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Sample records for aromatic hydrocarbon exposure

  1. Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay...... (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. High and low exposure groups were defined from breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 PAH compounds in particulate and gaseous phase. Mean...... than in smoking and non-smoking controls (0 (0-0.022) and 0 (0-0.010) mumol/mol creatinine). Dose-response relations between total PAH, pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs, and 1-hydroxypyrene for smokers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to dust for non-smokers are suggested. Exposure to PAHs...

  2. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels, petroleum products, and coal. The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment. PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments, the atmosphere, and ice. Due to their widespread distribution, the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern. Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans. The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources, route of exposure, worldwide emission rate, and adverse effects on humans, especially with reference to cancer.

  3. Correlation between atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and urinary hydroxyl metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in elderly population in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify suitable hydroxyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(OH-PAHs) for co-evaluation of internal exposure level of PAHs by simultaneous determination of a variety of OH-PAHs in urine. Methods The 24-h individual particulate matter and morning urine

  4. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thamaraiselvan; Rengarajan; Peramaiyan; Rajendran; Natarajan; Nandakumar; Boopathy; Lokeshkumar; Palaniswami; Rajendran; Ikuo; Nishigaki

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclie aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings.Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels,petroleum products,and coal.The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment.PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments,the atmosphere,and ice.Due to their widespread distribution,the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern.Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic,mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans.The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources,route of exposure,worldwide emission rate,and adverse effects on humans,especially with reference to cancer.

  5. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of μg.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  6. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C K; Schuepfer, P; Boiteux, P, E-mail: chuynh@hospvd.c [Institute for Work and Health, rue du Bugnon 21, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of mug.g{sup -1} or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  7. Quantitative determination of hydroxy polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudneh, Million B; Benskin, Jonathan P; Grace, Richard; Hamilton, M Coreen; Magee, Brian H; Hoeger, Glenn C; Forsberg, Norman D; Cosgrove, John R

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method was developed for quantitative analysis of hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Four hydroxy metabolites of known and suspected carcinogenic PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), and chrysene (CRY)) were selected as suitable biomarkers of PAH exposure and associated risks to human health. The analytical method included enzymatic deconjugation, liquid - liquid extraction, followed by derivatization with methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and instrumental analysis. Photo-induced oxidation of target analytes - which has plagued previously published methods - was controlled by a combination of minimizing exposure to light, employing an antioxidant (2-mercaptoethanol) and utilizing a nitrogen atmosphere. Stability investigations also indicated that conjugated forms of the analytes are more stable than the non-conjugated forms. Accuracy and precision of the method were 77.4-101% (<4.9% RSD) in synthetic urine and 92.3-117% (<15% RSD) in human urine, respectively. Method detection limits, determined using eight replicates of low-level spiked human urine, ranged from 13 to 24pg/mL. The method was successfully applied for analysis of a pooled human urine sample and 78 mouse urine samples collected from mice fed with PAH-contaminated diets. In mouse urine, greater than 94% of each analyte was present in its conjugated form. PMID:27266337

  8. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites as biomarkers to woodsmoke exposure - results from a controlled exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Trinidad, Debra; Pittman, Erin N; Riley, Erin A; Sjodin, Andreas; Dills, Russell L; Paulsen, Michael; Simpson, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Woodsmoke contains harmful components - such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - and impacts more than half of the global population. We investigated urinary hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as woodsmoke exposure biomarkers in nine non-smoking volunteers experimentally exposed to a wood fire. Individual urine samples were collected from 24-h before to 48-h after the exposure and personal PM2.5 samples were collected during the 2-h woodsmoke exposure. Concentrations of nine OH-PAHs increased by 1.8-7.2 times within 2.3-19.3 h, and returned to baseline approximately 24 h after the exposure. 2-Naphthol (2-NAP) had the largest post-exposure increase and exhibited a clear excretion pattern in all participants. The level of urinary OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR), correlated with those of PM2.5, levoglucosan and PAHs in personal PM2.5 samples. This finding suggests that several urinary OH-PAHs, especially 2-NAP, are potential exposure biomarkers to woodsmoke; by contrast, 1-PYR may not be a suitable biomarker. Compared with levoglucosan and methoxyphenols - two other urinary woodsmoke biomarkers that were measured in the same study and reported previously - OH-PAHs might be better biomarkers based on sensitivity, robustness and stability, particularly under suboptimal sampling and storage conditions, like in epidemiological studies carried out in less developed areas. PMID:25605446

  9. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  10. Biological monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in a highly polluted area of Poland.

    OpenAIRE

    Ovrebø, S; Fjeldstad, P E; Grzybowska, E; Kure, E H; Chorazy, M; Haugen, A

    1995-01-01

    Air pollution in Poland and particularly in Silesia is among the worst in Europe. Many coal mines and coke oven plants are located in this area, representing a major source of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We quantitated the PAH exposure level in air samples using personal sampling devices, collected urine samples from the same individuals, and measured 1-hydroxypyrene with high performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected twice, once in February and once ...

  11. Exposures to Particulate Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Oxidative Stress in Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Kwangsik; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution is known to contribute to respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the main mechanisms for these effects on health. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in schoolchildren. Methods The study population co...

  12. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Jourenkova, N; Gustavsson, P

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production. In addition, workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust in the transport industry and in related occupations are exposed to PAHs and nitro-PAHs. Heavy exposure to PAHs entails a substantial risk of lung, skin, and bladder cancer, which is not likely to be due to other carcinogenic exposures present in the same industries. The lung seems to be the major target organ of PAH carcinogenicity and increased risk is present in most of the industries and occupations listed above. An increased risk of skin cancer follows high dermal exposure. An increase in bladder cancer risk is found mainly in industries with high exposure to PAHs from coal tars and pitches. Increased risks have been reported for other organs, namely the larynx and the kidney; the available evidence, however, is inconclusive. The results of studies addressing environmental PAH exposure are consistent with these conclusions.

  13. Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Electric Steel Foundry in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Hanchi, Mariem; Olgiati, Luca; Polledri, Elisa; Consonni, Dario; Zrafi, Ines; Saidane-Mosbahi, Dalila; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding have been classified as carcinogenic to humans, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this industrial setting may contribute to cancer risk. The occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed in 93 male workers at an electric steel foundry in Tunisia by biomonitoring, with the aims of characterizing the excretion profile and investigating the influence of job title and personal characteristics on the biomarkers. Sixteen 2-6 ring unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) and eight hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OHPAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Among U-PAHs, urinary naphthalene (U-NAP) was the most abundant compound (median level: 643ng l(-1)), followed by phenanthrene (U-PHE, 18.5ng l(-1)). Urinary benzo[a]pyrene (U-BaP) level was foundries. Based on 1-OHPYR levels, our findings show that occupational exposure of these workers was similar to that reported in recent studies of electric steel foundry workers. The multianalytic approach is useful in revealing different exposure levels among job titles. PMID:27206821

  14. [Assessment of exposure to cancerogenic aromatic hydrocarbon during controlled-access highways management activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, I; Cirla, A M; Cottica, D; Cirla, P E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an integrated assessment of exposure to benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in 29 workers employed to manage a controlled-access highways. A campaign was performed in summertime by environmental monitoring (active and passive airborne personal sampler), as well as by biological monitoring (urine samples of the beginning and of the end of daily shift, baseline after two days of vacation). The measured environmental levels did not differ from background environmental concentrations found in a metropolitan area (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene < 1 ng/m3; benzene < 5 mcg/m3), and the results of biological monitoring were in agreement and were compatible with extra-professional habits of the investigated subjects (1-hydroxipyrene 50-990 ng/g creatinine; unmetabolized benzene 15-2010 ng/I; t-t muconic acid < 4-222 mcg/g creatinine).

  15. Epigenetic modulation of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) on exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi; Youn, Je-In; Kim, Seung Joon; Park, Jong Y

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation in promoter region can be a new chemopreventive marker against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We performed a randomized, double blind and cross-over trial (N=12 healthy females) to evaluate chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris)-induced epigenetic modulation on exposure to PAHs. The subjects consumed 4 tablets of placebo or chlorella supplement (total chlorophyll ≈ 8.3mg/tablet) three times a day before meals for 2 weeks. When the subjects consumed chlorella, status of global hypermethylation (5-methylcytosine) was reduced, compared to placebo (p=0.04). However, DNA methylation at the DNMT1 or NQO1 was not modified by chlorella. We observed the reduced levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a typical metabolite of PAHs, by chlorella intake (pchlorella-induced changes in global hypermethylation and urinary 1-OHP (pchlorella works for PAH-detoxification through the epigenetic modulation, the interference of ADME of PAHs and the interaction of mechanisms.

  16. Impact and uncertainty of a traffic management intervention: Population exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sotiris.vardoulakis@lshtm.ac.uk; Chalabi, Zaid; Fletcher, Tony; Grundy, Chris [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leonardi, Giovanni S. [Centre for Radiation, Chemical, and Environmental Hazards, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    In urban areas, road traffic is a major source of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), thus any changes in traffic patterns are expected to affect PAH concentrations in ambient air. Exposure to PAH and other traffic-related air pollutants has often been quantified in a deterministic manner that disregards the various sources of uncertainty in the modelling systems used. In this study, we developed a generic method for handling uncertainty in population exposure models. The method was applied to quantify the uncertainty in population exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) before and after the implementation of a traffic management intervention. This intervention would affect the movement of vehicles in the studied area and consequently alter traffic emissions, pollutant concentrations and population exposure. Several models, including an emission calculator, a dispersion model and a Geographic Information System were used to quantify the impact of the traffic management intervention. We established four exposure zones defined by distance of residence postcode centroids from major road or intersection. A stochastic method was used to quantify the uncertainty in the population exposure model. The method characterises uncertainty using probability measures and propagates it applying Monte Carlo analysis. The overall model predicted that the traffic management scheme would lead to a minor reduction in mean population exposure to BaP in the studied area. However, the uncertainty associated with the exposure estimates was much larger than this reduction. The proposed method is generic and provides realistic estimates of population exposure to traffic-related pollutants, as well as characterises the uncertainty in these estimates. This method can be used within a decision support tool to evaluate the impact of alternative traffic management policies.

  17. Impact and uncertainty of a traffic management intervention: Population exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In urban areas, road traffic is a major source of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), thus any changes in traffic patterns are expected to affect PAH concentrations in ambient air. Exposure to PAH and other traffic-related air pollutants has often been quantified in a deterministic manner that disregards the various sources of uncertainty in the modelling systems used. In this study, we developed a generic method for handling uncertainty in population exposure models. The method was applied to quantify the uncertainty in population exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) before and after the implementation of a traffic management intervention. This intervention would affect the movement of vehicles in the studied area and consequently alter traffic emissions, pollutant concentrations and population exposure. Several models, including an emission calculator, a dispersion model and a Geographic Information System were used to quantify the impact of the traffic management intervention. We established four exposure zones defined by distance of residence postcode centroids from major road or intersection. A stochastic method was used to quantify the uncertainty in the population exposure model. The method characterises uncertainty using probability measures and propagates it applying Monte Carlo analysis. The overall model predicted that the traffic management scheme would lead to a minor reduction in mean population exposure to BaP in the studied area. However, the uncertainty associated with the exposure estimates was much larger than this reduction. The proposed method is generic and provides realistic estimates of population exposure to traffic-related pollutants, as well as characterises the uncertainty in these estimates. This method can be used within a decision support tool to evaluate the impact of alternative traffic management policies

  18. Does chemically dispersing crude oil increase the exposure of fish to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, S.D.; Khan, C.W.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2002-07-01

    Dispersants or surfactants are often used to clean up oil spills on water to minimize the impact of oil pollution. Their use as an oil spill countermeasure, however, is controversial because the risk of ecological effects depends on whether the dispersant increases or decreases the exposure of aquatic species to the toxic components of oil. This study involved the measurement of CYP1A induction and bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in trout exposed to Corexit 9500 dispersant, water accommodated fractions, and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions of 3 crude oils. The objective was to see if fish are exposed to more PAH in dispersed oil compared to equivalent amounts of water accommodated fraction. Preliminary results indicated 10 times higher induction in fish exposed to chemically enhanced water accommodated fraction compared to water accommodated fractions. The dispersed oil in water had higher concentrations of alkylated PAH compared to the water accommodated fraction. As hydrocarbon concentrations increased, the trend for medaka embryos was first to hatch earlier, then have mild edema, followed by severe edema and finally mortality.

  19. Health hazards involved with an environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Rusin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are compounds which belong to persistent organic pollutants group; some of which produce mutagenic and cancerogenic effects. These xenobiotics showed proven, negative effects on health preterm births and low infant birth weight. PAHs penetrate into the human body by three exposure pathways: inhalation, ingestion and skin contact, of which the skin contact pathway is the least important in the case of environmental exposure. Transport, and industrial and municipal sections are also an important source of these compounds. The level of benzo(apyrene (BaP has been monitored in all the Polish provinces since 2005 in the air. BaP is a determinant of the level of all PAHs’ compounds. Despite of the permanent lowering of the level of BaP in the air since the 90s, the limit level (1 ng/m3 has been exceeded in most provinces of the country. In 2010 this situation concerned all Polish agglomerations and the biggest excess has been observed in the province of Silesia in the area of rybnicko-jastrzębska agglomeration. Of sixteen Polish provinces only Lublin and Podlasie provinces did not exceed the limit level, of BaP in the air in 2012. These data shows that a serious health risk may occur due to environmental pollution caused by PAHs compounds. It is necessary to take preventative action to limit a human exposure to these compounds.

  20. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in European coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, Glenn; Thoroman, Jeff; Schuman, Brenda; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    Biomonitoring is an excellent method for capturing the results of all exposures, regardless of route. Coke oven workers include certain groups that have the potential for high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other materials. Biomarkers of exposure to these agents include PAH metabolites as markers of internal dose and carcinogen-DNA adducts as measure of effective dose. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of these biomarkers in persons with different job duties in a modern coke oven plant. We report that the mean levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) and carcinogen DNA adducts in the exfoliated urothelial cells of coke oven workers are increased the closer a group of workers is to the ovens and highest in the top oven workers with average 1HP level of 11.6 μg/l and 22 adducts per 10(9) unadducted nucleotides. Both 1HP and carcinogen DNA adduct levels increased in supervisors, area workers, side oven workers, top and side oven workers, and top oven workers, respectively. These data are the first to demonstrate an increase in target organ genotoxicity in coke oven workers and a relationship with other biomarkers. Future studies will determine the identity of the DNA adducts, their correlation with 1HP levels and the relationship between levels in individual workers. PMID:25445007

  1. Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Objectives Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Methods Residential histories of 1,508 particip...

  2. Statistical Modeling of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using OSHA Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derrick G; Lavoué, Jérôme; Spinelli, John J; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants with multiple variants classified as carcinogenic. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provided access to two PAH exposure databanks of United States workplace compliance testing data collected between 1979 and 2010. Mixed-effects logistic models were used to predict the exceedance fraction (EF), i.e., the probability of exceeding OSHA's Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL = 0.2 mg/m3) for PAHs based on industry and occupation. Measurements of coal tar pitch volatiles were used as a surrogate for PAHs. Time, databank, occupation, and industry were included as fixed-effects while an identifier for the compliance inspection number was included as a random effect. Analyses involved 2,509 full-shift personal measurements. Results showed that the majority of industries had an estimated EF < 0.5, although several industries, including Standardized Industry Classification codes 1623 (Water, Sewer, Pipeline, and Communication and Powerline Construction), 1711 (Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning), 2824 (Manmade Organic Fibres), 3496 (Misc. Fabricated Wire products), and 5812 (Eating Places), and Major group's 13 (Oil and Gas Extraction) and 30 (Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastic Products), were estimated to have more than an 80% likelihood of exceeding the PEL. There was an inverse temporal trend of exceeding the PEL, with lower risk in most recent years, albeit not statistically significant. Similar results were shown when incorporating occupation, but varied depending on the occupation as the majority of industries predicted at the administrative level, e.g., managers, had an estimated EF < 0.5 while at the minimally skilled/laborer level there was a substantial increase in the estimated EF. These statistical models allow the prediction of PAH exposure risk through individual occupational histories and will be used to create a job-exposure matrix for use in a population-based case

  3. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-07-15

    Vehicular traffic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with breast cancer incidence in epidemiologic studies, including our own. Because PAHs damage DNA by forming adducts and oxidative lesions, genetic polymorphisms that alter DNA repair capacity may modify associations between PAH-related exposures and breast cancer risk. Our goal was to examine the association between vehicular traffic exposure and breast cancer incidence within strata of a panel of nine biologically plausible nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) genotypes. Residential histories of 1,508 cases and 1,556 controls were assessed in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project between 1996 and 1997 and used to reconstruct residential traffic exposures to benzo[a]pyrene, as a proxy for traffic-related PAHs. Likelihood ratio tests from adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess multiplicative interactions. A gene-traffic interaction was evident (p = 0.04) for ERCC2 (Lys751); when comparing the upper and lower tertiles of 1995 traffic exposure estimates, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.09 (1.13, 3.90) among women with homozygous variant alleles. Corresponding odds ratios for 1960-1990 traffic were also elevated nearly 2-3-fold for XRCC1(Arg194Trp), XRCC1(Arg399Gln) and OGG1(Ser326Cys), but formal multiplicative interaction was not evident. When DNA repair variants for ERCC2, XRCC1 and OGG1 were combined, among women with 4-6 variants, the odds ratios were 2.32 (1.22, 4.49) for 1995 traffic and 2.96 (1.06, 8.21) for 1960-1990 traffic. Our study is first to report positive associations between traffic-related PAH exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with select biologically plausible DNA repair genotypes. PMID:26946191

  4. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  5. Investigating unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in adolescents' urine as biomarkers of environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, Sam; Croes, Kim; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Nawrot, Tim; Nelen, Vera; Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Baeyens, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of interest to human biomonitoring studies due to their carcinogenic potential. Traditionally metabolites of these compounds, like 1-hydroxypyrene, are monitored in urine, but recent methods allow the determination of the parent compounds in urine, which give additional information regarding sources and toxicity of PAHs. In order to assess the feasibility of incorporating these methods in a human biomonitoring study, the 16 USEPA parent PAHs were determined in 20 urine samples. These samples were obtained from 10 boys and 10 girls aged 14-16 years, participating in the third Flemish Environment and Health Study (Flanders, Belgium). Of these 16 parent PAHs, nine could be determined in more than 95% of the samples and three (including benzo(a)pyrene) in more than 50%. Several correlations were found between different PAHs, but not between pyrene and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene. Diagnostic PAH ratios in urine and air samples pointed towards combustion sources and are in line with the ratios in environmental samples. Benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and fluorene have the highest carcinogenic potential in our cohort, when using toxic equivalency factors. Some associations between PAH congeners and determinants of exposure were found, while fluorene and acenaphthylene were positively associated with thyroid hormone levels and benzo(a)pyrene showed a positive correlation with DNA damage by comet assay. These results confirm that parent PAHs in urine are useful as biomarkers of exposure in biomonitoring studies. PMID:27105152

  6. Lung Function, Airway Inflammation, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure in Mexican Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria Consuelo; Schilmann, Astrid; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Sjödin, Andreas; Del Río-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Díaz-Sanchez, David; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Sly, Peter; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with lung function and pH of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in Mexican schoolchildren. Methods A pilot study was performed in a subsample of 64 schoolchildren from Mexico City. Lung function and pH of EBC were measured and metabolites of PAHs in urine samples were determined. The association was analyzed using robust regression models. Results A 10% increase in the concentrations of 2-hydroxyfluorene was significantly negatively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (−11.2 mL, 95% CI: −22.2 to −0.02), forced vital capacity (−11.6 mL, 95% CI: −22.9 to −0.2), and pH of EBC (−0.035, 95% CI: −0.066 to −0.005). Conclusion Biomarkers of PAHs exposure were inversely associated with lung function and decrease of ph of EBC as a marker of airway inflammation in Mexican schoolchildren. PMID:24500378

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine as biomarkers of exposure and effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, P.; Kang, D.; Sithisarankul, P. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States). School of Hygiene and Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences

    1996-10-01

    Humans are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various occupational, environmental, medicinal, and dietary sources. PAH metabolites in human urine can be used as biomarkers of internal dose to assess recent exposure to PAHs. PAH metabolites that have been detected in human urine include 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 1-hydroxypyrene-O-glucuronide (1-OHP-gluc), 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene. 7,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, and anumber of other hydroxylated PAHs. The most widely used of these is 1-OHP-gluc, the major form of 1-OHP in human urine, by virtue of its relatively high concentration and prevalence in urine and its ease of measurement. This metabolite of pyrene can be measured as 1-OHP after deconjugation of the glucuronide with beta-glucuronidase or directly as 1-OHP-gluc without deconjugation. Elevated levels of 1-OHP or 1-OHP-gluc have been demonstrated in smokers (versus nonsmokers), in patients receiving coal tar treatment (versus pretreatment), after workshifts in road pavers (versus before shifts or versus controls), after shifts in coke oven workers (versus before shift), and in subjects ingesting charbroiled meat (versus preingestion). More importantly, this metabolite is found (at low levels) in most human urine, even in persons without apparent occupational or smoking exposure. Although measurement of these metabolites is useful in assessing recent exposure to PAHs, their value as predictive markers of biological effect or health outcomes has not been rigorously tested and at present can only be inferred by association.

  8. Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Plasma Cytokines, and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binyao; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Wangzhen; Feng, Yingying; Dai, Xiayun; Feng, Wei; He, Xiaosheng; Huang, Suli; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xiaohai; Lin, Dafeng; He, Meian; Guo, Huan; Sun, Huizhen; Yuan, Jing; Lu, Jiachun; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heart rate variability (HRV). However, the roles of plasma cytokines in these associations are limited. In discovery stage of this study, we used Human Cytokine Antibody Arrays to examine differences in the concentrations of 280 plasma cytokines between 8 coke-oven workers and 16 community residents. We identified 19 cytokines with significant different expression (fold change ≥2 or ≤-2, and q-value coke-oven workers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in validation stage. We found OH-PAHs were inversely associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (p 16% BDNF decreases. Additionally, OH-PAHs were positively associated with activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p 20% increases in CRP. We also found significant associations between these cytokines and HRV (p 8% decreases in HRV. Our results indicated PAH exposure was associated with plasma cytokines, and higher cytokines were associated with decreased HRV, but additional human and potential mechanistic studies are needed. PMID:26758679

  9. Evaluation of airborne respirable particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure of asphalt workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cirillo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Assessment of exposure to the airborne respirable particles (PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of asphalt manufacturing and road paving workers in the Campania region (Italy.

    Materials and Methods: A study was carried out during 2006 and involved 5 firms producing and employing bitumen in road paving activities. The workers studied were categorized on the basis of their job as workers in bitumen manufacturing, in road paving and in workers not exposed at bitumen fume considered like controls.

    Results: In the manufacturing plants the average concentrations of airborne PM10 were 1125±445 ìg/m3 in the HMA manufacturing workers’ areas; 314±81 ìg/m3 in the process surveyors’ cabins and 92±27 ìg/m3 in the controls’ areas (administrative offices. Within the breathing zones of the worker, the average PAHs levels in air were as follows: 367±198 ng/m3 for HMA manufacturing workers; 348±172 ng/m3 for process surveyors; 21±2 ng/m3 for the controls. At the road paving sites the average airborne PM10 levels were 1435±325 ìg/m3 for roller operators; 1610±356 ìg/m3 for paver operators; 319±108 ìg/m for the controls (traffic controllers. PAHs in the breathing zones were 1220±694 ng/m3 for the paver operators; 1360±575 ng/m3 for the roller operators’ and 139±135 ng/m3 for the traffic controllers’. The results show that the more consistent hazard for asphalt workers’ health is derived from exposure to airborne PM10 both in exposed and in non-exposed (controls workers.

  10. Indoor emission, dispersion and exposure of total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Jian, Yating; Cao, Changsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Cooking processes highly contribute to indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. High molecular weight and potentially carcinogenic PAHs are generally found attached to small particles, i.e., particulate phase PAHs (PPAHs). Due to the fact that indoor particle dynamics have been clear, describing the indoor dynamics of cooking-generated PPAHs within a specific time span is possible. This paper attempted to quantify the dynamic emission rate, simultaneous spatial dispersion and individual exposure of PPAHs using a cooking source. Experiments were conducted in a real-scale kitchen chamber to elucidate the time-resolved emission and effect of edible oil temperature and mass. Numerical simulations based on indoor particle dynamics were performed to obtain the spatial dispersion and individual inhalation intake of PPAHs under different emission and ventilation conditions. The present work examined the preheating cooking stage, at which edible oil is heated up to beyond its smoke point. The dynamic emission rate peak point occurred much earlier than the oil heating temperature. The total PPAH emission ranged from 2258 to 6578 ng upon heating 40-85 g of edible oil. The overall intake fraction by an individual within a period of 10 min, including 3 min for heating and 7 min for natural cooling, was generally ∼1/10,000. An important outcome of this work was that the overall intake fraction could be represented by multiplying the range hood escape efficiency by the inhalation-to-ventilation rate ratio, which would be no greater than the same ratio. The methodology and results of this work were extendible for the number-based assessment of PPAHs. This work is expected to help us understand the health risks due to inhalation exposure to cooking-generated PPAHs in the kitchen.

  11. Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Plasma Cytokines, and Heart Rate Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Binyao Yang; Qifei Deng; Wangzhen Zhang; Yingying Feng; Xiayun Dai; Wei Feng; Xiaosheng He; Suli Huang; Xiao Zhang; Xiaohai Li; Dafeng Lin; Meian He; Huan Guo; Huizhen Sun; Jing Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heart rate variability (HRV). However, the roles of plasma cytokines in these associations are limited. In discovery stage of this study, we used Human Cytokine Antibody Arrays to examine differences in the concentrations of 280 plasma cytokines between 8 coke-oven workers and 16 community residents. We identified 19 cytokines with significant different expression (fold change ≥2 or ≤−2, an...

  12. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in British coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Brian G.; Doust, Emma; Cherrie, John W.; Hurley, J Fintan

    2013-01-01

    Background Workers on coke oven plants may be exposed to potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly during work on the ovens tops. Two cohorts, employees of National Smokeless Fuels (NSF) and the British Steel Corporation (BSC) totalling more than 6,600 British coke plant workers employed in 1967, had been followed up to mid-1987 for mortality. Previous analyses suggested an excess in lung cancer risk of around 25%, or less when compared with Social Class I...

  13. Biological monitoring the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coke oven workers in relation to smoking and genetic polymorphisms for GSTM1 GSTT1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M.-J.S.T.; Asten, J.G. van; Vogel, N. de; Bruijntjes-Rozier, T.C.D.M.; Schouten, T.; Cramers, P.; Maas, L.; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Schooten, F.-J. van; Hopmans, P.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Human exposure is often demonstrated by increased internal levels of PAH metabolites and of markers for early biological effects, like DNA adducts and cytogenetic aberrations. Objective: Thi

  14. Production of alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacci, J.C.; Billings, R.P.

    1975-01-30

    An improved method is claimed for producing aromatic hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon charge containing aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene and C/sub 8/ alkyl aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons which charge is rich in such aromatic hydrocarbons and lean in aliphatic hydrocarbons boiling above about 220/sup 0/F by reason of conversion under severe conditions which comprises subjecting said charge to distillation conditions of temperature and pressure such that at least a portion of the benzene content of said fraction is separated as vapor from an alkyl aromatic fraction containing aliphatic hydrocarbons and the major portion of C/sub 8/ aromatics in said charge, reacting said alkyl aromatic fraction in the presence of hydrogen in contact with a catalyst containing type ZSM-5 zeolite, zeolite ZSM-12, zeolite ZSM-21 or zeolite beta in combination with a hydrogenation/dehydrogenation component at conversion conditions to convert aliphatic hydrocarbons to lower boiling material of five carbon atoms and lighter separable from aromatics by distillation including a temperature of about 500/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/F, a pressure of about 100 to about 600 pounds, a hydrogen to hydrocarbon mol ratio of 0.2 to 8 and weight hourly space velocity of 0.5 to 15, concurrently contacting a mixture of hydrogen and toluene with a disproportionation catalyst under reaction conditions to disproportionate said toluene, combining the effluents of said contacting steps, separating hydrogen from the combined effluents of said contacting steps, separating hydrogen from the combined effluents, recycling at least a portion of said separated hydrogen to said contacting steps, distilling the hydrocarbon residue from said separation step to recover therefrom at least toluene and mixed xylenes, and recycling at least a portion of said recovered toluene as feed to the disproportionation step aforesaid.

  15. Dose-response relationships of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Dan; Zhang, Wangzhen; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Kun; Guan, Lei; Hu, Die; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2013-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, but the dose-response relationships between exposure to PAHs and oxidative stress levels have not been established. In this study, we recruited 1333 male coke oven workers, monitored the levels of environmental PAHs, and measured internal PAH exposure biomarkers including 12 urinary PAH metabolites and plasma benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts, as well as the two oxidative biomarkers urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). We found that the total concentration of urinary PAH metabolites and plasma BPDE-Alb adducts were both significantly associated with increased 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α in both smokers and nonsmokers (all p coke oven workers. PMID:23745771

  16. Occupational exposure to gases, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biomass-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of fuels produces air pollutants in the form of gases, organic compounds, and particulate matter. However, although the environmental aspect of these agents has been examined, workers' exposure to them is still a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Our hygienic measurements revealed that carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, ammonia and sulfur dioxide were the most common gases that the workers were exposed to during their tasks. Their average concentrations were 0.45 ppm, 0.06 ppm, 0.11 ppm and 0.42 ppm, respectively. Phenanthrene and naphthalene were the most prominent PAHs. At the same sampling points, the most commonly found VOCs were aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and turpentines. The calculated total PAH concentrations were less than 7% of benzo[a]pyrene's eight-hour occupational exposure limit, and the total VOC concentrations were below the Finnish reference value for the normal industrial level in all measured work tasks. The most evident health effect caused by multiple exposures to gases was upper respiratory track irritation, followed by the disruption of oxygen transport, and finally central nervous system disorders. We recommend powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors as the minimum requirement for those working inside biomass-fired power plant boilers, and compressed air breathing apparatus as the best form of protection.

  17. Diesel particulate matter and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon exposure of diesel vehicle operators in small to medium sized underground coal mines J.M. Pretorius

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Jan Marthinus

    2010-01-01

    Limited data is currently available for diesel particulate matter (DPM) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in underground coal mines in South Africa. The lack of regulatory exposure limits for DPM and PAH in South Africa makes it difficult for the mining industry to evaluate concerned exposure results effectively. The purpose of this study was to determine load haul dump (LHD) vehicle operator exposure to DPM and PAH in four small to medium sized coal mines. Ex...

  18. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  19. Impact of the Improved Patsari Biomass Stove on Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biomarkers and Carbon Monoxide Exposures in Rural Mexican Women

    OpenAIRE

    Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; Marron-Mares, Adriana Teresa; Masera, Omar; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Sjödin, Andreas; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Needham, Larry L.; Romieu, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cooking with biomass fuels on open fires results in exposure to health-damaging pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter. Objective: We compared CO exposures and urinary PAH biomarkers pre- and postintervention with an improved biomass stove, the Patsari stove. Methods: In a subsample of 63 women participating in a randomized controlled trial in central Mexico, we measured personal CO exposure for 8 hr during the day ...

  20. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  1. Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Neurodevelopment in the First 3 Years of Life among Inner-City Children

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Frederica P.; Rauh, Virginia; Whyatt, Robin M.; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Tang, Deliang; Diaz, Diurka; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Camann, David; Kinney, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Our prospective cohort study of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City is evaluating the role of prenatal exposure to urban pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and pesticides, in the pathogenesis of neurobehavioral disorders. We used the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to evaluate the effects on child mental and psychomotor development of prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs monitored duri...

  2. Children and elders exposure assessment to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the city of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Maria Pia; Gariazzo, Claudio; Gordiani, Andrea; L'Episcopo, Nunziata; Gherardi, Monica

    2014-12-01

    It has been amply demonstrated that exposure to fine particulate matter, containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may have adverse effects on human health, affecting especially the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Among population, school-age children and elders present particular susceptibilities and unique exposures to environmental factors. The study presented in this paper belongs to the Project EXPAH, founded by the European (EU) LIFE+ instrument, and consists of the personal monitoring of five elementary school children and four elders during the spring and the summer/autumn of the year 2012 in the city of Rome, Italy. The average exposure, expressed as the sum of eight high-molecular-weight PAHs, resulted equal to 0.70 ng/m(3) (SD = 0.37) for children and 0.59 ng/m(3) (SD = 0.23) for the elderly people. The mean levels of gravimetric PM2.5 were equal to 23 μg/m(3) (SD = 10) and 15 μg/m(3) (SD = 4) for children and elders, respectively. During spring and summer seasons, personal BaPeq resulted well below the EU Air Quality reference value of 1 ng/m(3). The personal monitoring average values were in the same order of magnitude with available indoor and outdoor environmental data in Rome during the same periods, for both PAHs and PM2.5. The results suggest that, during non-heating seasons, the personal exposure to PAHs in the city of Rome can be mainly ascribed to the urban background, especially traffic emissions and road dust resuspension; secondhand cigarette smoke can be also considered another possible source of PAHs personal exposure.

  3. Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    The specific components of airborne particulates responsible for adverse health effects have not been conclusively identified. We conducted a longitudinal study on 88 adult patients with chronic cough to evaluate whether exposure to daily ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has relationship with cough occurrence. Study participants were recruited at Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan and were physician-diagnosed to at least have asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough during 4th January to 30th June 2011. Daily cough symptoms were collected by use of cough diaries and simultaneously, particulate PAH content in daily total suspended particles collected on glass fiber filters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Population averaged estimates of association between PAH exposure and cough occurrence for entire patients and subgroups according to doctor's diagnosis were performed using generalized estimating equations. Selected adjusted odds ratios for cough occurrence were 1.088 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.031, 1.147); 1.209 (95% CI: 1.060, 1.379) per 1 ng/m3 increase for 2-day lag and 6-day moving average PAH exposure respectively. Likewise, 5 ring PAH had higher odds in comparison to 4 ring PAH. On the basis of doctor's diagnosis, non-asthma group had slightly higher odds ratio 1.127 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.228) per 1 ng/m3 increase in 2-day lag PAH exposure. Our findings suggest that ambient PAH exposure is associated with cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients. The association may be stronger in non-asthma patients and even at low levels although there is need for further study with a larger sample size of respective diagnosis and inclusion of co-pollutants.

  4. Pollution level, inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive air samplers were deployed to collect both gas and particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan between 2009 and 2010. Annual average concentrations of BaP equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) in background, rural and urban areas were 2.90 ± 0.29, 23.2 ± 30.8 and 27.4 ± 28.1 ng/m3, respectively, with higher concentration in the winter than in other seasons. The median B[a]Peq concentrations of annual inhalation exposure were estimated to be in the range of 103–347 ng/d for all population groups in rural as well as in urban areas. The median values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure for all groups were basically larger than 10−6, with higher values in winter than in other seasons and in urban than in rural area. In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups and that of females was a little higher than males. - Highlights: ► The median values of ILCR were higher in winter than in other seasons. ► The median values of ILCR were higher in urban than in rural area. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of females was a little higher than males. ► Exposure level and the cancer slope factor influenced the ILCR greatly. - The inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric PAHs changed for different seasons, areas and population groups in Taiyuan, China.

  5. The occupational exposure of dermatology nurses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - evaluating the effectiveness of better skin protection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Houtum, J.L.M. van; Anzion, R.B.M.; Champmartin, C.; Hertsenberg, S.; Bos, R.P.; Valk, P. van der

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in nurses who apply ointments containing coal tar to patients and investigated the effectiveness of skin protection methods. METHODS: We determined gas-phase PAH on XAD-2 and particle-associated PAH on filters. We also used

  6. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter: validation and application of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, Marzia; Catrambone, Tamara; Gordiani, Andrea; Cabella, Renato

    2010-12-01

    This study concerns the validation of an analytical method for the measurement of occupational exposure to trace levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter (APM). Personal exposure to selected PAHs of five workers occupationally exposed to urban pollution in Rome, Italy, was evaluated. The samples were collected over 10 days evenly distributed during winter and summer of 2008. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were collected by a sampling pump and trapped in polytetrafluoroethylene filters; ultrasonic extraction was applied to extract PAH species from the matrix with toluene, and the concentrated extract was quantitatively analyzed by GC/MS. The analytical method was optimized and validated using a standard reference material of urban dust (SRM 1649a). Detection limits ranged from 0.8 ng per sample for indeno [1,2,3-cd] pyrene to 20.4 ng for sample for anthracene. Experimental results of the 50 personal samples collected showed that phenanthrene was the predominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon [95% CI (32.42-41.13 ng m(-3))]; the highest benzo[a]pyrene concentration was 2.58 ng m(-3), approximately 2-fold higher than European annual target values (1 ng m(-3)). Seasonal variations of personal exposure to selected PAHs suggested higher emissions and reduced atmospheric reactivity of PAH compounds in winter. The analytical method was a suitable procedure for the determination of 13 of the 16 priority PAHs in APM personal samples and can be considered a useful tool to evaluate occupational exposure to low PAH levels.

  7. Exposure to environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Influences on cellular susceptibility to DNA damage (sampling Kosice and Sofia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate a possible influence of occupational exposure to carcinogenic environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) on cellular susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage. Monitoring was performed and blood samples were collected from two groups of male subjects: occupationally exposed and matched controls. The group exposed to c-PAHs (average age of 35.1 years) consisted of 52 policemen from Kosice and 26 policemen and 25 bus drivers (51 altogether) from Sofia. The control group (average age of 36.4 years) consisted of 54 unexposed subjects from Kosice and 24 from Sofia. In the investigated groups 52.5% of exposed subjects and 45.3% of control were current smokers. A challenging dose of X-rays (3 Gy) and an alkaline version of the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, known as Comet assay, were used to evaluate levels of induced DNA damage and repair kinetics in isolated human blood lymphocytes. DNA damage detected in lymphocytes prior to or after irradiation did not differ significantly between exposed and unexposed subjects. A significant decrease in repair efficiency due to exposure to PAHs was observed in the exposed individuals from Kosice and Sofia, when analysed separately or together. A negative influence of tobacco smoking on the efficiency of DNA repair was observed. Statistically significant differences were found between subgroups stratified according to education level in Sofia: the half times for DNA repair declined with the increasing level of education. These results confirm that environmental exposure to c-PAHs can alter the ability of blood lymphocytes to repair DNA damage and, as a result could potentially lead to effects that are hazardous to human health

  8. Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, İsmail; DEMİRBAĞ, Zihni

    1999-01-01

    Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as petroleum and petroleum derivatives, are widespread organic pollutants entering the environment, chiefly, through oil spills and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Since most PAHs are persist in the environment for a long period of time and bioaccumulate, they cause environmental pollution and effect biological equilibrium dramatically. Biodegradation of some PAHs by microorganisms has been biochemically and genetically investigated. Ge...

  9. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF and potential impact fraction (PIF of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  10. Developing a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure dose-response model for fish health and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornberger, Lindsey; Ainsworth, Cameron; Gosnell, Stephen; Coleman, Felicia

    2016-08-15

    One of the more important steps in understanding the ecosystem-level effects of anthropogenic disturbances on resident species is developing an accurate representation of the lethal and sub-lethal effects of these stressors. We develop methods for describing the impacts of oil on growth and mortality rates in fishes. We conducted a literature search to determine potential relationships between direct and indirect effects of exposure to oil, based on the frequency of lesions and body growth reduction. Data examining these effects with different exposure mediums were assessed and then input into four potential response models (a linear, step-wise, hockey-stick, and exponential model). We assessed the models using the Akaike Information Criterion. The most parsimonious and best fit model was the hockey-stick. This analysis will aid in identifying where future research on the impact of oil on fish should focus and also aid the development of ecosystem models on impacts of oil spills. PMID:27297595

  11. Spatiotemporal analysis and human exposure assessment on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air, settled house dust, and diet: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuning; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the published literature on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in indoor air, settled house dust, and food, and highlights geographical and temporal trends in indoor PAH contamination. In both indoor air and dust, ΣPAH concentrations in North America have decreased over the past 30 years with a halving time of 6.7±1.9years in indoor air and 5.0±2.3 years in indoor dust. In contrast, indoor PAH concentrations in Asia have remained steady. Concentrations of ΣPAH in indoor air are significantly (pAmerica. In studies recording both vapor and particulate phases, the global average concentration in indoor air of ΣPAH excluding naphthalene is between 7 and 14,300 ng/m(3). Over a similar period, the average ΣPAH concentration in house dust ranges between 127 to 115,817ng/g. Indoor/outdoor ratios of atmospheric concentrations of ΣPAH have declined globally with a half-life of 6.3±2.3 years. While indoor/outdoor ratios for benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalents (BaPeq) declined in North America with a half-life of 12.2±3.2 years, no significant decline was observed when data from all regions were considered. Comparison of the global database, revealed that I/O ratios for ΣPAH (average=4.3±1.3), exceeded significantly those of BaPeq (average=1.7±0.4) in the same samples. The significant decline in global I/O ratios suggests that indoor sources of PAH have been controlled more effectively than outdoor sources. Moreover, the significantly higher I/O ratios for ΣPAH compared to BaPeq, imply that indoor sources of PAH emit proportionally more of the less carcinogenic PAH than outdoor sources. Dietary exposure to PAH ranges from 137 to 55,000 ng/day. Definitive spatiotemporal trends in dietary exposure were precluded due to relatively small number of relevant studies. However, although reported in only one study, PAH concentrations in Chinese diets exceeded those in diet from other parts of the world, a pattern consistent with

  12. Deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Doney, Kirstin D; Mori, Tamami; Onaka, Takashi; Tielens, A G G M

    2016-01-01

    The amount of deuterium locked up in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has to date been an uncertain value. We present a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic survey of HII regions in the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) obtained with AKARI, which aims to search for features indicative of deuterated PAHs (PAD or Dn-PAH) to better constrain the D/H ratio of PAHs. Fifty-three HII regions were observed in the NIR (2.5-5 {\\mu}m), using the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the AKARI satellite. Through comparison of the observed spectra with a theoretical model of deuterated PAH vibrational modes, the aromatic and (a)symmetric aliphatic C-D stretch modes were identified. We see emission features between 4.4-4.8 {\\mu}m, which could be unambiguously attributed to deuterated PAHs in only six of the observed sources, all of which are located in the Milky Way. In all cases, the aromatic C-D stretching feature is weaker than the aliphatic C-D stretching feature, and, in the case o...

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with SPICA

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, O; Mulas, G; Tielens, A G G M; Goicoechea, J R

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to high sensitivity and angular resolution and broad spectral coverage, SPICA will offer a unique opportunity to better characterize the nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs), to better use them as probes of astrophysical environments. The angular resolution will enable to probe the chemical frontiers in the evolution process from VSGs to neutral PAHs, to ionized PAHs and to "Grand-PAHs" in photodissotiation regions and HII regions, as a function of G$_0$/n (UV radiation field / density). High sensitivity will favor the detection of the far-IR skeletal emission bands of PAHs, which provide specific fingerprints and could lead to the identification of individual PAHs. This overall characterization will allow to use PAH and VSG populations as tracers of physical conditions in spatially resolved protoplanetary disks and nearby galaxies (using mid-IR instruments), and in high redshift galaxies (using the far-IR instrument), thanks to the broad spectral coverage SPIC...

  14. Evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coke production and a graphite electrode manufacturing plant: assessment of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological indicator of exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchet, J P; Gennart, J P; Mercado-Calderon, F; Delavignette, J P; Cupers, L; Lauwerys, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Characterisation of the airborne concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at various workplaces in a graphite electrode and a coke production plant. Validation of the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (hydroxypyrene) as a biological marker of exposure to PAH. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of workers exposed to PAHs (106 in the graphite electrode producing plant and 16 in the coke works). METHODS--Personal air sampling during at least six hours per workshift u...

  15. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  16. Associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and oxidative stress in people living near e-waste recycling facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Li, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Gui-Hua; Huang, Ming-Zhi; Li, Xiao; Ruan, Ju-Jun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-09-01

    Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from e-waste recycling activities in China is known. However, little is known on the association between PAH exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid content in people living near e-waste dismantling sites. In this study, ten hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and two biomarkers [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] of oxidative stress were investigated in urine samples collected from people living in and around e-waste dismantling facilities, and in reference population from rural and urban areas in China. The urinary levels of ∑10OH-PAHs determined in e-waste recycling area (GM: 25.4μg/g Cre) were significantly higher (purban (10.9μg/g Cre) reference areas. The occupationally exposed e-waste workers (36.6μg/g Cre) showed significantly higher (precycling site. The differences in urinary Σ10OH-PAHs levels between smokers (23.4μg/g Cre) and non-smokers (24.7μg/g Cre) were not significant (p>0.05) in e-waste dismantling sites, while these differences were significant (purban reference areas; this indicated that smoking is not associated with elevated levels of PAH exposure in e-waste dismantling site. Furthermore, we found that urinary concentrations of Σ10OH-PAHs and individual OH-PAHs were significantly associated with elevated 8-OHdG, in samples collected from e-waste dismantling site; the levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR) (r=0.284, p<0.01) was significantly positively associated with MDA. Our results indicate that the exposure to PAHs at the e-waste dismantling site may have an effect on oxidative damage to DNA among selected participants, but this needs to be validated in large studies.

  17. Associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and oxidative stress in people living near e-waste recycling facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Li, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Gui-Hua; Huang, Ming-Zhi; Li, Xiao; Ruan, Ju-Jun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-09-01

    Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from e-waste recycling activities in China is known. However, little is known on the association between PAH exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid content in people living near e-waste dismantling sites. In this study, ten hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and two biomarkers [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] of oxidative stress were investigated in urine samples collected from people living in and around e-waste dismantling facilities, and in reference population from rural and urban areas in China. The urinary levels of ∑10OH-PAHs determined in e-waste recycling area (GM: 25.4μg/g Cre) were significantly higher (precycling site. The differences in urinary Σ10OH-PAHs levels between smokers (23.4μg/g Cre) and non-smokers (24.7μg/g Cre) were not significant (p>0.05) in e-waste dismantling sites, while these differences were significant (p<0.05) in rural and urban reference areas; this indicated that smoking is not associated with elevated levels of PAH exposure in e-waste dismantling site. Furthermore, we found that urinary concentrations of Σ10OH-PAHs and individual OH-PAHs were significantly associated with elevated 8-OHdG, in samples collected from e-waste dismantling site; the levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR) (r=0.284, p<0.01) was significantly positively associated with MDA. Our results indicate that the exposure to PAHs at the e-waste dismantling site may have an effect on oxidative damage to DNA among selected participants, but this needs to be validated in large studies. PMID:27258657

  18. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  19. Dietary and inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of monohydroxy metabolites – A controlled case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily dietary and inhalation exposures to 16 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and urinary excretion of 13 monohydroxy metabolites (OHPAHs) were monitored for 12 non-smoking university students in Beijing, China, during a controlled feeding experiment. The relationship between the urinary excretion of OHPAHs and the uptake of PAHs was investigated. The results suggest severe exposure of the subjects to PAHs via both dietary and inhalation pathways. Large increase of most urinary OHPAHs occurred after the ingestion of lamb kabob. Higher concentrations of OHPAHs were observed for female subjects, with the intakes of parent PAHs lower than those by males, likely due to the gender differences in metabolism. It appears that besides 1-PYR, metabolites of PHE could also be used as biomarkers to indicate the short-term dietary exposure to PAHs and urinary 3-BaA may serve as the biomarker for inhalation intake of high molecular weight PAHs. Highlights: • The dependence of urinary OHPAHs on PAH intake was explored. • Consumption of lamb kabob resulted in large increase of most urinary OHPAHs. • Gender differences in PAH metabolism was observed. • Urinary metabolites of PHE and PYR can be used as biomarkers for dietary PAH intake. • Urinary 3-BaA may serve as the indicator for the inhalation exposure to BaPeq. -- Severe exposure to PAHs via dietary and inhalation pathways indicated by the intake of parent PAHs as well as the urinary excretion of OHPAHs, was observed for students in Beijing

  20. Correlation between work process-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary levels of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthylamine and 1-hydroxypyrene in iron foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Omland, Øyvind; Poulsen, O M;

    1994-01-01

    In two Danish iron foundries the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 24 personal air samples of workers employed in selected processes, i.e. melters, melted iron transporters, casters, machine molders, hand molders, shake-out workers and finishing workers, were measured...... study demonstrates that 1-hydroxypyrene is a useful and direct biomarker of low-dose occupational exposure to PAH compounds. Molding and casting had the highest pyrene levels in iron foundries. Furthermore, the data shows that levels of beta-naphthylamine in urine are significantly elevated in iron...... foundry workers. Hand molders, finishing workers and truck drivers tended to have the highest levels. Concerning alpha-naphthol the highest concentrations were measured in urine from casters and shake-out workers. With regard to epidemiologic studies demonstrating that molders and casters have a higher...

  1. Coal tar pitch volatiles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposures in expansion joint-making operations on a construction site: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Lawrence A; Verma, Dave K; Sahai, Dru

    2003-07-01

    This case study describes occupational exposures to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) as benzene soluble fraction (BSF), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total particulates at a unique operation involving the use of coal tar in the making of expansion joints in construction of a multi-level airport parking garage. A task-based exposure assessment approach was used. A set of 32 samples was collected and analyzed for total particulate and CTPV-BSF. Twenty samples of this set were analyzed for PAHs. Current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) respective threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) for insoluble particulates not otherwise specified (PNOS) is 10 mg/m(3) as inhalable dust, which roughly corresponds to 4 mg/m(3) total particulate; for CTPV as BSF the TLV is 0.2 mg/m(3), and for specific PAHs such as benzo(a)-pyrene (B[a]P), ACGIH suggests keeping exposure as low as practicable. The recommended Swedish exposure limit for B(a)P is 2 microg/m(3). The highest exposure levels measured were 12.8 mg/m(3) for total particulate, 1.9 mg/m(3) for coal tar pitch volatiles as BSF, and 12.8 microg/m(3) for B(a)P. Several of the CTPV-BSF results were over the TLV of 0.2 mg/m(3). The data set is limited; therefore, caution should be used in its interpretation.

  2. Biological monitoring of human exposure to coal tar. Urinary mutagenicity assays and analytical determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Jongeneelen, F; Zordan, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenicity of urine extracts from anode plant workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles and non-smoking psoriatic patients treated with coal tar applications and UV light (Goeckermann regimen), was determined by the plate incorporation assay and the fluctuation test employing Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of rat liver post-mitochondrial fractions and deconjugating enzymes. The levels of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of a marker metabolite of pyrene (1-hydroxypyrene) were determined in the urine of the same subjects. Both the occupational and in particular the therapeutic exposure to coal tar resulted in clear increases in urinary levels of PAH metabolites as compared to unexposed subjects. The level of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine samples was comparable to or even greater than the corresponding level of total PAHs, indicating a poor recovery of PAH metabolites for this method. Following treatment with coal tar, most of the psoriatic patients excreted clearly increased levels of mutagens in their urine, while non-smoking anode plant workers showed no increase in urinary mutagenicity. The minimum levels of PAH metabolites corresponding to a significant increase in urinary mutagenicity varied from sample to sample, presumably depending on interfering factors present in different amounts in the extracts. Nonetheless the urine samples which were clearly mutagenic presented elevated levels of PAH metabolites, suggesting that the mutagenicity assays lack sufficient sensitivity to allow their application in the biological monitoring of most occupational exposures to coal tar.

  3. Optimization of Sample Preparation for 1-Hydroxypyrene as a Major Biomarker of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Shahtaheri

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary 1-hydroxypuren (1-OHP is commonly used as a major metabolite and biological indicator of the overall exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. For evaluation of human exposure to such compounds, biological monitoring is an essential process, in which, preparation of samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to chromatographic techniques. In this study, non classic form of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE was optimized with regard to solvent type, solvent volume, extraction temperature, mixing type, and mixing duration. Through the extraction process, a mild temperature was used to keep the compound of interest as stable as possible. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography, using reverse-phase column was used. The isocratic run was done at a constant flow rate of 0.8 ml/min, the mobile phase was methanol/water and a fluorescence detector was used, setting at 242 nm and 388 nm. At the developed conditions, the extraction recovery was exceeded 87.3%, achieving detection limit of 0.2 µg/l. The factors were evaluated statically and the procedure was validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as experiments. It was concluded that, this optimized method could simplify sample preparation for trace residue analysis of PAHs metabolites.

  4. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration as an exposure biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mexican women from different hot spot scenarios and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Orta-García, Sandra T; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge A; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    Recently, in developing countries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been considered contaminants of grave concern for women and children. Therefore, the aim of this study was twofold: (1) evaluate exposure assessment to PAHs using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as an exposure biomarker and (2) perform a health risk assessment in women from four different high risk scenarios in Mexico. From 2012 to 2013, in a cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 184 healthy women from the following scenarios: (A) indoor biomass combustion site (n = 50); (B) brick manufacturing site using different materials such as fuel sources (n = 70); (C) industrial site (n = 44); and (D) high vehicular traffic site (n = 20). 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Afterward, a probabilistic health risk assessment was performed (Monte Carlo analysis). Mean urinary 1-OHP levels found were 0.92 ± 0.92; 0.91 ± 0.83; 0.22 ± 0.19; and 0.14 ± 0.17 μg/L for scenario A, B, C, and D, respectively. Then, based on the measured urinary 1-OHP levels, the estimated median daily intake doses of pyrene were calculated: 659, 623, 162, and 77.4 ng/kg/day for the women participating in the study living in areas A, B, C, and D, respectively, and finally, the hazard quotient (HQ) was calculated (22 ± 21, 21 ± 20, 5.5 ± 5.5, and 2.6 ± 3.5; for areas A, B, C, and D, respectively), high health risk was noted for the women living in the studied communities. The data shown in this study (exposure levels to PAHs and health risk assessment) made it reasonable to conclude that the exposure levels found have a significant potential for generating adverse effects on human health in the studied scenarios. PMID:26662953

  5. Relation of DNA methylation of 5'-CpG island of ACSL3 to transplacental exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederica Perera

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal cohort of approximately 700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (>25% is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5'-CpG island(s (5'-CGI. Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3 exhibited the highest concordance between the extent of methylation of its 5'-CGI in UCWBCs and the level of gene expression in matched fetal placental tissues in the initial 20 cohort children. ACSL3 was therefore chosen for further investigation in a larger sample of 56 cohort children. Methylation of the ACSL3 5'-CGI was found to be significantly associated with maternal airborne PAH exposure exceeding 2.41 ng/m(3 (OR = 13.8; p<0.001; sensitivity = 75%; specificity = 82% and with a parental report of asthma symptoms in children prior to age 5 (OR = 3.9; p<0.05. Thus, if validated, methylated ACSL3 5'CGI in UCWBC DNA may be a surrogate endpoint for transplacental PAH exposure and/or a potential biomarker for environmentally-related asthma. This exploratory report provides a new blueprint for the discovery of epigenetic biomarkers relevant to other exposure assessments and/or investigations of exposure-disease relationships in birth cohorts. The results support the emerging theory of

  6. Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in police in Florence, Italy, through personal air sampling and biological monitoring of the urinary metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, A; Gottardi, M; Boddi, V; Bavazzano, P; Lanciotti, E

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in workers exposed to exhaust gas from cars, and they assessed the efficiency of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as an indicator of exposure to pyrene and PAHs. The authors selected 2 groups of police who worked in 2 areas in the city of Florence: 1 group was highly exposed to high-density traffic emissions during the winter and summer of 1997, and the 2nd group experienced low exposure to traffic emissions during the same period. Ambient monitoring was achieved with personal sampling of airborne PAHs during each workshift. Eight hydrocarbons were used as indicators of pollution caused by PAHs (e.g., pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene). Biological monitoring was performed through dosing of 1-hydroxypyrene (pyrene metabolite) in urine samples taken at the end of each workshift. The ambient monitoring revealed that PAH concentrations were influenced by both season of sampling and varying intensities of traffic in the different areas. The median concentration of benzo[a]pyrene in winter was twice as high in the high-density traffic area as in the low-density traffic area (i.e., 4.1 ng/m3 versus 1.8 ng/m3). In summer, the high-density traffic area experienced benzo[a]pyrene concentrations that were 6 times higher than in the low-density traffic area (i.e., 1.2 ng/m3 versus 0.2 ng/m3). Benzo[a]pyrene was also correlated highly (r(s) = .92, p traffic area and 120.5 ng/gm creatinine in the low-density traffic area). An analysis of the general data revealed that 1-hydroxypyrene was, to some degree, related to pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and airborne total PAHs, whereas analysis of separate data for the area and the season revealed an emergence of a closer correlation during the winter in the high-traffic area. Therefore, 1 -hydroxypyrene can be considered a good biological indicator of exposure to airborne PAHs in the urban environment, especially in winter

  7. Assessment of association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with bronchial asthma and oxidative stress in children: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Ram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH originate from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and ambient air pollution by these is increasing. There is also an increase in the global prevalence of asthma, for which environmental pollution has been recognized as one of the important factors. Exposure to pollutants and other allergens induces chronic airway inflammation by generation of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess association, if any, between exposure to PAH and asthma as well as oxidative stress in children. Method: In this hospital-based case control study, cases of bronchial asthma aged 1-14 years and healthy matched controls were included. Oxidative stress was measured by assessing the levels of enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Results : Forty-two cases and 20 controls were enrolled. Mean blood level of phenanthrene, a PAH, was 63.11 ppb ± 115.62 and 4.20 ppb ± 10.68 ppb in cases and controls, respectively ( P = 0.02. Mean blood levels of GSH was significantly lower in cases and controls (27.39 mg/ml ± 11.09 versus 47.39 g/ml ± 13.83; P -value = 0.001. Likewise, mean blood level of MDA in nanomole/ml was significantly higher in asthma as compared with controls (12.85 ± 5.40 versus 8.19 ± 5.16; P -value = 0.002, suggestive of increased oxidative stress. Conclusions: Because elevated blood level of phenanthrene is associated with bronchial asthma as well as with oxidative stress, measures to reduce exposure to PAH may possibly lead to reduced incidence and severity of bronchial asthma.

  8. Co-exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene and their dose-effects on oxidative stress damage in kindergarten-aged children in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junnan; Lu, Shaoyou; Liu, Guihua; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Lv, Yanshan; She, Jianwen; Fan, Ruifang

    2015-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) are ubiquitous toxic pollutants in the environment. Children are sensitive and susceptible to exposure to these contaminants. To investigate the potential oxidative DNA damage from the co-exposure of PAHs and BT in children, 87 children (aged 3-6) from a kindergarten in Guangzhou, China, were recruited. Ten urinary PAHs and four BT metabolites, as well as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage)in urine, were determined using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer. The results demonstrated that the levels of PAHs and BT in children from Guangzhou were 2-30 times higher than those in children from the other countries based on a comparison with recent data from the literature. In particular, the difference is more substantial for pyrene and volatile BT. Co-exposure to PAHs and BT could lead to additive oxidative DNA damage. Significant dose-effects were observed between the sum concentration of urinary monohydroxylated metabolites of PAHs (∑OH-PAHs), the sum concentration of the metabolites of BT (∑BT) and 8-OHdG levels. Every one percent increase in urinary PAHs and BT generated 0.33% and 0.02% increases in urinary 8-OHdG, respectively. We also determined that the urinary levels of PAHs and BT were negatively associated with the age of the children. Moreover, significant differences in the levels of ∑OH-PAHs and ∑BT were determined between 3- and 6-year-old children (pinhalation frequencies. In conclusion, exposure to PAHs or BT could lead to oxidative DNA damage, and 8-OHdG is a good biomarker for indicating the presence of DNA damage. There exists a significant dose-effect relationship between PAH exposure, BT exposure and the concentration of 8-OHdG in urine. Toddlers (3-4 years old) face a higher burden of PAH and BT exposure compared with older children.

  9. Simultaneous determination of urinary hydroxylated metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene as multiple biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya [Chiang Mai University, Environmental Science Program, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Toriba, Akira; Kameda, Takayuki; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi [Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    A method is presented for determining monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs) having 2-, 3- and 4-rings in human urine by using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. A urine sample containing conjugates of OHPAHs was hydrolysed in the presence of {beta}-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase and the solution was cleaned up with a solid-phase extraction (C{sub 18} and silica). Eight OHPAHs, namely 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalenes, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, 3-hydroxyfluoranthene and 1-hydroxypyrene, were separated and 1- and 9-hydroxyphenanthrenes co-eluted on an alkylamide-type reversed-phase column with fluorimetric detection. The urinary concentrations of OHPAHs were quantified by using deuterated 1-hydoxypyrene as an internal standard. The method showed good repeatability for inter- and intra-day precisions as well as good linearity of calibration curves (r {sup 2} ranged from 0.996 to 0.999). The limits of detection (S/N=3) were in the range from 2.3 fmol to 2.2 pmol per injection. This method was successfully applied to urine samples from non-smoking taxi drivers, traffic policemen and rural villagers of Chiang Mai, Thailand. The results showed higher urinary concentrations of OHPAHs in rural villagers, consistent with higher respiratory exposure to PAHs. (orig.)

  10. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  11. Exposure to genotoxins present in ambient air in Bangkok, Thailand - particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Tangjarukij, Chanthana;

    2002-01-01

    officers were divided into a high exposure group (traffic police) and low exposure (office duty). Particulate matter was collected using personal pumps (2 l/min) and the eight carcinogenic PAHs were analysed by standard procedures. The traffic police was exposed to a 20-fold higher level of total PAHs than.......001) in the office group. Lower biomarker levels were observed during the period when the traffic police officers were wearing a simple facemask, indicating that these masks protect against particle-associated PAHs. No statistically significant correlations were observed between biomarker levels and the level...... of individual PAHs or total PAH. Our data show, that people in Bangkok, who spend most of the day outside air-conditioned offices, are exposed to high levels of genotoxic PAHs. However, for people who spend their working day in offices, the exposure is similar to people living in other metropolitan areas....

  12. Evaluation of the health risk resulting from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-tar shampoo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennes WC; Veen MP van; Kroese ED; Speijers GJA; ACT; LEO; LBO

    1996-01-01

    Because several PAHs, among which benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are considered to be carcinogenic substances, the safety of these products has been questioned. An estimate of external dermal exposure to BaP has been generated by application of a mathematical model. This estimate was the starting point in an

  13. Effect of Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure on Birth Outcomes: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of PAH exposure on various anthropometric measures of birth outcomes. The study population consisted of 210 nonsmoking pregnant women. Urine samples collected between 20th and 24th week of pregnancy were used for analysis of the following PAH metabolites: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-OH-PHE, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR, 1,6 + 1,8-dihydroxypyrene (DI-OH-PYR, phenanthrene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol (PHE-1,2-diol, and phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol (PHE-9,10-diol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS was assessed by cotinine level in saliva using a stable isotope dilution LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The mean PAH metabolite concentrations were in the range of 0.15 µg/g creatinine for 9-OH-PHE to 5.9 µg/g creatinine for PHE-9,10-diol. It was shown that none of the individual PAH exposure markers demonstrate a statistically significant influence on birth outcomes. Interestingly a statistically significant association was found between the sum of OH-PHE along with cotinine level and the cephalization index after adjusting for potential confounders (P=0.04. This study provides evidence that combined exposure of pregnant women to common environmental pollutants such as PAH and ETS might adversely affect fetal development. Thus, reduction of human exposure to these mixtures of hazardous compounds would in particular result in substantial health benefits for newborns.

  14. Evaluation of the health risk resulting from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennes, W.C.; Van Veen, M.P.; Kroese, E.D.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Shampoos may contain as much as 56 mg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)/kg product. Based on a human dermal uptake study, it is plausible that BaP and other PAHs become systemically available after a single use of coal-tar shampoos. Because several PAHs, among which BaP are considered to be carcinogenic substances, the safety of these products has been questioned. Dermal exposure results in skin tumours, but after inhalatory or oral exposure besides to local tumour formation, systemic tumours are found as well. In this report, an estimate of external dermal exposure to BaP has been generated by application of a mathematical model. This estimate was the starting point in an assessment of the additional risk on local skin tumours after contact with a coal-tar shampoo containing 56 mg BaP/kg product. In this assessment it was assumed that this shampoo was used three times weekly. Four different risk estimates were derived, namely for contact times of 1 or 5 minutes per event and for life-time or 40 years of use. 4 tabs., 3 appendices, 15 refs.

  15. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D.(California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA)

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by ...

  16. Effects of crude oil exposure on bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of adult and larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L(-1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L(-1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50 for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1 A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2 larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3 some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators.

  17. Calculated molecular properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A.; Simonsick, W.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains a compilation of calculated molecular properties for 272 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and monomethylated PAH, listed in sequence according to their increasing molecular weight. The Chemical Abstracts Registry number is also included for easy reference. The molecular properties were calculated using the semiempirical MDCO method with geometric optimization. These parameters include the heats of formation, the frontier orbital energies, the electronic and nuclear energies, the dipole moment, and the net atomic charges on each atom. The shape parameter and the length/breadth ratio from the optimized geometries is also computed.

  18. Magnetic graphene oxide as adsorbent for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linli; Xu, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Detection of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites in urine is an advisable and valid method to assess human environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, novel Fe3O4/graphene oxide composites were prepared and their application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine was investigated by coupling with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the hybrid material, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide fast separation to simplify the analytical process and graphene oxide provides a large functional surface for the adsorption. The prepared magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The experimental conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 98.3-125.2%, the relative standard deviations ranged between 6.8 and 15.5%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.01-0.15 ng/mL. The simple, quick, and affordable method was successfully used in the analysis of human urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two different cities. The results indicated that the monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level in human urine can provide useful information for environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  19. Structural Evolution of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Mark; Candian, Alessandra; Mori, Tamami; Usui, Fumihiko; Onaka, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important reservoir for molecular carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM), and investigations into their chemistry and behaviour may be important to the understanding of how carbon is processed from simple forms into complex prebiotic molecules such as those detected in chondritic meteorites. In this study, infrared astronomical data from AKARI and other observatories are used together with laboratory and theoretical data to study variations in the structure of emitting PAHs in interstellar environments using spectroscopic decomposition techniques and bands arising from carbon-hydrogen bond vibrations at wavelengths from 3 - 14 microns. Results and inferences are discussed in terms of the processing of large carbonaceous molecules in astrophysical environments.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  1. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA damage and cigarette smoke exposures in paired maternal and newborn blood samples as a measure of differential susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, R.M.; Jedrychowski, W.; Hemminki, K.; Santella, R.M.; Tsai WeiYann; Yang Ke; Perera, F.P. [Columbia University, New York, NY (US). Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health

    2001-07-01

    In this study, we report on three biomarkers measured in paired blood samples collected at birth from 160 mother/newborn pairs from Poland: 70 pairs from Krakow (a city with high air pollution including PAHs) and 90 pairs from Limanowa (an area with lower ambient pollution but greater indoor coal use). Field studies were conducted during January-March 1992. Biomarkers were: WBC aromatic-DNA adducts by {sup 32}P-postlabeling and PAH-DNA adducts by ELISA and plasma cotinine. Correlations were assessed by Spearman's rank test, and differences in biomarker levels were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. A significant correlation between paired newborn/maternal samples was seen for aromatic-DNA adduct levels and plasma cotinine, but not PAH-DNA adduct levels. Among the total cohort, levels of the three biomarkers were higher in newborn samples compared with paired maternal samples. The difference was significant for aromatic-DNA adduct levels (16.6 plus or minus 12.5 versus 14.21 plus or minus 15.4/10{sup 8} nucleotides; P=0.002) and plasma cotinine, but not for PAH-DNA adduct levels. When analyses were restricted to the 80 mother/newborn pairs from whom the blood sample was drawn concurrently, levels of all of the three biomarkers were significantly higher in the newborn compared with paired maternal blood samples (P {lt} 0.05). These results suggest that the fetus has reduced detoxification capabilities and increased susceptibility to DNA damage, especially in light of experimental evidence that transplacental exposures to PAHs are 10-fold lower than paired maternal exposures. Also, these results have implications for risk assessment, which currently does not adequately account for sensitive subsets of the population. 64 refs.

  2. High atmosphere-ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Morales, Laura; Méjanelle, Laurence; Abad, Esteban; Piña, Benjamin; Duarte, Carlos M.; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 102-103 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr-1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake.

  3. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    González-Gaya, Belén

    2016-05-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr -1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  4. Environmental Remediation: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2012-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistent semi-volatile organic compounds. They are contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods due to their high degree of conjugation, and aromaticity. PAHs are present in industrial effluents as products of incomplete combustion processes of organic compounds. Petroleum, coal and shale oil contain extremely complex mixtures of these PAHs, and their transport and refining process can also result in the release of PAHs. It is therefore prudent that such effluents are treated before discharge into the environment. In this project, different approaches to the treatment of PAHs have been investigated. Hydrous pyrolysis has been explored as a potential technique for degrading PAHs in water using anthracene as a model compound. The experiments were performed under different conditions of temperature, substrate, redox systems and durations. The conditions include oxidising systems comprising pure water, hydrogen peroxide and Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts to assess a range of reactivities. Products observed in GCMS analysis of the extract from the water phase include anthrone, anthraquinone, xanthone and multiple hydro-anthracene derivatives (Paper I). In addition a modified version of the Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water oxidising system was tested; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts were adopted for the conversion of a mixture of anthracene, fluorene and fluoranthene. The rate of conversion in the mixture was high as compared to that of only anthracene (Paper II). Also the use of LECA (Lightweight expanded clay aggregates) as an adsorbent (Paper III) for PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) removal from water has been.(Author)

  5. Selection of ionic liquids for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from aromatic/aliphatic mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G. Wytze; Podt, Anita (J.G.); Haan, de André B.

    2005-01-01

    The separation of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes) from C4 to C10 aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures is challenging since these hydrocarbons have boiling points in a close range and several combinations form azeotropes. In this work, we investigated the separation of t

  6. Porphyrins Fused with Unactivated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Diev, Vyacheslav V.

    2012-01-06

    A systematic study of the preparation of porphyrins with extended conjugation by meso,β-fusion with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reported. The meso-positions of 5,15-unsubstituted porphyrins were readily functionalized with PAHs. Ring fusion using standard Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl 3, dichloromethane) occurs for perylene-substituted porphyrins to give a porphyrin β,meso annulated with perylene rings (0.7:1 ratio of syn and anti isomers). The naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene derivatives do not react under Scholl conditions but are fused using thermal cyclodehydrogenation at high temperatures, giving mixtures of syn and anti isomers of the meso,β-fused porphyrins. For pyrenyl-substituted porphyrins, a thermal method gives synthetically acceptable yields (>30%). Absorption spectra of the fused porphyrins undergo a progressive bathochromic shift in a series of naphthyl (λ max = 730 nm), coronenyl (λ max = 780 nm), pyrenyl (λ max = 815 nm), and perylenyl (λ max = 900 nm) annulated porphyrins. Despite being conjugated with unsubstituted fused PAHs, the β,meso-fused porphyrins are more soluble and processable than the parent nonfused precursors. Pyrenyl-fused porphyrins exhibit strong fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, with a progressive improvement in luminescent efficiency (up to 13% with λ max = 829 nm) with increasing degree of fusion. Fused pyrenyl-porphyrins have been used as broadband absorption donor materials in photovoltaic cells, leading to devices that show comparatively high photovoltaic efficiencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in household dust near diesel transport routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Yih; Chen, Heng-Chun; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Huang, Li-Ru; Chien, Po-Shan; Wang, Jing-Ya

    2012-02-01

    A river-dredging project has been undertaken in Nantou, Taiwan. A large number of diesel vehicles carrying gravel and sand shuttle back and forth on the main roads. Ten stations along major thoroughfares were selected as the exposure sites for testing, while a small village located about 9 km from a main traffic route was selected as the control site. Levels of household dust loading at the exposure sites (60.3 mg/m(2)) were significantly higher than those at the control site (38.2 mg/m(2)). The loading (μg/m(2)) of t-PAHs (total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the household dust at the exposure sites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than was the case at the control site. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs showed that diesel emissions were the dominant source of PAHs at the exposure sites. The lack of a significant correlation between the concentrations of Fe and t-PAHs suggested that the t-PAHs in household dust might come from diverse sources. However, a significant correlation (P = 0.003) between the concentrations of Mo and t-PAHs implied that the most of the t-PAHs in the household dust might have resulted from diesel emissions. The lifetime cancer risks of BaP(eq) from household dust exposure were markedly higher than those resulting from inhalation exposure.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates emitted by motorcycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined eleven PAHs and four NPAHs in particulates and regulated pollutants (CO, CO2, HC, NOx, PM) exhausted from motorcycles to figure out the characteristics of motorcycle exhausts. Fluoranthene and pyrene accounted for more than 50% of the total detected PAHs. Among four detected NPAHs, 6-nitrochrysene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were the predominant NPAHs and were highly correlated relationship with their parent PAHs (R = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). The PM and HC emissions tended to be close to the PAH emissions. NOx and NPAHs were negatively correlated. Despite their small engine size, motorcycles emitted much more PM and PAHs, showed stronger PAH-related carcinogenicity and indirect-acting mutagenicity, but weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenic potency than automobiles. This is the first study to analyze both PAHs and NPAHs emitted by motorcycles, which could provide useful information to design the emission regulations and standards for motorcycles such as PM. -- Highlights: ► We characterized PAHs and NPAHs distribution in motorcycle exhausts. ► NPAHs concentrations were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of PAHs. ► We found larger amounts of PM and PAHs in exhaust of motorcycles than of automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed stronger PAH-related toxicity than automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenicity than automobiles. -- Control polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in particulates emitted by motorcycles due to their toxic potency

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Liu, Hsu-Chung; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan

    Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 2-7 ring) and regulated air pollutants (CO, HC, NO x, PM) from 2-stroke carburetor (2-Stk/Cb), 4-stroke carburetor (4-Stk/Cb) and 4-stroke fuel injection (4-Stk/FI) motorcycles were investigated by testing these vehicles on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samplings were carried out on diluted exhausts in a dilution tunnel connected to a constant volume sampling system. Measurements were performed on a standard driving cycle. The results reveal that low molecular weight PAHs (especially naphthalene) dominated in the exhaust gas. The averages of soluble organic fractions were 86.4%, 46.3% and 48.9% for the 2-Stk/Cb, 4-Stk/Cb and 4-Stk/FI motorcycles, respectively. PAH emissions are greater from cold-start driving than those from hot-start driving cycle for all these three kinds of motorcycles. Total PAH emission factors were 8320, 5990 and 3390 μg km -1 for the in-used 2-Stk/Cb, 4-Stk/Cb and 4-Stk/FI motorcycles, respectively. PAH emission factors were the largest for the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycles. Besides, the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycle had the largest total BaP equivalent emission factor of 10.8 μg km -1, indicating that the emission exhaust from the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycle was most carcinogenic. HC, PM and PAH emissions were the lowest for the 4-Stk/FI motorcycles. The correlation coefficient between CO and total PAH emissions for all the test motorcycles was 0.51, indicating that CO and PAH emissions are not highly correlated.

  10. Partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on organobentonites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of organobentonites synthesized by exchanging organiccation such as dodecyltri-methylammonium (DTMA),benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (BDTDA), cetyltrimethyl-ammonium (CTMA), octodeyltrimethylammonium (OTMA) on bentonite. The optimal condition, properties and mechanisms for the organobentonites to sorb phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene in water were investigated in detail. The partition behavior was determined for four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and acenaphthene, from water to a series of organobentonites. The interlayer spacings and organic carbon contents of organobentonites, removal rate and sorption capacities for organobentonites to treat phenanthrene,anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene were correlated to the length of alkyl chains and the amounts of cation surfactant exchanged on Foundation item: the bentonite. Phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene sorption to organobentonites were characterized by linear isotherms, indicating solute partition between water and the organic phase composed of the large alkyl functional groups of quaternary ammonium cations. PAHs distribution coefficients (Kd)between organobentonites and water were proportional to the organic carbon contents of organobentonites. However, the partition coefficients (Koc) were nearly constants for PAHs in the system of organobentonite-water. The Koc of phenanthrene, anthracene,naphthalene, acenaphthene were 2.621x105, 2.106x105, 2.247x104,5.085x104, respectively. The means Koc values on the organobentonites are about ten to twenty times larger than the values on the soils/sediments, what is significant prerequisite for organobentonite to apply to remediation of pollution soil and groundwater. The sorption mechanism was also evaluated from octanol-water partition coefficients and aqueous solubility of PAHs. The correlations between lgKoc and 1gkow, 1gKoc and 1gS for PAHs in the system of water

  11. Critical analysis of the local aromaticity concept in polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultinck, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    A large number of local aromaticity indices for the benzenoid rings in polyaromatic hydrocarbons is computed. The results are interpreted, supporting Clar's hypothesis, and mutual correlations are investigated. It is shown that there are good correlations between all indices that strictly allow comparing benzenoid character. Poor correlations are found with NICS. A rationale is offered, yielding the conclusion that NICS and ring current maps follow a fundamentally different path to local aromaticity. In this sense the lack of correlation is not due to a real multidimensional character of aromaticity but rather to confusion and vagueness of the aromaticity concept. PMID:17328438

  12. Profiling of Biomarkers for the Exposure of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Lamin-A/C Isoform 3, Poly[ADP-ribose] Polymerase 1, and Mitochondria Copy Number Are Identified as Universal Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the profiling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH- induced genotoxicity in cell lines and zebrafish. Each type of cells displayed different proportionality of apoptosis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number was dramatically elevated after 5-day treatment of fluoranthene and pyrene. The notable deregulated proteins for PAHs exposure were displayed as follows: lamin-A/C isoform 3 and annexin A1 for benzopyrene; lamin-A/C isoform 3 and DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha for pentacene; poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1 for fluoranthene; and talin-1 and DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha for pyrene. Among them, lamin-A/C isoform 3 and PARP-1 were further confirmed using mRNA and protein expression study. Obvious morphological abnormalities including curved backbone and cardiomegaly in zebrafish were observed in the 54 hpf with more than 400 nM of benzopyrene. In conclusion, the change of mitochondrial genome (increased mtDNA copy number was closely associated with PAH exposure in cell lines and mesenchymal stem cells. Lamin-A/C isoform 3, talin-1, and annexin A1 were identified as universal biomarkers for PAHs exposure. Zebrafish, specifically at embryo stage, showed suitable in vivo model for monitoring PAHs exposure to hematopoietic tissue and other organs.

  13. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  14. Risk assessment for the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the ingestion of cockle (Anadara granosa) and exposure to contaminated water and sediments along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seiedeh Aghileh Mirsadeghi; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Chee Kong Yap; Azadeh Shahbazi

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) present in the sediment and water of Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the cockle Anadara granosa was investigated. Samples were extracted and analysed with gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The concentrations of total carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (t-PAHs) were measured between 0.80 ± 0.04 to 162.96 ± 14.74 ng/g wet weight (ww) in sediment, between 21.85 ± 2.18 to 76.2 ± 10.82 ng/L in water samples and between 3.34 ± 0.77 to 46.85 ± 5.50 ng/g ww in the cockle tissue. The risk assessment of probable human carcinogens in the Group B2 PAHs was calculated and assessed in accordance with the standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Case Ⅰ in the toxicity assessment analysed the cancer risk to consumers of Malaysian blood cockle. Case Ⅱ assessed the risk of cancer from exposure to PAHs from multiple pathways. The average cancer risk of case Ⅰ and case Ⅱ were found to be classifiable as unsafe according to the US EPA standard. The cancer risk due to c-PAHs acquired by the ingestion of blood cockle was (8.82 ± 0.54) × 10-6 to (2.67 ± 0.06) × 10-2, higher than the US EPA risk management criterion. The non-cancer risks associated with multiple pathways in Kuala Gula, Kuala Juru and Kuala Perlis were higher than the US EPA safe level, but the non-cancer risk for eating blood cockle was below the level of US EPA concern.

  15. Risk assessment for the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the ingestion of cockle (Anadara granosa) and exposure to contaminated water and sediments along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadeghi, Seiedeh Aghileh; Zakari, Mohamad Pauzi; Yap, Chee Kong; Shahbazi, Azadeh

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) present in the sediment and water of Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the cockle Anadara granosa was investigated. Samples were extracted and analysed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of total carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (t-PAHs) were measured between 0.80 +/- 0.04 to 162.96 +/- 14.74 ng/g wet weight (ww) in sediment, between 21.85 +/- 2.18 to 76.2 +/- 10.82 ng/L in water samples and between 3.34 +/- 0.77 to 46.85 +/- 5.50 ng/g ww in the cockle tissue. The risk assessment of probable human carcinogens in the Group B2 PAHs was calculated and assessed in accordance with the standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Case I in the toxicity assessment analysed the cancer risk to consumers of Malaysian blood cockle. Case II assessed the risk of cancer from exposure to PAHs from multiple pathways. The average cancer risk of case I and case II were found to be classifiable as unsafe according to the US EPA standard. The cancer risk due to c-PAHs acquired by the ingestion of blood cockle was (8.82 +/- 0.54) x 10-6 to (2.67 +/- 0.06) x 10(-2), higher than the US EPA risk management criterion. The non-cancer risks associated with multiple pathways in Kuala Gula, Kuala Juru and Kuala Perlis were higher than the U.S. EPA safe level, but the non-cancer risk for eating blood cockle was below the level of U.S. EPA concern. PMID:21517010

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Meter, Robin J. [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: robinjvanmeter@yahoo.com; Spotila, James R. [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: spotiljr@drexel.edu; Avery, Harold W. [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: Haltort@aol.com

    2006-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. - Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the egg reduces survival of snapping turtle embryos and causes developmental abnormalities.

  17. Comments on Coulomb pairing in aromatic hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, D L

    2013-01-01

    Recently reported anomalies in the double-photonionization spectra of aromatic molecules such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and coronene are attributed to Coulomb-pair resonances of pi electrons.

  18. Measurement of Aromatic-hydrocarbons With the DOAS Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, H; Eilard, A.; Emanuelsson, A.; Galle, B.; Edner, Hans; Ragnarson, P; Kloo, H

    1995-01-01

    Long-path DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been shown to be applicable for low-concentration measurements of light aromatic hydrocarbons. However, because of spectral interferences among different aromatics as well as with oxygen, ozone, and sulfur dioxide, the application of the DOAS technique for this group of components is not without problems. This project includes a study of the differential absorption characteristics, between 250...

  19. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  20. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinas, Simona; Soceanu, Alina; Popescu, Viorica; Coatu, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This Research Communication reports analysis of 37 compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPS and OPPS) in milk powder (one brand each of commercial infant formulae, follow-on formulae and baby formulae purchased from a local supermarket in Romania). The selected analytes were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the μg/kg level (range 0·001-0·320 µg/kg). The purpose of the study was to determine the selected analytes, to assess the exposure of babies and infants and to produce data for comparison with tolerable limits according to the European Union Regulations. In most of the samples the organochlorine pesticides values were under the limit of detection. Exceptions were heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan sulphate, the last of which was found in all analysed samples at low concentrations. We also found detectable levels of ethoprophos, parathion-methyl, chlorpyrifos, prothiofos, guthion, disulfoton and fenchlorphos in most of the analysed samples. Benzo[a]pyrene, which is used as an indicator for the presence of PAHs, was not detected in selected samples. The low level of exposure to contaminants indicates that there are no health risks for the infants and babies that consume this brand of milk powder formulae. PMID:27210498

  2. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...... novel mechanistic explanations for the toxicity of the known compounds. Another unanswered question of the AhR biochemistry is,” Which factors do control the AhP expression and activity?” Using fibroblast model, the role of a cell cycle in maintaining the AhR level was evaluated. The results...

  3. Bioavailability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a group of priority pollutants which are of increasing environmental concern because of their adverse effects on humans, animals, and plants. Soils and sediments generally serve as a sink for PAHs, which leads to the accumulation of PAHs at contamin

  4. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. PMID:27245129

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples of meat smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Olsen, I L; Poulsen, O M

    1992-01-01

    In a screening programme nine Danish meat smokehouses were randomly selected for measurements on concentration of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 23 stationary air samples were collected during the entire working period of the kiln either above the kiln doors or approx...

  6. THE RATES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM INCENSE BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents the results of experiments performed to determine the amounts of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in incense smoke. Ten brands of incense, 3 of stick, 2 of joss stick, and one each of cone, smudge bundle, rope, powder, and rock, w...

  7. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in ...

  8. Interactions of polyhalogeneted aromatic hydrocarbons with thyroid hormone metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possible interactions of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites with thyroid hormone metabolism. This chapter summarizes firstly the effects of thyroid hormone on the induction of biotransformation enzymes by PHAHs. Secondly, the results on the inhi

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  10. Biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene Juel;

    2008-01-01

    Deposit-feeding polychaetes constitute the dominant macrofauna in marine environments that tend to be depositional centers for organic matter and contaminants. Polychaetes are known to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from both particulate and dissolved phases but less is known...

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  12. Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Characterization of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikilili, P. V.; Chirwa, E. M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was studied. Naphthalene was used as a model compound to represent these compounds. Low initial concentrations of naphthalene in a range of 30-60 mg/L were completely degraded after incubation for 15 hrs by consortia from a landfill soil while consortia from minewater took more that 29 hrs to reach complete degradation.

  13. In situ biodegradation potential of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, D. W.; Barker, J. F.

    1992-04-01

    Three types of experiments were conducted to assess the potential for enhancing the in situ biodegradation of nine aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic, leachate-impacted aquifers at North Bay, Ontario, and at Canada Forces Base Borden. Laboratory micrososms containing authentic aquifer material and groundwater from the North Bay site were amended with nitrate and glucose. No significant losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed compared to unamended controls, over a period of 187 days. A total of eight in situ biodegradation columns were installed in the North Bay and Borden aquifers. Remedial additions included electron acceptors (nitrate and sulphate) and primary substrates (acetate, lactate and yeast extract). Six aromatic hydrocarbons [toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, cumene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene ( 1,2,4-TMB)] were completely degraded in at least one in situ column at the North Bay site. Only toluene was degraded in the Borden aquifer. In all cases, aromatic hydrocarbon attenuation was attributed to biodegradation by methanogenic and fermentative bacteria. No evidence of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation was observed in columns remediated with nitrate or primary substrates. A continuous forced gradient injection experiment with sulphate addition was conducted at the North Bay site over a period of 51 days. The concentration of six aromatic hydrocarbons was monitored over time in the injection wells and at piezometer fences located 2, 5 and 10 m downgradient. All compounds except toluene reached injection concentration between 14 and 26 days after pumping began, and showed some evidence of selective retardation. Toluene broke through at a subdued concentration (˜ 50% of injection levels), and eventually declined to undetectable levels on day 43. This attenuation was attributed to adaptation and biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria. The results from these experiments indicate that considerable anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in

  14. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Contamination of sediment by PAHs and alkylated PAHs was investigated in Osaka Bay. • The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic. • PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe. • PAHs in Kobe may have been derived from the fire associated with the earthquake. - Abstract: Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40–7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7–1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995

  15. Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment. Part III: personal monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, E.; Levsen, K.; Angerer, J.; Schneider, P.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H.-E.

    As part of a larger study, personal sampling of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomeric xylenes (BTEX) was carried out by 55 nonsmoking volunteers for a period of 14 days. Thirty-nine persons lived in a rural area near Hannover (Germany) with hardly any traffic at all, while 16 persons lived in a high-traffic city street in Hannover. The personal exposure level of the persons in the rural area (some commuting to Hannover) was: 2.9, 24.8, 2.4 and 7.7 μg m -3 for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the sum of xylenes, respectively, while the corresponding data for the high traffic city streets were 4.0, 22.2, 2.8 and 9.7 μg m -3 (geometric means). Four microenvironments have been monitored which contribute to the total exposure to BTEX, i.e. the home, the outdoor air, the workplace and the car cabin. The most important microenvironment for non-working persons is the private home. The concentration of most BTEX in the private home is almost equal to the personal exposure level, demonstrating that the indoor pollution in the home makes by far the highest contribution to the total exposure. For working people (mostly office workers), the workplace is the second most important microenvironment contributing to the total BTEX exposure. Taking all working persons into consideration (independent of the location of their private home) the personal exposure level is higher by a factor of 1.2-1.4 than that of the workplace (for toluene this factor is 2.2). As already found by others, very high BTEX concentrations may be found in car cabins, in particular, if the engine is gasoline-driven. In the cabin of 44 cars in the rural/urban area average benzene concentrations (geometric mean) of 12/14 μg m -3 and a maximum value of ˜550 μg m -3 were found. On average, the participating volunteers drove their car for 45 min day -1 (i.e. 3% of the day). Nevertheless, the car cabin constitutes about 10% of the total benzene exposure. Refueling of the

  16. Growth of fungi on volatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta Boldú, F.X.

    2002-01-01

    The present study aimed the better understanding of the catabolism of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by fungi. This knowledge can be used to enhance the biodegradation of BTEX pollutants. Fungi with the capacity of using toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated by enriching environme

  17. Breast cancer and urinary biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and oxidative stress in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; YANG, Gong; Blair, Aaron; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Chow, Wong-Ho; Kang, Daehee

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures and oxidative stress from such and other exposures have been associated with breast cancer in some studies. To further evaluate the role of PAH metabolites and oxidative stress on the development of breast cancer, we conducted a nested case-control study in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS).

  18. Assessing effects of seasonal variation on occupational exposure of newsagent kiosks to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in the urban atmosphere of Tehran Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Rezaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: PAHs are main components of urban air pollution and are mutagenic for human being. Seasonal variations have effects on the amount of exposure to PAHs. The objectives of this research were to determine the amount of newsagent’s exposure to PAHs found in the urban atmosphere of Tehran City during warm and cold periods and comparing exposure levels in two periods. Materials and Methods: The assessment of personal exposure was performed based on NIOSH method 5515 and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Mann- Whitney test was used to determine the effects of seasonal variation on the amount of newsagent’s exposure to PAHs. Results: The mean levels of newsagent’s exposure to benzo[a]pyrene in the south area of Tehran City were 0.148±0.010 and 0.417±0.041 μg/m3 in summer and autumn seasons respectively. The amount was higher than the mean levels of newsagent’s exposure in other geographic areas of city. The levels of newsagent’s exposure to all PAHs (p<0.001 were significantly higher in autumn compared with summer. Conclusion: The levels of exposure to PAHs during autumn were 2 to 3 fold higher than the levels of exposure during summer. Newsagents in the south area of Tehran City were experiencing higher levels of exposures to PAHs.

  19. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Tarnow

    Full Text Available The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor α or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans.

  20. Sexual maturation in relation to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons: Sharpe and Skakkebaek's hypothesis revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Den Hond, Elly; Roels, Harry A.; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Nawrot, Tim; Thijs, Lutgarde; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Winneke, Gerhard; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Staessen, Jan A.

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCAHs) have been described as endocrine disruptors in animals and in accidentally or occupationally exposed humans. In the present study we examined the effect of moderate exposure to PCAHs on sexual maturation. Two hundred adolescents (mean age, 17.4 years) who resided in two polluted suburbs and a rural control area in Flanders (Belgium) participated. We measured the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138, 153, and 180 and ...

  1. Estimation of individual dermal and respiratory uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 12 coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    VanRooij, J G; Bodelier-Bade, M M; Jongeneelen, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal expos...

  2. DNA adducts as a measure of lung cancer risk in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Kriek, E; van Schooten, F.J.; Hillebrand, M J; van Leeuwen, F E; Den Engelse, L; De Looff, A J; Dijkmans, A P

    1993-01-01

    Workers in the coking, foundry, and aluminum industry can be exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are at increased risk for lung cancer, as are cigarette smokers. In recent years several studies on workers in the foundry and coking industries have been reported. In these studies, white blood cell(WBC) DNA was used for analysis of PAH-DNA adducts. Theoretically, DNA adduct formation is a more relevant biological parameter for assessing exposure risk tha...

  3. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the 32P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG)

  4. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee. PMID:23242460

  6. Occurrence of fungi degrading aromatic hydrocarbons in activated sludge biocenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grabińska-Łoniewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A set of 21 strains of yeast-like microorganisms isolated from biocenoses of aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment systems were assayed for their ability to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole C-source. Basing on the achieved results, the highly biochemically active strains for application in enhancing of wastewaters and exhaust gases purification as well as soil bioremediation were selected.

  7. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) occurrence and remediation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Henner, Pascale; Schiavon, Michel; Morel, Jean-Louis; Lichtfouse, Eric

    1997-01-01

    International audience Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic substances occurring at various concentrations in atmosphere, soils, waters and sediments. PAHs, inherited both from natural and anthropogenic processes, are persistent organic pollutants (POP) due to their chemical stability and biodegradation resistance. The increase of road transportation, and of industrial and agricultural activities has led to a notable build up of PAH amounts in ...

  9. Interactions of polyhalogeneted aromatic hydrocarbons with thyroid hormone metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Schuur, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possible interactions of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites with thyroid hormone metabolism. This chapter summarizes firstly the effects of thyroid hormone on the induction of biotransformation enzymes by PHAHs. Secondly, the results on the inhibition of thyroid hormone sulfation by hydroxylated metabolites of PHAH are summarized. Some conclusions and remarks on the overall implications of the results are given at the end of this chapter....

  10. Fog processing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Khadapkar, K.; Ehrenhauser, F. S.; Hutchings, J. W.; Wornat, M. J.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Herckes, P.

    2010-07-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic species of concern for environmental and human health. The present work will present initial finding of a comprehensive study on the fate of PAHs in multiphase fog/cloud systems and across consecutive fog/smog cycles. Field observations were conducted in Fresno, CA in Winter 2010. Simultaneous measurements of gas phase, aerosol and fog PAH allowed to gain insights on the partitioning of PAH in a multiphase fog system. Partitioning results as well as temporal evolution of PAH concentrations across different phases will be discussed. Select known degradation products (oxy-PAH) from the processing of PAHs were also analyzed in the fog systems, although frequently their concentrations were close to or below detection limits, even in the polluted urban study setting. The field observations are complemented by laboratory investigations on the reactivity of PAH in fog systems, both heterogeneously and in the aqueous phase. Heterogeneously a novel reactor design is being tested to simulate fog systems and allow for repeat fog/smog cycles. A separate series of measurements investigated the processing of PAH in the aqueous phase in a solar simulator set-up.

  11. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bladder cancer: evaluation from a gene-environment perspective in a hospital-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Navarro, Patricio; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Camacho, María; Álvarez-León, Eva E; Valencia-Santana, Jorge A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the role of PAHs in bladder cancer, PAHs serum levels were measured in patients and controls from a case-control study. Methods: A total of 140 bladder cancer patients and 206 healthy controls were included in the study. Sixteen PAHs were analyzed from the serum of subjects by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. Phenanthrene (Phe) serum levels were inversely associated with bladder cancer (OR = 0·79, 95%CI = 0·64–0·99, P = 0·030), although this effect disappeared when the allelic distribution of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms of the population was introduced into the model (multinomial logistic regression test, P = 0·933). Smoking (OR = 3·62, 95%CI = 1·93–6·79, P<0·0001) and coffee consumption (OR = 1·73, 95%CI = 1·04–2·86, P = 0·033) were relevant risk factors for bladder cancer. Conclusions: Specific PAH mixtures may play a relevant role in bladder cancer, although such effect seems to be highly modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25291984

  12. Simultaneous analysis of naphthols, phenanthrols, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine as biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure: intraindividual variance in the urinary metabolite excretion profiles caused by intervention with {beta}-naphthoflavone induction in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elovaara, Eivor; Mikkola, Jouni [Laboratory of Toxicokinetics and Metabolism, Department of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 00250, Helsinki (Finland); Vaeaenaenen, Virpi [Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 00250, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-04-01

    Two fluorimetric HPLC methods are described for the quantification of naphthols, phenanthrols and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in urine specimens obtained from male Wistar rats exposed to naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were given intraperitoneally, either alone (1.0 mmol/kg body weight) or as an equimolar mixture (0.33 mmol/kg), using the same dosages for repeated treatments on week 1 and week 2. Between these treatments, PAH-metabolizing activities encoded by aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-controlled genes were induced in the rats with {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF). Chromatographic separation of five phenanthrols (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-isomers) was accomplished using two different RP C-18 columns. Despite selective detection (programmable wavelengths), the quantification limits in the urine ranged widely: 1-OHP (0.18 {mu}g/l)

  13. Novel Approach for Evaluating Secondary Organic Aerosol from Aromatic Hydrocarbons: SOA Yield and Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Qi, Li; Kacarab, Mary; Cocker, David

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons account for 20%-30% of urban atmospheric VOCs and are major contributors to anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, prediction of SOA from aromatic hydrocarbons as a function of structure, NOx concentration, and OH radical levels remains elusive. Innovative SOA yield and chemical composition evaluation approaches are developed here to investigate SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons. SOA yield is redefined in this work by adjusting the molecular weight of all aromatic precursors to the molecular weight of benzene (Yield'= Yieldi×(MWi/MWBenzene); i: aromatic hydrocarbon precursor). Further, SOA elemental ratio is calculated on an aromatic ring basis rather than the classic mole basis. Unified and unique characteristics in SOA formed from aromatic hydrocarbons with different alkyl groups (varying in carbon number and location on aromatic ring) are explored by revisiting fifteen years of UC Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber data on 129 experiments from 17 aromatic precursors at urban region relevant low NOx conditions (HC:NO 11.1-171 ppbC:ppb). Traditionally, SOA mass yield of benzene is much greater than that of other aromatic species. However, when adjusting for molecular weight, a similar yield is found across the 17 different aromatic precursors. More importantly, four oxygens per aromatic ring are observed in the resulting SOA regardless of the alkyl substitutes attached to the ring, which majorly affect H/C ratio in SOA. Therefore, resulting SOA bulk composition from aromatic hydrocarbons can be predicted as C6+nH6+2nO4 (n: alkyl substitute carbon number). Further, the dominating role of the aromatic ring carbons is confirmed by studying the chemical composition of SOA formed from the photooxidation of an aromatic hydrocarbon with a 13C isotopically labeled alkyl carbon. Overall, this study unveils the similarity in SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons enhancing the understanding of SOA formation from

  14. The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in evolved circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the circumstellar outflows of evolved stars is reviewed, with an emphasis on carbon stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. Evidence for PAHs present in their winds is provided by meteoritic studies and recent observations of the Unidentified Infrared bands. We detail the chemical processes leading to the closure of the first aromatic ring as well as the growth mechanisms leading to amorphous carbon grains. Existing studies on PAH formation in evolved stellar envelopes are reviewed and new results for the modelling of the inner wind of the archetype carbon star IRC+10216 are presented. Benzene, C6H6, forms close to the star, as well as water, H2O, as a result of non-equilibrium chemistry induced by the periodic passage of shocks. The growth process of aromatic rings may thus resemble that active in sooting flames due to the presence of radicals like hydroxyl, OH. Finally, we discuss possible formation processes for PAHs and aromatic compounds in the hydrogen-...

  15. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  16. Polycylcic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) in dense cloud chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wakelam, Valentine; Herbst, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Accepted to ApJ Virtually all detailed gas-phase models of the chemistry of dense interstellar clouds exclude polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). This omission is unfortunate because from the few studies that have been done on the subject, it is known that the inclusion of PAH's can affect the gas-phase chemistry strongly. We have added PAH's to our network to determine the role they play in the chemistry of cold dense cores. In the models presented here, we include radiative attachm...

  17. Failure of hydrogenation in protecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Gatchell, Michael; de Ruette, Nathalie; Chen, Tao; Giacomozzi, Linda; Nascimento, Rodrigo F; Wolf, Michael; Anderson, Emma K; Delaunay, Rudy; Viziano, Violaine; Rousseau, Patrick; Adoui, Lamri; Huber, Bernd A; Schmidt, Henning T; Zettergren, Henning; Cederquist, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    A recent study of soft X-ray absorption in native and hydrogenated coronene cations, C$_{24}$H$_{12+m}^+$ $m=0-7$, led to the conclusion that additional hydrogen atoms protect (interstellar) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules from fragmentation [Reitsma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053002 (2014)]. The present experiment with collisions between fast (30-200 eV) He atoms and pyrene (C$_{16}$H$_{10+m}^+$, $m=0$, 6, and 16) and simulations without reference to the excitation method suggests the opposite. We find that the absolute carbon-backbone fragmentation cross section does not decrease but increases with the degree of hydrogenation for pyrene molecules.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S; Li, K; Xia, X J; Xu, X B

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 microg g(-1). Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites. PMID:18773130

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, S.; Li, K.; Xia, X.J.; Xu, X.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-02-15

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 {mu} g g{sup -1}. Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the Nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Primitive pigment systems in the prebiotic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical evolution of meteoritic organics in the primitive earth is examined experimentally with attention given to the photochemical effects of hydrocarbon/water mixtures. Also addressed are the generation of amphiphilic products by photochemical reactions and the transduction of light energy into potentially useful forms. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb light and exist in carbonaceous chondrites; PAHs are therefore examined as primitive pigments by means of salt solutions with pyrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene derivatives with hexadecane. The hexadecane undergoes photochemical oxidation and yields long-chain amphiphiles with oxygen supplied by water, and acid pH shifts also occur. PAHs are also tested in lipid bilayer membranes to examine light-energy transduction. Protons are found to accumulate within the membrane-bounded volume to form proton gradients, and this reaction is theorized to be a good model of primitive photochemical reactions that related to the transduction of light energy into useable forms.

  1. Environmental Behavior, Sources, and Effects of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sources and behaviors of chlorinated 2- to 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs. ClPAHs are ubiquitous contaminants found in urban air, vehicle exhaust gas, snow, tap water, and sediments. The concentrations of ClPAHs in each of these environments are generally higher than those of dioxins but markedly lower than the concentrations of the parent compounds, PAHs. Environmental data and emission sources analysis for ClPAHs reveal that the dominant process of generation is by reaction of PAHs with chlorine in pyrosynthesis. This secondary reaction process also occurs in aquatic environments. Certain ClPAHs show greater toxicity, such as mutagenicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, than their corresponding parent PAHs. Investigation of the sources and environmental behavior of ClPAHs is of great importance in the assessment of human health risks.

  2. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke and other parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, J.; Stoikidou, M.;

    2001-01-01

    The levels of bulky DNA adducts were measured by (32)P-post-labelling in lymphocytes of 194 non-smoking students living in the city of Athens and the region of Halkida, Greece, once in the winter and again in the following summer. Personal exposures to particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic...... tobacco smoke (ETS), namely (i) declared times of exposure to ETS during the 24 h prior to blood donation, (ii) plasma cotinine levels and (iii) chrysene/benzo[g,h,i]perylene ratios in the profile of personal PAH exposure. Furthermore, among the Halkida campus area subjects (but not the remaining subjects...

  3. Thermal neutron cross-section libraries for aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantargi, F.; Granada, J. R.

    2010-08-01

    Solid phases of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, mesitylene and a 3:2 mixture by volume of mesitylene and toluene, were studied as potential moderator materials for a cold neutron source. Existing information on the (lattice) translational and rotational modes of the different molecular species was used to produce generalized frequency spectra; the latter included the internal vibrational modes which in turn involved the analysis of the weights of the different modes. Cross-section libraries were generated in ENDF and ACE formats for hydrogen bounded in those materials at several temperatures, and were used in Monte Carlo calculations to analyze their neutron production compared with standard cryogenic materials like liquid hydrogen and solid methane, the best moderators in terms of cold neutron production. In particular, cross-section libraries were generated at 20 K, which is a typical operating temperature for the majority of the existing cold neutron sources. It was found that those aromatic hydrocarbons produce neutron spectra which are slightly warmer than that of solid methane while presenting a high resistance to radiation, conforming in this way a new and advantageous alternative to traditional moderator materials.

  4. Humoral immunosuppression in men exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related carcinogens in polluted environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Szczeklik, A; Szczeklik, J; Galuszka, Z; Musial, J; Kolarzyk, E; Targosz, D

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated humoral immunity by measuring IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE concentrations in 274 male workers in an iron foundry in Cracow, Poland. There were two groups: 199 coke oven workers and 76 cold-rolling mill workers. The groups were similar with respect to age, length of work (average 15 years), and smoking habits. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), assessed by personal and area monitoring, ranged from 0.2 to 50 micrograms/m3 benzo[a]pyrene in coke plant workers and was of ...

  5. Partially oxidized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show an increased bioavailability and biodegradability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, R.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Doddema, H.J.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have a low water solubility and tend to adsorb on soil particles, which both result in slow bioremediation processes. Many microorganisms, known for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, only partially oxidize these compounds. White rot fungi, fo

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Are They a Problem in Processed Oil Shales?

    OpenAIRE

    Maase, David L.; Adams, V. Dean

    1983-01-01

    Organic residues from processed oil shales were characterisized with specific attention to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Oil shale development in the White River Basin (Utah and Colorado) was projected and hydrological and geological parameters pertinent to estimations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) flux were focused. Oil shale samples from the Union B, Paraho, and Tosco II processes were extr...

  7. Combined effect of urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and impaired lung function on diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Sun, Huizhen; Xiao, Lili; Zhou, Yun; Yin, Wenjun; Xu, Tian; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Weihong; Yuan, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Associations of type 2 diabetes with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and reduced lung function have been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of reduced lung function and exposure to background PAHs on diabetes. A total of 2730 individuals were drawn from the Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) Cohort Study (n=3053). Participants completed physical examination, measurement of lung function and urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Risk factors for type 2 diabetes were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, and the presence of additive interaction between levels of urinary OH-PAHs and lower lung function was evaluated by calculation of the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). Urinary OH-PAHs levels was positively associated with type 2 diabetes among individuals with impaired lung function (pFEV1, odd ratio (OR): 0.664, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.491-0.900) and forced vital capacity (FVC, OR: 0.693, 95% CI: 0.537-0.893) were negatively associated with diabetes among individuals. Additive interaction of higher urinary levels of OH-PAHs and lower FVC (RERI: 0.679, 95% CI: 0.120-1.238); AP: 0.427, 95% CI: 0.072-0.782) was associated with diabetes. Exposure to background PAHs was related to diabetes among individuals with lower lung function. Urinary levels of OH-PAHs and reduced lung function had an additive effect on diabetes. PMID:27136672

  8. Biodegradation Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Petroleum Oil Contaminating The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban atmospheres (Chen et al., 2013). PAHs enter the environment via incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and accidental leakage of petroleum products, and as components of products such as creosote (Muckian et al., 2009). Due to PAHs carcinogenic activity, they have been included in the European Union (EU) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutant lists. Human exposure to PAHs occurs in three ways, inhalation, dermal contact and consumption of contaminated foods, which account for 88-98% of such contamination; in other words, diet is the major source of human exposure to these contaminants (Rey-Salgueiro et al., 2008). Both the World Health Organization and the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) have considered benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker of the carcinogenic potency of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) mixture (Delgado-Saborit et al., 2011). Polycyclic aromatic and heavier aliphatic hydrocarbons, which have a stable recalcitrant molecular structure, exhibit high hydrophobicity and low aqueous solubility, are not readily removed from soil through leaching and volatilization (Brassington et al., 2007). The hydrophobicity of PAHs limits desorption to the aqueous phase (Donlon et al., 2002). Six main ways of dissipation, i.e. disappearance, are recognized in the environment: volatilization, photooxidation, Aim of the Work chemical oxidation, sorption, leaching and biodegradation. Microbial degradation is considered to be the main process involved in the dissipation of PAH (Yuan et al., 2002). Thus, more and more research interests are turning to the biodegradation of PAHs. Some microorganisms can utilize PAHs as a source of carbon and energy so that PAHs can be degraded to carbon dioxide and water, or transformed to other nontoxic or low-toxic substances (Perelo, 2010). Compared with other physical and chemical methods such as combustion

  9. Role of methyl group number on SOA formation from monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons photooxidation under low-NOx conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Tang, P.; Nakao, S.; Chen, C.-L.; Cocker III, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Substitution of methyl groups onto the aromatic ring determines the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon precursor (SOA yield and chemical composition). This study links the number of methyl groups on the aromatic ring to SOA formation from monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons photooxidation under low-NOx conditions (HC/NO  >  10 ppbC : ppb). Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with increasing numbers of methyl groups are systemat...

  10. Formation History of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Seok, Ji Yeon; Asano, Ryosuke S

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are some of the major dust components in the interstellar medium (ISM). We present our evolution models for the abundance of PAHs in the ISM on a galaxy-evolution timescale. We consider shattering of carbonaceous dust grains in interstellar turbulence as the formation mechanism of PAHs while the PAH abundance can be reduced by coagulation onto dust grains, destruction by supernova shocks, and incorporation into stars. We implement these processes in a one-zone chemical evolution model to obtain the evolution of the PAH abundance in a galaxy. We find that PAH formation becomes accelerated above certain metallicity where shattering becomes efficient. For PAH destruction, while supernova shock is the primary mechanism in the metal-poor environment, coagulation is dominant in the metal-rich environment. We compare the evolution of the PAH abundances in our models with observed abundances in galaxies with a wide metallicity range. Our models reproduce both the paucity of PAH...

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxia; Duan, Xiaoyong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing pollution pressures were placed in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems in China because of the elevated pollutants discharged from various sources. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment were closely linked to human activities, which have been intensively studied for their geochemical interest as markers. In this review, the status of PAH contamination in China Sea was assessed by comprehensive reviews of the concentrations, sources, and fates of PAHs in sediments of China Sea. PAH concentrations in China Sea sediments decreased from north to south due to the higher emissions in North China. Atmosphere was probably the main carrier of PAHs in the north due to the higher contents of atmospheric fine particles and higher wind speeds. However, riverine inputs were probably the most important sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of South China due to higher rainfall.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. PMID:26776034

  14. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in cereal breakfast products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Chrachol, Lucyna

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants formed by incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of several organic materials. PAHs occur as complex mixtures, never as individual components. They are chemically stable and highly lipophilic in nature and occur as contaminants in different food categories: vegetables, fruit, cereals, oils and fats, especially barbecued and smoked food. The present study was carried out to determine 16 PAHs in cereal products: musli, corn, oats and barley flakes, and crunchy. The analytical procedure was based on alkaline digestion, extraction with n-hexane and cleaned up in a florisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The levels of PAHs in most samples were generally low and excepting one sample of bred varied between 4.2 to 169 microg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene, was detected in all samples, at level 0.02 microg/kg to 16 microg/kg. PMID:19143427

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cereal products on the Turkish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmaz, Sibel

    2016-09-01

    The contamination level of four EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some cereal-derived products was surveyed in this study. Thirty-eight samples, 20 bread and 18 breakfast cereals, were purchased from retail shops and local markets of East Black sea region in Turkey. The samples were analysed for four EU marker PAHs, using ultrasonic extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean up and stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. The method was validated with the parameters linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and uncertainty. Total content of the four PAHs in bread varied from 0.19 to 0.46 µg kg(-1) and in breakfast cereals from 0.10 to 0.87 µg kg(-1). PMID:26986946

  16. A Shape-Persistent Cryptand for Capturing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Feng; Hu, Wen-Jing; Liu, Yahu A; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Li, Jiu-Sheng; Jiang, Biao; Wen, Ke

    2016-07-01

    A shape-persistent cryptand 1, containing two face-to-face oriented electron-deficient 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine units separated by approximately 7 Å, and bridged by two rigid 1,8-naphthyridine linkers and a pentaethylene oxide loop, is created for capturing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cryptand 1 formed 1:1 complexes with PAH guest molecules, such as phenanthrene (6), anthracene (7), pyrene (8), triphenylene (9), and tetraphene (10). The single-crystal structure of complex 6⊂1 revealed that 6 was included in the cavity of 1 via face-to-face π···π stacking interactions. Soaking crystalline 1 in a toluene solution of anthracene resulted in anthracene from the toluene solution being picked up by the crystalline solid of 1. PMID:27258531

  17. Removal of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternatives for the removal of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HWM-PAH from soil were tested by adding fertilizer or glycerol, as well as the combination of both. Experiments were carried out for 60 days in reactors containing a HWM-PAH-contaminated soil (8030 μg kg-1, accompanied by pH monitoring, humidity control and quantification of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungus. Fertilizer addition removed 41.6% of HWM-PAH. Fertilizer and glycerol in combination removed 46.2%. When glycerol was added individually, degradation reached 50.4%. Glycerol also promoted the increase of degradation rate during the first 30 days suggesting the HMW-PAH removal occurred through cometabolic pathways.

  18. Magnetic instability and pair binding in aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongbing; Zhang, Chao; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Understanding magnetism and electron correlation in many unconventional superconductors is essential to explore mechanism of superconductivity. In this work, we perform a systematic numerical study of the magnetic and pair binding properties in recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) superconductors including alkali-metal-doped picene, coronene, phenanthrene, and dibenzopentacene. The π-electrons on the carbon atoms of a single molecule are modelled by the one-orbital Hubbard model, and the energy difference between carbon atoms with and without hydrogen bonds is taking into account. We demonstrate that the spin polarized ground state is realized for charged molecules in the physical parameter regions, which provides a reasonable explanation of local spins observed in PAHs. In alkali-metal-doped dibenzopentacene, our results show that electron correlation may produce an effective attraction between electrons for the charged molecule with one or three added electrons. PMID:23213358

  19. Modeling the fate of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major contaminants associated with wastes from manufactured gas plants, wood treating operations, and petroleum refining; they are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic. It has been known that vegetation can enhance the rate and extent of degradation of PAHs in contaminated soil. Plant roots release exudates capable of supplying carbon and energy to microflora for degrading PAHs. It has also been well established that the population of microorganisms in the rhizosphere is significantly greater than that in the non-vegetated soil; these microorganisms are apparently responsible for the enhanced biodegradation of PAHs. A model has been derived for describing the rate of disappearance of a non-aqueous phase contaminant in the rhizosphere, which takes into account dissolution, adsorption, desorption and biodegradation of the contaminant, without neglecting the size distribution of the organic-phase droplets; the rate of biodegradation is expressed in terms of the Monod kinetics. The model is validated with the available experimental data for pyrene

  20. The indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate air-pollution and PAHs in different size fractions and assessment of exposure and health impacts in the Copenhagen population[Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstrup Jensen, K.; Kofoed-Soerensen, V.; Clausen, Per Axel [Arbejdsmiljoeinstituttet (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Fifteen one-week samples of PM{sub 1}, PM{sub 2.5}, inhalable dust (PM{sub inh}) and 16 polyclyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected inside and outside of an uninhabited 4th floor apartment at the Jagtvej street canyon in central Copenhagen during winter, spring and summer in 2002. Similar urban background samples were collected at a 2 km distant 4th floor high rooftop. PAHs in PM{sub 1} and PM{sub inh} were collected on glass fibre filters only. PAHs in PM{sub 2.5} were collected on glass fibre filters followed by adsorbent sample and backup tubes containing Tenax. PM was determined by filter weighing. The following by high performance liquid chromatography with UV and fluorescence detection. (au)

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsh, Jessica; Shen, Allison; Aliano, Kristen; Davenport, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist and persist in the atmosphere due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, and are established human carcinogens. The influence of PAHs on the development of breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, remains unclear. As established risk factors only account for approximately 41% of the breast cancer cases in the USA, researchers have sought to uncover environmental factors involved in breast cancer development. The breasts are particularly susceptible to aromatic carcinogenesis, and the implementation of biomarkers has provided promising insights regarding PAH-DNA adducts in breast cancer. The use of biomarkers measuring PAH-DNA adducts assesses exposure to eliminate the bias inherent in self-reporting measures in case-control studies investigating the link between PAHs and cancer. Adduct levels reflect exposure dose as well as how the body responds to this exposure, which is partially attributable to genetic variability. Evidence suggests that exposure to PAHs has a causational effect on breast cancer in humans, yet this interaction is not clearly understood. In vitro and animal-based studies have consistently revealed that exposure to PAHs deleteriously affects breast tissue, but there is no definitive link between these compounds and breast cancer. PMID:26688678

  2. Study on Aromatization of C6 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons on ZRP Zeolite Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongjun; Xie Chaogang

    2004-01-01

    The performance of ZRP zeolite catalysts for aromatization of C6 aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a pulsed microreactor. The influence of metal modified ZRP zeolites on aromatization reaction was also studied, coupled with comparison of aromatization tendencies of olefins, paraffins and paraffins with different degrees of chain branching. Test results had shown that the lower the silicon/aluminum ratio in the ZRP zeolite, the higher the aromatization reactivity of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Modification of ZRP zeolite by zinc and its zinc content had apparent impact on the yield and distribution of aromatics. The aromatization tendency of olefins was apparently better than paraffins, while the aromatization tendency of monomethyl paraffins was better than that of straight-chain paraffins with the exception of dimethyl paraffins, which had worse aromatization tendency because of their steric hindrance.

  3. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijing; Fokkink, Remco; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has become an emerging contaminant of global concern. Bulk plastic can degrade to form smaller particles down to the nanoscale (<100 nm), which are referred to as nanoplastics. Because of their high surface area, nanoplastic may bind hydrophobic chemicals very effectively, increasing their hazard when such nanoplastics are taken up by biota. The present study reports distribution coefficients for sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to 70 nm polystyrene in freshwater, and PAH adsorption isotherms spanning environmentally realistic aqueous concentrations of 10(-5)  μg/L to 1 μg/L. Nanopolystyrene aggregate state was assessed using dynamic light scattering. The adsorption isotherms were nonlinear, and the distribution coefficients at the lower ends of the isotherms were very high, with values up to 10(9) L/kg. The high and nonlinear sorption was explained from π-π interactions between the planar PAHs and the surface of the aromatic polymer polystyrene and was higher than for micrometer-sized polystyrene. Reduction of nanopolystyrene aggregate sizes had no significant effect on sorption, which suggests that the PAHs could reach the sorption sites on the pristine nanoparticles regardless of the aggregation state. Pre-extraction of the nanopolystyrene with C18 polydimethylsiloxane decreased sorption of PAHs, which could be explained by removal of the most hydrophobic fraction of the nanopolystyrene. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1650-1655. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

    2014-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng μL-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

  5. Accumulation of Trace Metals, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Marine Copepods from the Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    El-Din, N.M. Nour; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, zooplankton samples were collected from the coastal waters of Qatar during winter and summer 1998 to assess the impact of growing industrialization on the bioaccumulation of trace metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in copepods, the dominant zooplankton group and main food for fish in the Arabian Gulf.

  6. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by arbuscular mycorrhizal leek plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A.; Dalpe, Y. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Grain and Oilseeds Branch

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), nutrient uptake, and leek growth under greenhouse conditions. This experiment included 3 mycorrhizal treatments, 2 microorganism treatments, 2 PAH chemicals, and 4 concentrations of PAHs. Plant growth was greatly reduced by the addition of anthracene or phenanthrene in soil, whereas mycorrhizal inoculation not only increased plant growth, but also enhanced uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus. PAH concentrations in soil was lowered through the inoculation of two different strains of the species G. intraradices and G. versiforme. In 12 weeks of pot cultures, anthracene and phenanthrene concentrations decreased for all 3 PAH levels tested. However, the reduced amount of phenanthrene in soil was greater than that of anthracene. The addition of a soil microorganism extract into pot cultures accelerated the PAH degradation. The inoculation of AMF in a hydrocarbon contaminated soil was shown to enhance PAHs soil decontamination. It was concluded that a soil colonized with AMF can not only improve plant growth but can also stimulate soil microflora abundance and diversity. AMF may therefore directly influence PAH soil decontamination through plant growth enhancement.

  7. Inhibitory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on photosynthetic performance are not related to their aromaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajoo, Anjana; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Tomar, Rupal Singh; Grieco, Michele; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and highly persistent environmental pollutants which accumulate in soil and affect growth of the plants adversely. This study aims to investigate inhibitory effects of 3 major PAH particularly on photosynthetic processes in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in soil treated with PAH. The 3 PAH chosen differ from each other in aromaticity (number of rings) comprising their structure (2 rings: naphthalene, 3 rings: anthracene and 4 rings: pyrene). Several growth parameters and Chlorophyll a fluorescence was monitored in PAH treated plants. BN-PAGe analysis was done in order to get information about change in the protein conformation. PAH treatment led to increased value of Fo which collaborated with increase in the amount of free LHC as seen through BN-Page analysis. Thus PAH were found to inhibit PS II photochemistry and caused distinct change in pigment composition. However the results led us to infer that 3-ring anthracence is more inhibitory as compared to 2-ring naphthalene and 4-ring pyrene. This indicates that aromaticity of PAH is unrelated to their response on photosynthetic processes.

  8. 吸烟及吸二手烟对人体多环芳烃内暴露的影响%Impact of smoking and passive smoking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons internal exposure levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏凌; 赵波; 王伯光; 张素坤; 任明忠

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of smoking and passive smoking on the human internal exposureofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ten kinds of hydroxyl-PAHs (OH-PAHs) inurine samples of smokers, passive smokers and non-smokers were detected by the rapid liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that smoking and passive smoking hadinflected the concentrations and the compositions of OH-PAHs, especiallynaphthalene and fluorene. The urinary concentrations were declined in teams of smokers>passive smokers>non-smokers. The proportions of 1-OHN and 2-OHN in smokers and passive smokers were 1.5, 1.2and 1.7, 1.9times higher than those in non-smokers. The spearman’s correlation matrix between different OH-PAHs in smokers, passive smokers and non-smokers were analyzed, and the resultsindicated that the sources of OH-PAHs in passive smokers were most complex as they were influenced by ambient air and cigarette smoke. Compared with other studies, the concentrations of OH-PAHs of passive smokers were lower, which might relate to exposure time and dose of smoke.%采用快速液相色谱-三重四级杆串联质谱仪对吸烟、吸二手烟和不吸烟的居民的尿样进行抽检,分析了10种多环芳烃羟基代谢物(OH-PAHs)的组成和含量,评估了吸烟及吸二手烟对人体OH-PAHs内暴露水平的影响.结果表明,吸烟及吸二手烟对居民尿液中OH-PAHs的浓度水平和组成特征均有影响,对萘和芴的代谢产物影响最为显著.OH-PAHs 的浓度水平按照吸烟组>吸二手烟组>不吸烟组的顺序递减,吸烟组和吸二手烟组人群尿液中萘的代谢产物2-羟基萘和1-羟基萘所占的比例分别是不吸烟组人群的1.5、1.2倍和1.7、1.9倍;吸烟、吸二手烟和不吸烟人群体内各OH-PAHs之间的相关性分析表明,吸二手烟人群体内OH-PAHs来源最为复杂,受环境空气和香烟烟雾的双重影响.与同类研究结果相比,

  9. Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in overburden from coal mines: Assessment of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bituminous coals are known to contain significant amounts of petroleum-like hydrocarbons trapped in the pore system of the macromolecular network. With increasing thermal stress acting upon coals under the particular conditions in their deposits, the relative amount of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons within the trapped bitumen increases until the coal reaches the rank of medium-volatile bituminous coals. Coking coals particularly are rich in compounds such as benzene, biphenyl, naphthalene, and their alkylated derivatives. Potential hazardous environmental impact of these hydrocarbons has to be considered when mining or reclaiming overburden because approximately 10% overburden material related to coal mining is coal. Exposure to long-term weathering destroys the pore system of coals, which might result in a release of highly volatile bituminous coal constituents into the atmosphere. This view is supported by analyses of coals present in overburden material. In the present study, the on-line combination of thermodesorption coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is shown to be an appropriate tool for the detection and quantitation of hydrocarbons of a wide boiling temperature range present in solid sample material. The method is preferentially suitable for the analysis of highly volatile constituents such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, which are not quantitatively analyzed using conventional solvent-extraction methods

  10. Health Risk Assessment for Trace Metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water of Cankiri, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Caylak, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Lifetime exposure to trace metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trihalomethanes (THMs), and the other chemicals in drinking water through ingestion, and dermal contact may pose risks to human health. In this study, drinking water samples were collected from 50 sampling sites from Cankiri and its towns during 2010. The concentrations of all pollutants were analyzed, and then compared with permissible limits set by Turkish and WHO. For health risk assessment of trace met...

  11. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group Icoke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure. PMID:24040626

  12. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coke oven emissions and reproductive toxicity in nonsmoking workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Lin, Wen-Yi; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Taylor, Steven; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Guodong; Diawara, Norou

    2013-01-15

    The objective of the cross-sectional study was to assess whether exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coke oven emissions contributed to alteration of semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in nonsmoking workers. Nonsmoking coke oven workers from a steel plant in Taiwan served as the exposure groups (topside-oven workers for the high exposure group and side-oven workers for the low exposure group), and administrators and security personnel in the plant served as the control. An exposure assessment was conducted to determine both particulate and gaseous phase of PAH levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels. Semen quality was analyzed according to WHO guidelines. DNA fragmentation and bulky DNA adducts were measured to assess sperm DNA integrity. There was no significant difference in sperm concentrations, vitality, and DNA fragmentation between the exposed group and the control. The high exposure group experienced significantly lower percentages of normal morphology as compared with the control (p=0.0001). Bulky DNA adducts were detected in the exposed group that were significant higher than the control (p=0.04). Exposure to PAHs from coke-oven emissions could contribute to increased levels of bulky DNA adducts in sperm. PMID:23314003

  13. Identification and discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutis, Edward; Szymanski, Paul; Applin, Daniel; Goltz, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely present throughout the Solar System and beyond. They have been implicated as a contributor to unidentified infrared emission bands in the interstellar medium, comprise a substantial portion of the insoluble organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites, are expected stable components of organic matter on Mars, and are present in a wide range of terrestrial hydrocarbons and as components of biomolecules. However, PAH structures can be very complicated, making their identification challenging. Raman spectroscopy is known to be especially sensitive to the highly polarizable C-C and C=C bonds found in PAHs, and therefore, can be a powerful tool for PAH structural and compositional elucidation. This study examined Raman spectra of 48 different PAHs to determine the degree to which Raman spectroscopy could be used to uniquely identify different species, factors that control the positions of major Raman peaks, the degree to which induced fluorescence affects the intensity of Raman peaks, its usefulness for PAH discrimination, and the effects of varying excitation wavelength on some PAH Raman spectra. It was found that the arrangement and composition of phenyl (benzene) rings, and the type and position of functional groups can greatly affect fluorescence, positions and intensities of Raman peaks associated with the PAH backbone, and the introduction of new Raman peaks. Among the functional groups found on many of the PAHs that were analyzed, only a few Raman peaks corresponding to the molecular vibrations of these groups could be clearly distinguished. Comparison of the PAH Raman spectra that were acquired with both 532 and 785 nm excitation found that the longer wavelength resulted in reduced fluorescence, consistent with previous studies.

  14. The Exobiological Role of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Before this time, the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed-at, the presence of ices in interstellar clouds ignored, and the notion that large, gas phase, carbon rich molecules might be abundant and widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today, the composition of dust in the ISM is reasonably well constrained to micron-sized cold refractory materials comprised of amorphous and crystalline silicates mixed with an amorphous carbonaceous material containing aromatic structural units and short, branched aliphatic chains. Shrouded within the protective confines of cold, opaque molecular clouds--the birthplace of stars and planets--these cold dust particles secrete mantles of mixed molecular ices whose compositions are also well constrained. Finally, amidst the molecular inventory of these ice mantles are likely to be found polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by the standards of interstellar chemistry, the telltale infrared spectral signature of which is now recognized throughout the Universe. In the first part of this talk, we will review the spectroscopic evidence that forms the basis for the currently accepted abundance and ubiquity of PANs in the ISM. We will then look at a few specific examples which illustrate how experimental and theoretical data can be applied to interpret the interstellar spectra and track how the PAN population evolves as it passes from its formation site in the circumstellar outflows of dying stars, through the various phases of the ISM, and into forniing planetary systems. Nevertheless, despite the fact that PANs likely represent the single largest molecular reservoir of organic carbon in evolving planetary systems, they are not what would be considered

  15. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

  16. Identification of persulfate oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon during remediation of contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of PAH transformation, the formation and transformation of reaction byproducts during persulfate oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coking plant soil was investigated. Pre-oxidation analyses indicated that oxygen-containing PAHs (oxy-PAHs) existed ...

  17. Use of mussels and semipermeable membrane devices to assess bioavailability of residual polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons three years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels (Mytilus cf. trossulus) were transplanted to a heavily oiled and extensively treated site on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1992. A new monitoring and assessment tool, the semipermeable membrane device, was also deployed to compare hydrocarbon uptake with mussels and to evaluate the route of exposure to mussels. Both mussels and semipermeable membrane devices accumulated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during 14- and 52-day deployments, particularly at the oiled site. Accumulation levels were similar between mussels and the semipermeable membrane devices, but the distribution of individual hydrocarbons differed. The results permit some inference about route of exposure to mussels. Sheens leaching from subsurface deposits of residual oil, and particulate material with adsorbed hydrocarbons were apparently more important exposure pathways than dissolved hydrocarbons in water. Semipermeable membrane devices show promise as monitoring tools and to provide insights into exposure pathways for biota. 20 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  18. MONITORING POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT POREWATER BY SPMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚先; 张勇; 庄一廷; Ka-FaiPoon; MichaelH.W.Lam; 洪华生; RudolfS.S.Wu

    2001-01-01

    A new mimic biological Semi-permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) introduced for sampling organic pollutants yielded satisfactory results when it was frrst used as a passive sampler to concentrate and determine 16 kinds of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of capillary GC on an HP 5890 GC-FID in coastal sediment perewater. The concentration of PAHs in sediment porewater for naphthalene(N), acenaphthlene(AL), acenaphthene (AE), fluorene (F), phenaphthene(P), anthracene(A), fluoranthene(FA), pyrene(Py), benzo[a]anthracene(B[a]A), chrysene(Chr), benzo[b] fluor- anthene(B[b]F), benzo[k]fluoranthene(B[k]F), benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P),indeno[1,2,3,-cd]-Pyrene(I[123]P), dibenz[a,h]anthracene(D[ab]A) and benzo[g,h,i] perylene(B[ghi]P) were:50.36, under detection limits(UD), 18.19, 8.41, 8.40, 1.44, UD, 8.01, 524.15, 168.47, 50.13,123.66, 63.48, 27.40, 82.04 and 58,81 ng/L, respectively.

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Ionization Energy Lowering in Water Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    In studying various interstellar and solar system ice analogs, we have recently found that upon vacuum ultraviolet photolysis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frozen in water ice at low temperatures are easily ionized and indefinitely stabilized as trapped ions (Gudipati; Gudipati & Allamandola). Here we report the first experimental study that shows that PAH ionization energy is significantly lowered in PAH/H2O ices, in agreement with recent theoretical work (Woon & Park). The ionization energy (IE) of the PAH studied here, quaterrylene (C40H20, IE = 6.11 eV), is lowered by up to 2.11 eV in water ice. PAH ionization energy reduction in low-temperature water ice substantially expands the astronomical regions in which trapped ions and electrons may be important. This reduction in ionization energy should also hold for other types of trapped species in waterrich interstellar, circumstellar, and solar system ices. Subject headings: ISM: clouds - methods: laboratory - molecular processes - radiation mechanisms: nonthermal -ultraviolet: ISM - ultraviolet: solar system

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation under simulated coal seam pyrolysis conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuqin; Wang Yuanyuan; Wang Caihong; Bao Pengcheng; Dang Jinli

    2011-01-01

    Coal seam pyrolysis occurs during coal seam fires and during underground coal gasification.This is an important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in China.Pyrolysis in a coal seam was simulated in a tubular furnace.The 16 US Environmental Protection Agency priority controlled PAHs were analyzed by HPLC.The effects of temperature,heating rate,pyrolysis atmosphere,and coal size were investigated.The results indicate that the 3-ring PAHs AcP and AcPy are the main species in the pyrolysis gas.The 2-ring NaP and the 4-ring Pyr are also of concern.Increasing temperature caused the total PAH yield to go through a minimum.The lowest value was obtained at the temperature of 600 ℃ Higher heating rates promote PAH formation,especially formation of the lower molecular weight PAHs.The typical heating rate in a coal seam,5 ℃/min,results in intermediate yields of PAHs.The total PAHs yield in an atmosphere of N2 is about 1.81 times that seen without added N2,which indicates that an air flow through the coal seam accelerates the formation of PAHs.An increase in coal particle size reduces the total PAHs emission but promotes the formation of 5- and 6-ring PAHs.

  1. Fibrous adsorbent for removal of aqueous aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong-Jun; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Yamada, Toshiro; Takagi, Hiroo; Nishimura, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Bundles of a strongly hydrophobic fibrous material (p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole; PBO; Zylon) were employed as an adsorbent for the removal of aqueous aromatic compounds, because the PBO fibers are too rigid to be woven and did not entrap suspended solids. The removal performance for nine kinds of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was evaluated. PAHs and DEHP at initial concentrations of 50 microg L(-1) were removed at 72.5-99.9% and ca. 95%, respectively, although the removal efficiencies were affected by the phase ratio (fiber weight/solution volume). The logarithm of the partition coefficient (log K) for planar PAHs was linearly correlated with the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), but nonplanar PAHs, such as cis-stilbene, p-terphenyl, and o-terphenyl, showed significantly lower adsorption performance. The adsorbed PAHs were not desorbed effectively with CH3CN, CH2Cl2, and toluene. On the other hand, DEHP was effectively desorbed with methanol.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Dalian soils: distribution and toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Chen, J.W.; Yang, P.; Qiao, X.L.; Tian, F. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Dept. of Environmental Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface soils collected from Dalian, China, for examination of distributions and composition profiles and their potential toxicity. The sum of 15 PAHs ({Sigma} PAHs) ranged from 190 to 8595 ng g{sup -1} dry weight, and showed an apparent urban-suburban-rural gradient in both {Sigma} PAHs and composition profiles. Using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), the sampling sites were grouped into four clusters corresponding to traffic area, park/residential area, suburban and rural areas. The ratios of naphthalene (Nap) and fluorene (Fl) versus fluoranthene (Flu), pyrene (Pyr) and indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene (InP) in the four clusters provided evidence of local distillation. The diagnostic ratios indicated the prevalent PAH sources were petroleum combustion and coal combustion in Dalian, and a cross plot of diagnostic ratios distinguished the urban samples from suburban and rural ones. Toxic potency assessment of soil PAHs presented a good relationship with benzo(a) pyrene (BaP) levels, toxic equivalent concentrations based on BaP (TEQ(BaP)) and dioxin-like toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ(TCDD)). The study highlights that BaP is a good indicator for assessing the potential toxicity of PAHs, and presents a promising toxicity assessment method for soil PAHs.

  3. Solubilization and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J.W.C.; Zhao, Z.Y.; Yang, J.; Wong, S.Y. [Hong Kong Baptist Univ., Hong Kong (China). Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Dept. of Biology

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using microemulsions to enhance the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Microemulsions are commonly used in soil washing as a means of enhancing the solubility of hydrophobic pollutants. The microemulsions were composed of Tween-80, 1-pentanol and linseed oil. Phenanthrene (PHE) was dissolved in dichloromethane and added to a glass vial. Microemulsions were added separately to the vials. A high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was used to determine PHE concentrations. The vials were inoculated with an isolated PAH degradative bacterium Bacillus subtilis B-UM. Soil collected from abandoned shipyards in Hong Kong were then spiked with the mixtures and aged for 3 months. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analyses were conducted. Results of the study showed that a microemulsion composed of 0.4 Tween-80, 0.1 per cent 1-pentanol, and 0.05 linseed oil effectively enhanced the biodegradation of PHE in the aqueous phase. It was concluded that microemulsions can be used to remediate soils contaminated by PAHs. 26 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in soil of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucarević Mira M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with several groups of compounds that represent the most frequent pollutants of soil in the world. The paper also reviews results of long-term studies conducted at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad on the residues of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the soil of the Vojvodina Province. The analyzed samples have been found to contain residues of persistent pesticides and their metabolites lindane and its metabolites 6,20 μg/kg, alachlor 3,56 μg/kg, aldrin 2,3 μg/kg, heptachlor epoxide 0,99 μg/kg, chlordane 3,82 μg/kg, DDT and its metabolites 10,77 μg/kg, dieldrin 2,04 μg/kg, endrin 3,57 μg/kg and endrin aldehyde 1,36 μg/kg. Soil samples from Novi Sad municipality contained 53,69 μg/kg of DDT and its metabolites. The values of atrazine ranged from 0,0005 to 0,8 mg/kg. The values of PAHs were 6,64 mg/kg in industrial soil, 4,93 mg/kg in agricultural soil, and 4,55 mg/kg and 5,48 mg/kg in the Novi Sad municipality. The lowest value, 0.83 mg/kg, was found for nonagricultural/nonindustrial soils.

  5. Some carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R. K.; Kumar, Pardeep; Ram, R. S.; Zaidi, Zahid H.

    1999-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted spectroscopists, astrophysicts and environmentalist because of their importance in our day to day life. It is well known that epoxides are produced during the metabolism of PAHs and have the requisite chemical reactivity to qualify them for the role as an ultimate carcinogenic form of PAHs. Several carcinogenic PAHs such as 3.4-benzopyrene, 1.2,3.4-dibenzopyrene, 3.4,9.10- dibenzopyrene etc. are found to be present in tobacco smoke and among air pollutants. Although PAH molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy but no systematic attempt has been made to study non-radiative transitions. In our laboratory, we have studied many PAH molecules by a non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity, known as Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy. PA spectroscopy is an analytical and research tool to get information about non-radiative transitions and singlet-triplet electronic transitions, where the conventional spectroscopic technique fails. The study of electronic transitions of some carcinogenic molecules are reported using PA and optical absorption spectra in boric acid glass in the region 250 - 400 nm. The electronic transitions of these molecules observed experimentally, have been interpreted using the optimized geometries and CNDO/S-CI method. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results. Assignments of observed electronic transitions are made on the basis of singlet-triplet electronic transitions. Vibrations attached to these electronic transitions are attributed to the ground state vibrational modes.

  6. Fibrous adsorbent for removal of aqueous aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong-Jun; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Yamada, Toshiro; Takagi, Hiroo; Nishimura, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Bundles of a strongly hydrophobic fibrous material (p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole; PBO; Zylon) were employed as an adsorbent for the removal of aqueous aromatic compounds, because the PBO fibers are too rigid to be woven and did not entrap suspended solids. The removal performance for nine kinds of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was evaluated. PAHs and DEHP at initial concentrations of 50 microg L(-1) were removed at 72.5-99.9% and ca. 95%, respectively, although the removal efficiencies were affected by the phase ratio (fiber weight/solution volume). The logarithm of the partition coefficient (log K) for planar PAHs was linearly correlated with the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), but nonplanar PAHs, such as cis-stilbene, p-terphenyl, and o-terphenyl, showed significantly lower adsorption performance. The adsorbed PAHs were not desorbed effectively with CH3CN, CH2Cl2, and toluene. On the other hand, DEHP was effectively desorbed with methanol. PMID:17585293

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal by sorption: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Shanti; Bal Krishna, K C; Sarukkalige, Ranjan

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic micro pollutants which are persistent compounds in the environment due to their hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse effects in human health and environment have resulted in extensive studies on various types of PAHs removal methods. Sorption is one of the widely used methods as PAHs possess a great sorptive ability into the solid media and their low aqueous solubility property. Several adsorbent media such as activated carbon, biochar, modified clay minerals have been largely used to remove PAHs from aqueous solution and to immobilise PAHs in the contaminated soils. According to the past studies, very high removal efficiency could be achieved using the adsorbents such as removal efficiency of activated carbon, biochar and modified clay mineral were 100%, 98.6% and >99%, respectively. PAHs removal efficiency or adsorption/absorption capacity largely depends on several parameters such as particle size of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, solubility, salinity including the production process of adsorbents. Although many studies have been carried out to remove PAHs using the sorption process, the findings have not been consolidated which potentially hinder to get the correct information for future study and to design the sorption method to remove PAHs. Therefore, this paper summarized the adsorbent media which have been used to remove PAHs especially from aqueous solutions including the factor affecting the sorption process reported in 142 literature published between 1934 and 2015. PMID:26820781

  9. Fullerenes, fulleranes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Allende meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L.; Bunch, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we confirm our earlier observations of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Allende meteorite (Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). Fullerene C60 was also detected in two separate C-rich (approximately 0.5-1.0%) dark inclusions (Heymann et al., 1987) that were hand picked from the Allende sample. The amounts of C60 detected were approximately 5 and approximately 10 ppb, respectively, which is considerably less than what was detected in the Allende 15/21 sample (approximately 100 ppb; Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). This suggests that fullerenes are heterogeneously distributed in the meteorite. In addition, we present evidence for fulleranes, (C60Hx), detected in separate samples by laser desorption (reflectron) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (LDMS). The LDMS spectra for the Allende extracts were remarkably similar to the spectra generated for the synthetic fullerane mixtures. Several fullerane products were synthesized using a Rh catalyst (Becker et al., 1993a) and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also observed ppm levels) that included benzofluoranthene and corannulene, a cup-shaped molecule that has been proposed as a precursor molecule to the formation of fullerenes in the gas phase (Pope et al., 1993).

  10. Anharmonicity and infrared bands of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrignani, Annemieke; Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-08-01

    We present a systematic laboratory study of the CH stretching region in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules of different shapes and sizes to investigate anharmonic behaviour and address the reliability of the never-validated but universally accepted scaling factors employed in astronomical PAH models. At the same time, new anharmonic theoretical quantum chemistry studies have been performed with the software program Spectro using our experimental data as benchmark. We performed mass and conformational-resolved, high-resolution spectroscopy of cold (~10K) linear and compact PAH molecules starting with naphthalene (C10H8) in the 3-µm CH stretching region. Surprisingly, the measured infrared spectra show many more strong modes than expected. Measurements of the deuterated counterparts demonstrate that these bands are the result of Fermi Resonances. First comparisons with harmonic and anharmonic DFT calculations using Gaussian 09 show that both approximations are not able to reproduce in detail the observed molecular reality. The improved anharmonic calculations performed with Spectro now include the effects of Fermi resonances and have been applied to PAHs for the first time. The analysis of the experimental data is greatly aided by these new theoretical quantum chemistry studies. Preliminary assignments are presented, aided by comparison between the observed rotational contour and the symmetry of candidate bands.

  11. Multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Imasaka, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Imasaka, Totaro

    2015-08-01

    In order to suppress the fragmentation and improve the sensitivity for determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), the mechanism of multiphoton ionization was studied for the following representative NPAHs, 9-nitroanthracene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, and 1-nitropyrene. The analytes were extracted from the PM2.5 on the sampling filter ultrasonically, and were measured using gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry with a femtosecond tunable laser in the range from 267 to 405 nm. As a result, a molecular ion was observed as the major ion and fragmentation was suppressed at wavelengths longer than 345 nm. Furthermore, the detection limit measured at 345 nm was measured to be the subpicogram level. The organic compounds were extracted from a 2.19 mg sample of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), and the extract was subjected to multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry after gas chromatograph separation. The background signals were drastically suppressed at 345 nm, and the target NPAHs, including 9-nitroanthracene and 1-nitropyrene, were detected, and their concentrations were determined to be 5 and 3 pg/m(3), respectively. PMID:26048831

  12. Photoinduced toxicity of sediment-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Duxbury, C.L.; Marwood, C.A.; Huang, X.D.; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be both mutagenic and toxic. Light, in particular UV irradiation, increases their toxicity. Since aquatic plants cannot avoid PAHs or light, they are at risk. However, the major loadings of PAHs are in sediment. In this study the authors examined the assimilation of both intact and photomodified labelled PAHs bound to a surrogate, sediment (sand) by the higher aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. G-3. They found that simulated solar radiation significantly promoted the release of PAHs from sand and their assimilation by Lemna, although assimilation from the solid phase was slower than for chemicals placed directly into the aqueous medium. Toxicity of PAHs bound to sand was then measured by exposing plants to the sand-chemical composite for 8 d. Plants were exposed to both visible and SSR light conditions during this period, and toxicity was measured as inhibition of growth, inhibition of photosynthesis (chlorophyll fluorescence induction) and chlorosis. All three endpoints indicated that PAHs bound to a sediment phase can express phototoxicity and that the effects are most strongly promoted by the UV region of the solar spectrum. The authors have now extended this work to probe the effects of UV-B and PAHs on chloroplast development, with the finding that both stresses inhibit development of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  13. Separation and analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons from two Chinese coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ming-jie; LI Wen-dian; XIE Rui-lun; ZONG Ying; CAI Ke-ying; PENG Yao-li; ZONG Zhi-min; XIE Rui-lun; WEI Xian-yong

    2008-01-01

    Separation and analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) from coals is of considerable significance for both fuel and non-fuel use of the coals. In present work two Chinese bituminous coals were selected for separation of AHs by ultrasonic extraction with CS2 followed by column chromatography using hexane as eluent. A series of AHs were separated from the two coals and analyzed by GC/MS. FTIR was employed to characterize the raw coals and the extracted residues. The results of GC/MS analysis show that the separated AHs are mono- to tetracyclic arenes, among which the principle AHs are alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes. Obvious differences in the composition and the structure of AHs exist between the two coals, i.e., the AHs from Tongting coal tend to be higher rings compared to those from Pingshuo coal both from the variety and from the abundance of the AHs. FFIR analysis shows that the raw and extracted coals are similar in terms of functional groups, suggesting that the composition and structure of CS extract, especially the AHs, from coals can be used to interpret the coal structure to some extent.

  14. Eisenia fetida increased removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of phenanthrene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene added at three different concentrations was investigated with or without earthworms (Eisenia fetida) within 11 weeks. Average anthracene removal by the autochthonous micro-organisms was 23%, 77% for phenanthrene and 13% for benzo(a)pyrene, while it was 51% for anthracene, 47% for benzo(a)pyrene and 100% for phenanthrene in soil with earthworms. At 50 and 100 mg phenanthrene kg-1 E. fetida survival was 91% and 83%, but at 150 mg kg-1 all died within 15 days. Survival of E. fetida in soil amended with anthracene ≤1000 mg kg-1 and benzo(a)pyrene ≤150 mg kg-1 was higher than 80% and without weight loss compared to the untreated soil. Only small amounts of PAHs were detected in the earthworms. It was concluded that E. fetida has the potential to remove large amounts of PAHs from soil, but more work is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved. - Addition of earthworms, Eisenia fetida, accelara removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

  15. Threshold Energies for Single Carbon Knockout from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Stockett, M H; Chen, T; de Ruette, N; Giacomozzi, L; Wolf, M; Schmidt, H T; Zettergren, H; Cederquist, H

    2015-01-01

    We have measured absolute cross sections for ultrafast (fs) single-carbon knockout from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) cations as functions of He-PAH center-of-mass collision energy in the range 10-200 eV. Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations cover this range and extend up to 10$^5$ eV. The shapes of the knockout cross sections are well described by a simple analytical expression yielding experimental and MD threshold energies of $E_{th}^{Exp}=32.5\\pm 0.4$ eV and $E_{th}^{MD}=41.0\\pm 0.3$ eV, respectively. These are the first measurements of knockout threshold energies for molecules isolated \\emph{in vacuo}. We further deduce semi-empirical (SE) and MD displacement energies --- \\emph{i.e.} the energy transfers to the PAH molecules at the threshold energies for knockout --- of $T_{disp}^{SE}=23.3\\pm 0.3$ eV and $T_{disp}^{MD}=27.0\\pm 0.3$ eV. The semi-empirical results compare favorably with measured displacement energies for graphene $T_{disp}=23.6$ eV [Meyer \\emph{et al.} Phys. Rev Lett. \\tex...

  16. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-cang; JIN Bao-sheng; ZHONG Zhao-ping; HUANG Ya-ji; XIAO Rui; LI Da-ji

    2005-01-01

    The hazardous organic pollutants generated from coal gasification, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. More researchers have paid particular attention to them. Using air and steam as gasification medium, the experiments of three kinds of coals were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The contents of the 16 PAHs specified by US EPA in raw coal, slag, bag house coke, cyclone coke and gas were measured by HPLC to study the contents of PAHs in raw coal and the effects of the inherent characters of coals on the formation and release of PAHs in coal gasification. The experimental results showed that the distributions of PAHs in the gasified products are similar to raw coals and the total-PAHs content in coal gasification is higher than in raw coal(except Coal C). The total-PAHs contents increase and then decrease with the rise of fixed carbon and sulfur of coal while there has an opposite variation when volatile matters content increase. The quantities of PAHs reduce with the increase of ash content or the drop of heating value during coal gasification.

  17. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Source and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Yan; Xiang Li; Jianmin Chen; Xinjun Wang; Jianfei Du; Lin Ma

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to investigate the distribution and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air,water,and soil,very little is known about their temporal change in wet deposition.As a result of increased attention to public health,a large-scale survey on the deposition flux and distribution of PAH contamination in rainwater was urgently conducted in Shanghai,China.In this study,163 rainwater samples were collected from six sites,and 15 PAH compounds were detected by the use of a simple solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The dominant PAH species monitored were naphthalene,phenanthrene,anthracene,and fluoranthene.The concentration of total PAHs per event was between 74 and 980 ng/L,with an average value of 481 ng/L,which is at the high end of worldwide figures.The annual deposition flux of PAHs in rainwater was estimated to be 4148 kg/yr in the Shanghai area,suggesting rainfall as a major possible pathway for removing PAHs from the atmosphere.Diagnostic analysis by the ratios of An/178 and F1/F1+Py suggested that combustion of grass,wood,and coal was the major contributor to PAHs in the Shanghai region.Back trajectory analysis also indicated that the pollutant sources could be from the southern part of China.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in urban soil from Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-hong; MA Ling-ling; LIU Xiu-fen; FU Shan; CHENG Hang-xin; XU Xiao-bai

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA-PAHs) in the urban surface soils from Beijing were determined using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is significantly complementary for understanding the PAHs pollution in soil of integrated Beijing city on the basis of the information known in the outskirts. The total concentration of 16 EPA-PAH was from 0.467 to 5.470 μg/g and was described by the contour map. Compound profiles presented that the 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs were major compositions. The correlation analysis showed that PAHs have the similar source in the most sampling sites and BaP might be considered as the indicator of PAHs. Characteristic ratios of anthracene (An)/(An+ phenanthrene (Phe)), fluoranthene (Flu)/(Flu+pyrene (Pyr)) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) indicated that the PAHs pollutants probably mainly originated from the coal combustion and it was not negligible from vehicular emission. The level of PAHs in our study area was compared with other studies.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Dalian soils: distribution and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jingwen; Yang, Ping; Qiao, Xianliang; Tian, Fulin

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface soils collected from Dalian, China, for examination of distributions and composition profiles and their potential toxicity. The sum of 15 PAHs (SigmaPAHs) ranged from 190 to 8595 ng g(-1) dry weight, and showed an apparent urban-suburban-rural gradient in both SigmaPAHs and composition profiles. Using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), the sampling sites were grouped into four clusters corresponding to traffic area, park/residential area, suburban and rural areas. The ratios of naphthalene (Nap) and fluorene (Fl) versus fluoranthene (Flu), pyrene (Pyr) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (InP) in the four clusters provided evidence of local distillation. The diagnostic ratios indicated the prevalent PAH sources were petroleum combustion and coal combustion in Dalian, and a cross plot of diagnostic ratios distinguished the urban samples from suburban and rural ones. Toxic potency assessment of soil PAHs presented a good relationship with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) levels, toxic equivalent concentrations based on BaP (TEQ(BaP)) and dioxin-like toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ(TCDD)). The study highlights that BaP is a good indicator for assessing the potential toxicity of PAHs, and presents a promising toxicity assessment method for soil PAHs. PMID:17285163

  1. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a uv photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense uv fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments

  2. Polycylcic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) in dense cloud chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wakelam, Valentine

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all detailed gas-phase models of the chemistry of dense interstellar clouds exclude polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). This omission is unfortunate because from the few studies that have been done on the subject, it is known that the inclusion of PAH's can affect the gas-phase chemistry strongly. We have added PAH's to our network to determine the role they play in the chemistry of cold dense cores. In the models presented here, we include radiative attachment to form PAH-, mutual neutralization between PAH anions and small positively-charged ions, and photodetachment. We also test the sensitivity of our results to changes in the size and abundance of the PAH's. Our results confirm that the inclusion of PAH's changes many of the calculated abundances of smaller species considerably. In TMC-1, the general agreement with observations is significantly improved contrary to L134N. This may indicate a difference in PAH properties between the two regions. With the inclusion of PAH's in dense cloud c...

  3. Parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rice and implications for human health in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the staple food for approximate two thirds of the Chinese population. However, human exposure to parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via rice consumption is still not clear for Chinese people so far. The goals of this work are to assess human exposure to PAHs and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs) via rice ingestion and the cancer risk for Chinese population. 16 PAHs and eight HPAHs were determined in rice samples collected from 18 provinces in China. In general terms, the general population in China was exposed to higher levels of PAHs via rice ingestion in comparison to that via cereals for other countries. The cancer risk values induced by exposure to PAHs and HPAHs for male and female on each age group were between the priority risk level (10−4) and the acceptable risk level (10−6). Children faced the highest cancer risk, followed by adolescents and adults. - Highlights: ► Dietary exposure to PAHs via rice ingestion for Chinese population was higher than that via cereals in other countries. ► The cancer risk induced by PAHs and HPAHs intakes via rice consumption were between 10−6 and 10−4. ► Children faced the highest cancer risk, followed by adolescents and adults. ► Given all exposure routes were considered, the real cancer risk for Chinese people would be greater. - Human exposure to parent and halogenated PAHs via rice ingestion and the cancer risk for Chinese population were assessed.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in insular and coastal soils of the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E. V.; Tomashunas, V. M.; Lodygin, E. D.; Gabov, D. N.; Sokolov, V. T.; Krylenkov, V. A.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    The content and individual component compositions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in polar soils of the Russian Arctic sector have been studied. The contamination of soils near research stations is identified from the expansion of the range of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the abrupt increase in the content of heavy fractions, and the accumulation of benzo[ a]pyrene. Along with heavy hydrocarbons, light hydrocarbons (which are not only natural compounds, but also components of organic pollutants) are also accumulated in the contaminated soils. Heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are usually of technogenic origin and can serve as markers of anthropogenic impact in such areas as Cape Sterligov, Cape Chelyuskin, and the Izvestii TsIK Islands. The content of benzo[ a]pyrene, the most hazardous organic toxicant, appreciably increases in soils around the stations, especially compared to the control; however, the level of MPC is exceeded only for the soils of Cape Chelyuskin.

  5. Putting corannulene in its place. Reactivity studies comparing corannulene with other aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Stephen R D; Frith, Thomas D H; Thomas, Donald S; Harper, Jason B

    2015-09-14

    A series of aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated so as to compare the reactivity of corannulene with planar aromatic hydrocarbons. Corannulene was found to be more reactive than benzene, naphthalene and triphenylene to Friedel-Crafts acylation whilst electrophilic aromatic bromination was also used to confirm that triphenylene was less reactive than corannulene and that pyrene, perylene and acenaphthene were more so. The stabilisation of a neighbouring carbocation by the various aromatic systems was investigated through consideration of the rates of methanolysis of a series of benzylic alcohols. The reactivity series was found to parallel that observed for the electrophilic aromatic substitutions and both series are supported by computational studies. As such, a reactivity scale was devised that showed that corannulene was less reactive than would be expected for an aromatic planar species of similar pi electron count. PMID:26220565

  6. 多环芳烃暴露生物标志物羟基多环芳烃检测方法的研究进展%Progress on Detection Methods for Hydroxyl Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Biomarker of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromtic Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞月红; 马芸; 崔燕; 沈晓芳

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),a kind of persistent organic pollutant,are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. The long time exposure to them can induce lung cancer, skin cancer and so on. Hydroxy] metabolites of PAHs can be used as the biomarkers to evaluate the exposure level of PAHs for human,and thus attracted many researchers to study the detection methods of OH-PAHs. In this paper,the biomarkers,as well as the significance of OH-PAHs as biomarkers had been described. Various detection methods of OH -PAHs,including high -performance liquid chromatography,liquid chromatogramphy/gas chromatogramphy massspectrometry,synchronous fluorescene spectrometry,capillary zone electrophoresis and electrochemical method were also systematically reviewed. At last the expected advances for the coming years were predicted.%多环芳烃(PAHs)是一类普遍存在于环境中的持久性有机污染物,长期暴露可引发肺癌、皮肤癌等恶性肿瘤.而PAHs的代谢物——单羟基多环芳烃(OH-PAHs)可以作为暴露生物标志物综合评价人体对PAHs的暴露水平,从而吸引众多研究人员对OH-PAHs检测方法的研究.笔者介绍了生物标志物以及选用OH-PAHs作为生物标志物的意义,系统综述了OH-PAHs的各种检测方法,包括高效液相色谱法、液相色谱-质谱(气相色谱-质谱)联用技术、同步荧光光谱分析法、毛细管区带电泳法、酶联免疫法和电化学法,并对其检测方法的发展趋势进行了评价和展望.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    OpenAIRE

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different p...

  8. Tumour-promoting activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated or nitrated derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Kentaro; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji; Yanagida, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-01

    Various types of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in diesel exhaust particles are thought to contribute to carcinogenesis in mammals. Although the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and tumour-initiating activity of these compounds have been evaluated, their tumour-promoting activity is unclear. In the present study, to determine the tumour-inducing activity of PACs, including previously known mutagenic compounds in atmospheric environments, a transformation assay for promoting activity mediated by the release of contact inhibition was conducted for six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and seven nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) using mouse embryonic fibroblast cells transfected with the v-Ha-ras gene (Bhas 42 cells). Of these, two PAHs [benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]FA) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]FA)], one oxy-PAH [6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one (BPO)] and two nitro-PAHs (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one and 6-nitrochrysene) were found to exhibit particularly powerful tumour-promoting activity (≥10 foci following exposure to BPO). Further, an HO-1 antioxidant response activation was observed following exposure to B[k]FA, B[b]FA and BPO, suggesting that the induction of tumour-promoting activity in these compounds is correlated with the dysfunction of signal transduction via AhR-mediated responses and/or oxidative stress responses.

  9. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Candiota coal samples: novel series of bicyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.C.M.L.; Loureiro, M.R.B.; Cardoso, J.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was used to analyse aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from nine samples taken from two different seams of five boreholes in the Candiota coalfield (Lower Permian). The occurrence of certain tetracyclic diterpenoids among the aliphatic hydrocarbons, and the tricyclic diterpenoids simonellite and retene in the aromatic hydrocarbon concentrates, suggest an important input from conifers to the sedimentary biomass. This may explain the origin of a novel series of saturated and aromatic bicyclic compounds detected in the extracts which may be structurally related to the same precursor, possibly a conifer resin-derived tricyclic diterpenoid.

  10. Biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene in the marine polychaete Nereis virens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Glessing, Anders M B; Rasmussen, Lene Juel;

    2005-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene was investigated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Assays were designed to characterize phase I and II enzymes isolated from gut tissue. High-pressure liquid chromatography measurement of 1......-hydroxypyrene, pyrene-1-glucuronide, pyrene-1-sulfate, and pyrene-1-glucoside appeared to be a sensitive method for estimating the activity of pyrene hydroxylase, glucuronosyl transferase, and sulfotransferase. Total pyrene in gut tissue after a 5-d exposure to 10 microg/g dry weight pyrene constituted 65....... Apparent kinetic parameters for pyrene hydroxylase activity were changed after induction with pyrene. Induced worms showed increased Vmax(a)) and decreased Km(a) compared to noninduced worms, indicating that the relative amount of the cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) responsible for pyrene hydroxylation...

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in blood related to lower body mass in common loons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruk, James D; Adams, Evan M; Uher-Koch, Hannah; Kovach, Kristin A; Long, Darwin; Perkins, Christopher; Schoch, Nina; Evers, David C

    2016-09-15

    We captured 93 wintering adult and subadult Common Loons (Gavia immer) in coastal Louisiana from 2011 to 2015 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We tested blood samples for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and measured physiological variables including hematocrit, hemoglobin and total blood protein. PAH concentrations in loon blood differed from year to year and by age class. High PAH concentrations were significantly related to lower body masses in both adult and subadult birds and higher serum protein levels in adults only. PAH concentrations had marginal relations with both hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. The types of PAHs detected also underwent a major shift over time. The PAHs detected in 2011, 2012, and 2015 were primarily low molecular weight (three carbon rings); however, in 2013, most detected PAHs were high molecular weight (four carbon rings). It is unclear what events led to the increase in PAH concentrations and the shift in type of PAHs over time. PMID:27177142

  12. [Limit values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of children's playgrounds--basic criteria and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, E; Liebl, B; Schwegler, U; Schmied, R; Kerscher, G

    1996-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAK) are often found in the soil of former waste disposal sites, industrial areas, etc. It is desirable and useful to determine orientation values to facilitate and unify the evaluation of contaminations under the aspects of present or planned uses of an area, health protection and decision-making on remedial measures. In the present paper we wish to draw attention to, and discuss problems resulting from, particular characteristics of PAK, e.g. the toxicological property "complete carcinogens" or the necessity of taking into account oral, inhalative and dermal exposure of children on a playground. Based on the discussion, orientation values for benzo[a]pyrene and PAK ("normal" pattern) of 0.5 mg/kg soil and 5 mg/kg soil, respectively, are recommended for top soil of vegetation-free playgrounds. In comparison, deductions carried out by other working groups are presented.

  13. Near Infrared Spectra of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D. M.; Bauschlicher, C. W.; Allamandola, L. J.

    The widespread, mid-IR interstellar emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 microns are generally attributed to vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Since these features typcially originate from radiation-rich regions, it has been generally thought that UV photons must dominate the interstellar excitation process since PAHs have very strong UV absorption bands. However, observations have shown that lower energy photons can also pump the emission (Aitken and Roche, Uchida and Sellgren), raising questions about the PAH model. Although it has long been known that larger PAHs should absorb at longer wavelengths (e.g. Schutte et. al., Salama et al., Li and Draine) data was not available for the isolated, neutral and ionized PAHs of sizes comparable to those thought responsible for the interstellar emission features. Here the matrix-isolated near-IR (NIR) spectra (from 0.7 to 2.5 microns) are presented for the anions and cations of PAHs ranging in size from C34H16 to C50H22. These molecules are characterized by strong absorption bands in this region, bands that can account for the emission of the interstellar features from UV poor regions. These NIR PAH transitions could also contribute to the extinction curve associated with the diffuse interstellar medium. For example, band overlap, as expected from a mixture of PAHs, can contribute to the continuum. Overlapping broad bands could lead to slight undulations in the continuum reminiscent of the Very Broad Structure (VBS, e.g. Hayes et al.). Furthermore, as previously pointed out, individual PAH bands may contribute to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) spectrum (e.g. Romanini)

  14. Sorption characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aluminum smelter residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedveld, Gijs D; Pelletier, Emilien; St Louis, Richard; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2007-04-01

    High temperature carbon oxidation in primary aluminum smelters results in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into the environment. The main source of PAH are the anodes, which are composed of petroleum coke (black carbon, BC) and coal tar pitch. To elucidate the dominant carbonaceous phase controlling the environmental fate of PAH in aluminum smelter residues (coke BC and/or coal tar), the sorptive behavior of PAHs has been determined, using passive samplers and infinitesink desorption methods. Samples directly from the wet scrubber were studied as well as ones from an adjacent 20-year old storage lagoon and roof dust from the smelter. Carbon-normalized distribution coefficients of native PAHs were 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected based on amorphous organic carbon (AOC)/water partitioning, which is in the same order of magnitude as reported literature values for soots and charcoals. Sorption isotherms of laboratory-spiked deuterated phenanthrene showed strong (-100 times stronger than AOC) but nonetheless linear sorption in both fresh and aged aluminum smelter residues. The absence of nonlinear behavior typical for adsorption to BC indicates that PAH sorption in aluminum smelter residues is dominated by absorption into the semi-solid coal tar pitch matrix. Desorption experiments using Tenax showed that fresh smelter residues had a relatively large rapidly desorbing fraction of PAH (35-50%), whereas this fraction was strongly reduced (11-16%) in the lagoon and roof dust material. Weathering of the coal tar residue and/or redistribution of PAH between coal tar and BC phases could explain the reduced availability in aged samples.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Kostrena coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsak, Dijana Tomić; Linsak, Zeljko; Besić, Denis; Vojcić, Nina; Telezar, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Susnić, Sasa; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22-48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (chrome concentrations were beyond detection limits, and copper concentrations were also beyond detection limits or extremely low (up to 0.32 microg/L). EC50 values in seawater ranged 23.80-90.90 ng/L. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of seawater showed strong connection between them (r = 0.9579). Total PAH concentration in marine sediment ranged 58.02-1116 microg/kg dry weight (d.w.). The share of carcinogenetic PAH was extremely high ranging 10-53%. Nickel concentrations in marine sediment ranged 8-24 mg/kg d.w., vanadium concentrations ranged 24-42 mg/kg d.w., chrome concentrations ranged 11-19 mg/kg d.w., and copper concentrations ranged 7-25 mg/kg d.w. EC50 values in marine sediment ranged 818-4596 microg/kg d.w. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of marine sediment showed weak connection between them (r = 0.2590). Previous studies of seawater samples from areas of the Adriatic sea under the direct influence of oil industry did not include concentrations of heavy metals, which makes our study the first to present such comprehensive results. Our results point out the need for further evaluations and following of marine environment pollution and its consequences on living organisms and marine ecosystem in whole.

  16. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS: A SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the proposal of relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) to neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in translucent interstellar clouds. An assessment of ionized PAHs will be examined in a future report. The spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase PAHs have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early-type stars. This comparison provides-for the first time-accurate upper limits for the abundances of specific PAH molecules along specific lines of sight, something not attainable from IR observations alone. The comparison of these unique laboratory data with high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra leads to two major findings: (1) a finding specific to the individual molecules that were probed in this study and, which leads to the clear and unambiguous conclusion that the abundance of these specific neutral PAHs must be very low in the individual translucent interstellar clouds that were probed in this survey (PAH features remain below the level of detection) and, (2) a general finding that neutral PAHs exhibit intrinsic band profiles that are similar to the profile of the narrow DIBs indicating that the carriers of the narrow DIBs must have close molecular structure and characteristics. This study is the first quantitative survey of neutral PAHs in the optical range and it opens the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments.

  17. Biological responses to dioxin-like compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in eelpout Zoarces viviparus. Contributions to an integrated environmental assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna

    This PhD project attempts to link exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to effects in the marine fish eelpout Zoarces viviparus by combining different in vivo and in vitro biomarkers in both...

  18. Sexual maturation in relation to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons: Sharpe and Skakkebaek's hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, Elly; Roels, Harry A; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Nawrot, Tim; Thijs, Lutgarde; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Winneke, Gerhard; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Staessen, Jan A

    2002-08-01

    Polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCAHs) have been described as endocrine disruptors in animals and in accidentally or occupationally exposed humans. In the present study we examined the effect of moderate exposure to PCAHs on sexual maturation. Two hundred adolescents (mean age, 17.4 years) who resided in two polluted suburbs and a rural control area in Flanders (Belgium) participated. We measured the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138, 153, and 180 and dioxin-like compounds [chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay] as biomarkers of exposure. School physicians assessed the pubertal development of boys and girls and measured testicular volume. In one suburb near two waste incinerators, compared with the other suburb and the control area, fewer boys (p ratio was 3.5 (p = 0.04). In girls, a doubling of the serum dioxin concentration increased the odds of not having reached the adult stage of breast development by 2.3 (p = 0.02). Left plus right testicular volume was lower in both polluted areas than in the control area (42.4 mL vs. 47.3 mL, p = 0.005) but was not related to the current exposure of the adolescents to PCAHs. Through endocrine disruption, environmental exposure to PCAHs may interfere with sexual maturation and in the long-run adversely affect human reproduction.

  19. Structurally Distinct Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Induce Differential Transcriptional Responses in Developing Zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodale, Britton; Tilton, Susan C.; Corvi, Margaret M.; Wilson, Glenn V.; Janszen, Derek B.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GC-MS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures.

  20. Optimization and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Zhou, Hui; Gan, Jay; Sun, Mingxing; Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Shen, Guoqing

    2015-03-01

    The agronomic benefit of biochar has attracted widespread attention to biochar-based fertilizers. However, the inevitable presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar is a matter of concern because of the health and ecological risks of these compounds. The strong adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to biochar complicates their analysis and extraction from biochar-based fertilizers. In this study, we optimized and validated a method for determining the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers. Results showed that accelerated solvent extraction exhibited high extraction efficiency. Based on a Box-Behnken design with a triplicate central point, accelerated solvent extraction was used under the following optimal operational conditions: extraction temperature of 78°C, extraction time of 17 min, and two static cycles. The optimized method was validated by assessing the linearity of analysis, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, and application to real samples. The results showed that the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The limits of detection varied between 0.001 (phenanthrene) and 0.021 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene), and the limits of quantification varied between 0.004 (phenanthrene) and 0.069 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene). The relative recoveries of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 70.26-102.99%.

  1. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1、Enterobacter sp. FbP2、Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study

  2. An Emission Inventory of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xilong; Zhu, Xianlei; Wang, Xuesong

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous compounds due to their high carcinogenic and mutagenic character. Emission inventory provides the primary data to account for the sources of ambient PAHs and server as a necessary database for effective PAHs pollution control. China is experiencing fast economic growth and large energy consumption, which might result in a large amount of PAHs anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, based on the previous studies and combined recently field emission measurements as well as socio-economic activity data, the development of a nationwide PAHs emission inventory is needed. In this work, the emission inventory of 16 PAHs listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in China in the year 2012 is compiled. The emission amounts of PAHs were estimated as annual rates of emission-related activities multiplied by respective emission factors. The activities such as fuel consumption, including fossil fuel and biofuel, and socio-economic statistics were obtained from yearbook released by Chinese central government and/or provincial governments, as well as related industry reports. Emission factors were derived from the related literature. Recently reported emission factors from local measurements were used. The total emissions of PAHs were 120611 ton in 2012. In China, PAHs were emitted predominantly from domestic combustion of coal and biofuel, coking industry and motor vehicles, accounting for 72% of the total amount. PAHs emission profiles were significantly different between China and the other countries. The emission profile in China featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic combustion and coking industry. Domestic combustion of straw, coal and firewood emitted 19464 ton, 8831 ton, and 5062 ton of PAHs, respectively, which were much higher than those in other countries. Emission per capita showed

  3. The Origins of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Are They Everywhere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    During the past 15 years considerable progress in observational techniques has been achieved in the middle-infrared region (5000-500 per centimeter, 2-20 micron), the region where most diagnostic molecular vibrations occur. Spectra of many different astronomical infrared sources, some deeply embedded in dark molecular clouds and others at their edges, are now available. These spectra provide a powerful probe, not only for the identification of interstellar molecules in both the gas and solid phases, but also of the physical and chemical conditions which prevail in these two very different domains. The two lectures will focus on the evidence that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important, ubiquitous and abundant interstellar species. PAHs are. extremely stable species which can range in size from a few angstroms across to several hundred angstroms (PAHs are also the building blocks of amorphous carbon particles). This identification rests on the suggestive agreement between the laboratory spectra of PAHs with a set of IR emission bands which emanate from many different sources where ultraviolet starlight impinges on a "dusty" region. The picture is that individual PAHs are first pumped into highly vibrationally excited states and relax by fluorescence at their fundamental vibrational frequencies. That PAHs are a ubiquitous interstellar component has serious ramifications in other spectral regions as well, including the strong extinction in the ultraviolet, and the classic visible diffuse interstellar bands discovered more than 50 years ago (but unexplained to this day) The first part of the course will focus on the interpretation of astronomical spectra. The second lecture will start by showing how recent laboratory data on PAHs taken under realistic interstellar conditions has con borated the PAH hypothesis and led to great insight into the conditions in the PAH containing regions. This lecture will end by reviewing the ever-increasing evidence for

  4. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haritash, A.K., E-mail: akharitash@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India); Kaushik, C.P. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} (aerobic) or CH{sub 4} (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  5. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coking industries in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Mu; Lin Peng; Junji Cao; Qiusheng He; Fan Li; Jianqiang Zhang; Xiaofeng Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from coking industries,with field samplings conducted at four typical coke plants.For each selected plant,stack flue gas samples were collected during processes that included charging coal into the ovens (CC),pushing coke (PC) and the combustion of coke-oven gas (CG).Sixteen individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Results showed that the total PAH concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 45.776 to 414.874 μg/m3,with the highest emission level for CC (359.545 μg/m3).The concentration of PAH emitted from the CC process in CP1 (stamp charging) was lower than that from CP3 and CP4 (top charging).Low-molecular-weight PAHs (i.e.,two-to three-ring PAHs) were predominant contributors to the total PAH contents,and Nap,AcPy,Flu,PhA,and AnT were found to be the most abundant ones.Total BaPeq concentrations for CC (2.248 iμg/m3) were higher than those for PC (1.838 μg/m3) and CG (1.082 μg/m3),and DbA was an important contributor to carcinogenic risk as BaP in emissions from coking processes.Particulate PAH accounted for more than 20% of the total BaPeq concentrations,which were significantly higher than the corresponding contributions to the total PAH mass concentration (5%).Both particulate and gaseous PAH should be taken into consideration when the potential toxicity risk of PAH pollution during coking processes is assessed.The mean total-PAH emission factors were 346.132 and 93.173 μg/kg for CC and PC,respectively.

  6. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H2O, CO2 (aerobic) or CH4 (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate can be

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  9. Occurrence and transformation of tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in low rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazai, I.; Alexander, G. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Laboratory for Inorganic Chemistry)

    1991-08-01

    Aromatic components of extracts obtained from four low rank coal samples were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A number of compounds were observed for the first time. The tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated in detail. They show close similarities in structure to those reported to be formed in laboratory dehydrogenation experiments. The co-occurrence of molecules in the same samples containing additional unsaturation as well as the aromatic ring(s), offers strong support for the hypothesis of progressive aromatization of diterpenoids. A hypothetical diagenetic pathway is proposed to explain the generation of many of the compounds present. In the pathway the following reactions were considered: aromatization (i.e. dehydrogenation), elimination of substituents, methyl shift, isomerization and side chain shortening of fully aromatized species. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, M J; Furman, J; Ryan, C; Durrant, J; Kern, E

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  11. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to biochar amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malev, O; Contin, M; Licen, S; Barbieri, P; De Nobili, M

    2016-02-01

    Biochar has a charcoal polycyclic aromatic structure which allows its long half-life in soil, making it an ideal tool for C sequestration and for adsorption of organic pollutants, but at the same time raises concerns about possible adverse impacts on soil biota. Two biochars were tested under laboratory-controlled conditions on Eisenia andrei earthworms: a biochar produced at low temperature from wine tree cuttings (WTB) and a commercial low tar hardwood lump charcoal (HLB). The avoidance test (48-h exposure) showed that earthworms avoid biochar-treated soil with rates higher than 16 t ha(-1) for HLB and 64 t ha(-1) for WTB. After 42 days, toxic effects on earthworms were observed even at application rates (100 t ha(-1)) that are generally considered beneficial for most crops. The concentration of HLB and WTB required to kill half of earthworms' population (LC50; 95% confidence limits) in the synthetic OECD soil was 338 and 580 t ha(-1), respectively. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in earthworms exposed to the two biochar types at 100 t ha(-1) was tested in two soils of different texture. In biochar-treated soils, the average earthworm survival rates were about 64% in the sandy and 78% clay-loam soils. PAH accumulation was larger in the sandy soil and largest in soils amended with HLB. PAH with less than four rings were preferentially scavenged from the soil by biochars, and this behaviour may mask that of the more dangerous components (i.e. four to five rings), which are preferentially accumulated. Earthworms can accumulate PAH as a consequence of exposure to biochar-treated soils and transfer them along the food chain. Soil type and biochar quality are both relevant in determining PAH transfer. PMID:26490928

  12. Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Information on potential cough triggers including environmental irritants is vital for successful management of chronic cough in patients. We investigated the relationship between ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and sulphur dioxide (SO₂) exposures with cough prevalence. Eighty-three adult patients, who had been physician diagnosed with at least asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough, were divided into asthma and non-asthma groups. They recorded daily cough symptoms during 4 January-30 June 2011 study period while daily samples of total suspended particles were simultaneously collected by use of glass fiber filters and the particulate PAH content determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector. Ambient concentrations of NO₂ and SO₂ were obtained from a local monitoring site. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine population-averaged estimates of association between cough prevalence and ambient pollutant exposures for the two groups. Fully adjusted odds ratios from single pollutant models were 1.083 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.029, 1.140) and 1.097 (95% CI: 1.016, 1.185) per 0.57 ng/m³ for lag2 PAH exposure, while only for asthma group had significant associations with NO₂ and SO₂ exposures for both lag2 and lag02. Similar associations were observed in multipollutant models. This finding suggests that ambient PAH, NO₂, and SO₂ exposure even at low levels is related to cough prevalence in adult chronic cough patients and may be considered as aggravating factor during clinical management of the condition. PMID:27517941

  13. Shorter telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Sofia; Pesatori, Angela-C; Dioni, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Siwinska, Ewa; Mielzyńska, Danuta; Bolognesi, Claudia; Bertazzi, Pier-Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    Shorter telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) is predictive of lung cancer risk. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are established lung carcinogens that cause chromosome instability. Whether PAH exposure and its molecular effects are linked with shorter TL has never been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure to PAHs on TL measured in PBLs of Polish male non-current smoking cokeoven workers and matched controls. PAH exposure and molecular effects were characterized using measures of internal dose (urinary 1-pyrenol), effective dose [anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (anti-BPDE)-DNA adduct], genetic instability (micronuclei, MN) and DNA methylation [p53 promoter and Alu and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements, as surrogate measures of global methylation] in PBLs. TL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cokeoven workers were heavily exposed to PAHs (79% exceeded the urinary 1-pyrenol biological exposure index) and exhibited lower TL (P = 0.038) than controls, as well as higher levels of genetic and chromosomal alterations [i.e. anti-BPDE-DNA adduct and MN (P < 0.0001)] and epigenetic changes [i.e. p53 gene-specific promoter and global methylation (P exposure. The interrelations with other genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in our data suggest that shorter TL could be a central event in PAH carcinogenesis.

  14. Structurally distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce differential transcriptional responses in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodale, Britton C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Corvi, Margaret M.; Wilson, Glenn R. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Janszen, Derek B. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Anderson, Kim A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: tanguay.robert@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GC–MS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures. - Highlights: • Defined global mRNA expression

  15. Photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under a climate change base scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Audí-Miró, Carme; Sierra, Jordi; Soler, Albert; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two typical Mediterranean soils, either coarse- or fine-textured, was here investigated. Soil samples, spiked with the 16 US EPA priority PAHs, were incubated in a climate chamber at stable conditions of temperature (20 °C) and light (9.6 W m(-2)) for 28 days, simulating a climate change base scenario. PAH concentrations in soils were analyzed throughout the experiment, and correlated with data obtained by means of Microtox(®) ecotoxicity test. Photodegradation was found to be dependent on exposure time, molecular weight of each hydrocarbon, and soil texture. Fine-textured soil was able to enhance sorption, being PAHs more photodegraded than in coarse-textured soil. According to the EC50 values reported by Microtox(®), a higher detoxification was observed in fine-textured soil, being correlated with the outcomes of the analytical study. Significant photodegradation rates were detected for a number of PAHs, namely phenanthrene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and indeno(123-cd)pyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene, commonly used as an indicator for PAH pollution, was completely removed after 7 days of light exposure. In addition to the PAH chemical analysis and the ecotoxicity tests, a hydrogen isotope analysis of benzo(a)pyrene was also carried out. The degradation of this specific compound was associated to a high enrichment in (2)H, obtaining a maximum δ(2)H isotopic shift of +232‰. This strong isotopic effect observed in benzo(a)pyrene suggests that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) may be a powerful tool to monitor in situ degradation of PAHs. Moreover, hydrogen isotopes of benzo(a)pyrene evidenced a degradation process of unknown origin occurring in the darkness.

  16. Photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under a climate change base scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Audí-Miró, Carme; Sierra, Jordi; Soler, Albert; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two typical Mediterranean soils, either coarse- or fine-textured, was here investigated. Soil samples, spiked with the 16 US EPA priority PAHs, were incubated in a climate chamber at stable conditions of temperature (20 °C) and light (9.6 W m(-2)) for 28 days, simulating a climate change base scenario. PAH concentrations in soils were analyzed throughout the experiment, and correlated with data obtained by means of Microtox(®) ecotoxicity test. Photodegradation was found to be dependent on exposure time, molecular weight of each hydrocarbon, and soil texture. Fine-textured soil was able to enhance sorption, being PAHs more photodegraded than in coarse-textured soil. According to the EC50 values reported by Microtox(®), a higher detoxification was observed in fine-textured soil, being correlated with the outcomes of the analytical study. Significant photodegradation rates were detected for a number of PAHs, namely phenanthrene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and indeno(123-cd)pyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene, commonly used as an indicator for PAH pollution, was completely removed after 7 days of light exposure. In addition to the PAH chemical analysis and the ecotoxicity tests, a hydrogen isotope analysis of benzo(a)pyrene was also carried out. The degradation of this specific compound was associated to a high enrichment in (2)H, obtaining a maximum δ(2)H isotopic shift of +232‰. This strong isotopic effect observed in benzo(a)pyrene suggests that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) may be a powerful tool to monitor in situ degradation of PAHs. Moreover, hydrogen isotopes of benzo(a)pyrene evidenced a degradation process of unknown origin occurring in the darkness. PMID:26841292

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Residues in Serum Samples of Autopsied Individuals from Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramandla Ramesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in human blood sera samples (n = 650 obtained at autopsy from individuals who died of drug abuse, alcohol toxicity, homicide, suicide and other unknown causes. The analyzed samples from decedents revealed the presence of PAHs of which B(aP was the most predominant one, followed by benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(kfluoranthene. The other PAHs detected sporadically and measured were benzo(g,h,iperylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene The mean concentrations of PAHs were greater in the twenties to fifties age groups compared to others. The PAH residue levels detected were high in African Americans compared to Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. It appears that environmental exposure, dietary intake and in some cases occupational exposure may have contributed to the PAH body burden. While the PAH residue concentrations measured fall within the range of those reported for healthy adults elsewhere, in isolated cases, the concentrations detected were high, calling the need for a reduction in PAH emissions and human biomonitoring studies for purposes of risk assessment.

  18. Emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Natural Gas Extraction into Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, L Blair; Donald, Carey E; Smith, Brian W; Tidwell, Lane G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Kincl, Laurel; Haynes, Erin N; Anderson, Kim A

    2016-07-19

    Natural gas extraction, often referred to as "fracking", has increased rapidly in the United States in recent years. To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom. Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene, and carcinogenic potency of PAH mixtures were highest when samplers were closest to active wells. PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were comparable to levels previously reported in rural areas in winter. Sourcing ratios indicated that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth. Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. At sites closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 0.04 in a million, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acceptable risk level. Overall, risk estimates decreased 30% when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest from them. This work suggests that natural gas extraction is contributing PAHs to the air, at levels that would not be expected to increase cancer risk. PMID:27400263

  19. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in umbilical cord blood of human neonates from Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongyong; Huo, Xia [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Wu, Kusheng [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Liu, Junxiao; Zhang, Yuling [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2012-06-15

    Unregulated electronic-waste recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Guiyu, China. We evaluated the body burden of seven carcinogenic PAHs and potential health risks for neonates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from Guiyu (n = 103), and the control area of Chaonan (n = 80), China. PAHs in UCB were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The median N-Ary-Summation 7c-PAH concentration was 108.05 ppb in UCB samples from Guiyu, vs. 79.36 ppb in samples from Chaonan. Residence in Guiyu and longer cooking time of food during the gestation period were significant factors contributing to the N-Ary-Summation 7c-PAH level. Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were found to correlate with reduced neonatal height and gestational age. Infants experiencing adverse birth outcomes, on the whole, displayed higher BaA, Chr, and BaP levels compared to those with normal outcomes. We conclude that maternal PAH exposure results in fetal accumulation of toxic PAHs, and that such prenatal exposure correlates with adverse effects on neonatal health.

  20. Emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Natural Gas Extraction into Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, L Blair; Donald, Carey E; Smith, Brian W; Tidwell, Lane G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Kincl, Laurel; Haynes, Erin N; Anderson, Kim A

    2016-07-19

    Natural gas extraction, often referred to as "fracking", has increased rapidly in the United States in recent years. To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom. Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene, and carcinogenic potency of PAH mixtures were highest when samplers were closest to active wells. PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were comparable to levels previously reported in rural areas in winter. Sourcing ratios indicated that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth. Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. At sites closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 0.04 in a million, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acceptable risk level. Overall, risk estimates decreased 30% when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest from them. This work suggests that natural gas extraction is contributing PAHs to the air, at levels that would not be expected to increase cancer risk.

  1. A double isotope dilution method for assaying of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a double isotope dilution method for analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) phenanthrene, fluor-anthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene in cigarette smoke particulates. The first isotope dilution used deuterated analogues of the first three PAH as internal standards. The second isotope dilution, for benzo[a]pyrene, used the tritiated analogue as an internal standard. The PAH were isolated from extracts of cigarette smoke particulates using a two-step procedure based on selective extraction from aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) followed by chromatography on silica gel extraction columns. After isolation, aliquots of the samples were analyzed for phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Separate aliquots of the samples were analyzed for benzo[a]pyrene by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection followed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. PAH levels from cigarette smoke condensates collected from different exposure modes were compared; no exposure-related differences were found. (author)

  2. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M.J.; Light, B.A.; Weston, A.; Tollurud, D.; Clark, J.L.; Mann, D.L.; Blackmon, J.P.; Harris, C.C.

    1988-07-01

    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactions between the benzo(a)pyrene and the chrysene diol-epoxide adducts were present. Similar cross-reactivity between the benz(a)anthracene and the chrysene adducts was observed. Sera containing antibodies that were apparently specific for each of the three PAH-DNA adducts were also identified. The presence of antibodies to PAH-DNA adducts indicates both past exposure to these carcinogenic PAH and their metabolic activation to the DNA damaging metabolites. These antibodies may prove to be useful in both retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies of various diseases associated with PAH exposure.

  3. Probing the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the photoelectric heating within photodissociation regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okada, Y.; Pilleri, P.; Berne, O.; Ossenkopf, V.; Fuente, A.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Joblin, C.; Kramer, C.; Roellig, M.; Teyssier, D.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We observationally investigate the relation between the photoelectric heating efficiency in photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the charge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are considered to play a key role in photoelectric heating. Methods. Using PACS onboard Herschel, we obs

  4. Novel β-cyclodextrin modified quantum dots as fluorescent probes for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Ping Han; Hai Bing Li

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs)were prepared via a simple sonochemical procedure using β-cyclodextrin (CD)as surface coating agent.The QDs displayed a sensitive emission enhancement for anthracene over other related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,and the detection limit was around 1.6 × 10-8 mol/L.

  5. The NASA Ames Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Infrared Spectroscopic Database : The Computed Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauschlicher, C. W.; Boersma, C.; Ricca, A.; Mattioda, A. L.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; de Armas, F. Sanchez; Saborido, G. Puerta; Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The astronomical emission features, formerly known as the unidentified infrared bands, are now commonly ascribed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The laboratory experiments and computational modeling done at the NASA Ames Research Center to create a collection of PAH IR spectra relevant t

  6. 多环芳烃的加氢裂化%Hydrocracking of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全信; 刘希尧

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress on the catalysts, reaction network and reaction mechanism for hydrocracking of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in recent years.%本文综述了近年来多环芳烃加氢裂化反应催化剂、反应网络及反应机理等方面的研究进展。

  7. Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a seminatur

  8. Longitudinal study of excretion of metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine from two psoriatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Poulsen, O M; Menné, T

    1993-01-01

    Coal tar, which is widely used in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis, chronic eczema, and psoriasis, contains a large amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Some of the PAH compounds are known either to be carcinogenic or to potentiate the effects of other carcinogenic...

  9. Gas-phase infrared spectra of cationized nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galué, Alvaro; Pirali, O.; Oomens, J.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase infrared spectra of several ionized nitrogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) have been recorded in the 600-1600 cm(-1) region via IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The UV photoionized PANH ions are trapped and isolated in a quadrupole ion trap where

  10. Gas-phase infrared spectra of cationized nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Galué; O. Pirali; J. Oomens

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase infrared spectra of several ionized nitrogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) have been recorded in the 600-1600 cm-1 region via IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The UV photoionized PANH ions are trapped and isolated in a quadrupole ion trap where t

  11. Availabiltiy and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Controlling processes and comparison of testing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskam, G.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the availability and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two contaminated materials, a tar-containing asphalt granulate (¿16 US-EPA PAHs 3412 mg/kg) and gasworks soil (¿PAHs 900 mg/kg), by comparing results from three typical types of leaching tests: a column, se

  12. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot and sediment : solvent selection and implications for sorption mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Soot contains high levels of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Extraction of PAHs from soot for quantitative analysis is difficult because the compounds are extremely tightly bound to the sorbent matrix. This study was designed to investigate the effect of solvent type

  13. Development of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-bin; LIU Yan; LIN Jin-ming; TANG Ning; HAYAKAWA Kazuichi; MAEDA Tsuneaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present work,the different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates is systematacially reviewed, and the applications of these pretreatment and analytical methods for PAHs are compared in detail. Some comments on the future expectation are also presented.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust in regions of massive star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Els

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known on earth as a large family of tarry materials naturally present in for example coal and crude oil. In addition, they are also formed in the combustion of all sorts of carbonaceous fuels and hence are found in auto exhaust, cigarette smoke, candle soo

  15. Gas phase adiabatic electron affinities of cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, P.D.; Koper, C.; van Lenthe, J.H.; Jenneskens, L.W.

    2008-01-01

    The B3LYP/DZP++ adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of nine (non)-alternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are reported and discussed. Calculations became feasible for molecules this size by projecting out the near-linearly dependent part of the one-electron basis. Non-alternant PAH consisting of an

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ionization as a tracer of gas flows through protoplanetary disk gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Maaskant; M. Min; L.B.F.M. Waters; A.G.G.M. Tielens

    2014-01-01

    Context. Planet-forming disks of gas and dust around young stars contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aims. We aim to characterize how the charge state of PAHs can be used as a probe of flows of gas through protoplanetary gaps. In this context, our goal is to understand the PAH spectra o

  17. Effect of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on nodulation of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 on Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Paredes, Y.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.; Alarcon, A.

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous organic pollutants that are considered toxic and carcinogenic compounds to living organisms. There us scarce information about the effect of PAH on symbiotic systems such as Azolla-Anabaena, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-plants, or legume-rhizobia. (Author)

  18. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.H. Haftka; J.R. Parsons; H.A.J. Govers

    2006-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method using Kovats retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P-i), enthalpy of vaporization (Delta H-i) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (Delta C-i) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON GEOMETRY ON THE HYDROLYSIS OF DIOL EPOXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative studies of the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geometry on the hydrolysis of diol epoxides The interaction of the diol epoxides (DEs) of both planar and non-planar PAHs with water have been examined using quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics. Th...

  20. [Retrieval of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pin-Hua; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing; Qin, Min; Li, Ang; Liu, Shi-Sheng; Wei, Qing-Nong

    2006-09-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique has been used to measure trace gases in the atmosphere by their strongly structured absorption of radiation in the UV and visible spectral range, e. g. SO2, NO2, O3 etc. However, unlike the absorption spectra of SO2 and NO2, the analysis of aromatic compounds is difficult and strongly suffers from the cross interference of other absorbers (Herzberg bands of oxygen, ozone and sulfur dioxide), especially with relatively low concentrations of aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. In the present paper, the DOAS evaluation of aromatic compounds was performed by nonlinear least square fit with two interpolated oxygen optical density spectra at different path lengths and reference spectra of ozone at different temperature and SO2 cross section to correct the interference from absorbers of O2, O3 and SO2. The measurement of toluene, benzene, (m, p, o) xylene and phenol with a DOAS system showed that DOAS method is suitable for monocyclic aromatic compounds monitoring in the atmosphere. PMID:17112022

  1. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part A-Monocyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-08-01

    Present study focused on the screening of bacterial consortium for biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (MAH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Target compounds in the present study were naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene (PAHs), and benzene (MAH). Microbial consortia enriched with the above target compounds were used in screening experiments. Naphthalene-enriched consortium was found to be the most efficient consortium, based on its substrate degradation rate and its ability to degrade other aromatic pollutants with significantly high efficiency. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order benzene > naphthalene > acenaphthene > phenanthrene. Chryseobacterium and Rhodobacter were discerned as the predominant species in naphthalene-enriched culture. They are closely associated to the type strain Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae and Rhodobacter maris, respectively. Single substrate biodegradation studies with naphthalene (PAH) and benzene (MAH) were carried out using naphthalene-enriched microbial consortium (NAPH). Phenol and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde were identified as the predominant intermediates during benzene and naphthalene degradation, respectively. Biodegradation of toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, phenol, and indole by NAPH was also investigated. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for benzene, whereas multiple substrate biodegradation model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for naphthalene.

  2. DNA damage in humans exposed to environmental and dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoket, Bernadette [National Institute of Environmental Health, Jozsef Fodor National Centre of Public Health, Gyaliut 2-6, Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-03-08

    The paper describes recent research on human DNA damage related to environmental and dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Pah) exposures. The study populations either represent general populations of large geographical regions, or their exposure situation may have relevance to the general population. In Silesia, Poland, and Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic, where coal-based industry and domestic heating are the major sources of PAHs, significant differences have been observed in white blood cell DNA adducts and cytogenetic biomarkers between environmentally exposed and rural control populations, and significant seasonal variations of DNA damage have been detected. Bus drivers, traffic policemen and local residents have been involved in biomarker studies in Copenhagen, Athens, Genoa and Cairo, and differences have been measured in the level of DNA damage of urban and rural populations. Burning of smoky coal in unvented homes in Xuan Weiregion, China, causes high PAH exposure of residents, which has been reflected in DNA adduct levels in different tissues. Indoor wood burning in open fireplaces did not increase human DNA adduct levels. Oil-well fires left burning in Kuwait after the Persian Gulf war created an unprecedented environmental pollution. However, insignificant environmental PAH levels were measured several miles from these fires. Aromatic and PAH-DNA adduct level sin white blood cells of US Army soldiers were lower during their deployment in Kuwait, than in Fulda, Germany, where they were stationed before and after serving in Kuwait. The contribution of dietary PAH exposure to blood cell DNA adduct levels had been demonstrated in studies in which volunteers consumed heavily charbroiled beef. Environmental tobacco smoke did not cause detectable changes, as measured by{sup 32}P-postlabelling, in DNA adduct levels in non-smokers. In the reviewed studies, observed DNA adduct levels were generally in the range of 1 to 10 adducts, and not higher than 40

  3. Non-covalent Interactions of Graphene with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zygouri, Panagiota; Potsi, Georgia; Mouzourakis, Eleftherios; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In this mini review we discuss the interactions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with graphene and the experimental approaches developed so far to create novel graphene/PAH hybrids and composite systems. The utilization of these systems in electrical, biomedical and polymer-reinforcement applicat

  4. Adsorption of polar aromatic hydrocarbons on synthetic calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene; Grahl-Madsen, Laila; Grøn, Christian;

    1996-01-01

    The wettability of hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. A model system of synthetic call cite, cyclohexane and the three probe molecules: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine, have been...

  5. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in soi

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric depositions around the Venice Lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Paolo; Matteucci, Gabriele; Raccanelli, Stefano; Favotto, Maurizio; Guerzoni, Stefano; Gattolin, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Studies have revealed the potential risks to which human health and ecosystems are exposed in the Venice Lagoon, due to the atmospheric deposition of persistent pollutants such as trace metals and organic compounds. A total of 77 atmospheric bulk deposition samples were collected monthly from April 2002 to December 2004, from three sites located in the cities of Mestre and Venice, and inside the industrial area of Porto Marghera. Samples were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS for polycyclic aromatic hydr...

  7. Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Degrading Bacteria in the Desert Soil of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples of different levels of oil pollutants were collected from Kuwait's Burgan Oil Field, near an oil lake. The samples represented, highly polluted (8.0% w/w), moderately polluted (2.1%-3.4%) and slightly polluted (2.1%-3.4%) and slightly polluted (0.5- 0.8%). The aromatic fractions of the collected samples were in the range of (0.21-2.57g/100g) soil. (GC) analysis of the aromatic fractions of the resolution of the different individual (PAHs) revealed the presence of (16) different (PAHs) resolved from the aromatic fraction of the highly polluted sample (S3). (15), (14) and (13) individual (PAHs) were identified soil samples (S5), (S2) and (S1, S4, S6) respectively. The most frequent (PAH) was indeno (1, 2, 3-c, d) pyrene (22.5%-45.11%) followed chrysene (13.6%-19.48%). Eight carcinogenic (PAHs) were resolved from the aromatic fractions of the polluted samples. Total carcinogenic (PAHs) recorded in this study were in this study were in the range of (11.53) (forS4) - (510.98) (for S3) ppm. The counts of (CFU) of aromatic degraders (AD) were in the range of (3x10) - (110x 10) (CFU/g) soil (with a percent of (2.2%-69.6%)). The results show that, higher counts of (AD) were recorded from a highly polluted sample (S3), followed by the moderately polluted samples; total of (51) bacteria, that gave presumptive positive biodegradation activities, were isolated and identified (45.1%) of them were isolated and identified. (45.1%) of them were isolated from the highly polluted sample (S3). Total of (13) different species were identified of which Micrococcus luteus was more frequent (23.5) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (19.6%) and Bacillus subtilis (11.8%). The three Pseudomonas species collectively were presented by (11.8%). Five different species proved to be of good activities, they are: Bacillus brevis, Bacillus lichenoformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas flourescens. The ability of five species and their mixture was

  8. Effect of irradiance spectra on the photoinduced toxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, S.A.; Mount, D.R.; Burkhard, L.P.; Ankley, G.T.; Makynen, E.A.; Leonard, E.N.

    2000-05-01

    Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is dependent on the concentration of compounds present and the dose of light received. Of the light present, only those wavelengths absorbed by the compound have the potential to initiate the photochemical events underlying phototoxicity. This suggests that variation in light spectra present in natural waters, arising from variation in dissolved organic carbon composition, is an important determinant of phototoxicity risk in specific, PAH-contaminated waterbodies. To quantify the effect of environmentally realistic variation in light spectra on toxicity, brine shrimp (Artemia salina) assays were conducted under various light spectra and with three PAHs (pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene) of known phototoxicity potential. In these spectral assays, the total ultraviolet light present was equivalent; only the spectral characteristics varied. Based on the absorbance spectra of these PAHs, it was predicted that toxicity, quantified using immobilization as the endpoint, would vary significantly among light spectra in pyrene assays, but not in anthracene assays, and that variation in toxicity in fluoranthene assays would be intermediate. The results supported these assumptions. In the pyrene exposures, the glass filter time to 50% population immobilization (IT50) (39.5 min) was 117% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (18.2 min). In the fluoranthene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (49.5 min) was 27% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (39.1 min). In the anthracene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (62.2 min) was not statistically different from the KCr filter IT50 (63.8 min). Comparison of these results with the results of assays conducted under neutral-density filters (that change intensity but not spectral distribution) demonstrate that multiplying spectral intensity by wavelength-specific absorbance accurately predicts relative photoinduced toxicity among the experimental treatments. These results indicate

  9. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  10. Novel Approach for Evaluating Secondary Organic Aerosol from Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Unified Method for Predicting Aerosol Composition and Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Kacarab, Mary; Cocker, David R

    2016-06-21

    Innovative secondary organic aerosol (SOA) composition analysis methods normalizing aerosol yield and chemical composition on an aromatic ring basis are developed and utilized to explore aerosol formation from oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. SOA yield and chemical composition are revisited using 15 years of University of California, Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber data on 17 aromatic hydrocarbons with HC:NO ranging from 11.1 to 171 ppbC:ppb. SOA yield is redefined in this work by normalizing the molecular weight of all aromatic precursors to the molecular weight of the aromatic ring [Formula: see text], where i is the aromatic hydrocarbon precursor. The yield normalization process demonstrates that the amount of aromatic rings present is a more significant driver of aerosol formation than the vapor pressure of the precursor aromatic. Yield normalization also provided a basis to evaluate isomer impacts on SOA formation. Further, SOA elemental composition is explored relative to the aromatic ring rather than on a classical mole basis. Generally, four oxygens per aromatic ring are observed in SOA, regardless of the alkyl substitutes attached to the ring. Besides the observed SOA oxygen to ring ratio (O/R ∼ 4), a hydrogen to ring ratio (H/R) of 6 + 2n is observed, where n is the number of nonaromatic carbons. Normalization of yield and composition to the aromatic ring clearly demonstrates the greater significance of aromatic ring carbons compared with alkyl carbon substituents in determining SOA formation and composition. PMID:27177154

  11. Modeling the changes in the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons from an oil-coated gravel column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a lab-scale flow-through exposure system designed for the evaluation of ecotoxicity due to oil spills was evaluated. The system simulates a spill event using an oil-coated gravel column through which filtered seawater is passed and flows into an aquarium containing fish embryos of olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and spotted sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculates). The dissolved concentrations of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the column effluent were monitored and compared with theoretical solubilities predicted by Raoult's law. The effluent concentrations after 24 and 48 h were close to the theoretical predictions for the higher molecular weight PAHs, whereas the measured values for the lower molecular weight PAHs were lower than predicted. The ratios of the concentration of PAHs in flounder embryos to that in seawater were close to the lipid-water partition coefficients for the less hydrophobic PAHs, showing that equilibrium was attained between embryos and water. On the other hand, 48 h were insufficient to attain phase equilibrium for the more hydrophobic PAHs, indicating that the concentration in fish embryos may be lower than expected by equilibrium assumption. The results indicate that the equilibrium approach may be suitable for less hydrophobic PAHs, whereas it might overestimate the effects of more hydrophobic PAHs after oil spills because phase equilibrium in an oil-seawater-biota system is unlikely to be achieved. The ecotoxicological endpoints that were affected within a few days are likely to be influenced mainly by moderately hydrophobic components such as 3-ring PAHs.

  12. Evaluation of ginkgo as a biomonitor of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Abe, Maho; Kakumoto, Yoriko; Kawano, Hiromi; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-07-01

    The utility of ginkgo leaves as biomonitors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. We investigated PAH concentrations among tree species, the effect of variations in leaf position in a tree, tissue distributions, correlations between ginkgo leaves and air, and seasonal variations. Among the five species examined (Ginkgo biloba L., Zelkova serrata Makino, Liriodendron tulipifera L., Prunus yedoensis Matsum, and Magnolia kobus DC.), ginkgo accumulated the greatest amount of PAHs from roadside air. Most PAHs (˜80%) were accumulated in the wax fraction, and most of the remainder (17%) penetrated the inner tissues of the leaves. PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves decreased with increasing height and distance from the road, reflecting the derivation of PAHs from vehicle emissions. Seasonal time-series sampling showed that PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves increased with time, attributable to the effects of temperature and accumulation through long-term exposure. Concentrations in ginkgo leaves collected from various roads showed a strong and significant correlation with those in air collected by a high-volume air sampler (r2 = 0.68, P Ginkgo leaf data clearly showed a dramatic decrease in the ratio of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs to high-molecular-weight PAHs from 2001 or 2002 to 2006, indicating that on-road diesel emission regulations effectively reduced LMW PAH concentrations in air.

  13. Polystyrene plastic: a source and sink for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Manzano, Carlos; Hentschel, Brian T.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Hoh, Eunha

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on virgin polystyrene (PS) and PS marine debris led us to examine PS as a source and sink for PAHs in the marine environment. At two locations in San Diego Bay, we measured sorption of PAHs to PS pellets, sampling at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. We detected 25 PAHs using a new analytical method with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Several congeners were detected on samples before deployment. After deployment, some concentrations decreased (1,3-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,6-methylnaphthalene) while most increased (2-methylanthracene and all parent PAHs (PPAHs) except fluorene and fluoranthene), suggesting PS debris is a source and sink for PAHs. When comparing sorbed concentrations of PPAHs on PS to the five most common polymers (polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP)), PS sorbed greater concentrations than PP, PET and PVC, similar to HDPE and LDPE. Most strikingly, at 0 months, PPAHs on PS ranged from 8-200 times greater than on PET, HDPE, PVC, LDPE, and PP. The combination of greater PAHs in virgin pellets and large sorption suggests that PS may pose a greater risk of exposure to PAHs upon ingestion. PMID:24341360

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban green spaces of Beijing: concentration, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Jianzhi; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban green space soils of Beijing, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. The objective of this study was to determine concentration, spatial distribution, and health risk of 15 PAHs in 121 surface soil (0-5 cm) samples collected from four types of green space, such as park green space (PGS), roadside green space (RDS), residential green space (RGS), and attached green space (AGS). Results showed that the highest concentrations of 15 PAHs was in soils of RDS, followed by RGS, PGS, and AGS. The level of PAHs pollution was seriously and mainly distributed in the central and southwest of the city. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) associated with exposures to PAHs in soil was calculated separately for children and adults under normal and extreme conditions. The results showed that ILCRs for urban green space soil of Beijing were low under normal conditions. But individual samples are seriously polluted, and its potential health risks cannot be ignored. PMID:27502522

  15. Mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Tai-An; Ko, Ying-Chin [Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu, Pei-Fen [Department of Industrial Safety and Hygiene, Tajen Junior College of Pharmacy, Ping-Tung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang, Li-Fang [School of Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lee, Huei [Department of Biochemistry, Chung San Medical and Dental College, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lee, Chien-Hung [School of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-11-28

    According to epidemiologic studies, exposure of women to fumes from cooking oils appears to be an important risk factor for lung cancer. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and analyzed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes were found to be mutagenic in the presence of S9 mix. All samples contained dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DB(a,h)A) and benz(a)anthracene (B(a)A). Concentration of DB(a,h)A and B(a)A were 1.9 and 2.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in fumes from lard oil, 2.1 and 2.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in soybean oil, 1.8 and 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in peanut oil, respectively. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was identified in fume samples of soybean and peanut oil, in concentrations of 19.6 and 18.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, in this order. These results provide experimental evidence and support the findings of epidemiologic observations, in which women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at increased risk of contracting lung cancer

  16. Identification of products formed during the heterogeneous nitration and ozonation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Richard E.; Jeong, Haewoo; Haddadi, Shokouh; Fisseha Derseh, Rebeka; Gowan, Alexandra; Beránek, Josef; Kubátová, Alena

    2016-03-01

    The 3- and 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the most abundant of PAHs in air particulate matter (PM). Thus we have investigated heterogeneous oxidation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs in a small-scale flow reactor using quartz filter as a support. Four representative PAHs, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene, were exposed to either NO2, O3 or NO2+O3 (NO3/N2O5) with a goal to identify and attempt quantification of major product distribution. A combination of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with/without derivatization and liquid chromatography with high resolution MS (LC-HRMS) was used for identification. For the first time, a comprehensive characterization of a broad range of products enabled identifying ketone/diketone, aldehyde, hydroxyl, and carboxylic acid PAH derivatives. Exposure to NO3/N2O5 (formed by reacting NO2 with O3, a more powerful reactant than either O3 or NO2) produced additional compounds not observed with either oxidant alone. Multiple isomers of nitrofluoranthene and, for the first time, nitrophenanthrene were identified. In addition hydroxy-nitro-PAH derivatives were observed for the reaction of anthracene with NO3/N2O5. Monitoring of specific common ions such as those of 176 and 205 m/z attributed to carbonyl phenanthrene and deprotonated phenanthrene ions respectively was shown to be a useful tool for identification of multiple pyrene oxidation products.

  17. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Yu Bon [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Kang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Hong Sheng [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lau, Winifred; Li, Hui; Sun, Xiao Lin [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Chow, Ka Lai [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ming Hung, E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10{sup −6} and 209 × 10{sup −6}, respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10{sup −6}) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil.

  18. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10−6 and 209 × 10−6, respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10−6) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil

  19. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in maternal serum and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jin, Lei; Ren, Aiguo; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Jufen; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Yi, Deqing; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu; Finnell, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and have been reported to be a risk factor for human neural tube defects (NTDs). We investigated the relationship between PAH concentrations in maternal serum and NTD risk in offspring using a case-control study design, and explored the link between PAH concentrations to household energy usage characteristics and life styles. One hundred and seventeen women who had NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 121 women who delivered healthy infants (controls) were recruited in Northern China. Maternal blood samples were collected at pregnancy termination or at delivery. Twenty-seven PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 13 individual PAHs detected were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Clear dose-response relationships between concentrations of most individual PAHs and the risk of total NTDs or subtypes were observed, even when potential covariates were adjusted for. High-molecular-weight PAHs (H-PAHs) showed higher risk than low-molecular-weight PAHs (L-PAHs). No associations between PAH concentrations and indoor life styles and energy usage characteristics were observed. It was concluded that maternal exposure to PAHs was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, and H-PAHs overall posed a higher risk for NTDs than L-PAHs. PMID:25488567

  20. Human Health Risk Assessment of 16 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils of Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Erika; Richards, Sean; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Dixon, Robert P; Johnson, Kevin A

    2012-11-01

    South Chattanooga has been home to foundries, coke furnaces, chemical, wood preserving, tanning and textile plants for over 100 years. Most of the industries were in place before any significant development of residential property in the area. During the 1950s and 1960s, however, the government purchased inexpensive property and constructed public housing projects in South Chattanooga. Many neighborhoods that surround the Chattanooga Creek were previous dumping grounds for industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprised the largest component of the dumping and airborne industrial emissions. To address the human exposure to these PAHs, a broad study of South Chattanooga soil contaminant concentrations was conducted on 20 sites across the city. Sixteen priority pollutant PAHs were quantified at two depths (0-10cm and 10-20cm) and compared against reference site soils, as well as to soils from industrially-impacted areas in Germany, China, and the US. From these data, the probability that people would encounter levels exceeding EPA Residential Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRG) was calculated. Results indicate that South Chattanooga soils have relatively high concentrations of total PAHs, specifically Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). These high concentrations of B[a]P were somewhat ubiquitous in South Chattanooga. Indeed, there is a high probability (88%) of encountering soil in South Chattanooga that exceeds the EPA PRG for B[a]P. However, there is a low probability (15%) of encountering a site with ∑PAHs exceeding EPA PRG guidelines. PMID:23243323

  1. Lead, arsenic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in Sydney Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, T.W. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Lane, S. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a lead and arsenic soil and dust study conducted in Sydney, Nova Scotia in August 2002. Whitney Pier, Ashby and North End are 3 communities surrounding the Sydney tar ponds, steel and coke oven sites that have been significantly impacted by the industrial activity of the past century. Lead and arsenic was found in the floor dust of every home evaluated. The neighbourhoods were also found to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There is a low but significant health risk from exposure to lead and arsenic in the soil and house dust, and all three communities must be remediated to prevent health impacts. This report by the Sierra Club criticizes an earlier report by the Joint Action Group (JAG), a tri-governmental process which never took into consideration the fact that people's yards and homes are contaminated and need to be remediated. This report criticizes that the JAG report neglected the issue of people's health and is calling on the federal Health Minister to take action on the environmental disaster. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Risk assessment of urban soils contamination: The particular case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, A; da Silva, E Ferreira; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of soil quality and characterization of potential risks to the environment and human health can be a very difficult task due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the matrix, the poor understanding about the fate of contaminants in the soil matrix, scarcity of toxicological/ecotoxicological data and variability of guidelines. In urban soils these difficulties are enhanced by the patchy nature of urban areas and the presence of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic contaminants resulting from diffuse pollution caused by urban activities (e.g. traffic, industrial activity, and burning of carbon sources for heating). Yet, several tools are available which may help to assess the risks of soil contamination in a simpler, cost effective and reliable way. Within these tools, a tiered risk assessment (RA) approach, first based on a chemical screening in combination with geostatistical tools, may be very useful in urban areas. However, there is still much to improve and a long way to go in order to obtain a reliable RA, especially in the case of hydrophobic organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This paper aims at proposing a RA framework to assess the environmental and human health risks of PAHs present in urban soils, based on existing models. In addition, a review on ecotoxicological, toxicological, and exposure assessment data was made, as well as of the existing soil quality guidelines for PAHs that can be used in the RA process. PMID:26878639

  3. Ambient and biological monitoring of cokeoven workers: determinants of the internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeneelen, F J; van Leeuwen, F E; Oosterink, S; Anzion, R B; van der Loop, F; Bos, R P; van Veen, H G

    1990-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in the breathing zone air of 56 battery workers at two cokeovens during three consecutive days. The concentration of total PAH ranged up to 186 micrograms/m3. Preshift and end of shift urine samples were collected to determine 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of pyrene. Control urine samples were available from 44 workers in the shipping yard of a hot rolling mill. The median values of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of smoking and non-smoking controls were 0.51 and 0.17 mumol/mol creatinine, respectively. Concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene up to 11.2 mumol/mol were found in the urine of the cokeoven workers. At the start of the three day working period after 32 hours off work, the 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were four times higher and at the end of the working period 10 times higher compared with control concentrations. Excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene occurred with a half life of 6-35 hours. Both the ambient air monitoring data and the biological monitoring data showed that the topside workers were the heaviest exposed workers. The relation between air monitoring data and biological monitoring data was not strong. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of the internal dose. The combination of exposure and smoking amplify each other and the use of a protective airstream helmet decreases the internal dose. An effect of alcohol consumption and the use of medication on the toxicokinetics of pyrene was not found.

  4. Study of geographical trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pine needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, José Manuel; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-10-01

    In this work, pine needles were used as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) markers to study the PAHs distribution over several geographical locations in Portugal and over time. Four pine needle sampling campaigns (winter, spring, summer and autumn 2007) were carried out in 29 sites, covering the major urban centres, some industrial points, smaller cities, rural areas and remote locations. Needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. trees were collected from 2005 and 2006 shoots, corresponding to one up to three years of exposure. Spatial trends of the incidence of PAHs indicate an increase from the remote to the urban and industrial sites. The mean values for the sum of 16 PAHs ranged from 96 ± 30 ng g -1 (dry weight) for remote sites to 866 ± 304 ng g -1 (dw) for industrial sites for P. pinaster needles and from 188 ± 117 ng g -1 (dw) for rural sites to 337 ± 153 ng g -1 (dw) for urban sites for P. pinea. Geographic information system tools and principal component analysis revealed that the contamination patterns of PAHs are somehow related to several socio-geographic parameters of the sampling sites. The geographical trend for the PAHs is similar between seasons in terms of PAH levels, but some diverse behaviour is found on the separation of lighter and heavier PAHs. Differences between P. pinaster and P. pinea needles are stronger in terms of PAH uptake loads than in the site type fingerprints.

  5. Consequences of Environmentally Hazardous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon- Anthracene Treatment on Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasha G Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the chronic toxicity of Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon – Anthracene in response to pigments and metabolic study on three different cyanobacterial species such as Synechocystis sp., Anabaena fertilissima, and Nostoc muscorum. Test organisms were treated at different doses and encountered LC50/Mean Lethal Concentration (at which 50% lethality/ growth reduction occur separately at 7.0 ppm for Synechocystis sp, 5.0 ppm for Anabaena fertilissima and 1.5 ppm for Nostoc muscorum. The influence of anthracene on pigments, metabolites and enzymes was carried out. The test doses caused concentration dependent and decreased pigments like carotenoids and phycobilliproteins. Depletion of carbohydrate by 65 to 80% and proteins by 58 to 78% was encountered with rise in Anthracene concentrations after 16th day exposure in case of Synechocystis sp however, phenols were found to raise by 26 to 37% with increased anthracene concentrations. Similar trend also observed in other two tested blue green algae. Thus the Synechocystis sp.is more tolerant to anthracene treatments as compare to Anabaena fertillissima but Nostoc muscorum showed highest sensitivity to anthracene.

  6. Effects of pollution sources and soil properties on distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Yang, Jun-cheng; Wang, Ren-qing; Hou, Hong; Du, Xiao-ming; Fan, Shu-kai; Liu, Jiang-sheng; Dai, Jiu-lan

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil profiles and the soil properties were analyzed in Hunpu, a typical wastewater irrigation area, northeast of China. The total concentrations of 16 priority control PAHs ranged from 7.88 to 2,231.42 μg/kg. Among 16 PAHs, the most abundant was Phenanthrene and the 3- or 4- ring PAHs were predominant. The PAH concentrations were higher in the upland fields near the oil wells, whereas leaching of PAH into the groundwater caused low concentrations in the paddy fields. The geochemical indices and the results from the principal component analysis of all 16 PAHs indicated that PAHs were mainly from atmospheric dusts in the top soil in I-1P/I-3P/I-7P and through soil profiles in I-4U/I-5P/I-8U, whereas those in the bottom layers were mainly from petroleum production and wastewater irrigation in I-1P/I-3P/I-7P and through soil profiles in I-2U and I-6U. In the redundancy analysis, PAHs exhibited negative correlation with pH, depth, silt, and clay, but had positive correlation with sand and organic matter. Finally, total toxic equivalent in the soil profiles and the calculated health risk of PAHs in the surface soil using contaminated land exposure assessment model elucidated the cancer risk that PAHs pose on human health in the Hunpu region.

  7. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in soils, sediments and groundwater. The mobility and toxicity of the BTEX compounds are of major concern. In situ bioremediation of BTEX by using naturally occurring microorganisms or introduced microor...

  8. Fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, Matteo; Lucotti, Andrea; Alfè, Michela; Ciajolo, Anna; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of 51 PAHs whose structures have been hypothesized from mass spectrometry data collected on samples extracted from carbon particles of combustion origin. We have obtained relationships between infrared absorption signals in the fingerprint region (mid-IR) and the chemical structures of PAHs, thus proving the potential of IR spectroscopy for the characterization of the molecular structure of aromatic combustion products. The results obtained here for the spectroscopic characterization of PAHs can be also of interest in Materials Science and Astrophysics.

  9. Seasonal effect on biomarkers of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in fish from Kuwait's marine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M U; Al-Subiai, S N; Al-Jandal, N; Butt, S A; Beg, K R; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    The aquatic biota of the Arabian Gulf deals with exposure to chronic oil pollution, several constituents of which cause induction of Cytochrome P450 1A that serves as a biomarker of AhR ligand exposure. In this study, fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile and 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity were determined as a measure of exposure biomarkers in two fish species, yellow fin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) captured from Kuwait Bay and outside the Bay area. FACs in fish bile determined by using fixed-wavelength fluorescence (FF) showed high fluorescence ratios between FF290/335 and FF380/430 indicating predominant exposure to low molecular weight, naphthalene-rich petroleum products (375±91.0 pg ml(-1)). Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene-type high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from burnt fuel were also present in appreciable concentration in the bile. The ratio of petrogenic to pyrogenic hydrocarbon was twofold higher in winter compared to summer months in both species. Seasonal effect on EROD was significant in tonguesole in Auha site (P<0.05); whereas seabream resisted seasonal change. Tonguesole is considered to be a suitable bioindicator of oil pollution in Kuwait Bay area. PMID:26409815

  10. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills. - Highlights: → Sediment hydrocarbon signatures differed between remote and impacted coastal sites. → A natural background comprised terrestrial plant alkanes and petrogenic PAHs. → Impacted sites reflected a history of petrogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbon inputs. → Hydrocarbons at some sites exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. → Protected sea otters may thus be at risk as they rely primarily on benthic prey. - Anthropogenically-derived hydrocarbons in coastal sediments in British Columbia may pose a risk to protected sea otters.

  11. The Dose–Response Decrease in Heart Rate Variability: Any Association with the Metabolites of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coke Oven Workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohai Li; Yingying Feng; Huaxin Deng; Wangzhen Zhang; Dan Kuang; Qifei Deng; Xiayun Dai; Dafeng Lin; Suli Huang; Lili Xin; Yunfeng He; Kun Huang; Meian He; Huan Guo; Xiaomin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiopulmonary mortality and decreased heart rate variability (HRV). However, it is unclear whether coke oven emissions (COEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with HRV. OBJECTIVES: Our goal in the present study was to investigate the association of exposure to COEs and the urinary metabolite profiles of PAHs with HRV of coke oven workers. METHODS: We measured benzene soluble matter, carbon mono...

  12. Mechanistic studies on the OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of selected aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehr, Sascha

    2012-07-01

    Benzene, toluene, the xylenes, and the trimethylbenzenes are among the most abundant aromatic trace constituents of the atmosphere mainly originating from anthropogenic sources. The OH-initiated atmospheric photo-oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons is the predominant removal process resulting in the formation of O{sub 3} and secondary organic aerosol. Therefore, aromatics are important trace constituents regarding air pollution in urban environments. Our understanding of aromatic photo-oxidation processes is far from being complete. This work presents novel approaches for the investigation of OH-initiated atmospheric degradation mechanisms of aromatic hydrocarbons. Firstly, pulsed kinetic studies were performed to investigate the prompt HO{sub 2} formation from OH+ aromatic hydrocarbon reactions under ambient conditions. For these studies, the existing OH reactivity instrument, based on the flash photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (FP/LIF) technique, was extended to the detection of HO{sub 2} radicals. The experimental design allows for the determination of HO{sub 2} formation yields and kinetics. Results of the pulsed kinetic experiments complement previous product studies and help to reduce uncertainties regarding the primary oxidation steps. Secondly, experiments with aromatic hydrocarbons were performed under atmospheric conditions in the outdoor atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction chamber) located at Forschungszentrum Juelich. The experiments were aimed at the evaluation of up-to-date aromatic degradation schemes of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.2). The unique combination of analytical instruments operated at SAPHIR allows for a detailed investigation of HO{sub x} and NO{sub x} budgets and for the determination of primary phenolic oxidation product yields. MCMv3.2 deficiencies were identified and most likely originate from shortcomings in the mechanistic representation of ring

  13. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods from Lake Timsah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Gamal A

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrpcarvons (PAHs) in some seafoods caught from Lake Timsah were determined. The tested samples were tilapia fish (Oreochromis aureus), crabs (Portuns pelagicus), bivalves (Venerupis decussata), clams (Strombus tricornis) and gastropods (Munes Sp.). Where these seafoods are locally and favorite consumed foods in the area around the lake (Ismailia governorate). Results showed that crabs contained significantly higher concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAHs ranging from 1318.6 to 3767.4 and 1230.3 to 3442.2 microg kg(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, clams contained significantly lower levels with mean value of 28.4 microg kg(-1) for total and 24.4 microg kg(-1) for carcinogenic PAHs. The most frequently detected PAHs in the tested samples were indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene followed by benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene which are characterized as carcinogenic compounds. PMID:11970818

  14. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street soil dust in Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Obiri, S; Oduro, A K

    2006-10-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street soil dust from streets in Kumasi Metropolis in the Ashanti Region of the Republic of Ghana have been measured in this study. The concentrations of the various types of PAHs identified in this study are as follows: Naphthalene (m/e 128) - 41,700 microg/kg, Acenaphthylene (m/e 152) - 99,300 microg/kg, Acenaphthene (m/e 154) - 111,200 microg/kg, Fluorene (m/e 166) - 8,900 microg/kg, Carbazole (m/e 167) - 3,500 microg/kg, phenathrene (m/e 178) - 12,900 microg/kg, Anthracene (m/e 178) - 5,400 microg/kg, Fluoranthene (m/e 202) - 16,200 microg/kg, Pyrene (m/e 202) - 15,000 microg/kg, Benzo[a]anthracene (m/e 228) - 13,800 microg/kg, Chrysene (m/e 228) - 33,600 microg/kg, Benzo[k]fluoranthene (m/e 252) - 45,700 microg/kg, Benzo[a]pyrene (m/e 252) - 27,900 microg/kg, Perylene (m/e 252) - 57,200 microg/kg and Benzo[g, h, i]perylene (m/e 276) - 47,000 microg/kg. The results of the study shows that road users, like resident living in buildings within these areas, those engaged in commercial activities like hawking, and the general public are at risk of exposure to the toxic effects of the various types of PAHs from the exhaust of vehicles into the environment. According to these results, there is the potential for exposure to high levels of PAHs for road users and those living in urban environments or along highways.

  15. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vegetables Grown in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and risk assessment of eight priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contents have been examined in different varieties of vegetables grown in Pakistan. The results showed that the total PAH contents were higher for root vegetables like potato and carrot (~13 μg/kg and relatively lower for turnip (10.9 μg/kg, respectively while for the fruit vegetables, all the peels were found to be more contaminated than cores. The ratio of total PAH concentrations in peels with respect to those of cores is found to be 1.45, 1.26, 1.31, 1.44, 1.40, and 1.36 for potato, turnip, carrot, eggplant, cucumber, and bitter gourd, respectively. For leafy vegetables, cabbage showed maximum PAH (11.6 μg/kg as compared to the cores of fruit vegetables. Among individual PAH congeners, anthracene showed higher levels in all vegetables. For benzo(aanthracene, maximum concentration (3.44±2.10 μg/kg was encountered in turnip cores. Highest benzo(epyrene concentration was found in potato (3.19±1.67 μg/kg followed by turnip (2.74±1.22 μg/kg. Benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(kfluoranthene showed relatively lower levels in all samples studied. All the concentrations of PAHs are presented on a fresh weight basis. The results of human exposure of PAH by consumption of these vegetables showed that cumulative dietary exposure of Pakistani population to PAHs from vegetables ranges from 0.25 μg/p/d to 1.16 μg/p/d.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetables and fruits produced in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Waqar; Salam, A

    2012-04-01

    Popular varieties of vegetables were collected from major cities of Saudi Arabia and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contents. Eight important PAH congeners were analyzed. Total PAH contents of the root vegetables like potato and carrot showed higher values (11 μg kg(-1)), whereas turnip showed relatively lower contents at 9.26 μg kg(-1). For the fruit vegetables, all the peels were found to be more contaminated than cores. For leafy vegetables, maximum PAH level was shown by cabbage (8.34 μg kg(-1)), which turned out to be more than any of the cores of fruit vegetables. Among individual PAH congeners, anthracene showed higher levels in all vegetables. For benzo(a)anthracene, maximum concentration (2.21 ± 1.75 μg kg(-1)) was encountered in turnip cores. Highest benzo(e)pyrene concentration was found in potato (2.90 ± 1.10 μg kg(-1)) followed by turnip (2.10 ± 1.09 μg kg(-1)). Benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(k)fluoranthene showed relatively lower levels in all samples studied. Human exposure to PAH by consumption of these vegetables is estimated, by using typical Saudi intake rates. The study revealed that cumulative dietary exposure of Saudi population to PAHs ranges from 0.20 to 0.85 μg p(-1) d(-1). PMID:22278406

  17. Analysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter in Madrid urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured in the air particulate matter during six months, from January to June of 1987, in an urban area of Madrid. The hydrocarbons were collected on glass fiber filters by high volumen sampling. The extraction was carried out by Sohxlet and ultrasonic techniques. The extracts were clean-up on silicagel fractionation and the chromatographic analysis was performed by capillary column gas chromatographic. Final results are discussed as well as the immission values related to the possible emission sources. (Author)

  18. Blood levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in children of Lucknow, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vipul K; Patel, Devendra K; Ram, S; Mathur, N; Siddiqui, M K J; Behari, Jai Raj

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds with two or more fused benzene rings produced by incomplete combustion of organic substances involved in natural and anthropogenic processes. Children are exposed to these compounds through inhalation, dietary ingestion, and, also, soil at the playground. It has been well established that PAHs have carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects. Considering possible health risks due to PAHs exposure among children, the present study was carried out in collaboration with the Pediatrics Department, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow, to determine its exposure in children by estimating blood PAHs levels. Due to the variable composition of PAHs mixtures emitted from different environmental sources, any single compound or metabolite may not be representative of all exposure conditions. For these reasons, the measurement of blood PAHs levels as a possible biomarker, especially of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency, USA) priority list, has been proposed. Acenaphthylene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were determined by HPLC-FD/UV. On the basis of the individual compound, the median (50th percentile) of naphthalene (19 ppb) was highest, however, benzo(a)pyrene (4.0 ppb) level was found to be lowest among all detected PAHs. The median level of total noncarcinogenic PAHs (113.55 ppb) was higher than the total carcinogenic PAHs (32.35 ppb) in blood samples of children. A significant correlation was found between period of time spent in the surrounding breathing zone of the cooking place and total noncarcinogenic PAHs (p < 0.05), while the blood carcinogenic PAHs level in children was found to be associated with lower status of their families (p < 0.05). It is speculated that there may be chances of health hazards through exposure to PAHs, those not yet declared hazardous and present at higher concentrations in

  19. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water Part 3. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 11 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aromatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For nine systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All new data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  20. Thyroid hormone binding proteins as novel targets for hydroxylated polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs): possible implications for toxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Some toxic effects caused by polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) develop through alterations in the reproductive and thyroid hormone regulatory systems, thereby affecting (brain) development, reproduction and behaviour of several species (Stone, 1995, Birnbaum, 1994, for review: Brouwer et

  1. FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR GROWTH TO SOOT -A REVIEW OF CHEMICAL REACTION PATHWAYS. (R824970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation by combustion processes of airborne species of current health concern such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles necessitates a detailed understanding of chemical reaction pathways responsible for their formation. The present review discus...

  2. Enumeration and phylogenetic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria from Puget sound sediments.

    OpenAIRE

    Geiselbrecht, A D; Herwig, R P; Deming, J. W.; Staley, J T

    1996-01-01

    Naphthalene- and phenanthrene-degrading bacteria in Puget Sound sediments were enumerated by most-probable-number enumeration procedures. Sediments from a creosote-contaminated Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site (Eagle Harbor) contained from 10(4) to 10(7) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria g (dry weight) of sediment-1, whereas the concentration at an uncontaminated site ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) g of sediment(-1). Isolates of PAH-degrading bacteria were obt...

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation by a New Marine Bacterium, Neptunomonas naphthovorans gen. nov., sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Geiselbrecht, Allison D.; Bair, Timothy J.; Staley, James T.

    1999-01-01

    Two strains of bacteria were isolated from creosote-contaminated Puget Sound sediment based on their ability to utilize naphthalene as a sole carbon and energy source. When incubated with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound in artificial seawater, each strain also degraded 2-methylnaphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene; in addition, one strain, NAG-2N-113, degraded 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and phenanthrene. Acenaphthene was not degraded when it was used as a sole carbon source but wa...

  4. Genotoxicity in child populations exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air from Tabasco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa, Aldeco R.; Rodríguez T. Gamboa; Bravo, Alvarez H.; Wegman P. Ostrosky

    2008-01-01

    The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possib...

  5. Molecular comparison of cultivable protozoa from a pristine and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polluted site

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Enrique; Berney, Cédric; Ekelund, Flemming; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    We compared the abundance and diversity of cultivable protozoa (flagellates and amoebae) in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soil and an unpolluted control, by isolating and cultivating clonal strains. The number of cultivable protozoa was higher in the polluted soil; however, the polluted soil displayed an impoverished community, dominated by certain taxa, such as Acanthamoeba sp. We isolated a total of 31 protozoan strains to characterize them morphologically and by 18S rRNA...

  6. Estimated IR and phosphorescence emission fluxes for specific Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Red Rectangle

    CERN Document Server

    Mulas, G; Joblin, C; Toublanc, D

    2005-01-01

    Following the tentative identification of the blue luminescence in the Red Rectangle by Vijh et al. (2005), we compute absolute fluxes for the vibrational IR emission and phosphorescence bands of three small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The calculated IR spectra are compared with available ISO observations. A subset of the emission bands are predicted to be observable using presently available facilities, and can be used for an immediate, independent, discriminating test on their alleged presence in this well-known astronomical object.

  7. On-line DACC-HPLC analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils

    OpenAIRE

    Neđeral, Sandra; Pukec, Dragutin; Škevin, Dubravka; Kraljić, Klara; Obranović, Marko; Zrinjan, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this work an HPLC method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in edible oils on a DACC (donor-acceptor complex chromatography) column coupled with an on-line HPLC system with fluorescent detection. Method was used to determine the content of individual PAHs in the refined sunflower oil, virgin olive oil, cold pressed pumpkin seed oil, dark sesame oil and pumpkin seed oil produced with roasting obtained from domestic market. Calibration and validation were conducted f...

  8. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water using an electrochemical DNA biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    R Manaffar; B Sehatnia; R Sabzi; Ehsani, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants in aquatic environments. These contaminants are generated through oil spills, manufactory processes, and industrial wastes or naturally through the incomplete combustion of coal, oil, gas, and wood waste. Most of these compounds are noted as carcinogenic and mutagenic. Therefore, detection of these pollutants by a sensitive and inexpensive method is very important. Materials and Method...

  9. Pollution of Flooded Arable Soils with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielczuk, Tomasz; Kusza, Grzegorz; Poluszyńska, Joanna; Kochanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Soils that are exposed to floodwaters because of shallow groundwater and periodical wetlands are, to a large extent, exposed to contamination by organic and inorganic compounds. These are mainly compounds that have drifted along with the inflow of heavily laden floodwater and are produced within the soil profile by the anaerobic transformation of organic matter. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are absorbed by the soil of the floodwaters, and moving in the soil...

  10. Structural Vector Description and Estimation of Normal Boiling Points for 66 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A molecular vector-type descriptor containing 6 variables is used to describe the structure of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and relate to normal boiling points (bp) of AHs. The correlation coefficient (R) between the estimated bp and experimental bp is 0.9988 and the root mean square error (RMS) is 7.907° C for 66 AHs. The RMS obtained by cross-validation is 9.131° C, which implies the relationship model having good prediction ability.

  11. Tailoring ZSM-5 Zeolites for the Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass to Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Thomas C.; Gardner, David W.; Thilakaratne, Rajeeva;

    2016-01-01

    The production of aromatic hydrocarbons from cellulose by zeolite-catalyzed fast pyrolysis involves a complex reaction network sensitive to the zeolite structure, crystallinity, elemental composition, porosity, and acidity. The interplay of these parameters under the reaction conditions represent...... a major roadblock that has hampered significant improvement in catalyst design for over a decade. Here, we studied commercial and laboratory-synthesized ZSM-5 zeolites and combined data from 10 complementary characterization techniques in an attempt to identify parameters common to high...

  12. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M J; Light, B A; Weston, A; Tollurud, D; Clark, J L; Mann, D L; Blackmon, J P; Harris, C C

    1988-01-01

    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactio...

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Identification and Source Discrimination in Rural Soil of the Northern Persian Gulf Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Valizadeh-kakhki; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Ahmad Zaharin Aris; Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli; Mehdi Mohammadi; Hasan Tajik

    2014-01-01

    Due to strategic situation of the Persian Gulf, identifying the petroleum pollution level and source is an important issue. Therefore, this paper enhanced fingerprinting method of applying biomarkers Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in identifying source and distribution of oil spills of the exposed areas. 10 soil samples collected from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf along three provinces in the south of Iran. PAH concentrations in the soil ranged from 42.76 to 5596.49 ng.g-1....

  14. Geochemical markers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solvent extracts from diesel engine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiańska, Monika; Kozielska, Barbara; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph; Konieczyński, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust particulate from compression ignition (CI) engines running on engine and chassis dynamometers was studied. Particulate dichloromethane extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PAH group profiles were made and the PAH group shares according to the number of rings (2 or 3; 4; 5 or more) as well as diagnostic indices were calculated. Values of geochemical ratios of selected biomarkers and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons were compared with literature values. A geochemical interpretation was carried out using these values and biomarker and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. It has been shown that geochemical features are unequivocally connected to the emission of fossil fuels and biofuels burned in CI engines. The effect of the exothermic combustion process is limited to low-molecular-weight compounds, which shows that the applied methodology permits source identification of PAHs coexisting in the particulate emitted. PMID:26728284

  15. Assessment of the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of sediment spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rončević, Srđan; Spasojević, Jelena; Maletić, Snežana; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Agbaba, Jasmina; Grgić, Marko; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-02-01

    Large amounts of sediment are dredged globally every year. This sediment is often contaminated with low concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and other organic pollutants. Some of this sediment is disposed of on land, creating a need for risk assessment of the sediment disposal method, to minimize the degradation of environmental quality and prevent risks to human health. Evaluating the available fractions of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is very important, as in the presence of various organisms, they are believed to be easily subject to the processes of bioaccumulation, biosorption and transformation. In order to determine the applicability of applying these methods for the evaluation of pollutant bioavailability in sediments, the desorption kinetics from the sediment of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of Tenax and XAD4 were examined over the course of 216 h. Changes in the PAH concentrations in dredged sediments using five different seed plants during a short time of period (10 days) were also followed. Using chemical extraction techniques with Tenax and XAD4, a time of around 24 h is enough to achieve equilibrium for all four PAHs. Results showed good agreement between the seed accumulation and PAH extraction methods with both agents. If we compare the two extraction techniques, XAD4 gave better results for phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, and Tenax gave better results for chrysene. PMID:26490893

  16. MODELING GALACTIC EXTINCTION WITH DUST AND 'REAL' POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Strada n.54, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Zonca, Alberto, E-mail: gmulas@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: silvia@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: ccp@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: azonca@oa-cagliari.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, Strada Prov.le Monserrato-Sestu Km 0.700, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the remarkable apparent variety of galactic extinction curves by modeling extinction profiles with core-mantle grains and a collection of single polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our aim is to translate a synthetic description of dust into physically well-grounded building blocks through the analysis of a statistically relevant sample of different extinction curves. All different flavors of observed extinction curves, ranging from the average galactic extinction curve to virtually 'bumpless' profiles, can be described by the present model. We prove that a mixture of a relatively small number (54 species in 4 charge states each) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can reproduce the features of the extinction curve in the ultraviolet, dismissing an old objection to the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the interstellar extinction curve. Despite the large number of free parameters (at most the 54 Multiplication-Sign 4 column densities of each species in each ionization state included in the molecular ensemble plus the 9 parameters defining the physical properties of classical particles), we can strongly constrain some physically relevant properties such as the total number of C atoms in all species and the mean charge of the mixture. Such properties are found to be largely independent of the adopted dust model whose variation provides effects that are orthogonal to those brought about by the molecular component. Finally, the fitting procedure, together with some physical sense, suggests (but does not require) the presence of an additional component of chemically different very small carbonaceous grains.

  17. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  18. DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS IN AIRBORNE PARTICULATES OF EAST ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Liu; Libin Liu; Jin-Ming Lin; Ning Tang; Kazuichi Hayakawa

    2006-01-01

    A review is presented on the distribution and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)and their derivatives, including nitro-PAHs and hydro-PAHs, on atmospheric particulates of East Asia. Generally, PAH compounds with two or three aromatic rings are released mainly into the gas phase, while those containing three or more aromatic rings are associated with particulate matter (PM) emission. Particle-associated PAHs are primarily adsorbed on fine particles, and little associated with coarse particles. Investigation into the concentration level of PAHs in different areas can serve not only to reflect the pollutant status and sources but also to lead to the formulation of control strategies.The results of the present study show that China has more severe PAH pollution than such East Asian countries as Japan and Korea.

  19. Impact of molecular structure on secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation under low-NOx conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-08-01

    The molecular structure of volatile organic compounds determines their oxidation pathway, directly impacting secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This study comprehensively investigates the impact of molecular structure on SOA formation from the photooxidation of 12 different eight- to nine-carbon aromatic hydrocarbons under low-NOx conditions. The effects of the alkyl substitute number, location, carbon chain length and branching structure on the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons are demonstrated by analyzing SOA yield, chemical composition and physical properties. Aromatic hydrocarbons, categorized into five groups, show a yield order of ortho (o-xylene and o-ethyltoluene) > one substitute (ethylbenzene, propylbenzene and isopropylbenzene) > meta (m-xylene and m-ethyltoluene) > three substitute (trimethylbenzenes) > para (p-xylene and p-ethyltoluene). SOA yields of aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation do not monotonically decrease when increasing alkyl substitute number. The ortho position promotes SOA formation while the para position suppresses aromatic oxidation and SOA formation. Observed SOA chemical composition and volatility confirm that higher yield is associated with further oxidation. SOA chemical composition also suggests that aromatic oxidation increases with increasing alkyl substitute chain length and branching structure. Further, carbon dilution conjecture developed by Li et al. (2016) is extended in this study to serve as a standard method to determine the extent of oxidation of an alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbon.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain 10-1B, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degrader in Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bello-Akinosho, Maryam; Adeleke, Rasheed; Swanevelder, Dirk; Thantsha, Mapitsi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain 10-1B was isolated from artificially polluted soil after selective enrichment. Its draft genome consists of several predicted genes that are involved in the hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, which is the rate-limiting step in the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate fallout of Alexandria, Egypt: Sources and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-Kassim, T.A.T.; Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Particulate fallout samples (PFS) were collected in Alexandria, and their aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compositions were determined both quantitatively and qualitatively to characterize the homologous and biomarker compounds in terms of their original sources. The results show that all samples contain aliphatic hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, UCM, isoprenoids, tri- and tetracyclic terpanes, hopanes, and steranes/diasteranes. The main source of these compounds is from petrochemical contamination with trace input of terrestrial higher plant wax. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are considered to be combustion products from fossil fuels such as petroleum, are also widely distributed in all samples. Multivariate statistical analysis, including extended Q-mode factor analysis and linear programming technique, was performed in order to reduce the hydrocarbon data set into a meaningful number of end members (sources). This analysis indicates that there are two significant end members explaining 90% of the total variation among the samples and confirming petrochemical (79.6%), and thermogenic/pyrolytic (10.4%) sources in the PFS model. 65 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Potential of non-ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2015-12-25

    In previous decades, white-rot fungi as bioremediation agents have been the subjects of scientific research due to the potential use of their unspecific oxidative enzymes. However, some non-white-rot fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycota and Zygomycota phylum, have demonstrated their potential in the enzymatic transformation of environmental pollutants, thus overcoming some of the limitations observed in white-rot fungi with respect to growth in neutral pH, resistance to adverse conditions and the capacity to surpass autochthonous microorganisms. Despite their presence in so many soil and water environments, little information exists on the enzymatic mechanisms and degradation pathways involved in the transformation of hydrocarbons by these fungi. This review describes the bioremediation potential of non-ligninolytic fungi with respect to chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also shows known conversion pathways and the prospects for future research.

  3. Alternative methodologies for assessing the potential for bioconcentration of aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternate approach to EPA's proposed methods for predicting the bioconcentration of effluent constituents was assessed. Integrated field and laboratory exposures were used to evaluate the bioaccumulation of hydrocarbons and trace metals from refinery effluents in the San Francisco Bay/Delta. Field bioaccumulation and laboratory bioconcentration were analyzed in mussels, oysters and fish at a range of dilutions reflecting effluent distribution in the environment. These studies allowed a rigorous evaluation of a number of factors which normally confound the quantification of bioaccumulation of refinery effluent associated compounds. Specific trace element and hydrocarbon analytes were targeted for measurement using techniques which provide detection at levels below the limits in currently accepted methods. Effluents, receiving waters and tissues were analyzed for aromatic hydrocarbons by multiple selected ion monitoring GC/MS. These methods allowed the quantification of parent compounds as well as specific petrogenic alkylated naphthalenes and phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes at very low levels in effluents and tissues. A suite of trace elements was also analyzed using ICP-MS methods. The results of those studies are discussed and compared with EPA's proposed methods

  4. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  5. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spatial variability and aging in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Thornhill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO study in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in March 2006, we measured particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and other gaseous species and particulate properties at six locations throughout the city. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to describe spatial and temporal patterns in PAH concentrations, to gain insight into sources and transformations of PAHs, and to quantify the relationships between PAHs and other pollutants. Total particulate PAHs at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0 supersite located near downtown averaged 50 ng m−3, and aerosol active surface area averaged 80 mm2 m−3. PAHs were also measured on board the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, which visited six sites encompassing a mixture of different land uses and a range of ages of air parcels transported from the city core. Weak intersite correlations suggest that local sources are important and variable and that exposure to PAHs cannot be represented by a single regional-scale value. The relationships between PAHs and other pollutants suggest that a variety of sources and ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH-to-black carbon mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8–30 times higher than that found in other cities. Ratios also indicate that primary combustion particles are rapidly coated by secondary aerosol in Mexico City. If so, the lifetime of PAHs may be prolonged if the coating protects them against photodegradation or heterogeneous reactions.

  6. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spatial variability and aging in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, D. A.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Wood, E. C.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Marr, L. C.

    2007-11-01

    As part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) study in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in March 2006, we measured particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other gaseous species and particulate properties at six locations throughout the city. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to describe spatial and temporal patterns in PAH concentrations, to gain insight into sources and transformations of PAHs, and to quantify the relationships between PAHs and other pollutants. Total particulate PAHs at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0 supersite) located near downtown averaged 50 ng m-3, and aerosol active surface area averaged 80 mm2 m-3. PAHs were also measured on board the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, which visited six sites encompassing a mixture of different land uses and a range of ages of air parcels transported from the city core. Weak intersite correlations suggest that local sources are important and variable and that exposure to PAHs cannot be represented by a single regional-scale value. The relationships between PAHs and other pollutants suggest that a variety of sources and ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH-to-black carbon mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8-30 times higher than that found in other cities. Ratios also indicate that primary combustion particles are rapidly coated by secondary aerosol in Mexico City. If so, the lifetime of PAHs may be prolonged if the coating protects them against photodegradation or heterogeneous reactions.

  7. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ) concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities; health risk to adults and children associated with PAHs inhalation was assessed by taking into account the lifetime average daily dose and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR was within the acceptable range (10-6-10-4), indicating a low health risk to residents in these areas.

  8. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in children and its impact on urinary levels of metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Einfluss einer Passivrauchbelastung auf die Konzentration von PAK-Metaboliten im Urin von Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heudorf, U. [Abt. Umweltmedizin und Hygiene, Stadtgesundheitsamt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Letzel, S. [Inst. fuer Arbeits- Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg Univ. Main, Mainz (Germany); Angerer, J.; Drexler, H. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    We tested whether there is an association between environmental tobacco smoke and 1-hydroxyyrene and monohydroxylated phenanthrenes in children under 6 years of age. Participants and methods: Spot urine specimen of 101 children under 6 years of age (3.6 {+-} 3.7 years) were tested for 1-hydroxypyrene and for four different monohydroxylated phenanthrenes (HPLC/FD) and cotinine (capillary gas chromatography/nitrogen specific detector). Data on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home were obtained by questionnaire (never, only on balcony, seldom, regularly). Results: A - non-significant-tendency for higher levels of urinary PAH-metabolites with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke regularly vs. never - median values: sum of monohydroxylated phenanthrenes 1194 vs. 1037 ng/g creatinine, 1-hydroxypyrene 151 vs. 125 ng/g creatinine). With regard to levels of urinary cotinine as an objective indicator for exposure to tobacco smoke, however, significant associations to the level of 1-hydroxypyrene (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.197, p = 0.049) were obtained, but not to the levels of hydroxylated phenanthrenes. Conclusion: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (i.e. level of urinary cotinine) in young children is associated to a significant increase in the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, but not to the levels of monohydroxylated phenanthrenes. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, einen moeglichen Einfluss einer Passivrauchbelastung auf die Konzentration der PAK-Metaboliten im Urin als Marker der inneren PAK-Exposition festzustellen. Es wurden ausschliesslich Kinder unter 6 Jahren in dieser Untersuchung einbezogen, weil in diesem Alter Aktivrauchen weitestgehend ausgeschlossen werden kann. Methoden: Urine von 101 Kindern unter 6 Jahren (3,6 {+-} 3,7 Jahre) wurden auf die PAK-Metaboliten 1 Hydroxypyren und die monohydroxylierten Phenanthrene (HPLC und Fluoreszenzdetektion) sowie Cotinin (Kapillar

  9. Current-voltage characteristics of a homologous series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Thilo; Simpson, Christopher D; Müllen, Klaus; Rabe, Jürgen P

    2007-01-01

    A novel alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with D(2h) symmetry and 78 carbon atoms in the aromatic core (C78) was synthesized, thereby completing a homologous series of soluble PAH compounds with increasing size of the aromatic pi system (42, 60, and 78 carbon atoms). The optical band gaps were determined by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in solution. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) revealed diode-like current versus voltage (I-V) characteristics through individual aromatic cores in monolayers at the interface between the solution and the basal plane of graphite. The asymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics increases with the increasing size of the aromatic core, and the concomitantly decreasing HOMO-LUMO gap. This is attributed to resonant tunneling through the HOMO of the adsorbed molecule, and an asymmetric position of the molecular species in the tunnel junction. Consistently, submolecularly resolved STM images at negative substrate bias are in good agreement with the calculated pattern for the electron densities of the HOMOs. The analysis provides the basis for tailoring rectification with a single molecule in an STM junction. PMID:17579898

  10. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Kappell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including PAHs, were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH

  11. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.;

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...... could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LClipid eq...

  12. Application of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to complex mixtures with aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2006-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state is applied to phase equilibria of mixtures containing alcohols, glycols, water, and aromatic or olefinic hydrocarbons. Previously, CPA has been successfully used for mixtures containing various associating compounds (alcohols, glycols, amines......, organic acids, and water) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. We show in this work that the model can be satisfactorily extended to complex vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria with aromatic or olefinic hydrocarbons. The solvation between aromatics/olefinics and polar compounds is accounted for. This is particularly...... important for mixtures containing water and glycols, but less so for mixtures with alcohols. For water/hydrocarbons, a single binary interaction parameter which accounts for the solvation is fitted to the experimental liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data. The interaction parameter of the physical term...

  13. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnskov Uffe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much epidemiological evidence suggests that hydrocarbon exposure may induce glomerulonephritis and worsen its course in many patients. The mechanisms are unknown, however, no specific microscopic pattern has been identified, and it has also been argued that hydrocarbon exposure causes tubular damage mainly. Studying experimental animals may best answer these questions, and as no systematic review of glomerulonephritis produced experimentally by hydrocarbon exposure has been performed previously, I found it relevant to search for and analyse such studies. Methods Animal experiments having mimicked human glomerulonephritis by hydrocarbon exposure were sought on Medline and Toxnet Results Twenty-six experiments using thirteen different hydrocarbons were identified. Several human subtypes were observed including IgA nephritis, mesangial, proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis, focal and focal-segmental sclerosis, minimal change nephropathy, anti-GBM and anti-TBM nephritis, and glomerulonephritis associated with peiarteritis nodosa. Glomerular proteinuria was seen in 10/12 experiments that included urine analyses, and renal failure in 5/8 experiments that included measurements of glomerular function. All experiments resulted in various degrees of tubular damage as well. In most studies, where the animals were examined at different times during or after the exposure, the renal microscopic and functional changes were seen immediately, whereas deposits of complement and immunoglobulins appeared late in the course, if at all. Conclusion These experiments are in accord with epidemiological evidence that hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Probable mechanisms include an induction of autologous antibodies and a disturbance of normal immunological functions. Also, tubular damage may increase postglomerular resistance, resulting in a glomerular deposition of macromolecules. In most

  14. Uptake and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terrestrial springtails--studying bioconcentration kinetics and linking toxicity to chemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Smith, Kilian Eric Christopher; Holmstrup, Martin; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    Passive dosing applies a polymer loaded with test compound(s) to establish and maintain constant exposure in laboratory experiments. Passive dosing with the silicone poly(dimethylsiloxane) was used to control exposure of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida to six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bioconcentration and toxicity experiments. Folsomia candida could move freely on the PAH-loaded silicone, resulting in exposure via air and direct contact. The bioconcentration kinetics indicated efficient uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene through air and (near) equilibrium partitioning of these PAHs to lipids and possibly the waxy layer of the springtail cuticle. Toxicities of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were related to chemical activity, which quantifies the energetic level and drives spontaneous processes including diffusive biouptake. Chemical activity-response relationships yielded effective lethal chemical activities (La50s) well within the expected range for baseline toxicity (0.01-0.1). Effective lethal body burdens for naphthalene and pyrene exceeded the expected range of 2 to 8 mmol kg(-1) fresh weight, which again indicated the waxy layer to be a sorbing phase. Finally, chemical activities were converted into equilibrium partitioning concentrations in lipids yielding effective lethal concentrations for naphthalene and phenanthrene in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Passive dosing was a practical approach for tightly controlling PAH exposure, which in turn provided new experimental possibilities and findings. PMID:23147567

  15. Evaluation of ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Germany from 1990 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertmann, Regina; Tesseraux, Irene; Schümann, Michael; Neus, Hermann

    2002-03-01

    All available polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration data in ambient air obtained over the past 10 years in Germany were evaluated to clarify whether it is justified to use benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker compound for the total PAH exposure. The data basis comprises annual mean concentrations from 1990 to 1998 supplied by the emission protection authorities of the federal states with additional information on the region, year and site of measurement. The data are very heterogeneous with respect to sample size, the number of individual PAHs analyzed, place of origin and year. Nine of 25 individual compounds with sufficient sample size (74German reunion and time characterize the distributive patterns, e.g., from 1991 to 1997, a significant decrease in BaP could be determined based on the data from North Rhine-Westphalia (1991, N=51, median 1.6 ng/m(3); 1997, N=45, median 0.7 ng/m(3); Pexposure in ambient air.

  16. C-H and N-H bond dissociation energies of small aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barckholtz, C.; Barckholtz, T.A.; Hadad, C.M.

    1999-01-27

    A survey of computational methods was undertaken to calculate the homolytic bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the C-H and N-H bonds in monocyclic aromatic molecules that are representative of the functionalities present in coal. These include six-membered rings (benzene, pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine) and five-membered rings (furan, thiophene, pyrrole, oxazole). By comparison of the calculated C-H BDEs with the available experimental values for these aromatic molecules, the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory was selected to calculate the BDEs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including carbonaceous PAHs (naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, coronene) and heteroatomic PAHs (benzofuran, benzothiophene, indole, benzoxazole, quinoline, isoquinoline, dibenzofuran, carbazole). The cleavage of a C-H or a N-H bond generates a {sigma} radical that is, in general, localized at the site from which the hydrogen atom was removed. However, delocalization of the unpaired electron results in {approximately} 7 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1} stabilization of the radical with respect to the formation of phenyl when the C-H bond is adjacent to a nitrogen atom in the azabenzenes. Radicals from five-membered rings are {approximately} 6 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1} less stable than those formed from six-membered rings due to both localization of the spin density and geometric factors. The location of the heteroatoms in the aromatic ring affects the C-H bond strengths more significantly than does the size of the aromatic network. Therefore, in general, the monocyclic aromatic molecules can be used to predict the C-H BDE of the large PAHs within 1 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1}.

  17. Distribution and Geochemical Implication of Aromatic Hydrocarbons across the Meishan Permian-Triassic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Aromatic compounds extracted from sedimentary rocks can reflect environmental conditions, organic sources and maturity. The aromatics, identified in association with mass extinction in particular, would provide a signature assisting our understanding of the causes of the biotic crisis. Aromatic hydrocarbons were fractionated from the total lipid extracts of 37 samples taken from the Permian Triassic boundary (beds 23 to 34) of section B at Meishan(煤山),Zhejiang(浙江)Province in South China. These aromatics were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Main compounds identified include naphthalene, phenanthrenes, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, fluoranthene, pyrene and some of their methyl homologues. The indices of methyl phenanthrene distribution fraction indicate the comparable maturity (within the oil window, 0.7% - 1.0% of the mean vitrinite reflectance) of the organic matter throughout the whole profile analyzed. The ratio of dibenzothiophene to phenanthrene (DBT/PHN) varies generally at a comparable pace with lithology. Significantly,a gradual decrease of this ratio was observed within bed 24 limestone, which is probably due to the variation of sedimentary environment. This change is in line with the drop in the carbon isotope composition of carbonate, the loss of the Changhsingian reef ecosystem, and the decrease of cyanobacteria abundance within the bacteria population. The coincidence of these records suggests a close relation between the biotic crisis and marine environmental conditions, and these records clearly show the onset of the biotic crisis prior to event bed 25.

  18. Laboratory studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the search for interstellar candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Joblin, C; Simon, A; Mulas, G

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered as a major constituent of interstellar dust. They have been proposed as the carriers of the Aromatic Infrared Bands (AIBs) observed in emission in the mid-IR. They likely have a significant contribution to various features of the extinction curve such as the 220 nm bump,the far-UV rise and the diffuse interstellar bands. Emission bands are also expected in the far-IR, which are better fingerprints of molecular identity than the AIBs. They will be searched for with the Herschel Space Observatory. Rotational emission is also expected in the mm range for those molecules which carry significant dipole moments. Despite spectroscopic studies in the laboratory, no individual PAH species could be identified. This emphasises the need for an investigation on where interstellar PAHs come from and how they evolve due to environmental conditions: ionisation and dissociation upon UV irradiation, interactions with electrons, gas and dust. There is also evidence for PAH ...

  19. Understanding the Reactivity of Planar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Towards the Graphene Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodeja, Yago; Solà, Miquel; Fernández, Israel

    2016-07-18

    The Diels-Alder reactivity of maleic anhydride towards the bay regions of planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was explored computationally in the DFT framework. The process becomes more and more exothermic and the associated activation barriers become lower and lower when the size of the system increases. This enhanced reactivity follows an exponential behavior that reaches its maximum for systems having 18-20 benzenoid rings in their structures. This peculiar behavior was analyzed in detail by using the activation strain model of reactivity in combination with energy decomposition analysis. The influence of the change in the aromaticity of the polycyclic compound during the process on the respective activation barriers was also studied. PMID:27304921

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition in soils and sediments of high altitude lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Drooge, Barend L. van; Ribes, Alejandra; Fernandez, Pilar; Appleby, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lake sediments and nearby soils of two European high mountain regions, Pyrenees and Tatra, have been studied. Similar mixtures of parent PAH were observed in all cases, indicating predominance of airborne transported combustion products. Nevertheless, the composition of these atmospherically long-range transported PAH was better preserved in the superficial layers of soils than sediments. This difference points to significant PAH degradation process, e.g. during lake water column transport, before accumulation in the latter. Post-depositional transformation was also different in both types of environmental compartments. Thus, lake sediments exhibit higher preservation of the more labile PAH involving lower degree of post-depositional oxidation. However, they also show the formation of major amounts of perylene by diagenetic transformation in the deep sections. This compound is not formed in soils where downcore enrichments of phenanthrene are observed, probably as a consequence of diagenetic aromatization of diterpenoids.

  1. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion. PMID:27506350

  2. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution using plant residue materials as a biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Baoliang, E-mail: blchen@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yuan Miaoxin; Liu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: The structure-effect relationship provides a reference to select and modify plant residues as a biosorbent with high efficiency to tackle organic pollutants. Research highlights: {yields} Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are effectively removed by plant residues. {yields} Biosorption mechanism of plant residues to abate PAHs is a partitioning process. {yields} Partition coefficients are negatively related with sugar contents of biosorbent. {yields} The aromatic component and K{sub ow} exhibit positive effects on biosorption. {yields} The structure-effect relationship guides plant residue using as a biosorbent. - Abstract: To elucidate biosorption mechanism and removal efficiency of plant residues as a biosorbent to abate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater, sorption of PAHs onto wood chips (WC), ryegrass roots (RR), orange peels (OP), bamboo leaves (BL), and pine needles (PN) were investigated. The structural characterization of the biosorbents was analyzed by elemental composition, BET-N{sub 2} surface area, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PAHs sorption to the selected biosorbents were compared and correlated with their structures. Biosorption isotherms fit well with Freundlich equation and the mechanism was dominated by partition process. The magnitude of phenanthrene partition coefficients (K{sub d}) followed the order of PN > BL > OP > RR > WC, ranged from 2484 {+-} 24.24 to 5306 {+-} 92.49 L/kg. Except the WC sample, the K{sub d} values were negatively correlated with sugar content, polar index [(N + O)/C] of the biosorbents, while the aromatic component exhibited positive effects. For a given biosorbent of bamboo leaves, the carbon-normalized partition coefficients (K{sub oc}) were linearly correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (K{sub ow}) of PAHs, i.e., log K{sub oc} = 1.16 log K{sub ow} - 1.21. The structure-effect relationship provides a reference to select and modify plant residues as a

  3. Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbon in interplanetary dust particles and meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Wopenka, B.

    1987-01-01

    Raman spectra of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteorites containing material similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) show features that are similar in position and relative strength to interstellar IR emission features attributable to vibrational transitions in free molecular-sized PAHs. In addition, these spectra sometimes show red photoluminescence that has elsewhere been attributed to PAHs, and a part of the carbonaceous phase in IDPs and meteorites contain a degree of deuterium enrichment anticipated in small, free PAHs that are exposed to ISM UV radiation. These observations suggest that some of the IDPs' carbonaceous material may have been produced in circumstellar dust shells, and only slightly modified in interstellar space.

  4. Assessment of concentration, bioaccumulation and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaadini, Morteza; Mehdinia, Ali; Khaleghi, Leila; Nassiri, Mahmoud

    2016-06-15

    The amounts and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in the zooplankton community of Chabahar Bay were investigated. The highest amounts of total PAHs (tPAHs) in the water and zooplankton samples were 62.2ngL(-1) and 1478.6ngg(-1) dry weights, in near the Shahid Beheshti Port and desalination, respectively. The greatest amount of BAF (51,780) was obtained in the entry of Bay, and it was related to the phenanthrene accumulation. Using molecular ratio, the results showed that the major input source of PAH compounds in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay was pyrolytic (fuel) source. PMID:26944700

  5. Occurrence and sources of particulate nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Poulsen, M.W.B.; Nielsen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of selected nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) associated with atmospheric particulate matter has been investigated at an urban site and at a semi-rural site. For this purpose an analysis method based on gas chromatography and tandem ion trap mass spectrometry has...... been developed and applied. The nitro-PAK levels have been compared with levels of other air pollutants including unsubstituted PAHs, inorganic gases and particulate matter, as well as with meteorological parameters. Correlations and concentration ratios suggest that the dominant source of 9...

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fingerprints in the Pichavaram mangrove-estuarine sediments, southeastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Rajesh Kumar; Routh, Joyanto; Ramanathan, A.L.; Klump, J. Val

    2012-01-01

    The sources and historical deposition of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in dated sediment cores from the Pichavaram mangrove–estuarine complex. The ΣPAH flux in mangrove and estuarine sediments was 0.064 ± 0.031 μg/cm2/yr and 0.043 ± 0.020 μg/cm2/yr, respectively. The PAH flux in sediments increased up-core, coinciding with rapid urbanization since the 1970s. The flux showed a decrease in recent years (since 1990), coinciding with less riverine discharge, and per...

  7. Structures and electronic properties of thin-films of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Yutaka [Asahi-Kasei Corporation, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka (Japan)], E-mail: natsume.yc@om.asahi-kasei.co.jp; Minakata, Takashi; Aoyagi, Takeshi [Asahi-Kasei Corporation, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2009-03-02

    We report the fabrication and characterization of organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) using several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pentacene, ovalene, dibenzocoronene and hexabenzocoronene were deposited as organic semiconductors on silicon wafers with gold electrodes as the bottom-contact configuration of the TFTs. The pentacene TFT showed the highest field-effect mobility of more than 0.1 cm{sup 2}/Vs in comparison with the other PAHs. The results clarified that the high field-effect mobility of the pentacene thin film is due to large grain size and intrinsic electronic properties.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's experimental coal program: minimizing the hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, R.C. III; Cochran, H.D.; Bolton, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    Many processing techniques for the liquefaction or gasification of coal are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere. Although different in many other respects, all coal conversion processes produce a liquid effluent comprising a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Such mixtures invariably contain significant amounts of polycyclic, aromatic compounds, some of which are known to be highly active carcinogens. The underlying philosophy that has been adopted for the protection of personnel involved in experimental coal processing operations is defined, and procedures that have been instituted to govern the conduct of such experimental work and handling of associated coal-derived liquids are detailed.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in urban soils of Greater London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Vane, Christopher H.; Kim, Alexander W.; Beriro, Darren J.; Cave, Mark R.; Knights, Katherine; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Nathanail, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Surface soils from a 19 km2 area in east London, UK were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (n = 76). ∑16 PAH ranged from 4 to 67 mg/kg (mean, 18 mg/kg) and ∑50 PAH ranged from 6 to 88 mg/kg (mean, 25 mg/kg). ∑7 PCB ranged from 1 to 750 μg/kg (mean, 22 μg/kg) and ∑tri-hepta PCB ranged 9 to 2600 μg/kg (mean, 120 μg/kg). Compared to other international cities concentrations were similar for PAH but higher for PCB. Normal background concentrat...

  10. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  11. Aromatic hydrocarbon pathology in fish following a large spill into the Nemadji River, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    On June 30, 1992, a train accident resulted in a rail car releasing 114,000 L of a complex mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons into the Nemadji River, a tributary of Lake Superior near Superior, Wisconsin (Table 1). Although the majority of the spilled material evaporated, damage to aquatic life was extensive. Several thousand fishes were killed and an inestimable number were exposed to low concentrations (kidney were examined for histopathology. Blood was collected to determine the severity of liver damage reflected by the presence of the serum enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and d - glutamyl transferase).

  12. A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss PAHs impact on the environmental and the magnitude of the human health risks posed by such substances. They also contain important information on concentrations, burdens and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere. The main anthropogenic sources of PAHs and their effect on the concentrations of these compounds in air are discussed. The fate of PAHs in the air, their persistence and the main mechanisms of their losses are presented. Health hazards associated with PAH air pollution are stressed.

  13. Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihua; Hu, Ningjing; Shi, Xuefa

    2015-04-01

    Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China Liu Jihua, Hu Ningjing, Shi Xuefa First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of ubiquitous organic contaminants in the environment. Indeed, 16 PAH compounds have been listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the European Union because of their potential toxicity to humans and ecosystems. As POPs are released or escape into the environment, their global accumulation in marine sediments generates a complex balance between inputs and outputs. Furthermore, PAHs in coastal sediments can serve as effective tracers of materials transport from land-to-sea (Fang et al., 2009). Hence, investigations of PAHs in sediments can provide useful information for further understanding of environmental processes and material transport. In this study, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from a total of 112 surface sediment samples collected across the entire territory of the Bohai Sea. The detectable concentrations of PAHs ranged from 97.2 to 300.7 ng/g across all samples, indicating low contamination levels of PAHs compared with reported values for other coastal sediments in China and developed countries. The highest concentrations were found within three belts in the vicinity of Luan River Estuary-Qinhuangdao Harbor, the Cao River Estuary-Bohai Sea Center, and north of the Yellow River Estuary. The distribution patterns of PAHs and source identification implied that PAH contamination in the Bohai Sea mainly originates from offshore oil exploration, sewage discharge from rivers and shipping activities. Further Principal components analysis (PCA)/multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis suggested that the contributions of spilled oil products (petrogenic), coal combustion and traffic

  14. Oxygen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) and their parent-PAHs in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bandowe, Benjamin Acham Musa

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the higher toxicity of oxygen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) than of their parent-PAHs, there are only a few studies of the concentrations, composition pattern, sources and fate of OPAHs in soil, the presumably major environmental sink of OPAHs. This is related to the fact that there are only few available methods to measure OPAHs together with PAHs in soil. rnThe objectives of my thesis were to (i) develop a GC/MS-based method to measure OPAHs and their paren...

  15. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vegetables Grown in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Mohammad W.; Syed Iqleem H. Taqvi; Solangi, Amber R.; Qureshi, Umair A.

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and risk assessment of eight priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents have been examined in different varieties of vegetables grown in Pakistan. The results showed that the total PAH contents were higher for root vegetables like potato and carrot (~13 μg/kg) and relatively lower for turnip (10.9 μg/kg), respectively while for the fruit vegetables, all the peels were found to be more contaminated than cores. The ratio of total PAH concentrations in peels with resp...

  16. Dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after hairwash with coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooten, F.-J. van; Moonen, E.J.C.; Rhijnsburger, E.; Agen, B. van; Thijssen, H.H.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S. [University of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1994-11-26

    Describes an experiment to assess the dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after hairwashing with coal tar antidandruff shampoo. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P), a PAH metabolile was used to assess internal dose of PAH. A single use of coal tar shampoo resulted in increased 1-OH-P excretion in all members of the experimental group compared with the control group using a non-coal tar antidandruff shampoo. It is suggested that repeated use of coal tar shampoo would result in a high internal dose of carcinogenic PAH. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Characteristics of wintertime polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon assemblage in aerosol of the Southern Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, V. Ž.; Pfendt, P. A.; Filipović, A. J.

    2007-09-01

    Features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblage in aerosol samples collected from the atmosphere of Herceg Novi during the winter months of two successive years were studied. The results showed almost the same concentration profiles of identified PAHs for samples from the two periods analyzed, generally suggesting a similar origin. Diagnostic ratios indicated combustion of wood and coal, emissions from petrol and diesel engines, and dust resuspension as sources that predominantly contributed to the atmospheric PAH concentrations. Statistical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) in particular, allowed us to identify the impact of meteorological parameters on PAH abundance.

  18. Determination of basic azaarenes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter by gas chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben; Clausen, Peraxel; Jensen, Finn Palmgren

    1986-01-01

    phase (adjusted to pH 14 with potassium hydroxide) with dichloromethane, and determined by capillary gas chromatography (g.c.) with a nitrogen-sensitive detector. The PAH in the toluene phase are isolated by means of semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction......Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrogen analogs, basic azaarenes, are extracted from samples of airborne particulate matter by toluene with ultrasonic treatment. The basic azaarenes are extracted from the toluene phase with phosphoric acid, re-extracted from the phosphoric acid...

  19. A DFT-based toxicity QSAR study of aromatic hydrocarbons to Vibrio fischeri: Consideration of aqueous freely dissolved concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Xianhai; Wang, Juying; Cong, Yi; Mu, Jingli; Jin, Fei

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) techniques based on toxicity mechanism and density functional theory (DFT) descriptors were adopted to develop predictive models for the toxicity of alkylated and parent aromatic hydrocarbons to Vibrio fischeri. The acute toxicity data of 17 aromatic hydrocarbons from both literature and our experimental results were used to construct QSAR models by partial least squares (PLS) analysis. With consideration of the toxicity process, the partition of aromatic hydrocarbons between water phase and lipid phase and their interaction with the target biomolecule, the optimal QSAR model was obtained by introducing aqueous freely dissolved concentration. The high statistical values of R(2) (0.956) and Q(CUM)(2) (0.942) indicated that the model has good goodness-of-fit, robustness and internal predictive power. The average molecular polarizability (α) and several selected thermodynamic parameters reflecting the intermolecular interactions played important roles in the partition of aromatic hydrocarbons between the water phase and biomembrane. Energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E(HOMO)) was the most influential descriptor which dominated the toxicity of aromatic hydrocarbons through the electron-transfer reaction with biomolecules. The results demonstrated that the adoption of freely dissolved concentration instead of nominal concentration was a beneficial attempt for toxicity QSAR modeling of hydrophobic organic chemicals. PMID:26812082

  20. Distribution and fate of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Antarctic fauna and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, H. M.; Mackie, P. R.

    1980-03-01

    With the depletion of oil resources in more accessible areas, those of remote regions are being considered or indeed are now being exploited. In many of these regions, especially the polar ones, little is known of the effects such exploitation will have on the environment. But it is known that the ecosystems are often subject to great stress by natural climatic conditions and additional burdens imposed by man may have catastrophic environmental effects. South Georgia, a sub-Antarctic island, has a history of industrial activity mainly concerned with whaling operations that peaked around 1925-1935 but has since declined to virtually nothing. Studies of the ecology of the area provided a unique opportunity to assess the long-term effects that such activities had on the ecosystem. Off the whaling stations a considerable amount of waste material, including fuel oil, was released into the bays and inevitably some of this material was deposited in the sediments. Chemical evidence in the form of both paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons still persists in the sediments. The implications of this persistence in relation to the possible influence of the low temperature conditions are discussed. The superficial sediments, marine biota and terrestrial plants, which since 1965 have returned virtually to a pristine state, contain hydrocarbons essentially similar to unpolluted areas around the coast of Britain. Relatively high levels of carcinogenic/mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments suggests a world-wide background of abiogenic hydrocarbons probably disseminated by airborne transport. This appears to indicate that contamination reaches even remote parts of the world in relatively undiminished quantities.

  1. Oil and gas potential assessment for coal measure source rocks on absolute concentration of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Absolute concentration of normal alkanes(n-alkanes) and aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen extracted from source rocks in the period of thermodegradation from Turpan-Hami Basin suggests that aromatic hydrocarbons are dominant in coal and carbargilite while n-alkanes are dominant in mudstones. Bulkrock analysis and gas chromatograph/mass spectrum(GC-MS) of source rocks shows aromatic hydrocarbons are dominant in total ion chromatograms(TIC) of samples with poor perhydrous macerals while n-alkanes are dominant in TICs of samples with abundant perhydrous macerals. The identification of oil-prone and gas prone property based on GC-MS of bitumen "A" together with bulkrock analysis indicates that source rocks from Shengbei area are more oil-prone while source rocks from Qiudong and Xiaocaohu areas are more gas-prone,coinciding with the distribution of oil and gas reservoirs in Taibei Sag. Ratios used to identify oil-prone and gas-prone property for source rocks from Turpan Basin are proposed:n-alkanes >110 μg·mg-1,aromatics <15 μg·mg-1,and n-alkanes/aromatics >8 for oil-prone source rock bitumen while n-alkanes<82 μg·mg-1,aromatics >40 μg·mg-1,and n-alkanes/aromatics <1.5 for gas-prone source rock bitumen.

  2. Comparative genomics reveals adaptation by Alteromonas sp. SN2 to marine tidal-flat conditions: cold tolerance and aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renukaradhya K Math

    Full Text Available Alteromonas species are globally distributed copiotrophic bacteria in marine habitats. Among these, sea-tidal flats are distinctive: undergoing seasonal temperature and oxygen-tension changes, plus periodic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain SN2 of the genus Alteromonas was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sea-tidal flat sediment and has been shown to metabolize aromatic hydrocarbons there. Strain SN2's genomic features were analyzed bioinformatically and compared to those of Alteromonas macleodii ecotypes: AltDE and ATCC 27126. Strain SN2's genome differs from that of the other two strains in: size, average nucleotide identity value, tRNA genes, noncoding RNAs, dioxygenase gene content, signal transduction genes, and the degree to which genes collected during the Global Ocean Sampling project are represented. Patterns in genetic characteristics (e.g., GC content, GC skew, Karlin signature, CRISPR gene homology indicate that strain SN2's genome architecture has been altered via horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Experiments proved that strain SN2 was far more cold tolerant, especially at 5°C, than the other two strains. Consistent with the HGT hypothesis, a total of 15 genomic islands in strain SN2 likely confer ecological fitness traits (especially membrane transport, aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism, and fatty acid biosynthesis specific to the adaptation of strain SN2 to its seasonally cold sea-tidal flat habitat.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) from mangrove of Guadeloupe: levels, bioavailability, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdine, Gaëlle; Fichet, Denis; Louis, Max; Lemoine, Soazig

    2012-05-01

    Surface sediment and oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) from the coastlines of Guadeloupe were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using GC/MS. Biomarkers of oxidative stress were used to assess the response of these oysters to hydrocarbons exposure. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 49 to 1065 ng/g dw, while concentrations in oyster ranged from 66 to 961 ng/g dw. Molecular indices based on isomeric PAHs ratios characterize the pollution sources and show that most of the contaminations in sediment originate from pyrolytic inputs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) have been related to isomeric ratio calculated for oysters in order to refine PAHs sources. The variations of BAFs observed in the different compounds resulted from different uptake pathways in the mangrove oysters according to the type of inputs. Response of biomarkers showed inhibition of catalase and an increase of lipid peroxidation at the station where PAHs concentrations were the highest. Taken together, data obtained point to the relevance of considering environmental conditions as factors influencing biomarker responses in environmental monitoring programs. These data also indicate the need for regular environmental follow-up studies in Guadeloupe. PMID:22209019

  4. Contribution of incense burning to indoor PM10 and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under two ventilation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, S-C C; Kao, M-C; Hu, S-C

    2003-06-01

    Burning incense to worship Gods and ancestors is a traditional practice prevalent in Asian societies. This work investigated indoor PM10 concentrations resulting from incense burning in household environments under two conditions: closed and ventilated. The exposure concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated. The factors of potential exposure were also evaluated. Under both conditions, samples were taken at three locations: 0.3, 3.5 and 7 m away from the altar during three periods: incense burning, the first 3 h, and the 4-6 h after cessation of combustion. PAH concentrations of incense smoke were assessed in the laboratory. Personal environment monitors were used as sampling instruments. The results showed a significant contribution of incense burning to indoor PM10 and particulate PAH concentrations. PM10 concentrations near the altar during incense burning were 723 and 178 microg/m3, more than nine and 1.6 times background levels, under closed and ventilated conditions, respectively. Exposure concentrations of particle-bound PAHs were 0.088-0.45 microg/m3 during incense burning. On average, PM10 and associated PAH concentrations were about 371 and 0.23 microg/m3 lower, respectively, in ventilated environments compared with closed conditions. Concentrations were elevated for at least 6 h under closed conditions.

  5. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, adiposity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ methylation in offspring, grand-offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghai Yan

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP α, cyclooxygenase (Cox-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. FINDINGS: Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. CONCLUSIONS: Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny.

  6. Apoptosis and Bax expression are increased by coal dust in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-exposed lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, M.M.; Battelli, L.A.; Mercer, R.R.; Scabilloni, J.F.; Kashon, M.L.; Ma, J.Y.C.; Nath, J.; Hubbs, A.F.

    2006-09-15

    Miners inhaling respirable coal dust (CD) frequently develop coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Many coal miners are also exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of diesel engine exhaust and cigarette smoke, which may contribute to lung disease in these workers. Recently, apoptosis was reported to play a critical role in the development of another pneumoconiosis of miners, silicosis. In addition, CID was reported to suppress cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) induction by PAHs. We exposed rats intratracheally to 0.0, 2.5, 10.0, 20.0, or 40.0 mg/rat CD and, 11 days later, to intraperitoneal P-naphthoflavone (BNF), a PAH. In another group of rats exposed to CD and BNF, caspase activity was inhibited by injection of the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH (quinoline-Val-Asp (OMe)-CH{sub 2}-OPH). In rats exposed to BNF, CD exposure increased alveolar expression of the proapoptotic mediator Bax but decreased CYP1A1 induction relative to BNF exposure alone. Pan-caspase inhibition decreased CD-associated Bax expression and apoptosis but did not restore CYP1A1 activity. Further, CD-induced lung inflammation and alveolar epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were not suppressed by caspase inhibition. It is concluded that combined BNF and CD exposure increased Bax expression and apoptosis in the lung, but Bax and apoptosis were not the major determinants of early lung injury in this model.

  7. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Slovenian coastal area (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajt, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    The distribution and sources of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in sediments at seven sites around the Slovenian coastal area. The potential toxicological significance was also assessed using biological thresholds. The results of the analyses showed higher concentrations of hydrocarbons in the Port of Koper and in the Marina of Portoroz. The influence of pollution was also evident in rather higher concentrations of hydrocarbons in the surrounding area in the Bays of Koper and Piran. Concentrations of hydrocarbons decrease toward the central part of the Gulf of Trieste. The major component of the aliphatic fraction was the unresolved complex mixture. Concentrations of the total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons were in a range from 689 to 3,164 ng g(-1). Concentrations of the total PAHs were between 330 and 1,173 ng g(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily of pyrolytic origin with some smaller contributions of the petrogenic, while the aliphatic are mostly of petrogenic origin with significant amounts of biogenic derived compounds of terrestrial and marine origin. Strong evidence of the diagenetic origin of perylene in the investigated area was also found. Quite a good linear relationship between PAH concentration and TOC and between aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations and TOC was observed. The principal component analysis showed differences between the nearshore and offshore sites. In general, the investigated area is moderately contaminated by hydrocarbons. Concentrations of PAHs, hydrocarbons of high concern, are below the levels (effects range low and the effects range median) associated with adverse biological effects. PMID:22270593

  8. Turn-On Fluorogenic and Chromogenic Detection of Small Aromatic Hydrocarbon Vapors by a Porous Supramolecular Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Sou; Ono, Toshikazu; Hisaeda, Yoshiio

    2016-07-18

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, the isomers of xylene, and trimethylbenzene are harmful volatile organic compounds and pose risks to human health and the environment. However, there are currently no effective chemosensors for vapors of these compounds. A porous supramolecular host for turn-on fluorogenic and chromogenic detection of the vapors of small aromatic hydrocarbons is presented. The host was constructed from a naphthalenediimide derivative that was supramolecularly connected to tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane. The amorphous powder form of the host allowed for effective accommodation of vapors of small aromatic hydrocarbons, resulting in a guest-dependent fluorescence emission. Increases in the fluorescence yield of 76-, 46-, and 37-fold were observed with toluene, benzene, and m-xylene, respectively. Negligible responses were obtained with common organic solvents. This simple supramolecular host could be applied as a useful sensor of small aromatic hydrocarbon vapors. PMID:27224939

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Thornhill

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO study in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in March 2006, we measured particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and other gaseous species and particulate properties, including light absorbing carbon or effective black carbon (BC, at six locations throughout the city. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to describe spatial and temporal patterns in PAH concentrations, to gain insight into sources and transformations of PAHs and BC, and to quantify the relationships between PAHs and other pollutants. Total particulate PAHs at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0 supersite located near downtown averaged 50 ng m−3, and aerosol active surface area averaged 80 mm2 m−3. PAHs were also measured on board the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, which visited six sites encompassing a mixture of different land uses and a range of ages of air parcels transported from the city core. A combination of analyses of time series, back trajectories, concentration fields, pollutant ratios, and correlation coefficients supports the concept of T0 as an urban source site, T1 as a receptor site with strong local sources, Pedregal and PEMEX as intermediate sites, Pico Tres Padres as a vertical receptor site, and Santa Ana as a downwind receptor site. Weak intersite correlations suggest that local sources are important and variable and that exposure to PAHs and BC cannot be represented by a single regional-scale value. The relationships between PAHs and other pollutants suggest that a variety of sources and ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH/BC mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8–30

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, D. A.; de Foy, B.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Wood, E. C.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Marr, L. C.

    2008-06-01

    As part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) study in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in March 2006, we measured particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other gaseous species and particulate properties, including light absorbing carbon or effective black carbon (BC), at six locations throughout the city. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to describe spatial and temporal patterns in PAH concentrations, to gain insight into sources and transformations of PAHs and BC, and to quantify the relationships between PAHs and other pollutants. Total particulate PAHs at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0 supersite) located near downtown averaged 50 ng m-3, and aerosol active surface area averaged 80 mm2 m-3. PAHs were also measured on board the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, which visited six sites encompassing a mixture of different land uses and a range of ages of air parcels transported from the city core. A combination of analyses of time series, back trajectories, concentration fields, pollutant ratios, and correlation coefficients supports the concept of T0 as an urban source site, T1 as a receptor site with strong local sources, Pedregal and PEMEX as intermediate sites, Pico Tres Padres as a vertical receptor site, and Santa Ana as a downwind receptor site. Weak intersite correlations suggest that local sources are important and variable and that exposure to PAHs and BC cannot be represented by a single regional-scale value. The relationships between PAHs and other pollutants suggest that a variety of sources and ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH/BC mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8 30 times higher than that found in other cities. Evidence also suggests that primary

  11. Evaluation of methods for predicting the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, W.; Barhoumi, R.; Burghardt, R.C. [and others] [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health and Department of Civil Engineering

    2001-04-15

    Risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures are hindered by a lack of reliable information on the potency of both mixtures and their individual components. This paper examines methods for approximating the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. PAHs were isolated from a coal tar and then separated by ring number using HPLC. Five fractions (A-E) were generated, each possessing a unique composition and expected potency. The toxicity of each fraction was measured in the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay and the Chick Embryo Screening Test (CHEST). Their abilities to induce ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and to inhibit gap junction intercellular communication in rat liver Clone 9 cells were also measured. In the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay, fractions were predicted to have potencies in the order C {gt} E {gt} B {gt} A. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for fractions A-E were in the order E {ge} D {gt} C {gt} B {gt} A. TEF values were 20 652, 20 929, 441, 306 and 74.1 {mu}g of BaP equiv/g, respectively. A lack of agreement between assay-predicted potencies and chemical analysis-predicted potencies was observed with other assays and other methods of calculation. The results demonstrate the limitations of using a single method to predict the toxicity of a complex PAH mixture. 41 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric particulate of NCR, Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwani, Saurabh; Amreen, Hassan; Khillare, P. S.

    2016-07-01

    The present study identifies the particulate Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their sources in ambient atmosphere of Delhi, India. PM10 (aerodynamic diameter, ≤10 μm) samples were collected weekly at two residential areas from July 2013 to January 2014. First sampling site was located in centre of the city, while other was at city's background (located in South-East direction of the Delhi). PM10 was collected on Whatman GF/A (8"x10") glass fibre filters using High-Volume sampler having a constant flow rate of 1.10 m3/min. A total of 55 samples, 27 from city centre and 28 from background site were collected during sampling period, covering two different seasons. The samples were analysed for determination of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system (Waters, USA). A source apportionment study using Molecular Diagnostic Ratio (MDR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were conducted for both sampling sites in order to identify the potential PAHs sources in Delhi. MDR was used for the preliminary identification of sources and PCA was used for further confirmation of the PAH sources at both the sites in Delhi. Results indicated towards traffic and coal combustion related sources as dominant contributors of urban atmospheric PAHs in Delhi.

  13. Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

  14. Brine-induced advection of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons to arctic bottom waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extruded brine, generated during sea ice formation in nearshore arctic waters, will sink to the bottom and can form a stable bottom boundary layer. This layer can persist for periods of up to 4-6 months. Limited quantities of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons resulting from a spill of crude oil or refined petroleum distillate products during periods of ice growth can be transported as conservative components to the benthos with sinking brine. Once incorporated into the stable bottom boundary layer, these aromatic components are no longer subject to loss by evaporative processes, and they only can be diluted by ultimately mixing with uncontaminated water masses, a process that proceeds slowly throughout the ice-covered period. This mechanism for the transport of dissolved hydrocarbons has been demonstrated through a laboratory test-tank simulation and a chemical/physical oceanographic field program conducted in the Chukchi Sea near Pt. Frankline, AK (March 1985). The results are pertinent to shallow nearshore oil and gas exploration, development, production, and transportation activities in high latitude marine systems

  15. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using partially purified laccase from residual compost of agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayolo-Deloisa, K. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Machin-Ramirez, C. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rito-Palomares, M. [Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Trejo-Hernandez, M.R. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Laccase partially purified from residual compost of Agaricus bisporus by an aqueous two-phase system (Lac ATPS) was used in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). The capacity of the enzyme to oxidize polyaromatic compounds was compared to that of the crude laccase extract (CE). After treatment of 72 h, Lac ATPS and CE were not capable of oxidizing Flu and Phe, while Ant, BaP, and BaA were oxidized, resulting in percentages of oxidation of 11.2 {+-} 1, 26 {+-} 2, and 11.7 {+-} 4 % with CE, respectively. When Lac ATPS was used, the following percentages of oxidation were obtained: 11.4 {+-} 3 % for Ant, 34 {+-} 0.1 % for BaP, and 13.6 {+-} 2 % for BaA. The results reported here demonstrate the potential application of Lac ATPS for the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Assessment of atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using polyparameter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk-Sekulić Maja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of partial or total destruction of industrial plants, military targets, infrastructure, uncontrolled fires and explosions during the conflict period from 1991 to 1999, at the area of Western Balkans, were large amounts of hazardous organic matter that have been generated and emitted in the environment. In order to assess gas/particle partition of seven EPA polychlorinated biphenyls and sixteen EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, twenty air samples have been collected at six urban, industrial and highly contaminated localities in Vojvodina. Hi-Vol methodology has been used for collecting ambiental air samples, that simultaneously collects gaseous and particulate phase with polyurethane foam filters (PUF and glass fiber filters (GFF. PUF and GFF filters have been analyzed, and concentration levels of gaseous PCBs and PAHs molecules in gaseous and particulate phase were obtained, converted and expressed through fraction of individual compounds sorbed onto particulate phase of the sample, in total detected quantity. Experimentally gained gas/particle partitioning values of PCBs and PAHs molecules have been compared with PP-LFER model estimated values. Significant deviation has been noticed during comparative analysis of estimated polyparameter model values for complete set of seven PCBs congeners. Much better agreement of experimental and estimated values is for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, especially for molecules with four rings. These results are in a good correlation with literature data where polyparameter model has been used for predicting gas/particle partition of studied group of organic molecules.

  17. Differential scanning calorimetry method for purity determination: A case study on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestens, V., E-mail: vikram.KESTENS@ec.europa.eu [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Zeleny, R.; Auclair, G.; Held, A.; Roebben, G.; Linsinger, T.P.J. [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2011-09-20

    Highlights: {yields} Purity assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol by DSC. {yields} DSC results compared with traditional purity methods. {yields} Different methods give different results, multiple method approach recommended. {yields} DSC sensitive to impurities that have similar structures as main component. - Abstract: In this study the validity and suitability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the purity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol has been investigated. The study materials were two candidate certified reference materials (CRMs), 6-methylchrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, and two different batches of commercially available highly pure chloramphenicol. The DSC results were compared with those obtained by other methods, namely gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, liquid chromatography with diode array detection, and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The purity results obtained by these different analytical methods confirm the well-known challenges of comparing results of different method-defined measurands. In comparison with other methods, DSC has a much narrower working range. This limits the applicability of DSC as purity determination method, for instance during the assignment of the purity value of a CRM. Nevertheless, this study showed that DSC can be a powerful technique to detect impurities that are structurally very similar to the main purity component. From this point of view, and because of its good repeatability, DSC can be considered as a valuable technique to investigate the homogeneity and stability of candidate purity CRMs.

  18. Retention mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reversed-phase liquid chromatography with monomeric stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Jake L; Siepmann, J Ilja; Schure, Mark R

    2011-12-23

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is the foremost technique for the separation of analytes that have very similar chemical functionalities, but differ only in their molecular shape. This ability is crucial in the analysis of various mixtures with environmental and biological importance including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and steroids. A large amount of effort has been devoted to studying this phenomenon experimentally, but a detailed molecular-level description remains lacking. To provide some insight on the mechanism of shape selectivity in RPLC, particle-based simulations were carried out for stationary phases and chromatographic parameters that closely mimic those in an experimental study by Sentell and Dorsey [J. Chromatogr. 461 (1989) 193]. The retention of aromatic hydrocarbons ranging in size from benzene to the isomeric PAHs of the formula C(18)H(12) was examined for model RPLC systems consisting of monomeric dimethyl octadecylsilane (ODS) stationary phases with surface coverages ranging from 1.6 to 4.2 μmol/m(2) (i.e., stationary phases yielding low to intermediate shape selectivity) in contact with a 67/33 mol% acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The simulations show that the stationary phase acts as a very heterogeneous environment where analytes with different shapes prefer different spatial regions with specific local bonding environments of the ODS chains. However, these favorable retentive regions cannot be described as pre-existing cavities because the chain conformation in these local stationary phase regions adapts to accommodate the analytes.

  19. Questioning the existence of superconducting potassium doped phases for aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heguri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Mototada; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2015-07-01

    Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons doped with potassium (K) such as K3 [picene (PCN)] and K3 [phenanthrene (PHN)] is found for only armchair-type polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. In this paper the thermodynamics of the reaction processes of PHN or anthracene (AN, zigzag type) with K was studied using differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction. We show that PHN decomposes during the reaction, triggered by hydrogen abstraction, to give metal hydride KH and unknown amorphous. No stable doped phases exist in Kx(PHN ) with stoichiometries of x =1 -3 . However, in the case of AN, a stable doped phase forms. We claim that PHN, which has been reported to be energetically more stable in the ground state than AN by first principle calculations, is unstable upon doping. We also suggest that the superconductivity in K3(PCN ) is due to the misinterpretation of experimental data, which actually arises from ferromagnetic impurities. We have never detected the superconductivity above 2 K in these compounds. The superconductivity in both Kx(PHN ) and Kx(PCN ) is concluded to be highly questionable.

  20. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions of particles of various sizes from smoldering incense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T T; Lin, T S; Wu, J J; Jhuang, F J

    2012-02-01

    Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles of various sizes from smoldering incenses was determined. Among the three types of incense investigated, yielding the total PAH emission rate and factor ranges for PM0.25 were 2,139.7-6,595.6 ng/h and 1,762.2-8,094.9 ng/g, respectively. The PM0.25/PM2.5 ratio of total PAH emission factors and rates from smoldering three incenses was greater than 0.92. This study shows that total particle PAH emission rates and factors were mainly incenses. The benzo[a]pyrene accounted for 65.2%-68.0% of the total toxic equivalency emission factor of PM2.5 for the three incenses. Experimental results clearly indicate that the PAH emission rates and factors were influenced significantly by incense composition, including carbon and hydrogen content. The study concludes that smoldering incense with low atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios minimized the production of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of both PM2.5 and PM0.25.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Recent lake sediments—I. Compounds having anthropogenic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Schaffner, Christian; Giger, Walter

    1980-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment cores from Lake Lucerne, Lake Zürich, and Greifensee, Switzerland, and Lake Washington, northwest U.S.A., have been isolated, identified and quantified by glass capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Surface sediment layers are greatly enriched in PAH—up to 40 times—compared to deeper layers. In addition, concentration increases in upper sediments generally correspond to increasing industrialization and urbanization in the catchment basins of the lakes. Few PAH could be detected in pre-industrial revolution sediments, indicating that background levels for most PAH in aquatic sediments are extremely low. These results are consistent with an anthropogenic source for most of the aromatic hydrocarbons present in the modern sediments. A comparison of PAH distributions in the sediments and in possible source materials shows that urban runoff of street dust may be the most important PAH input to these lacustrine sediments. There is evidence that a significant contribution to the PAH content of street dust comes from material associated with asphalt.

  2. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.;

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in ...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people.......The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3...

  3. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland) by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Namieśnik; Anna Maria Sulej; Żaneta Polkowska

    2011-01-01

    Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/...

  4. Kekulé-based Valence Bond Model.Ⅱ. Diels-Alder Reactivity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Jing(马晶); LI,Shu-Hua(黎书华); JIANG,Yuan-Sheng(江元生)

    2002-01-01

    The Kekule-based valence bond ( VB ) method was employed to study the ground state properties of 52 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The reactivity indices defined upon our VB calculations were demonstrated to be capable of quantitatively interpreting the secnd order rate constants of the Diels-Alder reactions. The qualitative trends of the reactivities of many homologous series can be also explained based on the local aromaticity index defined in this work.

  5. Functional Gene Markers for Fumarate-Adding and Dearomatizing Key Enzymes in Anaerobic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation in Terrestrial Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Netzer, Frederick; Kuntze, Kevin; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans H; Boll, Matthias; Lueders, Tillmann

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation is a key process in many environments either naturally or anthropogenically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. Considerable advances into the biochemistry and physiology of selected anaerobic degraders have been achieved over the last decades, especially for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. However, researchers have only recently begun to explore the ecology of complex anaerobic hydrocarbon degrader communities directly in their natural habitats, as well as in complex laboratory systems using tools of molecular biology. These approaches have mainly been facilitated by the establishment of a suite of targeted marker gene assays, allowing for rapid and directed insights into the diversity as well as the identity of intrinsic degrader populations and degradation potentials established at hydrocarbon-impacted sites. These are based on genes encoding either peripheral or central key enzymes in aromatic compound breakdown, such as fumarate-adding benzylsuccinate synthases or dearomatizing aryl-coenzyme A reductases, or on aromatic ring-cleaving hydrolases. Here, we review recent advances in this field, explain the different detection methodologies applied, and discuss how the detection of site-specific catabolic gene markers has improved the understanding of processes at contaminated sites. Functional marker gene-based strategies may be vital for the development of a more elaborate population-based assessment and prediction of aromatic degradation potentials in hydrocarbon-impacted environments. PMID:26959523

  6. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils.

  7. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils. PMID:26498812

  8. Size-distribution of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic source markers in the surroundings of a cement plant powered with alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soberón, Francisco; van Drooge, Barend L; Rovira, Joaquim; Grimalt, Joan O; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-15

    The distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and molecular tracer organic compounds for biomass combustion, traffic emissions, soil dust, and secondary aerosol processing have been studied in three fractions of ambient air particulate matter (PM10, 2.5, and 1) collected in the vicinity of a cement plant. PAH concentrations were used to estimate the carcinogenic risks in humans. Combustion related compounds, including PAHs, and those from secondary aerosol processing, predominated in the finest (PMlaw. Exposure and inhalation carcinogenic risks from total PAHs were below the EPA threshold of acceptable risk (1·10(-6)). PMID:26859698

  9. Eco-physiological Effects of Atmospheric Ozone and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandai, S.; Sakugawa, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] Tropospheric ozone is one of most concerned air pollutant, by causing damage to trees and crops. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants found in various environmental compartments. Photo-induced toxicity of PAHs can be driven from formation of intracellular single oxygen and other reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) leading to biological damages.(1) In the present study, we measured photosynthesis rate and other variables to investigate the effects of ozone and PAHs on the eco-physiological status of plants such as eggplant, common bean and strawberry. Plants treated with the single or combined air pollutants are expected to exhibit altered physiological, morphological and possibly growth changes. [Materials and Methods] We performed three exposure experiments. Exp.1. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) seedlings, were placed in the open-top chambers (n=6 plants/treatment). Treatment system was ozone (O)(120ppb), phenanthrene (P)(10μM), O+P, fluoranthene (F)(10μM), O+F, mannitol (M)(1mM) and the control (Milli-Q water)(C). P, F and M were sprayed three times weekly on the foliage part of eggplant. Average volume sprayed per seedling was 50mL. The treatment period was 30days and [AOT 40 (Accumulated exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb)]=28.8 ppmh. Exp.2, Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings were used (n=5 plants/treatment). The treatment system was the same as Exp.1. The treatment period was 40days and [AOT 40]=38.4ppmh. Exp.3. Strawberry (Fragaria L.) seedlings were used (n=5 plants/treatment). Treatment system was O (120ppb), F(10μM), O+F, F+M, O+M and C. The treatment period was 90days and [AOT 40]=86.4ppmh. Ecophysiological variables examined were photosynthesis rate measured at saturated irradiance (Amax), stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), photochemical efficiency of PS2 in the dark (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll contents, visual symptom assessment and elemental composition in the

  10. Comparison of three different in vitro mutation assays used for the investigation of cytochrome P450-mediated mutagenicity of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, W.A.; Och, F.M.M. van; Groene, E.M. de; Horbach, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Three different in vitro mutation assays were used to investigate the involvement of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the activation of the nitro- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitroPAHs) 1-nitropyrene and 2- nitrofluorene and their reduced metabolites amino-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aminoPAHs

  11. Investigation of fixed wavelength fluorescence results for biliary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampanin, Daniela M; Kemppainen, Eeva K; Skogland, Karianne; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Sydnes, Magne O

    2016-02-01

    Fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) and synchronous fluorescence scanning (SFS) of fish bile are commonly used methods to analyze for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. A range of conjugated oxidation products from petrogenic PAHs are normally accumulated in the bile. Therefore their detection is important. In the present study, phenanthrene and naphthalene metabolites, formed in vivo in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), were used to study the response of these compounds in both FF and SFS analyses. The selected synthetic metabolites were (-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene-1,2-diol and (-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol. The study findings showed that the recommended excitation and emission wavelengths for FF analysis do not comprise the maximum emission wavelengths for these metabolites, providing an incorrect estimation of the PAH exposure. A method developed in our laboratory for the synthesis of (-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene-1,2-diol is also described. PMID:26492423

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Crassostrea rhizophorae and Cathorops spixii from the Caroni Swamp, Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhai, La Daana K; Gobin, Judith F; Beckles, Denise M; Lauckner, Bruce; Mohammed, Azad

    2015-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may pose serious threats to human health. However, within the Caribbean, quantitative assessments regarding the risks associated with dietary PAH exposure remain sparse. This study investigated PAH presence in edible biota from the Caroni Swamp and quantitatively assessed the potential health threat to human consumers. Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and Madamango sea catfish (Cathorops spixii) collected from seven sites in the Caroni Swamp were analysed for 16 priority PAHs. Total PAH levels ranged from 109 ± 18.4 to 362 ± 63.0 ng/g dry wt. in Crassostrea rhizophorae and 7.5 ± 0.9 to 43.5 ± 25.5 ng/g dry wt. in Cathorops spixii (average ± standard deviation). Benzo[a]pyrene levels in Crassostrea rhizophorae at all sites exceeded international guidelines from British Colombia (Canada) and the European Union (EU). Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values based on the ingestion of Crassostrea rhizophorae ranged from 8.4 × 10(-6) to 1.6 × 10(-5) and slightly exceeded the commonly used 1 × 10(-6) acceptable level of risk. Information from this study is important in understanding the potential health risks posed by PAHs, it is critical towards the protection of public health, and it serves as a useful baseline for comparison with future work.

  13. Lagos lagoon sediment organic extracts and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce embryotoxic, teratogenic and genotoxic effects in Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbanmu, Temitope O; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M; Otitoloju, Adebayo A; Bury, Nic R

    2016-07-01

    An expansion of anthropogenic activity around Lagos lagoon, Nigeria, has raised concerns over increasing contaminants entering the lagoon's ecosystem. The embryotoxicity, teratogenicity and genotoxicity of sediment organic extracts from four sampling zones around Lagos lagoon, Ilaje, Iddo, Atlas Cove and Apapa, as well as the dominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) identified in water measured during the wet season (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and a mixture of these), were assessed with Danio rerio embryos. Embryos were exposed to varying concentrations of toxicants from 0-72 h post-fertilization (hpf). Embryotoxicity at 72 hpf showed a dose-dependent increase in mortality upon exposure to extracts from all zones, except Atlas Cove. Similarly, higher levels of teratogenic effects, such as increased oedema, and haemorrhage and developmental abnormalities resulted from exposure to extracts from Ilaje, Iddo and Apapa zones. Treatment with single PAHs revealed that significant levels of detrimental effects were obtained only for phenanthrene. The modified comet assay revealed that the oxidative damage to DNA was generally low (<12 %) overall for all sediment extracts, but was significantly elevated with Ilaje and Iddo sediment extracts when compared with solvent controls. Oxidative damage was observed with the single PAHs, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene, as well as with the PAH mixture. This study highlights that Lagos lagoon sediment extracts have teratogenic, embryotoxic and genotoxic properties, which are likely due to the high molecular weight PAHs present in the extracts, some of which are known or are suspected human carcinogens. PMID:27068906

  14. Does glucose enhance the formation of nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis of proline?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip F. Britt; A.C. Buchanan; Clyde V. Owens, Jr.; J. Todd Skeen [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division

    2004-08-01

    The gas-phase pyrolysis of proline, glucose, 1-((2{prime}-carboxy)pyrrolidinyl)-1-deoxy-D-fructose (the proline Amadori compound), and a 1:1 mixture by weight of proline and glucose was investigated at high temperatures (600-840{sup o}C) and short residence time (i.e. 1.0 s) in an inert atmosphere to determine if glucose or Maillard reaction products enhance the formation of nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the pyrolysis of proline. To study the gas-phase formation of N-PACs and PAHs, the substrates were sublimed into the pyrolysis furnace at 460{sup o}C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that glucose, the proline/glucose mixture, and the proline Amadori compound undergo solid-state decomposition reactions before subliming. Thus, the substrates were pyrolyzed in two stages: at 460{sup o}C during the sublimation and at 600-840{sup o}C. At 800{sup o}C with a residence time of 1.0 s, proline produced low yields of N-PACs, such as quinoline, isoquinoline, indole, acridine, and carbazole, and PAHs, such as phenanthrene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzofluoranthene isomers, and benzo(a)pyrene. Increasing the temperature and residence time increased the yield of these products. Under similar pyrolysis conditions, the proline Amadori compound produced 2-8 fold more N-PACs and PAHs than proline. A 1:1 mixture of proline and glucose produced a similar slate of pyrolysis products as the proline Amadori compound, but it is unclear whether the proline Amadori compound was an intermediate in the reaction. In general, the proline Amadori compound produced a higher yield of N-PACs and PAHs than the proline/glucose mixture, but glucose clearly enhances the low temperature gas-phase formation of N-PACs and PAHs from the pyrolysis of proline. 56 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Study of the interaction between water and hydrogen sulfide with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; Carrazana-García, Jorge A; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús

    2009-06-21

    A computational study has been carried out for determining the characteristics of the interaction between one water and hydrogen sulfide molecule with a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of increasing size, namely, benzene, anthracene, triphenylene, coronene, circumcoronene, and dicircumcoronene. Potential energy curves were calculated for structures where H(2)X (X=O,S) molecule is located over the central six-membered ring with its hydrogen atoms pointing toward to (mode A) or away from (mode B) the hydrocarbon. The accuracy of different methods has been tested against the results of coupled cluster calculations extrapolated to basis set limit for the smaller hydrocarbons. The spin component scaled MP2 (SCS-MP2) method and a density functional theory method empirically corrected for dispersion (DFT-D) reproduce fairly well the results of high level calculations and therefore were employed for studying the larger systems, though DFT-D seems to underestimate the interaction in hydrogen sulfide clusters. Water complexes in mode A have interaction energies that hardly change with the size of the hydrocarbon due to compensation between the increase in the correlation contribution to the interaction energy and the increase in the repulsive character of the Hartree-Fock energy. For all the other clusters studied, there is a continuous increase in the intensity of the interaction as the size of the hydrocarbon increases, suggesting already converged values for circumcoronene. The interaction energy for water clusters extrapolated to an infinite number of carbon atoms amounts to -13.0 and -15.8 kJ/mol with SCS-MP2 and DFT-D, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide interacts more strongly than water with the hydrocarbons studied, leading to a limiting value of -21.7 kJ/mol with the SCS-MP2 method. Also, complexes in mode B are less stable than the corresponding A structures, with interaction energies amounting to -8.2 and -18.2 kJ/mol for water and hydrogen sulfide

  16. Distribution of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between water, sediment and common eels (Anguilla angillae) in the urban stretch of Tevere River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research has focused the attention on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, sediment and common eels (Angilla anguillae) in the urban area of Tevere River. These compounds can derived from point (E.g.oil spill) or non-point (e.g. atmospheric deposition) sources and are one of the most widespread organic pollutants. (Author)

  17. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused solica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silice capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (author). 3 figs., 17 refs

  18. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs

  19. Repair of DNA damage induced by anthanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) without bay or fjord regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Johannessen, Christian; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants, formed during incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas. Several PAHs have carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies, but these compounds must be activated in order to exert their mutagenic effects. One of the principal pathways...

  20. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PA

  1. Novel magnetic nanoparticles coated by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-bearing dextran, and the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Eunae; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Min Choi, Jae;

    2015-01-01

    , the potential for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as phenanthrene and pyrene by sorption onto the nanomaterials was assessed. In the sorption, pi-stacking interactions of the benzene-derivatized dextran and host–guest chemistry of the β-cyclodextrin-derivatized dextran were considered...

  2. Theory and application of landfarming to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil-contaminated sediments: beneficial reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Rulkens, W.H.; Sims, R.C.; Rijtema, P.E.; Zweers, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    When applying landfarming for the remediation of contaminated soil and sediment, a fraction of the soil-bound contaminant is rapidly degraded; however, a residual concentration may remain, which slowly degrades. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil can be described

  3. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sequestration in sediment on bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond, C.T.A.; Roessink, I.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Meijer, T.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    It is not clear whether sequestration or aging of organic chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) limits accumulation in higher levels of aquatic food chains. Therefore, the effect of aging on accumulation was studied in 1-m3 model ecosystems that

  4. THE PENALIZED OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: THE PRECISE ESTIMATION OF AN INTERACTION THRESHOLD IN A MIXTURE OF EIGHTEEN POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton et al. (EHP, 2005) conducted a study of 18 polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) on serum total thyroxine (T4). Young female Long-Evans rats were dosed with the 18 single agents or a fixed-ratio mixture, and serum total T4 was measured via radioimmunoassay. The i...

  5. Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incardona, John P., E-mail: john.incardona@noaa.gov; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2011-12-15

    Petroleum-derived compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment. Recent studies using the zebrafish experimental model have shown that PAHs are toxic to the embryonic cardiovascular system, and that the severity and nature of this developmental cardiotoxicity varies by individual PAH. In the present study we characterize the toxicity of the relatively higher molecular weight 5-ring PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF). While all three compounds target the cardiovascular system, the underlying role of the ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and the tissue-specific induction of the cytochrome p450 metabolic pathway (CYP1A) were distinct for each. BaP exposure (40 {mu}M) produced AHR2-dependent bradycardia, pericardial edema, and myocardial CYP1A immunofluorescence. By contrast, BkF exposure (4-40 {mu}M) caused more severe pericardial edema, looping defects, and erythrocyte regurgitation through the atrioventricular valve that were AHR2-independent (i.e., absent myocardial or endocardial CYP1A induction). Lastly, exposure to BeP (40 {mu}M) yielded a low level of CYP1A+ signal in the vascular endothelium of the head and trunk, without evident toxic effects on cardiac function or morphogenesis. Combined with earlier work on 3- and 4-ring PAHs, our findings provide a more complete picture of how individual PAHs may drive the cardiotoxicity of mixtures in which they predominate. This will improve toxic injury assessments and risk assessments for wild fish populations that spawn in habitats altered by overlapping petroleum-related human impacts such as oil spills, urban stormwater runoff, or sediments contaminated by legacy industrial activities. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAH compounds with 5 rings in different arrangements caused differential tissue-specific patterns of CYP1A induction in zebrafish embryos. Black

  6. Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, J. H.; Højgård, A.;

    2010-01-01

    smoking, and for other fish species direct smoking leads to higher sigma PAH25 than indirect smoking. Also, the usage of common alder increases the PAH contamination compared with beech. The effects of smoking time, combustion temperatures, and two types of smoke-generating material on the Sigma PAH25......A new method for the analysis of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in fish was developed, validated, and used for the quantification of PAHs in 180 industrially smoked fish products. The method included pressurized liquid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography (Bio-beads S-X3...... concentrations were obtained for indirectly smoked trout (26 mu g kg-1). Principal component analysis was used to correlate processing parameters to PAH concentrations and to identify the effects of these parameters. The analysis showed that for salmon hot-smoking conditions lead to higher sigma PAH25 than cold...

  7. Microbial degradation of street dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microcosms simulating diffuse pollution of urban soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R; de Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J;

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of topsoil in urban regions has caused increasing concerns in recent years. We simulated diffuse pollution of soil in microcosms by spiking sandy topsoil (A-horizon) and coarse, mineral subsoil (C-horizon) with street dust (PM63......) isolated from municipal street sweepings from central Copenhagen. The microbial communities adapted to PAH degradation in microcosms spiked with street dust in both A-horizon and C-horizon soils, in spite of low PAH-concentrations. The increased potential for PAH degradation was demonstrated on several...... levels: by slowly diminishing PAH-concentrations, increased mineralization of 14C-PAHs, increasing numbers of PAH degraders and increased prevalence of nah and pdo1 PAH degradation genes, i.e. the microbial communities quickly adapted to PAH degradation. Three- and 4-ring PAHs from the street dust were...

  8. Overview of established and emerging treatment technologies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at wood preserving facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of soil and groundwater by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is common to wood preserving facilities and manufactured gas plants. Since the inception of RCRA and CERCLA, much attention has been focused upon the remediation of both active and defunct wood preserving facilities. The experiences gleaned from the use of proven technologies, and more importantly, the lessons being learned in the trials of emerging technologies on creosote-derived PAH clean-ups at wood preserving sites, should have direct bearing on the clean-up of similar contaminants at MGP sites. In this paper, a review of several remedial actions using waste removal/disposal, on-site incineration, and bioremediation will be presented. Additionally, emerging technologies for the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil and water will be reviewed. Lastly, recent information on risk assessment results for creosote sites and treated PAH waste will be discussed

  9. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.;

    2016-01-01

    Khuzestan, Iran is heavily industrialised with petrochemical and refinery companies. Herein, sediment and soil samples were collected from Hendijan coast, Khore Mosa and Arvandroud River. The CHEMSIC (CHEmometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms) method was used to assign the main sources...... of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. A four-component principal component analysis (PCA) model was obtained. While principal component 1 (PC1) was related to the total concentration of PAHs, the remaining PCs described three distinct sources: PC2 and PC3 collectively differentiate between...... weathered petrogenic and pyrogenic, and PC4 is indicative for a diagenetic input. The sources of PAHs in the Arvandroud River were mainly relatively fresh oil with some samples corresponding to a weathered oil input. Further, perylene (indicator for diagenetic source) was identified. Samples from Khore Mosa...

  10. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia: A review from 1999 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia. - This work summarizes the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia

  11. Role of volcanic dust in the atmospheric transport and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracquadanio, Milena; Dinelli, Enrico; Trombini, Claudio

    2003-12-01

    The role of volcanic ash as scavenger of atmospheric pollutants, in their transport and final deposition to the ground is examined. Attention is focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and on particulate mercury (Hgp). The ash-fall deposits studied belong to the 2001 and 2002 eruptive activity of Mount Etna, Southern Italy, and were investigated at three (2001) and four (2002) sites downwind of the major tephra dispersal pattern. The dry deposition of mercury and PAHs was determined, and, in particular, a downward flux to the ground of PAHs (approximately 7.29 microg m(-2) per day) and mercury (750 ng m(-2) per day) was estimated in Catania from October 26 to October 28, 2002. Finally, evidence on the anthropogenic origin of PAHs scavenged from the troposphere by volcanic ash is supported by the analysis of PAH compositions in granulometrically homogeneous fractions.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons alter the structure of oceanic and oligotrophic microbial food webs

    KAUST Repository

    Cerezo, Maria Isabel

    2015-11-01

    One way organic pollutants reach remote oceanic regions is by atmospheric transport. During the Malaspina-2010 expedition, across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, we analyzed the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) effects on oceanic microbial food webs. We performed perturbation experiments adding PAHs to classic dilution experiments. The phytoplankton growth rates were reduced by more than 5 times, being Prochlorococcus spp. the most affected. 62% of the experiments showed a reduction in the grazing rates due to the presence of PAHs. For the remaining experiments, grazing usually increased likely due to cascading effects. We identified changes in the slope of the relation between the growth rate and the dilution fraction induced by the pollutants, moving from no grazing to V-shape, or to negative slope, indicative of grazing increase by cascade effects and alterations of the grazers\\' activity structure. Our perturbation experiments indicate that PAHs could influence the structure oceanic food-webs structure.

  13. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...... section of an aerobic aquifer. Compared to biologically deactivated control experiments all compounds were biologically degraded. Degradation curves were very reproducible for some compounds (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, o-dichlorobenzene and p-dichlorobenzene) and less reproducible for other (naphthalene...... and biphenyl). Based on observed length of lag phases, length of the degradation periods and percent degradation, the variation among the 8 localities appears to be modest. However, detailed examination of the degradation rates revealed statistically significant variation among localities for benzene, toluene...

  14. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  15. Estimation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from magnesium metallurgy facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-11-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to develop a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission inventory for the magnesium (Mg) metallurgy industry in China. PAH emissions in stack gas and fly/bottom ash samples from different smelting units of a typical Mg smelter were measured and compared. Large variations of concentrations, congener patterns, and emission factors of PAHs during the oxidation and reduction stages in the Mg smelter were observed. The measured average emission factor (166,487 μg/t Mg) was significantly higher than those of other industrial sources. Annual emission from Mg metallurgy in 2012 in China was estimated at 116 kg (514 g BaPeq) for PAHs. The results of this study suggest that PAH emission from Mg industries should be considered by local government agencies. These data may be helpful for understanding PAH levels produced by the Mg industry and in developing a PAH inventory.

  16. Trapping of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by amphiphilic cyclodextrin functionalized polypropylene nonwovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Nielsen, Ronnie Bo Højstrup; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    Recently, there has been an augmented focus on the increasing amount of pesticides, drug residues and endocrine disruptors present in waste and drinking water1. These pollutants represent a challenge in water purification since they may be hazardous to human health even in low doses2. Cyclodextrins...... of the textile fibers. In this study we present the ability of amphiphilic CD coated polypropylene nonwovens to trap 8 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/endocrine disruptors from aqueous solutions thus demonstrating the potential of using the amphiphilic cyclodextrins for water purification....... (CDs) are known to be able to form inclusion complexes with a large range of the unwanted pollutantse.g. 3 but in order to utilise this ability to purify water, the CDs must be immobilised on a surface, for instance, a membrane filter. We have developed a simple and fast method...

  17. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  18. Use of antioxidant enzymes of clam Ruditapes philippinarum as biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ying; Sui, Yadong; Xiao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The typical organic pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anthracene was selected as a contaminant to investigate its effects on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The results show that SOD, CAT and GSH-Px had diff erent induction and inhibition reactions to anthracene stress, and that three diff erent organs in R. philippinarum (visceral mass, muscle tissue and mantle) had diff erent sensitivities to anthracene stress. This study suggest that SOD activities of the visceral mass, CAT activitities of the mantle and the visceral mass, and GSH-Px activity of the muscle tissue could be used as sensitive indicators of anthracene stress in R. philippinarum.

  19. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. PMID:24100092

  20. Study on Removing Trace Olefins in Aromatic Hydrocarbons with HPMo-loaded Y Zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhenghong; Zeng Haiping; Shi Li

    2008-01-01

    HPMo-loaded Y-zeolites were prepared for the removal of trace olefins from aromatic hydrocarbons.The temperature of calcination and the proportion of phospho-molybdic acid in the catalyst were studied. The catalytic activity for olefins removal and the service life of the catalyst were tested in a fixed bed microreactor. The results showed that the catalyst containing 3% phospho-molybdic acid, which was calcined at 550℃,demonstrated the best activity for olefins removal. The catalyst could be regenerated and could perform still very well. Catalyst characterization was performed by XRD and measured by pyridine-FTIR spectrometry. The test results indicated that the activity of the catalyst was related with the effect of acid concentration and acid strength. Besides, the deactivation of the catalyst was associated with the formation of coke deposits and the deactivated catalyst could recover its activity by oxidation with air under a proper temperature.

  1. Qualitative TLC determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar-beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA D. SKRBIC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of polycyclic or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in sugar-beet from a local sugar factory in the district of Vojvodina. The sugar-beet was cultivated on areas near roads with intensive traffic. The procedure for the preparation and determination of these compounds included saponification of the sample, several liquid–liquid extraction systems and a silica gel column clean-up. The purified sample solution was analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC on silica gel with cyclohexane as the developing solvent. Benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(aanthracene and/or benzo(apyrene were detected at concentrations greater than the allowed limits in food.

  2. Enhanced diffusion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artificial and natural aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Fernqvist, M.M.; Christensen, P.S.;

    2007-01-01

    Uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds into organisms is often limited by the diffusive transport through a thin boundary layer. Therefore, a microscale diffusion technique was applied to determine the diffusive mass transfer of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through water, air, surfactant...... solutions, humic acid solutions, aqueous soil and horse manure extracts, digestive fluid of a deposit-feeding worm, and root exudates from willow plants. In most cases the diffusive mass transfer of PAHs was much higher through the tested media than through water, and the enhancement factors increased...... with increasing hydrophobicity of the PAHs. The diffusive flux of benzo[a]pyrene was for instance enhanced 74 times through gut fluid of a deposit-feeding worm when compared to water. These findings demonstrate that a wide variety of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at environmental levels can enhance diffusive...

  3. On-line database of the spectral properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Malloci, G; Mulas, G; 10.1016/j.chemphys.2007.01.001

    2009-01-01

    We present an on-line database of computed molecular properties for a large sample of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four charge states: -1, 0, +1, and +2. At present our database includes 40 molecules ranging in size from naphthalene and azulene (C10H8) up to circumovalene (C66H20). We performed our calculations in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT to obtain the most relevant molecular parameters needed for astrophysical applications. For each molecule in the sample, our database presents in a uniform way the energetic, rotational, vibrational, and electronic properties. It is freely accessible on the web at http://astrochemistry.ca.astro.it/database/ and http://www.cesr.fr/~joblin/database/.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total extractable particulate organic matter in the Arctic aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of total suspended particulate matter were collected in March and August 1979 at Barrow, Alaska, a remote site in the Arctic. Ambient concentrations of extractable particulate organic matter (POM), of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and of 210Pb were determined. The samples were also examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Average concentrations of POM and PAH were similar to those reported for other remote sites in the northern hemisphere, but the concentrations were considerably higher in March than in August. The presence of fly ash in the samples collected during the March sampling period, as well as seasonal differences in the concentrations of the organic species and 210Pb and in meteorology indicate that the principal source of POM and PAH was fossil fuel combustion in the mid-latitudes during the March sampling period. (author)

  5. Compost-mediated removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasek, V; Bhatt, M; Cajthaml, T; Malachová, K; Lednická, D

    2003-04-01

    Compost-assisted remediation of a manufactured-gas plant soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed in thermally insulated composting chamber using mushroom compost consisting wheat straw, chicken manure, and gypsum. The degradation of individual PAHs was in range of 20-60% at the end of 54 days of composting followed by further increase of PAH removal (37-80%) after another 100 days of maturation. Both chemical analysis of the contaminated soil for PAHs and ecotoxicity tests on bioluminescent bacteria, earthworms, and plant seeds were performed before and after the composting. After the composting, inhibition of bioluminescence decreased, whereas no significant change in toxicity was observed for earthworm survival and seed germination. Using bacterial culture of Escherichia coli K12 genotoxicity tests were performed on samples taken from different parts of the composting pile; after the composting the decrease in genotoxicity was observed only in the sample taken from upper part of the composted pile.

  6. Application of random forests method to predict the retention indices of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, N; Shahsavani, D; Emadi-Gandaghi, F; Chamjangali, M Arab

    2014-03-14

    In this work, a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) investigation was carried out based on the new method of random forests (RF) for prediction of the retention indices (RIs) of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. The RIs of these compounds were calculated using the theoretical descriptors generated from their molecular structures. Effects of the important parameters affecting the ability of the RF prediction power such as the number of trees (nt) and the number of randomly selected variables to split each node (m) were investigated. Optimization of these parameters showed that in the point m=70, nt=460, the RF method can give the best results. Also, performance of the RF model was compared with that of the artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques. The results obtained show the relative superiority of the RF method over the MLR and ANN ones.

  7. Correlation of levels of volatile versus carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples from smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Poulsen, O M; Christensen, J M

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, data on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in air samples from fish smokehouses (Nordholm et al. 1986) and meat smokehouses (Hansen et al. submitted for publication) were used to analyze the extent to which six different volatile PAH compounds could...... carcinogenic PAH compounds in air samples from smokehouses, whereas fluoranthene and pyrene displayed the highest specificity. However, when the applicability of the six markers was tested on air samples from iron foundries, only naphthalene and pyrene were useful as markers for the carcinogenic compounds...... function as markers for the total concentration of six different carcinogenic particulate PAH compounds. Although a significant positive correlation was observed between the concentration of each of six volatile compounds and the total concentration of carcinogenic PAH compounds, a particularly good...

  8. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Karoon River, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Mokhtarzadeh, Zeinab; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Rostami, Soqra; Kaabi, Helena

    2015-12-01

    Karoon is the longest river in Iran and provides water for industries located along its banks, such as metal, petrochemical, and oil industries. It is also the source of drinking water for cities such as Ahwas, Abadan, and Khorramshahr. In this study, 34 and 18 surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The measured concentrations of heavy metals were compared with US EPA sediment quality guidelines, and the results showed that Cu concentration was above the threshold effect level (TEL) in 65.67% of the samples and Hg concentration was above the effect range median (ERM) in some samples. The results revealed that Hg was severely enriched (5 factory and Abadan petrochemical complex. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis also revealed the relationships between the studied parameters and identified their probable sources. PMID:26233736

  9. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked fish using pressurized liquid extraction with integrated fat removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mette; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    extraction with fat retention in one single analytical step. The PLE parameters: type of fat retainer, flush volume, solvent composition, fat-to-fat retainer ratio (FFR), and the dimensions of the extraction cells were the most important factors for obtaining fat-free extracts with high recoveries of PAHs. A...... 100 mL extraction cell filled with 18 g activated silica gel, dichloromethane:hexane (15:85, v/v) as extraction solvent, FFR of 0.025 and 100% flush volume was the best analytical setup for integrated extraction and fat retention. The one-step procedure provided a more rapid and cost......Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish products often requires multiple clean-up steps to remove fat and other compounds that may interfere with the chemical analysis. We present a novel pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method that integrates exhaustive...

  10. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH SOME OR ALL HYDROGEN ATOMS REMOVED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    The loss of one hydrogen from C{sub 96}H{sub 24} does not significantly affect the infrared spectra of the neutral, cation, or anion. Excluding a very weak C-C stretching band at 5.1 μm, the loss of two adjacent duo hydrogens does not significantly affect the spectra compared with the parent. Removing all of the hydrogen atoms significantly increases the intensity of the new C-C stretching band, and, for the cation, shifts it to a longer (5.2 μm) wavelength. Observations show a feature near 5.25 μm, which has been attributed to overtone and combination bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This current work suggests that dehydrogenated PAHs might also contribute to this band, but its weakness implies that fully dehydrogenated cationic or dicationic species are very rare.

  11. Problems in the fingerprints based polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons source apportionment analysis and a practical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yonghong; Wang, Lixia; Christensen, Erik R

    2015-10-01

    This work intended to explain the challenges of the fingerprints based source apportionment method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment, and to illustrate a practical and robust solution. The PAH data detected in the sediment cores from the Illinois River provide the basis of this study. Principal component analysis (PCA) separates PAH compounds into two groups reflecting their possible airborne transport patterns; but it is not able to suggest specific sources. Not all positive matrix factorization (PMF) determined sources are distinguishable due to the variability of source fingerprints. However, they constitute useful suggestions for inputs for a Bayesian chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis. The Bayesian CMB analysis takes into account the measurement errors as well as the variations of source fingerprints, and provides a credible source apportionment. Major PAH sources for Illinois River sediments are traffic (35%), coke oven (24%), coal combustion (18%), and wood combustion (14%). PMID:26208321

  12. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  13. A 25-year record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils amended with sewage sludges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Sappin-Didier, Valérie; Denaix, Laurence;

    2005-01-01

    We studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crop soils amended with 1000 tonnes dry weight of sewage sludges per 10,000 m(2) from 1974 to 1992, then after sludges addition from 1993 to 1999. The absence of variations of total PAHs levels of control soils, averaging at 123 mu g/Kg, shows...... the absence of horizontal contamination. During sludges addition, the total PAHs levels in amended soils increased from 232 to 402 mu g/Kg. Seven years after sludges addition, it decreased to 275 mu g/Kg, which is still more than twice the levels of control soils. This finding shows that sludges PAHs...... are preserved in crop soils for long periods of time, on a human scale....

  14. The phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a theoretical study of excited states and correlation to experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betowski, Leon D; Enlow, Mark; Riddick, Lee

    2002-06-01

    Investigators using models to determine the phototoxic effects of sunlight on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have invoked the excited states of the molecule as important in elucidating the mechanism of these reactions. Energies of actual excited states were calculated for ten PAHs by several ab initio methods. The main method used for these calculations was the Configuration Interaction approach, modeling excited states as combinations of single substitutions out of the Hartree-Fock ground state. These calculations correlate well with both experimentally measured singlet and triplet state energies and also previous HOMO-LUMO gap energies that approximate the singlet state energies. The excited state calculations then correlate well with general models of photo-induced toxicity based for the PAHs.

  15. Analysis of carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS): an overview of modern electroanalytical techniques and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürk, Zühre

    2013-02-01

    A number of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be toxicants, and induce carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects. Since PAHs are often present in low concentrations and it may be difficult to determine them in complex matrices, it is therefore essential to use powerful analytical tools to separate and identify the analyses in the samples. In this paper, initially, a short description of the principles, instrumentation, and use of common extraction and analytical techniques for PAH pollutants and their metabolites will be made in light of the previously reported works and major reviews. Special attention will be given to the use of modern polarographic and voltammetric techniques on the mercury and different types of solid electrodes, together with their some practical applications. The main drawbacks and limitations of these methods will also be discussed.

  16. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout. PMID:1785054

  17. [Symptoms of atopy in persons exposed to chronic immunosuppression of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczeklik, J; Kowalczyk, E; Gałuszka, Z

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of the atopy symptoms was estimated in 126 coke oven workers chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The assessment was based on questionnaire, point skin tests with the allergens of dust, feathers, mould grass as well as on the measurements of total blood serum IgE concentration. The control group was consisted of 75 men, workers of cold rolling mill division where the environmental conditions were much better. It was observed that positive questionnaire data and positive skin tests were significantly less frequent in men exposed to PAHs. The men serum IgE values were not statistically different in both group workers although in coke oven workers the tendency to higher IgE values was observed. It is rather suggested that more useful method might be the measurement of specific serum IgE.

  18. Cyclodextrin-promoted Diels Alder reactions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon under mild reaction conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sauradip; Phelan, Tyler; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the effect of cyclodextrins on the rates of aqueous Diels Alder reactions of 9-anthracenemethanol with a variety of N-substituted maleimides. These reactions occurred under mild reaction conditions (aqueous solvent, 40 °C), and were most efficient for the reaction of N-cyclohexylmaleimide with a methyl-β-cyclodextrin additive (94% conversion in 24 hours). These results can be explained on the basis of a model wherein the cyclodextrins bind the hydrophobic substituents on the maleimides and activate the dienophile via electronic modulation of the maleimide double bond. The results reported herein represent a new mechanism for cyclodextrin-promoted Diels Alder reactions, and have significant potential applications in the development of other cyclodextrin-promoted organic transformations. Moreover, the ability to deplanarize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under mild conditions, as demonstrated herein, has significant applications for PAH detoxification. PMID:26692588

  19. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the realm of anharmonicity

    CERN Document Server

    Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micron CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (~4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilises intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination ...

  20. Development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X; Xu, X; Cui, W; Xi, Z

    2001-08-01

    The development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is described; this is the first natural matrix CRM for organic environmental analysis in China. The homogeneity and stability of this material have been tested by HPLC. The concentrations of several PAH were determined by use of two independent, different methods--solvent extraction-HPLC analysis with UV detection coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD) and solvent extraction, isolation with a silica column, and GC analysis with flame ionization detection (FID). Five certified values were determined: phenanthrene 7.1 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), anthracene 2.0 +/- 0.8 microg g(-1), fluoranthene 7.4 +/- 1.9 microg g(-1), pyrene 7 +/- 2 microg g(-1), and benzo[a]pyrene 1.3 +/- 0.3 microg g(-1). Reference values for several other PAH are also suggested. PMID:11583083

  1. Evaluating emission levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from organic materials by analytical pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Daniele; Vassura, Ivano [Laboratory of Chemistry, C.I.R.S.A., University of Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, I-48100 Ravenna (Italy)

    2006-03-01

    A procedure in off-line analytical pyrolysis was investigated for the rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) evolved from thermal degradation of organic materials. Samples spiked with perdeuterated PAHs were pyrolysed at 1000{sup o}C for 60s by means of a resistively heated filament pyrolyser inserted into a glass chamber connected to a cartridge with a sorbent (XAD-2 resin). PAHs trapped onto the resin were extracted with dichloromethane and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical performance of the overall procedure (precision, recovery, effect of experimental parameters) was evaluated by pyrolysing a bituminous coal certified reference material (CRM). Emission levels of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphtylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene were determined for bituminous and anthracite coals, tyre, and cellulose. Despite some limitations, the method was adequate to the purpose of quantitatively measuring the tendency of various materials to release volatile PAHs upon heating. (author)

  2. Diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in natural bitumens and pyrolysates from different humic coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan-Tan; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1992-07-01

    Data are presented on the distribution of diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in the natural bitumens extracted from unheated coals identified as Rocky Mountain coal (RMC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene coal (GEC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Cretaceous coal (GCC), and Texas Wilcox lignite (WL), as well as from pyrolysates obtained from heating of these coals. It was found that pentacyclic triterpanes are dominant in GEC, GCC, and WL, whereas diterpanes strongly predominate in the bitumen of RMC, indicating that resin is a more important constituent of RMC than of the other coals and that it releases the diterpenoids at an early stage of diagenesis. It was also found that the composition of diterpanes is different among these coals and that the distributions of sterane and triterpane in the natural bitumen of coals are very different from those of pyrolysates.

  3. Artificial neural network for modeling the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from lube oil cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrkesh, A.H.; Hajimirzaee, S. [Islamic Azad University, Majlesi Branch, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hatamipour, M.S.; Tavakoli, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to obtain a simulation model to predict the rotating disc contactor (RDC) performance during the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from lube oil cuts, to produce a lubricating base oil using furfural as solvent. The field data used for training the ANN model was obtained from a lubricating oil production company. The input parameters of the ANN model were the volumetric flow rates of feed and solvent, the temperatures of feed and solvent, and the disc rotation rate. The output parameters were the volumetric flow rate of the raffinate phase and the extraction yield. In this study, a feed-forward multi-layer perceptron neural network was successfully used to demonstrate the complex relationship between the mentioned input and output parameters. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Toxicity assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from European high mountain lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Roberto; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Pilar

    2010-05-01

    Sediment quality guidelines and toxic equivalent factors have been used for assessment of the toxicity of sedimentary long-range atmospherically transported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the organisms living in high mountain European lakes. This method has provided indices that are consistent with experimental studies evaluating in situ sedimentary estrogenic activity or physiological response to AhR binding in fish from the same lakes. All examined lakes in north, central, west, northeast and southeast European mountains have shown sedimentary PAH concentrations that are above thresholds of no effect but only those situated in the southeast lakes district exhibited concentrations above the indices of probable effects. These mountains, Tatras, are also those having PAH concentrations of highest activity for AhR binding. Chrysene+triphenylene, dibenz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene are the main compounds responsible for the observed toxic effects.

  5. Inclusion of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in a functionalized layered double hydroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Mohanambe; S Vasudevan

    2006-01-01

    The internal surface of an Mg-Al layered double hydroxide has been functionalized by anchoring carboxy-methyl derivatized -cyclodextrin cavities to the gallery walls. Neutral polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been included within the functionalized solid by driving the hydrophobic aromatic molecules from a polar solvent into the less polar interior of the anchored cyclodextrin cavities by a partitioning process. The optical (absorption and emission) properties of the PAH molecules included within the functionalized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide solid are similar to that of dilute solutions of the PAH in non-polar solvents. The unique feature of these hybrid materials is that they are thermally stable over a wide temperature range with their emission properties practically unaltered.

  6. A molecular dynamics study on slow ion interactions with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic collisions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are astrophysically particularly relevant for collision energies of less than 1 keV. In this regime, the interaction dynamics are dominated by elastic interactions. We have employed a molecular dynamics simulation based on analytical interaction potentials to model the interaction of low energy hydrogen and helium projectiles with isolated anthracene (C14H10) molecules. This approach allows for a very detailed investigation of the elastic interaction dynamics on an event by event basis. From the simulation data the threshold projectile kinetic energies above which direct C atom knock out sets in were determined. Anthracene differential energy transfer cross sections and total (dissociation) cross sections were computed for a wide range of projectile kinetic energies. The obtained results are interpreted in the context of PAH destruction in astrophysical environments.

  7. A novel cloud-point extraction process for preconcentrating selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, D.; Li, J.; Chen, S.B.; Chen, B.-H. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2001-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released in such processes as incomplete coal combustion and during the disposal of coal tar, are subject to strict emission controls in which the determination of PAHs has to be addressed. PAHs have low aqueous solubility which necessitates preconcentration prior to the analytical determination of PAHs. A novel but simple cloud-point extraction (CPE) process is developed to preconcentrate the trace of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the use of the readily biodegradable nonionic surfactant of secondary ethyoxylated alcohol Tergitol 15-S-7 as extractant. The concentrations of PAHs, mixtures of naphthalene and phenanthrene as well as pyrene in the spiked samples were determined with the new CPE process at ambient temperature (23{degree}C) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. More than 80% of phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively, and 96% of naphthalene initially present in the aqueous solutions with concentrations near or below their aqueous solubilities were recovered using this new CPE process. Importantly Tergitol 15-S-7 does not give any fluorometric signal to interfere with fluorescence detection of PAHs in the UV range. No special washing step is, thus, required to remove surfactant before HPLC analyses. Different experimental conditions were studied. The optimum conditions for the preconcentration and determination of these selected PAHs at ambient temperature have been established as the following: (1) 3 wt% surfactant; (2) addition of 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; (3) 10 min for equilibration time; and (4) 3000 rpm for centrifugal speed with duration of 10 min. 50 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lake Erhai,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianyang Guo; Zhang Liang; Haiqing Liao; Zhi Tang; Xiaoli Zhao; Fengchang Wu

    2011-01-01

    The temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in a sediment core from Lake Erhal in Southwest China using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method.The total organic carbon (TOC) normalized total PAHs concentrations (sum of US Environmental Protection Agency proposed 16 priority PAHs) ranged from 31.9 to 269 μg/g dry weight (dw),and were characterized by a slowly increasing stage in the deeper sediments and a sharp increasing stage in the upper sediments.The PAHs in the sediments were dominated by low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs,suggesting that the primary source of PAHs was low- and moderate temperature combustion processes.However,both the significant increase in high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs in the upper sediments and the vertical profile of diagnostic ratios pointed out a change in the sources of PAHs from low-temperature combustion to high-temperature combustion.The ecotoxicological assessment based on consensus-based sediment quality guidelines implied that potential adverse biological impacts were possible for benzo(ghi)perylenelene and most LMW PAHs.In addition,the total BaP equivalent quotient of seven carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (BaA,CHr,BbF,BkF,BaP,DBA and INP) was 106.1 ng/g,according to the toxic equivalency factors.Although there was no great biological impact associated with the HMW PAlls,great attention should be paid to these PAH components based on their rapid increase in the upper sediments.

  9. [Improving Agricultural Safety of Soils Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by In Situ Bioremediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-huan; Pan, Jian-gang; Xu, Shena-jun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops, reduce the potential hazards of food-sourced PAHs to human and increase the agricultural safety of PAHs contaminated soils, the bio-augmented removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated through in situ remediation by introducing Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS) into the agricultural soil contaminated by PAHs. The 50-times diluted RS was sprayed on leaf surface (in area B) or irrigated to roots (in area D). The treatment of spraying water of the equal amount was taken as the control (A) and the wheat field without any treatment as the blank (CK). Treatments were conducted since wheat seeding. Soil and wheat samples were collected in the mature period to analyze the changes of community structure of the soil microorganisms and the concentration of PAHs in soils and investigate the strengthening and restoration effects of RS on PAHs contaminated soils. Compared to the CK Area, the areas B and D revealed that the variation ratio of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that were the biomarker of soil microorganisms was 29.6%, and the ratio of total PAHs removed was increased 1.59 times and 1.68 times, respectively. The dry weight of wheat grain of 50 spikes was increased by 8.95% and 12.5%, respectively, and the enrichment factor of total PAHs was decreased by 58.9% and 62.2% respectively in the wheat grains. All the results suggested that RS reduced enrichment of PAHs in wheat grains and increased wheat yield, which had great exploitation and utilization potentiality in repairing and improving the agricultural safety of the soils contaminated with PHAs.

  10. Enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of fresh plant residues and their extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using fresh plant residues and their extracts to stimulate the bio-dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were highlighted. Wood chip, bamboo leave, orange peel and their water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) were chosen as amendment materials. Effect of WEOM on bio-dissipation (bioaccumulation and biodegradation) of phenanthrene and pyrene from water by two bacteria were investigated. Orange peel extract demonstrated the highest efficiency for stimulating PAHs removal by bacterium B1 (Pseudomonas putida), while bamboo leave extract was the best one to enhance PAHs bio-dissipation by bacterium B2 (unidentified bacterium isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil). Amended the actual contaminated soil with 1% plant residues, PAHs dissipation were increased by 15–20%, 20–39%, 14–24%, 12–23% and 17–26%, respectively, for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs via stimulating indigenous microbial degradation activity. Bamboo leave exhibited the most effective one to stimulate dissipation of PAHs in contaminated soil. - Graphical abstract: Enhanced bio-dissipation of 15 PAHs in soil amended with fresh plant residues of wood chip (WC), orange peel (OP), and bamboo leave (BL). The individual symbol of AC, EC and BC is the abiotic sterile control, evaporation control and blank control. Highlights: ► The addition of fresh plant extracts significantly enhance PAHs bio-dissipation from water. ► Bioaccumulation and biodegradation contribute to the bio-dissipation of PAHs in solution. ► The added fresh plant residues promotes 15 PAHs dissipation in PAHs-contaminated soil. ► Stimulating indigenous microbial degradation activity contributes to PAHs dissipation. ► Bamboo leave exhibits the most effective one to stimulate dissipation of PAHs in soil. - It is feasible to amend fresh plant residues and their extracts to stimulate the bio-dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the contaminated environment.

  11. Biodiesel presence in the source zone hinders aromatic hydrocarbons attenuation in a B20-contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Débora Toledo; Lazzarin, Helen Simone Chiaranda; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Fernandes, Marilda; do Rosário, Mário; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2016-10-01

    The behavior of biodiesel blend spills have received limited attention in spite of the increasing and widespread introduction of biodiesel to the transportation fuel matrix. In this work, a controlled field release of biodiesel B20 (100 L of 20:80 v/v soybean biodiesel and diesel) was monitored over 6.2 years to assess the behavior and natural attenuation of constituents of major concern (e.g., BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)) in a sandy aquifer material. Biodiesel was preferentially biodegraded compared to diesel aromatic compounds with a concomitant increase in acetate, methane (near saturation limit (≈ 22 mg L- 1)) and dissolved BTEX and PAH concentrations in the source zone during the first 1.5 to 2.0 years after the release. Benzene and benzo(a)pyrene concentrations remained above regulatory limits in the source zone until the end of the experiment (6.2 years after the release). Compared to a previous adjacent 100-L release of ethanol-amended gasoline, biodiesel/diesel blend release resulted in a shorter BTEX plume, but with higher residual dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations near the source zone. This was attributed to greater persistence of viscous (and less mobile) biodiesel than the highly-soluble and mobile ethanol in the source zone. This persistence of biodiesel/diesel NAPL at the source zone slowed BTEX and PAH biodegradation (by the establishment of an anaerobic zone) but reduced the plume length by reducing mobility. This is the first field study to assess biodiesel/diesel blend (B20) behavior in groundwater and its effects on the biodegradation and plume length of priority groundwater pollutants.

  12. The C--H Stretching Features at 3.2--3.5 Micrometer of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Aliphatic Sidegroups

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xuejuan; Glaser, Rainer; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The so-called unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer are ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of astrophysical regions. The UIE features are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. The 3.3 micrometer aromatic C--H stretching feature is often accompanied by a weaker feature at 3.4 micrometer. The latter is often thought to result from the C--H stretch of aliphatic groups attached to the aromatic systems. The ratio of the observed intensity of the 3.3 micrometer aromatic C--H feature to that of the 3.4 micrometer aliphatic C--H feature allows one to estimate the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers, provided that the intrinsic oscillator strengths of the 3.3 micrometer aromatic C--H stretch (A3.3) and the 3.4 micrometer aliphatic C--H stretch (A3.4) are known. While previous studies on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers were mostly based on the A3.4...

  13. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from organic solvents by ashes wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be formed during the refinery processes of crude petroleum. Their removal is of great importance. The same happens with other organic solvents used for the extraction of PAHs (hexane, acetonitrile...), which can be polluted with PAHs. Kinetic and equilibrium batch sorption tests were used to investigate the effect of wood ashes wastes as compared to activated carbon on the sorption of three representative PAHs from n-hexane and acetonitrile. Mussel shell ashes were discarded for batch sorption experiments because they were the only ashes containing PAHs. The equilibrium time was reached at 16 h. Physical sorption caused by the aromatic nature of the compounds was the main mechanism that governed the PAHs removal process. Our investigation revealed that wood ashes obtained at lower temperature (300 deg. C) did not show any PAHs sorption, while ashes obtained at higher temperature (>500 deg. C) have adsorbent sites readily available for the PAH molecules. An increase in the molecular weight of PAHs has a strong effect on sorption wood ashes wastes. As low the wood ashes particle size as high the sorption of PAHs, as a result of differences in adsorbent sites. The performance of wood ash wastes vs. activated carbon to remove 10 PAHs from organic solvents is competitive in price, and a good way for waste disposal.

  14. Physico-chemical properties and toxicity of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joong; Lee, So-Young; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Crude oil and refined petroleum products contain many polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular, alkylated PAHs. Although alkylated PAHs are found in significantly higher quantities than their corresponding unsubstituted PAHs, the most studies on the physico-chemical properties and toxicities of these compounds have been conducted on unsubstituted PAHs. In this study, we measured crucial physico-chemical properties (i.e., water solubility, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane and water (KPDMSw), and partition coefficient between liposomes and water (Klipw)) of selected alkylated PAHs, and evaluated their toxicity using the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri and growth inhibition of Raphidocelis subcapitata. In general, the logarithms of these properties for alkylated PAHs showed good linear correlations with log Kow, as did those for unsubstituted PAHs. Changes in molecular symmetry on the introduction of alkyl groups on aromatic ring structure significantly altered water solubility. The inhibition of bacterial luminescence and algal growth by alkylated PAHs can be explained well by the baseline toxicity hypothesis, and good linear relationships between log Kow or log Klipw and log (1/EC50) were found.

  15. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: The Realm of Anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micrometers CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold ((is) approximately 4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main modes that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the Aromatic Infrared Bands, specifically the 3-m band are discussed.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumard, P.; Budzinski, H.; Garrigues, P. [Univ. Bordeaux I, Talence (France)

    1998-05-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in superficial sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the western Mediterranean sea. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PAH concentrations ranged from 1 to 20,500 ng/g in the sediments. Different molecular indices allowed differentiation between the different pollutant sources. On the French coast, PAHs originated mainly from incomplete combustion of organic matter (pyrolytic origin), whereas for some sites in Corsica and Sardinia an overimposition of petrogenic PAHs occurred. The mussel PAH concentrations ranged from 25 to 390 ng/g. The total and individual PAH bioaccumulation factors were calculated. The correlation between sediment and mussel PAH content was discussed in terms of bioavailability. It was possible to distinguish different absorption routes for the xenobiotics according to their physicochemical properties. Because the mussel distribution of phenanthrene and anthracene seems to be governed by their water solubility, these compounds were probably mainly absorbed as the water-dissolved form, whereas the heavier molecular weight PAHs (more than four aromatic rings), whose sediment and mussel concentrations are correlated with higher correlation coefficients than for phenanthrene and anthracene, were probably mainly absorbed as adsorbed on particles. Furthermore, a possible preferential biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene over benzo[e]pyrene is discussed.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  18. Random mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spectra match interstellar infrared emission

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Marissa J F; Boersma, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR; 5-15~$\\mu$m) spectrum of a wide variety of astronomical objects exhibits a set of broad emission features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.7 $\\mu$m. About 30 years ago it was proposed that these signatures are due to emission from a family of UV heated nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), causing them to be referred to as aromatic IR bands (AIBs). Today, the acceptance of the PAH model is far from settled, as the identification of a single PAH in space has not yet been successful and physically relevant theoretical models involving ``true'' PAH cross sections do not reproduce the AIBs in detail. In this paper, we use the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database, which contains over 500 quantum-computed spectra, in conjunction with a simple emission model, to show that the spectrum produced by any random mixture of at least 30 PAHs converges to the same 'kernel'-spectrum. This kernel-spectrum captures the essence of the PAH emission spectrum...

  19. Physico-chemical properties and toxicity of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joong; Lee, So-Young; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Crude oil and refined petroleum products contain many polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular, alkylated PAHs. Although alkylated PAHs are found in significantly higher quantities than their corresponding unsubstituted PAHs, the most studies on the physico-chemical properties and toxicities of these compounds have been conducted on unsubstituted PAHs. In this study, we measured crucial physico-chemical properties (i.e., water solubility, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane and water (KPDMSw), and partition coefficient between liposomes and water (Klipw)) of selected alkylated PAHs, and evaluated their toxicity using the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri and growth inhibition of Raphidocelis subcapitata. In general, the logarithms of these properties for alkylated PAHs showed good linear correlations with log Kow, as did those for unsubstituted PAHs. Changes in molecular symmetry on the introduction of alkyl groups on aromatic ring structure significantly altered water solubility. The inhibition of bacterial luminescence and algal growth by alkylated PAHs can be explained well by the baseline toxicity hypothesis, and good linear relationships between log Kow or log Klipw and log (1/EC50) were found. PMID:27037474

  20. Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil number-sign 2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil number-sign 6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil number-sign 2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills

  1. Release behavior and formation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during coal pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiqi; Wang, Yulong; Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major environmental pollutants. They have attracted considerable attention due to their severe potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects on human health. In this study, five different rank coals from China were pyrolyzed using pyro-probe CDS 5250 and the release behavior of 16 PAHs under different pyrolysis conditions were studied by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The structural characteristics of the five coals were determined by Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS (13)C NMR) spectroscopy, and then the factors influencing the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis were discussed together with the coal structural data. It was shown that the amount of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis was largely related to coal rank and followed the order of medium metamorphic coal > low metamorphic coal > high metamorphic coal. The amount of total PAHs varied as the temperature was increased from 400 °C to 1200 °C, which showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, with the maximum value at 800 °C. Moreover, the species of PAHs released varied with pyrolysis temperatures. When the temperature was lower than 800 °C, the small ring PAHs were the most abundant, while the proportion of heavy rings increased at higher temperature. The results indicate that the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis depends on the structure of the coal. The species and amounts of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis are closely related to the contents of protonated aromatic carbons and bridging ring junction aromatic carbons present in the coal structure. PMID:27239965

  2. Release behavior and formation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during coal pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiqi; Wang, Yulong; Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major environmental pollutants. They have attracted considerable attention due to their severe potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects on human health. In this study, five different rank coals from China were pyrolyzed using pyro-probe CDS 5250 and the release behavior of 16 PAHs under different pyrolysis conditions were studied by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The structural characteristics of the five coals were determined by Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS (13)C NMR) spectroscopy, and then the factors influencing the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis were discussed together with the coal structural data. It was shown that the amount of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis was largely related to coal rank and followed the order of medium metamorphic coal > low metamorphic coal > high metamorphic coal. The amount of total PAHs varied as the temperature was increased from 400 °C to 1200 °C, which showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, with the maximum value at 800 °C. Moreover, the species of PAHs released varied with pyrolysis temperatures. When the temperature was lower than 800 °C, the small ring PAHs were the most abundant, while the proportion of heavy rings increased at higher temperature. The results indicate that the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis depends on the structure of the coal. The species and amounts of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis are closely related to the contents of protonated aromatic carbons and bridging ring junction aromatic carbons present in the coal structure.

  3. CHARACTERIZING THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF SMALL, NEUTRAL, FULLY DEHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, C. J.; Peeters, E.; Cami, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bauschlicher, C. W. Jr., E-mail: mackie@strw.leidenuniv.nl [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of a computational study to investigate the infrared spectroscopic properties of a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and their fully dehydrogenated counterparts. We constructed a database of fully optimized geometries for PAHs that is complete for eight or fewer fused benzene rings, thus containing 1550 PAHs and 805 fully dehydrogenated aromatics. A large fraction of the species in our database have clearly non-planar or curved geometries. For each species, we determined the frequencies and intensities of their normal modes using density functional theory calculations. Whereas most PAH spectra are fairly similar, the spectra of fully dehydrogenated aromatics are much more diverse. Nevertheless, these fully dehydrogenated species show characteristic emission features at 5.2 μm, 5.5 μm, and 10.6 μm; at longer wavelengths, there is a forest of emission features in the 16-30 μm range that appears as a structured continuum, but with a clear peak centered around 19 μm. We searched for these features in Spitzer-IRS spectra of various positions in the reflection nebula NGC 7023. We find a weak emission feature at 10.68 μm in all positions except that closest to the central star. We also find evidence for a weak 19 μm feature at all positions that is not likely due to C{sub 60}. We interpret these features as tentative evidence for the presence of a small population of fully dehydrogenated PAHs, and discuss our results in the framework of PAH photolysis and the formation of fullerenes.

  4. Determining produced water originating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in North Sea waters: comparison of sampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was carried out in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea during May and June 1997. The purpose was to measure the concentration of produced water originating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in seawater and to compare different sampling techniques for use in future monitoring programs. Three methods were used for direct water sampling: (1) in situ large volume sampling of particulate and dissolved hydrocarbons onto filters and XAD resins, (2) solid phase extraction (SPE) using polystyrene-divinylbenzene disks, (3) whole bulk water sampling. In addition, sampling by semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) was used to obtain a 4 weeks average of the concentration of the target compounds in seawater. The samples were processed and analysed by GC-MS for determination of PAH concentrations. The measured concentrations were generally found to be low, and in many cases below the limits of detection. The comparison of sampling techniques showed that blue mussels and SPMDs are suitable for measuring PAH in both near-and far-field seawater. In situ large volume water sampling was also suitable for a wide range of PAH concentrations, but this technique was limited by high break-through of the low-molecular weight compounds, such as naphthalenes. The small sampling volumes limited the SPE and whole water sampling techniques, resulting in potential detection limit problems These grab-sampling techniques may, however, be suitable for monitoring in the near-field areas around the platforms. (Author)

  5. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Cesar S.; Salama, Farid, E-mail: cesar.contreras@nasa.gov, E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust.

  6. Assessing the Ecological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Nasher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g−1 with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g−1, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g−1. The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites.

  7. Assessing the ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasher, Essam; Heng, Lee Yook; Zakaria, Zuriati; Surif, Salmijah

    2013-01-01

    Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g⁻¹ with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g⁻¹, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g⁻¹). The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites. PMID:24163633

  8. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust

  9. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components contribute to the mitochondria-antiapoptotic effect of fine particulate matter on human bronchial epithelial cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeza-Squiban Armelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are well-documented and related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies show that PM2.5 exposure is correlated with an increase of pulmonary cancers and the remodeling of the airway epithelium involving the regulation of cell death processes. Here, we investigated the components of Parisian PM2.5 involved in either the induction or the inhibition of cell death quantified by different parameters of apoptosis and delineated the mechanism underlying this effect. Results In this study, we showed that low levels of Parisian PM2.5 are not cytotoxic for three different cell lines and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Conversely, a 4 hour-pretreatment with PM2.5 prevent mitochondria-driven apoptosis triggered by broad spectrum inducers (A23187, staurosporine and oligomycin by reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, the subsequent ROS production, phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeabilization and typical morphological outcomes (cell size decrease, massive chromatin and nuclear condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies. The use of recombinant EGF and specific inhibitor led us to rule out the involvement of the classical EGFR signaling pathway as well as the proinflammatory cytokines secretion. Experiments performed with different compounds of PM2.5 suggest that endotoxins as well as carbon black do not participate to the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5. Instead, the water-soluble fraction, washed particles and organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH could mimic this antiapoptotic activity. Finally, the activation or silencing of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR showed that it is involved into the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5 at the mitochondrial checkpoint of apoptosis. Conclusions The PM2.5-antiapoptotic effect in addition

  11. Co-transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by motile microorganisms leads to enhanced mass transfer under diffusive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Jakobsen, Hans H; Winding, Anne; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-04-15

    The environmental chemodynamics of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) are often rate-limited by diffusion in stagnant boundary layers. This study investigated whether motile microorganisms can act as microbial carriers that enhance mass transfer of HOCs through diffusive boundary layers. A new experimental system was developed that allows (1) generation of concentration gradients of HOCs under the microscope, (2) exposure and direct observation of microorganisms in such gradients, and (3) quantification of HOC mass transfer. Silicone O-rings were integrated into a Dunn chemotaxis chamber to serve as sink and source for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This resulted in stable concentration gradients in water (>24 h). Adding the model organism Tetrahymena pyriformis to the experimental system enhanced PAH mass transfer up to hundred-fold (benzo[a]pyrene). Increasing mass transfer enhancement with hydrophobicity indicated PAH co-transport with the motile organisms. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed such transport. The effective diffusivity of T. pyriformis, determined by video imaging microscopy, was found to exceed molecular diffusivities of the PAHs up to four-fold. Cell-bound PAH fractions were determined to range from 28% (naphthalene) to 92% (pyrene). Motile microorganisms can therefore function as effective carriers for HOCs under diffusive conditions and might significantly enhance mobility and availability of HOCs.

  12. Multiple stress effects on marine planktonic organisms: Influence of temperature on the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Tetraselmis chuii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L. R.; Guilhermino, L.

    2012-08-01

    In the present context of global warming and increasing long-range transport of oil and goods by sea potentially resulting in oil spills, more knowledge on the toxicological interactions between temperature and oil components on marine organisms is urgently needed. Therefore, the effects of temperature increase on the toxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH; anthracene, phenanthrene and naphthalene) to the marine planktonic algae Tetraselmis chuii were investigated under laboratory conditions. T. chuii cultures were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of each of the test substances at both 20 and 25 °C. Effect criterion was the inhibition of culture growth assessed at 24 h intervals. All the PAHs significantly reduced T. chuii growth after 96 h of exposure with 20% inhibition concentrations between 0.052 and 1.124 mg L- 1 at 20 °C, and between 0.048 and 0.831 mg L- 1 at 25 °C. At both temperatures, the ranking, in order of decreasing toxicity based on the 50% inhibition concentration, was phenanthrene > naphthalene > anthracene. The increase of temperature by 5 °C significantly increased the toxicity of all the PAHs tested. These findings highlight the importance of considering temperature variation in the ecological risk assessment of oil and other chemical spills in the marine environment, and the need of more research on the toxic effects of multiple stressors on marine organisms.

  13. Local and seasonal variations in concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particles in a Japanese megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, Takeshi; Kamiya, Yuta; Ikemori, Fumikazu

    2016-07-15

    Concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorinated PAHs (ClPAHs) were measured in different seasons at five sampling stations in Nagoya, a Japanese megacity. The annual mean total ClPAH and total PAH concentrations were 43.3-92.6pg/m(3) and 5200-8570pg/m(3), respectively. The concentrations of total ClPAHs were significantly variable than those of total PAHs, and both total concentrations through the seasons did not significantly correlate at any of the stations. Principal component analysis was used to characterize the ClPAH sources, resulted that ClPAHs were found to be associated with the sources of high-molecular-weight PAHs in the warmer seasons and of low-molecular-weight PAHs in the colder seasons. These findings suggest that principal sources of particle-bound ClPAHs are present in the local area, and change in the seasons. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were estimated to assess the risks associated with exposure to ClPAHs in air. The TEQ concentrations in the samples were 0.05-0.32pg-TEQ/m(3). The TEQ concentrations in summer were approximately half the TEQ concentrations in the other seasons at all of the stations. PMID:27037480

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Considerations on food safety and source investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Dimartino, Angela; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in wild specimens of Haliotis tuberculata from three sites of the Sothern Ionian Sea. The species Ht is commonly found at these sites and has significant commercial value. Main results revealed mean values of benzo(a)pyrene higher than the threshold set by Regulation No. 835/2011/EU in all sampling sites and the sum of selected PAHs, expressed as ΣPAH4 by EC Regulation, were below the limit set by the same Regulation in ME and VSG. We found generally higher concentrations than literature finding, especially for low molecular weight PAHs, and results of diagnostic ratios highlighted both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The potential human health risks due consumption of Ht by local inhabitants have been assessed by exposure daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and lifetime cancer risk (CR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by EFSA for each class of contaminant. BaP daily intake was below the value of 10 ng/Kg/day, suggested by JFCFA, and CRBaP was slightly higher than the acceptable risk level (ARL) of 1×10(-5). Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) resulted always below 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene was low. PMID:27235950

  15. Effects of methyl group on aromatic hydrocarbons on the nanostructures and oxidative reactivity of combustion-generated soot

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero Peña, Gerardo D.J.

    2016-07-23

    The substituted and unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons, present in transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel, are thought to be responsible for most of the soot particles produced during their combustion. However, the effects of the substituted alkyl groups on the aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting tendencies, and on the physical and chemical properties of soot produced from them are not well understood. In this work, the effect of the presence of methyl groups on aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting propensity, and on the oxidative reactivity, morphology, and chemical composition of soot generated from them in diffusion flames is studied using benzene, toluene, and m-xylene as fuels. Several experimental techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to identify the morphological changes in soot, whereas the elemental and thermo-gravimetric analyses, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to study the changes in its chemical properties and reactivity. The activation energies for soot oxidation are calculated at different conversion levels, and a trend in the reactivity of soots from benzene, toluene and m-xylene is reported. It is observed that the sizes of primary particles and graphene-like sheets, and the concentrations of aliphatics and oxygenated groups in soot particles decreased with the addition of methyl group(s) on the aromatic ring. The physicochemical changes in soot are found to support the oxidative reactivity trends. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  16. Field effect transistors based on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the detection and classification of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayn, Alona; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Haick, Hossam

    2013-04-24

    We show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) based field effect transistor (FET) arrays can serve as excellent chemical sensors for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under confounding humidity conditions. Using these sensors, w/o complementary pattern recognition methods, we study the ability of PAH-FET(s) to: (i) discriminate between aromatic and non-aromatic VOCs; (ii) distinguish polar and non-polar non-aromatic compounds; and to (iii) identify specific VOCs within the subgroups (i.e., aromatic compounds, polar non-aromatic compounds, non-polar non-aromatic compounds). We further study the effect of water vapor on the sensor array's discriminative ability and derive patterns that are stable when exposed to different constant values of background humidity. Patterns based on different independent electronic features from an array of PAH-FETs may bring us one step closer to creating a unique fingerprint for individual VOCs in real-world applications in atmospheres with varying levels of humidity.

  17. Effect of the Structure of Cations and Anions of Ionic Liquids on Separation of Aromatics from Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yansheng; Zhang Zhongxin; Zhang Guofu; Liu Zhichang; Hu Yufeng; Shi Quan; Ji Dejun

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the structure of typical cations and anions of ionic liquids on the separation of benzene and toluene from aromatic/paraffin mixtures were studied. The results showed that the corresponding separation factors were considerably larger than those of the traditional solvents (Benzene+Hexane+sulfolane), and that the ionic liquids could be used as novel solvents for the separation of aromatics from hydrocarbon mixtures. The key parameters governing the ability of ionic liquids for separating aromatics from hydrocarbon sources were investigated. It was found that the effectiveness of the ionic liquids, based on the same anion, changed in the cation order of [BIqu]+< [BPy]+< [BMIM]+. The selectivity of the ionic liquid toward aromatics decreased apparently with the increasing length of the substituted alkyl chain of its cationic head ring. The separation factors, based on the same cation, changed in the anion order of [Tf2N]-<[PF6]-<[BF4]-<[C2H5SO4]-. The solubilities of the aromatics were greater in the ionic liquids based on the former three anions than that in the ionic liquids involving [C2H5SO4]-.

  18. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Overview and descriptive data from a molecular epidemiology study on populations exposed to moderate-to-low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the AULIS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.; Autrup, H.;

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that prolonged exposure to high pollution levels is associated with increased risk of cancer, especially lung cancer. However, under conditions of moderate or low air pollution, epidemiologic evidence does not permit reliable conclusions. Biomarker-based population ......-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), no simple correlation with biomarkers of genotoxicity existed and suggest that additional factors made a significant contribution to the overall genotoxic burden....

  19. [Urothelial carcinoma related to exposure to aromatic amines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, S; Kumazawa, J

    1989-12-01

    Clinical and statistical observations were made on a group of 438 persons who had worked with aromatic amines (benzidine, 2-naphthylamine, 1-naphthylamine and dianisidine) with reference to their carcinogenic properties in the urinary tract. Urinary tract tumors developed in 68 (15.5%), with an average latent period of 22 years and 11 months. In these 68 cases, upper urinary tract tumors were found in 16 cases, 8 of which had bilateral lesions. The average age of onset was 48.1 ranging from 24 to 79. The incidence of tumors increased with the length of exposure to the amines. There was no finding that smoking habit increased the incidence of tumors in this group. Of the 49 new patients with bladder tumor, urine cytology was positive in 24 (49.0%) and suspicious of malignancy in 10 (20.4%), respectively. This indicated that it could be a useful screening test. Transurethral surgery was most frequently performed as an initial treatment. Recurrence occurred in 50 cases (73.5%), but 5-, 10- and 20-year-survival rates were 89.0 79.3 and 64.7%, respectively, showing a good prognosis. Malignant tumors in other organs developed in 18 (4.1%) of the 438 workers. The incidence of such malignant tumors was significantly higher in the workers who had been exposed to 2-naphthylamine than in others. Our data indicate that close observation is still necessary for early detection of patient with new or recurrent urothelial carcinoma in this group. PMID:2618901

  20. Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Diagnostic Ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorska, A.; Jarkovsky, J.; Lammel, G.; Klanova, J.

    2009-04-01

    Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also of natural origin, in many regions their environmental concentrations have strongly increased due to human activities. These semivolatile organic compounds are generally formed during incomplete combustion. Other sources include volatilization from unburned petroleum or tire abrasion in road traffic. Among all pollutants PAHs pose the highest human health hazard in Europe (WHO, 2003). A multivariate statistical method, positive matrix factorization (PMF; Paatero, 1997), and diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs (e.g. Yunker et al., 2002) are used for PAH source identification in central Europe. To minimise confounding factors such as differences in volatility, water solubility, adsorption etc., diagnostic ratios should be restricted to PAHs of similar molecular mass (Readman et al., 1987). Furthermore, different reactivities are limiting. Nevertheless, the application of PAH diagnostic ratios is often inconclusive, because substance patterns (profiles) have not been reported for all sources and ranges for various sources overlap. The complete profiles are made use of by statistical methods such as factor analysis, UNMIX and PMF (Tauler et al., 2006). However, these methods can be unreliable, because of incomplete knowledge of source profiles and the analysis' sensitivity to the data distribution. A unique 12-year data set of concentrations of PAHs (16 individual substances, 2 phases, weekly) in air, measured at the regional observatory Košetice, Czech Republic, is examined, together with shorter time series from Leipzig (urban background) and Schwartenberg (subalpine mountain background), Germany. Also, retene and coronene as specific source markers measured in Košetice from 2006 on are included into the analysis. An extensive literature search on PAH emission profiles was conducted. This data set was accomplished by measurements at sites in the Zlínsko region, Czech Republic, which are strongly dominated

  1. From Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Ice to the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon rich molecules widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the composition of dust in the diffuse ISM is reasonably well constrained to cold refractory materials comprised of amorphous and crystalline silicates mixed with an amorphous carbonaceous material containing aromatic structural units and short, branched aliphatic chains. In the dense ISM, the birthplace of stars and planets, these cold dust particles are coated with mixed molecular ices whose composition is very well constrained. Lastly, the signature of carbon-rich polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread throughout the Universe. The first part of this talk will describe how infrared studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations, have revealed the composition of interstellar ices (the building blocks of comets) and the high abundance and nature of interstellar PAHs. The laboratory database has now enabled us to gain insight into the identities, abundances, and physical state of many interstellar materials. Within a dense molecular cloud, and especially in the presolar nebula, the materials frozen into the interstellar/precometary ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and the possible role of these compounds on the to the carbonaceous components of micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials on the early

  2. Effects of climatic modalities on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) availability and attenuation in historically contaminated Technosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois, Robin; Schwartz, Christophe; Faure, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since the decline of industrial activities in France, large areas of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soils have remained derelict. Thus, the fate of PAHs in such soils through natural attenuation process needs to be assessed. On the long-term scale (10-100 years), climate will greatly contribute to the evolution of soil physico-chemical properties and by consequences PAHs availability. In our study, we examined the effect of three contrasted climatic conditions (freeze-thawing, wetting-drying and high temperature) on soil aging processes of 11 historically contaminated soils and consequences on the availability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (including the 16 priority pollutants PAHs). Batch experiments were set-up for each modality; freeze-dried soil underwent variation of humidity and/or temperature. In a first step, PACs availability was roughly evaluated, with a water-extraction method using a H2O2 + CaCl2 solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was measured in these extracts before and after applying the climatic modalities. Difference in DOC indicated an effect of the climatic modality on PACs availability. If an effect was noticed, available PACs was then accurately measured using (i) an hydrogen-peroxide oxidation on the soils followed (ii) a dichloromethane (DCM) extraction and a Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) quantification of the remaining PACs (i.e. unavailable). Variation of PACs availability will greatly help to understand the mechanisms associated between PACs desorption/sequestration and the abiotic influence of climate. Results of this work will further help understanding and predict the rate of natural attenuation of PACs in contaminated soils for the incoming decades.

  3. Vulnerability of female germ cells in developing mice and monkeys to tritium, gamma rays, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During development female germ cells in both mouse and monkey are extremely sensitive to destruction by low-level chronic tritium exposure (via 3HOH in maternal drinking water). Practical significance of this stems from tritium's importance in nuclear energy production and as an environmental pollutant. In mice exposed from conception to 14 days of age, the LD50 level for oocytes is only 2 μCi per mililiter of body water. The present studies indicate that, for female germ cells in squirrel monkeys exposed in utero, the LD50 is even lower, about 0.5 μCi/ml. This striking sensitivity contrasts with reported radioresistance for primate oocytes, chiefly from acute x-irradiation experiments. The discrepancy is reconciled if germ cells in the fetal primate pass through a highly sensitive period of limited duration. In light of other data showing germ-cell loss following repeated semiweekly x-irradiation during late but not during mid gestation, these results indicate that exceedingly high sensitivity occurs probably about the middle of the last trimester, at which time the LD50 for monkey germ cells is, as for that of the mouse, less than 5 rads. Whereas highest radiosensitivity in primates is before birth, in mice it is after birth. To define the period of sensitivity more sharply, we measured oocyte responses to standard gamma-ray exposures in Swiss-Webster mice at various ages and found them to be maximal between days 5 and 19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), important as pollutants, also can destroy female germ cells effectively

  4. Grating light reflection spectroelectrochemistry for detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY,MICHAEL J.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; KEMME,SHANALYN A.; KASUNIC,K.J.; BLAIR,DIANNA S.; ZAIDI,S.H.; MCNEIL,J.R.; BURGESS,L.W.; BRODSKY,A.M.; SMITH,S.A.

    2000-04-01

    Grating light reflection spectroscopy (GLRS) is an emerging technique for spectroscopic analysis and sensing. A transmission diffraction grating is placed in contact with the sample to be analyzed, and an incident light beam is directed onto the grating. At certain angles of incidence, some of the diffracted orders are transformed from traveling waves to evanescent waves. This occurs at a specific wavelength that is a function of the grating period and the complex index of refraction of the sample. The intensities of diffracted orders are also dependent on the sample's complex index of refraction. The authors describe the use of GLRS, in combination with electrochemical modulation of the grating, for the detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons. The diffraction grating consisted of chromium lines on a fused silica substrate. The depth of the grating lines was 1 {micro}m, the grating period was 1 {micro}m, and the duty cycle was 50%. Since chromium was not suitable for electrochemical modulation of the analyte concentration, a 200 nm gold layer was deposited over the entire grating. This gold layer slightly degraded the transmission of the grating, but provided satisfactory optical transparency for the spectroelectrochemical experiments. The grating was configured as the working electrode in an electrochemical cell containing water plus trace amounts of the aromatic hydrocarbon analytes. The grating was then electrochemically modulated via cyclic voltammetry waveforms, and the normalized intensity of the zero order reflection was simultaneously measured. The authors discuss the lower limits of detection (LLD) for two analytes, 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine (Meldola's Blue dye) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), probed with an incident HeNe laser beam ({lambda} = 543.5 nm) at an incident angle of 52.5{degree}. The LLD for 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine is approximately 50 parts per billion (ppb), while the LLD for TNT is approximately

  5. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals in ashes released from a forest fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Abrantes, N.; Pereira, P.; Vale, C.; Ferreira, A.; Keizer, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfires have become a permanent source of environmental and societal concerns. Whilst the impacts of wildfire on hydrological and erosion processes are well documented, the stocks and export of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals have received considerably less research attention. The ashes produced by wildfires, which include polluting substances such as PAHs and metals, are subject to transport processes by wind and especially by overland flow and water infiltrating into the soil and possibly reaching ground water bodies. In the framework of the FIRECNUTS project, we are studying the stocks of PAHs and selected metals in recently burnt forest stands in north-central Portugal, and their subsequent export by overland flow. The present work, however, will focus on the stocks in the ashes, both immediately after wildfire and three months later. These ashes were collected at two burnt slopes with contrasting forest types, i.e. a eucalypt and a maritime pine stand, the two pre-dominant forest types in the study region. The sixteen PAHs identified by US EPA as priority contaminants were analysed by gas chromatograph, after extraction and column clean up. The contents of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after an acid digestion, while mercury (Hg) was analysed by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The total concentration of PAHs immediately after the wildfire ranged from 314 ng/g dry weight in the maritime pine stand to 597 ng/g dry weight in the eucalypt stand. Three months later, the total concentration has decreased with 33% in the pine stand but only half (16%) in the eucalypt stand. The composition the PAHs by ring size was dominated by three-rings PAHs. This was true for all samples. The concentrations of various metals differed for the two sampling

  6. Development of miniaturized submersible fluorometers for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedetti, Marc; Bachet, Caroline; Joffre, Pascal; Ferretto, Nicolas; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most widespread organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Due to their physico-chemical properties, PAHs are persistent and mobile, can strongly bioaccumulate in food chains and are harmful to living organisms. They are thus recognized by various international organizations as priority contaminants and are included in the list of 45 priority regulated substances by the European Union. Because of their aromatic structure, PAHs are "optically active" and have inherent fluorescence properties in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral domain (200-400 nm). Therefore, UV fluorescence spectroscopy has been successfully used to develop PAH sensors (i.e. UV fluorometers). Currently, five UV submersible fluorometers are commercially available for in situ measurements of PAHs: EnviroFlu-HC (TriOS Optical Sensors, Germany), Hydrocarbon Fluorometer (Sea & Sun Technology, Germany), HydroC ™ / PAH (CONTROS, Germany), UviLux AquaTracka (Chelsea Technology Group, UK) and Cyclops-7 (Turner Designs, US). These UV fluorometers are all dedicated to the measurement of phenanthrene (λEx /λEm: 255/360 nm), one of the most abundant and fluorescent PAHs found in the aquatic environment. In this study, we developed original, miniaturized submersible fluorometers based on deep UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for simultaneous measurements of two PAHs of interest: the MiniFluo-UV 1 for the detection of phenanthrene (PHE, at λEx /λEm: 255/360 nm) and naphthalene (NAP, at λEx /λEm: 270/340 nm), and the MiniFluo-UV 2 for the detection of fluorene (FLU, at λEx /λEm: 255/315 nm) and pyrene (PYR, at λEx /λEm: 270/380 nm). The MiniFluo-UV sensors have several features: measurements of two PAHs at the same time, small size (puck format, 80 x 60 mm), very low energy consumption (500 mW at 12V), LED monitoring, analog and numerical communication modes. The two MiniFluo-UV sensors were first tested in the laboratory: 1) on standard solutions of

  7. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.;

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical......, and the model predicts inception of soot to occur approximately 100 K below experimental observations. Addition of water vapor has a considerable effect on the measured acetylene concentration and on soot formation at 1500 K and above. In this temperature regime, concentrations of both acetylene and soot...

  8. Rush-hour aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in selected subway stations of Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Zhang; Chunlei Li; Xinming Wang; Hai Guo; Yanli Feng; Jianmin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Air samples were collected simultaneously at platform,mezzanine and outdoor in five typical stations of subway system in Shanghai,China using stainless steel canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD) after cryogenic preconcentration.Benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) at the platforms and mezzanines inside the stations averaged (10.3± 2.1),(38.7 ± 9.0),(19.4 ± 10.1) and (30.0 ± 11.1) μg/m3,respectively; while trichloroethylene (TrCE),tetrachloroethylene (TeCE)and para-dichlorobenzene (pDCB),vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride were the most abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons inside the stations with average levels of (3.6 ± 1.3),(1.3 ± 0.5),(4.1 ± 1.1),(2.2 ± 1.1) and (1.2 ± 0.3) μg/m3,respectively.Mean levels of major aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons were higher indoor (platforms and mezzanines) than outdoor with average indoor/outdoor (I/O)ratios of 1.1-9.5,whereas no significant indoor/outdoor differences were found except for benzene and TrCE.The highly significant mutual correlations (p < 0.01) for BTEX between indoor and outdoor and their significant correlation (p < 0.05) with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE),a marker of traffic-related emission without other indoor and outdoor sources,indicated that BTEX were introduced into the subway stations from indoor/outdoor air exchange and traffic emission should be their dominant source.TrCE and pDCB were mainly from indoor emission and TeCE might have both indoor emission sources and contribution from outdoor air,especially in the mezzanines.

  9. Calculation of electron affinities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and solvation energies of their radical anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betowski, Leon D; Enlow, Mark; Riddick, Lee; Aue, Donald H

    2006-11-30

    Electron affinities (EAs) and free energies for electron attachment (DeltaGo(a,298K)) have been directly calculated for 45 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related molecules by a variety of theoretical methods, with standard regression errors of about 0.07 eV (mean unsigned error = 0.05 eV) at the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level and larger errors with HF or MP2 methods or using Koopmans' Theorem. Comparison of gas-phase free energies with solution-phase reduction potentials provides a measure of solvation energy differences between the radical anion and neutral PAH. A simple Born-charging model approximates the solvation effects on the radical anions, leading to a good correlation with experimental solvation energy differences. This is used to estimate unknown or questionable EAs from reduction potentials. Two independent methods are used to predict DeltaGo(a,298K) values: (1) based upon DFT methods, or (2) based upon reduction potentials and the Born model. They suggest reassignments or a resolution of conflicting experimental EAs for nearly one-half (17 of 38) of the PAH molecules for which experimental EAs have been reported. For the antiaromatic molecules, 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylpentalene and the dithia-substituted cyclobutadiene 1, the reduction potentials lead to estimated EAs close to those expected from DFT calculations and provide a basis for the prediction of the EAs and reduction potentials of pentalene and cyclobutadiene. The Born model has been used to relate the electrostatic solvation energies of PAH and hydrocarbon radical anions, and spherical halide anions, alkali metal cations, and ammonium ions to effective ionic radii from DFT electron-density envelopes. The Born model used for PAHs has been successfully extended here to quantitatively explain the solvation energy of the C60 radical anion.

  10. Rush-hour aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in selected subway stations of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Li, Chunlei; Wang, Xinming; Guo, Hai; Feng, Yanli; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    Air samples were collected simultaneously at platform, mezzanine and outdoor in five typical stations of subway system in Shanghai, China using stainless steel canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD) after cryogenic preconcentration. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) at the platforms and mezzanines inside the stations averaged (10.3 +/- 2.1), (38.7 +/- 9.0), (19.4 +/- 10.1) and (30.0 +/- 11.1) microg/m3, respectively; while trichloroethylene (TrCE), tetrachloroethylene (TeCE) and para-dichlorobenzene (pDCB), vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride were the most abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons inside the stations with average levels of (3.6 +/- 1.3), (1.3 +/- 0.5), (4.1 +/- 1.1), (2.2 +/- 1.1) and (1.2 +/- 0.3) microg/m3, respectively. Mean levels of major aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons were higher indoor (platforms and mezzanines) than outdoor with average indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of 1.1-9.5, whereas no significant indoor/outdoor differences were found except for benzene and TrCE. The highly significant mutual correlations (p tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a marker of traffic-related emission without other indoor and outdoor sources, indicated that BTEX were introduced into the subway stations from indoor/outdoor air exchange and traffic emission should be their dominant source. TrCE and pDCB were mainly from indoor emission and TeCE might have both indoor emission sources and contribution from outdoor air, especially in the mezzanines. PMID:22783624

  11. Analysis of Parent/Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Particulate Matter 2.5 Based on Femtosecond Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itouyama, Noboru; Matsui, Taiki; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Imasaka, Tomoko; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), collected from ambient air in Fukuoka City, was analyzed by gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using an ultraviolet femtosecond laser (267 nm) as the ionization source. Numerous parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs) were observed in a sample extracted from PM2.5, and their concentrations were determined to be in the range from 30 to 190 pg/m(3) for heavy PPAHs. Standard samples of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were examined, and the limits of detection were determined to be in the picogram range. The concentration of NPAH adsorbed on PM2.5 in the air was less than 900-1300 pg/m(3). Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26419772

  12. Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated metabolites of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons reveals alternative mechanism for estrogenic activity of endocrine disrupters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Ton); S. Bulduk; H. van Toor (Hans); D. Tibboel (Dick); W. Meinl; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie; A.G. Schuur; A. Brouwer (Abraham)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPolyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated diphenylethers, and bisphenol A derivatives are persistent environmental pollutants, which are capable of interfering with reproductive and endocri

  13. Health effects of combustion-generated soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Progress report, May 1, 1979-April 30, 1980. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilly, W. G.

    1980-05-01

    Mutagen studies on soot and soot components are reported in aspects dealing from quantitative chemical analyses of samples and mutagenesis of cells and microorganisms exposed to mutagens, to bioassay developments and techniques. Several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are characterized and discussed.

  14. The doping effect of fluorinated aromatic hydrocarbon solvents on the performance of common olefin metathesis catalysts: application in the preparation of biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samojłowicz, Cezary; Bieniek, Michał; Zarecki, Andrzej; Kadyrov, Renat; Grela, Karol

    2008-12-21

    Aromatic fluorinated hydrocarbons, used as solvents for olefin metathesis reactions, catalysed by standard commercially available Ru precatalysts, allow substantially higher yields to be obtained, especially of challenging substrates, including natural and biologically active compounds.

  15. Determination of Multinuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coke Oven Smoke%GC/MS法研究焦炉烟气中多环芳烃类污染物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚庆坤; 祝红; 阎吉昌; 朱东霞; 向前

    2001-01-01

    The smoke sample from the Angang Iron-Steel Companys coke ovenhas been analysed by GC/MS. Thirty-two multinuclear aromatic hydrocarbon compounds have been detected and twenty of them are world accepted as focal poisonous.

  16. The effects of biodegradation on the compositions of aromatic hydrocarbons and maturity indicators in biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By the aid of GC-MS technique,a series of sequentially biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin have been analyzed. The results show that the concentrations and relative compositions of various aromatic compounds in the biodegraded crude oils will change with increasing biodegradation degree. The concentrations of alkyl naphthalenes,alkyl phenanthrenes,alkyl dibenzothiophene are decreased,and the concentration of triaromatic steroids will increase with increasing biodegradation degree in biodegraded oils. Those phenomena indicate that various aromatic compounds are more easily biodegraded by bacteria like other kinds of hydrocarbons such as alkanes,but different series of aromatic compounds have a varied ability to resistant to biodegradation. The ratios of dibenzothiophene to phenenthrene(DBTH/P) and methyl dibenzothiophene to methyl phenanthrene(MDBTH/MP) are related to the features of depositional environment for source rocks such as redox and ancient salinity. However,in biodegraded oils,the two ratios increase quickly with the increase of the biodegradation degree,indicating that they have lost their geochemical significance. In this case,they could not be used to evaluate the features of depositional environment. Methyl phenanthrene index,methyl phenanthrene ratio and methyl dibenzoyhiophene ratio are useful aromatic maturity indicators for the crude oils and the source rocks without vitrinite. But for biodegraded oils,those aromatic maturity indicators will be affected by biodegradation and decrease with the increase of the biodegradation degree. Therefore,those aromatic molecular maturity indicators could not be used for biodegraded oils.

  17. Biochar characterization for its environmental and agricultural utilization. Occurrence, distribution and fate of labile organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Rombola', Alessandro Girolamo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the potential risks associated to the application of biochar in soil as well the stability of biochar were investigated. The study was focused on the potential risks arising from the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar. An analytical method was developed for the determination of the 16 USEPA-PAHs in the original biochar and soil containing biochar. The method was successfully validated with a certified reference material for the soil matrix and comp...

  18. Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements with botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    OpenAIRE

    Martena, Martijn J.; Grutters, Michiel; De Groot, Henk; Konings, Erik; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified 8 priority PAH (PAH8) or 4 of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aims to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. In 20...

  19. Equilibrium passive sampling as a tool to study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Baltic Sea sediment pore-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Hursthouse, Andrew; Mayer, Philipp;

    2015-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was applied to provide the first large scale dataset of freely dissolved concentrations for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Baltic Sea sediment cores. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers were used for ex-situ equilibrium sampling followe...... to cause narcosis to benthos organisms. The SPME method is a very sensitive tool that opens new possibilities for studying the PAHs at trace levels in marine environments....

  20. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Automobile Exhaust by Means of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A chromatographic method has been developed and applied to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter in automobile exhaust, in petrols, and in crankcase oils. The PAHs were purified from other organic compounds by thin-layer chromatography, separated by high-performance...... liquid chromatography, and measured by means of on-line fluorescence detection. The identities of the PAHs were verified by comparing the emission spectra obtained by a stop-flow technique with those of standard PAHs...