophic degree, decreasing as Chlorophyll a concentration increased. - Highlights: > The smallest picocyanobacteria were the most sensitive to PAHs and UVR. > PAHs-UVR synergism for the picophytoplankton and the oligotrophic communities. > PAHs-UVR additivity for the nanophytoplankton and the eutrophic communities. > An irradiance threshold is suggested to determine the joint action of UVR and PAHs. - Cell size and UVR levels determine additive/synergetic effects of PAHs and UVR to oceanic phytoplankton.

  2. Occurrence, distribution and health risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs and azaarenes) in street dust from a major West African Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2016-05-15

    Scientific evidence suggests that the burden of disease on urban residents of sub-Saharan African Countries is increasing, partly as a result of exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic environmental chemicals. However, characterization of the levels, composition pattern and sources of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in environmental samples from African cities is still lacking. This study measured the PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) and azaarene (AZAs) content of street dusts collected from Kumasi, Ghana (a major metropolis located in the tropical forest zone of West Africa). The ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs, ∑OPAHs and ∑AZAs concentration in street dust averaged 2570 ng g(-1) (range: 181-7600 ng g(-1)), 833 ng g(-1) (57-4200 ng g(-1)) and 73 ng g(-1) (3.3-240 ng g(-1)), respectively. The concentrations of ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs were strongly correlated (n=25) with ∑OPAHs (r=0.96, p10(-6) indicating high risk of contracting cancer from exposure to street dust from Kumasi. The contribution of OPAHs, AZAs, and alkyl-PAHs in street dust to cancer risk could not be quantified because of lack of toxicity equivalency factors for these compounds; however this could be significant because of their high concentration and known higher toxicity of some polar PACs and alkyl-PAHs than their related parent-PAHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pristine Arctic: Background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína, E-mail: hronn.o.jorundsdottir@matis.is [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jensen, Sophie [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik [Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Svavarsson, Jörundur [University of Iceland, Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Askja - Natural Science Building, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík (Iceland); Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland); El-Taliawy, Haitham [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hoydal, Katrin S. [The Faroese Environment Agency, Traðagøta 38, P.O. Box 2048, FO-165 Argir, the Faroe Islands (Faroe Islands); Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland)

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ{sub 16}PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ{sub 16}PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. - Highlights: • Low levels of PAHs in blue mussels from remote areas of the Arctic. • Low

  4. Source seasonality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Zhang, G; Li, X D; Qi, S H; Liu, G Q; Peng, X Z

    2006-02-15

    Mega-cities are large sources of air pollution on a regional base. Differences in energy structures, geographical settings and regional climate features lead to a large variety of air pollution sources from place to place. To understand the seasonality of air pollution sources is critical to precise emission inventories and a sound protection of human health. Based on a year-round dataset, the sources of PAHs in the air of Guangzhou were drawn by principal factor analysis (PCA) in combination with diagnostic ratios, and the seasonality of these sources were analyzed by PCA/MLR (multiple linear regressions) and discussed. The average total gaseous and particulate PAHs concentrations were 313 and 23.7 ng m(-3), respectively, with a higher concentration of vapor PAHs in summer and particulate PAHs in winter. In addition to vehicle exhaust, which contributed 69% of the particulate PAHs, coal combustion was still an important source and contributed 31% of the particulate PAHs. Relatively constant contribution from coal combustion was found through the year, implying that coal combustion in power plants was not a seasonally dependent source. Evaporation from contaminated ground may be an important source of light PAHs in summer, providing an average contribution of 68% to the total PAHs in this study. By comparing the PAH concentrations and meteorological parameters, we found that higher concentrations of particulate PAHs in winter resulted from enhanced vehicle exhaust under low temperature and accumulation of pollutants under decreased boundary layer, slower wind speed, and long-term dryness conditions. It is suggested that the typical subtropical monsoon climate in South China, cool and dry in winter, hot and humid in summer, may play a key role in controlling the source seasonality (by enhancing vehicle exhaust in winter, ground evaporation in summer), and hence the ambient concentrations of PAHs in the air.

  5. Leaching of PAHs from agricultural soils treated with oil shale combustion ash: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimova, Jekaterina; Adamson, Jasper; Reinik, Janek; Irha, Natalya

    2016-10-01

    The present study focuses on the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils amended with oil shale ash (OSA). Leachability studies to assess the release of PAHs to the environment are essential before the application of OSA in agriculture. A quantitative estimation of the leaching of PAHs from two types of soil and two types of OSA was undertaken in this study. Two leaching approaches were chosen: (1) a traditional one step leaching scheme and (2) a leaching scheme with pretreatment, i.e.., incubation of the material in wet conditions imitating the field conditions, followed by a traditional leaching procedure keeping the total amount of water constant. The total amount of PAHs leached from soil/OSA mixtures was in the range of 15 to 48 μg/kg. The amount of total PAHs leached was higher for the incubation method, compared to the traditional leaching method, particularly for Podzolic Gleysols soil. This suggests that for the incubation method, the content of organic matter and clay minerals of the soil influence the fate of PAHs more strongly compared to the traditional leaching scheme. The amount of PAHs leached from OSA samples is higher than from soil/OSA mixtures, which suggests soils to inhibit the release of PAHs. Calculated amount of PAHs from experimental soil and OSA leaching experiments differed considerably from real values. Thus, it is not possible to estimate the amount of PAHs leached from soil/OSA mixtures based on the knowledge of the amount of PAHs leached from soil and OSA samples separately.

  6. Association of plasma IL-6 and Hsp70 with HRV at different levels of PAHs metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ye

    Full Text Available Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV, a strong predictor of cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism is not well understood.We hypothesized that PAHs might induce systemic inflammation and stress response, contributing to altered cardiac autonomic function.HRV indices were measured using a 3-channel digital Holter monitor in 800 coke oven workers. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 were determined using ELISA. Twelve urinary PAHs metabolites (OH-PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.We found that significant dose-dependent relationships between four urinary OH-PAHs and IL-6 (all Ptrend<0.05; and an increase in quartiles of IL-6 was significantly associated with a decrease in total power (TP and low frequency (LF (Ptrend = 0.014 and 0.006, respectively. In particular, elevated IL-6 was associated in a dose-dependent manner with decreased TP and LF in the high-PAHs metabolites groups (all Ptrend<0.05, but not in the low-PAHs metabolites groups. No significant association between Hsp70 and HRV in total population was found after multivariate adjustment. However, increased Hsp70 was significantly associated with elevated standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN, TP and LF in the low-PAHs metabolites groups (all Ptrend<0.05. We also observed that both IL-6 and Hsp70 significantly interacted with multiple PAHs metabolites in relation to HRV.In coke oven workers, increased IL-6 was associated with a dose-response decreased HRV in the high-PAHs metabolites groups, whereas increase of Hsp70 can result in significant dose-related increase in HRV in the low-PAHs metabolites groups.

  7. Effect of Substrate Character on Heterogeneous Ozone Reaction Rate with Individual PAHs and Their Reaction Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, B. A.; Stevens, T.

    2009-12-01

    Vehicle exhaust contains many unregulated chemical compounds that are harmful to human health and the natural environment, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a class of organic compounds derived from fuel combustion that can be carcinogenic and mutagenic. PAHs have been quantified in vehicle-derived ultrafine particles (Dphealth problems, including respiratory and cardiac disease. Once emitted into the atmosphere, particle-bound PAHs can undergo “aging” reactions with oxidants, such as ozone, to form more polar species. These polar reaction products include species such as quinones that can be more toxic than the parent PAH compounds. Here, 0.4ppm ozone was reacted over a 24-hour period with the 16 EPA priority PAHs plus coronene adsorbed to (i) a quartz fiber filter and (ii) NIST diesel PM. The difference in the PAH/O3 heterogeneous reaction rate resulting from the two substrates will be discussed. The experiments were completed by spiking a known PAH mixture to the solid, reacting the samples with gas-phase ozone, and determining both PAH loss over time and products formed, using thermal-desorption gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). The individual PAHs anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, adsorbed to a QFF were also separately reacted with 0.4 ppm ozone. A volatilization control and the collection of volatilized PAHs using a Tenax-packed thermal desorption vial completed the mass balance and aided determination parent-product relationships. Heterogeneous reaction products analyzed directly without derivatization indicate the formation of 9,10-anthracenedione, 9H-fluoren-9-one, and (1,1’-biphenyl)-2,2’-dicarboxaldehyde from the reaction of ozone with the PAH mix on a QFF, but only 9,10-anthracenedione was detected for the diesel PM reaction. The implications of these results for aging of diesel particulate in urban environments will be discussed.

  8. Characteristics of PAHs in farmland soil and rainfall runoff in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongguang; Xu, Mengmeng; Liu, Aifeng; Tian, Yong; Zhao, Zongshan

    2017-10-14

    Rainfall runoff can remove certain amounts of pollutants from contaminated farmland soil and result in a decline in water quality. However, the leaching behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with rainfall have been rarely reported due to wide variations in the soil compositions, rainfall conditions, and sources of soil PAHs in complex farmland ecosystems. In this paper, the levels, spatial distributions, and composition profiles of PAHs in 30 farmland soil samples and 49 rainfall-runoff samples from the Tianjin region in 2012 were studied to investigate their leaching behaviors caused by rainfall runoff. The contents of the Σ 16 PAHs ranged from 58.53 to 3137.90 μg/kg in the soil and 146.58 to 3636.59 μg/L in the runoff. In total, most of the soil sampling sites (23 of 30) were contaminated, and biomass and petroleum combustion were proposed as the main sources of the soil PAHs. Both the spatial distributions of the soil and the runoff PAHs show a decreasing trend moving away from the downtown, which suggested that the leaching behaviors of PAHs in a larger region during rainfall may be mainly affected by the compounds themselves. In addition, 4- and 5-ring PAHs are the dominant components in farmland soil and 3- and 4-ring PAHs dominate the runoff. Comparisons of the PAH pairs and enrichment ratios showed that acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and fluoranthene were more easily transferred into water systems from soil than benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno[123-cd]pyrene, which indicated that PAHs with low molecular weight are preferentially dissolved due to their higher solubility compared to those with high molecular weight.

  9. Air-water exchange of PAHs and OPAHs at a superfund mega-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Blair Paulik, L; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-12-15

    Chemical fate is a concern at environmentally contaminated sites, but characterizing that fate can be difficult. Identifying and quantifying the movement of chemicals at the air-water interface are important steps in characterizing chemical fate. Superfund sites are often suspected sources of air pollution due to legacy sediment and water contamination. A quantitative assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) diffusive flux in a river system that contains a Superfund Mega-site, and passes through residential, urban and agricultural land, has not been reported before. Here, passive sampling devices (PSDs) were used to measure 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) in air and water. From these concentrations the magnitude and direction of contaminant flux between these two compartments was calculated. The magnitude of PAH flux was greater at sites near or within the Superfund Mega-site than outside of the Superfund Mega-site. The largest net individual PAH deposition at a single site was naphthalene at a rate of -14,200 (±5780) (ng/m 2 )/day. The estimated one-year total flux of phenanthrene was -7.9×10 5 (ng/m 2 )/year. Human health risk associated with inhalation of vapor phase PAHs and dermal exposure to PAHs in water were assessed by calculating benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations. Excess lifetime cancer risk estimates show potential increased risk associated with exposure to PAHs at sites within and in close proximity to the Superfund Mega-site. Specifically, estimated excess lifetime cancer risk associated with dermal exposure and inhalation of PAHs was above 1 in 1 million within the Superfund Mega-site. The predominant depositional flux profile observed in this study suggests that the river water in this Superfund site is largely a sink for airborne PAHs, rather than a source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Compositional effects on PAH and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2017-02-05

    Gasoline surrogate fuels are widely used to understand the fundamental combustion properties of complex refinery gasoline fuels. In this study, the compositional effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot formation were investigated experimentally for gasoline surrogate mixtures comprising n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene in counterflow diffusion flames. A comprehensive kinetic model for the gasoline surrogate mixtures was developed to accurately predict the fuel oxidation along with the formation of PAHs and soot in flames. This combined model was first tested against ignition delay times and laminar burning velocities data. The proposed model for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C24H12) was based on previous studies and was tested against existing and present new experimental data. Additionally, in the accompanied soot model, PAHs with sizes larger than (including) pyrene were used for the inception of soot particles, followed by particle coagulations and PAH condensation/chemical reactions on soot surfaces. The major pathways for the formation of PAHs were also identified for the surrogate mixtures. The model accurately captures the synergistic PAH formation characteristics observed experimentally for n-heptane/toluene and iso-octane/toluene binary mixtures. Furthermore, the present experimental and modeling results also elucidated different trends in the formation of larger PAHs and soot between binary n-heptane/iso-octane and ternary n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. Propargyl radicals (C3H3) were shown to be important in the formation and growth of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane mixtures when the iso-octane concentration increased; however, reactions involving benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) played a significant role in the formation of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. These results indicated that the formation of PAHs and subsequently soot was strongly affected by the composition of gasoline surrogate mixtures.

  11. Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical rain forest environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Martin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Martius, Christopher; Bandeira, Adelmar G.; Garcia, Marcos V.B.; Amelung, Wulf

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish between pyrogenic and biological sources of PAHs in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, we determined the concentrations of 21 PAHs in leaves, bark, twigs, and stem wood of forest trees, dead wood, mineral topsoil, litter layer, air, and Nasutitermes termite nest compartments. Naphthalene (NAPH) was the most abundant PAH with concentrations of 35 ng m -3 in air (>85% of the Σ21PAHs concentration), up to 1000 μg kg -1 in plants (>90%), 477 μg kg -1 in litter (>90%), 32 μg kg -1 in topsoil (>90%), and 160 μg kg -1 (>55%) in termite nests. In plants, the concentrations of PAHs in general decreased in the order leaves > bark > twigs > stem wood. The concentrations of most low-molecular weight PAHs in leaves and bark were near equilibrium with air, but those of NAPH were up to 50 times higher. Thus, the atmosphere seemed to be the major source of all PAHs in plants except for NAPH. Additionally, phenanthrene (PHEN) had elevated concentrations in bark and twigs of Vismia cayennensis trees (12-60 μg kg -1 ), which might have produced PHEN. In the mineral soil, perylene (PERY) was more abundant than in the litter layer, probably because of in situ biological production. Nasutitermes nests had the highest concentrations of most PAHs in exterior compartments (on average 8 and 15 μg kg -1 compared to -1 in interior parts) and high PERY concentrations in all compartments (12-86 μg kg -1 ), indicating an in situ production of PERY in the nests. Our results demonstrate that the deposition of pyrolytic PAHs from the atmosphere controls the concentrations of most PAHs. However, the occurrence of NAPH, PHEN, and PERY in plants, termite nests, and soils at elevated concentrations supports the assumption of their biological origin. - Evidence of non-pyrolytic, biogenic production of PAHs is provided

  12. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  13. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  14. Supplementary measurements for air monitoring under NOVANA - Benzene and PAH; Supplerende maalinger til luftovervaagning under NOVANA - benzen og PAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Bossi, R.

    2011-10-15

    The report presents results from a project carried out for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The aim of the project was to carry out several measuring campaigns in order to be able to better assess the monitoring needs for PAH and benzene in relation to EU's air quality directives. The results show that the mean concentrations of benzene are almost at the same level in Denmark's four largest cities, and that the concentrations are both below the threshold value (5mug/m3) as well as below the lower assessment threshold (2mug/m3). The report presents a method for objectively estimation the benzene concentration based on measurements of CO. The method can be applied to fulfil the monitoring need for benzene in those zones where no measurements of benzene are made. Measurements of PAH, especially benzo(a)pyrene, have been made during 12 months in the period 2010-2011 in an area with many wood burning furnaces are used (the town Jyllinge). The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jyllinge is almost three times higher than in the street H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jylllinge are 0,6 ng/m3, which corresponds to the upper assessment threshold (0,6 ng/m3) and is 40% below the measuring value (1 ng/m3). On this basis, there is a need for re-evaluating the monitoring of PAH in the sub-programme for air under NOVANA. Measurements of PM{sub 10} showed that the levels in the towns Jyllinge, Lille Valby/Risoe and at the H.C. Oersted Institute in Copenhagen are all at about 20-22 mug/m3. (LN)

  15. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by immobilized bacteria with plant residue and biochar as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoliang; Yuan, Miaoxin; Qian, Linbo [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Science; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are largely accumulated in soils in China. The immobilized-microorganism technique (IMT) is a potential approach for abating soil contamination with PAHs. However, few studies about the application of IMT to contaminated soil remediation were reported. Due to recalcitrance to decomposition, biochar application to soil may enhance soil carbon sequestration, but few studies on the application of biochars to remediation of contaminated soil were reported. In this study, we illustrated enhanced bioremediation of soil having a long history of PAH contamination by IMT using plant residues and biochars as carriers. Two PAH-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and an unidentified indigenous bacterium, were selected for IMT. The extractability and biodegradation of 15 PAHs in solution and an actual PAH-contaminated soil amended with immobilized-bacteria materials were investigated under different incubation periods. The effects of carriers and the molecular weight of PAHs on bioremediation efficiency were determined to illustrate their different bio-dissipation mechanisms of PAHs in soil. The IMT can considerably enhance the removal of PAHs. Carriers impose different effects on PAH bio-dissipation by amended soil with immobilized-bacteria, which can directly degrade the carrier-associated PAHs. The removal of PAHs from soil depended on PAH molecular weight and carrier types. Enhanced bio-dissipation by IMT was much stronger for 4- and 5-ring PAHs than for 3- and 6-ring ones in soil. Only P400 biochar-immobilized bacteria enhanced bio-dissipation of all PAHs in contaminated soil after a 90-day incubation. Biochar can promote bioremediation of contaminated soil as microbial carriers of IMT. It is vital to select an appropriate biochar as an immobilized carrier to stimulate biodegradation. It is feasible to use adsorption carriers with high sorptive capabilities to concentrate PAHs as well as microorganisms and thereby enhance

  16. Dry Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a Suburban Site in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xincheng; Wang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xianlei

    2017-04-01

    A great amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been generated by industrial production, waste incineration and landfill, traffic and road dust etc. They are emitted into atmosphere and afterwards enter into water body and soil through deposition, resulting in wide distribution of PAHs in environment. However, the dry deposition of PAHs from atmosphere has not been well studied, especially in the aspects of its characteristics, environmental and health effects, sources and mechanism. This study measured PAHs dry deposition in the northwest suburban area of Beijing. Dry deposition samples (i.e. dustfall samples) were collected at the sampling site located in China University of Petroleum - Beijing in 2012-2016. And PAHs in the samples were determined by GC/MS. The dry deposition flux of 16 US EPA priority PAHsPAH16) was 2.58 μg/(m^2·d), which was lower than those in other regions of North China. Its seasonal variability was more significant than annual variability (p spring > autumn > summer. The amount of ΣPAH16 removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition process accounted for only 1.2% of their emissions, indicating that the atmosphere self-purification capacity was quite limited and emission reduction measures would play a key role in controlling PAHs air pollution. However, PAHs dry deposition would deteriorate soil quality since the content of ΣPAH16 in dustfall was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in soil in the same area. Dermal exposure resulting from PAHs dry deposition was not the major route. The sources of PAHs dry deposition varied with seasons. The profile and specific ratios of PAHs showed that in winter, domestic coal combustion was the main source of PAHs with the contribution up to 77%; in spring and summer, the impact of coal combustion decreased and the contribution of vehicle exhaust increased to 30% - 45%; in fall, in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust, the impact of biomass burning was observed

  17. Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content; Metodutveckling foer indirekt bestaemning av PAH-halt utgaaende fraan maett momentan CO-halt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Rolf; Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the project 'Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content' is to investigate the possibility to develop a method for continuous optimisation of NO{sub x}-emissions by decreased air ratio, without significant increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as PAH. The general idea has been to find a indirect online method to predict the emissions of heavier hydrocarbons by: - creating a correlation between the content of CO and PAH, - controlling the air ratio by the CO-content, and - integrating the calculated PAH-content from CO-content. Today many boilers are operated with a low air ratio to minimise the NO{sub x} content and the NO{sub x}-fee. A low ratio increases the risk of high CO contents in the flue gas as well as increased contents of VOC and PAH. Other boilers are operated with high air ratios in order to minimise the CO content, which in some cases will result in unnecessary high NO{sub x} emissions. One of the main difficulties in optimising the air ratio to the most environmental friendly level is the lack of a suitable and well proven PAH instrument. There are today no available instruments for instantaneous and continuous measurement of PAH. PAH is normally measured as an average value during a period of at least one hour. It is not possible to detect short peaks. The development of the CO-method has been based on data from a CFB-boiler in Korsta in Sundsvall (Vaermeforskrapport 541). The data shows a clear correlation between THC and CO. The correlation seems to be mostly dependent of moisture content and load. The development presented in the report shows that it is possible to find a method to predict the PAH content from the CO-content in the flue gas. The next phase aims to improve and implement the method, by measurements and adaptation in a plant. The practical use of the method is as a tool to optimise the emission of CO, NO{sub x}, THC and PAH and/or to predict the PAH-emission during

  18. VOCs and PAHs emissions from creosote-treated wood in a field storage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E; Roca, F J; Perales, J F; Guardino, X; Berenguer, M J

    2008-08-25

    In this study, the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, in this case aromatic hydrocarbons containing one benzene ring and furans) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from wood recently treated with creosote are examined. The VOCs and PAHs were identified and quantified in the gas phase. Additionally, the PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase. Glass multi-sorbent tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen-569) were used to hold the VOCs. The analysis was performed using automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PAHs vapours were collected on XAD-2 resin, and particulate matter was collected on glass fibre filters. The PAHs were analysed using GC/MS. The main components of the vapours released from the creosote-treated wood were naphthalene, toluene, m+p-xylene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene, benzene and 2-methylnaphthalene. VOCs emission concentrations ranged from 35 mg m(-3) of air on the day of treatment to 5 mg m(-3) eight days later. PAHs emission concentrations ranged from 28 microg m(-3) of air on the day of treatment to 4 microg m(-3) eight days later. The air concentrations of PAHs in particulate matter were composed predominantly of benzo[b+j]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene and 1-methylnaphthalene. The emission concentrations of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons varied between 0.2 and 43.5 ng m(-3). Finally, the emission factors of VOCs and PAHs were determined.

  19. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. 1-Hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of using the pyrene metabolite I-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure was investigated by exposure of the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor to several PAHs in the laboratory. Animals were exposed to pyrene alone and to five different...

  1. Impact of soil amendments and the plant rhizosphere on PAH behaviour in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E.C.; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Carbonaceous amendments reduce PAH dissolved concentrations (Cfree), limiting their uptake and toxicity. A soil contaminated with PAHs was mixed with activated carbon (AC), charcoal or compost and planted with radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and Cfree, chemical activities and diffusive uptake of th...

  2. Health implications of PAH release from coated cast iron drinking water distribution systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokker, E J Mirjam; van de Ven, Bianca M; de Jongh, Cindy M; Slaats, P G G Nellie

    2013-05-01

    Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans. We estimated the potential human cancer risk from PAHs in coated cast iron water mains. In a Dutch nationwide study, we collected drinking water samples at 120 locations over a period of 17 days under various operational conditions, such as undisturbed operation, during flushing of pipes, and after a mains repair, and analyzed these samples for PAHs. We then estimated the health risk associated with an exposure scenario over a lifetime. During flushing, PAH levels frequently exceeded drinking water quality standards; after flushing, these levels dropped rapidly. After the repair of cast iron water mains, PAH levels exceeded the drinking water standards for up to 40 days in some locations. The estimated margin of exposure for PAH exposure through drinking water was > 10,000 for all 120 measurement locations, which suggests that PAH exposure through drinking water is of low concern for consumer health. However, factors that differ among water systems, such as the use of chlorination for disinfection, may influence PAH levels in other locations.

  3. Investigation of the release of PAHs from artificially contaminated sediments using cyclolipopeptidic biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portet-Koltalo, F; Ammami, M T; Benamar, A; Wang, H; Le Derf, F; Duclairoir-Poc, C

    2013-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be preponderant in contaminated sediments and understanding how they are sorbed in the different mineral and organic fractions of the sediment is critical for effective removal strategies. For this purpose, a mixture of seven PAHs was studied at the sediment/water interface and sorption isotherms were obtained. The influence of various factors on the sorption behavior of PAHs was evaluated, such as the nature of minerals, pH, ionic strength and amount of organic matter. Afterwards, the release of PAHs from the sediment by surfactants was investigated. The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was compared to natural biosurfactants, of cyclolipopeptidic type (amphisin and viscosin-like mixture), produced by two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. The desorption of PAHs (from naphthalene to pyrene), from the highly retentive kaolinite fraction, could be favored by adding SDS or amphisin, but viscosin-like biosurfactants were only effective for 2-3 ring PAHs desorption (naphthalene to phenanthrene). Moreover, while SDS favors the release of all the target PAHs from a model sediment containing organic matter, the two biosurfactants tested were only effective to desorb the lowest molecular weight PAHs (naphthalene to fluorene). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of PAHs uptake by selected Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones from municipal and industrial sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gworek, Barbara; Klimczak, Katarzyna; Kijeńska, Marta; Gozdowski, Dariusz

    2016-10-01

    The study was focused on two goals: (i) the confirmation of the existence of a general relation between the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and in plants growing in it, regardless of the type and content of sewage sludge, and (ii) if so, the answer to the question whether the uptake of PAHs by plants depends on their type. To realize the set aims, the contents of PAHs in four differentiated plant species were measured, two belonging to the Monocotyledones and two belonging to Dicotyledones group, growing in municipal and industrial sewage sludge in two locations. All the investigations were carried out during the period of 3 years. The results clearly demonstrated that the uptake of PAHs by a plant depended on polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentration in the sewage sludge. The relation between accumulation coefficient of PAHs in plant material vs. the content of PAH in sewage sludge was of exponential character. The results indicate that in case of four- and five-ring PAHs, the root uptake mechanism from soil solution occurs, regardless of the type and origin of sewage sludge and the type of plant. For three-ring PAHs, we can assume for Monocotyledones that the root uptake mechanism occurs because we observe a significant correlation between the content of fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene in plant material and in the sewage sludge. For Dicotyledones, the correlation is insignificant, and in this case probably two mechanisms occur-the uptake by roots and by leaves.

  5. Impact of soil organic matter on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhang, N; Xue, M; Tao, S

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge on the distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soils can provide better understanding for their fate in the environment. In the present study, the n-butanol extraction and humic fractionation were applied to investigate the impact of SOM on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicated that 80.5%-94.8% of the target PAHs could be extracted by n-butanol and 63.1%-94.6% of PAHs were associated with fulvic acid (FA). Concentrations of un-extracted PAHs increased significantly with the increasing soil organic matter (SOM), however, such an association was absent for the extractable fractions. The results suggested that the sequestration played a critical role in the accumulation of PAHs in soils. SOM also retarded the diffusion of PAHs into the humin fractions. It implied that sequestration in SOM was critical for PAH distribution in soils, while the properties of PAH compounds also had great influences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Remediation technologies for treatment of PAH contaminated soil and strategies to enhance process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.; Alcantara, M. T.; Pazos, M.; Longo, M. A.; Sanroman, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    The presence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils poses a potential threat to human health. The removal of these contaminants presents a challenge to scientists and engineers. PAHs are characterized by their palpable hydrophobic nature. Consequently, these species tend to be adsorbed on solid particulates, especially on the organic fraction of the solids. (Author)

  7. Increased zooplankton PAH concentrations across hydrographic fronts in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Ko, Fung-Chi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Wu, Jian-Ming; Chiang, Hsin-Lun; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-06-15

    The Changjiang has transported large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the East China Sea (ECS), but information of these pollutants in zooplankton is limited. To understand PAHs pollution in zooplankton in the ECS, total concentrations of PAHs in zooplankton from surface waters were measured. Values of PAHs ranged from 2 to 3500 ng m(-3) in the ECS, with highest PAHs levels located at the salinity front between the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and the mid-shelf waters. In contrast, concentrations of zooplankton PAHs in the mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters were significantly lower (2-23 ng m(-3)) than those in the CDW. These results demonstrate that PAHs are conspicuously accumulated in zooplankton at the salinity front between the CDW and the mid-shelf waters. These higher levels of PAHs in zooplankton at the salinity front may be further biomagnified in marine organisms of higher trophic levels through their feeding activities. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish Smoked Fish and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; White, S.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Twenty seven PAH were detected in 45 selected smoked food samples produced in Denmark, including mackerel, herring, trout, small sausages, salami, and bacon. The sum of PAH in smoked meat products ranged from 24 mu g/kg for salami to 64 mu g/kg in bacon, while those in fish products ranged from 2...

  9. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.

    2016-01-01

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. A four-component principal component analysis (PCA) model was obtained. While principal component 1 (PC1) was related to the total concentration of PAHs, the remaining PCs described three distinct sources: PC2 and PC3 collectively differentiate between...

  10. Occurrence of Nitro-PAH in the Atmosphere in a Rural Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom; Seitz, B.; Ramdahl, T.

    1984-01-01

    -(a)pyrene have been identied in samples of airborne particulate matter. Furthermore, 8-nitrofluoranthene has been tentatively identified. The amounts of mononitro-PAH are one to two orders of magnitude lower than the most common carcinogenic PAH, as e.g. benzo(a)pyrene. Filter effects have been studied, 9...

  11. Particle size distribution and PAH concentrations of incense smoke in a combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-R.; Lin, T.-C.; Chang, F.-H.

    2007-01-01

    The particle size distribution and the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in incense smoke were studied using a custom-designed combustion chamber. Among the nine types of incense investigated, the particle and the total PAH emission factors varied significantly. The average mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the smoke aerosol was 262 ± 49 nm, which positively correlated to particle emission factor (mg/stick, p < 0.05). Coagulation was a major mechanism that dictates the MMAD of the smoke. The total toxic equivalency (the sum of the benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) of the solid-phase PAHs (S-PAHs) was over 40 times higher than that of the corresponding gas-phase PAHs, indicating that the S-PAHs in incense smoke may pose potential health risk. Experiments show that each lowered percentage of total carbon content in the raw incense helped decrease the particle emission factor by 2.6 mg/g-incense, and the reduction of S-PAH emission factor ranged from 8.7 to 26% when the carbon content was lowered from 45 to 40%. - Emission profiles of PAHs from the nine types of studied incense appeared to share a common pattern

  12. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.

  13. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  14. A directional passive air sampler for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, S.; Liu, Y.N.; Lang, C.; Wang, W.T.; Yuan, H.S.; Zhang, D.Y.; Qiu, W.X.; Liu, J.M.; Liu, Z.G.; Liu, S.Z.; Yi, R.; Ji, M.; Liu, X.X.

    2008-01-01

    A passive air sampler was developed for collecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air mass from various directions. The airflow velocity within the sampler was assessed for its responses to ambient wind speed and direction. The sampler was examined for trapped particles, evaluated quantitatively for influence of airflow velocity and temperature on PAH uptake, examined for PAH uptake kinetics, calibrated against active sampling, and finally tested in the field. The airflow volume passing the sampler was linearly proportional to ambient wind speed and sensitive to wind direction. The uptake rate for an individual PAH was a function of airflow velocity, temperature and the octanol-air partitioning coefficient of the PAH. For all PAHs with more than two rings, the passive sampler operated in a linear uptake phase for three weeks. Different PAH concentrations were obtained in air masses from different directions in the field test. - A novel directional passive air sampler was developed and tested for monitoring PAHs in air masses from different directions

  15. Effect of a nonionic surfactant on biodegradation of slowly desorbing PAHs in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Montes, Marisa; Springael, Dirk; Ortega-Calvo, José-Julio

    2011-04-01

    The influence of the nonionic surfactant Brij 35 on biodegradation of slowly desorbing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in contaminated soils. We employed a soil originated from a creosote-polluted site, and a manufactured gas plant soil that had been treated by bioremediation. The two soils differed in their total content in five indicator 3-, 4-, and 5-ring PAHs (2923 mg kg(-1) and 183 mg kg(-1) in the creosote-polluted and bioremediated soils, respectively) but had a similar content (140 mg kg(-1) vs 156 mg kg(-1)) of slowly desorbing PAHs. The PAHs present in the bioremediated soil were highly recalcitrant. The surfactant at a concentration above its critical micelle concentration enhanced the biodegradation of slowly desorbing PAHs in suspensions of both soils, but it was especially efficient with bioremediated soil, causing a 62% loss of the total PAH content. An inhibition of biodegradation was observed with the high-molecular-weight PAHs pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in the untreated soil, possibly due to competition effects with other solubilized PAHs present at relatively high concentrations. We suggest that nonionic surfactants may improve bioremediation performance with soils that have previously undergone extensive bioremediation to enrich for a slowly desorbing profile.

  16. Bioremediation mechanisms of combined pollution of PAHs and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Heng; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Lu-Hua; Tan, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, knowledge in regard to bioremediation of combined pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi has been widely developed. This paper reviews the species of bacteria and fungi which can tackle with various types of PAHs and heavy metals entering into environment simultaneously or successively. Microbial activity, pollutants bioavailability and environmental factors (e.g. pH, temperature, low molecular weight organic acids and humic acids) can all affect the bioremediation of PAHs and heavy metals. Moreover, this paper summarizes the remediation mechanisms of PAHs and heavy metals by microbes via elucidating the interaction mechanisms of heavy metals with heavy metals, PAHs/PAHs metabolites with PAHs and PAHs with heavy metals. Based on the above reviews, this paper also discusses the potential research needs for this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  18. Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Ghosal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed towards removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of

  19. Dissolved and Suspended Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH in the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. HATZIANESTIS

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH were investigated in the seawater of the North Aegean Sea. The measured PAH concentrations in SPM are generally considered as elevated for open sea waters and were evenly distributed in the area. Their levels in the dissolved phase (1.6-33.0 ng/l were much higher than those encountered in the corresponding particulate phases (0.04-10.2 ng/l. The PAH patterns in both phases were dominated by the three ring aromatics and their alkylated derivatives, reflecting a predominant contribution of fossil hydrocarbons probably related to ship traffic, whereas no significant inputs from the rivers outfalling in the area were detected. In bottom waters PAH values were generally lower, whereas a higher depletion of the petroleum PAH in comparison with the pyrolytic ones according to depth was observed.

  20. Review of the quantification techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vasudha; Kumar, Pawan; Kwon, Eilhann E; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-10-13

    There is a growing need for accurate detection of trace-level PAHs in food products due to the numerous detrimental effects caused by their contamination (e.g., toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity). This review aims to discuss the up-to-date knowledge on the measurement techniques available for PAHs contained in food or its related products. This article aims to provide a comprehensive outline on the measurement techniques of PAHs in food to help reduce their deleterious impacts on human health based on the accurate quantification. The main part of this review is dedicated to the opportunities and practical options for the treatment of various food samples and for accurate quantification of PAHs contained in those samples. Basic information regarding all available analytical measurement techniques for PAHs in food samples is also evaluated with respect to their performance in terms of quality assurance.

  1. PAH Metabolites in Bile of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariaghli, Fatima; Kammann, Ulrike; Hanel, Reinhold; Yahyaoui, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution of fish with organic contaminants is a topic of rising attention in Morocco. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are prominent organic contaminants which are rapidly metabolized in fish. Their metabolites are accumulated in the bile fluid and can be used to assess PAH exposure. The two PAH metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were quantified in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two Moroccan river systems by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Mean values ranged from 52 to 210 ng/mL 1-hydroxypyrene and from 61 to 73 ng/mL 1-hydroxyphenanthrene. The overall concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel from Morocco appeared moderate compared to eel from European rivers and coastal sites. The present study provides first information on concentrations of PAH metabolites in fish from Morocco.

  2. Priming effects on PAH degradation and ecotoxicity during a phytoremediation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joner, Erik J; Hirmann, Doris; Szolar, Oliver H J; Todorovic, Dragana; Leyval, Corinne; Loibner, Andreas P

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to distinguish priming effects from the effects of phytoremediation of a creosote-polluted soil. The concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and their combined soil toxicity (using four bioassays), was determined on recently excavated, homogenized soil and on such soil subjected to a time-course phytoremediation experiment with lucerne. The results showed a high priming effect, with minor positive and synergistic effects of planting and fertilization on PAH degradation rates. At the end of the experiment, PAH degradation reached 86% of the initial 519 mg PAHs kg(-1). Two of the four toxicity tests (bioluminescence inhibition and ostracod growth inhibition) corroborated the chemical data for residual PAHs, and indicated a significant reduction in soil toxicity. We conclude that priming effects can easily surpass treatment effects, and that an unintentional pre-incubation that ignores these effects can jeopardize the full quantitative assessment of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soil.

  3. Evidences for balancing selection from PAH-BglII and PAH-EcoRI polymorphisms in Isfahan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Fazeli Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polymorphic markers including BglII and EcoRI, were identified at intron 1 and intron 5 of PAH gene. In order to test whether these polymorphisms are behaving as neutral alleles or are being subjected to selective pressures in Isfahan population, 110 individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. The Arlequin input file was prepared by use of phase-known haplotype data and Neutrality tests (Tajima D test and Fu’s Fs test were done using Arlequin program. 42 individuals were found heterozygous for both polymorphisms whose haplotype phase remained unknown. The BglII-EcoRI haplotype phase was known only at 68 individuals who were used for preparation of input file. Tajima's D value and Fs value at Isfahan population were 1.7 and 1.02, respectively. Positive values of Fs and D>0 indicated that these polymorphisms are under selection pressure at Isfahan population. Although these polymorphisms were in the non-coding region of PAH gene, but these were not neutral alleles and positive values of these tests provided evidence for balancing selection of these polymorphisms at Isfahan population. The results of this study could improve our understanding of evolutionary history and structure of Isfahan population.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao, E-mail: hernando.bacosa@utexas.edu [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Marine Science Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 750 Channel View Drive, Port Aransas, TX 78373 (United States); Inoue, Chihiro [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Most bacterial consortia from tsunami sediment degraded PAH mixture and pyrene. • The consortia were dominated by known and unknown PAHs-degrading bacteria. • Dokdonella clone is a potential new species and PAH degrader from tsunami sediment. • PAH-RHDα is better than nidA gene for estimating pyrene-degraders in the consortia. • First report on the PAH degradation and PAH-degrading bacteria from tsunami sediment. - Abstract: The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic acids are primary metabolites of alkyl-PAHs - a case study with Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Selck, Henriette; Jørgensen, Kåre Bredeli

    2015-01-01

    Although concentrations of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) in oil-contaminated sediments are higher than those of unsubstituted PAHs, only little attention has been given to metabolism and ecotoxicity of alkyl-PAHs. In this study we demonstrated that metabolism of alkyl...... that carboxylic acid metabolites of alkyl-PAHs have the potential of constituting a new class of contaminants in marine waters that needs attention in relation to ecological risk assessments....

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao; Inoue, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Most bacterial consortia from tsunami sediment degraded PAH mixture and pyrene. • The consortia were dominated by known and unknown PAHs-degrading bacteria. • Dokdonella clone is a potential new species and PAH degrader from tsunami sediment. • PAH-RHDα is better than nidA gene for estimating pyrene-degraders in the consortia. • First report on the PAH degradation and PAH-degrading bacteria from tsunami sediment. - Abstract: The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils

  7. Anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs in mangrove sediment with amendment of NaHCO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Hua; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Wang, Hong-Yuan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2015-04-01

    Mangrove sediment is unique in chemical and biological properties. Many of them suffer polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. However, the study on PAH biological remediation for mangrove sediment is deficient. Enriched PAH-degrading microbial consortium and electron acceptor amendment are considered as two effective measures. Compared to other electron acceptors, the study on CO2, which is used by methanogens, is still seldom. This study investigated the effect of NaHCO3 amendment on the anaerobic biodegradation of four mixed PAHs, namely fluorene (Fl), phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flua) and pyrene (Pyr), with or without enriched PAH-degrading microbial consortium in mangrove sediment slurry. The trends of various parameters, including PAH concentrations, microbial population size, electron-transport system activities, electron acceptor and anaerobic gas production were monitored. The results revealed that the inoculation of enriched PAH-degrading consortium had a significant effect with half lives shortened by 7-13 days for 3-ring PAHs and 11-24 days for 4-ring PAHs. While NaHCO3 amendment did not have a significant effect on the biodegradation of PAHs and other parameters, except that CO2 gas in the headspace of experimental flasks was increased. One of the possible reasons is that mangrove sediment contains high concentrations of other electron acceptors which are easier to be utilized by anaerobic bacteria, the other one is that the anaerobes in mangrove sediment can produce enough CO2 gas even without adding NaHCO3. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. PAH emissions from old and new types of domestic hot water boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Jiri; Kubonova, Lenka; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, Frantisek; Kubesa, Petr; Motyka, Oldrich; Laciok, Vendula; Dej, Milan; Ochodek, Tadeas; Placha, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Five different domestic heating boilers (automatic, over-fire, with down-draft combustion and gasification) and three types of fuel (lignite, wood and mixed fuel) were examined in 25 combustion tests and correlated with the emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), total organic carbon (TOC) and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs with MW = 178-278 g/mol) focusing on particle phase. However, the distribution of 12 PAHs in gas phase was considered as well due to the presence mainly of lighter PAHs in gas phase. The PAHs, as well as the CO and TOC, are the indicators of incomplete combustion, and in this study PAH emission increased significantly with increasing emissions of CO and TOC. The PAHs were mainly detected on PM 2.5 , their contents were increasing linearly with increasing PM 2.5 emissions. The highest emission factors of PAHs were measured for boilers of old construction, such as over-fire boiler (5.8-929 mg/kg) and boiler with down-draft combustion (3.1-54.1 mg/kg). Modern types of boilers produced much lower emissions of PAHs, in particular, automatic boiler (0.3-3.3 mg/kg) and gasification boilers (0.2-6.7 mg/kg). In general, the inefficient combustion at reduced output of boilers generated 1.4-17.7 times more emissions of PAHs than the combustion at nominal output of boilers. It is recommended to operate boilers at nominal output with sufficient air supply and to use the proper fuel to minimise PAHs emissions from domestic heating appliances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In situ modeling of PAH dynamics in agricultural soils amended with composts using the "VSOIL" platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimo, Khaled; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Houot, Sabine; Lafolie, François; Deschamps, Marjolaine; Benoit, Pierre; Garnier, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown the presence of organic pollutants (OPs) in composts. Compost application in agricultural soil generates flux of OPs and among them polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A potential accumulation of PAHs in soils from successive compost applications could imply risks to environment. To explore and design scenarios that help land managers in their impact evaluations when composts are added in soils, there is a need to a new generation of models built from multi-modules that mimic the whole interactions between the different processes describing OP dynamic in soil. Our work is based on the implementation of an interdisciplinary global model for PAHs in soil by coupling modules describing the major physical, biochemical and biological processes influencing the fate of PAHs in soil, with modules that simulate water transfer, heat transfer, solute transport, and organic matter transformation under climatic conditions. The coupling is being facilitated by the «VSOIL» modeling platform. The steps of our modelling study are the following: 1) calibrate the field model using parameters previously estimated in laboratory completed with field data on a short period, 2) test the simulations using field experimental data, 3) build scenarios to explore the impact of PAHs accumulation in a long term (40 years). Our results show that the model can adequately predict the fate of PAHs in soil and can contribute to clarify some of unexplored aspects regarding the behavior of PAHs in soil like their mineralization and stabilization. Scenarios that predict the dynamic of PAHs in soil at long terms show a low PAH accumulation in soil after 40 years due to a high sequestration of the PAH in soils that is slightly higher for municipal solid waste composts than for green waste sludge composts.

  10. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  11. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  12. A method to simultaneously determining the reduction in PAH dissolved concentrations and bioaccessibility in carbon amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E. C.; Rein, Arno

    In order to investigate the potential of different soil amendments (activated charcoal (AC), charcoal (biochar), compost) to sorb PAHs and their effect on bioaccessibility and biodegradation of PAHs in soil, a method was developed that can determine simultaneously the changes in PAH dissolved...

  13. Distribution of PAHs in tissues of wetland plants and the surrounding sediments in the Chongming wetland, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Yang, Yi; Li, Tao; Liu, Min

    2012-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were determined in sediments and three types of wetland plants collected from the intertidal flats in the Chongming wetland. The concentration of total PAHs in sediments ranged from 38.7 to 136.2 ngg(-1). Surface sediment concentrations were higher in regions with plant cover than in bare regions. Rhizome-layer sediments (56.8-102.4 ngg(-1)) contained less PAHs than surface sediments (0-5 cm). Concentrations of PAHs in plant tissues ranged from 51.9 to 181.2 ngg(-1), with highest concentrations in the leaves of Scirpus. Most of the PAHs in the leaves and other plant tissues were low molecular weight compounds (LMW, 2-4 rings), and a similar distribution pattern of PAHs in different types of plants was also observed. Source analysis indicated that plants and sediments both came from pyrogenic sources, but plants had additional petroleum contamination. The low ratio of benzo[a]anthracene over chrysene suggests that the wetland PAHs came mainly from long-distance atmospheric transportation. Significant bioaccumulation of PAHs from the sediments into plants was not observed for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW, 5-6 rings) in Chongming wetland. The small RCFs (root concentration factor from sediments) for HMW PAHs and large RCFs for LMW PAHs suggested that roots accumulated LMW PAHs selectively from sediments in Chongming wetland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Pollution Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of PAHs in Water and Fishes from Daqing Lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-di; Zang, Shu-ying; Zhang, Yu-hong; Wang, Fan; Yang, Xing; Zuo, Yi-long

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 30 water samples and 5 tissues (gill, liver, brain, kidney and muscle) of 36 fishes which were collected from 18 typical lakes of the Daqing lakes group, China were measured between February and April 2012. The results of PAHs concentrations in the water showed that the range of total concentrations was 0.2-1.21 μg x L(-1) and the highest concentration was found in the Yueliangpao Lake. Clustering analysis of statistical method was used to classify the concentrations of PAHs in the water of 18 lakes, and PAHs source and evaluation of ecological risk in different lake groups were obtained respectively based on the analysis of PAHs ratio and the species sensitivity distributions method. The results of cluster analysis about PAHs concentrations in the water of 18 lakes showed that all the lakes were divided into 4 lake groups. Yueliangpao (YLP) and dongdahai (DDH) lakes were respectively divided into a separate group and the other 14 lakes were divided into two groups named XHH group and DQSK group. PAHs in the water of lakes were mainly from wood and coal burning except that the PAHs of the water in YLP group was caused by oil contamination. According to the surface water quality standard of the world and China, the concentrations of PAHs in the water of 4 lake groups all exceeded the standard variously. The PAHs concentrations of most water samples in YLP group and XHH group exceeded the 16 PAHs limit value of Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) standard, especially, the concentration of Benz[a] pyrene with the strongest carcinogenicity of YLP group exceeded Chinese surface water quality standard. While in the DQSK lake group and the DDH lake group, several PAHs contaminations of water samples exceeded the standard. The tested and statistical results of 16 PAHs concentrations in 5 tissues of Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix fish species in Daqing lakes showed the concentrations

  15. Cells on fibers to degrade PAH and upgrade coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyde, R.

    1997-01-01

    There are over 2000 sites contaminated with PAH's from coal burning plants. White rot fungus degrades phenanthrene and anthracene, but the fungus needs air to grow. When grown on old cardboard boxes and buried, air is entrapped in the corrugations for growth of the fungus. When holes are put in the valleys of the corrugations and rotated in a half full reactor, drops are formed. Mass transfer to drops is much faster than to a flat surface, as described in Patent 5,256,570, so the fungus grows faster. Low rank coal can be upgraded to more valuable products with the fungus, say some Australians, but the problem is supplying oxygen. Celite can be entrapped in the fibers to ferment coal derived synthesis gas. The paper describes these processes

  16. From Interstellar PAHs and Ices to the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon rich molecules widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the composition of dust in the diffuse ISM is reasonably well constrained to micron-sized cold refractory materials comprised of amorphous and crystalline silicates mixed with an amorphous carbonaceous material containing aromatic structural units and short, branched aliphatic chains. In dense molecular clouds, the birthplace of stars and planets, these cold dust particles are coated with mixed molecular ices whose composition is very well constrained. Lastly, the signature of carbon-rich polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by earlier interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread throughout the Universe. The first part of this lecture will describe how infrared studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations, have revealed the composition of interstellar ices (the building blocks of comets) and the high abundance and nature of interstellar PAHs. The laboratory database has now enabled us to gain insight into the identities, concentrations, and physical state of many interstellar materials. Within a dense molecular cloud, and especially in the solar nebula during the star and planet formation stage, the materials frozen into interstellar/precometary ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light, producing more complex molecules. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and the possible role of these compounds on the early Earth. As these materials are thought to be the building

  17. Source characterization and exposure modeling of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  18. Accumulation of policyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface litter and soils in four forests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, D.; Perlinger, J. A.; Zielinska, B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic environmental pollutants originating from the incomplete combustion of organic material, both from natural or anthropogenic sources. Once emitted, they can be transported across thousands of kilometers impacting remote environments. Here, we characterize the distribution of 23 PAHs and 9 oxygenated PAHs (Σ32PAH) in litter and soils in four remote forests in the United States. Concentrations of Σ32PAH in fresh surface litter (Oi layers) showed very low levels in three of the four forests (mixed coniferous forest in Maine, deciduous blue oak forest in California, and a coniferous forest in Washington State), with PAHs levels much lower than those reported in previous studies from Europe. The analysis showed that PAHs represented a mix of regional background sources. Highest PAH levels were observed in a coniferous forest floor in Florida, attributable to frequent prescribed burning of understory vegetation at this site, and supported by high contributions of retene (>7%; compared to atmospheric deposition. Within mineral soils, Σ32PAH:OC ratios increased with depth (Ah horizons: 750±198 ng g-1; B horizons: 1,202±97 ng g-1), indicating that vertical transfer in mineral soils leads to significant accumulation of PAH in subsoils. ΣPAH:OC increases observed in deeper soil layers may be attributed to slower mineralization rates of PAHs compared to OC, plus vertical transport as indicated by preferential enrichment of PAHs with low Kow (i.e., more water-soluble PAHs). Finally, percentage of potentially biologically produced PAH (Σ Naph+Phen+Pery) were low and consistent across the litter/soil horizons, suggesting that biological production is minor or absent at our sites.

  19. Characteristics of PAHs adsorbed on street dust and the correlation with specific surface area and TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengkun; Li, Yingxia; Liu, Jingling; Xiang, Li; Shi, Jianghong; Yang, Zhifeng

    2010-10-01

    Street dust was collected from five roads with different traffic volumes in the metropolitan area of Beijing and separated into five size fractions. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed on street dust in different size ranges and their correlation with specific surface area and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated. Results show that the concentration of 16-PAHs of sieved samples ranges from 0.27 to 1.30 mg/kg for all the sampling sites. Particles smaller than 40 mum in diameter have the highest 16-PAHs concentration among all of the size ranges for street dust from the four sampling sites with vehicles running on. PAHs with three or four rings account for 68% of the overall 16-PAHs on average. Remarkable positive correlation exists between 16-PAHs concentration and specific surface area with R(2) values from 0.7 to 0.96 for the four sampling sites with vehicles running on. The relationship between the concentration of 16-PAHs and TOC is less clear.

  20. Yeast Lipin 1 Orthologue Pah1p Regulates Vacuole Homeostasis and Membrane Fusion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Terry; Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Karunakaran, Surya; Padolina, Mark; Reyes, Anna; Flood, Blake; Smith, Sheena; Gonzales, Chad; Fratti, Rutilio A.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuole homotypic fusion requires a group of regulatory lipids that includes diacylglycerol, a fusogenic lipid that is produced through multiple metabolic pathways including the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PA). Here we examined the relationship between membrane fusion and PA phosphatase activity. Pah1p is the single yeast homologue of the Lipin family of PA phosphatases. Deletion of PAH1 was sufficient to cause marked vacuole fragmentation and abolish vacuole fusion. The function of Pah1p solely depended on its phosphatase activity as complementation studies showed that wild type Pah1p restored fusion, whereas the phosphatase dead mutant Pah1pD398E had no effect. We discovered that the lack of PA phosphatase activity blocked fusion by inhibiting the binding of SNAREs to Sec18p, an N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor homologue responsible for priming inactive cis-SNARE complexes. In addition, pah1Δ vacuoles were devoid of the late endosome/vacuolar Rab Ypt7p, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Vps34p, and Vps39p, a subunit of the HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting) tethering complex, all of which are required for vacuole fusion. The lack of Vps34p resulted in the absence of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, a lipid required for SNARE activity and vacuole fusion. These findings demonstrate that Pah1p and PA phosphatase activity are critical for vacuole homeostasis and fusion. PMID:22121197

  1. Is received dose from ingested soil independent of soil PAH concentrations?-Animal model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel E; James, Kyle; Cave, Mark; Wickstrom, Mark; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability from ingested soils will vary between soils; however, the nature of this variation is not well characterized. A juvenile swine model was used to link external exposure to internal benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and anthracene exposure following oral PAH ingestion of 27 different impacted site soils, soots, or spiked artificial soils. Internal exposure of BaP and anthracene, represented by area under the plasma-time curve, did not relate to soil concentration in impacted site soils, but did relate in spiked artificial soil. Point of departure modeling identified soil PAH concentrations greater than 1900 mg kg(-1) as the point where area under the curve becomes proportional to external dose. A BaP internal exposure below 1900 mg kg(-1) had an upper 95% confidence interval estimate of 33% of external exposure. Weak relationships between soil:simulated gastrointestinal fluid PAH partitioning and area under the curve values suggest that differences in internal PAH exposure between soils may not be dominated by differences in PAH partitioning. The data seem to best support exposure assessment assuming constant internal PAH exposure below soil concentrations of 1900 mg kg(-1) . However, because constant internal exposure would challenge several existing paradigms, a bioavailability estimate of 33% of the external exposure is suggested as a likely workable solution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2261-2269. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bin Qi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(apyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  3. Impact of natural gas extraction on Pah levels in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, L. Blair; Donald, Carey E.; Smith, Brian W.; Tidwell, Lane G.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Kincl, Laurel; Haynes, Erin N.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas extraction, often referred to as “fracking,” has increased rapidly in the U.S. in recent years. To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom. Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. PAH levels were highest when samplers were closest to active wells. Additionally, PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were an order of magnitude higher than levels previously reported in rural areas. Sourcing ratios indicate that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that elevated PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth. Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. Closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 2.9 in 10,000, which is above the U.S. EPA's acceptable risk level. Overall, risk estimates decreased 30% when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest. This work suggests that natural gas extraction may be contributing significantly to PAHs in air, at levels that are relevant to human health. PMID:25810398

  4. The ir emission features: Emission from PAH [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons] molecules and amorphous carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    PAHs can have several forms in the interstellar medium. To assess the importance of each requires the availability of a collection of high quality, complete mid-ir interstellar emission spectra, a collection of laboratory spectra of PAH samples prepared under realistic conditions and a firm understanding of the microscopic emission mechanism. Given what we currently know about PAHs, the spectroscopic data suggests that there are at least two components which contribute to the interstellar emission spectrum: free molecule sized PAHs producing the narrow features and amorphous carbon particles (which are primarily made up of an irregular ''lattice'' of PAHs) contributing to the broad underlying components. An exact treatment of the ir fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules shows that species containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra match more closely with the spectra of amorphous carbon particles. Since little is known about the spectroscopic properties of free PAHs and PAH clusters, much laboratory work is called for in conjunction with an observational program which focuses on the spatial characteristics of the spectra. In this way the distribution and evolution of carbon from molecule to particle can be traced. 38 refs., 9 figs

  5. Mutation Analysis in Classical Phenylketonuria Patients Followed by Detecting Haplotypes Linked to Some PAH Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghanian, Fatemeh; Silawi, Mohammad; Tabei, Seyed M B

    2017-02-01

    Deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) enzyme and elevation of phenylalanine in body fluids cause phenylketonuria (PKU). The gold standard for confirming PKU and PAH deficiency is detecting causal mutations by direct sequencing of the coding exons and splicing involved sequences of the PAH gene. Furthermore, haplotype analysis could be considered as an auxiliary approach for detecting PKU causative mutations before direct sequencing of the PAH gene by making comparisons between prior detected mutation linked-haplotypes and new PKU case haplotypes with undetermined mutations. In this study, 13 unrelated classical PKU patients took part in the study detecting causative mutations. Mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing in all patients. After that, haplotype analysis was performed by studying VNTR and PAHSTR markers (linked genetic markers of the PAH gene) through application of PCR and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Mutation analysis was performed successfully and the detected mutations were as follows: c.782G>A, c.754C>T, c.842C>G, c.113-115delTCT, c.688G>A, and c.696A>G. Additionally, PAHSTR/VNTR haplotypes were detected to discover haplotypes linked to each mutation. Mutation detection is the best approach for confirming PAH enzyme deficiency in PKU patients. Due to the relatively large size of the PAH gene and high cost of the direct sequencing in developing countries, haplotype analysis could be used before DNA sequencing and mutation detection for a faster and cheaper way via identifying probable mutated exons.

  6. Growth and Destruction of PAH Molecules in Reactions with Carbon Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnokutski, Serge A.; Huisken, Friedrich; Jäger, Cornelia; Henning, Thomas [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    A very high abundance of atomic carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM), and the high reactivity of these species toward different hydrocarbon molecules including benzene, raise questions regarding the stability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in space. To test the efficiency of destruction of PAH molecules via reactions with atomic carbon, we performed a set of laboratory and computational studies of the reactions of naphthalene, anthracene, and coronene molecules with carbon atoms in the ground state. The reactions were investigated in liquid helium droplets at T = 0.37 K and by quantum chemical computations. Our studies suggest that all small and all large catacondensed PAHs react barrierlessly with atomic carbon, and therefore should be efficiently destroyed by such reactions in a broad temperature range. At the same time, large compact pericondensed PAHs should be more inert toward such a reaction. In addition, taking into account their higher photostability, much higher abundances of pericondensed PAHs should be expected in various astrophysical environments. The barrierless reactions between carbon atoms and small PAHs also suggest that, in the ISM, these reactions could lead to the bottom-up formation of PAH molecules.

  7. Incidence of real-world automotive parent and halogenated PAH in urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pan-Pan; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2018-06-01

    This study reports results from a tunnel experiment impact of real-world traffic-related particle and gas parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and HPAHs) on urban air. The traffic related emission characteristics and subsequent environmental behavior of these compounds were investigated. To understand the significance of real-world transport emissions to the urban air, traffic-related mass emissions of PAHs and HPAHs were estimated based on measured emission factors. According to our results, PAHs and HPAHs emissions via particulate phase were greater than those via gaseous phase; particles in 2.1-3.3 μm size fraction, have the major contribution to particulate PAHs and HPAHs emissions. Over all, contribution of traffic-related emission of PAHs (only ∼3% of the total PAHs emission in China) is an overstated source of PAHs pollution in China. Actually, exhaust pipe emission contributed much less than the total traffic-related emission of pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing PAH removal from clayey soil by means of electro-osmosis and electrodialysis

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2012-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent and toxic contaminants which are difficult to remove from fine porous material like clayey soils. The present work aims at studying two electroremediation techniques for the removal of PAHs from a spiked natural silt soil from Saudi Arabia and a silty loam soil from The Netherlands which has been exposed to tar contamination for over 100. years. The two techniques at focus are electro-osmosis and electrodialysis. The latter is applied for the first time for the removal of PAH. The efficiency of the techniques is studied using these two soils, having been subjected to different PAH contact times. Two surfactants were used: the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to aid desorption of PAHs from the soil. Results show a large discrepancy in the removal rates between spiked soil and long-term field contaminated soil, as expected. In spiked soil, electro-osmosis achieves up to 85% while electrodialysis accomplishes 68% PAH removal. In field contaminated soil, electro-osmosis results in 35% PAH removal whereas electrodialysis results in 79%. Short recommendations are derived for the up-scale of the two techniques. © 2012.

  9. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi-Bin; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lv, Cheng-Yuan; Lun, Zeng-Min; Zheng, Cheng-Gang

    2017-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM) and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(a)pyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution. PMID:28241412

  10. Exposure Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) in Childcare Centers of Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitlada, C.; Pentamwa, P.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to characterize airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as of particulate and vapor phases variation. The samples were collected from the childcare centers where divided into urban and rural areas in Nakhon Ratchasima Province of Thailand. The airborne samples were collected from five childcare centers during the dry season in the year 2017. The PAHs species were determined by the gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GS/MS) method. Results show that the total concentrations of PAHs were higher than vapor phase that both similar in urban area and rural area. The dominant PAHs compounds of both urban and rural areas were benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a,h)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of PAHs in municipality (urban) childcare centers were higher than rural childcare centers area of Nakhon Ratchasima province. The risks associated with exposure to PAHs were evaluated using the TEF approach. The estimated value of lifetime lung cancer risks children in urban were significantly (p < 0.05) 2 times of children in rural, thus demonstrating that exposure to PAHs at levels found at urban site may be cause potential health risks.

  11. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Weavers, Linda K; Taerakul, Panuwat; Walker, Harold W

    2006-01-01

    In this study, traditional Soxhlet, automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction techniques were employed to determine the speciation and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples collected from the baghouse of a spreader stoker boiler. To test the efficiencies of different extraction methods, LSD ash samples were doped with a mixture of 16 US EPA specified PAHs to measure the matrix spike recoveries. The results showed that the spike recoveries of PAHs were different using these three extraction methods with dichloromethane (DCM) as the solvent. Traditional Soxhlet extraction achieved slightly higher recoveries than automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. Different solvents including toluene, DCM:acetone (1:1 V/V) and hexane:acetone (1:1 V/V) were further examined to optimize the recovery using ultrasonic extraction. Toluene achieved the highest spike recoveries of PAHs at a spike level of 10 microg kg(-1). When the spike level was increased to 50 microg kg(-1), the spike recoveries of PAHs also correspondingly increased. Although the type and concentration of PAHs detected on LSD ash samples by different extraction methods varied, the concentration of each detected PAH was consistently low, at microg kg(-1) levels.

  12. PAHs in leachates from thermal power plant wastes and ash-based construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Jefimova, Jekaterina; Koroljova, Arina; Raado, Lembi-Merike; Hain, Tiina; Uibu, Mai; Kuusik, Rein

    2015-08-01

    The focus of the current study is to characterise the leaching behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil shale ashes (OSAs) of pulverised firing (PF) and circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers from Estonian Thermal Power Plant (Estonia) as well as from mortars and concrete based on OSAs. The target substances were 16 PAHs from the EPA priority pollutant list. OSA samples and OSA-based mortars were tested for leaching, according to European standard EN 12457-2 (2002). European standard CEN/TC 15862(2012) for monolithic matter was used for OSA-based concrete. Water extracts were analysed by GC-MS for the concentration of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were detected. Still, the release of PAHs was below the threshold limit value for inert waste. The amount of the finest fraction (particle size materials did not lead to the immobilisation of soluble PAHs. Release of PAHs from the monolith samples did not exceed 0.5 μg/m(2). In terms of leaching of PAHs, OSA is safe to be used for construction purposes.

  13. VUV PHOTO-PROCESSING OF PAH CATIONS: QUANTITATIVE STUDY ON THE IONIZATION VERSUS FRAGMENTATION PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Junfeng; Castillo, Sarah Rodriguez; Joblin, Christine; Mulas, Giacomo; Sabbah, Hassan; Giuliani, Alexandre; Nahon, Laurent; Martin, Serge; Champeaux, Jean-Philippe; Mayer, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are strongly affected by the absorption of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons in the interstellar medium (ISM), yet the branching ratio between ionization and fragmentation is poorly studied. This is crucial for the stability and charge state of PAHs in the ISM in different environments, affecting in turn the chemistry, the energy balance, and the contribution of PAHs to the extinction and emission curves. We studied the interaction of PAH cations with VUV photons in the 7–20 eV range from the synchrotron SOLEIL beamline, DESIRS. We recorded by action spectroscopy the relative intensities of photo-fragmentation and photo-ionization for a set of eight PAH cations ranging in size from 14 to 24 carbon atoms, with different structures. At photon energies below ∼13.6 eV fragmentation dominates for the smaller species, while for larger species ionization is immediately competitive after the second ionization potential (IP). At higher photon energies all species behave similarly; the ionization yield gradually increases, leveling off between 0.8 and 0.9 at ∼18 eV. Among isomers, PAH structure appears to mainly affect the fragmentation cross section but not the ionization cross section. We also measured the second IP for all species and the third IP for two of them; all are in good agreement with theoretical ones, confirming that PAH cations can be further ionized in the diffuse ISM. Determining actual PAH dication abundances in the ISM will require detailed modeling. Our measured photo-ionization yields for several PAH cations provide a necessary ingredient for such models.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  15. Biodegradation of PAHs in petroleum-contaminated soil using tamarind leaves as microbial inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Juntongjin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-contaminated soil contains various hazardous materials such as aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study focused on PAHs since they are potentially toxic,mutagenic, and carcinogenic. Bioremediation of PAHs was carried out by adding tamarind leaf inoculums into petroleum-contaminated soil. Tamarind and other leguminous leaves have been reported to containedseveral PAH-degrading microorganisms. To minimize the amount of leaves added, the preparation of tamarind leaf inoculums was developed by incubating tamarind leaves with a sub-sample of contaminated soil for 49 days. After that, the efficiency of tamarind leaf inoculums was tested with two soil samplescollected from a navy dockyard and railway station in Samutprakarn and Bangkok, respectively. These soil samples had different levels of petroleum contamination. Bioaugmentation treatment was carried out bymixing contaminated soil with the inoculum at the ratio of 9:1. For navy dockyard soil, the concentration of phenanthrene was decreased gradually and reached the undetectable concentration within 56 days in theinoculated soil; meanwhile 70-80% of fluoranthene and pyrene were remained at the end of treatment. For railway station soil, which had lower petroleum contamination, PAH degradation was more rapid, forexample, the concentration of phenanthrene was below detection limit after 28 days. Besides PAHs, the amounts of several hydrocarbons were also reduced after treatment. At the same time, numerousphenanthrene-degrading bacteria, which were used as representatives of PAH degraders, could be observed in both inoculated soils. However, higher numbers of bacteria were found in railway station soil, whichcorresponded with the lower amount of PAHs and higher amount of soil nutrients. The results showed that inoculum prepared from tamarind leaves could be used to degrade PAHs as well as clean-up petroleum contaminated soil.

  16. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, W.U.; Rashid, A.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal

  17. Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical rain forest environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Martin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Martius, Christopher; Bandeira, Adelmar G; Garcia, Marcos V B; Amelung, Wulf

    2005-05-01

    To distinguish between pyrogenic and biological sources of PAHs in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, we determined the concentrations of 21 PAHs in leaves, bark, twigs, and stem wood of forest trees, dead wood, mineral topsoil, litter layer, air, and Nasutitermes termite nest compartments. Naphthalene (NAPH) was the most abundant PAH with concentrations of 35 ng m(-3) in air (>85% of the sum of 21PAHs concentration), up to 1000 microg kg(-1) in plants (>90%), 477 microg kg(-1) in litter (>90%), 32 microg kg(-1) in topsoil (>90%), and 160 microg kg(-1) (>55%) in termite nests. In plants, the concentrations of PAHs in general decreased in the order leaves > bark > twigs > stem wood. The concentrations of most low-molecular weight PAHs in leaves and bark were near equilibrium with air, but those of NAPH were up to 50 times higher. Thus, the atmosphere seemed to be the major source of all PAHs in plants except for NAPH. Additionally, phenanthrene (PHEN) had elevated concentrations in bark and twigs of Vismia cayennensis trees (12-60 microg kg(-1)), which might have produced PHEN. In the mineral soil, perylene (PERY) was more abundant than in the litter layer, probably because of in situ biological production. Nasutitermes nests had the highest concentrations of most PAHs in exterior compartments (on average 8 and 15 microg kg(-1) compared to atmosphere controls the concentrations of most PAHs. However, the occurrence of NAPH, PHEN, and PERY in plants, termite nests, and soils at elevated concentrations supports the assumption of their biological origin.

  18. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Li, Li; Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue; Li, Xiyou; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe 3+ > Al 3+ > Cu 2+ >> Ca 2+ > K + > Na + , which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na + -smectite and K + -smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , and Cu 2+ are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O 2 − · , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation

  19. Evaluation of polyurethane foam passive air sampler (PUF) as a tool for occupational PAH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Bo; Julander, Anneli; Sjöström, Mattias; Lewné, Marie; Koca Akdeva, Hatice; Bigert, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    Routine monitoring of workplace exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is performed mainly via active sampling. However, active samplers have several drawbacks and, in some cases, may even be unusable. Polyurethane foam (PUF) as personal passive air samplers constitute good alternatives for PAH monitoring in occupational air (8 h). However, PUFs must be further tested to reliably yield detectable levels of PAHs in short exposure times (1-3 h) and under extreme occupational conditions. Therefore, we compared the personal exposure monitoring performance of a passive PUF sampler with that of an active air sampler and determined the corresponding uptake rates (Rs). These rates were then used to estimate the occupational exposure of firefighters and police forensic specialists to 32 PAHs. The work environments studied were heavily contaminated by PAHs with (for example) benzo(a)pyrene ranging from 0.2 to 56 ng m -3 , as measured via active sampling. We show that, even after short exposure times, PUF can reliably accumulate both gaseous and particle-bound PAHs. The Rs-values are almost independent of variables such as the concentration and the wind speed. Therefore, by using the Rs-values (2.0-20 m 3 day -1 ), the air concentrations can be estimated within a factor of two for gaseous PAHs and a factor of 10 for particulate PAHs. With very short sampling times (1 h), our method can serve as a (i) simple and user-friendly semi-quantitative screening tool for estimating and tracking point sources of PAH in micro-environments and (ii) complement to the traditional active pumping methods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hanzhong, E-mail: jiahz@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Li, Li [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); School of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Li, Xiyou [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Wang, Chuanyi, E-mail: cywang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe{sup 3+} > Al{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} >> Ca{sup 2+} > K{sup +} > Na{sup +}, which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na{sup +}-smectite and K{sup +}-smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O{sub 2}{sup −}· , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation.

  1. Tubule urate and PAH transport: sensitivity and specificity of serum protein inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, J.J.; Kennedy, J.; Cowley, B.

    1987-01-01

    Macromolecules in rabbit serum inhibit the cellular uptake and transepithelial secretion of [ 14 C]urate and p-[ 3 H]aminohippurate ([ 3 H]PAH) in rabbit S 2 proximal tubule segments. To understand better the potential role these inhibitors may have in the regulation of renal organic anion excretion, the authors examined the specificity and relative inhibitory effects on tubule urate and PAH transport of albumin and γ-globulin, the major inhibitory proteins in rabbit serum. Native rabbit serum markedly inhibited the cellular accumulation or urate and PAH by isolated nonperfused segments. Urate and PAH transport was also inhibited by bovine serum, human serum, Cohn-fractionated rabbit albumin, and rabbit γ-globulin, but not by Cohn-fractionated bovine serum albumin. α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, derived from milk, also inhibited urate and PAH transport, but to a lesser extent than albumin and γ-globulin. The transport inhibitory effects of proteins were independent of their binding to urate and PAH. Unidirectional influx and the steady-state intracellular accumulation of urate and PAH in suspensions of proximal tubules were decreased by rabbit serum proteins, suggesting that these inhibitors act on the external face of the cells to diminish the uptake of the organic anions. These studies indicate that the principal plasma proteins (albumin and γ-globulin) significantly inhibit urate and PAH transporters in the basolateral membranes of S 2 proximal tubules. They suggest that circulating plasma proteins that can penetrate the basement membrane of proximal tubules may directly modulate the renal excretion of urate and PAH

  2. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  3. PAHs in cultured mussels Perna perna from a Southeastern Brazilian Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimine, Renato V.; Carreira, Renato S.

    2012-01-01

    The presence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated for the first time in cultured mussels at Ilha Grade Bay, the largest mariculture center in the Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil. Analyses of PAHs on soft tissue were performed in triplicate by GC-MS on composite samples (10 individuals each) collected in 2011 at six mussel farms. The mean concentration of the total PAHs (38 compounds), excluding one farm, was 14.0 ± 8.53 ng g-1, whereas the 16 prior...

  4. Updated listing of haplotypes at the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisensmith, R.C.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Analysis of mutant PAH chromosomes has identified approximately 60 different single-base substitutions and deletions within the PAH locus. Nearly all of these molecular lesions are in strong linkage disequilibrium with specific RFLP haplotypes in different ethnic populations. Thus, haplotype analysis is not only useful for diagnostic purposes but is proving to be a valuable tool in population genetic studies of the origin and spread of phenylketonuria alleles in human populations. PCR-based methods have been developed to detect six of the eight polymorphic restriction sites used for determination of RFLP haplotypes at the PAH locus. A table of the proposed expanded haplotypes is given.

  5. Total and bioavailable PAH concentrations in biochar - a future soil improver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilber, I.; Blum, F.; Hale, S.; Cornelissen, G.; Schmidt, H. P.; Bucheli, T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar is pyrolyzed organic feedstock. It has become more and more important as soil conditioner and received broad attention as a possible measure against climate change. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during biochar production due to incomplete combustion. These PAHs will enter the environment when the biochar is applied as soil conditioner to avoid leaching of nutrients, to increase microbial biomass and activity, to remediate the soil of organic pollutants, etc. Such positive effects are undermined if PAH exposure is concomitantly increased. We have determined the total PAH concentrations of about 40 commercially produced biochars with an analytical method based on Soxhlet extraction with toluene optimized in our laboratory (Hilber et al.). The bioavailability of the PAHs in these biochars was assessed with polyoxymethylene (POM), a passive sampler, which measures the truly dissolved concentration of organic pollutants in the pore water, according to Hale et al. Samples from total and POM extractions where measured by GC-MS to determine the total and bioavailable concentrations of the 16 EPA PAHs, respectively. Preliminary results showed that the total concentrations of the biochars ranged from 0.4 to 355 mgΣ16 EPA PAH/kgBC. The bioavailable concentrations were in the nanograms per liter for the Σ16 EPA PAH and goes in line with findings of recently published data of Hale et al. The fraction desorbed by POM in relation to the total concentrations is in the permill range. Although the bioavailable concentration appears very small, it has to be considered that biochars might be applied to an agricultural field several times. Thus, the source of amended PAHs to the soil is renewed not only for the bioavailable but also for the total concentration. Biochar applications might become a problem especially for legislation accounting for total concentrations. The only guideline for biochars is from the International Biochar Initiative which set

  6. Assessing PAH removal from clayey soil by means of electro-osmosis and electrodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Heister, Katja

    2012-01-01

    and a silty loam soil from The Netherlands which has been exposed to tar contamination for over 100years. The two techniques at focus are electro-osmosis and electrodialysis. The latter is applied for the first time for the removal of PAH. The efficiency of the techniques is studied using these two soils...... contaminated soil, as expected. In spiked soil, electro-osmosis achieves up to 85% while electrodialysis accomplishes 68% PAH removal. In field contaminated soil, electro-osmosis results in 35% PAH removal whereas electrodialysis results in 79%. Short recommendations are derived for the up-scale of the two...

  7. Dissolved and Suspended Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in the North Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    HATZIANESTIS, I.; SKLIVAGOU, E.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in the seawater of the North Aegean Sea. The measured PAH concentrations in SPM are generally considered as elevated for open sea waters and were evenly distributed in the area. Their levels in the dissolved phase (1.6-33.0 ng/l) were much higher than those encountered in the corresponding particulate phases (0.04-10.2 ng/l). The PAH patterns in both phases were dominated by the three ring aromatics and t...

  8. Heavy Metal and PAH Concentrations in Highway Runoff Deposits Fractionated on Settling Velocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    the relationship between the settling velocity of the runoff particles and the corresponding metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration directly instead of dealing with two unknowns-the density and the shape of a single particle fraction in a settling velocity calculations. The measurements show...... and copper and there is no significant correlation between PAH concentration and settling velocity. The largest mass of metals and PAH within each pond can be found on the particle fraction with a settling velocity of 5.5-2.5 mm/s....

  9. An Optimised Method to Determine PAHs in a Contaminated Soil; Metodo Optimizado para la Determinacion de PAHs en un Suelo Contaminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2007-07-20

    An analytical study is presented based on an optimised method to determine selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The work was focused to obtain reliable measurements of PAH in a gas work contaminated soil and was performed in the frame of the project 'Assessment of natural remediation technologies for PAHs in contaminated soils' (Spanish Plan Nacional l+D+i, CTM 2004-05832-CO2-01): First assays were focused to evaluate an initial proposed procedure by sonication extraction in the contaminated soil. Afterwards to extend the efficiency and reduce solvent and time consuming of extraction procedures, the more relevant parameters that affect the extraction step were investigated. A comparison between sonication and microwave procedures was done, and the influence of sample grinding was studied. In general, both extraction techniques led on comparable results, although sonication procedure needs to be more carefully optimised. Finally, as a final application of the optimised method, the effect of particle size on relative distribution of selected PAHs in the contaminated soil was investigated. Relative abundance of more volatile PAHs showed a decreasing according to lower grain size, while relative abundance of less volatile compounds indicated an increasing of concentration levels for lower grain size. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from co-firing of petrochemical sludge with coal in circulating fluidized bed incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, G.; Zhao, C.S. [South East University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2009-07-01

    Experimental tests of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission characteristics from co-firing of petrochemical sludge with coal were conducted in it pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator with the thermal input of 0.2 MW. Results showed that when the mass mixing ratio increases from 10 to 40%, PAH, especially lower molecular weight (LMW) PAH, emission increases substantially. As combustion temperature or excess air coefficient increases, PAH emission decreases at first and then increases. There is an optimum combustion temperature and excess air coefficient for inhibiting PAHs formulation. PAH emission declines significantly when the secondary air fraction is increased from 20 to 50%. The staged combustion technique of circulating fluidized beds may have the advantage of inhibiting the formation of PAHs, Some optimized operation parameters are recommended for incineration of petrochemical sludge with coal in a circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

  11. Quantification of small-scale variation in the size and composition of phenanthrene-degrader populations and PAH contaminants in traffic-impacted topsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R; Styrishave, Bjarne; Aamand, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale colocalisation of microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and PAHs in contaminated soil is a prerequisite for efficient biodegradation of the PAHs. We therefore tested the hypothesis that phenanthrene-degrading bacteria are colocalised with PAHs at the millimetre...

  12. Ecodynamics of PAHs at a peri-urban site of the French Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, François; Nozais, Christian; Pruski, Audrey M; Bourgeois, Solveig; Méjanelle, Laurence; Vétion, Gilles; Rivière, Béatrice; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    The PAH contamination level and biochemical composition of sinking particles and surficial sediments (0-0.5 cm layer) were assessed at a rural coastal site in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Surficial sediment contamination (≈20 ng g(-1)) was considerably lower than at other Mediterranean sites, yet particles collected in sediment traps had 6-8 times more PAH. Contaminated particles were mostly marine in origin. Temporal variation of contamination levels correlated with organic content of the particles, but some of the observed variability could be attributed to seasonal changes in pyrolytic PAH production. Sinking organic particles were potentially as readily digestible as surficial sediments for prospective consumers however, transfer of PAHs along the benthic food chain is probably enhanced because of the particles' higher nutritional value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compilations of measured and calculated physicochemical property values for PCBs, PBDEs, PCDDs and PAHs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of compilations of measured and calculated physicochemical property values for PCBs, PBDEs, PCDDs and PAHs. The properties included in this...

  14. How to Determine the Environmental Exposure of PAHs Originating from Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Hilber, Isabel; Gouliarmou, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Biochars are obtained by pyrolyzing biomass materials and are increasingly used within the agricultural sector. Owing to the production process, biochars can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the high mg/kg range, which makes the determination of the environmental exposure of PAHs...... originating from biochars relevant. However, PAH sorption to biochar is characterized by very high (104–106 L/kg) or extreme distribution coefficients (KD) (>106 L/kg), which makes the determination of exposure scientifically and technically challenging. Cyclodextrin extractions, sorptive bioaccessibility...... extractions, Tenax extractions, contaminant traps, and equilibrium sampling were assessed and selected methods used for the determination of bioavailability parameters for PAHs in two model biochars. Results showed that: (1) the KD values of typically 106–109 L/kg made the biochars often act as sinks, rather...

  15. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during anaerobic digestion with recirculation of ozonated digested sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Martinez, Arodi; Patureau, Dominique; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe; Carrere, Helene

    2009-01-01

    PAH are particularly monitored because of their carcinogenic properties and their ubiquity in the environment. Their presence in municipal sewage sludge is a major problem due to the environmental risks associated with the sludge spreading on agricultural soils. The objective of this work was to asses the removal of PAH naturally present in sludge by continuous anaerobic digestion with recirculation of ozonated sludge. Recirculation of ozonated digested sludge allowed to enhance PAH removals, the highest efficiency was obtained with the highest ozone dose (0.11 g O 3 /g TS ). In order to study the effect of recirculation, a reactor was operated without recirculation but was fed with a mixture of raw and ozonated digested sludge. This process led to the best performances in terms of PAH and solid removals. This pointed out some accumulation of nonbiodegradable or recalcitrant compounds during recirculation assay. Smallest and most soluble compounds presented the highest biodegradation efficiencies

  16. Release of PAHs and heavy metals in coastal environments linked to leisure boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egardt, Jenny; Mørk Larsen, Martin; Lassen, Pia; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2018-02-01

    Leisure boats are responsible for elevated levels of heavy metals and PAHs in sediments in- and near marinas and natural harbours. As these compounds are released directly into the water column they also pose a threat to organisms in the pelagic environment. Passive samplers were deployed during peak and post tourist season in the water column of natural harbours, leisure boat waterways and small marinas to measure the dissolved fraction of PAHs and metal ions. Differences between seasons indicative of leisure boat activities were found as PAH composition differed between peak and post season for natural harbours and waterways, where heavier PAHs increased during peak season. During peak season, metal samplers were covered by biofouling, which likely affected the uptake. Post season metal concentrations differ between locations, with concentrations exceeding quality standards at near mainland locations where boats are maintained, compared to the sites in the archipelago. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Cochin estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramzi, A.;; Rahman, K.H.; Gireeshkumar, T.R.; Balachandran, K.K.; Jacob, C.; Chandramohanakumar, N.

    . Low molecular weight fractions were higher in concentration than the Effective Range-Median (ERM) levels, whereas high molecular weight PAHs were lower than the Effective Range-Low values (ERL). Calculated carcinogenic toxicity equivalents (TEQ) values...

  18. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  19. Mutations in the PAH gene: A Tool for population genetics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Maja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU, an inborn error of metabolism, is caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH gene. In the Serbian population, 19 different PAH mutations have been identified. We used PAH mutations as molecular markers for population genetics study. The low homozygosity value of the PAH gene (0.10 indicates that PKU in Serbia is heterogeneous, reflecting numerous migrations throughout Southeast Europe. The strategy for molecular diagnostics of PKU was designed accordingly. To elucidate the origin of the most common (L48S PKU mutation in Serbia, we performed haplotype analysis by PCR-RFLP. Our results suggest that the L48S mutation was imported into Serbia from populations with different genetic backgrounds.

  20. Susceptibility of eastern oyster early life stages to road surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemical compounds that are mostly : anthropogenic in nature, and they can become persistent organic contaminants in aquatic : ecosystems. Runoff from impervious surfaces is one of the many ways ...

  1. Photoactivated toxicity of PAH to endangered fishes and standard laboratory test species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, D.R.; Mount, D.R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been detected in water and sediment from the San Juan River Basin, located in the Four Corners area of the southwestern US. In addition to possessing extensive oil and gas deposits, the San Juan contains several threatened or endangered fish species such as Colorado squawfish and razorback suckers. Proposed expansion of oil and gas development in the basin has sparked concerns that potential increases in PAH loading may jeopardize these and other native fishes. In response, the authors conducted laboratory exposures of threatened and endangered species to various PAH both with and without accompanying exposure to UV light. As predicted from the literature, exposure to UV light caused a marked photo-activated toxicity response in all species; however, the sensitivity to PAH both with and without UV exposure varied among species and lifestages. Supplemental studies were conducted to evaluate the physiological mechanisms for variation in sensitivity between species and lifestage

  2. UV-visible spectroscopy of PAHs and PAHNs in supersonic jet. Astrophysical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Bejaoui; Salama, Farid

    2017-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) molecules are attracting much attention of the astrophysical and astrochemical communities since they are ubiquitous presence in space and could survive in the harsh interstellar medium (ISM). They are proposed as plausible carriers of the still unassigned diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) for more than two decades now. The so-called PAH - DIB proposal has been based on the abundance of PAHs in the ISM and their stability against the photo and thermo dissociation. Nitrogen is one of the most abundant elements after hydrogen, helium, and carbon [1]. PANHs exhibit spectral features similar to PAHs and may also contribute to unidentified spectral bands.To prove PAHs-DIBs hypothesis, laboratory absorption spectra of aromatic under astrophysical relevant conditions are of crucial importance to compare with the observed DIBs spectra. The most challenging task is to reproduce as closely as technically possible, the physical and chemical conditions that are present in space. Interstellar PAHs are expected to be present as free, cold, neutral molecules and/or charged species [2]. In our laboratory, comparable conditions are achieved using an excellent platform developed in NASA Ames. Our cosmic simulation chamber (COSmIC) allow the measurements of gas phase spectra of neutral and ionized interstellar PAHs analogs by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion (˜ 100 K) [3]. Our approach to assign PAH as carriers of some DIBs is record the electronic spectra of cold PAHs in gas phase and systematic search for a possible correspondence in astronomical DIBs spectra. We report in this work UV-visible absorption spectra of neutral PAHs and PAHNs using the cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. We discuss the effect of the substitution of C-H bond(s) by a nitrogen atom(s) in spectroscopic features of PAHs and their astrophysical application.[1] L. Spitzer, 1978, Physical processes in

  3. The differences in transformation mechanism in natural and anthropogenic PAH in environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navai, A.I.; Abasova, D.R.; Suleymanov, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : In present time, with the large reliability the established fact, that the majority of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons acting in an environment as from natural (fires, volcanic activity etc.) and from anthropogenesis (emissions of the industrial enterprises, the exhaust gases of automobiles etc.) sources, have carcinogenic activity. Toxicity and persistence of PAH and also their significant prevalence and their ability to be accumulated in an environment, cause necessity of the constant control most harmful polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a various wide spectrum of natural matrixes - air, water, ground adjournment, ground, vegetative and animal fabrics and secretion, products of a meal. From natural sources creating a background level by PAH, is possible to note their synthesis from some plants and microorganisms, wood fires, volcanic activity and meteoric dust and etc. Anthropogenesis PAH pollution an environmental, the problem carries global character. PAH are formed as collateral products at processes of high-temperature processing of organic raw material, mainly, on oil refining, by-product-coking industry, aluminium manufactures. One of the basic sources of pollution PAH of an environment is the vehicle exhaust gases of automobiles are revealed more than 150 PAH. A significant role in PAH formation play aircraft and navigation. It is impossible to exclude an opportunity of pollution of an environment by components PAH, around and along transport pipelines. The reason to this can be oils outflow during transportation or clearing of pipelines. In the publications there is information on presence PAH in Absheron oils. But this information is not sufficient for PAI components specification. We carried out polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons research's in oils structure of Absheron peninsula. At the first were investigated the average oils samples, which have taken from Surakhani oilfield. In Surakhani oils were found the following PAH components (in

  4. Contamination and health risk assessment of PAHs in farmland soils of the Yinma River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanan; Zhang, Jiquan; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xingpeng; Zhou, Mo

    2018-03-23

    The concentration, composition, sources and incremental lifetime cancer risk of farmland soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the Yinma River Basin were analyzed. In 2016, the total concentration of 16 PAHs ranged from 491.65 to 1007.73 ng/g in May, from 427.31 to 781.38 ng/g in August and from 580.40 to 999.40 ng/g in November, respectively. Levels of seven potentially carcinogenic PAHs generally accounted for 33-36.7% of total 16 PAHs in three seasons, and the PAHs contained two to six rings, mainly Fla, Pyr, and Chr. The correlation analysis suggested that the soil organic matter (SOM) was no correlation with PAHs except for August, and there were no significant relationship between the pH and total PAHs. Isomer ratios indicated that the soil PAHs in the farmland of the Yinma River Basin was determined to be the combustion of coal, biomass, and petroleum. The toxic equivalent (BaP eq ) concentrations ranged from 15.2 to 133 ng BaP eq g -1 in three seasons. The 95th percentiles of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) due to human exposure to farmland soil PAHs of the Yinma River Basin was (1.36 × 10 -6 ) in May, (1.00 × 10 -6 ) in August, and (1.18 × 10 -6 ) in November for children, (1.10 × 10 -6 ) in May, (8.15 × 10 -7 ) in August, and (9.58 × 10 -7 ) in November for adolescence and (1.61 × 10 -6 ) in May, (4.22 × 10 -6 ) in August and (1.40 × 10 -6 ) in November for adulthood. The result indicated a moderate carcinogenic risk and the risk of exposure to farmland soil PAHs was pervasive for residents. This investigation might provide useful information on human exposure to PAHs in soil of the Yinma River Basin, and is valuable for policy makers and scientists. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in beached plastic pellets from Mumbai coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HB Jayasiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHs are a class of ubiquitous pollutants which consist of two or more fused benzene rings in various arrangements. A number of PAH compounds are known carcinogens and bioaccumulate and biomagnify. These compounds originate naturally as well as anthropogenically through oil spills, incineration of waste and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. The environmental consequence of Plastic pellets is the sorption organic pollutants on their surface from the sea surface microlayer (SML where the hydrophobic contaminants are known to be enriched. The plastic pellets were collected along the recent high tide line from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly during May 2011 - March 2012. A total of 72 pools of plastic pellets were extracted, fractionated and analysed by Gas Chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer to evaluate the extent and sources of 16 PAHs. The mean ΣPAH concentration in pellets was 9202.30±114.89 ng g-1 with a wide range (35.4-46191.58 ng g-1. The concentration of fluorene was found to be the highest (1606.30±251.54 ng g-1 followed by anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. The ΣPAH concentration was significantly varied among months and there was no significant difference among sites at  p=0.05. The 2-3 aromatic ring compounds accounted for 60% of the total PAHs in pellets of Mumbai coast while 4 rings and 5-6 rings compounds accounted for 26 and 14%, respectively. The ratio of low and high molecular weight PAHs indicated that the contamination by petrogenic sources was predominant over the pyrogenic ones in plastic pellets suggesting oil pollution in coastal area of Mumbai.Keywords: plastic pellets, PAHs, Mumbai, sources

  6. Enhanced biodegradation of PAHs in historically contaminated soil by M. gilvum inoculated biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bijing; Zhang, Youchi; Hou, Yanwei; Arp, Hans Peter H; Reid, Brian J; Cai, Chao

    2017-09-01

    The inoculation of rice straw biochar with PAH-degrading Mycobacterium gilvum (1.27 × 10 11  ± 1.24 × 10 10  cell g -1 ), and the subsequent amendment of this composite material to PAHs contaminated (677 mg kg -1 ) coke plant soil, was conducted in order to investigate if would enhance PAHs biodegradation in soils. The microbe-biochar composite showed superior degradation capacity for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Phenanthrene loss in the microbe-biochar composite, free cell alone and biochar alone treatments was, respectively, 62.6 ± 3.2%, 47.3 ± 4.1% and non-significant (P > 0.05); whereas for fluoranthene loss it was 52.1 ± 2.3%; non-significant (P > 0.05) and non-significant (P > 0.05); and for pyrene loss it was 62.1 ± 0.9%; 19.7 ± 6.5% and 13.5 ± 2.8%. It was hypothesized that the improved remediation was underpinned by i) biochar enhanced mass transfer of PAHs from the soil to the carbonaceous biochar "sink", and ii) the subsequent degradation of the PAHs by the immobilized M. gilvum. To test this mechanism, a surfactant (Brij 30; 20 mg g -1 soil), was added to impede PAHs mass transfer to biochar and sorption. The surfactant increased solution phase PAH concentrations and significantly (P biochar immobilized M. gilvum treatments; indicating the enhanced degradation occurred between the immobilized M. gilvum and biochar sorbed PAHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aerobic Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil Results in Increased Genotoxicity and Developmental Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Geier, Mitra C.; Nakamura, Jun; Tanguay, Robert L.; Aitken, Michael D.; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2015-01-01

    The formation of more polar and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transformation products is one of the concerns associated with the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. Soil contaminated with coal tar (pre-bioremediation) from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was treated in a laboratory scale bioreactor (post-bioremediation) and extracted using pressurized liquid extraction. The soil extracts were fractionated, based on polarity, and analyzed for 88 PAHs (unsubstituted, oxygenated, nitrated, and heterocyclic PAHs). The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, post-bioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. The soil extract fractions were tested for genotoxicity using the DT40 chicken lymphocyte bioassay and developmental to xicity using the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay. A statistically significant increase in genotoxicity was measured in the unfractionated soil extract, as well as in four polar soil extract fractions, post-bioremediation (p bioremediation (p bioremediation. The increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is not likely due to the 88 PAHs measured in this study (including quinones), because most were not present in the toxic polar fractions and/or because their concentrations did not increase post-bioremediation. However, the increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is likely due to hydroxylated and carboxylated transformation products of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs (PHE, 1MPHE, 2MPHE, PRY, BaA, and FLA) that were most degraded. PMID:26200254

  8. Importance of organic amendment characteristics on bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, B; Huguenot, D; Panico, A; Fabbricino, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the importance of the organic matter characteristics of several organic amendments (i.e., buffalo manure, food and kitchen waste, fruit and vegetables waste, and activated sewage sludge) and their influence in the bioremediation of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated soil. The removal of low molecular weights (LMW) and high molecular weights (HMW) PAHs was monitored in four bioremediation reactors and used as an indicator of the role of organic amendments in contaminant removal. The total initial concentration of LMW PAHs was 234 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight), while the amount for HMW PAHs was 422 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight). Monitoring of operational parameters and chemical analysis was performed during 20 weeks. The concentrations of LMW PAH residues in soil were significantly lower in reactors that displayed a mesophilic phase, i.e., 11 and 15 %, compared to reactors that displayed a thermophilic phase, i.e., 29 and 31 %. Residual HMW PAHs were up to five times higher compared to residual LMW PAHs, depending on the reactor. This demonstrated that the amount of added organic matter and macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the biochemical organic compound classes (mostly soluble fraction and proteins), and the operational temperature are important factors affecting the overall efficiency of bioremediation. On that basis, this study shows that characterization of biochemical families could contribute to a better understanding of the effects of organic amendments and clarify their different efficiency during a bioremediation process of PAH-contaminated soil.

  9. Source apportionment of elevated wintertime PAHs by compound-specific radiocarbon analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Sheesley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural abundance radiocarbon analysis facilitates distinct source apportionment between contemporary biomass/biofuel (14C "alive" versus fossil fuel (14C "dead" combustion. Here, the first compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs was demonstrated for a set of samples collected in Lycksele, Sweden a small town with frequent episodes of severe atmospheric pollution in the winter. Renewed interest in using residential wood combustion (RWC means that this type of seasonal pollution is of increasing concern in many areas. Five individual/paired PAH isolates from three pooled fortnight-long filter collections were analyzed by CSRA: phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b+k]fluoranthene and indeno[cd]pyrene plus benzo[ghi]perylene; phenanthrene was the only compound also analyzed in the gas phase. The measured Δ14C for PAHs spanned from −138.3‰ to 58.0‰. A simple isotopic mass balance model was applied to estimate the fraction biomass (fbiomass contribution, which was constrained to 71–87% for the individual PAHs. Indeno[cd]pyrene plus benzo[ghi]perylene had an fbiomass of 71%, while fluoranthene and phenanthrene (gas phase had the highest biomass contribution at 87%. The total organic carbon (TOC, defined as carbon remaining after removal of inorganic carbon fbiomass was estimated to be 77%, which falls within the range for PAHs. This CSRA data of atmospheric PAHs established that RWC is the dominating source of atmospheric PAHs to this region of the boreal zone with some variations among RWC contributions to specific PAHs.

  10. Climate change impact on the PAH photodegradation in soils: Characterization and metabolites identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Audí-Miró, Carme; Sierra, Jordi; Soler, Albert; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are airborne pollutants that are deposited on soils. As climate change is already altering temperature and solar radiation, the global warming is suggested to impact the environmental fate of PAHs. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of climate change on the PAH photodegradation in soils. Samples of Mediterranean soils were subjected to different temperature and light radiation conditions in a climate chamber. Two climate scenarios were considered according to IPCC projections: 1) a base (B) scenario, being temperature and light intensity 20°C and 9.6W/m(2), respectively, and 2) a climate change (CC) scenario, working at 24°C and 24W/m(2), respectively. As expected, low molecular weight PAHs were rapidly volatilized when increasing both temperature and light intensity. In contrast, medium and high molecular weight PAHs presented different photodegradation rates in soils with different texture, which was likely related to the amount of photocatalysts contained in both soils. In turn, the hydrogen isotopic composition of some of the PAHs under study was also investigated to verify any degradation process. Hydrogen isotopes confirmed that benzo(a)pyrene is degraded in both B and CC scenarios, not only under light but also in the darkness, revealing unknown degradation processes occurring when light is lacking. Potential generation pathways of PAH photodegradation by-products were also suggested, being a higher number of metabolites formed in the CC scenario. Consequently, in a more or less near future, although humans might be less exposed to PAHs, they could be exposed to new metabolites of these pollutants, which might be even more toxic. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Particle-scale measurement of PAH aqueous equilibrium partitioning in impacted sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Upal; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2010-02-15

    This research investigated the particle-scale processes that control aqueous equilibrium partitioning of PAHs in manufactured gas plant (MGP) site sediments. Dominant particle types in impacted sediments (sand, wood, coal/coke, and pitch) were physically separated under a microscope for equilibrium assessments. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with selected ion monitoring GC/MS and perdeuterated PAH internal standards were used to determine freely dissolved PAH concentrations in small (0.1-1 mL) water samples at concentrations as low as microg/L (for lower molecular weight PAHs) to ng/L (for higher molecular weight PAHs). For every particle class the initial release of PAHs into the aqueous phase was rapid, and an apparent equilibrium was reached in a matter of days. The average ratio of aqueous total PAH concentration for pitch vs coal/coke particles for eight sediment samples was 20. Thus, sediments that had aged in the field for many decades were not at equilibrium and were still going through a slow process of contaminant mass transfer between the different particle types. A possible consequence of this slow aging process is further lowering of the activity of the chemical as mass transfer is achieved to new sorption sites with time. This study also found that the presence of black carbon even at the level of (1)/(3) of sediment organic carbon does not necessarily imply a BC-dominated sorption behavior, rather source pitch particles if present may dominate PAH partitioning. To our knowledge this is the first report of equilibrium partitioning assessment conducted at the sediment particle scale.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aerosols over the central Himalayas along two south-north transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengfei; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Zhang, Qianggong

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of the transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) to the Himalayas remains limited. Concentrations of PAHs were therefore measured in total suspended particles (TSP) from six sites along two south-north transects across the central Himalayas. Spatially, the annual average TSP and PAH (especially 5- and 6-ring) concentrations were found to decrease noticeably along both transects. The dry deposition fluxes had similar distribution pattern with the ambient PAH levels. Moreover, annual TSP and PAH concentrations exhibited a logarithmic decreasing pattern with increasing elevation especially in the non-monsoon seasons (TSP: y=-57.3lnx+552, R2=0.952; PAHs: y=-26.8lnx+229, R2=0.948). The TSP and PAH concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with the minimum concentrations around the mid-monsoon season and the maximum concentrations in winter season at Lumbini and Pokhara. While at other remote sites these pollutants were slightly higher during the non-monsoon season than those in the monsoon season. The diagnostic ratio suggested that atmospheric PAHs from the Nepal sites were mainly associated with emission of biomass, coal burning and petroleum combustion. A similar composition pattern was found between the two sides of the Himalayas, suggesting that the northern side of the Himalayas may be affected by anthropogenic emissions from the IGP due to long-range transportation as well as the unique mountain/valley breeze system which bring pollution from the IGP into Tibet across the high Himalayas.

  13. Depth Profile of Bacterial Metabolism and PAH Biodegradation in Bioturbated and Unbioturbated Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-25

    bioaugmentation) or selective modification of existing ones. The activities of the benthic meio - and macrofauna may create an environment that... ambient test PAH concentration and was kept under 10%. This step ensured that the system was not overwhelmed with excess PAH. Samples were incubated no...the research vessel R/V Ecos and transferred to the laboratory at ambient temperature within 3 h. Two cores from Station P17 were sectioned and

  14. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mass-spectrometric study of nitro-PAHS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korfmacher, W.A.

    1984-08-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) have been detected in diesel exhaust, urban air particulate matter, commercial carbon black, and photocopier toners. Nitro-PAHs are a human health concern because some of them are known to be potent bacterial mutagens and to be carcinogenic in experimental animals. Analytical methods for nitro-PAHs have included high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC) with various detectors, GC/mass spectrometry (MS) operated in the positive ion election impact (EI) mode and in the negative-ion chemical ionization (NICI) mode (6,16). In addition, analysis of nitro-PAHs by high resolution MS and MS/MS have been reported. An alternative mode of MS ionization is negative-ion atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (NIAPIMS). NIAPIMS responds selectively to compounds that have a high electron affinity. Because nitrocompounds have a high electron affinity, they are a class of chemicals well suited for NIAPIMS analysis. Mitchum and Korfmacher have reported on the NIAPIMS of several nitro-PAHs using a Finnigan 4000 GC/NIAPIMS system. Recently, analysis of nitro-PAHs by NIAPIMS/MS has been reported by Fulford and co-workers using a TAGA 6000 instrument. In the report, the initial results of the GC/NIAPIMS analyses of several PAHs are described. These results suggest that the NIAPIMS system provides an alternative method of analysis for nitro-PAHs and offers the advantage of greater selectivity than is found in the conventional (electron-impact ionization) GC/MS mode.

  16. Laboratory spectroscopy and astronomical significance of the fully-benzenoid PAH triphenylene and its cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, V.; Sarre, P. J.; Hibbins, R. E.; ten Kate, I. L.; Linnartz, H.

    2017-06-01

    Triphenylene (C18H12) is a highly symmetric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecule with a 'fully-benzenoid' electronic structure. This confers a high chemical stability compared with PAHs of similar size. Although numerous infrared and UV-vis experimental spectroscopic and theoretical studies of a wide range PAHs in an astrophysical context have been conducted, triphenylene and its radical cation have received almost no attention. There exists a huge body of spectroscopic evidence for neutral and ionised PAHs in astrophysical sources, obtained principally through detection of infrared emission features that are characteristic of PAHs as a chemical class. However, it has so far not proved possible to identify spectroscopically a single isolated PAH in space, although PAHs including triphenylene have been detected mass spectrometrically in meteorites. In this work we focus on recording laboratory electronic spectra of neutral and ionised triphenylene between 220 and 780 nm, trapped in H2O ice and solid argon at 12 K. The studies are motivated by the potential for spectroscopic astronomical detection of electronic absorption spectra of PAHs in ice mantles on interstellar grains as discussed by Linnartz (2014), and were performed also in a cold Ar matrix to provide guidance as to whether triphenylene (particularly in its singly positively ionised form) could be a viable candidate for any of the unidentified diffuse interstellar absorption bands. Based on the argon-matrix experimental results, comparison is made with previously unpublished astronomical spectra near 400 nm which contain broad interstellar absorption features consistent with the predictions from the laboratory matrix spectra, thus providing motivation for the recording of gas-phase electronic spectra of the internally cold triphenylene cation.

  17. Effect of a non-ionic surfactant on biodegradation of slowly desorbing PAHs in contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Montes, M.; Springael, D.; Ortega Calvo, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the nonionic surfactant Brij 35 on biodegradation of slowly desorbing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in contaminated soils. We employed a soil originated from a creosote-polluted site, and a manufactured gas plant soil that had been treated by bioremediation. The two soils differed in their total content in five indicator 3-, 4-, and 5-ring PAHs (2923 mg kg(-1) and 183 mg kg(-1) in the creosote-polluted and bioremediated soils, respectively) but had a ...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enriching antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baowei; He, Rong; Yuan, Ke; Chen, Enzhong; Lin, Lan; Chen, Xin; Sha, Sha; Zhong, Jianan; Lin, Li; Yang, Lihua; Yang, Ying; Wang, Xiaowei; Zou, Shichun; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in modern environment raises an emerging global health concern. In this study, soil samples were collected from three sites in petrochemical plant that represented different pollution levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Metagenomic profiling of these soils demonstrated that ARGs in the PAHs-contaminated soils were approximately 15 times more abundant than those in the less-contaminated ones, with Proteobacterial being the preponderant phylum. Resistance profile of ARGs in the PAHs-polluted soils was characterized by the dominance of efflux pump-encoding ARGs associated with aromatic antibiotics (e.g., fluoroquinolones and acriflavine) that accounted for more than 70% of the total ARGs, which was significantly different from representative sources of ARG pollution due to wide use of antibiotics. Most of ARGs enriched in the PAHs-contaminated soils were not carried by plasmids, indicating the low possibilities of them being transferred between bacteria. Significant correlation was observed between the total abundance of ARGs and that of Proteobacteria in the soils. Proteobacteria selected by PAHs led to simultaneously enriching of ARGs carried by them in the soils. Our results suggested that PAHs could serve as one of selective stresses for greatly enriching of ARGs in the human-impacted environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Historical Profiles of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Marine Sediment Cores from Northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Begoña; Viñas, Lucía; Bargiela, Jesica

    2016-11-01

    The northwest coast of Spain is characterized by an irregular coastline rich in marine life and with the highest mussel production in Europe. Taking this into account, the characterization of the pollution levels and the sources involved appear necessary. Not only were parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed but also their alkylated homologues. In total, 35 compounds were analyzed in 5 sediment cores. Sediments were collected using a box core dredge and extracted by (Pressurized Liquid Extraction) whilst the quantification of PAHs was performed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentration detected varied from 49.6 to 2489 ng g -1 dry weight (d.w.) of which parent PAHs ranged from 44.5 to 2254 ng g -1 d.w. and alkylated PAHs varied from 5.04 to 317 ng g -1 d.w. Temporal and spatial evolution were outlined and pollution sources were identified along with a possible correlation between this pollution and local history and industry. Most of the PAHs from the superficial samples have a biomass and coal combustion profile, and some specific, localized events are reflected in the total PAH concentration evolution. Moreover, the study of the deepest layers of the sampled cores provides a baseline to develop background concentration values that will help in future sediment quality assessment.

  20. Sedimentary records of PAHs in a sediment core from tidal flat of Haizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Tian-Cheng

    2013-04-15

    The concentrations and depositional fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in a dated sediment core collected from a tidal flat in Haizhou Bay, China. The USEPA's 16 priority PAH concentrations ranged from 72.51 ng g(-1) dw in 1969 to 805.21 ng g(-1) dw in 2010, while the deposition fluxes were in the range of 102.36-861.02 ng cm(-2) yr(-1). The PAH concentrations and fluxes changed dramatically with depth, suggesting changes in energy usage and corresponding closely with the historical economic development of eastern China. The levels of PAHs slightly increased from the late 1970s, following China's "Reform and Open" policy of 1978; however, a drastic increase in the concentration of PAHs observed in 1990 was indicative of the rapid growth in coal and petroleum incomplete combustion byproducts, which was associated with the increase in economic development in this area. Furthermore, isomer ratio analysis and principle component analysis revealed the main anthropogenic pyrolytic source that causes PAH contamination in the coastal sediment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Native Michigan plants stimulate soil microbial species changes and PAH remediation at a legacy steel mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C; Cable, Edward; Dabkowski, Robert T; Gargala, Stephanie; McCall, Daniel; Pangrazzi, Garett; Pierson, Adam; Ripper, Mark; Russell, Donald K; Rugh, Clayton L

    2013-01-01

    A 1.3-acre phytoremediation site was constructed to mitigate polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from a former steel mill in Michigan. Soil was amended with 10% (v/v) compost and 5% (v/v) poultry litter. The site was divided into twelve 11.89 m X 27.13 m plots, planted with approximately 35,000 native Michigan perennials, and soils sampled for three seasons. Soil microbial density generally increased in subplots of Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset), Aster novae-angliae (New England aster), Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem), and Scirpus atrovirens (green bulrush) versus unplanted subplots. Using enumeration assays with root exudates, PAH degrading bacteria were greatest in soils beneath plants. Initially predominant, Arthrobacter were found capable of degrading a PAH cocktail in vitro, especially upon the addition of root exudate. Growth of some Arthrobacter isolates was stimulated by root exudate. The frequency of Arthrobacter declined in planted subplots with a concurrent increase in other species, including secondary PAH degraders Bacillus and Nocardioides. In subplots supporting only weeds, an increase in Pseudomonas density and little PAH removal were observed. This study supports the notion that a dynamic interplay between the soil, bacteria, and native plant root secretions likely contributes to in situ PAH phytoremediation.

  2. Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the Western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdenek Zencak; Jana Klanova; Ivan Holoubek; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

    2007-06-01

    Progress in source apportionment of priority combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants can be made by an inverse approach to inventory emissions, namely, receptor-based compound class-specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) of target pollutants. In the present study, CCSRA of the combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the atmosphere of the countries of the former republic of Yugoslavia was performed. The carbon stable isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of PAHs varied between -27.68 and -27.19{per_thousand}, whereas {Delta}{sup 14}C values ranged from -568{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in Kosovo to -288{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in the Sarajevo area. The application of an isotopic mass balance model to these {Delta}{sup 14}C data revealed a significant contribution (35-65%) from the combustion of non-fossil material to the atmospheric PAH pollution, even in urban and industrialized areas. Furthermore, consistency was observed between the isotopic composition of PAHs obtained by high-volume sampling and those collected by passive sampling. This encourages the use of passive samplers for CCSRA applications. This marks the first time that a CCSRA investigation could be executed on a geographically wide scale, providing a quantitative field-based source apportionment, which points out that also non-fossil combustion processes should be targeted for remedial action. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Assessment of direct exposure and leaching risk from PAHs in roadway and stormwater system residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azah, Edmund; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

    2017-12-31

    Wastes generated from municipal cleaning activities such as street sweeping, ditch cleaning, stormwater pond maintenance, and catch basin sediment removal require appropriate management. Beneficial use of these types of waste is a good alternative to landfilling; however, there are genuine concerns about possible soil and groundwater contamination by pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study assessed the potential risks associated with beneficial use of roadway and stormwater system residuals collected from 14 cities across the state of Florida, USA. Total and leachable concentrations of 16 priority PAHs in the residual samples were measured and compared to appropriate risk-based regulatory threshold values. The bioaccessibility of the PAHs found in the waste streams was also determined using in vitro gastrointestinal leaching test. Of the PAHs studied, benzo [a] pyrene measured concentrations were above appropriate risk-based regulatory threshold values for soil and groundwater, while all other detected PAHs measured concentrations were below. Benzo [a] pyrene concentration (mg/kg) in street sweepings was 1.2 times higher than residential threshold values and 6 times lower than industrial threshold values. The in vitro study found PAH bioaccessibility to range from 1.7% to 49% in six roadway and stormwater system residual samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PAH mutation spectrum and correlation with PKU manifestation in north Jiangsu province population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Wen Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is a common autosomal recessive disorder of phenylalanine metabolism and mainly results a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH. The incidence of various PAH mutations have race and ethnicity differences. We report a spectrum of PAH mutations complied from 35 PKU children who are all Chinese Han population from north Jiangsu in this study. All 13 exons and their flanking intron sequences of PAH were determined by Ion Torrent PGM™ sequencing. The relationship of genotype and phenotype was analyzed based on the sum of the arbitrary value (AV values of the two alleles. We identified 61 mutations, with a frequency of 87.14%, among 70 alleles of 35 patients. The most prevalent mutations were R243Q (26.23%, R241C (9.84% and V399V (8.20%. Furthermore, the consistency between prediction of the biochemical phenotype and the observed phenotype was 81.25%, with the highest consistency observed in classic PKU (87.50%. A significant correlation was found between pretreatment levels of phenylalanine and AV sum (r = −0.87, P < 0.05. Finally, our study constructs PAH mutation spectrum by next generation sequencing (NGS, and reveals that the PAH genotypes and biochemical phenotypes were significantly correlated. These offers facilitate the provision of appropriate genetic counseling for PKU patients.

  5. Summertime PAH assembly in Mediterranean air: the Herceg Novi sampling station as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR Z. JOVANOVIC

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of an analysis of the total suspended particles (TSP, total solvent organic extracts (TSOE, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in aerosol samples collected from the atmosphere of Herceg Novi from 17th June to 15th September in 1998 and 1999 are presented. The TSP and TSOE concentrations were determined by the standard gravimetric method, whereas the PAHs from the organic part of the aerosol were analysed by the GC-MS method. The difference found in the TSP and TSOE contents between the two consecutive years (before and after the bombing of Yugoslavia was attributed to changes in the intensity and origin of emissions from dominant sources, specific to the summer period of this region. The content and nature of the PAHs identified in the samples of 1998 and 1999 were also different, indicating the significance of traffic as the source of PAHs, which was of significantly lower intensity in 1999 (immediately after the war due to the lower influx of tourists. Factor analysis showed that the PAH distribution at the measuring site in 1999 was largely determined by meteorological parameters, mainly by the average daily temperature and wind direction. In 1998, the dominant impact on the PAH distribution was attributed to traffic, both local and from a wider region, without an explicit impact of meteorological parameters.

  6. Biodegradation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microbial consortia in soil and slurry phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Chungui; Li, Qi; Gong, Zongqiang

    2008-01-15

    Microbial consortia isolated from aged oil-contaminated soil were used to degrade 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15.72 mgkg(-1)) in soil and slurry phases. The three microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) could degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the highest PAH removals were found in soil and slurry inoculated with fungi (50.1% and 55.4%, respectively). PAHs biodegradation in slurry was lower than in soil for bacteria and bacteria-fungi complex inoculation treatments. Degradation of three- to five-ring PAHs treated by consortia was observed in soil and slurry, and the highest degradation of individual PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz(a)anthracene) appeared in soil (45.9-75.5%, 62-83.7% and 64.5-84.5%, respectively) and slurry (46.0-75.8%, 50.2-86.1% and 54.3-85.7%, respectively). Therefore, inoculation of microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) isolated from in situ contaminated soil to degrade PAHs could be considered as a successful method.

  7. Microorganism selection and performance in bioslurry reactors treating PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, D P; Hudak, A J

    2002-09-01

    A continuous-flow reactor (CSTR) and a soil slurry-sequencing batch reactor (SS-SBR) were operated in 81 vessels for 200 days to treat a soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Filtered slurry samples were used to quantify bulk biosurfactant concentrations and PAH emulsification. Concentrations of Corynebacterium aquaticum, Flavobacterium mizutaii, Mycobacterium gastri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas putida were determined using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The CSTR and SS-SBR selected microbial consortia with markedly different surfactant-producing and PAH-degrading abilities. Biosurfactant levels in the SS-SBR reached 4 times the critical micelle concentration (CMC) that resulted in considerable emulsification of PAH. In contrast, CSTR operation resulted in nomeasurable biosurfactant production. Total PAH removal efficiency was 93% in the SS-SBR, compared with only 66% in the CSTR, and stripping of PAH was 3 times less in the SS-SBR. Reversing the mode of operation on day 100 caused a complete reversal in microbial consortia and in reactor performance by day 140. These results show that bioslurry reactor operation can be manipulated to control overall reactor performance.

  8. Application of positive matrix factorization to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil of Dalian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Degao; Tian Fulin; Yang Meng; Liu Chenlin; Li Yifan

    2009-01-01

    Soil derived sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Dalian, China were investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three factors were separated based on PMF for the statistical investigation of the datasets both in summer and winter. These factors were dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources, showing seasonal and regional variations. The main sources of PAHs in Dalian soil in summer were the emissions from coal combustion average (46%), diesel engine (30%), and gasoline engine (24%). In winter, the main sources were the emissions from coal-fired boiler (72%), traffic average (20%), and gasoline engine (8%). These factors with strong seasonality indicated that coal combustion in winter and traffic exhaust in summer dominated the sources of PAHs in soil. These results suggested that PMF model was a proper approach to identify the sources of PAHs in soil. - PMF model is a proper approach to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil based on the PAH profiles measured in the field and those published in the literature.

  9. Enhanced concentrations of PAHs in groundwater at a coal tar site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, A A; Gschwend, P M

    2001-04-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in groundwater at a coal tar site were elevated by factors ranging from 3 (pyrene) to 50 (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) over purely dissolved concentrations. Air-groundwater surface tension measurements (70.6 +/- 3 dyn/cm) were not sufficiently different from air-pure water measures (72.2 +/- 0.1 dyn/cm) to ascribe the observed enrichments to either cosolvents or surfactants in the groundwater. Excess pyrene was associated with colloids that passed an ultrafilter at ambient pH but became ultrafilterable when the groundwater pH was lowered to 1. This suggested pyrene association with humic acids. Given the decrease in groundwater total organic carbon (TOC) of 4 mgc/L upon acidification and ultrafiltration, a partition coefficient of 10(5) L/kgc was estimated for this pyrene association. Use of the results for pyrene and scaling for the differences in PAH hydrophobicities enabled good predictions of the observed enrichments of less water-soluble PAHs in the groundwater. This is strong field evidence indicating colloid-facilitated transport of HOCs in groundwater. Assuming that humic-bound PAHs were as mobile as the dissolved PAHs, the fluxes of individual PAHs (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene) from the tar source were as much as 20 times greater than estimates based solely on tarwater partitioning predictions.

  10. Microbial populations related to PAH biodegradation in an aged biostimulated creosote-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó, Salvador; Jiménez, Nuria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna Maria

    2009-09-01

    A previous bioremediation survey on a creosote-contaminated soil showed that aeration and optimal humidity promoted depletion of three-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but residual concentrations of four-ringed benzo(a)anthracene (B(a)A) and chrysene (Chry) remained. In order to explain the lack of further degradation of heavier PAHs such as four-ringed PAHs and to analyze the microbial population responsible for PAH biodegradation, a chemical and microbial molecular approach was used. Using a slurry incubation strategy, soil in liquid mineral medium with and without additional B(a)A and Chry was found to contain a powerful PAH-degrading microbial community that eliminated 89% and 53% of the added B(a)A and Chry, respectively. It is hypothesized that the lack of PAH bioavailability hampered their further biodegradation in the unspiked soil. According to the results of the culture-dependent and independent techniques Mycobacterium parmense, Pseudomonas mexicana, and Sphingobacterials group could control B(a)A and Chry degradation in combination with several microorganisms with secondary metabolic activity.

  11. The use of lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) as sorbent for PAHs removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Christy, Alfred A; Barth, Tanja; Francis, George William

    2012-05-30

    Lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) has been explored as a sorbent for the removal of PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) from water. The efficacy of LECA as a sorbent for PAHs was assessed using contact time, mass of sorbent and sorption isotherms in a series of batch experiments. Maximum (optimum) sorption was reached at 21 h after which the amount of PAHs sorbed remained almost constant. Batch experiments were conducted by shaking a 100ml solution mixture of individual PAHs (containing 0.02 mg/L) with LECA. The maximum sorption was 70.70, 70.82 and 72.12%, respectively for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene when a mass of 0.2 g of sorbent was used. There was an increase in sorption as a result of an increase in mass of sorbent until a maximum was reached at a mass of 4.0 g LECA with 92.61, 93.91 and 94.15% sorption of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene respectively. Sorption data were fitted to the linearised forms of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models to determine the water-LECA partitioning coefficient. Physical sorption caused by the aromatic nature of the compounds was the main mechanism that governed the removal process while the hydrophobicity of the PAHs also influenced the sorption capacity. LECA can be used as an alternative method for aqueous PAHs removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on the source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during coal pyrolysis by PY-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2012-12-01

    Hazardous organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated during the course of coal pyrolysis are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. The relation between the amount of PAHs from the raw coal and that generated from coal pyrolysis were studied. Firstly, three Chinese coals from Huolinhe, Ximeng and Fenxi were respectively extracted by dichloromethane, and then, online pyrolysis analysis of the raw coals, their extraction residues and extracts were carried out respectively by PY (Pyro-probe CDS 5250)-GC-MS. The experimental results showed that the PAHs generated from the Huolinhe, Ximeng and Fenxi coals in the course of their pyrolysis was 523, 327 and 1707 μg/g, respectively, which were much higher than the free PAHs extracted from their corresponding raw coals. The PAHs in the raw coals were dominated by 4,5-ring PAHs, while those generated from the coal pyrolysis were dominated by lower-ring (2,3-rings) PAHs. A lot of important information about the generation of PAHs from residue pyrolysis was also included in the paper which indicated that the PAHs were mainly from complex chemical reactions of the coal pyrolysis, and PAHs were more likely to be generated from the residue pyrolysis due to the increased pores that appeared on the coal surface during the course of extraction operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao; Inoue, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of PM2.5-bound nitrated and oxygenated PAHs in two industrial sites of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shilong; Huang, Bo; Liu, Ming; Bi, Xinhui; Ren, Zhaofang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-06-01

    Daytime and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected between August 5 and 16, 2009 and between January 24 and February 4, 2010 in an industrial complex site (site A) and an e-waste recycling site (site B) to determine the seasonal and diurnal variations of nitrated (nitro-) and oxygenated (oxy-) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The two sites show similar composition for nitro- and oxy-PAHs although the composition of parent PAHs was quite different. 3 + 2-Nitrofluoranthene (3 + 2NFL) was the most abundant nitro-PAH, while 9,10-anthraquinone (Anquin), benzanthrone (Bzone) and 6H-benzo[cd]pyrene-6-one (Bpone) were the three major oxy-PAHs species. The concentrations of Σnitro-PAHs and Σoxy-PAHs were about 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those of Σparent PAHs. Most of the nitro- and oxy-PAHs show notable seasonal variation. 7-Nitrobenz[a]anthracene (7NBaA), Bzone and benzo[a]anthrancene-7,12-dione (Bzdion) demonstrated a pronounced diurnal variation. The occurrence of nitro- and oxy-PAHs in the two sites can be accounted by direct emission and atmospheric secondary formation.

  15. PAHs in sediment cores at main river estuaries of Chaohu Lake: implication for the change of local anthropogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chen; Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Shuo; Wu, Liang-Liang; Liang, Xiao-Guo; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhu, Cheng-Zhu; Sojinu, Samuel O; Wang, Ji-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in four sediment cores collected from the main river estuaries of Chaohu Lake, one of the severely polluted lakes in China. The results indicate that elevated concentrations of total PAHs (Σ28PAH) were found in the samples from the estuary of Nanfei River (ENF), considering BaP-based total toxicity equivalent (TEQ-BaP) and toxic unit (TU) results; there are potential adverse environmental implications. The total organic carbon (TOC) played an important role on the accumulation of PAHs at ENF and the estuary of Tongyang River (ETY). The predominant PAHs are high molecular weight (HMW) homologous for all samples; as a result, industrial wastewater from a steel company is expectedly the key source of PAHs in ENF, while coke consumption would be the important source of PAHs at other three sampling sites. Vertical distribution of PAHs in the sediment cores could be explained by the local social and economic activities. Furthermore, a minor variation of PAH composition in the sediment core could be justified by the stable structure of energy consumption in the Anhui Province. These results justify the need for further enhancement of industrial wastewater treatment and development of renewable energies which are the key factors on the control of PAH pollution in China.

  16. Effects of Co-Processing Sewage Sludge in the Cement Kiln on PAHs, Heavy Metals Emissions and the Surrounding Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Li, Xinghua; Zhao, Yuan; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Qinglin

    2018-04-08

    To understand the effects of co-processing sewage sludge in the cement kiln on non-criterion pollutants emissions and its surrounding environment, the flue gas from a cement kiln stack, ambient air and soil from the background/downwind sites were collected in the cement plant. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals of the samples were analyzed. The results show that PAHs in flue gas mainly exist in the gas phase and the low molecular weight PAHs are the predominant congener. The co-processing sewage sludge results in the increase in PAHs and heavy metals emissions, especially high molecular weight PAHs and low-volatile heavy metals such as Cd and Pb in the particle phase, while it does not change their compositions and distribution patterns significantly. The concentrations and their distributions of the PAHs and heavy metals between the emissions and ambient air have a positive correlation and the co-processing sewage sludge results in the increase of PAHs and heavy metals concentrations in the ambient air. The PAHs concentration level and their distribution in soil are proportional to those in the particle phase of flue gas, and the co-processing sewage sludge can accelerate the accumulation of the PAHs and heavy metals in the surrounding soil, especially high/middle molecular weight PAHs and low-volatile heavy metals.

  17. Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. -- Highlights: •Composition of SOM significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs. •Anthropogenic carbonaceous materials in soil largely control the transport of PAHs. •The classic enrichment theory is invalid if anthropogenic CMs are abundant in the soil. •Organic petrology analysis introduced to study the fate and transport of PAHs. -- Anthropogenic carbonaceous materials in soil, especially black carbon, largely control the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

  18. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai: the spatio-temporal variation and source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Bi, Chunjuan; Wang, Dongqi; Yu, Zhongjie; Chen, Zhenlou

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the dry and wet deposition fluxes of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai, China. The flux sources were traced based on composition and spatio-temporal variation. The results show that wet deposition concentrations of PAHs ranged from 0.07 to 0.67 mg·L-1 and were correlated with temperature ( P<0.05). Dry deposition of PAHs concentrations ranged from 3.60-92.15 mg·L-1 and were higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. The annual PAH average fluxes were 0.631 mg·m-2·d-1 and 4.06 mg·m-2·d-1 for wet and dry deposition, respectively. The highest wet deposition of PAH fluxes was observed in summer, while dry deposition fluxes were higher in winter and spring. Atmospheric PAHs were deposited as dry deposition in spring and winter, yet wet deposition was the dominant pathway during summer. Total atmospheric PAH fluxes were higher in the northern areas than in the southern areas of Shanghai, and were also observed to be higher in winter and spring. Annual deposition of atmospheric PAHs was about 10.8 t in across all of Shanghai. Wet deposition of PAHs was primarily composed of two, three, or four rings, while dry deposition of PAHs was composed of four, five, or six rings. The atmospheric PAHs, composed of four, five, or six rings, primarily existed in the form of particulates. Coal combustion and vehicle emissions were the dominant sources of PAH in the observed area of downtown Shanghai. In suburban areas, industrial pollution, from sources such as coke oven, incinerator, and oil fired power plant, was as significant as vehicle emissions in contributing to the deposition of PAHs.

  19. APPLICATION OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA AND RHODOCOCCUS SP. BY BIODEGRADATION OF PAH(S, PCB(S AND NEL SOIL SAMPLES FROM THE HAZARDOUS WASTE DUMP IN POZĎÁTKY (CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Kucerova

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the project was a laboratory check of biodegradation of soil samples contaminated by PAH(s, PCB(s and NEL from the hazardous waste dump in the Pozďátky locality. For the laboratory check, pure bacterial cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas putida have been used. It is apparent from the laboratory experiments results that after one-month bacterial leaching, applying the bacterium of Rhodococcus sp. there is a 83 % removal of NEL, a 79 % removal of PAH(s and a 14 % removal of PCB(s. Applying a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida there is a 87 % removal of NEL, a 81 % removal of PAH(s and a 14 % removal of PCB(s.

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Phytol on the Formation of PAHs in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytol or (2E,7R,11R-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen- 1-ol (MW = 296.53 a.u., is naturally present in tobacco at levels around 100-150 µg/g dry leaf, where it is bound in the form of an ester to a porphyrine type group (known as chlorin with several substituents and chelated to Mg2+ ion, to form chlorophyll. This study evaluated the formation of PAHs when several levels of phytol up to ten times higher than typical phytol level were added on 3R4F cigarettes. The cigarettes were smoked under two different smoking conditions. One regimen (indicated as 35/60 used 35 mL puff volume, 2 s puff duration, each puff taken every 60 s, and in the other used 60 mL puff volume, 2 s puff duration, each puff taken every 30 s (indicated as 60/30. The increase in the PAHs level upon phytol addition was not significant. A statistical evaluation of the dependence of total PAHs and the added level of phytol showed that the hypothesis of a zero slope for the dependence line phytol/total PAHs cannot be rejected (with a p = 0.101 for 35/60 smoking and p = 0.626 for 60/30 smoking. Still, for 35/60 smoking conditions, an increase of about 14% in total levels of PAHs was noticed when the added phytol level was 1.5 mg phytol per cigarette. However, this PAHs increased level was not necessarily determined by the phytol addition, and can be caused by random procedural/analytical errors (as indicated by the statistical analysis or by the modification of cigarettes during phytol addition. Also, the observed level is much lower than the expected 100% increase in the PAHs level, based on literature prediction. Intensive smoking did not show an increase in PAHs level at all. Flash pyrolysis of free phytol and of chlorophyll a provided results that indicated that phytol bound in chlorophyll is not likely to generate different PAHs level compared to free phytol. Thus, phytol has been shown not to be a significant contributor/ precursor to the PAHs formation in cigarette smoke.

  1. Adsorption of PAHs on interstellar ice viewed by classical molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoulier, Eric; Noble, Jennifer A; Simon, Aude; Mascetti, Joëlle; Toubin, Céline

    2018-03-28

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of molecules which represent the best candidates to explain the observation of one set of features in the Interstellar Medium (ISM): the Aromatic Interstellar Bands (AIBs). They could also contribute to the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs). In dense molecular clouds, PAHs may condense onto interstellar grains, contributing to the complex chemistry occurring in their icy mantles, composed essentially of water. In this context, the adsorption of various aromatic molecules, from benzene to ovalene, on different ices - both amorphous and crystalline - is investigated by means of classical molecular dynamics simulations. Initially, a systematic parametrization of the electronic charges on the chosen PAHs in these environments is carried out, and benchmarked with reference to free energies of solvation in liquid water. Then we propose a new, rigorous methodology, transferable to any other PAH or molecular species, to evaluate the charges to be applied to the molecule in the gas phase, at interfaces, or in liquid water. Ultimately, the adsorption energies calculated for the various PAHs are used to derive a function predicting the adsorption energy of any PAH on a given ice surface as a function of the number of C and H atoms it contains. For all PAHs studied, the largest adsorption energies are found on the crystalline hexagonal ice surface (Ih). Binding energy maps constructed for each PAH-ice pair give valuable insight into adsorption site densities and the barriers to surface diffusion. One key result is that the amorphous surface offers a smaller number of adsorption sites compared to that of hexagonal ice. A direct correlation between the location of energetically favourable adsorption sites and the presence of dangling H-bonds is also demonstrated using these maps, showing that PAHs adsorb preferentially on sites offering dangling H-bonds. The present work represents a complete description of PAH-ice interaction

  2. Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguri, J; Verde, J; Irabien, A

    2002-07-01

    Samples of intertidal surface sediments (0-2 cm) were collected in 17 stations of the Santander Bay, Cantabric Sea, Northern Spain. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16, were analysed by HPLC and MS detection. Surface sediments show a good linear correlation among the parameters of the experimental organic matter evaluation, where total carbon (TC) and loss on ignition (LOI) are approximately 2.5 and 5 times total organic carbon (TOC). A wide range of TOC from 0.08% to 4.1%, and a broad distribution of the sum of sigma16PAHs, from 0.02 to 344.6 microg/g d.w., which can be correlated by an exponential equation to the TOC, has been identified. A qualitative relationship may be established between the industrial input along the rivers and the concentration of sigma6PAHs in the sediments of the estuaries: Boo estuary (8404-4631 microg/g OC), Solia-San Salvador estuaries (305-113 microg/g OC) and Cubas estuary (31-32 microg/g OC). This work shows a dramatic change in the spatial distribution in the concentration of PAHs of intertidal surface sediments. The left edge of the Bay has the main traffic around the city and the major source of PAHs is from combustion processes and estuarine inputs, leading to medium values of PAHs in the sediments; the right edge of the Bay has much lesser anthropogenic activities leading to lower values of PAHs in sediments. The distribution of individual PAHs in sediments varies widely depending on their structure and molecular weight; the 4-6 ring aromatics predominate in polluted sediments due to their higher persistence. The isomer ratio does not allow any clear identification of the PAHs origin. Environmental evaluation according to Dutch guidelines and consensus sediment quality guidelines based on ecotoxicological data leads to the same conclusion, sediments in the Santander Bay show a very different environmental quality depending on the spatial position from heavily polluted/medium effects to non

  3. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyval, C.; Beguiristain, T.; Corgie, S.; Joner, E.

    2005-01-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can reach high concentrations in soils due to man-made pollution related to industrial, agricultural or urban activities. Such concentrations can reach toxic values and create major environmental and health problems. One of the first entry point of pollutants in plant ecosystems is the rhizosphere, defined as the soil under the influence of roots. In the rhizosphere, the plant release root exudates, feeding soil microorganisms, and take up water and nutrients. Among the rhizosphere inhabitants, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous root symbiotic fungi, contributing to plant growth and plant nutrition. In PAH-polluted soils, biodegradation of PAH increases, which is attributed to increased microbial activity in the rhizosphere..We studied the contribution of the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants to the biodegradation of PAH in the rhizosphere, taking into account microbial community structure. Different experiments were performed with industrial contaminated soils and PAH-spiked soils, in pot cultures as well as compartmented devices allowing to analyze rhizosphere processes in consecutive sections as a function of distance to roots. Clover and ryegrass, inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae were used.. After different time periods, plants were harvested, biomass and mycorrhizal root colonization were estimated. Microbial Density of microbial heterotrophs and of degrading bacteria was estimated by MPN techniques in micro-plates. Microbial community structure was estimated by DNA extraction from the rhizosphere, amplification by PCR and analysed by TGGE (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis), or by PLFA (phospholipid fatty acid analysis). PAH in soil were extracted by Soxhlet and analysed by GC-MS. We showed that the concentration of PAH increased with the distance to roots (Corgie et al, 2003) and was lower in the myco

  4. Biochar reduces the bioaccumulation of PAHs from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in the rhizosphere: A mechanism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ni; Song, Yang; Shi, Renyong; Liu, Zongtang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms on how biochar reduces bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tuberous vegetables. Corn straw-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 300°C (CB300) or bamboo-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 700°C (BB700) was amended into PAH-contaminated soil planted with carrot (Daucus carota L.). After 150days, 2% CB300 or 2% BB700 amendments significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of PAHs in carrot root (pbiochars both showed better effectiveness at reducing the bioavailability of high-molecular-weight PAHs than the low-molecular-weight PAHs in the rhizosphere. Therefore, the mechanisms on how biochar reduces the PAH uptake into carrot are dependent on the type of biochar (e.g., pyrolysis temperature and feedstock) and root presence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulated infrared emission spectra of highly excited polyatomic molecules: a detailed model of the PAH-UIR hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. J.; Saykally, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed description of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)/unidentified infrared band (UIR) mechanism is presented in which experimental spectral bandshape functions are used to simulate IR emission spectra for individual molecules. These spectra are additively superimposed to produce a conglomerate spectrum representative of a family of PAH molecules. Ab initio vibrational frequencies and intensities for nine PAHs (neutral and cationic) as large as ovalene are used in conjunction with measured bandshape and temperature-dependent redshift data to simulate the UIR bands. The calculated spectra of cations provide a closer match to the UIRs than do those of the neutrals. However, the PAH cations used in the simulations fail to reproduce the details of the UIR emission spectra. The discrepancies are potentially alleviated if both larger PAHs and a greater number of PAHs were included in the simulation.

  6. Evaluating potential non-point source loading of PAHs from contaminated soils: a fugacity-based modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Lin, Zhongrong; Wu, Bin; Han, Feng; Tian, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Soils contaminated by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are subject to significant non-point source (NPS) pollution during rainfall events. Recent studies revealed that the classic enrichment ratio (ER) approach may not be applicable to PAHs. This study developed a model to estimate the ER of PAHs which innovatively applies the fugacity concept. The ER model has been validated with experimental data, which suggested that the transport of PAHs not only depends on their physicochemical properties, but on the sediment composition and how the composition evolves during the event. The modeling uncertainty was systematically examined, and found to be highly compound-dependent. Based on the ER model, a strategy was proposed to practically evaluate the potential NPS loading of PAHs in watersheds with heterogeneous soils. The study results have important implications to modeling and managing the NPS pollution of PAHs (or other chemicals alike) at a watershed scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in marine sediment from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalid Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of parent and alkyl Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediment samples collected from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah were determined by using GC-MS. The ratio of anthracene to anthracene plus phenanthrene, fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene, benz[a]anthracene to benz[a]anthracene plus chrysene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene to indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene plus benzo[g,h,i]perylene, compounds were used to identify the sources of PAHs pollution. The total concentration of parent and alkyl PAHs are ranged from 121.7 to 191.5 ng/ g dry weight. The concentrations of PAHs pollution in sediments were categorised as a moderate polluted. The ratio values of PAHs compound indicate the origin source of PAHs pollutions in marine sediment sample of Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park were originated from fossil fuel combustion (pyrolytic). (author)

  8. Colour spectrum and resin-type determine the concentration and composition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisner, Mara; Majer, Alessandra; Taniguchi, Satie; Bícego, Márcia; Turra, Alexander; Gorman, Daniel

    2017-09-15

    This study assessed the concentration and composition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets, collected from sandy beaches and considered different resin and colour tones. Results showed that polyethylene pellets, while displaying a greater range of total PAH concentrations did not differ significantly from polypropylene pellets. More importantly, both resin types demonstrated predictable increases in total PAH across a spectrum of darkening colour tones. Multivariate comparisons of 36 PAH groups, further showed considerable variability across resin type and colour, with lighter coloured pellets comprising lower molecular weight, while darker pellets contained higher weight PAHs. Overall, we show predictable variation in PAH concentrations and compositions of plastic pellets of different ages and resin types that will directly influence the potential for toxicological effects. Our findings suggest that monitoring programs should take these attributes into account when assessing the environmental risks of microplastic contamination of marine and coastal habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Andrea L.; Goodale, Britton C.; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael T.; Swanson, Annika J.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. PMID:23684558

  10. Biological monitoring of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene by PAHs exposure among primary school students in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavani, Samaneh; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Hoseini, Mohammad; Fararouei, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to estimate PAHs exposure in primary school students and determine its association with other PAHs-related factors. In total, 120 male primary school students (9-12 years old) were randomly selected from urban and suburban areas in Shiraz. The parents were required to complete a questionnaire including information about second-hand smoke exposure, residential traffic density, daily diet, and walking or being driven to school. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was also used to analyze urinary 1-OHP. t test, ANOVA (with Ducan's post hoc test), and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between quantitative and qualitative variables and urinary 1-OHP concentration. The range and geometric mean of the creatinine-corrected 1-OHP levels were 120-6950 and 1460 ng/g creatinine, respectively. Besides, 1-OHP levels were higher among the children with smoker parents compared to those having non-smoker parents. The results also revealed a correlation between the duration of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and 1-OHP concentration. This correlation was also observed for daily uptake of smoked or grilled foods. However, traffic congestion did not have any significant effects on 1-OHP levels. PAHs are commonly present in Iranian diet. As a result, the weekly intake of dietary PAHs was the most effective predictor of PAHs exposure in the study population. Due to adverse health effects of PAHs on humans, especially children, more extensive studies are required to identify the sources that contribute to environmental PAHs exposure.

  11. PAHs levels in gas and particle-bound phase in schools at different locations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated seasonal variation of PAHs and their partition between gas and particulate-bounded phases in indoor and outdoor air in 4 schools in Serbia located at different locations. The sampling campaigns were conducted during one workweek at each school successively. Campaigns were conducted in schools during heating and non-heating seasons in December 2011 and June 2012. Seasonal variations of gas and particle-bounded PAHs concentrations were observed with higher levels during heating season. The highest total PAH values were associated with the gas phase in both sampling periods. The total PAHs concentration at indoor and at the outdoor sites, during heating season, ranged from 88.45 to 447.72 ng/m3 and 201.69 to 1017.15 ng/m3, respectively. During non-heating season, the total PAHs concentration ranged from 36.91 to 271.57 ng/m3 in indoor environment and 27.00 to 132.32 ng/m3 in outdoor environment. Most of the I/O ratios were less than 1, which indicated that the indoor PAHs were mostly from outdoor sources. The use of diagnostic ratio showed that traffic emission and coal combustion are the major sources of PAHs. Only the diagnostic ratios for the school, located near the industrial area, showed significant deviation compared to other schools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036: Development of new meteorological mast for turbulence parameters characterization and br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health

  12. Potency of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chicken and Japanese quail embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Cynthia D; Aleksieva, Angelika; Boulanger, Emily; Brandenburg, Jonas; Johnston, Theresa; Malinova, Asya; Head, Jessica A

    2018-01-19

    Birds are receptors of concern for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and yet limited data describing the relative potency of PAH congeners are available for avian species. Here, we determine embryonic LD50 values for 5 PAH congeners in chicken (Gallus gallus) and one PAH congener in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Graded concentrations of each test compound were injected into the air cell of chicken or quail eggs before incubation. Embryos were monitored through development (quail) or hatching (chicken). All PAHs tested caused dose-dependent increases in embryo mortality but few other effects (e.g. weight changes, deformities) were observed. In chicken, windows of developmental sensitivity were identified between embryonic days 4-9 and 20-22. The rank order potency of benzo[k]fluoranthene (76 µg/kg) ≈ dibenz[ah]anthracene (83 µg/kg) > indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (325 µg/kg) > benzo[a]pyrene (461 µg/kg) > benz[a]anthracene (529 µg/kg) corresponded well with previous in vitro estimates in birds. Previously published ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) EC 50 values from cultured chicken embryo hepatocytes were highly predictive of our LD 50 values (p Japanese quail eggs were injected with the most potent PAH - benzo[k]fluoranthene. We found that chicken and quail were nearly equally sensitive to BkF. These results contribute to our developing understanding of variability in responses to PAHs among congeners and species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. From the Laboratory to Space: Neutral and Ionized PAHs in Translucent Interstellar Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Biennier, L.; Krelowski, J.

    2012-05-01

    We describe and discuss the laboratory experiments that were designed to test the proposal of relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in diffuse interstellar clouds. The spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase PAH ions and neutral molecules have been measured using the COSmIC laboratory facility at NASA-Ames and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. The COSmIC facility combines a supersonic free jet expansion with discharge plasma and high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy to provide experimental conditions that closely mimic the interstellar conditions. This comparison provides - for the first time - accurate upper limits for the abundances of specific PAH molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations alone. The comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations leads to major findings regarding the column densities of the individual PAH molecules and ions that are probed in this survey and leads to clear and unambiguous conclusions regarding the expected abundances for PAHs of various sizes and charge states in these environments. This quantitative survey of neutral and ionized PAHs in the optical range opens the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs and complex organics in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. Acknowledgements: F.S. acknowledges the support of the NASA’s Space Mission Directorate APRA Program. The authors are deeply grateful to the ESO archive as well as to the ESO staff members for their active support.

  14. Semipermeable membrane devices as passive samplers to determine polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, B.; Gustafson, P.; Saellsten, G.; Barregaard, L. [Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Soederstroem, H.; Bergqvist, P.A. [Umea Univ., Umea (Sweden). Inst. of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    PAHs with three or four rings are mainly associated with the vapour phase whereas those with five and six ring PAHs are mainly bound to particles, and the partitioning mainly depends on the temperature. Today, wood burning is considered to be the most important source of PAH emissions to air in Sweden, about 60% of total emissions, and mobile sources (traffic) contribute about 30%. Thus, residential burning of wood may be a source of PAHs in indoor air. Cigarette smoking and cooking are other sources of PAHs to the indoor environment. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are diffusive samplers, with semiquantitative features, and can be used to measure the bioavailable (dissolved) fraction of POPs in water, air and soil, i.e. the fraction of a compound that is not absorbed on particles. They consist of a polyethylene film, containing triolein that has transient pores with a diameter of about 10A, where lipophilic chemicals such as PAHs can permeate the thin wall of the tubing and partition into the lipid. The advantage of a diffusive sampling technique is that the samplers are simple to handle, need no electricity or heavy equipment, and a large number of samples can be deployed simultaneously. Since they have a long operating time, two to four weeks, the results can be used to determine time-integrated values. Moreover, the mechanism of uptake in the SPMD mimics accumulation through cell membranes into the lipids of an organism, and, hence, might mimic human uptake. In this paper we present estimates of indoor PAH levels using SPMDs in 16 single onefamily houses. Nine of the households used wood burning as domestic heating, while seven used other heating systems (electrical or heating pumps).

  15. PAH growth initiated by propargyl addition: Mechanism development and computational kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet Dhayal

    2014-04-24

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) growth is known to be the principal pathway to soot formation during fuel combustion, as such, a physical understanding of the PAH growth mechanism is needed to effectively assess, predict, and control soot formation in flames. Although the hydrogen abstraction C2H2 addition (HACA) mechanism is believed to be the main contributor to PAH growth, it has been shown to under-predict some of the experimental data on PAHs and soot concentrations in flames. This article presents a submechanism of PAH growth that is initiated by propargyl (C 3H3) addition onto naphthalene (A2) and the naphthyl radical. C3H3 has been chosen since it is known to be a precursor of benzene in combustion and has appreciable concentrations in flames. This mechanism has been developed up to the formation of pyrene (A4), and the temperature-dependent kinetics of each elementary reaction has been determined using density functional theory (DFT) computations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory and transition state theory (TST). H-abstraction, H-addition, H-migration, β-scission, and intramolecular addition reactions have been taken into account. The energy barriers of the two main pathways (H-abstraction and H-addition) were found to be relatively small if not negative, whereas the energy barriers of the other pathways were in the range of (6-89 kcal·mol-1). The rates reported in this study may be extrapolated to larger PAH molecules that have a zigzag site similar to that in naphthalene, and the mechanism presented herein may be used as a complement to the HACA mechanism to improve prediction of PAH and soot formation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. Removal of PAHs from contaminated clayey soil by means of electro-osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2011-06-01

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from clayey soils is an intricate task. The low porosity of compacted clayey soil hinders bacterial activity and makes convective removal by hydraulic flow impossible. Electro-osmosis is a process that has been used for the mobilization and cleanup of contaminants in clayey soils with varying successes. The present study focuses on the remediation of a contaminated peaty clay soil, located in Olst - the Netherlands, by means of electro-osmosis. The soil was originally contaminated by an asphalt production plant, active from 1903 to 1983, and presents high levels of all 16 priority PAHs indicated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such a long contact times of PAH with the soil (≥100 years) presents a unique study material with well established solid/liquid contaminant partitioning equilibrium, preferable to artificially spiked soil. A batch of 6 electro-osmosis laboratory experiments was carried out to study the removal of 16 PAHs through electro-osmosis. In these experiments, water and a surfactant (Tween 80) were used to enhance the PAH desorption. The electro-osmotic conductivities ranged from 2.88 × 10-10 to a substantial 1.19 × 10-7 m2 V-1 s -1 when applying a current density of 0.005-0.127 A m-2. Electro-osmosis was expected to occur towards the cathode, because of natural soil characteristics (negative zeta potential), but presented scattered directions. The use of reference electrodes proved to be very effective to the prediction of the flow direction. Finally, the addition of Tween 80 as a surfactant enhanced PAH removal up to 30% of the total PAH content of the soil in 9 days. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Nutrient-limited biodegradation of PAH in various soil strata at a creosote contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedveld, G D; Sparrevik, M

    2000-01-01

    The effects of nutrient addition on the in situ biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in creosote contaminated soil were studied in soil columns taken from various soil strata at a wood preserving plant in Norway. Three samples were used: one from the topsoil (0-0.5 m), one from an organic rich layer (2-2.5 m) and one from the sandy aquifer (4.5-5 m). The addition of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous stimulated the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the top soil and the aquifer sand. These two soils, which differed strongly in contamination levels, responded similarly to nutrient addition with the corresponding degradation of 4-ring PAHs. The ratio between available nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) might explain the degree of degradation observed for the 4-ring PAHs. However, the degree of degradation of 3-ring PAHs did not significantly increase after nutrient addition. An increase in the respiration rate, after nutrient addition, could only be observed in the topsoil. In the aquifer sand, 4-ring PAH degradation was not accompanied by an increase in the respiration rate or the number of heterotrophic micro-organisms. PAH degradation in the organic layer did not respond to nutrient addition. This was probably due to the low availability of the contaminants for micro-organisms, as a result of sorption to the soil organic matter. Our data illustrate the need for a better understanding of the role of nutrients in the degradation of high molecular weight hydrocarbons for the successful application of bioremediation at PAH contaminated sites.

  18. Chemical analysis and genotoxicity of high molecular mass PAH in sediment samples and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarry, B.E.; Marvin, C.H.; Smith, R.W.; Bryant, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) method was used to fractionate the organic extracts of prepared from coal tar-contaminated sediments from hamilton Harbor in Ontario and from Sydney Harbor in Nova Scotia into molecular mass classes. Each PAH fraction up to 302 amu was analyzed by GC-MS and fractions containing PAH with molecular masses greater than 302 amu were analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC-MS.Each fraction was also subjected to Ames bioassays using a TA100-like strain of Salmonella typhimurium (YG1025 + S9). The 300/302 amu, 326/328 and 350/352 amu PAH fractions accounted for 25% of the total genotoxic response of the extract; these PAH constitute a substantial genotoxic burden. A number of 300, 302, 326, 350, 374 and 400 amu PAH were identified using APCI LC-MS and comparison with authentic standards. The non-polar aromatic extracts of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and zebra mussels from Hamilton Harbor were also examined by GC-MS, APCI LC-MS and genotoxicity bioassays. The profiles of the priority and high mass PAH in these samples were identical showing that all PAH up to and exceeding 400 amu were readily bioavailable to biota such as Zebra mussels. In addition, the pseudo faeces of the Zebra mussels and amphipod detritivores which fed on the pseudo faeces had chemical profiles identical to the Zebra mussels. Since many sport fish prize amphipods as food, this observation demonstrates a pathway for organic contaminants adsorbed to suspended sediments to enter the food chain of non-bottom-feeding fish in areas infested by Zebra mussels

  19. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from tobacco: the link between low temperature residual solid (char) and PAH formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas E; Wooten, Jan B; Geoffrey Chan, W; Hajaligol, Mohammad R

    2007-06-01

    The formation of condensed ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of ground tobacco in helium over the temperature range of 350-600 degrees C was investigated. PAH yields in the ng/g range were detected and the maximum yields of all PAHs studied including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A) occurred between 500 and 550 degrees C. The pathway to PAH formation in the 350-600 degrees C temperature range is believed to proceed via a carbonization process where the residual solid (char) undergoes a chemical transformation and rearrangement to give a more condensed polycyclic aromatic structure that upon further heating evolves PAH moieties. Extraction of tobacco with water led to a two fold increase in the yields of most PAHs studied. The extraction process removed low temperature non-PAH-forming components, such as alkaloids, organic acids and inorganic salts, and concentrated instead (on a per unit weight basis) tobacco components such as cell wall bio-polymers and lipids. Hexane extraction of the tobacco removed lipophilic components, previously identified as the main source of PAH precursors, but no change in PAH yields was observed from the hexane-extracted tobacco. Tobacco cell wall components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are identified as major low temperature PAH precursors. A link between the formation of a low temperature char that evolves PAHs upon heating is established and the observed ng/g yields of PAHs from tobacco highlights a low temperature solid phase formation mechanism that may be operable in a burning cigarette.

  20. Oxygen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) in urban soils of Bratislava, Slovakia: Patterns, relation to PAHs and vertical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A.; Sobocka, Jaroslava; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We determined concentrations, sources, and vertical distribution of OPAHs and PAHs in soils of Bratislava. The Σ14 OPAHs concentrations in surface soil horizons ranged 88-2692 ng g -1 and those of Σ34 PAHs 842-244,870 ng g -1 . The concentrations of the Σ9 carbonyl-OPAHs (r = 0.92, p = 0.0001) and the Σ5 hydroxyl-OPAHs (r = 0.73, p = 0.01) correlated significantly with Σ34 PAHs concentrations indicating the close association of OPAHs with parent-PAHs. OPAHs were quantitatively dominated by 9-fluorenone, 9,10-anthraquinone, 1-indanone and benzo[a]anthracene-7,12-dione. At several sites, individual carbonyl-OPAHs had higher concentrations than parent PAHs. The concentration ratios of several OPAHs to their parent-PAHs and contribution of the more soluble OPAHs (1-indanone and 9-fluorenone) to Σ14 OPAHs concentrations increased with soil depth suggesting that OPAHs were faster vertically transported in the study soils by leaching than PAHs which was supported by the correlation of subsoil:surface soil ratios of OPAH concentrations at several sites with K OW . - Research highlights: → Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are closely associated with PAHs in all studied urban soils. → The concentrations of OPAHs in urban soils of Bratislava are similar as in other European and North American cities. → Concentrations of OPAHs are frequently higher than those of the corresponding parent-PAHs. → For 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-naphthaldehyde, 2-biphenylcarboxaldehyde and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride there are indications for abiotic or biological production. → The OPAHs are faster vertically transported in soils than their parent-PAHs. - OPAHs and PAHs in urban soils are closely associated but OPAHs are faster translocated than PAHs.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in continental shelf sediment of China: Implications for anthropogenic influences on coastal marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liangying; Wang Jizhong; Wei Gaoling; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Sediments collected from the continental shelf of China, embracing Yellow Sea, inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), and the South China Sea (SCS), were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of anthropogenic PAHs (Σ 18 PAH) were 27–224 ng/g dry weight, with an average of 82 ng/g. Sedimentary PAHs in the continental shelf off China were mainly derived from mixed residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum combustion. Fluvial transport and atmospheric deposition mainly accounted for sediment PAHs in the ECS inner shelf and Yellow Sea (and the SCS), respectively. Furthermore, statistically higher levels of Σ 18 PAH (28–224 ng/g; mean 110 ng/g) in the Yellow Sea sediment than in the SCS sediment (28–109 ng/g; mean 58 ng/g) were probably resulted from higher PAH emissions from coke industry and domestic coal combustion in North China than in South China. - Highlights: ► Coal and biomass combustion was the main origin of PAHs in coastal marine sediment of China. ► Fluvial transport was the main mode for transporting PAHs to the East China Sea inner shelf. ► Atmospheric deposition largely accounted for sediment PAHs in Yellow Sea and the South China Sea. ► Regional energy use pattern in China was responsible for the spatial distribution of PAHs in coastal marine sediment. - Sources, compositions and spatial distributions of PAHs in continental shelf sediments off China are analyzed to estimate anthropogenic influences.

  2. The Diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in a deep-sea water column above the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongze eShao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria involved in organic pollutant degradation in pelagic deep-sea environments are largely unknown. In this report, the diversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ( PAH-degrading bacteria was analyzed in deep-sea water on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR. After enrichment with a PAH mixture (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene, 9 nine bacterial consortia were obtained from depths of 3946 m to 4746 m. PAH degradation occurred to all components of the mixture, but when using a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, only phenanthrene can be degraded obviously. This indicates the cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene with phenanthreneWhile the consortia degraded all four PAHs when supplied in a mixture, when PAHs were tested individually, only phenanthrene supported growth. Thus, degradation of the PAH mixture reflected a cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene with phenanthrene. Further, both culture-dependent and independent methods revealed many new bacteria involved in PAH degradation. Specifically, the alpha and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria were confirmed as the major groups within the communities. Additionally, Actinobacteria, the CFB group and Firmicutes were detected. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE analysis showed that bacteria closely affiliated with Alcanivorax, Novosphingobium and Rhodovulum occurred most frequently in different PAH-degrading consortia. More than half of the isolates (34 of 51 isolates were confirmed to have the ability to grow with the PAH mixture By using general heterotrophic media, 51 bacteria were isolated from the consortia and of these 34 grew with the PAH mixture as a sole carbon source. Of these, isolates most closely related to Alterierythrobacter, Citricella, Erythrobacter, Idiomarina, Lutibacterium, Maricaulis, Marinobacter, Martelella, Pseudidiomarina, Rhodobacter, Roseovarius, Salipiger, Sphingopyxis and Stappia were found to

  3. Residuals, bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of PAHs in winter wheat grains from areas influenced by coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai; Bao, Huanyu; Zhang, Xuechen; Shi, Taoran; Liu, Xueping; Wu, Fuyong

    2018-03-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in atmospheric and soil was serious, which is mainly due to high level of emission of PAHs in China resulted from the predominating use of coal in energy consumption and continuous development of economy and society for years. However, the status of PAHs in winter wheat grains from the areas influenced by coal combustion in China was still not clear. During harvest season, the winter wheat grains were collected from agricultural fields surrounding coal-fired power plants located in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces. This study found that the mean concentrations of 15 priority PAHs ranged from 69.58 to 557.0μgkg -1 . Three-ring PAHs (acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene) were dominant in the grains, accounting for approximately 70-81% of the total PAHs. The bioaccessibility of low molecular weight (LMW, 2-3 ring) PAHs (51.1-52.8%), high molecular weight (HMW, 4-6 ring) PAHs (19.8-27.6%) and total PAHs (40.9-48.0%) in the intestinal condition was significantly (pvalues of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for children, adolescents, adults and seniors were all higher than the baseline value (10 -6 ) and some even fell in the range of 10 -5 -10 -4 , which indicated that most grains from the areas affected by coal combustion possessed considerable cancer risk. The present study also indicated that the children were the age group most sensitive to PAHs contamination. The pilot research provided relevant information for the regulation of PAHs in the winter wheat grains and for the safety of the agro-products growing in the PAHs-contaminated areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Aging Law of PAHs in Contaminated Soil and Their Enrichment in Earthworms Characterized by Chemical Extraction Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Yang, Xing-lun; Bian, Yong-rong; Gu, Cheng-gang; Liu, Zong-tang; Li, Jiao; Wang, Dai-zhang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aging on the availability of PAHs, chemical extraction by exhaustive ( ASE extraction) and nonexhaustive techniques (Tenax-TA extraction, hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin ( HPCD ) extraction, n-butyl alcohol ( BuOH) extraction) as well as PAHs accumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted in yellow soil from Baguazhou, Nanjing, China, and red soil from Hainan, China, spiked with phenanthrene, pryene and benzo(a) pyrene and aged 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The results showed that the concentration of PAHs extracted by ASE and three nonexhaustive techniques and accumulated by earthworms significantly decreased with aging time, except the ASE extracted concentration between 30-and 60-day aging time. Furthermore, the relationships were studied in this experiment between chemical extracted PAHs concentration and accumulated concentration in earthworms. PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was not significantly correlated with the exhaustive extracted concentration of PAHs in soil (R² 0.44-0.56), which indicated that ASE extraction techniques could not predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworms because it overestimated the risk of PAHs. However, the PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was significantly correlated with the three nonexhaustive extracted concentrations of PAHs in soil, which indicated that all the three nonexhaustive techniques could predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworm to some extent, among which, HPCD extraction (R² 0.94-0.99) was better than Tenax-TA extraction (R² 0.62-0.87) and BuOH extraction (R² 0.69-0.94). So HPCD extraction was a more appropriate and reliable technique to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  5. Determination of parent and hydroxy PAHs in personal PM{sub 2.5} and urine samples collected during Native American fish smoking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motorykin, Oleksii [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart [Department of Science and Engineering, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR 97801 (United States); Harding, Anna [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Stone, David [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kile, Molly [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sudakin, Daniel [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Massey Simonich, Staci L., E-mail: staci.simonich@orst.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method was developed for the measurement of 19 parent PAHs (PAHs) and 34 hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine and personal air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}) using GC–MS and validated using NIST SRM 3672 (Organic Contaminants in Smoker's Urine) and SRM 3673 (Organic Contaminants in Nonsmoker's Urine). The method was used to measure PAHs and OH-PAHs in urine and personal PM{sub 2.5} samples collected from the operators of two different fish smoking facilities (tipi and smoke shed) burning two different wood types (alder and apple) on the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) while they smoked salmon. Urine samples were spiked with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase to hydrolyze the conjugates of OH-PAHs and the PAHs and OH-PAHs were extracted using Plexa and C18 solid phases, in series. The 34 OH-PAHs were derivatized using MTBSTFA, and the mixture was measured by GC–MS. The personal PM{sub 2.5} samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, derivatized with MTBSTFA and analyzed by GC–MS for PAHs and OH-PAHs. Fourteen isotopically labeled surrogates were added to accurately quantify PAHs and OH-PAHs in the urine and PM{sub 2.5} samples and three isotopically labeled internal standards were used to calculate the recovery of the surrogates. Estimated detection limits in urine ranged from 6.0 to 181 pg/ml for OH-PAHs and from 3.0 to 90 pg/ml for PAHs, and, in PM{sub 2.5}, they ranged from 5.2 to 155 pg/m{sup 3} for OH-PAHs and from 2.5 to 77 pg/m{sup 3} for PAHs. The results showed an increase in OH-PAH concentrations in urine after 6 h of fish smoking and an increase in PAH concentrations in air within each smoking facility. In general, the PAH exposure in the smoke shed was higher than in the tipi and the PAH exposure from burning apple wood was higher than burning alder. - Highlights: • An analytical method was developed for the measurement of 19 PAHs and 34 OH-PAHs.

  6. Temporal variation and spatial distribution of PAH in water of Three Gorges Reservoir during the complete impoundment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bi, Yonghong; Zhu, Kongxian; Pfister, Gerd; Hu, Wei; Temoka, Cedrique; Westrich, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-10-01

    Bioavailable concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in water of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) using semipermeable membrane devices during the period of completely impounding water. ∑PAH concentrations in water of TGR in the period of completely impounding water were 15-381 ng L(-1). ∑PAH concentrations increased from town or counties to big industrialized cities in TGR, indicating urbanization effects on PAH pollution in the water. Tributaries in TGR have a certain contribution of PAH pollution to the mainstream of Yangtze River and their pollution could not be neglected. An obvious decrease of PAH concentration was observed after 175-m water impounding in 2011 in TGR. Several factors may account for this decrease, including execution of comprehensive treatment and management measures in TGR, less rainfall in 2011, and sedimentation effect caused by the dam. Passive sampling method has been successfully applied in the investigation of trace PAH in water of TGR and proved to be a useful and efficient tool for the management and sustainable development of the big reservoir. The results of the study provide valuable information about PAH pollution in the whole reservoir including some tributaries, and the pollution status is dynamically related with human activities. Therefore, PAH could be used as a marker compound or indicator in the network monitoring system to surveil and trace the pollution status in TGR.

  7. Distribution, source apportionment, and transport of PAHs in sediments from the Pearl River Delta and the northern South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.J.; Chen, S.J.; Mai, B.X.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M.; Zeng, E.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ghangzhou (China)

    2008-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in 59 surface sediments from rivers in the Pearl River Delta and the northern continental shelf of the South China Sea. Total PAH concentrations varied from 138 to 6,793 ng/g dry weight. The sources of PAH inputs to sediments in the Pearl River Delta were qualitatively and quantitatively determined by diagnostic ratios and principal components analysis with multiple linear regression. The results showed that on average coal and wood combustion, petroleum spills, vehicle emissions, and nature sources contributed 36%, 27%, 25%, and 12% of total PAHs, respectively. Coal and biomass combustion was the main source of PAHs in sediments of the South China Sea, whereas petroleum combustion was the main source of pyrolytic PAHs in riverine and estuarine sediments of the Pearl River Delta. Perylene was formed in situ in river sediments and then transported to coastal areas along with other PAHs. The relative abundance of perylene from five-ring PAHs can be used to estimate the contribution of riverine-discharged PAHs to coastal sediments.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 within boundary layer: Cloud/fog and regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minmin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Li, Tao; Nie, Xiaoling; Cao, Fangfang; Yang, Fengchun; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Tao; Qie, Guanghao; Jin, Tong; Du, Lili; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-06-15

    A study of PM 2.5 -associated PAHs analysis at Mount Lushan (1165m) was conducted to investigate the distributions of PAHs in PM 2.5 and influences of cloud/fog. The main purpose was to quantify the main emission sources of PAHs and estimate regional transport effects within the boundary layer. Mount Lushan is located between the boundary layer and troposphere, which is an ideal site for atmosphere transport investigation. The concentrations of PAHs in PM 2.5 were analyzed with GC-MS. The results showed that the volume concentration was 6.98ng/m 3 with a range from 1.47 to 25.17ng/m 3 and PAHs mass were 160.24μg/g (from 63.86 to 427.97μg/g) during the sampling time at Mount Lushan. The dominant compounds are BbF, Pyr and BP. In terms of aromatic-ring PAHs distributions, 4-6-ring PAHs are predominant, indicating that the high-ring PAHs tend to contribute more than low-ring PAHs in particulates. Due to frequent cloud/fog days at Mount Lushan, PAHs concentrations in the PM 2.5 were determined before and after cloud/fog weather. The results demonstrated that the cloud/fog and rain conditions cause lower PAHs levels. Regression analysis was used for studying the relationship of PAHs distributions with meteorological conditions like temperature, humidity and wind. The results showed that the temperature and wind speed were inversely related with PAHs concentration but humidity had no significant relationship. Furthermore, backward trajectories and PCA combined with DR (diagnostic ratio analysis) were employed to identify the influences of regional transport and main emission sources. The results revealed that PAHs in PM 2.5 were mainly affected by regional transport with the main emissions by mobile vehicle and steel industry, which contributed about 56.0% to the total PAHs in the area of Mount Lushan. In addition, backward trajectories revealed that the dominant air masses were from the northwest accounting for about one third of total PAHs. Copyright © 2018

  9. Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus custos in the dissipation of PAHs under root-organ culture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Elisabet; Scervino, José Martín; Godoy, Patricia; Reina, Rocío; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Wittich, Regina-Michaela; García-Romera, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common contaminants in soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi make host plants resistant to pollutants. This study aims to evaluate the impact of anthracene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene on the AM fungus Rhizophagus custos, isolated from soil contaminated by heavy metals and PAHs, under monoxenic conditions. We found a high level of tolerance in R. custos to the presence of PAHs, especially in the case of anthracene, in which no negative effect on AM-colonized root dry weight (root yield) was observed, and also a decrease in the formation of anthraquinone was detected. Increased PAH dissipation in the mycorrhizal root culture medium was observed; however, dissipation was affected by the level of concentration and the specific PAH, which lead us to a better understanding of the possible contribution of AM fungi, and in particular R. custos, to pollutant removal. -- Highlights: •The AM fungus R. custos contributes to PAH dissipation and removal from the medium. •R. custos showed high levels of tolerance to high concentrations of anthracene. •Phenanthrene negatively affects the functionality of the symbiosis. •R. custos accumulates PAHs in spores and extraradical mycelia. •R. custos is able to prevent PAHs from entering roots. -- The AM fungus Rhizophagus custos is involved in PAH dissipation in absence of other microorganisms and could be potentially effective in protecting anthracene exposed plants

  10. Sources of sedimentary PAHs in tropical Asian waters: differentiation between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources by alkyl homolog abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mahua; Togo, Ayako; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Murakami, Michio; Takada, Hideshige; Zakaria, Mohamad P; Chiem, Nguyen H; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Bhattacharya, Badal; Mishra, Pravakar; Tana, Touch Seang

    2009-02-01

    We collected surface sediment samples from 174 locations in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and the Philippines and analyzed them for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes. PAHs were widely distributed in the sediments, with comparatively higher concentrations in urban areas (Sigma PAHs: approximately 1000 to approximately 100,000 ng/g-dry) than in rural areas ( approximately 10 to approximately 100g-dry), indicating large sources of PAHs in urban areas. To distinguish petrogenic and pyrogenic sources of PAHs, we calculated the ratios of alkyl PAHs to parent PAHs: methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), methylpyrenes+methylfluoranthenes to pyrene+fluoranthene (MPy/Py), and methylchrysenes+methylbenz[a]anthracenes to chrysene+benz[a]anthracene (MC/C). Analysis of source materials (crude oil, automobile exhaust, and coal and wood combustion products) gave thresholds of MP/P=0.4, MPy/Py=0.5, and MC/C=1.0 for exclusive combustion origin. All the combustion product samples had the ratios of alkyl PAHs to parent PAHs below these threshold values. Contributions of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources to the sedimentary PAHs were uneven among the homologs: the phenanthrene series had a greater petrogenic contribution, whereas the chrysene series had a greater pyrogenic contribution. All the Indian sediments showed a strong pyrogenic signature with MP/P approximately 0.5, MPy/Py approximately 0.1, and MC/C approximately 0.2, together with depletion of hopanes indicating intensive inputs of combustion products of coal and/or wood, probably due to the heavy dependence on these fuels as sources of energy. In contrast, sedimentary PAHs from all other tropical Asian cities were abundant in alkylated PAHs with MP/P approximately 1-4, MPy/Py approximately 0.3-1, and MC/C approximately 0.2-1.0, suggesting a ubiquitous input of petrogenic PAHs. Petrogenic contributions to PAH homologs varied among the countries: largest in Malaysia

  11. Size distribution and diffuse pollution impacts of PAHs in street dust in urban streams in the Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Yin, Chengqing; Chen, Meixue; Wang, Weidong; Jefferies, Chris; Shan, Baoqing

    2009-01-01

    Particles of dust washed off streets by stormwater are an important pathway of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into urban streams. This article presented a comprehensive assessment of the size distribution of PAHs in street dust particles, the potential risks of the particles in urban streams, and the sources and sinks of PAHs in the stream network. This assessment was based on measurements of 16 PAHs from the USEPA priority list in street dust particles and river sediments in Xincheng, China. The content of total PAHs ranged from 1629 to 8986 microg/kg in street dust particles, where smaller particles have a higher concentrations. Approximately 55% of the total PAHs were associated with particles less than 250 microm which accounted for 40% of the total mass of street dust. The PAH quantities increased from 2.41 to 46.86 microg/m2 in the sequence of new residential, rising through main roads, old town residential, commercial and industrial areas. The sediments in stream reaches in town were found to be sinks for street dust particle PAHs. The research findings suggested that particle size, land use and the hydrological conditions in the stream network were the factors which most influenced the total loads of PAH in the receiving water bodies.

  12. In vivo measurement, in vitro estimation and fugacity prediction of PAH bioavailability in post-remediated creosote-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert L; Weber, John; Stevenson, Gavin; Slee, Daniel; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Smith, Euan

    2014-03-01

    In this study, PAH bioavailability was assessed in creosote-contaminated soil following bioremediation in order to determine potential human health exposure to residual PAHs from incidental soil ingestion. Following 1,000 days of enhanced natural attenuation (ENA), a residual PAH concentration of 871 ± 8 mg kg(-1) (∑16 USEPA priority PAHs in the <250 μm soil particle size fraction) was present in the soil. However, when bioavailability was assessed to elucidate potential human exposure using an in vivo mouse model, the upper-bound estimates of PAH absolute bioavailability were in excess of 65% irrespective of the molecular weight of the PAH. These results indicate that a significant proportion of the residual PAH fraction following ENA may be available for absorption following soil ingestion. In contrast, when PAH bioavailability was estimated/predicted using an in vitro surrogate assay (FOREhST assay) and fugacity modelling, PAH bioavailability was up to 2000 times lower compared to measured in vivo values depending on the methodology used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Concentration of PAHs in Municipal Wastewater in Selected Sewer Collectors of the Upper Silesian Urban Area, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistelok Franciszek

    2014-12-01

    (GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 PAHs sum (EPA list ranged between 1.025 and 3.056 μg/L. Phenanthrene dominated in nearly all the analysed samples. The contents of PAHs, which are priority hazardous substances according to the directive, were high in the analysed samples. The obtained results and the analysis of diagnostic ratios for the emissions of PAHs into the air helped to reach the conclusion that traffic emissions were the main source of PAHs in the examined wastewater.

  14. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P perform a detailed characterization of 12 priority PAHs proposed by the USEPA, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis. The concentration of Benzo[a]Pyrene, BaP (EU and National limit value: 1 ng m-3 in PM10), varied from 0.065 ng m-3 during autumn time to 0.872 ng m-3 in spring time (NA01) and from 0.120 ng m-3 during autumn time to 1.48 ng m-3 of winter time (NA02) with four overshoots. In NA02 the trend of Σ12 PAHs was comparable to NA01 but were observed higher values than NA01. In fact, the mean concentration of Σ12 PAHs, in urban-traffic site was generally 2 times greater than in urban-background site in all the campaigns. PAHs with 5 and 6 ring, many of which are suspected carcinogens or genotoxic agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source

  15. Environmental Forensics : Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Of PAHs. Study Of A Former Coal Tar Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, A.; Doherty, R.; Dickson, K.; Kalin, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints of PAHs obtained by GC-IRMS have often been used in source apportionment studies. The use of PAHs in environmental forensics relies on the assumption that carbon isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation is less significant for these heavy molecular weight compounds than for lighter molecules such as chlorinated solvents or BTEX. Carbon isotopic fractionation of PAHs during degradation is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CSIA of PAHs for environmental forensics applications at a complex (hydrogeology affected by tidal fluxes) former coal tar plant. In this work, soil samples from a tar works site were analyzed. The tar works operated on the site over a period of sixty years. A source apportionment study was first carried out based on 90 target PAHs quantified by GC-MS. These results were then compared to carbon isotope fingerprints. The separation of compounds of interest from co-extracted interfering peaks is a crucial prerequisite of CSIA by GC-IRMS. Hence, a sample preparation method which allowed the determination of precise carbon isotope signatures for up to 35 compounds per soil extract was developed, validated and applied to the samples previously analyzed by GC- MS. Although most soil samples were shown to be related to the point source tar contamination, PAHs ratios and principal component analysis of abundances highlighted some samples with unusual patterns, suggesting the input of a second source of contaminants. However, no statistically significant variation of the isotopic fingerprints of heavy molecular weight PAHs of these samples was observed. This was inconsistent with the first diagnosis. Since evidence was provided that most samples were only affected by a single source of contaminants, carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in-situ. Importantly, naphthalene and 2- and 1- methylnaphthalenes isotopic fractionation was observed in a vertical

  16. Dust and PAH Emission in the Star-forming Active Nucleus of NGC 1097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. E.; Levenson, N. A.; Packham, C.; Elitzur, M.; Radomski, J.; Petric, A. O.; Wright, G. S.

    2007-04-01

    The nucleus of the nearby galaxy NGC 1097 is known to host a young, compact (ractive galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been suggested both that the nuclear stellar cluster is associated with a dusty torus and that low-luminosity AGNs like NGC 1097 do not have the torus predicted by the unified model of AGNs. To investigate these contradictory possibilities we have acquired Gemini/T-ReCS 11.7 and 18.3 μm images of the central few hundred parsecs of this galaxy at warm dust close to the central engine. Fitting of torus models shows that the observed mid-IR emission cannot be accounted for by dust heated by the central engine. Rather, the principal source heating the dust in this object is the nuclear star cluster itself, suggesting that the detected dust is not the torus of AGN unified schemes (although it is also possible that the dusty starburst itself could provide the obscuration invoked by the unified model). Comparison of Spitzer IRS and Gemini GNIRS spectra shows that, although PAH bands are strong in the immediate circumnuclear region of the galaxy, PAH emission is weak or absent in the central 19 pc. The lack of PAH emission can probably be explained largely by destruction/ionization of PAH molecules by hard photons from the nuclear star cluster. If NGC 1097 is typical, PAH emission bands may not be a useful tool with which to find very compact nuclear starbursts even in low-luminosity AGNs.

  17. Parking lot sealcoat: a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban and suburban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Scoggins, Mateo; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative studies by the City of Austin and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar based sealcoat—the black, shiny emulsion painted or sprayed on asphalt pavement such as parking lots—as a major and previously unrecognized source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life. Studies in Austin, Texas, showed that particles in runoff from coal-tar based sealcoated parking lots had concentrations of PAHs that were about 65 times higher than concentrations in particles washed off parking lots that had not been sealcoated. Biological studies, conducted by the City of Austin in the field and in the laboratory, indicated that PAH levels in sediment contaminated with abraded sealcoat were toxic to aquatic life and were degrading aquatic communities, as indicated by loss of species and decreased numbers of organisms. Identification of this source of PAHs may help to improve future strategies for controlling these compounds in urban water bodies across the Nation where parking lot sealcoat is used.

  18. Occurrence of PAH in the seasonal snowpack of the Eastern Italian Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrieli, Jacopo; Decet, Fabio; Luchetta, Alberto; Valt, Mauro; Pastore, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    PAH concentrations have been determined in 47 seasonal snowpack samples collected in the Valbelluna valley and in the Bellunesi Dolomites National Park, in the Italian North-Eastern Alps, during the winter of 2005. The ΣPAH concentration in high-altitude alpine sites (above 1700 m) was 32 ± 20 ng/kg while in valley bottom urban areas it was 165 ± 54 ng/kg with maximum values of 290 ng/kg. The GIS mapping technique was employed to produce a PAH spatial distribution. The urbanized Valbelluna valley, and in particular the SW part, had the highest accumulation of all PAH, with values an order of magnitude more than those in rural and alpine areas. This behaviour is consistent with urban air quality data, and is due to geo-morphological and meteorological factors such as the deeper shape of the valley at the position of the town of Feltre and the low altitude of the boundary layer during the winter season. - PAH concentrations determined in seasonal snow represent an integration of the winter depositions and can be used to evaluate the pollution levels in an Alpine region.

  19. Synthesis, modification and graft polymerization of magnetic nano particles for PAH removal in contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were modified with 3-Mercaptopropytrimethoxysiline (MPTMS) and grafted with allyl glycidyl ether for coupling with beta naphtol as a method to form a novel nano-adsorbent to remove two poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated water. The modified MNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Results showed that the modified MNPs enhanced the process of adsorption. Tests were done on the adsorption capacity of the two PAHs on grafted MNPs; factors applied to the tests were temperature, contact time, pH, salinity and initial concentration of PAHs. Results revealed that adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 10 min, and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 4.15 mg/g at pH = 7.0 and 20°C. The equilibrium adsorption data of the two PAHs by the modified MNPs were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models. Equilibrium adsorption data was determined from the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin constants from tests under conditions of pH = 7 and temperature 20°C. Analysis of the adsorption-desorption process indicated that the modified MNPs had a high level of stability and good reusability. Magnetic separation in these tests was fast and this shows that the modified MNPs have great potential to be used as a new adsorbent for the two PAHs removal from contaminated water in water treatment. PMID:25101170

  20. [Internal Exposure Levels of PAHs of Primary School Students in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Su-kun; Liu, Shan; Ren, Ming-zhong; Li, Jie; Shi, Xiao-xia

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate the internal exposure levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in primary school students of Guangzhou, the research collected urine of 78 and 86 primary school students from two primary schools in the summer of 2014, one school located in the ordinary residential area and the other in the industrial area. The contents of 10 kinds of OH-PAHs were tested by the rapid liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the concentrations of total OH-PAHs in primary school students in the residential zone ranged from 0.83 µmol · mol⁻¹ to 80.63 µmol · mol⁻¹, while those in industrial area ranged from 1.06 µmol · mol⁻¹ to 72.47 µmol · mol⁻¹. The geometric average concentrations were 6.18 µmol · mol⁻¹ and 6.47 µmol · mol⁻¹, respectively, and there was no statistical significance between them (P > 0.05). Comparison of the exposure levels of different components of PAHs in the two areas found that all the OH-PAHs had no significant difference except for the levels of 1- OHP (P transportation emissions.

  1. Priming effects on PAH degradation and ecotoxicity during a phytoremediation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joner, Erik J.; Hirmann, Doris; Szolar, Oliver H.J.; Todorovic, Dragana; Leyval, Corinne; Loibner, Andreas P.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to distinguish priming effects from the effects of phytoremediation of a creosote-polluted soil. The concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and their combined soil toxicity (using four bioassays), was determined on recently excavated, homogenized soil and on such soil subjected to a time-course phytoremediation experiment with lucerne. The results showed a high priming effect, with minor positive and synergistic effects of planting and fertilization on PAH degradation rates. At the end of the experiment, PAH degradation reached 86% of the initial 519 mg PAHs kg -1 . Two of the four toxicity tests (bioluminescence inhibition and ostracod growth inhibition) corroborated the chemical data for residual PAHs, and indicated a significant reduction in soil toxicity. We conclude that priming effects can easily surpass treatment effects, and that an unintentional pre-incubation that ignores these effects can jeopardize the full quantitative assessment of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soil. - Priming effects during set-up of bioremediation laboratory experiments may largely surpass treatment effects

  2. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a dynamic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lin, Zhongrong; Li, Hao; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-05-15

    Urban stormwater runoff delivers a significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly of atmospheric origin, to receiving water bodies. The PAH pollution of urban stormwater runoff poses serious risk to aquatic life and human health, but has been overlooked by environmental modeling and management. This study proposed a dynamic modeling approach for assessing the PAH pollution and its associated environmental risk. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of pollutant buildup and washoff. To reflect the complex interaction among different environmental media (i.e. atmosphere, dust and stormwater), the dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. Long-term simulations of the model can be efficiently performed, and probabilistic features of the pollution level and its risk can be easily determined. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case study in Beijing, China. The results showed that Beijing's PAH pollution of road runoff is relatively severe, and its associated risk exhibits notable seasonal variation. The current sweeping practice is effective in mitigating the pollution, but the effectiveness is both weather-dependent and compound-dependent. The proposed modeling approach can help identify critical timing and major pollutants for monitoring, assessing and controlling efforts to be focused on. The approach is extendable to other urban areas, as well as to other contaminants with similar fate and transport as PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioremediation of soils and sediments containing PAHs and PCP using Daramend trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    A full-scale demonstration of Grace Dearborn's Daramend trademark for bioremediation of soil containing chlorinated phenols, PAHs and petroleum hydrocarbons is being conducted at an industrial wood treatment site in Ontario. A pilot-scale demonstration of Daramend for the clean-up of sediments contaminated with PAHs was also conducted. The full-scale demonstration, which includes bioremediation of approximately 4,500 m 3 of soil, was initiated at a wood preserving facility in Ontario, in the summer of 1993. The soil contains chlorinated phenols, PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations of up to 700, 1,400 and 6,300 mg/kg respectively. Full-scale bioremediation at this site employs the same Daramend protocols and organic amendment treatments that were used at the pilot-scale phase where the PAH, total petroleum hydrocarbon, and pentachlorophenol concentrations were reduced to below the Canadian clean-up guidelines for industrial soils. In addition, the toxicity of the soil to earthworms was eliminated while the rate of seed germination was increased to that of an agricultural soil during the pilot scale demonstration phase. The ex-situ portion of the full-scale demonstration is currently being audited by the EPA under the SITE program. This paper will focus on the ex-situ work. The pilot-scale demonstration of sediment remediation consisted of ex-situ bioremediation of approximately 90 tonnes of PAH-contaminated sediment in a confined treatment area

  4. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples of Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) installation area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Juliana C.; Martins, Elâine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A.F., E-mail: elaine@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    RMB will be a nuclear reactor for research and production of radioisotopes. Its applications extend to agriculture, industry and the environment. With the changes that will occur in the study area by its construction, the flow of vehicles will increase. It is known that one of the largest anthropogenic sources of PAHs is from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass. The aim of this research was to identify and quantify 14 of the 16 majorities PAHs in the sediment samples at RMB installations area in a period before the enterprise construction, June 2017, using the methodology developed and validated by Brito, 2009. It was observed individual concentrations from 0.05 to 1.11 μg g{sup -1} in this first evaluation indicating that, although were found some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, this area still remains preserved. Pyrene was the compound that had the highest concentrations at different collecting points (1.11±0.03 and 1.09±0.02 μg g{sup -1}). Although were observed some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, the area is preserved. The study will provide previous information on PAHs concentrations in the area of the enterprise, providing information for the environmental impact study after the construction of the enterprise. (author)

  5. Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loick, N.; Hobbs, P.J.; Hale, M.D.C.; Jones, D.L. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil are broad ranging and differ in many respects, which makes comparison of the different approaches very difficult. Many studies have investigated the use of specific bio-additives in the form of bacteria or fungi with the aim of accelerating contaminant removal; however, few have employed microbial consortia containing organisms from both kingdoms despite knowledge suggesting synergistic relationships exist between them in contaminant removal. Recommendations suggest that further studies should attempt to systemize the investigations of composting approaches to bio-remediate PAH-contaminated soil, to focus on harnessing the biodegradative capacity of both bacteria and fungi to create a cooperative environment for PAH degradation, and to further investigate the array of PAHs that can be lost during the composting process by either leaching or volatilization.

  6. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr's most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5tha(-1) sewage sludge annually than 15tha(-1) triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6mgkg(-)(1) PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative metagenomic analysis of PAH degradation in soil by a mixed microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Taylor, Todd D; Absalón, Angel E; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used a taxonomic and functional metagenomic approach to analyze some of the effects (e.g. displacement, permanence, disappearance) produced between native microbiota and a previously constructed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading microbial consortium during the bioremediation process of a soil polluted with PAHs. Bioaugmentation with a fungal-bacterial consortium and biostimulation of native microbiota using corn stover as texturizer produced appreciable changes in the microbial diversity of polluted soils, shifting native microbial communities in favor of degrading specific populations. Functional metagenomics showed changes in gene abundance suggesting a bias towards aromatic hydrocarbon and intermediary degradation pathways, which greatly favored PAH mineralization. In contrast, pathways favoring the formation of toxic intermediates such as cytochrome P450-mediated reactions were found to be significantly reduced in bioaugmented soils. PAH biodegradation in soil using the microbial consortium was faster and reached higher degradation values (84% after 30 d) as a result of an increased co-metabolic degradation when compared with other mixed microbial consortia. The main differences between inoculated and non-inoculated soils were observed in aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, laccase, protocatechuate, salicylate and benzoate-degrading enzyme genes. Based on our results, we propose that several concurrent metabolic pathways are taking place in soils during PAH degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Medicago sativa L. by fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Wilber S; Manoel, Evelin A; Santos, Noemi S; Nunes, Rosane O; Domiciano, Giselli C; Soares, Marcia R

    2017-04-01

    Green technologies, such as phytoremediation, are effective for removing organic pollutants derived from oil and oil products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the increasing popularity of these sustainable remediation techniques, methods based on fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for the environmental monitoring of such pollutants have emerged in recent decades as effective tools for phytoremediation studies aimed at understanding the fate of these contaminants in plants. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in PAH uptake, responses and degradation by plants. Thus, the present study aimed to detect the location of pyrene, anthracene and phenanthrene using fluorescence microscopy techniques in shoots and roots of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) plants grown in artificially contaminated soil (150ppm PAHs) for 40days. Leaflet and root samples were then collected and observed under a fluorescence microscope to detect the presence of PAHs in various tissues. One important finding of the present study was intense fluorescence in the glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs) of plants grown in contaminated soil. These trichomes, with a previously unknown function, may be sites of PAH conjugation and degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phototoxic effects of PAH and UVA exposure on molecular responses and developmental success in coral larvae

    KAUST Repository

    Overmans, Sebastian

    2018-03-09

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic carbons (PAHs) poses a growing risk to coral reefs due to increasing shipping and petroleum extraction in tropical waters. Damaging effects of specific PAHs can be further enhanced by the presence of ultraviolet radiation, known as phototoxicity. We tested phototoxic effects of the PAHs anthracene and phenanthrene on larvae of the scleractinian coral Acropora tenuis in the presence and absence of UVA (320–400 nm). Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme was reduced by anthracene while phenanthrene and UVA exposure did not have any effect. Gene expression of MnSod remained constant across all treatments. The genes Catalase, Hsp70 and Hsp90 showed increased expression levels in larvae exposed to anthracene, but not phenanthrene. Gene expression of p53 was upregulated in the presence of UVA, but downregulated when exposed to PAHs. The influence on stress-related biochemical pathways and gene expresson in A. tenuis larvae was considerably greater for anthracene than phenanthrene, and UVA-induced phototoxicity was only evident for anthracene. The combined effects of UVA and PAH exposure on larval survival and metamorphosis paralleled the sub-lethal stress responses, clearly highlighting the interaction of UVA on anthracene toxicity and ultimately the coral’s development.

  10. PAH chemistry at eV internal energies. 1. H-shifted isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinquier, Georges; Simon, Aude; Rapacioli, Mathias; Gadéa, Florent Xavier

    2017-06-01

    The PAH family of organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), involved in several fields of chemistry, has received particular attention in astrochemistry, where their vibrational spectroscopy, thermodynamics, dynamics, and fragmentation properties are now abundantly documented. This survey aims at drawing trends for low spin-multiplicity surfaces of PAHs bearing internal energies in the range 1-10 eV. It addresses some typical alternatives to the ground-state regular structures of PAHs, making explicit possible intramolecular rearrangements leading to high-lying minima. These isomerisations should be taken into consideration when addressing PAH processing in astrophysical conditions. The first part of this double-entry study focuses on the hydrogen-shifted forms, which bear both a carbene center and a saturated carbon. It rests upon DFT calculations mainly performed on two emblematic PAH representatives, coronene and pyrene, in their neutral and mono- and multi-cationic states. Systematically searched for in neutral species, these H-shifted minima are lying 4-5 eV above the regular all-conjugated forms, and are separated by barriers of about 1 eV. General hydrogen-shifting is found to be easier for cationic species as the relative energies of their H-shifted minima are 1-1.5 eV lower than those for neutral species. As much as possible, classical knowledge and concepts of organic chemistry such as aromaticity and Clar's rules are invoked for result interpretation.

  11. Ectomycorrhizas impede phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both within and beyond the rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joner, Erik J. [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere Organique dans les Sols (LIMOS), Universite H. Poincare Nancy 1, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: erik.joner@jordforsk.no; Leyval, Corinne [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere Organique dans les Sols (LIMOS), Universite H. Poincare Nancy 1, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Colpaert, Jan V. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biology Group, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2006-07-15

    Exploitation of mycorrhizas to enhance phytoremediation of organic pollutants has received attention recently due to their positive effects on establishment of plants in polluted soils. Some evidence exist that ectomycorrhizas enhance the degradation of pollutants of low recalcitrance, while less easily degradable polyaromatic molecules have been degraded only by some of these fungi in vitro. Natural polyaromatic (humic) substances are degraded more slowly in soil where ectomycorrhizal fungi are present, thus phytoremediation of recalcitrant pollutants may not benefit from the presence of these fungi. Using a soil spiked with three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an industrially polluted soil (1 g kg{sup -1} of {sigma}12 PAHs), we show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus bovinus, forming hydrophobic mycelium in soil that would easily enter into contact with hydrophobic pollutants, impedes rather than promotes PAH degradation. This result is likely to be a nutrient depletion effect caused by fungal scavenging of mineral nutrients. - The ectomycorrhizal fungus S. bovinus impeded degradation of PAHs in soil, probably due to its negative effect on the availability of mineral nutrients of more potent PAH degraders.

  12. Epigenetics of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension following intrauterine growth retardation rat: epigenetics in PAH following IUGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xue-Feng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence reveals that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR can cause varying degrees of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH later in life. Moreover, epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origin of adult disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of epigenetics in the development of PAH following IUGR. Methods The IUGR rats were established by maternal undernutrition during pregnancy. Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVEC were isolated from the rat lungs by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS. We investigated epigenetic regulation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1 gene in PVEC of 1-day and 6-week IUGR rats, and response of IUGR rats to hypoxia. Results The maternal nutrient restriction increased the histone acetylation and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α binding levels in the ET-1 gene promoter of PVEC in IUGR newborn rats, and continued up to 6 weeks after birth. These epigenetic changes could result in an IUGR rat being highly sensitive to hypoxia later in life, causing more significant PAH or pulmonary vascular remodeling. Conclusions These findings suggest that epigenetics is closely associated with the development of hypoxic PAH following IUGR, further providing a new insight for improved prevention and treatment of IUGR-related PAH.

  13. Spatial uncoupling of biodegradation, soil respiration, and PAH concentration in a creosote contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Goeran; Toerneman, Niklas; Yang Xiuhong

    2010-01-01

    Hotspots and coldspots of concentration and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) marginally overlapped at the 0.5-100 m scale in a creosote contaminated soil in southern Sweden, suggesting that concentration and biodegradation had little spatial co-variation. Biodegradation was substantial and its spatial variability considerable and highly irregular, but it had no spatial autocorrelation. The soil concentration of PAHs explained only 20-30% of the variance of their biodegradation. Soil respiration was spatially autocorrelated. The spatial uncoupling between biodegradation and soil respiration seemed to be governed by the aging of PAHs in the soil, since biodegradation of added 13 C phenanthrene covaried with both soil respiration and microbial biomass. The latter two were also correlated with high concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that are common in gram-negative bacteria. However, several of the hotspots of biodegradation coincided with hotspots for the distribution of a PLFA indicative of fungal biomass. - Hotspots of PAH biodegradation in a creosote contaminated soil do not coincide with hotspots of PAH concentration, microbial biomass and respiration.

  14. Priming effects on PAH degradation and ecotoxicity during a phytoremediation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joner, Erik J.; Hirmann, Doris; Szolar, Oliver H.J.; Todorovic, Dragana; Leyval, Corinne; Loibner, Andreas P

    2004-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to distinguish priming effects from the effects of phytoremediation of a creosote-polluted soil. The concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and their combined soil toxicity (using four bioassays), was determined on recently excavated, homogenized soil and on such soil subjected to a time-course phytoremediation experiment with lucerne. The results showed a high priming effect, with minor positive and synergistic effects of planting and fertilization on PAH degradation rates. At the end of the experiment, PAH degradation reached 86% of the initial 519 mg PAHs kg{sup -1}. Two of the four toxicity tests (bioluminescence inhibition and ostracod growth inhibition) corroborated the chemical data for residual PAHs, and indicated a significant reduction in soil toxicity. We conclude that priming effects can easily surpass treatment effects, and that an unintentional pre-incubation that ignores these effects can jeopardize the full quantitative assessment of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soil. - Priming effects during set-up of bioremediation laboratory experiments may largely surpass treatment effects.

  15. Enhanced phytoremediation of soils contaminated with PAHs by arbuscular mycorrhiza and rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cheng-Gang; Kong, Cun-Cui; Bian, Bian; Liu, Wei; Li, Yan; Luo, Yong-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Hong

    2017-09-02

    Greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential effectiveness of a legume (Sesbania cannabina), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus mosseae), and rhizobia (Ensifer sp.) symbiosis for remediation of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spiked soil. AMF and rhizobia had a beneficial impact on each other in the triple symbiosis. AMF and/or rhizobia significantly increased plant biomass and PAHs accumulation in plants. The highest PAHs dissipation was observed in plant + AMF + rhizobia treated soil, in which >97 and 85-87% of phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively, had been degraded, whereas 81-85 and 72-75% had been degraded in plant-treated soil. During the experiment, a relatively large amount of water-soluble phenolic compounds was detected in soils of AMF and/or rhizobia treatment. It matches well with the high microbial activity and soil enzymes activity. These results suggest that the mutual interactions in the triple symbiosis enhanced PAHs degradation via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity. The mutual interactions between rhizobia and AMF help to improve phytoremediation efficiency of PAHs by S. cannabina.

  16. Temporal variability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a receptor site of the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Z. V.; Torres, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    This contribution documents the presence and possible origin of PAHs, their temporal concentration patterns and correlations with other air pollutants in the so-called Puebla-Tlaxcala valley. This valley is located to the east of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and is a very populated region which suffers of air pollution problems. Emission sources of PAHs include open burning, industrial boilers, automobiles and trucks, but vehicle emissions vary significantly depending on the use of: fuel, engine type and catalytic converter. An important emission source in the Puebla-Tlaxcala region is wood burning for cooking. Therefore, it is expected to have contributions of PAHS from this type of sources. PAHs measurements were performed in an air pollution semi-rural receptor site (Chipilo) southwest the City of Puebla, using an aerosol photoelectric sensor (PAS 2000 CE) to measure the concentration of PAHs and a diffuser charger (DC 2000 CE) to evaluate the active surface (DC) of the particles. The measuring period included March and April of 2012 during the ozne season in central Mexico. The use of these two sensors in parallel has been identified as a fingerprint technique to identify different types of particles from several combustion processes and is a useful tool to identify quantitatively the major source of emissions, as well as to describe thephysical and chemical characteristics of the particles. Correlations between PAHs and DC, with NOx and CO, together with an analysis of atmospheric transport may approximate the possible origin of these particles. The coefficient PAHs / DC associated with backward trajectory analysis represents a tool to identify potential areas of emission. The correlation between PAHs and NOx emissions reflects association with diesel combustion, while the correlation between PAHs and CO, the combustion of gasoline. The results show that vehicle emissions are the major source of PAHs with an associated increase in the concentration of

  17. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O.

    2017-03-01

    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (Kb), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated Kb and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81 × 10- 7 M for anthracene and 3.48 × 10- 8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a

  18. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lehner

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  19. Black Tattoos Entail Substantial Uptake of Genotoxicpolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Human Skin and Regional Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC – DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1–0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1–11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body. PMID:24670978

  20. The diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in a deep-sea water column above the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Lai, Qiliang; Sun, Fengqin; Zheng, Tianling; Shao, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria involved in organic pollutant degradation in pelagic deep-sea environments are largely unknown. In this report, the diversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria was analyzed in deep-sea water on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). After enrichment with a PAH mixture (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene), nine bacterial consortia were obtained from depths of 3946–4746 m. While the consortia degraded all four PAHs when supplied in a mixture, when PAHs were tested individually, only phenanthrene supported growth. Thus, degradation of the PAH mixture reflected a cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene with phenanthrene. Further, both culture-dependent and independent methods revealed many new bacteria involved in PAH degradation. Specifically, the alpha and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria were confirmed as the major groups within the communities. Additionally, Actinobacteria, the CFB group and Firmicutes were detected. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that bacteria closely affiliated with Alcanivorax, Novosphingobium, and Rhodovulum occurred most frequently in different PAH-degrading consortia. By using general heterotrophic media, 51 bacteria were isolated from the consortia and of these 34 grew with the PAH mixture as a sole carbon source. Of these, isolates most closely related to Alterierythrobacter, Citricella, Erythrobacter, Idiomarina, Lutibacterium, Maricaulis, Marinobacter, Martelella, Pseudidiomarina, Rhodobacter, Roseovarius, Salipiger, Sphingopyxis, and Stappia were found to be PAH degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these bacteria have been identified in this context. In summary, this report revealed significant diversity among the PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea water column. These bacteria may play a role in PAH removal in deep-sea environments. PMID:26379634

  1. Sediment records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the continental shelf of China: implications for evolving anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wei, Gao-Ling; Guan, Yu-Feng; Wong, Charles S; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-06-19

    Sources, compositions, and historical records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea and the South China Sea were analyzed to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities. The occurrence of PAHs was mainly derived from various combustion sources, especially the combustion of biomass and domestic coal. Uniform composition of sedimentary PAHs (52-62% of phenanthrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene) suggested air-borne mixtures intractable to degradation. The concentrations of the sum of 15 PAHs (16 priority pollutants designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency minus naphthalene; designed as Σ(15)PAH) in Yellow Sea sediment cores were generally higher than those in the South China Sea. The profiles of Σ(15)PAH concentrations recorded in the sediment cores closely followed historical socioeconomic development in China. In general, Σ(15)PAH concentrations started to increase from the background pollution level posed by agricultural economy at the turn of 20th century. In addition, a Σ(15)PAH concentration reduction was observed during the Chinese Civil War (1946-1949) and Great Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), suggesting them as setbacks for economic development in Chinese history. Increasing PAH emissions as a result of increasing coal combustion associated with the rapid urbanization and industrialization since the implementation of the Reform and Open Policy (since 1978) accounted for the fast growth of Σ(15)PAH concentrations in sediment cores. The decline of Σ(15)PAH concentrations from subsurface maximum until sampling time was inconsistent with current-day economic development in China, and may possibly suggest emission reductions due to decreasing proportional use of domestic coal and increasing consumption of cleaner energies (natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas).

  2. PAHs behavior in surface water and groundwater of the Yellow River estuary: Evidence from isotopes and hydrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong; Liu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale irrigation projects have impacted the regional surface-groundwater interactions in the North China Plain (NCP). Given this concern, the aim of this study is to evaluate levels of PAH pollution, identify the sources of the PAHs, analyze the influence of surface-groundwater interactions on PAH distribution, and propose urgent management strategies for PAHs in China's agricultural areas. PAH concentrations, hydrochemical indicators and stable isotopic compositions (δ 18 O and δ 2 H) were determined for surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) samples. PAHs concentrations in surface water and groundwater varied from 11.84 to 393.12 ng/L and 8.51-402.84 ng/L, respectively, indicating mild pollution. The seasonal variations showed the following trend: PAHs in surface water at the low-water phase > PAHs in groundwater at the low-water phase > PAHs in surface water at the high-water phase > PAHs in groundwater at the high-water phase. Hydrochemical and δ 18 O value of most groundwater samples distributed between the Yellow River and seawater. The mean value of mixture ratio of the Yellow River water recharge to the groundwater was 65%, few anomalous sites can reach to 90%. Surface-groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of PAHs in the study area. In light of the ongoing serious pollution, management practices for source control, improved control technologies, and the construction of a monitoring network to warn of increased risk are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Size-dependent emission characteristics of airborne parent and halogenated PAHs from municipal solid waste incinerators in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Two waste incinerators were selected for investigation of size-dependent emission characteristics of airborne parent and halogenated PAHs (PAHs and HPAHs) and incidence of these pollutants from trash incineration. The concentrations of total PAHs (gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter 0.43-10 μm) in ambient air of Shenzhen incinerators were at the lower end of the global range while those of HPAHs were higher than those of urban air in other studies. High-ring PAHs dominated in PM 2.5 (66%-86%), while low-ring PAHs dominated in PM 10 (83%-86%). As for PAHs in gaseous phase, low-ring PAHs were collectively account for 86%-97%. ΣHPAH mainly enriched in coarse particles (>83%). The size distributions of ΣPAH and ΣHPAH were both characterized by bimodal peaks dominate in 9.0-10 μm and subordinate in 4.7-5.8 μm. PAHs and HPAHs enrichment in the coarse particles indicates that particle-bound PAHs and HPAHs from incinerators cannot travel great distances. Model simulation results showed the peak of airborne PAHs and HPAHs occurred in approximate 300 m from incinerator, then their concentrations reduced sharply. The extent of affected areas by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) seem very large, intensity of impacts can be neglected for the very low level of pollutants. Although waste incineration is perceived as most polluting way to manage waste, our study found the damage from incinerator to be far less than originally feared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Similar PAH fate in anaerobic digesters inoculated with three microbial communities accumulating either volatile fatty acids or methane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Braun

    Full Text Available Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR, in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing. The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10% to 30%, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm

  5. Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS from Aqueous Solutions on Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smol Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the possibility and effectiveness of PAHs removal from a model aqueous solution, during the sorption on the selected sorbents. Six PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene listed by EPA for the analysis in the environmental samples were determined. Model aqueous solution was prepared with RESTEK 610 mix PAHs standard. After the sorption process, decrease in the concentration of individual hydrocarbons was observed. The removal percentage was dependent on the type of sorbent (quartz sand, mineral sorbent, activated carbon. The highest efficiency (98.1% was observed for activated carbon.. The results shows that the sorption processes can be used in aqueous solutions treatment procedures.

  6. Photo-oxidation of PAHs with calcium peroxide as a source of the hydroxyl radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Jolanta; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of the removal of selected PAHs from the pretreated coking wastewater with usage of CaO2, Fenton reagent (FeSO4) and UV rays are presented in this article. The investigations were carried out using coking wastewater originating from biological, industrial wastewater treatment plant. At the beginning of the experiment, the calcium peroxide (CaO2) powder as a source of hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and Fenton reagent were added to the samples of wastewater. Then, the samples were exposed to UV rays for 360 s. The process was carried out at pH 3.5-3.8. After photo-oxidation process a decrease in the PAHs concentration was observed. The removal efficiency of selected hydrocarbons was in the ranged of 89-98%. The effectiveness of PAHs degradation was directly proportional to the calcium peroxide dose.

  7. Catalysis of PAH biodegradation by humic acid shown in synchrotron infrared studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Nieman, Karl; Sorensen, Darwin L.; Miller, Charles D.; Martin, Michael C.; Borch, Thomas; McKinney, Wayne R.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2001-09-26

    The role of humic acid (HA) in the biodegradation of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been the subject of controversy, particularly in unsaturated environments. By utilizing an infrared spectromicroscope and a very bright, nondestructive synchrotron photon source, we monitored in situ and, over time, the influence of HA on the progression of degradation of pyrene (a model PAH) by a bacterial colony on a magnetite surface. Our results indicate that HA dramatically shortens the onset time for PAH biodegradation from 168 to 2 h. In the absence of HA, it takes the bacteria about 168 h to produce sufficient glycolipids to solubilize pyrene and make it bioavailable for biodegradation. These results will have large implications for the bioremediation of contaminated soils.

  8. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs by HPLC in a Type 2 Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of analytical parameters to determine selected PAHs in a fuel oil type II by HPLC coupled to fluorescence and diode detectors is presented. The study was focused on four conventional treatments of these kinds of oil samples and the main objective was giving a measure of confidence level of PAH results in the fuel oil. This study was performed in the frame of the project Assessment of natural attenuation of PAHs in agricultural soil contaminated with fuel from an accidental spill (Spanish National Plain I+D+I, CTM2007-64537). This paper is presented as follows: Analysis of reference material 1582 (NIST) by using the four kinds of sample treatments of interest. Application of variance analysis to compare results obtained from type II fuel by using each sample treatment and chromatographic detector. Finally, a statistic calculation was performed to measure uncertainty components in chromatographic analysis. (Author)

  9. PAH metabolites in fish bile: From the Seine estuary to Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, U; Akcha, F; Budzinski, H; Burgeot, T; Gubbins, M J; Lang, T; Le Menach, K; Vethaak, A D; Hylland, K

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental contaminants that pose significant risk to health of fish. The International Workshop on Integrated Assessment of Contaminant Impacts on the North Sea (ICON) provided the framework to investigate biomarker responses as well as contaminant concentrations side by side in marine ecosystems. Concentrations of the main PAH metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxyphenanthren and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene were determined in bile by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Fish species under investigation were dab (Limanda limanda), flounder (Platichthys flesus) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). A contamination gradient was demonstrated from the low contaminated waters of Iceland and off-shore regions of the North Sea towards higher concentrations in coastal areas. Concentrations of PAH metabolites differed primarily according to sampling region and secondarily to species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel archaeal plasmid pAH1 and its interactions with the lipothrixvirus AFV1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, Tamara; Smyth, John; Forterre, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    . Although nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed extensive intergenomic exchange during the evolution of archaeal conjugative plasmids, pAH1 was shown to be stably maintained suggesting that the host system is suitable for studying plasmid-virus interactions. AFV1 infection and propagation leads to a loss...... of the circular form of pAH1 and this effect correlates positively with the increase in the intracellular quantity of AFV1 DNA. We infer that the virus inhibits plasmid replication since no pAH1 degradation was observed. This mechanism of archaeal viral inhibition of plasmid propagation is not observed...... in bacteria where relevant bacteriophages either are dependent on a conjugative plasmid for successful infection or are excluded by a resident plasmid....

  11. Infrared emission from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) excited by ultraviolet laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchneff, I.; Barker, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared fluorescence spectrum from the C-H stretch modes of vibrationally excited azulene (C10H8), a PAH was measured in the laboratory. PAHs are candidates as carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in many astronomical objects associated with dust and ultraviolet light. In the present experiment, gas phase azulene was excited with light from a 308 nm pulsed laser, and the infrared emission spectrum was time-resolved and wavelength-resolved. Moreover, the infrared absorption spectrum of gas phase azulene was obtained using an FTIR spectrometer. The laboratory emission spectrum resembles observed infrared emission spectra from the interstellar medium, providing support for the hypothesis that PAHs are the responsible carriers. The azulene C-H stretch emission spectrum is more asymmetric than the absorption spectrum, probably due to anharmonicity of levels higher than nu = 1. 36 refs

  12. Uptake of trace elements and PAHs by fruit and vegetables from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Larsen, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    contaminated soils and in a reference soil, whereas fruits were collected from uncontaminated and contaminated private gardens. The results showed elevated levels of several trace elements and PAHs in the vegetables from contaminated soil. Bioconcentration factors (BCF values), based on dry weight, were below......The aims of this study were to investigate the uptake of seven trace elements and five PAHs in crop plants in order to establish advice regarding consumption of fruit and vegetables grown in soils contaminated by trace elements and PAHs. In a field experiment, vegetables were grown in two...... 1, except for those of Cd in lettuce and carrot with peel from uncontaminated soil. In most cases, BCF values were decreasing with increasing concentrations in soil. From the heavily contaminated soil, BCF values for Pb in lettuce, potato, and carrot with peel were 0.001, 0.002, and 0...

  13. Relating Bioavailability Parameters to the Sorbent Characteristics of PAH Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolome, N.; Hilber, I.; Schulin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants (HOC) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is still based on total concentrations. However, many studies have demonstrated that not all of a pollutant’s content in soil is equally available to organisms (Reichenberg & Mayer 2006...... to several sorbent characteristics including organic and black carbon content. The results will provide a better understanding of bioavailability of PAHs in soils. Moreover, the outcomes will be discussed regarding to the potential application of chemical proxies in soil pollution risk assessment......). Over the last decade, intensive effort has been made to incorporate bioavailability into risk assessment (Cachada et al. 2014). Here, we compare total concentrations of PAH with two bioavailability parameters in 30 different soil samples from the archive of the standardized National and Zurich Cantonal...

  14. Photo-oxidation of PAHs with calcium peroxide as a source of the hydroxyl radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the removal of selected PAHs from the pretreated coking wastewater with usage of CaO2, Fenton reagent (FeSO4 and UV rays are presented in this article. The investigations were carried out using coking wastewater originating from biological, industrial wastewater treatment plant. At the beginning of the experiment, the calcium peroxide (CaO2 powder as a source of hydroxyl radicals (OH• and Fenton reagent were added to the samples of wastewater. Then, the samples were exposed to UV rays for 360 s. The process was carried out at pH 3.5-3.8. After photo-oxidation process a decrease in the PAHs concentration was observed. The removal efficiency of selected hydrocarbons was in the ranged of 89-98%. The effectiveness of PAHs degradation was directly proportional to the calcium peroxide dose.

  15. PAH fluxes in the Laja Lake of south central Chile Andes over the last 50 years: Evidence from a dated sediment core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Roberto; Popp, Peter; Urrutia, Roberto; Bauer, Coretta; Araneda, Alberto; Treutler, Hanns-Christian; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposition inferred from a sediment core of an Andean lake in south central Chile. Sediments were carefully collected from one of the deepest section of the lake and sliced every 1 cm. The samples were analyzed for PAHs, 137 Cs, 210 Pb, organic carbon and grain-size. The stratigraphic chronology and the sedimentation rates were estimated using the sedimentary signature left by the 137 Cs and 210 Pb fallout as temporal markers. PAHs were quantified by HPLC-fluorescence detection (HPLC-Fluorescence). 15 priority EPA PAHs were analyzed in this study. Based on these results, PAH deposition over the last 50 years was estimated (a period characterized by an important intervention in the area). PAH concentration ranged from 226 to 620 ng g -1 d.w. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found in the core's bottom. The PAH profile is dominated by the presence of perylene indicating a natural source of PAH. In addition, two clear PAH deposition periods could be determined: the most recent with two-four rings PAHs, the older one with five-seven rings predomination. Determined fluxes where 71 to 972 μg m -2 year -1 , dominated by perylene deposition. PAH levels and fluxes are lower compared to the levels found in sediments from remote lakes in Europe and North America. It is concluded that the main source of PAHs into the Laja Lake sediments are of natural origin

  16. Contribution of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) to the renal excretion of p-aminohippurate (PAH) and identification of MRP4 (ABCC4) as a novel PAH transporter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.H.E.; Aubel, R.A.M.H. van; Wouterse, A.C.; Heuvel, J.J.T.M.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    p-Aminohippurate (PAH) is the classical substrate used in the characterization of organic anion transport in renal proximal tubular cells. Although basolateral transporters for PAH uptake from blood into the cell have been well characterized, there is still little knowledge on the apical urinary

  17. Influence of solvent and soil type on the pressurised fluid extraction of PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, O; Fitzpatrick, L J; Etxebarria, N; Dean, J R

    2000-12-01

    Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a certified reference material (CRM) 524 has been firstly optimised following a central composite design. The instrumental parameters of the PFE (pressure, temperature, extraction time and number of solvent cycles) were studied in order to obtain maximum extraction yields. Neither pressure nor extraction time or temperature seemed to have any significant effect on the extraction yield, therefore one extraction cycle was enough to exhaustively extract all the PAHs from CRM 524. Once the instrumental conditions were established, the extraction yields obtained with eight different solvents or solvent mixtures [acetone, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, acetone-dichloromethane (1 + 1 v/v), acetone-isohexane (1 + 1 v/v), isohexane, methanol and toluene] from the CRM 524 were compared and showed that the best recoveries were obtained with acetone-isohexane (1 + 1 v/v). Finally, the effect of sand, silt, clay and the organic matter content of soil was investigated with respect to recovery of PAHs by PFE with different solvents or solvent mixtures for aged soil samples. In this case, eight soils with different sand, silt, clay and organic matter contents were slurry spiked with PAHs and aged for 19 days. Three aliquots of each slurry spiked soil were extracted with the previously mentioned solvents and the results were studied by means of principal component analysis (PCA) of the whole data set (soil composition, solubility parameter of the solvent and recoveries of all PAHs) and partial least squares (PLS). Clay and organic matter content and the squared solubility parameter have the highest correlation with the recovery of PAHs from soil samples.

  18. Laboratory Studies of the Formation of Carbonaceous Cosmic Dust from PAH Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Contreras, C. S.

    2012-05-01

    The study of the formation and destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. PAHs are important chemical building blocks of interstellar dust. They are detected in interplanetary dust particles and in meteoritic samples and are an important, ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, it is imperative that laboratory experiments be conducted to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation from PAH precursors. Studies of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include O, N, and S, have recently been performed using the COSmIC facility in our laboratory under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) plasma source are detected and characterized with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy coupled to a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS), thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. We report the measurements obtained in these experiments. Studies with hydrocarbon precursors show the feasibility of specific molecules to form PAHs, while studies with carbon ring systems (benzene and derivatives, PAHs) precursors provide information on pathways toward larger carbonaceous molecules. From these unique measurements, we derive information on the size and the structure of interstellar dust grain particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Acknowledgements: This research is

  19. Construction of PAH-degrading mixed microbial consortia by induced selection in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Absalón, Ángel E; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Ángel; Fernandez, Francisco J; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2017-04-01

    Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils through the biostimulation and bioaugmentation processes can be a strategy for the clean-up of oil spills and environmental accidents. In this work, an induced microbial selection method using PAH-polluted soils was successfully used to construct two microbial consortia exhibiting high degradation levels of low and high molecular weight PAHs. Six fungal and seven bacterial native strains were used to construct mixed consortia with the ability to tolerate high amounts of phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and utilize these compounds as a sole carbon source. In addition, we used two engineered PAH-degrading fungal strains producing heterologous ligninolytic enzymes. After a previous selection using microbial antagonism tests, the selection was performed in microcosm systems and monitored using PCR-DGGE, CO 2 evolution and PAH quantitation. The resulting consortia (i.e., C1 and C2) were able to degrade up to 92% of Phe, 64% of Pyr and 65% of BaP out of 1000 mg kg -1 of a mixture of Phe, Pyr and BaP (1:1:1) after a two-week incubation. The results indicate that constructed microbial consortia have high potential for soil bioremediation by bioaugmentation and biostimulation and may be effective for the treatment of sites polluted with PAHs due to their elevated tolerance to aromatic compounds, their capacity to utilize them as energy source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Specific long non-coding RNAs response to occupational PAHs exposure in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chen; He, Zhini; Li, Jie; Li, Xiao; Bai, Qing; Zhang, Zhengbao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Shan; Xiao, Xinhua; Wang, Fangping; Yan, Yan; Li, Daochuan; Chen, Liping; Zeng, Xiaowen; Xiao, Yongmei; Dong, Guanghui; Zheng, Yuxin; Wang, Qing; Chen, Wen

    2016-01-01

    To explore whether the alteration of lncRNA expression is correlated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and DNA damage, we examined PAHs external and internal exposure, DNA damage and lncRNAs (HOTAIR, MALAT1, TUG1 and GAS5) expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCs) of 150 male coke oven workers and 60 non-PAHs exposure workers. We found the expression of HOTAIR, MALAT1, and TUG1 were enhanced in PBLCs of coke oven workers and positively correlated with the levels of external PAHs exposure (adjusted P trend  TUG1). However, only HOTAIR and MALAT1 were significantly associated with the level of internal PAHs exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene) with adjusted β  = 0.298, P  = 0.024 for HOTAIR and β  = 0.090, P  = 0.034 for MALAT1. In addition, the degree of DNA damage was positively associated with MALAT1 and HOTAIR expression in PBLCs of all subjects (adjusted β  = 0.024, P  = 0.002 for HOTAIR and β  = 0.007, P  = 0.003 for MALAT1). Moreover, we revealed that the global histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) modification was positively associated with the degree of genetic damage ( β  = 0.061, P  < 0.001) and the increase of HOTAIR expression ( β  = 0.385, P  = 0.018). Taken together, our findings suggest that altered HOTAIR and MALAT1 expression might be involved in response to PAHs-induced DNA damage.

  1. Specific long non-coding RNAs response to occupational PAHs exposure in coke oven workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gao

    Full Text Available To explore whether the alteration of lncRNA expression is correlated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs exposure and DNA damage, we examined PAHs external and internal exposure, DNA damage and lncRNAs (HOTAIR, MALAT1, TUG1 and GAS5 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCs of 150 male coke oven workers and 60 non-PAHs exposure workers. We found the expression of HOTAIR, MALAT1, and TUG1 were enhanced in PBLCs of coke oven workers and positively correlated with the levels of external PAHs exposure (adjusted Ptrend < 0.001 for HOTAIR and MALAT1, adjusted Ptrend = 0.006 for TUG1. However, only HOTAIR and MALAT1 were significantly associated with the level of internal PAHs exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene with adjusted β = 0.298, P = 0.024 for HOTAIR and β = 0.090, P = 0.034 for MALAT1. In addition, the degree of DNA damage was positively associated with MALAT1 and HOTAIR expression in PBLCs of all subjects (adjusted β = 0.024, P = 0.002 for HOTAIR and β = 0.007, P = 0.003 for MALAT1. Moreover, we revealed that the global histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 modification was positively associated with the degree of genetic damage (β = 0.061, P < 0.001 and the increase of HOTAIR expression (β = 0.385, P = 0.018. Taken together, our findings suggest that altered HOTAIR and MALAT1 expression might be involved in response to PAHs-induced DNA damage. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Long non-coding RNA, Peripheral blood lymphocytes, DNA damage response, HOTAIR, MALAT

  2. Co-formation and co-release of genotoxic PAHs, alkyl-PAHs and soot nanoparticles from gasoline direct injection vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Maria; Haag, Regula; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Heeb, Norbert V.

    2018-04-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles quickly replace traditional port-fuel injection (PFI) vehicles in Europe reaching about 50 million vehicles on roads in 2020. GDI vehicles release large numbers of soot nanoparticles similar to conventional diesel vehicles without particle filters. These exhausts will increasingly affect air quality in European cities. We hypothesized that such particles are released together with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formed under the same combustion conditions. Emission data of a fleet of 7 GDI vehicles (1.2-1.8 L) including Euro-3,-4,-5 and -6 technologies revealed substantial particle emissions on average of 2.5 × 1012 particles km-1 in the cold worldwide harmonized light vehicle test cycle (cWLTC), the future European legislative driving cycle. Particle emissions increased 2-3 orders of magnitude during acceleration like CO, indicating that transient driving produces fuel-rich conditions with intense particle formation. For comparison, an Euro-5 diesel vehicle (1.6 L) equipped with a particle filter released 3.9 × 1010 particles km-1 (cWLTC), clearly within the Euro-5/6 limit value of 6.0 × 1011 particles km-1 and 64-fold below the GDI fleet average. PAH and alkyl-PAH emissions of the GDI vehicles also exceeded those of the diesel vehicle. Mean GDI emissions of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs in the cWLTC were 240, 44, 5.8, 0.5 and 0.4 μg km-1, those of the diesel vehicle were only 8.8, 7.1, 8.6, 0.02 and 0.02 μg km-1, respectively. Thus mean PAH emissions of the GDI fleet were 2 orders of magnitude higher than the bench mark diesel vehicle. A comparison of the toxicity equivalent concentrations (TEQ) in the cWLTC of the GDI fleet and the diesel vehicle revealed that GDI vehicles released 200-1700 ng TEQ m-3 genotoxic PAHs, being 6-40 times higher than the diesel vehicle with 45 ng TEQ km-1. The co-release of genotoxic PAHs adsorbed on numerous soot nanoparticles is critical due to the Trojan horse effect

  3. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Murakami, Michio; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige

    2007-10-01

    We collected samples of roadside air, automobile exhaust soot, tires, asphalt, and used engine oil in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand, and analyzed them for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes. The concentrations and compositions of PAHs and hopanes were utilized to identify the sources of PAHs in street dust, in which high concentrations of PAHs were reported in our previous study. Weight-based concentrations of total PAHs had the following order: gasoline-powered vehicle soot (2600+/-2900 microg/g; n=4)>diesel-powered vehicle soot (115+/-245 microg/g; n=7) approximately roadside aerosols (101+/-35 microg/g; n=5) approximately used engine oil (97+/-65 microg/g; n=4) approximately tire wear particles (82+/-41 microg/g; n=5)>asphalt (2.3+/-1.6 microg/g; n=3)>street dust (1.1+/-0.8 microg/g; n=10). In cluster analysis, all the source materials fell into different clusters from that in which street dust fell, indicating that multiple source materials contribute to PAHs in the street dust. Multiple regression analysis of PAH profiles and diagnostics of hopane compositions identified tire debris as the major contributor of PAHs to street dust, followed by diesel vehicle exhaust.

  4. Lichens as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: A comparison with soil, air and pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Sofia; Maguas, Cristina; Matos, Joao; Pereira, Maria Joao; Branquinho, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate lichens as biomonitors of PAH atmospheric deposition; for that, an inter-comparison between the PAH profile and concentrations intercepted in lichens with those of air, soil and pine needles was performed. The study was conducted in a petro-industrial area and the results showed that PAH profiles in lichens were similar to those of the air and pine needles, but completely different from those of soils. Lichens accumulated higher PAH concentrations when compared to the other environmental compartments and its concentrations were significantly and linearly correlated with concentrations of PAHs in soil; we showed that a translation of the lichen PAHs concentrations into regulatory standards is possible, fulfilling one of the most important requirements of using lichens as biomonitors. With lichens we were then able to characterize the air PAHs profile of urban, petro-industrial and background areas. - Lichen PAH concentrations can identify geographic areas that may be out of compliance with regulatory standards.

  5. Diffusive flux of PAHs across sediment-water and water-air interfaces at urban superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minick, D James; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-09-01

    Superfund sites may be a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the surrounding environment. These sites can also act as PAH sinks from present-day anthropogenic activities, especially in urban locations. Understanding PAH transport across environmental compartments helps to define the relative contributions of these sources and is therefore important for informing remedial and management decisions. In the present study, paired passive samplers were co-deployed at sediment-water and water-air interfaces within the Portland Harbor Superfund Site and the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site. These sites, located along the Willamette River (Portland, OR, USA), have PAH contamination from both legacy and modern sources. Diffusive flux calculations indicate that the Willamette River acts predominantly as a sink for low molecular weight PAHs from both the sediment and the air. The sediment was also predominantly a source of 4- and 5-ring PAHs to the river, and the river was a source of these same PAHs to the air, indicating that legacy pollution may be contributing to PAH exposure for residents of the Portland urban center. At the remediated McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, flux measurements highlight locations within the sand and rock sediment cap where contaminant breakthrough is occurring. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2281-2289. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

  7. Organic sources in the Egyptian seawater around Alexandria coastal area as integrated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma E. Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the first comprehensive survey and provides important data on PAHs concentration and composition in Alexandria coastal seawater. The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples are to be used as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollution in the surface seawater of Alexandria coastal area. The quantitative analysis of PAHs showed a concentration ranging from 8970.939 to 1254756.00 ng/L, which exceeds the maximum admissible concentrations of PAHs (200 ng/L for the water standard of European Union. The calculated diagnostic ratios suggested that the sources of PAHs at the majority of the studied area are derived primarily from pyrogenic sources from incomplete fuel combustion of the boats and vehicle engines with lesser amounts of PAHs contributed from petrogenic sources. Some stations displayed mixed sources in comparison to many other studied marine systems, the PAH concentrations detected at Alexandria area were considered to be higher and pose health risks to aquatic bodies.

  8. Remediation of soils contaminated by PAHs using a sequential method: desorption with surfactant-electro-chemical degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, M. T.; Gomez, J.; Pazos, M.; Longo, M. A.; Sanroman, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) cause a high environmental impact when released into the environment. Many PAHs can have detrimental effects on both the flora and fauna of affected habitats through uptake and accumulation in food chains, and in some instances, pose serious health problems and/or genetic defects in humans. (Author)

  9. Mapping the Centimeter-Scale Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Populations in the Rhizosphere of Two Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Bourceret

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation uses root development and exudation to favor microbial activity. Thus it can enhance polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH biodegradation in contaminated soils. Spatial heterogeneity of rhizosphere processes, mainly linked to the root development stage and to the plant species, could explain the contrasted rhizoremediation efficiency levels reported in the literature. Aim of the present study was to test if spatial variability in the whole plant rhizosphere, explored at the centimetre-scale, would influence the abundance of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi, and the abundance and activity of PAH-degrading bacteria, leading to spatial variability in PAH concentrations. Two contrasted rhizospheres were compared after 37 days of alfalfa or ryegrass growth in independent rhizotron devices. Almost all spiked PAHs were degraded, and the density of the PAH-degrading bacterial populations increased in both rhizospheres during the incubation period. Mapping of multiparametric data through geostatistical estimation (kriging revealed that although root biomass was spatially structured, PAH distribution was not. However a greater variability of the PAH content was observed in the rhizosphere of alfalfa. Yet, in the ryegrass-planted rhizotron, the Gram-positive PAH-degraders followed a reverse depth gradient to root biomass, but were positively correlated to the soil pH and carbohydrate concentrations. The two rhizospheres structured the microbial community differently: a fungus-to-bacterium depth gradient similar to the root biomass gradient only formed in the alfalfa rhizotron.

  10. Influence of activated sewage sludge amendment on PAH removal efficiency from a naturally contaminated soil: application of the landfarming treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Borislava; Huguenot, David; Panico, Antonio; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a naturally co-contaminated soil by PAHs and heavy metals with an initial concentration of 620 mg of total PAHs kg -1 dry soil was investigated. The efficiency of landfarming in removing phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and the group of total 16 US EPA PAHs was evaluated. The process was biostimulated by adding centrifuged activated sewage sludge (SS) as an organic amendment. The tested ratios of contaminated soil to SS were 1:2, 1:1, 1:0.5 and 1:0 as wet weight basis. The process performance was monitored through chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses during 105 days of incubation. The results of analyses demonstrated that the treatment without centrifuged SS achieved a significantly higher total 16 US EPA PAH removal efficiency (i.e. 32%) compared to treatments with amendment. In the same treatment, the removal efficiency of the PAH bioavailable fraction was 100% for phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene and the group of total 16 US EPA PAHs, whereas 76% for pyrene. Ecotoxicity test performed with bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri confirmed the effectiveness of landfarming. Finally, the results showed that indigenous microorganisms under certain and controlled operating conditions have greater potential for PAH biodegradation compared to allochthonous microorganisms.

  11. Analytical Comparison of Miniaturized Methods for Selected PAH Determination in Clean Waters; Comparacion Analitica de 4 Metodos Miniaturizados de Determinacion de PAHs mediante HPLC en Aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.; Fernandez, O.

    2012-04-11

    A study on the comparison and evaluation of 4 miniaturized extraction methods for the determination of selected PAHs in clear waters is presented. Four types of liquid-liquid extraction were used for chromatographic analysis by HPLC/ FD. The main objective was the optimization and development of simple, rapid and low cost methods, minimizing the use of extracting solvent volume. The work also includes a study on the scope of the methods developed at low and high levels of concentration. (Author) 13 refs.

  12. Dynamics and role of sphingomonas/mycobacterium populations during bio-remediation of weathered PAH-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiaens, L.; Ryngaert, A.; Leys, N.; Van Houtven, D.; Gemoets, J.; Goethals, L.; Springael, D.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major soil pollutants in many industrialized countries. During the last decades, a diversity of PAH-degrading micro-organisms has been isolated, suggesting possibilities for bio-remediation. However, biodegradation of PAHs in contaminated soils is not always successful. The low bio-availability of the PAHs is the major problem, especially in weathered soils. In these soils a tightly sorbed PAH-fraction is present which is in general hardly accessible for microorganisms. In order to bio-remedy PAHs also in weathered soils, stimulation of bacteria which have special strategies to access sorbed organics may be a solution. Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium strains may represent such bacteria as (I) they are often isolated as PAH degraders, (II) they are ubiquitously present in PAH-contaminated soils, and (III) they display features which might promote bioavailability. Lab- and pilot-scale experiments were set up in order (A) to study the dynamics of indigenous Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium populations during bio-remediation, and (B) to evaluate their role in the biodegradation of the less bio-available PAH-fraction during treatment of an historic PAH polluted soil. The soil was treated under natural soil moisture conditions and slurry conditions. The experimental set-ups ranged from 2 g lab-scale test to pilot experiments in 1 ton bio-piles and dry solid reactors (50 kg 70% dry matter soil). Different additives were evaluated for stimulation of the Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium population as a strategy to improve bio-remediation of PAHs. The evolution of this microbial population was followed using culture-independent general and genus-specific PCR-based detection methods targeting the 16S rRNA genes of the eu-bacterial community, Mycobacterium or the Sphingomonas populations, respectively. During the different bio-remediation experiments that were conducted, the Mycobacterium population remained very stable, only minor

  13. Repair of DNA damage induced by anthanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) without bay or fjord regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Johannessen, Christian; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2009-01-01

    proposed for metabolic activation of PAHs involves the cytochrome P450 enzymes. The DNA damaging potential of cytochrome P450-activated PAHs is generally associated with their bay and fjord regions, and the DNA repair response of PAHs containing such regions has been thoroughly studied. However, little...... is known about the repair of DNA damage resulting from metabolites from PAHs without bay and fjord regions. We have investigated the six-ringed PAH anthanthrene (dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene), which does not posses bay or fjord motifs. We analyzed the repair profile of human cell extracts and of cell cultures...... in response to DNA damage induced by cytochrome P450-activated anthanthrene. In cell extracts, functional nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair (MMR) activities were necessary to trigger a response to anthanthrene metabolite-induced DNA damage. In cell cultures, NER was responsible...

  14. Later life swimming performance and persistent heart damage following subteratogenic PAH mixture exposure in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel R; Thompson, Jasmine; Chernick, Melissa; Hinton, David E; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2017-12-01

    High-level, acute exposures to individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures result in cardiac abnormalities in developing fish embryos. Whereas acute PAH exposures can be developmentally lethal, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower level PAH exposures in survivors. A population of PAH-adapted Fundulus heteroclitus from the PAH-contaminated Superfund site, Atlantic Wood Industries, Elizabeth River, Portsmouth, Virginia, United States, is highly resistant to acute PAH cardiac teratogenicity. We sought to determine and characterize long-term swimming performance and cardiac histological alterations of a subteratogenic PAH mixture exposure in both reference killifish and PAH-adapted Atlantic Wood killifish embryos. Killifish from a relatively uncontaminated reference site, King's Creek, Virginia, United States, and Atlantic Wood killifish were treated with dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract at 24 h post fertilization (hpf). Two proven subteratogenic dilutions, 0.1 and 1.0% Elizabeth River sediment extract (total PAH 5.04 and 50.4 µg/L, respectively), were used for embryo exposures. Then, at 5-mo post hatching, killifish were subjected to a swim performance test. A separate subset of these individuals was processed for cardiac histological analysis. Unexposed King's Creek killifish significantly outperformed the unexposed Atlantic Wood killifish in swimming performance as measured by Ucrit (i.e., critical swimming speed). However, King's Creek killifish exposed to Elizabeth River sediment extract (both 0.1 and 1.0%) showed significant declines in Ucrit. Histological analysis revealed the presence of blood in the pericardium of King's Creek killifish. Although Atlantic Wood killifish showed baseline performance deficits relative to King's Creek killifish, their pericardial cavities were nearly free of blood and atrial and ventricular alterations. These findings may explain, in part, the

  15. Integrated technology selection for energy conservation and PAHs control in iron and steel industry: Methodology and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Lu, Yonglong; Shi, Yajuan; Wang, Tieyu; Luo, Wei; Gosens, Jorrit; Chen, Peng; Li, Haiqian

    2013-01-01

    Energy conservation and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) control are two challenges for the iron and steel industry, especially where the industry has developed at high speed. How to select appropriate technologies to improve energy efficiency and control pollution from PAHs simultaneously is encountered by both the researchers and the decision makers. This study sets up a framework on technology selection and combination which integrates technology assessment, multiple objective programming and scenario analysis. It can predict proper technology combination for different emission controls, energy conservation targets and desired levels of production. An iron and steel factory in Southwestern China is cited as a case. It is shown that stricter PAHs control will drive the transformation from process control technology to alternative smelting technology. In low PAHs limit, 25% energy reduction is a threshold. Before inclusion of a restraint on energy consumption at 25% reduction, PAHs emission is the key limiting factor for the technology selection; while after inclusion of this restraint, energy consumption becomes the key limiting factor. The desired level of production will also influence the technology selection. This study can help decision makers to select appropriate technologies to meet the PAHs control objectives and energy conservation strategies in energy-intensive industries. - Highlights: ► We predict technical strategy for energy and PAHs reduction in iron and steel mill. ► With low PAHs control objectives, process control technologies are preferable. ► With medium and high PAHs control goals, alternative smelting technology is dominate. ► In low PAHs control objective, 25% energy reduction is a threshold

  16. Source identification and ecological impact evaluation of PAHs in urban river sediments: A case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y T; Ou, J H; Tsang, D C W; Dong, C D; Chen, C W; Kao, C M

    2018-03-01

    The Love River and Ho-Jin River, two major urban rivers in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, are moderately to heavily polluted because different types of improperly treated wastewaters are discharged into the rivers. In this study, sediment and river water samples were collected from two rivers to investigate the river water quality and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. The spatial distribution, composition, and source appointment of PAHs of the sediments were examined. The impacts of PAHs on ecological system were assessed using toxic equivalence quotient (TEQ) of potentially carcinogenic PAHs (TEQ carc ) and sediment quality guidelines. The average PAHs concentrations ranged from 2161 ng/g in Love River sediment to 160 ng/g in Ho-Jin River sediment. This could be due to the fact that Love River Basin had much higher population density and pyrolytic activities. High-ring PAHs (4-6 rings) contributed to 59-90% of the total PAHs concentrations. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) had the highest toxic equivalence quotient (up to 188 ng TEQ/g). Moreover, the downstream sediments contained higher TEQ of total TPHs than midstream and upstream sediment samples. The PAHs were adsorbed onto the fine particles with high organic content. Results from diagnostic ratio analyses indicate that the PAHs in two urban river sediments might originate from oil/coal combustion, traffic-related emissions, and waste combustion (pyrogenic activities). Future pollution prevention and management should target the various industries, incinerators, and transportation emission in this region to reduce the PAHs pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA Adduct Formation and Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine

    2002-01-01

    ...) to reactive intermediates appears to be the cytochrome P45O enzyme CYPlB1. High CYPlB1 enzyme levels may result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue and lead to subsequent development of breast cancer...

  18. The impact of vegetation on sedimentary organic matter composition and PAH desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie [North Carolina State University, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, 2800 Faucette Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)], E-mail: elizabeth_nichols@ncsu.edu; Gregory, Samuel T.; Musella, Jennifer S. [North Carolina State University, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, 2800 Faucette Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Relationships between sedimentary organic matter (SOM) composition and PAH desorption behavior were determined for vegetated and non-vegetated refinery distillate waste sediments. Sediments were fractionated into size, density, and humin fractions and analyzed for their organic matter content. Bulk sediment and humin fractions differed more in organic matter composition than size/density fractions. Vegetated humin and bulk sediments contained more polar organic carbon, black carbon, and modern (plant) carbon than non-vegetated sediment fractions. Desorption kinetics of phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, and C{sub 3}-phenanthrene/anthracenes from humin and bulk sediments were investigated using Tenax beads and a two-compartment, first-order kinetic model. PAH desorption from distillate waste sediments appeared to be controlled by the slow desorbing fractions of sediment; rate constants were similar to literature values for k{sub slow} and k{sub veryslow}. After several decades of plant colonization and growth (Phragmites australis), vegetated sediment fractions more extensively desorbed PAHs and had faster desorption kinetics than non-vegetated sediment fractions. - Plants alter sediment organic matter composition and PAH desorption behavior.

  19. Bacteria from Wheat and Cucurbit Plant Roots Metabolize PAHs and Aromatic Root Exudates: Implications for Rhizodegradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ely, Cairn S; Smets, Barth F.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria which degrade PAHs have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits, however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation...

  20. Reducing plant uptake of PAHs by cationic surfactant-enhanced soil retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Li, E-mail: ll19840106@zju.edu.c [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong, E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.c [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Reducing the transfer of contaminants from soils to plants is a promising approach to produce safe agricultural products grown on contaminated soils. In this study, 0-400 mg/kg cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and dodecylpyridinium bromide (DDPB) were separately utilized to enhance the sorption of PAHs onto soils, thereby reducing the transfer of PAHs from soil to soil solution and subsequently to plants. Concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in vegetables grown in contaminated soils treated with the cationic surfactants were lower than those grown in the surfactant-free control. The maximum reductions of phenanthrene and pyrene were 66% and 51% for chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.), 62% and 71% for cabbage (Brassica campestris L.), and 34% and 53% for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), respectively. Considering the impacts of cationic surfactants on plant growth and soil microbial activity, CTMAB was more appropriate to employ, and the most effective dose was 100-200 mg/kg. - Cationic surfactants could enhance the retention of PAHs in soil, and reduce PAH transfer to and accumulation in vegetables.

  1. Using quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to predict toxic endpoints for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Erica D; Autenrieth, Robin L; Burghardt, Robert C; Donnelly, K C; McDonald, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) offer a reliable, cost-effective alternative to the time, money, and animal lives necessary to determine chemical toxicity by traditional methods. Additionally, humans are exposed to tens of thousands of chemicals in their lifetimes, necessitating the determination of chemical toxicity and screening for those posing the greatest risk to human health. This study developed models to predict toxic endpoints for three bioassays specific to several stages of carcinogenesis. The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay (EROD), the Salmonella/microsome assay, and a gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) assay were chosen for their ability to measure toxic endpoints specific to activation-, induction-, and promotion-related effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Shape-electronic, spatial, information content, and topological descriptors proved to be important descriptors in predicting the toxicity of PAH in these bioassays. Bioassay-based toxic equivalency factors (TEF(B)) were developed for several PAH using the quantitative structure-toxicity relationships (QSTR) developed. Predicting toxicity for a specific PAH compound, such as a bioassay-based potential potency (PP(B)) or a TEF(B), is possible by combining the predicted behavior from the QSTR models. These toxicity estimates may then be incorporated into a risk assessment for compounds that lack toxicity data. Accurate toxicity predictions are made by examining each type of endpoint important to the process of carcinogenicity, and a clearer understanding between composition and toxicity can be obtained.

  2. Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, Audrey; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leglize, Pierre; Watteau, Françoise; Derrien, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of fresh organic matter (OM) incorporation in an industrial PAH-contaminated soil on its structure and contaminant concentrations (available and total) were monitored. A control soil and a soil amended with the equivalent of 10 years maize residue input were incubated in laboratory-controlled conditions over 15 months. The structure of the amended soil showed an aggregation process trend which is attributable to (i) the enhanced microbial activity resulting from fresh OM input itself and (ii) the fresh OM and its degradation products. Initially the added organic matter was evenly distributed among all granulodensimetric fractions, and then rapidly degraded in the sand fraction, while stabilizing and accumulating in the silts. PAH degradation remained slight, despite the enhanced microbial biomass activity, which was similar to kinetics of the turnover rate of OM in an uncontaminated soil. The silts stabilized the anthropogenic OM and associated PAH. The addition of fresh OM tended to contribute to this stabilization process. Thus, in a context of plant growth on this soil two opposing processes might occur: rhizodegradation of the available contaminant and enhanced stabilization of the less available fraction due to carbon input. - Highlights: • Fresh OM input in an industrial soil leads to aggregation. • TC and δ 13 C increase in fine silts. • Fine silts store both the natural and anthropogenic OM. • PAH concentration and availability are not impacted by an addition of OM

  3. An innovative method for the solidification/stabilization of PAHs-contaminated soil using sulfonated oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fujun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Deshan; Liu, Qingbing; Peng, Changsheng; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2018-02-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been successfully employed in many superfund sites contaminated with organic materials. However, this method's long-term effectiveness has not been fully evaluated and the increase in soil volume following treatment is unfavorable to follow-up disposal. The present study developed a novel method for the S/S of PAHs-contaminated soil with the facilitation of sulfonated oil (SO). Adding SO significantly improved the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values of Portland cement and activated carbon (PC-AC) treated soil samples, and the UCS values of the soil sample treated with 0.02% of SO were up to 2.3 times higher than without SO addition. When the soil was treated with PC-AC-SO, the PAHs leaching concentrations were 14%-25% of that in leachates of the control soil, and high molecular weight PAHs including benzo(a)pyrene were rarely leached. Freeze/thaw durability tests reveal that the leachability of PAHs was not influenced by freeze-thaw cycles. The UCS values of PC-AC-SO treated soil samples were 2.2-3.4 times greater than those of PC-AC treated soil samples after 12 freeze-thaw cycles. The PC-AC-SO treated soils resist disintegration better when compared to the PC-AC treated soils. The SEM micrographs reveal that the soils' compactness was significantly improved when treated with SO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Cited by the United States Food and Drug Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthery W

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The yields of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined from cigarette mainstream smoke condensate extracts using Gas Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. The method has been validated for ISO and Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking protocols. Quantifiable levels (ISO means 0.16 to 365 ng/cig; HCI means 0.33 to 1595 ng/cig; n = 30 of 15 PAHs were found in the Kentucky reference cigarette K3R4F. The coefficient of variance (CV was derived from ten determinations each run in triplicate. The CV range was 8.7% to 24.8% (ISO and 6.6% to 24.3% (HCI. The limit of detection (LOD based on empirical precision was ≤ 0.06 ng/cig (ISO and ≤ 0.20 ng/cig (HCI for all components except naphthalene (2.89 and 9.62 ng/cig, respectively. The yields from 5 unspecified branded cigarettes (Samples A-E and 2 other reference cigarettes, K1R5F and the CORESTA monitor CM7, were determined under ISO smoking conditions. The same 15 PAHs were detected as in the K3R4F; however, cigarettes with lower yields of total particulate matter (TPM were found to contain significantly less PAHs. One component was measured below the limit of quantification (LOQ in Sample E and 2 components were < LOQ in the K1R5F.

  5. PAH mutation spectrum and correlation with PKU manifestation in north Jiangsu province population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Wen; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Zhou, Bao-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a common autosomal recessive disorder of phenylalanine metabolism and mainly results a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH). The incidence of various PAH mutations have race and ethnicity differences. We report a spectrum of PAH mutations complied from 35 PKU children who are all Chinese Han population from north Jiangsu in this study. All 13 exons and their flanking intron sequences of PAH were determined by Ion Torrent PGM™ sequencing. The relationship of genotype and phenotype was analyzed based on the sum of the arbitrary value (AV) values of the two alleles. We identified 61 mutations, with a frequency of 87.14%, among 70 alleles of 35 patients. The most prevalent mutations were R243Q (26.23%), R241C (9.84%) and V399V (8.20%). Furthermore, the consistency between prediction of the biochemical phenotype and the observed phenotype was 81.25%, with the highest consistency observed in classic PKU (87.50%). A significant correlation was found between pretreatment levels of phenylalanine and AV sum (r = -0.87, P PKU patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Simultaneous electrodialytic removal of PAH, PCB, TBT and heavy metals from sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    was found to be important for the removal of heavy metals and TBT, while photolysis was significant for removal of PAH, PCB and TBT. In addition, dechlorination was found to be important for the removal of PCB. The highest removal efficiencies were found for heavy metals, TBT and PCB (>40%) and lower...

  7. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from an...

  8. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  9. Developing a Black Carbon-Substituted Multimedia Model for Simulating the PAH Distributions in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhui; Zhou, Shenglu; He, Yue; Wang, Junxiao; Wang, Fei; Wu, Shaohua

    2017-11-06

    A multimedia fugacity model with spatially resolved environmental phases at an urban scale was developed. In this model, the key parameter, organic matter, was replaced with black carbon (BC) and applied to simulate the distributions of phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) in Nanjing, China. Based on the estimated emissions and measured inflows of air and water, the Phe, Pyr and BaP concentrations in different environment media were calculated under steady-state assumptions. The original model (OC-Model), BC-inclusive model (dual C-Model) and improved model (BC-Model) were validated by comparing observed and predicted Phe, Pyr and BaP concentrations. Our results suggested that lighter polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more affected by BC substitution than their heavier counterparts. We advocate the utilization of sorption with BC in future multimedia fate models for lighter PAHs based on the comparison of the calculated and observed values from measured and published sources. The spatial distributions of the Phe, Pyr and BaP concentrations in all phases were rationally mapped based on the calculated concentrations from the BC-Model, indicating that soil was the dominant sink of PAHs in terrestrial systems, while sediment was the dominant sink of PAHs in aquatic systems.

  10. Fine aerosol and PAH carcinogenicity estimation in outdoor environment of Mumbai City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Elizabeth J; Unnikrishnan, Seema; Kumar, Rakesh; Yeole, Balkrishna; Chowdhury, Zohir

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to fine particles has been shown to cause severe human health impacts. In the present study, outdoor fine particles as well as elemental and organic carbon concentrations were measured in four locations within Mumbai city, India, during 2007-2008. The average outdoor PM(2.5) mass concentrations at control, kerb, residential and industrial sites were 69 ± 21, 84 ± 32, 89 ± 34, 95 ± 36 μg/m(3). In addition, fine particle PAHs were measured during the post monsoon season. The sum of PAHs in PM(2.5) at same above four sites were 35.27 ± 2.10, 42.96 ± 2.49, 175.76 ± 8.95 and 90.78 ± 4.74 ng/m(3), respectively. Estimating the carcinogenic potential of PAHs with equivalents of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaPE). The maximum value of BaPE (18.8) was reported in the residential site. A trend of lung cancer cases in Mumbai city is also presented. This was a preliminary study in understanding the health effects of PAHs in Mumbai city.

  11. Quantitatively assessing the health risk of exposure to PAHs from intake of smoked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Dong, Han; Li, Xianguo; Han, Bin; Zhu, Chenjian; Zhang, Dahai

    2016-02-01

    Smoked meat and meat products represent a significant part of the daily diet in south-west China and many other parts of the world. In this study, we evaluated the health risks of long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a daily low dose exposures (from intake of PAH-containing smoked meats) in south-west China for eight groups of people based on a Monte Carlo simulation. Total concentrations of PAHs in smoked meats from south-west China ranged from 14.4 to 56.3μgkg(-1). The 95th percentile carcinogenic risk (CR) values of eight groups in four cities and provinces were lower than the acceptable value (1.00E-5), indicating no significant risk. The 95th percentile Hazard Index (HI) values were below 1, suggesting no obvious non-carcinogenic effects developed. This study was the first attempt to provide information on the potential health risk for daily intake of PAH-containing smoked meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds and particle associated PAH in three UK regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborit, Juana Mari Delgado; Aquilina, Noel J; Meddings, Claire; Baker, Stephen; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Harrison, Roy M

    2009-06-15

    Personal exposures to 15 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of 100 adult nonsmokers living in three UK areas, namely London, West Midlands, and rural South Wales, were measured using an actively pumped sampler carried around by the volunteers for 5/1 (VOC/PAH) consecutive 24-h periods, following their normal lifestyle. Results from personal exposure measurements categorized by geographical location, type of dwelling, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are presented. The average personal exposure concentration to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo(a)pyrene representing the main carcinogenic components of the VOC and PAH mixture were 2.2 +/- 2.5 microg/m3, 0.4 +/- 0.7 microg/m3, and 0.3 +/- 0.7 ng/m3 respectively. The association of a number of generic factors with personal exposure concentrations was investigated, including first-line property, traffic, the presence of an integral garage, and ETS. Only living in houses with integral garages and being exposed to ETS were identified as unequivocal contributors to VOC personal exposure, while only ETS had a clear effect upon PAH personal exposures. The measurements of personal exposures were compared with health-based European and UK air quality guidelines, with some exceedences occurring. Activities contributing to high personal exposures included the use of a fireplace in the home, ETS exposure, DIY (i.e., construction and craftwork activities), and photocopying, among others.

  13. Numerical evaluation of bioaccumulation and depuration kinetics of PAHs in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakan, S.D.; Focks, A.; Klasmeier, J.; Okay, O.S.

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important organic pollutants in the aquatic environment due to their persistence and bioaccumulation potential both in organisms and in sediments. Benzo(a)anthracene (BaA) and phenanthrene (PHE), which are in the priority pollutant list of the U.S. EPA

  14. Chemical profiling of oil and PAH polluted soil and drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen

    of a polar group. I have worked with two test organisms that utilize this degradation pathway, the earthworm Eisenia Fetida and the terrestrial fungus Cunninghamella elegans. E. fetida was exposed to the two PAHs, phenanthrene and pyrene, in a hydroponic culture. E. fetida was extensively able to transform...

  15. The effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on decrease of PAH content in long term contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Jan; Wiesche in der, C.; Macková, M.; Zadrazil, F.; Macek, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 9 (2008), s. 1603-1608 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biodegradation * phytoremediation * HPLC * Lolium perenne * PAH Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  16. Further validation of the HPCD-technique for the evaluation of PAH microbial availability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doick, Kieron J.; Clasper, Paula J.; Urmann, Karina; Semple, Kirk T.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently considerable scientific interest in finding a chemical technique capable of predicting bioavailability; non-exhaustive extraction techniques (NEETs) offer such potential. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a NEET, is further validated through the investigation of concentration ranges, differing soil types, and the presence of co-contaminants. This is the first study to demonstrate the utility of the HPCD-extraction technique to predict the microbial availability to phenanthrene across a wide concentration range and independent of soil-contaminant contact time (123 d). The efficacy of the HPCD-extraction technique for the estimation of PAH microbial availability in soil is demonstrated in the presence of co-contaminants that have been aged for the duration of the experiment together in the soil. Desorption dynamics are compared in co-contaminant and single-PAH contaminated spiked soils to demonstrate the occurrence of competitive displacement. Overall, a single HPCD-extraction technique proved accurate and reproducible for the estimation of PAH bioavailability from soil. - HPCD extractions can determine the microbial availability of PAHs in mixtures and over a range of concentrations

  17. Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil with fungi - from laboratory to field scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winquist, E.; Björklöf, K.; Schultz, E.; Räsänen, M.; Salonen, K.; Anasonye, F.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Steffen, K.; Jorgensen, K.S.; Tuomela, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 238-247 ISSN 0964-8305 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bioremediation * contaminated soil * PAH * field scale Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014

  18. Ripening of PAH and TPH polluted sediments : determination and quantification of bioremediation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bioremediation parameters were determined and quantified for different clayey dredged sediments. The research described in this thesis increased the insight into the individual processes of physical ripening, biochemical ripening – including PAH and TPH degradation – that result from

  19. Evidence for the bioavailability of PAH from oiled beach sediments in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, P.V.; Cross, T.; Ewert, A.; Zambon, S.; Lee, K.

    2002-01-01

    Biological responses that reflect the flux of hydrocarbons through fish can be used to determine the impact that oil spills have on fish. In this study, the exposure and toxicity to fish of oiled sediments was assessed in a freshwater semidiurnal tidal area of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec and at a tidal salt marsh at Petpeswick Inlet in Nova Scotia. The effectiveness of wetland bioremediation strategies was assessed by monitoring the bioavailability and toxicity of oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to early life stages of fish. Bioavailability was assessed through laboratory bioassays of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzymes in trout exposed to 500 g of sediments in 10 L of water. PAH was found to be still bioavailable to fish up to 14 months after oiling, but the extent of exposure decreased steadily over time. The study presented a worst-case scenario in which sediments are disturbed and mixed. When beach sediments were not disturbed, however, PAH was also bioavailable in situ 12 months after oiling, but to a much lesser degree. It was concluded that these tests are a good way to show the benefits of oil spill remediation in reducing the exposure of fish to PAH. 8 refs., 5 figs

  20. Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

  1. Ligninolytic basidiomycetes as promising organisms for the mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, N. N.; Balandina, S. A.; Dubrovskaya, E. V.; Golubev, C. N.; Turkovskaya, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Primary screening of ligninolytic fungi belonging to wood- and soil-inhabiting basidiomycetes revealed their ability to degrade three-ringed PAHs with formation of quinone metabolites at the first stage. The degradative activity was both species and strain specific, and some differences in the “chances” for the formed quinones were found. They were the main end metabolites in the degradation of PAHs by Stropharia rugosoannulata and Agaricus bisporus. During PAH degradation by strains of Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Bjerkandera adusta similar metabolites were detected during the cultivation, but they were utilized further. The results supported the hypothesis that the degree of PAH degradation may depend on the composition of the extracellular ligninolytic complex of the fungi: in the presence of a single ligninolytic enzyme, laccase, the accumulation of quinone metabolites takes place; their further utilization is possible with the participation of ligninolytic peroxidases. The data obtained showed the necessity not only to identify the metabolites formed, but also to study the activity of the basic ligninolytic enzymes. It is important for the correct selection of fungal strains for mycoremediation.

  2. Surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of PAH- and PCB-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, M.M.; Yeom, I.T.; Shi, Z.; Cox, C.D.; Robinson, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    The role of surfactants in the desorption of soil-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The solubilization of individual PAHs in an extract of a weathered, coal tar-contaminated soil containing a mixture of PAHs and other petroleum derivatives was found to be significantly less than that for pure compounds. Batch soil washing with Triton X-100 (a commercial, nonionic alkyl phenol ethoxylate) was found to increase the effective diffusion rate of PAHs from the contaminated soil by four orders of magnitude compared to that obtained by gas purging when the results were analyzed using a radial diffusion model. At concentrations of up to 24 times its critical micelle concentration (CMC), Triton X-100 did not seem to enhance hydrocarbon degradation in the coal tar-contaminated soil; however, the biosurfactant rhamnolipid R1, at a concentration of 50x CMC, increased the rate of mineralization of 4,4'-chlorinated biphenyl mobilized from a laboratory-contaminated soil by more than 60 times

  3. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from crude oil in sandy-beach microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepo, J.E.; Cripe, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using triplicate microcosm chambers for each treatment of a simulated oil spill on a beach. The treatments were sterile control, 10 ppm of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant added to the seawater and bi-weekly inoculation of the microcosms with two marine bacteria that produce biosurfactants but degrade only n-alkanes. The results showed that raw seawater cycled through the microcosms over a 30-day period led to a substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, and other polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It was not possible to detect PAH in pooled test system effluents. The oiled-beach microcosms were run with sterile synthetic seawater to differentiate between wash out and degradation. Depletion of n-alkanes was noticed in the systems inoculated with the alkane-degrading microbes and virtually all the aromatic analytes were recoverable from the oiled sand. The other two treatments permitted the recovery of all the analytes (PAH or alkanes). Under aerobic conditions, the biodegradation by microorganisms indigenous to natural seawater supported that lower molecular weight PAH were substantially depleted, but not the n-alkanes under similar conditions. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Bioremediation of PAH-Contaminated Soil by Composting: A Case Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cajthaml, Tomáš; Bhatt, M.; Šašek, Václav; Matějů, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2002), s. 696-700 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : bioremediation * pah-contaminated * soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  5. Removal of Two High Molecular Weight PAHs from Soils with Different Water Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Lilia; Dendooven, Luc; Chicken, Anaí; Hernández, Omar; Iturbe, Rosario

    2017-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benz[a]anthracene (BA) and dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), which are considered toxic, are frequently found in contaminated soils in Mexico. A laboratory-scale study monitored the degradation of the mixture of these two PAHs in three soils from different Mexican states (Tabasco, Morelos and Veracruz), each with different organic matter content, particle size distribution and incubated under different water content conditions. The hydrocarbons were extracted using microwave digestion and quantified by GC/MS. The removal of the PAHs, the growth of aerobic bacteria and microbial activity were determined in soil samples with and without a bacterial growth inhibitor (HgCl 2 ). The conclusion is that more than 90% of both contaminants was removed from the three soils, independently of the soil water content or the application of a bacterial growth inhibitor. Biological properties of the soils showed changes at the end of the experiment, but the results of the removal of PAHs were similar in the three soils.

  6. Assessment and Prediction of Biostabilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    With the Lumbricid Earthworm Eisenia foetida ," E 1676-97, February 1998. 29. Ringelberg, D., Talley, J.W., Perkins, E., Tucker, S., Luthy, R.G., and...Measurement of the bioaccumulation of PAHs by earthworms ( Eisenia fetida) from Milwaukee CDF sediment before and after biotreatment. Error bars indicate ± 1

  7. Modeling the effect of operating variables on sorption of PAHs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of artificial neural network (ANN) technology to the simulation of factors affecting sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) onto ripe and unripe orange peels is presented in this work. A 3-layer backward propagation network structure was applied using pattern recognition tool in MATHLAB 7.9.0 ...

  8. Global lung cancer risk from PAH exposure highly depends on emission sources and individual susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Liu, Junfeng; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin

    2014-10-01

    The health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most concerning organic pollutants, depend not only on the locations and strengths of emission sources, but also on individual susceptibility. Moreover, trans-boundary transport makes them a global concern. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the global health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is presented. Model resolution is critical in exposure modelling. Globally, incremental lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by ambient PAH exposure is 3.1 × 10-5. If the individual susceptibility was not taken into consideration, the overall risk would be underestimated by 55% and the proportion of highly vulnerable population would be underestimated by more than 90%. Emphasizing on individual susceptibility, our study provides an instrumental revision of current risk assessment methodology. In terms of lung cancer risk, the most important sources are combustion of biomass fuels (40%) and fossil fuels (14%) in the residential/commercial sector, coke (13%) and aluminium (12%) production, and motor vehicles (9%). PAHs can travel long distance globally especially within the Eurasian continent. Still, the risk is dominantly contributed by local.

  9. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...

  10. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions.

  11. Determination of the subcooled liquid solubilities of PAHs in partitioning batch experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcooled liquid solubility is the water solubility for a hypothetical state of liquid. It is an important parameter for multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which can exist as liquids even though most of the solutes are solid in their pure form at ambient temperature. So far, subcooled liquid solubilities were estimated from the solid water solubility and fugacity ratio of the solid and (subcooled liquid phase, but rarely derived from experimental data. In our study, partitioning batch experiments were performed to determine the subcooled liquid solubility of PAHs in NAPL-water system. For selected PAH, a series of batch experiments were carried out at increased mole fractions of the target component in the NAPL and at a constant NAPL/water volume ratio. The equilibrium aqueous PAH concentrations were measured with HPLC and/or GC-MS. The subcooled liquid solubility was derived by extrapolation of the experimental equilibrium aqueous concentration to a mole fraction of unity. With the derived subcooled liquid solubility, the fugacity ratio and enthalpy of fusion of the solute were also estimated. Our results show a good agreement between the experimentally determined and published data.

  12. Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Viñas, M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A

    2013-03-15

    High recalcitrant characteristics and low bioavailability rates due to aging processes can hinder high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) bioremediation in real industrial polluted soils. With the aim of reducing the residual fraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and (HMW-PAHs) in creosote-contaminated soil remaining after a 180-d treatment in a pilot-scale biopile, either biostimulation (BS) of indigenous microbial populations with a lignocellulosic substrate (LS) or fungal bioaugmentation with two strains of white-rot fungi (WRF) (i.e., Trametes versicolor and Lentinus tigrinus) were comparatively tested. The impact of bivalent manganese ions and two mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., Soybean Oil and Brij 30) on the degradation performances of biostimulated and bioaugmented microcosms was also compared. The results reveal soil colonization by both WRF strains was clearly hampered by an active native soil microbiota. In fact, a proper enhancement of native microbiota by means of LS amendment promoted the highest biodegradation of HMW-PAHs, even of those with five aromatic rings after 60 days of treatment, but HMW-PAH-degrading bacteria were specifically inhibited when non-ionic surfactant Brij 30 was amended. Effects of bioaugmentation and other additives such as non-ionic surfactants on the degrading capability of autochthonous soil microbiota should be evaluated in polluted soils before scaling up t