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Sample records for armadillo dasypus novemcinctus

  1. Anatomy of the nasal cavity of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus stands out for its adaptability in different environments, a fact that requires the species, an olfactory capacity developed with a keen sense and related organs potentially evolved. Five specimens of nine banded armadillo were submitted to anatomic dissection with occipital disconnection and isolation of part of the skull in order to obtain a hemi-skull to view the arrangement of internal structures of the nasal cavity. The obtained specimens were identified and photographed with the assist of digital camera. The nine-banded armadillo nose is incorporated into the face of the skeleton located in nasal plan with the triangular shape and facing forward. The nostrils are separated by the nasal septum. Paranasal sinuses, two (frontal and parietal, resemble diverticula of the nasal cavity. The nine-banded armadillo nasal shells are presented divided into three: the ethmoid shell, the dorsal nasal shell and the ventral nasal shell. The shells are delimited dorsal and ventral nasal meatus by. The respiratory system of nine-banded armadillo presented features anatomical that justify their behavior in the nature, as their olfactory ability for hunting. Thus, the development of the nasal shell, especially, ethmoid shells check the animal facility in the searching for subterranean food.

  2. Mycobacterium leprae in six-banded (Euphractus sexcinctus and nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus in Northeast Brazil

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    Cristiane Cunha Frota

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings are the main reservoir of the causative agent of leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae. In the Americas, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus also act as a reservoir for the bacillus. In the state of Ceará (CE, which is located in Northeast Brazil and is an endemic area of leprosy, there are several species of armadillos, including D. novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus (six-banded armadillo. Contact between humans and armadillos occur mainly through hunting, cleaning, preparing, cooking and eating. This study identified M. leprae DNA in the two main species of armadillos found in Northeast Brazil. A total of 29 wild armadillos (27 D. novemcinctus and 2 E. sexcinctus were captured in different environments of CE countryside. Samples from the ear, nose, liver and spleen from each of these animals were tested by a nested M. leprae-specific repetitive element polymerase chain reaction assay. The samples that tested positive were confirmed by DNA sequencing. M. leprae was detected in 21% (6/29 of the animals, including five D. novemcinctus and one E. sexcinctus. This is the first Brazilian study to identify the presence of a biomarker of M. leprae in wild armadillos (D. novemcinctus and E. sexcinctus in a leprosy hyperendemic area where there is continuous contact between humans and armadillos.

  3. Analysis of the synaptonemal complex of the nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus

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    Márcia Denise da Paixão Scavone

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The synaptonemal complex (SC of three specimens of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus was analyzed. Thirty-two bivalents (2n = 64 were observed, 31 of them being autosomes and one an XY sexual bivalent. Chromosome synapsis processes and nucleolus structure changes were analyzed in zygotene and pachytene cells, allowing a detailed description of the beginning of meiotic prophase in this species. There was complete synapsis of X and Y chromosomes. Some abnormalities in SC were observed in cells during zygotene and at the beginning of pachytene, but not in cells in the middle and late pachytene, suggesting the occurrence of synaptic adjustments in their SC.Foi analisado o complexo sinaptonêmico (SC de três espécimens de tatu galinha (Dasypus novemcinctus. Foi observada a ocorrência de 32 bivalentes (2n = 64, 31 dos quais correspondiam aos autossomos e um ao bivalente sexual XY. Os processos de sinapse cromossômica e transformação na estrutura do nucléolo foram analisados em células em zigóteno e paquíteno, permitindo uma detalhada descrição do início da prófase meiótica dessa espécie. Uma característica importante observada foi o completo emparelhamento dos cromossomos X e Y. Algumas anormalidades do SC foram observadas em células em zigóteno e no início de paquíteno, porém essas anormalidades não foram observadas em células no meio e fim de paquíteno, sugerindo a ocorrência de ajustamentos sinápticos no SC.

  4. In vivo strains in the femur of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

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    Copploe, Joseph V; Blob, Richard W; Parrish, John H A; Butcher, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    The capacity of limb bones to resist the locomotor loads they encounter depends on both the pattern of those loads and the material properties of the skeletal elements. Among mammals, understanding of the interplay between these two factors has been based primarily on evidence from locomotor behaviors in upright placentals, which show limb bones that are loaded predominantly in anteroposterior bending with minimal amounts of torsion. However, loading patterns from the femora of opossums, marsupials using crouched limb posture, show appreciable torsion while the bone experiences mediolateral (ML) bending. These data indicated greater loading diversity in mammals than was previously recognized, and suggested the possibility that ancestral loading patterns found in sprawling lineages (e.g., reptilian sauropsids) might have been retained among basal mammals. To further test this hypothesis, we recorded in vivo locomotor strains from the femur of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), a member of the basal xenarthran clade of placental mammals that also uses crouched limb posture. Orientations of principal strains and magnitudes of shear strains indicate that armadillo femora are exposed to only limited torsion; however, bending is essentially ML, placing the medial aspect of the femur in compression and the lateral aspect in tension. This orientation of bending is similar to that found in opossums, but planar strain analyses indicate much more of the armadillo femur experiences tension during bending, potentially due to muscles pulling on the large, laterally positioned third trochanter. Limb bone safety factors were estimated between 3.3 and 4.3 in bending, similar to other placental mammals, but lower than opossums and most sprawling taxa. Thus, femoral loading patterns in armadillos show a mixture of similarities to both opossums (ML bending) and other placentals (limited torsion and low safety factors), along with unique features (high axial tension

  5. Descriptive macroscopic anatomy of the central nervous system six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcintus, Linnaeus, 1758) and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758)

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    João Victor Silva Araújo; Maria Michele Araújo de Sousa Cavalcante; Paulo César de Jesus Gonçalves; Sérgio Paulo Lima Guerra; Andrezza Braga Soares da Silva; Airton Mendes Conde Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Armadillos of the species Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcintus are xenarthrico is a mammal that inhabits fields and has several eating habits. This study proposes to analise the macroscopic anatomy of the nervous system of the armadillo peba, enabling comparisons with other mammals. Three animals of each species were to donated ICMBio - Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity, the Serra da Capivara National Park, authorized by SISBIO 22826-01, victims of poaching and they had died. T...

  6. [Record of Dasypus novemcinctus (Mammalia: Xenarthra) parasited by Tunga terasma (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Alegre, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil].

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    Antunes, João Marcelo A P; Demoner, Larissa de C; Martins, Isabella V F; Zanini, Marcos S; Deps, Patrícia D; Pujol-Luz, José R

    2006-01-01

    During a survey of Mycobacterium leprae in wild armadillos in the State of Espírito Santo, thirty-four armadillos were captured in the municipality of Alegre (20 degrees 45'S, 41 degrees 29'W, 150m). The armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus were examined by clinical and macroscopic examination. In four armadillos (11.7%), were found nodes in the abdomen. The nodules were identified as Tunga terasma. This is the first report of T. terasma in D. novemcinctus armadillos in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

  7. A study on the structure and mechanical behavior of the Dasypus novemcinctus shell

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    Rhee, H., E-mail: hrhee@cavs.msstate.edu [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5405 (United States); Horstemeyer, M.F.; Ramsay, A. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5405 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762-9552 (United States)

    2011-03-12

    Multiscale hierarchical structures, materials properties, and mechanical behaviors of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) shell were studied to provide fundamental knowledge for understanding biological composite systems. The nine-banded armadillo's dermal shell is characterized into three regions: the forward, band, and rear shells. The forward and rear shells comprise a sandwich composite structure of functionally graded material having relatively denser exterior bony layers and an interior bony network of foam. The forward and rear shell's strength ({approx} 1500 MPa) was greater than the intermediate band shell ({approx} 500 MPa). The band shell revealed a more complicated structure where adjacent bands are partially overlapped and connected with each other to provide flexibility, in addition to protection. Hardness tests showed that the top surfaces of each shell had hardness ({approx} Hv50) greater than the front and side surfaces ({approx} Hv40). Compression test results on the forward and rear shells showed a typical nonlinear deformation behavior similar to synthetic foams, where microbuckling is a key inelastic deformation mechanism. A comparison and contrasting study of the structure-property relations between the armadillo shell and other biological structural materials could provide fundamental understandings for deformation mechanisms that can lead to the development of novel bio-inspired safety system design methodologies.

  8. Mammalian genome projects reveal new growth hormone (GH) sequences. Characterization of the GH-encoding genes of armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), bat (Myotis lucifugus), hyrax (Procavia capensis), shrew (Sorex araneus), ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), elephant (Loxodonta africana), cat (Felis catus) and opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

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    Wallis, Michael

    2008-01-15

    Mammalian growth hormone (GH) sequences have been shown previously to display episodic evolution: the sequence is generally strongly conserved but on at least two occasions during mammalian evolution (on lineages leading to higher primates and ruminants) bursts of rapid evolution occurred. However, the number of mammalian orders studied previously has been relatively limited, and the availability of sequence data via mammalian genome projects provides the potential for extending the range of GH gene sequences examined. Complete or nearly complete GH gene sequences for six mammalian species for which no data were previously available have been extracted from the genome databases-Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog), Myotis lucifugus (little brown bat), Procavia capensis (cape rock hyrax), Sorex araneus (European shrew), Spermophilus tridecemlineatus (13-lined ground squirrel). In addition incomplete data for several other species have been extended. Examination of the data in detail and comparison with previously available sequences has allowed assessment of the reliability of deduced sequences. Several of the new sequences differ substantially from the consensus sequence previously determined for eutherian GHs, indicating greater variability than previously recognised, and confirming the episodic pattern of evolution. The episodic pattern is not seen for signal sequences, 5' upstream sequence or synonymous substitutions-it is specific to the mature protein sequence, suggesting that it relates to the hormonal function. The substitutions accumulated during the course of GH evolution have occurred mainly on the side of the hormone facing away from the receptor, in a non-random fashion, and it is suggested that this may reflect interaction of the receptor-bound hormone with other proteins or small ligands.

  9. Functional Characterization of Neutrophils from Nine-Banded Armadillos (Dasypus novemcicntus; Edentata, Dasypodidae Infected with Microfilariae

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    Marcela López-Hurtado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutrophils from uninfected armadillos have adequate phagocytic and bacteriocidal activity, but diminished chemotactic activity. However, endocytic activity from armadillo neutrophils infected with bacteria, parasites or viruses is unknown. This report shows that neutrophils from armadillos infected with microfilariae displayed deficiencies in their bacteriocidal mechanisms and TNF-like production, but not in their endocytic capacity.

  10. Thorns in armadillo ears and noses and their role in the transmission of leprosy.

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    Job, C K; Harris, E B; Allen, J L; Hastings, R C

    1986-11-01

    Both ears from 494 wild nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and nose specimens from 224 animals were collected and histopathologically studied. Lepromatous granulomas were present in the ear specimens of ten of 494 animals. There were thorns in the ears of 22.5% of animals, and in 36.6% of the nose specimens. In one armadillo, there was evidence to suggest that Mycobacterium leprae entered the tissue through the thorn pricks. In the normal habitat of the armadillo in Louisiana there are thorny bushes consisting mostly of the green briar and the southern dewberry. Thorn pricks as a means of transmission of leprosy in the wild armadillos is suggested.

  11. Trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum from armadillos (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae

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    T. V. Barrett

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of trypanosome, Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum peba, is described from the peripheral blood of the armadillo Euphractus sexcinctus setosus from Bahia State, Brazil. Ten out of 29 specimens of the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus from Pará State were found to have trypanosomes, including epimastigote forms, in impression smears of subcutaneous lymph nodes. The trypanosomes from D. novemcinctus are illustrated and were identified a idenrified as belonging to the subgenus Megatrypanum on the basis of their general appearance, although they failed to multiply is blood-agar culture medium and no bloodstream forms were seen. This is the first published record of trypanosomes of this subgenus from armdillos and the first demonstration of epimastigote trypanosomes in the mammalian host other than in the bloodstream, or in the anal glands of opssums.

  12. A new Dasypodini armadillo (Xenarthra: Cingulata) from San Gregorio Formation, Pliocene of Venezuela: affinities and biogeographic interpretations

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    Castro, Mariela C.; Carlini, Alfredo A.; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2014-02-01

    We describe Pliodasypus vergelianus gen. et sp. nov., a Dasypodini armadillo from the middle Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation). Although scarce, the remains are remarkable because of their geochronologic proximity to the main phase of Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The cladistic analysis conducted reveals that Pliodasypus groups with Dasypus and both are sister taxa of Propraopus, whereas Anadasypus is at a basal position. With respect to the records of tribe Dasypodini, after its oldest representative ( Anadasypus, middle and late Miocene), the chronologically subsequent form is Pl. vergelianus (middle Pliocene), followed by Dasypus bellus in higher northern latitudes (late Pliocene), and then by widespread occurrences in the Pleistocene of North America ( D. bellus) and South America ( Propraopus, Dasypus punctatus, and Dasypus novemcinctus). Thus, we infer that Dasypus differentiated in the late Pliocene at low latitudes in the northern South America. It leads to two alternative hypotheses of dispersal: (a) some early Dasypus remained cryptically in South America until the Pleistocene, whereas others dispersed to North America between 2.2 and 2.7 Ma, or (b) they dispersed to North America subsequently to the emersion of the Panamanian isthmus and D. bellus differentiated there; later, during the Pleistocene, D. bellus entered South America and experienced speciation. The same process of re-ingression has been proposed to other xenarthrans, breaking with the traditional assumption that the GABI was unidirectional.

  13. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Ozark Zigzag Salamanders to Stimuli from an Invasive Predator: The Armadillo

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    Adam L. Crane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When new predators invade a habitat, either through range extensions or introductions, prey may be at a high risk because they do not recognize the predators as dangerous. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus has recently expanded its range in North America. Armadillos forage by searching soil and leaf litter, consuming invertebrates and small vertebrates, including salamanders. We tested whether Ozark zigzag salamanders (Plethodon angusticlavius from a population coexisting with armadillos for about 30 years exhibit antipredator behavior in the presence of armadillo chemical cues and whether they can discriminate between stimuli from armadillos and a nonpredatory sympatric mammal (white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. Salamanders appeared to recognize substrate cues from armadillos as a threat because they increased escape behaviors and oxygen consumption. When exposed to airborne cues from armadillos, salamanders also exhibited an antipredator response by spending more time in an inconspicuous posture. Additionally, individually consistent behaviors across treatments for some response variables suggest the potential for a behavioral syndrome in this species.

  14. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow.

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    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bagagli, Eduardo; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of man and animals caused by traumatic implantation of propagules into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenic species includes S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. The disease is remarkable for its occurrence as sapronoses and/or zoonosis outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas; although, the ecology of the clinical clade is still puzzling. Here, we describe an anamorphic Sporothrix strain isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow, which was located in a hyper endemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. This isolate was identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto (Clade IIa) based on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of calmodulin sequences. We then discuss the role of the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus as a natural carrier of Sporothrix propagules to better understand Sporothrix sources in nature and reveal essential aspects about the pathogen's eco-epidemiology.

  15. A new species of Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae from the lungs of a nine-banded armadillo in Central Mexico Especie nueva de Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae de los pulmones de un armadillo del centro de México

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    F. Agustín Jiménez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four worms were collected from the bronchioles in both lungs of a male nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 captured in Teacalco, Morelos, Mexico. The worms, herein named Metathelazia mexicana n. sp., show a constriction in the esophagus at the level of the nerve ring; males of the species have 7 pairs of papillae, fewer than the other species in the genus. Metathelazia capsulata is the most similar species to Metathelazia mexicana; however, the latter has much shorter spicules. This is the fourth species in the genus known to occur in the New World.Se recolectó un total de 24 nemátodos de las cavidades bronquiales de un armadillo de 9 bandas Dasypus novemcinctus Lineo, 1758 en la localidad de Teacalco, Morelos, México. Los nemátodos, descritos con el nombre Metathelazia mexicana, muestran una constricción en el esófago al nivel del anillo nervioso y 7 pares de papilas caudales en los machos, número que es menor al observado en las otras especies del género. Metathelazia mexicana es semejante a Metathelazia capsulata en varios rasgos morfológicos pero difiere en el tamaño de las espículas, que son más cortas en la especie aquí descrita. Esta es la cuarta especie del género registrada en el continente americano.

  16. Experimental infections with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis obtained from armadillos: comparison to clinical isolates

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    Angela Satie Nishikaku

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM that is one of the most prevalent systemic human mycoses in Latin America. Armadillos show a high incidence of PCM infection and could, therefore, be a natural reservoir for this fungus. In this study were compared the virulence profiles of isolates obtained from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus (PbT1 and PbT4 and isolates from PCM patients (Pb265 and Bt83. Pathogenicity was evaluated by fungal load and analysis of colony morphology. Immunity against the fungus was tested by delayed type hypersensitivity test (DTH and antibody quantification by ELISA. The higher virulence of PbT1 and PbT4 was suggested by higher fungal load in spleen and lungs. Armadillo isolates and Bt83 presented a cotton-like surface contrasting with the cerebriform appearance of Pb265. All isolates induced cellular and humoral immune responses in infected BALB/c mice. DTH reactions were similarly induced by the four isolates, however, a great variability was observed in specific antibody levels, being the highest ones induced by Bt83 and PbT4. The present work confirms that armadillos harbor P. brasiliensis, whose multiplication and induced immunity in experimentally infected mice are heterogeneous, resembling the behavior of isolates from human PCM. This study reinforces the possibility that armadillos play an important role in the biological cycle of this pathogen.

  17. The armadillo: a model for the neuropathy of leprosy and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases

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    Rahul Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (also known as Hansen’s disease is an infectious peripheral neurological disorder caused by Mycobacterium leprae that even today leaves millions of individuals worldwide with life-long disabilities. The specific mechanisms by which this bacterium induces nerve injury remain largely unknown, mainly owing to ethical and practical limitations in obtaining affected human nerve samples. In addition to humans, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus are the only other natural host of M. leprae, and they develop a systemically disseminated disease with extensive neurological involvement. M. leprae is an obligate intracellular parasite that cannot be cultivated in vitro. Because of the heavy burdens of bacilli they harbor, nine-banded armadillos have become the organism of choice for propagating large quantities of M. leprae, and they are now advancing as models of leprosy pathogenesis and nerve damage. Although armadillos are exotic laboratory animals, the recently completed whole genome sequence for this animal is enabling researchers to undertake more sophisticated molecular studies and to develop armadillo-specific reagents. These advances will facilitate the use of armadillos in piloting new therapies and diagnostic regimens, and will provide new insights into the oldest known infectious neurodegenerative disorder.

  18. Genomic evidence for rod monochromacy in sloths and armadillos suggests early subterranean history for Xenarthra.

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    Emerling, Christopher A; Springer, Mark S

    2015-02-07

    Rod monochromacy is a rare condition in vertebrates characterized by the absence of cone photoreceptor cells. The resulting phenotype is colourblindness and low acuity vision in dim-light and blindness in bright-light conditions. Early reports of xenarthrans (armadillos, sloths and anteaters) suggest that they are rod monochromats, but this has not been tested with genomic data. We searched the genomes of Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) and Mylodon darwinii (extinct ground sloth) for retinal photoreceptor genes and examined them for inactivating mutations. We performed PCR and Sanger sequencing on cone phototransduction genes of 10 additional xenarthrans to test for shared inactivating mutations and estimated the timing of inactivation for photoreceptor pseudogenes. We concluded that a stem xenarthran became an long-wavelength sensitive-cone monochromat following a missense mutation at a critical residue in SWS1, and a stem cingulate (armadillos, glyptodonts and pampatheres) and stem pilosan (sloths and anteaters) independently acquired rod monochromacy early in their evolutionary history following the inactivation of LWS and PDE6C, respectively. We hypothesize that rod monochromacy in armadillos and pilosans evolved as an adaptation to a subterranean habitat in the early history of Xenarthra. The presence of rod monochromacy has major implications for understanding xenarthran behavioural ecology and evolution.

  19. Coccidioidomicose pulmonar em caçador de tatus Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in a armadillo hunter

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    FABRÍCIO ANDRÉ MARTINS DA COSTA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A coccidioidomicose, uma doença fúngica adquirida através da inalação do agente Coccidioides immitis sob forma de artroconídio, vem sendo descrita desde 1892. Restringe-se principalmente a áreas de clima árido, solo alcalino e regiões de baixo índice pluviométrico. Não por acaso, a maioria dos casos descritos no Brasil ocorreu na região Nordeste. Relata-se o caso de um homem de 19 anos, imunocompetente, com queixa de dor pleural bilateral, febre, adinamia e tosse seca havia dois meses. A radiografia de tórax evidenciou múltiplos nódulos bilaterais. O paciente participava de caçadas a tatus (Dasypus novemcinctus e a pesquisa direta para fungos no escarro evidenciou Coccidioides sp. Tratado com anfotericina B, apresentou pneumotórax e insuficiência respiratória, indo a óbito. A biópsia pulmonar post mortem evidenciou Coccidioides immitis sob a forma de endósporos.Coccidioidomycosis is a disease caused by inhalation of arthrospores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis. It has been recognized as a clinical entity since 1892. It is related to activities that involves dust exposure. It is found in many regions of the western hemisphere with dry and alkaline soil. In Brazil it has been described almost exclusively in the Northeast region where drought periods may favor its growth in its soil. We report a case of fatal coccidioidomycosis, in an immunocompetent host, associated to the activity of armadillo hunting (Dasypus novemcynctus in a rural area of Ceará state.

  20. Retroposed elements and their flanking regions resolve the evolutionary history of xenarthran mammals (armadillos, anteaters, and sloths).

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    Möller-Krull, Maren; Delsuc, Frédéric; Churakov, Gennady; Marker, Claudia; Superina, Mariella; Brosius, Jürgen; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2007-11-01

    Armadillos, anteaters, and sloths (Order Xenarthra) comprise 1 of the 4 major clades of placental mammals. Isolated in South America from the other continental landmasses, xenarthrans diverged over a period of about 65 Myr, leaving more than 200 extinct genera and only 31 living species. The presence of both ancestral and highly derived anatomical features has made morphoanatomical analyses of the xenarthran evolutionary history difficult, and previous molecular analyses failed to resolve the relationships within armadillo subfamilies. We investigated the presence/absence patterns of retroposons from approximately 7,400 genomic loci, identifying 35 phylogenetically informative elements and an additional 39 informative rare genomic changes (RGCs). DAS-short interspersed elements (SINEs), previously described only in the Dasypus novemcinctus genome, were found in all living armadillo genera, including the previously unsampled Chlamyphorus, but were noticeably absent in sloths. The presence/absence patterns of the phylogenetically informative retroposed elements and other RGCs were then compared with data from the DNA sequences of the more than 12-kb flanking regions of these retroposons. Together, these data provide the first fully resolved genus tree of xenarthrans. Interestingly, multiple evidence supports the grouping of Chaetophractus and Zaedyus as a sister group to Euphractus within Euphractinae, an association that was not previously demonstrated. Also, flanking sequence analyses favor a close phylogenetic relationship between Cabassous and Tolypeutes within Tolypeutinae. Finally, the phylogenetic position of the subfamily Chlamyphorinae is resolved by the noncoding sequence data set as the sister group of Tolypeutinae. The data provide a stable phylogenetic framework for further evolutionary investigations of xenarthrans and important information for defining conservation priorities to save the diversity of one of the most curious groups of mammals.

  1. Conspecific scent improves capture rates for nine-banded armadillos

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    J. Martin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcintus are considered a nuisance species throughout its U.S. range. They are often the target of wildlife mitigation techniques to reduce its ill-effects on property, biodiversity, and other resources; however, efficient techniques for humane removal evade managers. Most trapping techniques tested to date have used a food-based lure with minimal success. We tested the effects of adding a conspecific attractant—armadillo scent—to wooden traps to improve capture rates. Compared to the reference trap type, the conspecific attractant trap was 8.3 times more effective (Odds Ratio = 8.30, CL= 2.38, 25.00. Our findings suggest that the addition of armadillo scent to traps will improve trapping efficiency. We encourage additional researchers to test additional trap and scent combinations to further improve efficiency.

  2. Glycosylation at the fetomaternal interface in hemomonochorial placentae from five widely separated species of mammal

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    Jones, Carolyn J. P.; Carter, Anthony M.; Aplin, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Hemomonochorial placentation occurs in diverse species. We have examined placental glycosylation in five widely separated mammals with this type of placentation--lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), human (Homo...

  3. Learning with "Armadillo Ray"

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    Hubbard, Kathy; Terrell, Chelsea

    2009-01-01

    "Armadillo Ray," by John Beifuss, is the tale of a young, curious armadillo who wants to know what the moon is. He is joined in his quest by snakes, prairie dogs, sage grouse, and owls. The beauty of the book is its simplicity, illustrations and landscapes, and its potential links to reading, geography, science, and mathematics. In this article,…

  4. Leprosy and Armadillos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-18

    Dr. Richard Truman, Chief of the National Hansen’s Disease Program Laboratory Research Branch, discusses leprosy and armadillos.  Created: 2/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/18/2016.

  5. Nuevos aportes a la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín M. Abba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest, 1804 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de cuatro establecimientos agropecuarios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante tres años se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y liberación. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 71 capturas. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue material vegetal, seguido por hormigas e insectos coleópteros; no se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios. La actividad de las mulitas se concentra durante el día, existió una baja en la frecuencia de observación durante las estaciones frías (otoño e invierno. La mulita pampeana prefiere suelos húmicos, terrenos altos y pastizales densos y altos; asimismo seleccionan los montes para refugiarse. Son individuos asociales. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan parcialmente con lo observado para otras especies del género, destacando las tendencias observadas en los hábitos alimentarios y en la estrategia termorregulatoria. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos de una especie poco estudiada en una zona bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat.

  6. Musik som kommunikativ emotionel praksis i Armadillo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2014-01-01

    , at denne kompetence bør anerkendes som en særlig form for musikalsk viden, som vi trækker på i vores hverdagslige forståelse af audiovisuelle medietekster. Lydsiden til den danske krigs-dokumentar Armadillo fra 2010 vil blive brugt som eksempel – både på den emotionelle praksis, der knytter sig til det...

  7. Armadillo motifs involved in vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Striegl

    Full Text Available Armadillo (ARM repeat proteins function in various cellular processes including vesicular transport and membrane tethering. They contain an imperfect repeating sequence motif that forms a conserved three-dimensional structure. Recently, structural and functional insight into tethering mediated by the ARM-repeat protein p115 has been provided. Here we describe the p115 ARM-motifs for reasons of clarity and nomenclature and show that both sequence and structure are highly conserved among ARM-repeat proteins. We argue that there is no need to invoke repeat types other than ARM repeats for a proper description of the structure of the p115 globular head region. Additionally, we propose to define a new subfamily of ARM-like proteins and show lack of evidence that the ARM motifs found in p115 are present in other long coiled-coil tethering factors of the golgin family.

  8. Otiorhynchus armadillo, een invasieve snuitkever, gevestigd in Nederland (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman, T.; Hellingman, S.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 werd de snuitkever Otiorhynchus apenninus voor het eerst voor Nederland gemeld. In die bijdrage werd aan het slot de opmerking gemaakt dat het wachten nu is op de volgende Otiorhynchus-soort, namelijk O. armadillo. Het heeft een paar jaar geduurd, maar nu is het dan zover. Ook deze soort hee

  9. The musicalized soundtracks of Armadillo. Emotional realism and real emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Iben Have

    2012-01-01

    “To you it’s film, to them it’s reality” is the translated poster headline of the Danish war documentary Armadillo (Janus Metz, May 2010), a much-debated Cannes award-winning film that follows Danish soldiers stationed in Afghanistan. The article uses this headline as a framework for analyzing, comparing and discussing the film’s “musicalized” soundtracks on various media platforms (cinema, YouTube, television, DVD), and it argues that these soundtracks contribute to the viewer’s experience o...

  10. The musicalized soundtracks of Armadillo. Emotional realism and real emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iben Have

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “To you it’s film, to them it’s reality” is the translated poster headline of the Danish war documentary Armadillo (Janus Metz, May 2010, a much-debated Cannes award-winning film that follows Danish soldiers stationed in Afghanistan. The article uses this headline as a framework for analyzing, comparing and discussing the film’s “musicalized” soundtracks on various media platforms (cinema, YouTube, television, DVD, and it argues that these soundtracks contribute to the viewer’s experience of emotional realism, as well as to an experience of the emotional reality – the soldiers’ or the viewer’s own. The political, journalistic and in particular aesthetic ambitions of producers and directors have contributed to developing Danish documentary films into a successful brand within the last decade. Using examples from the public reception of and debate on Armadillo, the article discusses how this development may have led to an increased emphasis on the emotional impact of musicalized soundtracks and a new premise for documentary reception.

  11. Armadillo (Cingulata: Dasypodidae in the Diet Of the Neotropical Otter Lontra longicaudis in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Claws, hairs and osteoderms of armadillo (Cingulata: Dasypodidae were found in a scat of a neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in an edge of a pluvial channel near a peat forest in the southern Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. Due to the absence of carrion-eating invertebrates in the sample, it is suggested that the armadillo was actively preyed upon by the otter. This is the first record of armadillo in the diet of Lontra longicaudis.

  12. Contact with armadillos increases the risk of leprosy in Brazil: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deps P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium leprae infection has recently been detected in wild armadillos in Brazil. Leprosy is still endemic in Brazil and although its transmission is mostly by person-to-person contact, many cases report no history of previously known leprosy contact. It has been suggested that other sources of M. leprae may contribute to the transmission of leprosy in some areas. Aim: Our objective was to investigate whether contact with armadillos is associated with leprosy. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Brazil. Data was collected from 506 leprosy patients and 594 controls on exposure to armadillos and age, sex, place of birth and living conditions. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression were conducted to investigate whether leprosy was associated with exposure to armadillos. Results: Direct armadillo exposure was reported by 68% of leprosy cases and by 48% of controls (P < 0.001 roughly doubling the risk of leprosy, with odds ratio (OR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI [1.36-2.99]. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that direct exposure to armadillos is a risk factor for leprosy in Brazil.

  13. Armadillo : la otra cara de la moneda del ITT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Aguirre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mientras todo el mundo está entretenido con el tema del ITT en una esquina del Parque Nacional Yasuní, incluyendo los ambientalistas más radicales, en el otro extremo del mapa, en una zona al norte, colindante al Parque Nacional Yasuní, en un pequeño campo llamado marginal, se consagra la operación exterminio. Y se la consagra violando todas las normas constitucionales, acuerdos internacionales y mínimos derechos de un pueblo al que insistentemente, e intencionalmente, se lo oculta. ¿Por qué decimos esto? Pues porque mientras nos llenamos la boca con eso de que queremos proteger a los pueblos “sin contacto”, en un lugar donde se ha comprobado su presencia parece que no estamos dispuestos a proteger nada ni a nadie. Esa zona se llama Armadillo. Y está fuera de los límites de la llamada Zona Intangible; es decir, en ella no hay prohibición expresa de no explotación.

  14. Designed armadillo repeat proteins as general peptide-binding scaffolds: consensus design and computational optimization of the hydrophobic core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Pellarin, Riccardo; Larsen, Anders Peter;

    2007-01-01

    Armadillo repeat proteins are abundant eukaryotic proteins involved in several cellular processes, including signaling, transport, and cytoskeletal regulation. They are characterized by an armadillo domain, composed of tandem armadillo repeats of approximately 42 amino acids, which mediates...... interactions with peptides or parts of proteins in extended conformation. The conserved binding mode of the peptide in extended form, observed for different targets, makes armadillo repeat proteins attractive candidates for the generation of modular peptide-binding scaffolds. Taking advantage of the large...... number of repeat sequences available, a consensus-based approach combined with a force field-based optimization of the hydrophobic core was used to derive soluble, highly expressed, stable, monomeric designed proteins with improved characteristics compared to natural armadillo proteins. These sequences...

  15. Armadillo 1.1: an original workflow platform for designing and conducting phylogenetic analysis and simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Lord

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce Armadillo v1.1, a novel workflow platform dedicated to designing and conducting phylogenetic studies, including comprehensive simulations. A number of important phylogenetic and general bioinformatics tools have been included in the first software release. As Armadillo is an open-source project, it allows scientists to develop their own modules as well as to integrate existing computer applications. Using our workflow platform, different complex phylogenetic tasks can be modeled and presented in a single workflow without any prior knowledge of programming techniques. The first version of Armadillo was successfully used by professors of bioinformatics at Université du Quebec à Montreal during graduate computational biology courses taught in 2010-11. The program and its source code are freely available at: .

  16. Tatuidris kapasi sp. nov.: A New Armadillo Ant from French Guiana (Formicidae: Agroecomyrmecinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Lacau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tatuidris kapasisp. nov. (Formicidae: Agroecomyrmecinae, the second known species of “armadillo ant”, is described after a remarkable specimen collected in French Guiana. This species can be easily distinguished from Tatuidris tatusia by characters related to the shape of the mesosoma and petiole as well as to the pilosity, the sculpture, and the color.

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN BROMATOLÓGICA Y MICROBIOLÓGICA DE CARNES PROCEDENTES DE ESPECIES DE ANIMALES REGIONALES DE LA AMAZONIA PERUANA PARA CONSUMO HUMANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Lozano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación consistió en la caracterización bromatológica y determinación microbiológica de muestras de carnes procedentes de ocho especies de animales silvestres: huangana (Tayassu pecari, majaz o picuro (Agouti paca, sajino (Tayassu tajacu, venado colorado (Mazama americana, tapir (Tapirus terrestris, añuje (Dasyprota fuliginosa, ronsoco (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris y armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus; en las localidades de Puerto Belén-Roya-Utucuro, Santa Rosa de Aguaytía, Santa Luz de Abujao, Tacshitea–Sector Parinari en dos ocasiones, ubicadas en las márgenes del río Ucayali y sus afluentes, que fueron analizarlas por la empresa Servicios de Asesoramiento Técnico S.A.C. en Lima.  La caracterización bromatológica indicó que el añuje (Dasyprota fuliginosa mostró el mayor contenido en Proteína cruda seguido de la huangana (Tayassu pecari; en el contenido de grasa destacaron las especies  armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus y la sachavaca (Tapirus terrestris así también en su contenido calórico.  La especie venado colorado (Mazama americana mostró un mayor valor en cenizas y en carbohidratos la especie huangana (Tayassu pecari.  La determinación microbiológica indicó que todas las muestras presentaron niveles de contaminación dentro de los límites permitidos para aerobios mesófilos viables y niveles de contaminación por coliformes totales, coliformes fecales, algunos muy elevados y también de mohos y levaduras.  Todos presentaron ausencia de Salmonella.

  18. Wingless signalling alters the levels, subcellular distribution and dynamics of Armadillo and E-cadherin in third instar larval wing imaginal discs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko M L Somorjai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Armadillo, the Drosophila orthologue of vertebrate ss-catenin, plays a dual role as the key effector of Wingless/Wnt1 signalling, and as a bridge between E-Cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton. In the absence of ligand, Armadillo is phosphorylated and targeted to the proteasome. Upon binding of Wg to its receptors, the "degradation complex" is inhibited; Armadillo is stabilised and enters the nucleus to transcribe targets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although the relationship between signalling and adhesion has been extensively studied, few in vivo data exist concerning how the "transcriptional" and "adhesive" pools of Armadillo are regulated to orchestrate development. We have therefore addressed how the subcellular distribution of Armadillo and its association with E-Cadherin change in larval wing imaginal discs, under wild type conditions and upon signalling. Using confocal microscopy, we show that Armadillo and E-Cadherin are spatio-temporally regulated during development, and that a punctate species becomes concentrated in a subapical compartment in response to Wingless. In order to further dissect this phenomenon, we overexpressed Armadillo mutants exhibiting different levels of activity and stability, but retaining E-Cadherin binding. Arm(S10 displaces endogenous Armadillo from the AJ and the basolateral membrane, while leaving E-Cadherin relatively undisturbed. Surprisingly, DeltaNArm(1-155 caused displacement of both Armadillo and E-Cadherin, results supported by our novel method of quantification. However, only membrane-targeted Myr-DeltaNArm(1-155 produced comparable nuclear accumulation of Armadillo and signalling to Arm(S10. These experiments also highlighted a row of cells at the A/P boundary depleted of E-Cadherin at the AJ, but containing actin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results provide in vivo evidence for a complex non-linear relationship between Armadillo levels, subcellular distribution and

  19. Unusual armadillo fold in the human general vesicular transport factor p115.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Striegl

    Full Text Available The golgin family gives identity and structure to the Golgi apparatus and is part of a complex protein network at the Golgi membrane. The golgin p115 is targeted by the GTPase Rab1a, contains a large globular head region and a long region of coiled-coil which forms an extended rod-like structure. p115 serves as vesicle tethering factor and plays an important role at different steps of vesicular transport. Here we present the 2.2 A-resolution X-ray structure of the globular head region of p115. The structure exhibits an armadillo fold that is decorated by elongated loops and carries a C-terminal non-canonical repeat. This terminal repeat folds into the armadillo superhelical groove and allows homodimeric association with important implications for p115 mediated multiple protein interactions and tethering.

  20. Autonomous Precision Spraying Trials Using a Novel Cell Spray Implement Mounted on an Armadillo Tool Carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Stigaard Laursen, Morten; Midtiby, Henrik

    Precision weeding is one of the most promising applications for autonomous service robots in biological production. Herbicides have been the default weeding solution during the past decades, but there is a growing concern about the environmental impact on drinking water reservoirs etc. The use...... with an Armadillo robotic tool carrier consisting of two battery powered track modules mounted on each side of the implement. This paper focus on the cell sprayer implement design including camera system, sprayer module and integration with the service robot and the robot software. The FroboMind software platform...... and Armadillo robot is used and it is hypothesized that utilizing FroboMind the cell sprayer can drive smoothly through a test field with a lateral positioning accuracy better than 50 mm. A precision spraying trial in a 1 Ha maize field using different treatment methods was used for testing the hypothesis...

  1. Armadillo5.00标准保护的简单脱法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浓咖啡

    2008-01-01

    前段时间和我的朋友“老海”学习了Armadillo4.40保护壳的脱壳技巧,在2007年的第11期、第12期和2008年的第1期分享给了广大读者。这段时间又和我的朋友“千里之外“一起探讨了一下Armadillo5.XX保护壳的脱壳技巧,现在把心得体会再陆续分享给大家。

  2. Structure of armadillo ACBP: a new member of the acyl-CoA-binding protein family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costabel, Marcelo D., E-mail: costabel@criba.edu.ar [Grupo de Biofísica, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Ermácora, Mario R. [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Bernal (Argentina); Santomé, José A. [Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (IQUIFYB), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica (UBA-CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alzari, Pedro M. [Unité de Biochimie Structurale, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); Guérin, Diego M. A. [Unidad de Biofisica (CSIC-UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Grupo de Biofísica, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca (Argentina)

    2006-10-01

    The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. ACBP is a carrier for activated long-chain fatty acids and has been associated with many aspects of lipid metabolism. Its secondary structure is highly similar to that of the corresponding form of bovine ACBP and exhibits the unique flattened α-helical bundle (up–down–down–up) motif reported for animal, yeast and insect ACBPs. Conformational differences are located in loops and turns, although these structural differences do not suffice to account for features that could be related to the unusual biochemistry and lipid metabolism of the Harderian gland.

  3. ABAP1 is a novel plant Armadillo BTB protein involved in DNA replication and transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda,Hana Paula; Cabral, Luiz Mors; De Veylder, Lieven; Tanurdzic, Milos; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Geelen, Danny; Inzé, Dirk; Martienssen, Robert A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Hemerly, Adriana S

    2008-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, organogenesis requires a tight control of the balance between cell division and cell differentiation. Distinct signalling pathways that connect both cellular processes with developmental cues might have evolved to suit different developmental plans. Here, we identified and characterized a novel protein that interacts with pre-replication complex (pre-RC) subunits, designated Armadillo BTB Arabidopsis protein 1 (ABAP1). Overexpression of ABAP1 in plants limited mito...

  4. Intestinal parasites of Tolypeutes matacus, the most frequently consumed armadillo in the Chaco region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Ríos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest, 1804 is distributed from eastern Bolivia, south-west Brazil, the Gran Chaco of Paraguay and Argentina, and lives in areas with dry vegetation. This armadillo is one of the most frequently consumed species by people in this area. The objective of this work was test for zoonotic species among helminths in 12 intestinal tracts of T. matacus in a locality from the Argentinean Chaco (Chamical, La Rioja province. The parasites were studied with conventional parasite morphology and morphometrics, and prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance were calculated for each species encountered. In the small intestine, seven species of nematodes and two species of cestodes were identified. In the large intestine, two species of nematodes were recorded. We did not find zoonotic species but have added new host records. This study in the Chaco region thus contributes to growing knowledge of the parasite fauna associated with armadillo species in this region.

  5. Molecular phylogenetics unveils the ancient evolutionary origins of the enigmatic fairy armadillos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Superina, Mariella; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Fairy armadillos or pichiciegos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) are among the most elusive mammals. Due to their subterranean and nocturnal lifestyle, their basic biology and evolutionary history remain virtually unknown. Two distinct species with allopatric distributions are recognized: Chlamyphorus truncatus is restricted to central Argentina, while Calyptophractus retusus occurs in the Gran Chaco of Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. To test their monophyly and resolve their phylogenetic affinities within armadillos, we obtained sequence data from modern and museum specimens for two mitochondrial genes (12S RNA [MT-RNR1] and NADH dehydrogenase 1 [MT-ND1]) and two nuclear exons (breast cancer 1 early onset exon 11 [BRCA1] and von Willebrand factor exon 28 [VWF]). Phylogenetic analyses provided a reference phylogeny and timescale for living xenarthran genera. Our results reveal monophyletic pichiciegos as members of a major armadillo subfamily (Chlamyphorinae). Their strictly fossorial lifestyle probably evolved as a response to the Oligocene aridification that occurred in South America after their divergence from Tolypeutinae around 32 million years ago (Mya). The ancient divergence date (∼17Mya) for separation between the two species supports their taxonomic classification into distinct genera. The synchronicity with Middle Miocene marine incursions along the Paraná river basin suggests a vicariant origin for pichiciegos by the disruption of their ancestral range. Their phylogenetic distinctiveness and rarity in the wild argue in favor of high conservation priority.

  6. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable" spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) with palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Adriana A; Lapenta, Marina J; Oliveira, Fátima; Motta-Junior, José C

    2004-12-01

    The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi, a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent, is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetation) physiognomies in São Paulo State, Brazil. The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C. bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii) and armadillo burrows. Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station, southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C. bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos. There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C. bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations). It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant. The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.

  7. Identification of ultrastructural and functional damages in sperm from six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus due to cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C. Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the study was to cryopreserve the semen of six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus in Tris-yolk and glycerol diluent, and to determine the damage caused by the freezing-thawing process, using fluorescent markers and ultrastructural analysis. Semen samples (n=11 collected from 4 adult six-banded armadillos by electroejaculation were cryopreserved in Tris diluent plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, in a fast freezing curve. Classical analysis of samples was performed after dilution, refrigeration and thawing, followed by fluorescence analysis, using a combination of fluorescent probes to assess membrane integrity (propidium iodide - PI and Hoechst - H342, and mitochondrial activity (CMXRos - Mito Tracker Red®. We also used the ultrastructural analysis to verify possible morphological alterations caused by cryoinjuries. When compared with fresh samples, we verified a significant decline in all the armadillos' semen parameters after thawing, in which only 6.1% motile sperm were found. However, the percentage of sperm which remained with viable (13% and functional (24.7% membranes after thawing suggests that some cells could be live but immotile. Analysis using fluorescent markers revealed that the mitochondria of armadillos' sperm is highly sensible to the freezing protocol and the findings through ultrastructure analysis proved this statement. Additionally, the images obtained by transmission electron microscopy revealed that frozen-thawed sperm presented damaged plasma membrane, nuclear modifications as changes in chromatin and acrossomal changes relative to sperm capacitation. In conclusion, this study is the first attempt to cryopreserve the semen of an armadillo species, and to help us to identify critical points on the freezing-thawing procedure in order to improve the protocol.

  8. Loss of helminth species diversity in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus on the Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquiaga, M C; Abba, A M; Navone, G T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the taxonomic diversity of parasite species of the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in its native range and in another recently introduced population (Tierra del Fuego island), and to evaluate whether the isolation of the latter determines a decrease in its parasitic diversity. Forty specimens from Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego Provinces were collected and examined for helminths. Eleven parasite species were found in the native population, and only one species was present in Tierra del Fuego (Trichohelix tuberculata). This may be explained because isolation and climatic conditions prevent encounters between potential host species and infective forms of parasites. Further sampling will be needed throughout the entire Patagonia steppe to confirm how the characteristic parasitic fauna of C. villosus behaves across the armadillo's southern distribution.

  9. Discrete typing units of Trypanosoma cruzi identified in rural dogs and cats in the humid Argentinean Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Orozco, M M; Lanati, L; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E

    2013-03-01

    The discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi that infect domestic dogs and cats have rarely been studied. With this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional xenodiagnostic survey of dog and cat populations residing in 2 infested rural villages in Pampa del Indio, in the humid Argentine Chaco. Parasites were isolated by culture from 44 dogs and 12 cats with a positive xenodiagnosis. DTUs were identified from parasite culture samples using a strategy based on multiple polymerase-chain reactions. TcVI was identified in 37 of 44 dogs and in 10 of 12 cats, whereas TcV was identified in 5 dogs and in 2 cats -a new finding for cats. No mixed infections were detected. The occurrence of 2 dogs infected with TcIII -classically found in armadillos- suggests a probable link with the local sylvatic transmission cycle involving Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos and a potential risk of human infection with TcIII. Our study reinforces the importance of dogs and cats as domestic reservoir hosts and sources of various DTUs infecting humans, and suggests a link between dogs and the sylvatic transmission cycle of TcIII.

  10. Protection of armadillo/β-Catenin by armless, a novel positive regulator of wingless signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde Reim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Wingless (Wg/Wnt signaling pathway is essential for metazoan development, where it is central to tissue growth and cellular differentiation. Deregulated Wg pathway activation underlies severe developmental abnormalities, as well as carcinogenesis. Armadillo/β-Catenin plays a key role in the Wg transduction cascade; its cytoplasmic and nuclear levels directly determine the output activity of Wg signaling and are thus tightly controlled. In all current models, once Arm is targeted for degradation by the Arm/β-Catenin destruction complex, its fate is viewed as set. We identified a novel Wg/Wnt pathway component, Armless (Als, which is required for Wg target gene expression in a cell-autonomous manner. We found by genetic and biochemical analyses that Als functions downstream of the destruction complex, at the level of the SCF/Slimb/βTRCP E3 Ub ligase. In the absence of Als, Arm levels are severely reduced. We show by biochemical and in vivo studies that Als interacts directly with Ter94, an AAA ATPase known to associate with E3 ligases and to drive protein turnover. We suggest that Als antagonizes Ter94's positive effect on E3 ligase function and propose that Als promotes Wg signaling by rescuing Arm from proteolytic degradation, spotlighting an unexpected step where the Wg pathway signal is modulated.

  11. Wnt, Hedgehog and junctional Armadillo/beta-catenin establish planar polarity in the Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela F Colosimo

    Full Text Available To generate specialized structures, cells must obtain positional and directional information. In multi-cellular organisms, cells use the non-canonical Wnt or planar cell polarity (PCP signaling pathway to establish directionality within a cell. In vertebrates, several Wnt molecules have been proposed as permissible polarity signals, but none has been shown to provide a directional cue. While PCP signaling components are conserved from human to fly, no PCP ligands have been reported in Drosophila. Here we report that in the epidermis of the Drosophila embryo two signaling molecules, Hedgehog (Hh and Wingless (Wg or Wnt1, provide directional cues that induce the proper orientation of Actin-rich structures in the larval cuticle. We further find that proper polarity in the late embryo also involves the asymmetric distribution and phosphorylation of Armadillo (Arm or beta-catenin at the membrane and that interference with this Arm phosphorylation leads to polarity defects. Our results suggest new roles for Hh and Wg as instructive polarizing cues that help establish directionality within a cell sheet, and a new polarity-signaling role for the membrane fraction of the oncoprotein Arm.

  12. Genetic evidence that Drosophila frizzled controls planar cell polarity and Armadillo signaling by a common mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povelones, Michael; Howes, Rob; Fish, Matt; Nusse, Roel

    2005-12-01

    The frizzled (fz) gene in Drosophila controls two distinct signaling pathways: it directs the planar cell polarization (PCP) of epithelia and it regulates cell fate decisions through Armadillo (Arm) by acting as a receptor for the Wnt protein Wingless (Wg). With the exception of dishevelled (dsh), the genes functioning in these two pathways are distinct. We have taken a genetic approach, based on a series of new and existing fz alleles, for identifying individual amino acids required for PCP or Arm signaling. For each allele, we have attempted to quantify the strength of signaling by phenotypic measurements. For PCP signaling, the defect was measured by counting the number of cells secreting multiple hairs in the wing. We then examined each allele for its ability to participate in Arm signaling by the rescue of fz mutant embryos with maternally provided fz function. For both PCP and Arm signaling we observed a broad range of phenotypes, but for every allele there is a strong correlation between its phenotypic strength in each pathway. Therefore, even though the PCP and Arm signaling pathways are genetically distinct, the set of signaling-defective fz alleles affected both pathways to a similar extent. This suggests that fz controls these two different signaling activities by a common mechanism. In addition, this screen yielded a set of missense mutations that identify amino acids specifically required for fz signaling function.

  13. The northern naked-tailed armadillo in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: new records and potential threats Armadillo de cola desnuda en la selva lacandona, México: nuevos registros y amenazas potenciales

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    Arturo González-Zamora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We review historic occurrences in Mexico of one of the least known Xenarthra of Mesoamerica - the northern naked-tailed armadillo (Cabassous centralis Miller, 1899. We document 6 new records in the Lacandona rainforest, southern Mexico, and through interviews with local people, we assess potential threats for this species in the region. In addition to being locally rare, our results show that hunting and death by road-kill may be major threats to this species in the region.Se revisaron los registros históricos en México de uno de los xenartros menos conocidos de Mesoamérica - el armadillo de cola desnuda (Cabassous centralis Miller, 1899. Se documentan 6 nuevos registros en la selva lacandona, sur de México. A través de entrevistas con pobladores locales, se evaluaron las amenazas potenciales para esta especie en la región. Además de ser localmente rara, nuestros resultados muestran que la cacería y las muertes por atropellamiento pueden ser las principales amenazas para esta especie en la región.

  14. Establishment of an anesthetic protocol for semen collection by electroejaculation in six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus Linnaeus, 1758

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    P.C. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim was to verify the effects of different anesthetic protocols used during electroejaculation (EEJ in six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus. Four sexually matured animals were physically restrained and subjected to semen collection by the EEJ following three treatments: The control group consisted of no use of anesthesia; in the others, the anesthetic combinations xylazine/ketamine/propofol or butorphanol/ ketamine/propofol were administered. For each group, twelve procedures were conducted for EEJ. Semen was evaluated for volume, color, aspect, motility, sperm concentration, morphology, viability, and functional membrane integrity. The highest efficiency (100% ejaculates was achieved when the control group was used; the xylazine/ketamine/propofol association provided only 11 ejaculates from a total of 12 attempts (91.6% efficiency, while only 4 ejaculates (33% efficiency were obtained with butorphanol/ketamine/propofol (P0.05. The semen volume and sperm concentration obtained in the use of xylazine/ketamine/propofol association were significantly higher than those verified for butorphanol/ketamine/propofol protocol. In conclusion, the xylazine/ketamine/propofol association is indicated for anesthesia of six-banded armadillos submitted to EEJ.

  15. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species.

  16. Anatomy of Shoulder Girdle Muscle Modifications and Walking Adaptation in the Scaly Chinese Pangolin (Manis Pentadactyla Pentadactyla: Pholidota) Compared with the Partially Osteoderm-Clad Armadillos (Dasypodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Bohaska, Paula W; Chen, Yen-Jean; Sato, Fumi

    2015-07-01

    Because pangolins are unique mammals with a body and limbs almost entirely sheathed in hard keratinous overlapping scales and with digging and climbing abilities, the shoulder girdle muscles may differ significantly from those of other mammals including the partially osteoderm-clad armadillos. Therefore, we conducted a functional anatomical study of the shoulder girdle muscles in Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla, Pholidota) and some armadillo species (Dasypodidae). Our CT scans revealed that the pangolin's overlapping scales are hard structures completely encasing the limbs. The armadillo's limbs, however, are covered with small relatively soft non-overlapping scales embedded in the skin, and articulate completely free of the hard osteodermal carapace. The attachments of some shoulder girdle muscles in the pangolin have moved from the surrounding edges of the scapula to the spine, and they, therefore, fully cover the scapula. In addition, some pangolin shoulder girdle muscles cross the shoulder joint to insert on the distal humerus, but this does not occur in armadillos. We cannot rule out the possibility that these muscle modifications represent adaptations for digging and/or climbing in pangolins. Our results and previous literature do not establish specific links between them and locomotive modes. However, we propose that the Chinese pangolin may use its derived muscular features when walking to move its armor-restricted forelimbs more effectively by swinging its head from side to side.

  17. Effects of change in primary forest cover on armadillo (Cingulata, Mammalia burrow use in the Central Amazon Efectos del cambio en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de las madrigueras por los armadillos (Cingulata, Mammalia en la Amazonia Central

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    María Clara Arteaga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of primary forest to other vegetation types alters the availability and distribution of resources, and thus affects their use by species that inhabit the forest. Although armadillos are important earthmover mammals in the Amazon forest, and their burrows play an important physical and ecological role in the ecosystem, the impact of loss of primary forest cover on these organisms has been poorly understood. In order to evaluate the effects of change in the primary forest cover on burrow use by armadillos, we performed 2 censuses in 33 plots within 12 sites of different vegetation cover characteristics, and recorded burrow density and current use. A total of 109 armadillo burrows were found; the sites with higher percentages of primary forest cover showed a larger number of active burrows, although burrow density and the probability of establishing new burrows remained unaffected by this variable. Our results show that areas with higher quantities of primary forest habitat show more intense use by armadillos, probably due to the permanence time of individuals. These findings suggest that the viability of armadillo populations, as well as the role that these animals play within the ecosystem, may be affected in disturbed areas.La transformación del bosque primario a otro tipo de vegetación cambia la disponibilidad y distribución de los recursos, afectando su uso por especies que habitan el bosque. Los armadillos son el principal grupo de mamíferos escavadores del Amazonas y sus madrigueras cumplen un papel físico y ecológico en el ecosistema. Sin embargo, no se conoce el impacto de la pérdida del bosque sobre estos organismos. Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de los cambios en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de sus madrigueras, realizamos 2 censos en 33 parcelas dentro de 12 localidades con diferentes coberturas vegetales y reportamos la densidad y el estado de uso de las madrigueras. Encontramos 109 madrigueras y

  18. Infecção natural por Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 em Euphractus sexcinctus (tatu mantidos em cativeiro Natural infection by Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 in Euphractus sexcinctus (armadillo kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Soares

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples of two species of armadillos Euphractus sexcinctus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae, kept in captivity were analysed by direct and sedimentation methods. Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 and E. coli Grassi, 1879 (Amoebida, Endamoebidae cysts were observed, the former for the first time in armadillos. This parasitism is worthy of registration in the literature because of the possibility of transmission to the human being when these animals are kept in captivity.

  19. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua.

    OpenAIRE

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Catzeflis, François,; Stanhope, Michael,; Douzery, Emmanuel,

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian order Xenarthra (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) is one of the four major clades of placentals, but it remains poorly studied from the molecular phylogenetics perspective. We present here a study encompassing most of the order's diversity in order to establish xenarthrans' intra-ordinal relationships, discuss the evolution of their morphological characters, search for their extant sister group and specify the timing of their radiation with special emphasis on the status of the...

  20. Experience Identification of Pangolin Scales and Poor Armadillo Scales%炮山甲与劣品炮大甲片的经验鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋世银

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To distinguish Pangolin scales from its adulterants to prevent the use of poor Armadillo scales. Methods:The properties of characters, color, size and so on between Pangolin scales and Armadillo scales were compared. Results:The length and width of genuine Pangolin scales was within the range of 0. 75-5. 50 cm, the color was golden yellow or yellowish brown, the tex-ture was crisp with easily broken property, and the thickness of section was 0. 2-0. 4 cm. The length and width of poor Armadillo scales was 6-10 cm, which was 3-5 times of that of Pangolin scales, the color was yellowish brown or brown, the texture was not crisp with easily broken property, and the thickness of section was 0. 6-1 cm. Conclusion:The above characteristics can be used to discern Ar-madillo scales.%目的:辨清炮山甲真伪,杜绝劣质炮大甲片。方法:对正品炮山甲与劣品炮大甲片在性状、颜色、大小等方面进行比较。结果:正品炮甲片长宽各0.75~5.50 cm,金黄色或黃褐色,质酥脆,易折断,断面厚0.2~0.4 cm;而劣品炮大甲片长宽各6~10 cm,是正品的3~5倍,黄褐色至棕黄色,质酥不脆,能折断,断面厚0.6~1 cm。结论:性状特征能区别开炮大甲片。

  1. Vascularización, morfología e histología del ovario en el armadillo Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758

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    LC Rezende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Euphractus sexcinctus es un armadillo de América del Sur y su anatomía reproductiva ha sido poco estudiada. Cinco hembras adultas fueron colectadas conforme normas del Instituto Brasilero del Medio Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables (IBAMA. Los ovarios fueron disecados por mesoscopía y procesados por microscopía de luz (coloración: hematoxilina-eosina. La forma de los ovarios fue ovalada, midiendo 7,9 mm de longitud y 4,4 mm de ancho. Al contrario de lo descrito en otras especies de armadillos, no observamos una concavidad central en dicha estructura. Los ovarios estaban recubiertos por un epitelio escamoso simple y con tejido conjuntivo rico en fibras colágenas. La región cortical presento folículos en varias etapas de su desarrollo, siendo que los folículos primordiales tendían a agruparse en clusters. La región medular contenía vasos sanguíneos y células intersticiales y cordones sexuales tal como ha sido descrito en otras especies de armadillos. El ovocito del folículo terciario midió 183 ± 18 μm de diámetro, con núcleo esférico y cromatina dispersa. La zona pelúcida fue homogénea y acelular alrededor del ovocito. Folículos con grupos de ovocitos no fueron identificados. Este estudio demostró que la morfología ovárica del E. sexcinctus fue semejante a la de otros mamíferos, pero diferente al de otras especies de armadillos descritos en otros artículos.

  2. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazilian wildlife revealed abundant new genotypes

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    S.N. Vitaliano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus, three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla, three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari, one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus. DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as “primary samples”, were genotyped by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP, using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico. A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.

  3. Epidemiological factors related to the transmission risk of Trypanosoma cruzi in a Quilombola community, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Marlon Cezar Cominetti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work was an epidemiological investigation of the risk of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the rural Quilombola community of Furnas do Dionízio, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Of the 71 animals examined, seven were captured (two opossums, Didelphis albiventris; four rats, Rattus rattus; and one nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus and 64 were domestic (one canine, Canis familiaris; five pigs, Sus scrofa; two bovines, Bos taurus; five caprines, Capra sp.; and 51 ovines, Ovis aries. Parasitological tests were performed to detect parasites in the blood and to identify the morphology of flagellates. These methods included fresh examinations, buffy coat tests and blood cultures. Molecular analysis of DNA for identification of trypanosomatids was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers S35 and S36. RESULTS: The parasitological tests showed flagellates in an opossum and two cattle. The molecular tests showed DNA from T. cruzi in an opossum and a pig. Triatoma sordida was the only triatomine species found in the community, and it colonized households (four specimens and the surrounding areas (124 specimens. Twenty-three specimens tested positive for flagellates, which were subsequently identified as T. cruzi by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis demonstrated that T. cruzi has a peridomestic life cycle that involves both domestic and wild mammals.

  4. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsuc, F; Catzeflis, F M; Stanhope, M J; Douzery, E J

    2001-08-07

    The mammalian order Xenarthra (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) is one of the four major clades of placentals, but it remains poorly studied from the molecular phylogenetics perspective. We present here a study encompassing most of the order's diversity in order to establish xenarthrans' intra-ordinal relationships, discuss the evolution of their morphological characters, search for their extant sister group and specify the timing of their radiation with special emphasis on the status of the controversial fossil Eurotamandua. Sequences of three genes (nuclear exon 28 of the Von Willebrand factor and mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNAs) are compared for eight of the 13 living genera. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the order's monophyly and that of its three major lineages: armadillos (Cingulata), anteaters (Vermilingua) and sloths ('Tardigrada', renamed in 'Folivora'), and our results strongly support the grouping of hairy xenarthrans (anteaters and sloths) into Pilosa. Within placentals, Afrotheria might be the first lineage to branch off, followed by Xenarthra. The morphological adaptative convergence between New World xenarthrans and Old World pangolins is confirmed. Molecular datings place the early emergence of armadillos around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, followed by the divergence between anteaters and sloths in the Early Eocene era. These Tertiary dates contradict the concept of a very ancient origin of modern xenarthran lineages. They also question the placement of the purported fossil anteater (Eurotamandua) from the Middle Eocene period of Europe with the Vermilingua and instead suggest the independent and convergent evolution of this enigmatic taxon.

  5. Conocimiento, uso y valor cultural de seis presas del jaguar (Panthera onca y su relación con éste, en San Nicolás de los Montes, San Luis Potosí, Mexico Knowledge, use and cultural value of six prey of jaguar (Panthera onca and their relationship with this species in San Nicolás de los Montes, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

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    Dulce M. Ávila-Nájera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 2007 se obtuvo información del conocimiento y la percepción que los pobladores del ejido tienen sobre el jaguar, sus presas y los factores que afectan la distribución y su conservación. Mediante el índice de importancia cultural (IIC se determinó el conocimiento que los ejidatarios tienen de las presas, y el uso y valor que les otorgan. Las presas que reconocieron importantes fueron venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus, temazate (Mazama temama, pecarí (Tayassu pecari, tejón (Nasua narica, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus y tepezcuintle (Cuniculus paca; 72% de los encuestados también identificaron especies domésticas como presas del jaguar. Según su percepción, las más abundantes son pecarí, tejón y armadillo. El valor de uso más importante es el alimenticio, puesto que 82% de los encuestados ha consumido alguna especie silvestre. El valor más alto del IIC fue para el venado (27.17. En el ejido se considera perjudicial el jaguar por alimentarse del ganado. Los pobladores y los jaguares utilizan las mismas especies para obtener beneficio. El presente estudio constituye una base para el desarrollo de trabajos tendientes a manejar y conservar los recursos naturales que existen en el ejido considerando las necesidades de la población humana, de su fauna silvestre y la relación entre éstas.During 2007, we obtained information about the knowledge, perception of rural people regarding jaguar, its preys and the factors that affect its distribution and conservation. Additionally, we determined with the Index of Cultural Importance the knowledge, use and value that rural people assign to preys of the jaguar. They recognized as important prey species of the jaguar to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, brocket (Mazama temama, pecari (Tayassu peccari, coati (Nasua narica, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus and paca (Cuniculus paca. Most of the villagers (72% identified also domestic species as preys of the jaguar

  6. An Armadillo Motif in Ufd3 Interacts with Cdc48 and is Involved in Ubiquitin Homeostasis and Protein Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G.; Li, G; Schindelin, H; Lennarz, W

    2009-01-01

    The yeast AAA-ATPase Cdc48 and the ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD) proteins play important, evolutionarily conserved roles in ubiquitin dependent protein degradation. The N-terminal domain of Cdc48 interacts with substrate-recruiting cofactors, whereas the C terminus of Cdc48 binds to proteins such as Ufd3 that process substrates. Ufd3 is essential for efficient protein degradation and for maintaining cellular ubiquitin levels. This protein contains an N-terminal WD40 domain, a central ubiquitin-binding domain, and a C-terminal Cdc48-binding PUL domain. The crystal structure of the PUL domain reveals an Armadillo repeat with high structural similarity to importin-a, and the Cdc48-binding site could be mapped to the concave surface of the PUL domain by biochemical studies. Alterations of the Cdc48 binding site of Ufd3 by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in a depletion of cellular ubiquitin pools and reduced activity of the ubiquitin fusion degradation pathway. Therefore, our data provide direct evidence that the functions of Ufd3 in ubiquitin homeostasis and protein degradation depend on its interaction with the C terminus of Cdc48.

  7. Paracoccidioidomicose: atualização epidemiológica, clínica e terapêutica Paracoccidioidomycosis: epidemiological, clinical and treatment up-date

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    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados de atualização epidemiológica, clínica, diagnóstica e terapêutica relativos à paracoccidioidomicose. Discute-se a importância epidemiológica resultante do isolamento do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a partir do tatu (Dasypus novemcinctus em regiões do Brasil e Colômbia, assim como dos resultados de inquéritos soroepidemiológicos em cães e do surgimento do primeiro caso de paracoccidioidomicose doença em cão. As dificuldades de isolamento do fungo a partir do solo são correlacionadas com novos informes de investigação epidemiológica. São apresentados aspectos clínicos das manifestações da forma aguda da doença, assim como das manifestações da neuroparacoccidioidomicose e da enfermidade associada à infecção pelo HIV. Discute-se o papel da sorologia e da técnica da PCR no diagnóstico e dos possíveis avanços no tratamento da paracoccidioidomicose com os novos derivados triazólicos.The present report provides new data related to the epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis. The epidemiological impact of the isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from the armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus in areas of Brazil and Columbia, the results from seroepidemiologic study in dogs and the first case of paracoccidioidomycosis-disease on a dog are presented. New insights related to the classical difficulties of isolation of the fungus from soil are correlated with epidemiological data. Clinical manifestation of the acute form of the disease as well as aspects of the neuroparacoccidioidomycosis, and aspects of the association of the disease with the HIV infection are considered. The role of serology and PCR in the diagnosis, as well as the possible advances in the treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis with the new triazole derivatives are discussed.

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi IIc: Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic Insights from Sequence and Microsatellite Analysis and Potential Impact on Emergent Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Martin S.; Lewis, Michael D.; Acosta, Nidia; Yeo, Matthew; Carrasco, Hernan J.; Segovia, Maikell; Vargas, Jorge; Torrico, Faustino; Miles, Michael A.; Gaunt, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is highly genetically diverse. Numerous lines of evidence point to the existence of six stable genetic lineages or DTUs: TcI, TcIIa, TcIIb, TcIIc, TcIId, and TcIIe. Molecular dating suggests that T. cruzi is likely to have been an endemic infection of neotropical mammalian fauna for many millions of years. Here we have applied a panel of 49 polymorphic microsatellite markers developed from the online T. cruzi genome to document genetic diversity among 53 isolates belonging to TcIIc, a lineage so far recorded almost exclusively in silvatic transmission cycles but increasingly a potential source of human infection. These data are complemented by parallel analysis of sequence variation in a fragment of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase gene. New isolates confirm that TcIIc is associated with terrestrial transmission cycles and armadillo reservoir hosts, and demonstrate that TcIIc is far more widespread than previously thought, with a distribution at least from Western Venezuela to the Argentine Chaco. We show that TcIIc is truly a discrete T. cruzi lineage, that it could have an ancient origin and that diversity occurs within the terrestrial niche independently of the host species. We also show that spatial structure among TcIIc isolates from its principal host, the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, is greater than that among TcI from Didelphis spp. opossums and link this observation to differences in ecology of their respective niches. Homozygosity in TcIIc populations and some linkage indices indicate the possibility of recombination but cannot yet be effectively discriminated from a high genome-wide frequency of gene conversion. Finally, we suggest that the derived TcIIc population genetic data have a vital role in determining the origin of the epidemiologically important hybrid lineages TcIId and TcIIe. PMID:19721699

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi IIc: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights from sequence and microsatellite analysis and potential impact on emergent Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Llewellyn

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is highly genetically diverse. Numerous lines of evidence point to the existence of six stable genetic lineages or DTUs: TcI, TcIIa, TcIIb, TcIIc, TcIId, and TcIIe. Molecular dating suggests that T. cruzi is likely to have been an endemic infection of neotropical mammalian fauna for many millions of years. Here we have applied a panel of 49 polymorphic microsatellite markers developed from the online T. cruzi genome to document genetic diversity among 53 isolates belonging to TcIIc, a lineage so far recorded almost exclusively in silvatic transmission cycles but increasingly a potential source of human infection. These data are complemented by parallel analysis of sequence variation in a fragment of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase gene. New isolates confirm that TcIIc is associated with terrestrial transmission cycles and armadillo reservoir hosts, and demonstrate that TcIIc is far more widespread than previously thought, with a distribution at least from Western Venezuela to the Argentine Chaco. We show that TcIIc is truly a discrete T. cruzi lineage, that it could have an ancient origin and that diversity occurs within the terrestrial niche independently of the host species. We also show that spatial structure among TcIIc isolates from its principal host, the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, is greater than that among TcI from Didelphis spp. opossums and link this observation to differences in ecology of their respective niches. Homozygosity in TcIIc populations and some linkage indices indicate the possibility of recombination but cannot yet be effectively discriminated from a high genome-wide frequency of gene conversion. Finally, we suggest that the derived TcIIc population genetic data have a vital role in determining the origin of the epidemiologically important hybrid lineages TcIId and TcIIe.

  10. Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia due to Mutations in an Armadillo Repeat Containing 5 (ARMC5) Gene: A Clinical and Genetic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R.; Zilbermint, Mihail; Lodish, Maya B.; Szarek, Eva; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Sinaii, Ninet; Berthon, Annabel; Libé, Rossella; Assié, Guillaume; Espiard, Stéphanie; Drougat, Ludivine; Ragazzon, Bruno; Bertherat, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Context: Inactivating germline mutations of the probable tumor suppressor gene, armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5), have recently been identified as a genetic cause of macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (MAH). Objective: We searched for ARMC5 mutations in a large cohort of patients with MAH. The clinical phenotype of patients with and without ARMC5 mutations was compared. Methods: Blood DNA from 34 MAH patients was genotyped using Sanger sequencing. Diurnal serum cortisol measurements, plasma ACTH levels, urinary steroids, 6-day Liddle's test, adrenal computed tomography, and weight of adrenal glands at adrenalectomy were assessed. Results: Germline ARMC5 mutations were found in 15 of 34 patients (44.1%). In silico analysis of the mutations indicated that seven (20.6%) predicted major implications for gene function. Late-night cortisol levels were higher in patients with ARMC5-damaging mutations compared with those without and/or with nonpathogenic mutations (14.5 ± 5.6 vs 6.7 ± 4.3, P < .001). All patients carrying a pathogenic ARMC5 mutation had clinical Cushing's syndrome (seven of seven, 100%) compared with 14 of 27 (52%) of those without or with mutations that were predicted to be benign (P = .029). Repeated-measures analysis showed overall higher urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and free cortisol values in the patients with ARMC5-damaging mutations during the 6-day Liddle's test (P = .0002). Conclusions: ARMC5 mutations are implicated in clinically severe Cushing's syndrome associated with MAH. Knowledge of a patient's ARMC5 status has important clinical implications for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and genetic counseling of patients and their families. PMID:24601692

  11. Btk29A-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of armadillo/β-catenin promotes ring canal growth in Drosophila oogenesis.

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    Noriko Hamada-Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available Drosophila Btk29A is the ortholog of mammalian Btk, a Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinase whose deficit causes X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans. The Btk29AficP mutation induces multiple abnormalities in oogenesis, including the growth arrest of ring canals, large intercellular bridges that allow the flow of cytoplasm carrying maternal products essential for embryonic development from the nurse cells to the oocyte during oogenesis. In this study, inactivation of Parcas, a negative regulator of Btk29A, was found to promote Btk29A accumulation on ring canals with a concomitant increase in the ring canal diameter, counteracting the Btk29AficP mutation. This mutation markedly reduced the accumulation of phosphotyrosine on ring canals and in the regions of cell-cell contact, where adhesion-supporting proteins such as DE-cadherin and β-catenin ortholog Armadillo (Arm are located. Our previous in vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that Btk29A directly phosphorylates Arm, leading to its release from DE-cadherin. In the present experiments, immunohistological analysis revealed that phosphorylation at tyrosine 150 (Y150 and Y667 of Arm was diminished in Btk29AficP mutant ring canals. Overexpression of an Arm mutant with unphosphorylatable Y150 inhibited ring canal growth. Thus Btk29A-induced Y150 phosphorylation is necessary for the normal growth of ring canals. We suggest that the dissociation of tyrosine-phosphorylated Arm from DE-cadherin allows dynamic actin to reorganize, leading to ring canal expansion and cell shape changes during the course of oogenesis.

  12. Btk29A-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of armadillo/β-catenin promotes ring canal growth in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada-Kawaguchi, Noriko; Nishida, Yasuyoshi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila Btk29A is the ortholog of mammalian Btk, a Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinase whose deficit causes X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans. The Btk29AficP mutation induces multiple abnormalities in oogenesis, including the growth arrest of ring canals, large intercellular bridges that allow the flow of cytoplasm carrying maternal products essential for embryonic development from the nurse cells to the oocyte during oogenesis. In this study, inactivation of Parcas, a negative regulator of Btk29A, was found to promote Btk29A accumulation on ring canals with a concomitant increase in the ring canal diameter, counteracting the Btk29AficP mutation. This mutation markedly reduced the accumulation of phosphotyrosine on ring canals and in the regions of cell-cell contact, where adhesion-supporting proteins such as DE-cadherin and β-catenin ortholog Armadillo (Arm) are located. Our previous in vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that Btk29A directly phosphorylates Arm, leading to its release from DE-cadherin. In the present experiments, immunohistological analysis revealed that phosphorylation at tyrosine 150 (Y150) and Y667 of Arm was diminished in Btk29AficP mutant ring canals. Overexpression of an Arm mutant with unphosphorylatable Y150 inhibited ring canal growth. Thus Btk29A-induced Y150 phosphorylation is necessary for the normal growth of ring canals. We suggest that the dissociation of tyrosine-phosphorylated Arm from DE-cadherin allows dynamic actin to reorganize, leading to ring canal expansion and cell shape changes during the course of oogenesis.

  13. Plasma membrane-association of SAUL1-type plant U-box armadillo repeat proteins is conserved in land plants

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    Katja eVogelmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational protein modification plays a pivotal role in the regulation and specific turnover of proteins. One of these important modifications is the ubiquitination of target proteins, which can occur at distinct cellular compartments. At the plasma membrane, ubiquitination regulates the internalization and thus trafficking of membrane proteins such as receptors and channels. The Arabidopsis plant U-box armadillo repeat (PUB-ARM ubiquitin ligase SAUL1 (SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED UBIQUITIN LIGASE1 is part of the ubiquitination machinery at the plasma membrane. In contrast to most other PUB-ARM proteins, SAUL1 carries additional C-terminal ARM repeats responsible for plasma membrane-association. Here, we demonstrated that the C-terminal ARM repeat domain is also essential and sufficient to mediate plasma membrane-association of the closest Arabidopis paralog AtPUB43. We investigated targeting of PUB-ARM ubiquitin ligases of different plant species to find out whether plasma membrane-association of SAUL1-type PUB-ARM proteins is conserved. Phylogenetic analysis identified orthologs of SAUL1 in these plant species. Intracellular localization of transiently expressed GFP fusion proteins revealed that indeed plasma membrane-association due to additional C-terminal ARM repeats represents a conserved feature of SAUL1-type proteins. Analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing N-terminally masked or truncated proteins revealed that interfering with the function of SAUL1-type proteins resulted in severe growth defects. Our results suggest an ancient origin of ubiquitination at the plasma membrane in the evolution of land plants.

  14. Cleavage of Armadillo/beta-catenin by the caspase DrICE in Drosophila apoptotic epithelial cells

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    Kessler Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During apoptosis cells become profoundly restructured through concerted cleavage of cellular proteins by caspases. In epithelial tissues, apoptotic cells loose their apical/basal polarity and are extruded from the epithelium. We used the Drosophila embryo as a system to investigate the regulation of components of the zonula adherens during apoptosis. Since Armadillo/beta-catenin (Arm is a major regulator of cadherin-mediated adhesion, we analyzed the mechanisms of Arm proteolysis in apoptosis. Results We define early and late apoptotic stages and find that early in apoptosis Dα-catenin remains relatively stable, while Arm and DE-cadherin protein levels are strongly reduced. Arm is cleaved by caspases in embryo extracts and we provide evidence that the caspase-3 homolog drICE cleaves Arm in vitro and in vivo. Cleavage by drICE creates a stable protein fragment that remains associated with the plasma membrane early in apoptosis. To further understand the role of caspase-mediated cleavage of Arm, we examined potential caspase cleavage sites and found that drICE cleaves Arm at a unique DQVD motif in the N-terminal domain of the protein. Mutation of the drICE cleavage site in Arm results in a protein that is not cleaved in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore we provide evidence that cleavage of Arm plays a role in the removal of DE-cadherin from the plasma membrane during apoptosis. Conclusion This study defines the specificity of caspase cleavage of Arm in Drosophila apoptotic cells. Our data suggest that N-terminal truncation of Arm by caspases is evolutionarily conserved and thus might provide a principal mechanism involved in the disassembly of adherens junctions during apoptosis.

  15. Fraction A of armadillo submandibular glycoprotein and its desialylated product as sialyl-Tn and Tn receptors for lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Shen, F; Herp, A; Song, S C; Wu, J H

    1995-02-27

    Fraction A of the armadillo submandibular glycoprotein (ASG-A) is one of the simplest glycoproteins among mammalian salivary mucins. The carbohydrate side chains of this mucous glycoprotein have one-third of the NeuAc alpha 2-->6GalNAc (sialyl-Tn) sequence and two thirds of Tn (GalNAc alpha-->Ser/Thr) residues. Those of the desialylated product (ASG-Tn) are almost exclusively unsubstituted GalNAc residues (Tn determinant). When the binding properties of these glycoproteins were tested by a precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins, it was found that ASG-Tn reacted strongly with all of the Tn-active lectins and completely precipitated Vicia villosa (VVL both B4 and mixture of A and B), Maclura pomifera (MPA), and Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin) lectins. However, it precipitated poorly or negligibly with Ricinus communis (RCA1); Dolichos biflorus (DBA); Viscum album, ML-I; Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Triticum vulgaris (WGA). The reactivity of ASG-A (sialyl-Tn) was as active as that of ASG-Tn with MPA and less or slightly less active than that of ASG-Tn with VVL-A+B, VVL-B4, HPA, WFA, and jacalin, as one-third of its Tn was sialylated. These findings indicate that ASG-A and its desialylated product (ASG-Tn) are highly useful reagents for the differentiation of Tn, T (Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc), A (GalNAc alpha 1-->3Gal) or Gal specific lectins and monoclonal antibodies against such epitopes.

  16. Hábito alimentar do tatu-canastra (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae em uma área de cerrado do Brasil Central Food habits of the giant armadillo (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae in an area of grassland of central Brasil

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    Teresa Cristina S. Anacleto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The diel of the giant armadillo - Priodontes maximus (Kerr,1792 - was studied in the field at Fazenda São Miguel, Unaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, through 82 samples collected at foraging excavations and 25 fecal samples. In both types of sample the most common item was insects (Isoptera e Hymenoptera and, in less quantity, plant fragments and orhers invertebrates (Aranae, Blattaria, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Scorpiones. These data suggest the giant armadillo is a specialist on insects with an opportunistic foraging strategy.

  17. Genetic structuring in a relictual population of screaming hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus vellerosus) in Argentina revealed by a set of novel microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Maximiliano; Ibáñez, Ezequiel Alejandro; Dobler, Dara; Justy, Fabienne; Delsuc, Frédéric; Abba, Agustín Manuel; Cassini, Marcelo Hernán; Túnez, Juan Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    The screaming hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus vellerosus) is a mammal species containing disjunct and isolated populations. In order to assess the effect of habitat fragmentation and geographic isolation, we developed seven new microsatellite loci isolated from low-coverage genome shotgun sequencing data for this species. Among these loci, six microsatellites were found to be polymorphic with 8-26 alleles per locus detected across 69 samples analyzed from a relictual population of the species located in the northeast of the Buenos Aires Province (Argentina). Mean allelic richness and polymorphic information content were 15 and 0.75, with observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 and 0.58 to 0.90, respectively. All loci showed departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The analysis of population structure in this relictual population revealed three groups of individuals that are genetically differentiated. These newly developed microsatellites will constitute a very useful tool for the estimation of genetic diversity and structure, population dynamics, social structure, parentage and mating system in this little-studied armadillo species. Such genetic data will be particularly helpful for the development of conservation strategies for this isolated population and also for the endangered Bolivian populations previously recognized as a distinct species (Chaetophractus nationi).

  18. Historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae Natural history of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae

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    AGUSTÍN M ABBA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de un establecimiento ganadero de la localidad de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante dos años (2006-2008 se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y recaptura. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 237 capturas de un total de 136 individuos. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue insectos coleópteros, seguido por material vegetal y pequeños mamíferos; se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios dada por una marcada caída de la ocurrencia de coleópteros durante la primavera. Durante las estaciones frías concentran su actividad al mediodía y primeras horas de la tarde y durante las estaciones cálidas el horario medio de actividad se da durante la tarde-noche. Seleccionan los suelos calcáreos arenosos y los pastizales de baja altura y alta cobertura de vegetación. El área de acción media registrada fue de 2670 m². Son individuos asociales, con comportamiento diferente entre las estaciones y seleccionan los montes de tala para refugiarse. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente y el peso. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan con lo observado para la especie en otras áreas distantes y con diferentes condiciones ambientales. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos poco estudiados de una población aislada y bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat que la pueden llevar a la extinción en un mediano plazo.This contribution presents new data about the natural history of the screaming hairy

  19. Una técnica para la extirpación de los órganos vomeronasales en el armadillo Chaetophractus villosus. Abordaje desde la cavidad bucal - A surgical procedure for the ablation of the Vomeronasal Organs in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus. Approach from oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    ResumenSe describen los pasos de un procedimiento quirúrgico para la extirpación bilateral de los órganos vomeronasales del armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Cada órgano está ubicado en el piso de la cavidad nasal, adosado a cada lado del tabique nasal. Los órganos se abordan a través de unaabertura practicada en el techo de la cavidad bucal. Este procedimiento se realiza bajo lupa estereoscópica y permite una visualización directa de los órganos Los mismos se destruyen...

  20. Armadillos, Boatbills & Crocodiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Annette; Greenblatt, Esther

    1980-01-01

    Recounts the unique partnership in science instruction developed between Nassau and Suffolk County (New York) schools and the Bronx Zoo to provide educational experiences for handicapped and mentally retarded students. Discussion focuses on a five-phase program developed for 200 elementary secondary students from Rosemary Kennedy Center through…

  1. Cryptanalysis of ARMADILLO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed; Blondeau, Céline; Naya-Plasencia, María;

    2011-01-01

    . This makes it possible to perform a key recovery attack when used as a FIL-MAC. A variant of this attack can also be applied to the stream cipher derived from the PRNG mode. Finally we propose a (second) preimage attack when used as a hash function.We have validated our attacks by implementing cryptanalysis...

  2. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2010-09-01

    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture.

  3. [Trypanosoma cruzi in French Guinea: review of accumulated data since 1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P

    1996-01-01

    Between 1939 and 1994, nine cases of Chagas disease have been reported in French Guiana: seven in the acute phase including two that were fatal and two in the chronic phase with cardiac sequellae. A tenth case of transient parasitemia was described but the patient's clinical status was not mentioned. Screening by xenodiagnosis revealed one subclinical infection. Heart disease is a highly specific manifestation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, this being consistent with the known presence of zymodeme 1 in the sylvatic reservoir and reduviid vectors. The low incidence of positive serology (0.7% in a group of 740 subjects in whom serum samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence) indicates that the disease is not currently becoming endemic. The main animal reservoirs for infection are small land marsupials (Didelphis marsupialis being the most frequently infected) and edentata especially armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus). A peridomestic cycle, implicating D. marsupialis and Philander oppossum, plant-eating marsupials, with Rhodnius pictipes as the vector is highly active. Further study is necessary to ascertain another mechanism involving R. prolixus as a vector in dwellings in urban areas. Outbreaks require careful epidemiologic surveillance. French Guiana should no longer be considered as an enzootic area but as an area of risk for sporadic Chagas disease with epidemiologic features similar to those of the disease in dense Amazon forest areas. Appropriate measures must be taken to screen and promptly manage Chagas disease in the population. Special care is needed for concurrent HIV-T. cruzi infection due to the severity of this combination. Preventive measures are also needed to preclude transfusional infection.

  4. Molecular analysis of DNA and construction of genomic libraries of Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Curtiss, J E; Jacobs, W R; Docherty, M A; Ritchie, L R; Curtiss, R

    1985-03-01

    Molecular analysis of DNA from Mycobacterium leprae, "Mycobacterium lufu," and Mycobacterium vaccae has demonstrated that the G + C (guanine plus cytosine) contents of the DNAs are 56, 61, and 65%, respectively, and that the genome sizes are 2.2 X 10(9), 3.1 X 10(9), and 3.1 X 10(9) daltons, respectively. Because of the significant differences in both G + C content and genome size among M. leprae, "M. lufu," and M. vaccae DNAs, these species are not related, although hybridization experiments under nonstringent conditions, with two separate cloned M. leprae DNA inserts as probes, indicate that there are some conserved sequences among the DNAs. The G + C content of Dasypus novemcinctus (armadillo, the animal of choice for cultivating M. leprae) DNA was determined to be 36%. Genomic libraries potentially representing more than 99.99% of each genome were prepared by cloning into the cosmid vector, pHC79, in Escherichia coli K-12. A genomic library representing approximately 95% of the genome of M. vaccae was prepared in pBR322. M. leprae DNA was subcloned from the pHC79::M. leprae library into an expression vector, pYA626. This vector is a 3.8-kilobase derivative of pBR322 in which the promoter region of the asd (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene from Streptococcus mutans has been inserted in place of the EcoRI-to-PstI fragment of pBR322. Several (44% of those tested) pYA626::M. leprae recombinants and one pBR322::M. vaccae recombinant synthesized new polypeptides in minicells of E. coli, indicating that mycobacterial DNA can be expressed in E. coli K-12, although expression is probably dependent upon use of nonmycobacterial promoters recognized by the E. coli transcription-translation apparatus.

  5. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in road-killed wild mammals from the Central Western Region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Road-killed wild animals host zoonotic pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, offering a new opportunity for the epidemiological study of these infectious organisms. METHODS This investigation aimed to determine the presence of T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites in tissue samples of 64 road-killed wild animals, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were then typed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using 7 markers: SAG1, 5′-3′SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c29-6, PK1, and Apico. PCR-RFLP targeting 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes was also performed on all samples to detect other apicomplexan parasites. RESULTS T. gondii DNA was detected in 16 tissue samples from 8 individual animals, as follows: 1 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox, 1 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum, 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata (lutrine opossum, 2 Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater, 1 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon, and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (Paraguay hairy dwarf porcupine. Seven different T. gondii genotypes were identified, 6 of which were novel. Typing by 18S rRNA verified these 16 T. gondii-infected samples, and identified 1 Sarcocystis spp.-infected animal [Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo]. The amplified T. gondii (GenBank accession No. L37415.1 and Sarcocystis spp. 18S rRNA products were confirmed by sequencing. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that T. gondii is commonly present in wild mammals, which act as sources of infection for humans and animals, including other wild species. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in the environment and identifying their natural reservoirs, contributing to our understanding of host-parasite interactions.

  6. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco.

  7. Flagellate infections of Brazilian sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): isolation in vitro and biochemical identification of Endotrypanum and Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, J R; Miles, M A; Naiff, R D; Povoa, M M; de Freitas, R A; Biancardi, C B; Castellon, E G

    1985-11-01

    Flagellate infections were found in 1,063 of 18,895 sand flies collected in the states of Amazonas, Pará, Rondonia and Acre, Brazil. Infection rates were 13.4% (species group Shannoni); 7.5% (subgenus Nyssomyia); 6.7% (subgenus Lutzomyia series Cruciata); 0.5% (genus Psychodopygus) and 3.1% for other sand flies (various subgenera). Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis and L. mexicana amazonensis were isolated, respectively, from the known vectors, Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. flaviscutellata. Single stocks of L. braziliensis-like and L. mexicana-like organisms were isolated, respectively, from L. whitmani and L. yuilli. Thirty-eight flagellate stocks, isolated by direct culture from sand flies were characterized in detail by morphology in culture, behavior in hamsters and mice and by enzyme profiles. Sixteen stocks from Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) were identified as Endotrypanum schaudinni; 8 stocks from Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) were identified as Endotrypanum sp.; 7 stocks from Psychodopygus ayrozai and P. paraensis were identified as Leishmania sp. previously isolated from the armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus; 2 stocks of Trypanosoma rangeli were isolated from recently fed Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) sand flies; the remaining 5 stocks from L. umbratilis and L. yuilli could not be identified. Observations suggested that Shannoni group sand flies were the natural vectors of Endotrypanum. Leishmania sp. infections in the man-biting flies P. ayrozai and P. paraensis were restricted to the midgut and associated with recent bloodmeals. Unidentified flagellates in L. umbratilis and L. yuilli were distributed throughout the digestive tract with no trace of bloodmeals.

  8. Metal accumulation in bobcats in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Rachel K; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-10-01

    Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are wide-ranging mammals found throughout the continental USA. As carnivores near the top of their food chain, bobcats would seem to be a useful bioindicator of metal pollution in terrestrial environments. However, there is very limited research on bobcats in toxicology studies. Here, we offer the first analysis of metal (copper, selenium, silver, and zinc) contaminants in the livers of wild bobcats. Liver tissues from 120 adult bobcats (i.e., estimated to be ≥1 year old) were collected from 2003 to 2006 at four sites in Georgia and Florida, USA that experienced relatively similar levels of human disturbance. We found no differences in metal concentrations between males and females. At two of the sites sampled over three consecutive years, there was substantial year-to-year variation in the concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn. We also documented some variation between sites, but only between sites sampled in different years, which may reflect additional temporal, rather than spatial, variation. Concentrations of Cu and Ag were significantly positively correlated with one another, as were concentrations of Se and Zn. Contrary to expectation, there were no significant relationships between body weight and metal concentrations. Finally, comparison with results from previous metal toxicology studies of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virgianus), collected from the same sites during the same years, showed differential patterns of accumulation across species, suggesting that ecological lifestyle is an important influence on metal accumulation. This study provides reference levels of metal contaminants in the liver of bobcats as well as insight into metal accumulation in a top level carnivore.

  9. Una técnica para la extirpación de los órganos vomeronasales en el armadillo Chaetophractus villosus. Abordaje desde la cavidad bucal - A surgical procedure for the ablation of the Vomeronasal Organs in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus. Approach from oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iodice, O. H.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe describen los pasos de un procedimiento quirúrgico para la extirpación bilateral de los órganos vomeronasales del armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Xenarthra. Cada órgano está ubicado en el piso de la cavidad nasal, adosado a cada lado del tabique nasal. Los órganos se abordan a través de unaabertura practicada en el techo de la cavidad bucal. Este procedimiento se realiza bajo lupa estereoscópica y permite una visualización directa de los órganos Los mismos se destruyen por medio de una fresa accionada por un torno. De este modo se tiene la certeza de una ablación total. La posterior verificación por mediode cortes histológicos no es por lo tanto necesaria. Esto representa una ventaja importante puesto que las características físicas del hueso de estos animales requieren períodos largos de ablandamiento (generalmente alrededor tres meses. SummaryA surgical procedure for the bilateral ablation of the vomeronasal organs of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Xenarthra is described. The organs are approached from the roof of the oral cavity through a longitudinal slit performed with a dental drill. This procedure is performed under magnifying stereoscopic lens and permits the direct visualization of the organs. Those structures are then destroyed with the dental drill. This provides certainty of totalablation. As a consequence, verification by means of histological sections is not needed. This represents an important advantage since the physical characteristics of the bone of these animals require long periods of softening (usually around three months.

  10. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

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    Pei-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs. Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

  11. Morphological characterization and sex-related differences of the mandible of the armadillos Chaetophractus vellerosus and Zaedyus pichiy (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae, with consideration of dietary aspects

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    Nora S. Sidorkewicj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics of the mandible of adult Chaetophractus vellerosus (Gray, 1865 and Zaedyus pichiy (Desmarest, 1804 were studied to establish its generalized design and to identify inter- and intra- (sexual specific differences. Morphological descriptions were complemented with the application of univariate and multivariate (analysis of correlation matrices, PCA, discriminant analysis techniques. The mandible of both species is very similar, and is characterized by elevated condyle, well developed angular process, distinct coronoid process, tooth row which extends to the rear end of the angle between body and ramus, and unfused but firm symphysis. Although both armadillos are omnivorous, a more slender configuration of the jaw in Z. pichiy could be indicative of a better adaptation of its masticatory apparatus to insectivory. The PCA showed an almost total segregation of both species on PC1 (47.7% of the total variance, with C. vellerosus being associated to mandibles taller and with wider body and ramus. Zaedyus pichiy was characterized by heavy loadings of length parameters on PC2 (22.6% of the variance. A small degree of sexual dimorphism was found, with size-based differences in C. vellerosus (larger mandibles in females and shape-based differences in Z. pichiy (taller mandibles in males, longer ones in females. Correlations between variables were higher in males of both species, indicating a more stable shape of the mandible than in females. The selected parameters to discriminate sexes were the body length of the mandible in C. vellerosus (correct classification: ca. 86% in males, 81% in females, and the height of the mandible at the level of the last tooth in Z. pichiy (near 85% of right assignment in both sexes. The inclusion of a new variable (body length in the latter species improved the classification of the females to 100%. Teeth are typically 10 in C. vellerosus and 9 in Z. pichiy, but aberrancies in this basic

  12. Chemotherapy refractory testicular germ cell tumor is associated with a variant in Armadillo Repeat gene deleted in Velco-Cardio-Facial syndrome (ARVCF

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    Chunkit eFung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is evidence that inherited genetic variation affects both testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT treatment outcome and risks of late-complications arising from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Using a candidate gene approach, we examined associations of three genes involved in the cisplatin metabolism pathway, GSTP1, COMT, and TPMT, with TGCT outcome and cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. Material and Methods: Our study population includes a subset of patients (n=137 from a genome-wide association study at the University of Pennsylvania that evaluates inherited genetic susceptibility to TGCT. All patients in our study had at least one course of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with at least one year of follow up. A total of 90 markers in GSTP1, COMT and TPMT and their adjacent genomic regions (± 20 kb were analyzed for associations with refractory TGCT after first course of chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, peripheral neuropathy, and ototoxicity. Results: After adjustment for multiple comparisons, one SNP, rs2073743, in the flanking region (± 20 kb of COMT was associated with refractory TGCT after initial chemotherapy. This SNP lies within the intron region of the Armadillo Repeat gene deleted in Velco-Cardio-Facial syndrome (ARVCF. The G allele of rs2073743 predisposed patients to refractory disease with a relative risk of 2.6 (95% CI 1.1, 6.3; P=0.03. Assuming recessive inheritance, patients with the GG genotype had 22.7 times higher risk (95% CI 3.3, 155.8; P=0.04 of developing refractory disease when compared to those with the GC or CC genotypes. We found no association of our candidate genes with peripheral neuropathy, ototoxicity, PFS and OS. Discussion: This is the first study to suggest that germline genetic variants of ARVCF may affect TGCT outcome. The result of this study is hypothesis generating and should be validated in future studies.

  13. Infecção experimental em suínos jovens com Leptospira interrogans sorovar wolffi: determinação de parâmetros bioquímicos Experimental infection by Leptospira interrogans serovar wolffi in young pigs: determination of biochemical parameters

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    José Carlos Rende

    2007-04-01

    were inoculated by the same way with 5.0mL of a cell culture containing 1.0x10(8cells/mL of Leptospira interrogans sorovar wolffi, wild strain L-10, isolated from a wild especies of brazilian "armadillo" (Dasypus novemcinctus. Three days after inoculation, blood was collected without anticoagulant; the same process was repeated at 72 hours intervals during eighteen days in both, control and experimental groups. Quantitative biochemical parameters were direct, indirect and total bilirubin, fatty acids and serum proteins. The experimental animals showed an increase of direct bilirubin three days after inoculation. Increases in indirect and total bilirubin were, also, observed after six days. Glucose, fatty acids and serum proteins decreased after the third day of inoculation. In conclusion, the increase in bilirubin levels could be due to acute hemolysis; hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia and hypoproteinemia that could be related to hepatic lesions and septicemia. All parameters returned to normal levels after fifteen days, in all animals tested.

  14. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a mycologic and immunochemical study of a sample isolated from an armadillo (Dasipus novencinctus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: estudo micológico e imunoquímico de amostra isolada de tatu (Dasipus novencinctus

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    Monica Scarpelli Martinelli Vidal

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A sample of P. brasiliensis isolated from the spleen and the liver of an armadillo (Dasipus novencinctus has been analysed under a mycological and immunochemical viewpoint. The armadillo was captured in an area of Tucuruí (State of Pará, Brazil, the animal being already established as an enzootic reservoir of P. brasiliensis at that region of the country. This sample maintained in the fungal collection of the Tropical Medicine Institute of São Paulo (Brazil numbered 135, has got all the characteristics of P. brasiliensis, with a strong antigenic power and low virulence for guinea-pigs and Wistar rats. The specific exoantigen of P. brasiliensis - the glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 43 kDa - was easily demonstrated with double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and immunobloting techniques.Amostra de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolada de vísceras (baço e fígado de um tatu (Dasipus novencinctus foi estudada do ponto de vista micológico e imunoquímico. O tatu havia sido capturado em área da usina hidroelétrica de Tucuruí (Estado do Pará. Este já havia sido considerado como reservatório enzoótico do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis naquela região. Esta amostra, conservada na Micoteca do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo sob o número 135, apresenta todas as características de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, com elevado poder antigênico e baixa virulência para cobaios e ratos Wistar. A demonstração do exo-antígeno específico do P. brasiliensis, representado pela glicoproteína de peso molecular 43 kDa, foi evidente através das técnicas de Imunodifusão Dupla, Imunoeletroforese, SDS-PAGE e Imunoblotting.

  15. Efecto de la sección de un pedúnculo olfatorio sobre la retención de un aprendizaje de discriminación visual, sobre la actividad motriz y sobre el número de bolas fecales eliminadas, en el armadillo

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    Jorge M. Affanni

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Several female armadillos (Chaetophroctus villosus were submitted to the complete transversal section of tbe left olfactory peduncle. The effects of this section and of the sham operation on the maintainance of visual diserimination learníng, of motor activity and on the number of fecal boluses dropped, were studíed, For discrlmination learninga Y·maze was used. Motor activity was measured with the "open field" technique. The number of fecal boluses was direetly counted in the "open field" during tbe activity sesion. No statistical difference wal. found between values of control and experimental groups, The significanee of the resulta is diseussed, in relatíon to the macrosmatic condition of the biologícal model. It is suggested that tbe armadillo is an excellent model for these studies

  16. Records of the giant-armadillo Priodontes maximus (Cingulata: Dasypodidae in the Atlantic Forest: are Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo the last strongholds of the species?

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    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report 20 records of Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792 collected between 1990 and 2009 in three nature reserves located in forested areas of southeastern Brazil within the Atlantic Forest biome. Seventeen records were collected in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD, state of Minas Gerais, two in Reserva Biológica de Sooretama and one in Reserva Natural Vale, both located in the state of Espírito Santo. The records were burrows (n = 11, photographs from camera-traps (n = 6, sightings (n = 2 and carcass (n = 1. Given the higher number of records, the PERD seems to maintain the largest population among the three study areas. We searched the literature and found no other recent evidence of the species' presence in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. There are few Museum specimens and a general lack of information on the presence of the species in this biome as a whole. These facts suggest that the conservation status of the giant armadillo is extremely critical in the Atlantic Forest.

  17. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  18. Molecular decay of enamel matrix protein genes in turtles and other edentulous amniotes

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    Meredith Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary edentulism (toothlessness has evolved on multiple occasions in amniotes including several mammalian lineages (pangolins, anteaters, baleen whales, birds, and turtles. All edentulous amniote clades have evolved from ancestors with enamel-capped teeth. Previous studies have documented the molecular decay of tooth-specific genes in edentulous mammals, all of which lost their teeth in the Cenozoic, and birds, which lost their teeth in the Cretaceous. By contrast with mammals and birds, tooth loss in turtles occurred in the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 Ma, providing an extended time window for tooth gene degradation in this clade. The release of the painted turtle and Chinese softshell turtle genomes provides an opportunity to recover the decayed remains of tooth-specific genes in Testudines. Results We queried available genomes of Testudines (Chrysemys picta [painted turtle], Pelodiscus sinensis [Chinese softshell turtle], Aves (Anas platyrhynchos [duck], Gallus gallus [chicken], Meleagris gallopavo [turkey], Melopsittacus undulatus [budgerigar], Taeniopygia guttata [zebra finch], and enamelless mammals (Orycteropus afer [aardvark], Choloepus hoffmanni [Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth], Dasypus novemcinctus [nine-banded armadillo] for remnants of three enamel matrix protein (EMP genes with putative enamel-specific functions. Remnants of the AMBN and ENAM genes were recovered in Chrysemys and retain their original synteny. Remnants of AMEL were recovered in both testudines, although there are no shared frameshifts. We also show that there are inactivated copies of AMBN, AMEL and ENAM in representatives of divergent avian lineages including Galloanserae, Passeriformes, and Psittaciformes, and that there are shared frameshift mutations in all three genes that predate the basal split in Neognathae. Among enamelless mammals, all three EMP genes exhibit inactivating mutations in Orycteropus and Choloepus. Conclusions Our results

  19. A Toxoplasma palmitoyl acyl transferase and the palmitoylated armadillo repeat protein TgARO govern apical rhoptry tethering and reveal a critical role for the rhoptries in host cell invasion but not egress.

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    Josh R Beck

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites that actively penetrate their host cells to create an intracellular niche for replication. Commitment to invasion is thought to be mediated by the rhoptries, specialized apical secretory organelles that inject a protein complex into the host cell to form a tight-junction for parasite entry. Little is known about the molecular factors that govern rhoptry biogenesis, their subcellular organization at the apical end of the parasite and subsequent release of this organelle during invasion. We have identified a Toxoplasma palmitoyl acyltransferase, TgDHHC7, which localizes to the rhoptries. Strikingly, conditional knockdown of TgDHHC7 results in dispersed rhoptries that fail to organize at the apical end of the parasite and are instead scattered throughout the cell. While the morphology and content of these rhoptries appears normal, failure to tether at the apex results in a complete block in host cell invasion. In contrast, attachment and egress are unaffected in the knockdown, demonstrating that the rhoptries are not required for these processes. We show that rhoptry targeting of TgDHHC7 requires a short, highly conserved C-terminal region while a large, divergent N-terminal domain is dispensable for both targeting and function. Additionally, a point mutant lacking a key residue predicted to be critical for enzyme activity fails to rescue apical rhoptry tethering, strongly suggesting that tethering of the organelle is dependent upon TgDHHC7 palmitoylation activity. We tie the importance of this activity to the palmitoylated Armadillo Repeats-Only (TgARO rhoptry protein by showing that conditional knockdown of TgARO recapitulates the dispersed rhoptry phenotype of TgDHHC7 knockdown. The unexpected finding that apicomplexans have exploited protein palmitoylation for apical organelle tethering yields new insight into the biogenesis and function of rhoptries and may provide new avenues for therapeutic

  20. Sporothrix schenckii associated with armadillo hunting in Southern Brazil: epidemiological and antifungal susceptibility profiles Sporothrix schenckii relacionado à caça ao tatu no Sul do Brasil: aspectos epidemiológicos e suscetibilidade dos isolados aos antifúngicos

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    Sydney Hartz Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous mycosis observed in Brazil and it is generally consequent to a little trauma caused by vegetal particles or spines which inoculate the fungi in the subcutaneous area. Although sporotrichosis had been frequently mentioned with armadillo hunting this form has not been widely reported in Brazil until now. In this study we report ten cases of sporotrichosis evolving the armadillo's hunting diagnosed in some towns located in the central and west regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. METHODS: The cases were established based on clinical and classic mycological laboratorial techniques. The susceptibility tests were conducted by microdilution technique according to M38-A2 CLSI documents. RESULTS: Ten cases of sporotrichosis associated with armadillo hunting detected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were diagnosed by mycological methods. The susceptibility tests of Sporothrix schenckii isolates to antifungal agents itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine showed that all the isolates were susceptible. CONCLUSIONS: The paper discusses some cultural aspects related to hunting of this wild animal as well as possible causes of this unexpected occurrence in southern Brazil.INTRODUÇÃO: A esporotricose constitui-se na micose subcutânea mais frequentemente observada e, na maioria dos casos, a infecção é decorrente de pequenos traumas envolvendo fragmentos vegetais ou espinhos que inoculam o fungo no tecido subcutâneo. Embora frequentemente relacionada a caça a tatus, esta ocorrência tem sido raramente relatada no Brasil. Neste estudo relatamos dez casos envolvendo esta prática, observados em várias cidades das regiões centro e oeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: o diagnóstico clínico foi confirmado pelos métodos clássicos de cultura em ágar Mycobiotic, identificação micromorfológica seguida de reversão a fase leveduriforme em ágar BHI. Os testes de suscetibilidade

  1. The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo V; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Oliveira, Edison V; Viana, Maria Somália S

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with xenarthrans osteoderms assigned to Dasypus aff. D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cabassous sp. The material was collected in subsurface, from 0.10 to 0.60 m in the Urso Fóssil Cave, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The ages of sediment samples from levels 4 and 5 (depths of 0.40 and 0.50 m) were determined by thermoluminescence technique, and indicated ages of 8,000 and 8,200 years BP for each layer respectively. The presence in these layers of early Holocene xenarthrans taxa can contribute to the understanding of the biotic evolution of the northwest region of Ceará during the last 10,000 years. Two of the three identified taxa still occur in the region: Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus. The Dasypodidae fauna here reported includes animals with generalist feeding habits and current wide geographical distribution. It is suggested, therefore, that the climatic and environmental conditions in the early Holocene were very similar the actual ones, and that the absence of Cabassous may be conditioned to other factors, such as anthropogenic action and loss of habitat by fragmentation of the vegetation.

  2. ARMADILLO BREADBIN食物保鲜盘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    它让你它让你想起了什么?是悉尼歌剧院还是机器人大战?其实这个看上去很科幻的小玩艺没有太多的科技含量,说白了只不过是个带折叠罩子的木盘而已。

  3. Un nuevo mamífero introducido en la Tierra del Fuego: el "peludo" Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae en Isla Grande A new introduced mammal in Tierra del Fuego: the "large hairy armadillo" Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae in the Isla Grande island

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    SEBASTIÁN POLJAK

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El 66 % de la mastofauna de la Tierra del Fuego está compuesta por especies introducidas deliberadamente por cuestiones de índole económica, estética y caza deportiva. Entre ellas, el armadillo Chaetophractus villosus conocido vulgarmente como "peludo", que habita desde el Chaco de Bolivia y Paraguay hasta el sur de la provincia de Santa Cruz en Argentina, ha sido introducida en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego hace unos 20 años. Las cuevas y hoyos son las evidencias indirectas más conspicuas de la actividad de esta especie y son utilizados en este trabajo para determinar la distribución y estimar la abundancia relativa de la población de armadillos en el sector argentino de la Isla Grande. Se clasificó a las cuevas en "cortas" para refugio temporario y/o forrajeo y "largas", de uso como madriguera o semipermanente. Chaetophractus villosus es una especie establecida en la isla donde ocupa un área de unos 484 km² y su distribución se encuentra asociada a la red de tuberías soterradas para extracción y transporte de hidrocarburos, debido a las modificaciones físicas que esta actividad causa en el suelo. Aunque la población es aún pequeña, se considera que dada la distribución alcanzada por C. villosus a partir de la introducción de pocos individuos y teniendo en cuenta las condiciones climáticas de la región, es posible que no sea el clima un factor determinante en la distribución de esta especie sino las barreras geográficas como el Estrecho de Magallanes al sur y el Río de La Plata hacia el esteSixty-six percent of the mammal fauna of Tierra del Fuego consists of introduced species with economical or sport hunting importance. The large hairy armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus, is distributed from the Chaco of Bolivia and Paraguay to the South of Santa Cruz province in Argentina and was introduced to Isla Grande about 20 years ago. Since the holes and subterranean excavations are the most conspicuous indications of

  4. Isolation and characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 from antler base of sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Yin, Yongguang; Zhou, Yajun; He, Guidan; Qi, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are secreted innate immunity pattern recognition molecules. In this study, a new peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 named cnPGRP1 was isolated from an antler base of sika deer Cervus nippon. The antler base antimicrobial proteins (AAP) were subjected to consecutive chromatographic methods connected to Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column (CM) anion-exchange column, and RP-HPLC. The molecular weight of cnPGRP1 was 17.2 kDa under SDS-PAGE, and peptide mass fingerprint analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS as peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 matched to Dasypus novemcinctus. The matched amino acids sequences were RLYEIIQKWPHYRA. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be killed by cnPGRP1 in the 50-250 μg/mL range through in vitro. Furthermore, cnPGRP1 has been found to bind Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and even fungus.

  5. Female reproductive tract of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra). Anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S

    2011-11-01

    The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra.

  6. 菜鸟突破Armadillo 4.40 a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    December

    2006-01-01

    现在的壳做得是越来越BT了,如果用OD来调试程序的话.势必得先把壳脱掉.不然就无法调试(当然.用WINHEX找追码的除外),越来越多的软件使用加密壳保护.使得很多刚入门的新手无法继续学习下去.其实加密壳也有其简单的一面.下面用一个Ceackme来简单分析一下

  7. Shotgun Mitogenomics Provides a Reference Phylogenetic Framework and Timescale for Living Xenarthrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Gillian C; Condamine, Fabien L; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Superina, Mariella; Poinar, Hendrik N; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Xenarthra (armadillos, sloths, and anteaters) constitutes one of the four major clades of placental mammals. Despite their phylogenetic distinctiveness in mammals, a reference phylogeny is still lacking for the 31 described species. Here we used Illumina shotgun sequencing to assemble 33 new complete mitochondrial genomes, establishing Xenarthra as the first major placental clade to be fully sequenced at the species level for mitogenomes. The resulting data set allowed the reconstruction of a robust phylogenetic framework and timescale that are consistent with previous studies conducted at the genus level using nuclear genes. Incorporating the full species diversity of extant xenarthrans points to a number of inconsistencies in xenarthran systematics and species definition. We propose to split armadillos into two distinct families Dasypodidae (dasypodines) and Chlamyphoridae (euphractines, chlamyphorines, and tolypeutines) to better reflect their ancient divergence, estimated around 42 Ma. Species delimitation within long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus) appeared more complex than anticipated, with the discovery of a divergent lineage in French Guiana. Diversification analyses showed Xenarthra to be an ancient clade with a constant diversification rate through time with a species turnover driven by high but constant extinction. We also detected a significant negative correlation between speciation rate and past temperature fluctuations with an increase in speciation rate corresponding to the general cooling observed during the last 15 My. Biogeographic reconstructions identified the tropical rainforest biome of Amazonia and the Guiana Shield as the cradle of xenarthran evolutionary history with subsequent dispersions into more open and dry habitats.

  8. WILDLIFE USE BY RURAL COMMUNITIES IN THE CATAZAJÁ - LA LIBERTAD WETLANDS, CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasminda García-Del Valle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of wild vertebrates was analyzed for rural communities in Catazajá and La Libertad municipalities, Chiapas state. From interviews (n=190 and two workshops (January 2007-December 2008 applied to four communities (Playas, Punta Arena, Morelos and La Libertad, species, uses, sites and hunting seasons were recorder. A total of 24 species were recognized by local people as resources for food, sale, pet, craft and traditional medicine. Jicotea tortoise (Trachemys scripta, nine banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcintus, Morelet´s crocodile (Crocodylus moreletti, green iguana (Iguana iguana and white front parrot (Amazona albifrons were recognized as species with high use value. We analyzed the problematic and the communities propose some strategies that would favor the population increment and the diversity maintenance of wildlife in this region.

  9. Tripanosomiasis americana: determinación de riesgo epidemiológico de transmisión en el municipio de Amalfi, Antioquia American trypanosamiasis: determination of epidemiologic transmission risk in Amalfi, Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Arboleda

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta por primera vez en antioquia un estudio sobre la enfermedad de Chagas, en el cual se evaluaron simultáneamente los tres componentes fundamentales de esta parasitosis: vector, parásito y reservorio. Se evaluaron 640 domicilios en 9 veredas del municipio de Amalfi, se capturaron 196 triatominos, pertenecientes a las especies Panstrongylus geniculatus (49%, P. rufotuberculatus (47%, Triatoma dispar (3% y Rhodnius pallescens (0.5%. En total se capturaron 33 animales silvestres, pertenecientes a las especies Didelphis marsupialis (8, Marmosa robinsoni (1, Hoplomys gimnurus (3, Dasypus novemcinctus (2, Proechymis sp (13, Oryzomis sp (3, Philander opossum (3, así como 63 perros (Canis lupus. Los indicadores de riesgo de transmisión de Tripanosoma cruzi por triatominos, fueron: dispersión (100%, infestación domiciliaria (14,5%, densidad (30,5%, hacinamiento (204,2% e infección relativa (12,5%. Se obtuvo una alta prevalencia de anticuerpos en los perros de las veredas Montebello (61.1% y La Gardenia (70.0% y serología positiva en un humano adulto. In this paper we report the first Chagas disease study in Antioquia-Colombia, in which the main components of this disease were simultaneously evaluated: vector, parasite and host. Field studies were carried out evaluating 640 houses in nine localities from the municipality of Amalfi; 196 triatomine bugs were captured: Panstrongylus geniculatus (49%, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (47%, Triatoma dispar (3% and Rhodnius pallescens (0.5%. Thirty three wild animals were captured: Didelphis marsupialis (8, Marmosa robinsoni (1, Hoplomys gimnurus (3, Dasypus novemcinctus (2, Proechymis sp (13, Oryzomis sp (3, Philander opossum (3 as well as 63 dogs (Canis lupus. Transmission risk indicators for Trypanosoma cruzi were: Dispersion (100%, Domiciliary infestation (14,5%, Insect density (30,5%, crowding (204,2% and Relative infection (12,5%. Of the nine localities studied, Montebello (61.1% and La

  10. Trans-sialidase inhibition assay detects Trypanosoma cruzi infection in different wild mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Paula A; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Orozco, Marcela M; Cardinal, Marta V; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Leguizamón, María S

    2013-08-01

    The detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mammals is crucial for understanding the eco-epidemiological role of the different species involved in parasite transmission cycles. Xenodiagnosis (XD) and hemoculture (HC) are routinely used to detect T. cruzi in wild mammals. Serological methods are much more limited because they require the use of specific antibodies to immunoglobulins of each mammalian species susceptible to T. cruzi. In this study we detected T. cruzi infection by trans-sialidase (TS) inhibition assay (TIA). TIA is based on the antibody neutralization of a recombinant TS that avoids the use of anti-immunoglobulins. TS activity is not detected in the co-endemic protozoan parasites Leishmania spp and T. rangeli. In the current study, serum samples from 158 individuals of nine wild mammalian species, previously tested by XD, were evaluated by TIA. They were collected from two endemic areas in northern Argentina. The overall TIA versus XD co-reactivity was 98.7% (156/158). All 18 samples from XD-positive mammals were TIA-positive (co-positivity, 100%) and co-negativity was 98.5% (138/140). Two XD-negative samples from a marsupial (Didelphis albiventris) and an edentate (Dasypus novemcinctus) were detected by TIA. TIA could be used as a novel tool for serological detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in a wide variety of sylvatic reservoir hosts.

  11. The ancestral eutherian karyotype is present in Xenarthra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Svartman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular studies have led recently to the proposal of a new super-ordinal arrangement of the 18 extant Eutherian orders. From the four proposed super-orders, Afrotheria and Xenarthra were considered the most basal. Chromosome-painting studies with human probes in these two mammalian groups are thus key in the quest to establish the ancestral Eutherian karyotype. Although a reasonable amount of chromosome-painting data with human probes have already been obtained for Afrotheria, no Xenarthra species has been thoroughly analyzed with this approach. We hybridized human chromosome probes to metaphases of species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla, and Choloepus hoffmanii representing three of the four Xenarthra families. Our data allowed us to review the current hypotheses for the ancestral Eutherian karyotype, which range from 2n = 44 to 2n = 48. One of the species studied, the two-toed sloth C. hoffmanii (2n = 50, showed a chromosome complement strikingly similar to the proposed 2n = 48 ancestral Eutherian karyotype, strongly reinforcing it.

  12. [Wildlife damage mitigation in agricultural crops in a Bolivian montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Eddy; Pacheco, Luis F

    2014-12-01

    Wildlife is often blamed for causing damage to human activities, including agricultural practices and the result may be a conflict between human interests and species conservation. A formal assessment of the magnitude of damage is necessary to adequately conduct management practices and an assessment of the efficiency of different management practices is necessary to enable managers to mitigate the conflict with rural people. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural management practices and controlled hunting in reducing damage to subsistence annual crops at the Cotapata National Park and Natural Area of Integrated Management. The design included seven fields with modified agricultural practices, four fields subjected to control hunting, and five fields held as controls. We registered cultivar type, density, frequency of visiting species to the field, crops lost to wildlife, species responsible for damage, and crop biomass. Most frequent species in the fields were Dasyprocta punctata and Dasypus novemcinctus. Hunted plots were visited 1.6 times more frequently than agriculturally managed plots. Crop lost to wildlife averaged 7.28% at agriculturally managed plots, 4.59% in plots subjected to hunting, and 27.61% in control plots. Species mainly responsible for damage were Pecari tajacu, D. punctata, and Sapajus apella. We concluded that both management strategies were effective to reduce damage by >50% as compared to unmanaged crop plots.

  13. The ancestral eutherian karyotype is present in Xenarthra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartman, Marta; Stone, Gary; Stanyon, Roscoe

    2006-07-01

    Molecular studies have led recently to the proposal of a new super-ordinal arrangement of the 18 extant Eutherian orders. From the four proposed super-orders, Afrotheria and Xenarthra were considered the most basal. Chromosome-painting studies with human probes in these two mammalian groups are thus key in the quest to establish the ancestral Eutherian karyotype. Although a reasonable amount of chromosome-painting data with human probes have already been obtained for Afrotheria, no Xenarthra species has been thoroughly analyzed with this approach. We hybridized human chromosome probes to metaphases of species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla, and Choloepus hoffmanii) representing three of the four Xenarthra families. Our data allowed us to review the current hypotheses for the ancestral Eutherian karyotype, which range from 2n = 44 to 2n = 48. One of the species studied, the two-toed sloth C. hoffmanii (2n = 50), showed a chromosome complement strikingly similar to the proposed 2n = 48 ancestral Eutherian karyotype, strongly reinforcing it.

  14. Virulence attenuation and phenotypic variation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from armadillos and patients

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    SAG Macoris

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. The virulence profiles of five isolates of P. brasiliensis were studied in two different moments and correlated with some colonial phenotypic aspects. We observed a significant decrease in the virulence and an intense phenotypic variation in the mycelial colony. The recognition of all ranges of phenotypic and virulence variation of P. brasiliensis, as well as its physiological and genetic basis, will be important for a better comprehension of its pathogenic and epidemiological features.

  15. Synapsis, recombination, and chromatin remodeling in the XY body of armadillos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciurano, Roberta B; Rahn, Mónica I; Rossi, Luis; Luaces, Juan Pablo; Merani, María Susana; Solari, Alberto J

    2012-02-01

    Three xenarthrans species Chaetophractus villosus, Chaetophractus vellerosus, and Zaedyus pichiy have been used for the analysis of the structure, behavior, and immunochemical features of the XY body during pachytene. In all these species, the sex chromosomes form an XY body easily identifiable in thin sections by the special and regular packing of the chromatin fibers of the internal region of the XY body ("differential" regions) and those of the peripheral region (synaptic region). Spermatocyte spreads show a complete synapsis between the X- and the Y-axis, which lasts up to the end of pachytene. From the early pachytene substages to the late ones, the X-axis develops prominent branches, which in late pachytene span the synaptic region. Synapsis is regular as shown by SYCP1 labeling. Axial development is followed by SYCP3 labeling and in the asynaptic region of the X-axis by BRCA1. Gamma-H2AX labels exclusively the differential (asynaptic) region of the X chromosome. A single focus is labeled by MLH1 in the synaptic region. The location of this MLH1 focus spans from 0.3 to 1.6 μm from the telomere in the analyzed xenarthrans, covering approximately half of the Y-axis length. It is concluded that xenarthrans, as basal placental mammals, harbor the largest pseudoautosomal regions of presently analyzed mammals, and shows the typical features of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI).

  16. Armadillo 3.78-4.xx双进程的简单脱法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浓咖啡

    2007-01-01

    上一期谈了《Armadillo保护壳单、双进程的简单脱法》,对于Armadillo(被称做穿山甲保护壳)这一种加密壳.用前人发明的ESP定律脱壳办法.是无法完成脱壳工作的.就上文所谈到的方法.也可以近乎理解为初级Armadillo壳(无其它保护模式)的“ESP”定律脱法。由此.已被界内高手制作成不同版本下的脱壳脚本,只要将脱壳程序载入OD后.运行恰当的脱壳脚本.就会自动到达程序的OEP.

  17. Composição e abundância relativa dos mamíferos de médio e grande porte no Parque Estadual do Turvo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition and relative abundance of the medium-large ized mammals of Turvo State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Kasper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2006 foram realizados estudos sobre a composição e abundância relativa dos mamíferos de médio e grande porte do Parque Estadual do Turvo. Para tanto, foram utilizados registros de armadilhas fotográficas além de visualizações e dados sobre presença e ausência de pegadas ao longo de transectos pré-determinados. No total foram registradas 29 espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte, das quais Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 e Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 foram as espécies com maior número de registros. No que se refere a Carnivora, Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 e Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 tiveram os maiores índices de registro, enquanto Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1782 e Galictis cuja (Molina 1782 os menores. Entre os ungulados apenas Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758 mostrou-se freqüente, sendo a quarta espécie em número de registros. Algumas espécies comuns em outros ambientes apresentaram baixos índices de registro no Parque Estadual do Turvo, tais como Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 e Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840. Finalmente, constata-se a provável extinção local de Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795, uma vez que não foram obtidos registros de sua presença ao longo do estudo. A conservação dos mamíferos de médio e grande porte do Parque está fortemente associada à preservação do "Corredor Verde de Misiones", que provavelmente representa uma área fonte para diversas espécies.Between January of 2005 and December of 2006, studies on the composition and relative abundance of medium and large sized mammals were carried out in Turvo State Park. Records came from camera-trapping, in addition to visualization and presence and absence data from track surveys along pre determined transects. At total, 29 species of medium-large sized mammals were listed. Of these, Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 and Sylvilagus

  18. Seguimiento y monitoreo participativo de la actividad de cacería en la región de Puerto Nariño, Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Carlos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los patrones generales de la actividad de cacería en el casco urbano de Puerto Nariño a partir del registro continuo de las jornadas de caza durante el período de aguas ascendentes (enero-julio, 2003, a través de un análisis comparativo entre el aprovechamiento de fauna en las zonas de várzea y tierra firme, con una perspectiva integrada que incluye principios históricos, culturales y biológicos. Se determinan los parámetros de captura, esfuerzo y captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE y se describe la composición y distribución de la captura. La captura total fue de 238 individuos correspondientes a 44 especies. Las especies
    con mayores valores de captura fueron Alouatta seniculus, Ara manilata y Phalacrocorax olivaceus, en la zona de várzea y en tierra firme fueron Agouti paca, Dasypus novemcinctus y Dasyprocta fuliginosa. Tomando la jornada como unidad de esfuerzo, se definen los tipos de jornada identificados, se analiza el esfuerzo perdido con base en las jornadas no exitosas y se describe la tipología de los cazadores. Entre algunos de los aspectos socioculturales que enmarcan la actividad de cacería, se describe la visión actual de la cacería por parte de los indígenas Ticuna de Puerto Nariño y los aspectos tradicionales que aún forman parte de esta actividad. El proyecto se abordó a través de una metodología participativa en la cual los pobladores locales se involucraron activamente en el monitoreo, proceso que permitió a los cazadores organizarse y continuar autónomamente con la toma de registros durante el período de aguas bajas.

  19. Validation of a Poisson-distributed limiting dilution assay (LDA) for a rapid and accurate resolution of multiclonal infections in natural Trypanosoma cruzi populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan David; Herrera, Claudia; Bogotá, Yizeth; Duque, María Clara; Suárez-Rivillas, Alejandro; Guhl, Felipe

    2013-02-15

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis, a complex zoonotic disease that affects more than 10million people in the Americas. Strains of this parasite possess a significant amount of genetic variability and hence can be divided into at least six discrete typing units (DTUs). The life cycle of this protist suggests that multiclonal infections may emerge due to the likelihood of contact of triatomine insects with more than 100 mammal species. To date, there have been a few studies on but no consensus regarding standardised methodologies to identify multiclonal infections caused by this parasite. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a limiting dilution assay (LDA) to identify multiclonal infections in T. cruzi populations by comparing the feasibility and reliability of this method with the widely applied solid phase blood agar (SPBA) methodology. We cloned reference strains belonging to three independent genotypes (TcI, TcII, and TcIV) and mixed infections (TcI+TcII) using LDA and SPBA; the comparison was conducted by calculating the feasibility and reliability of the methods employed. Additionally, we implemented LDA in strains recently isolated from Homo sapiens, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma venosa, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Tamandua tetradactyla, Rattus rattus, Didelphis marsupialis and Dasypus novemcinctus, with the aim of resolving multiclonal infections using molecular characterization employing SL-IR (spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene), the 24Sα rDNA gene and microsatellite loci. The results reported herein demonstrate that LDA is an optimal methodology to distinguish T. cruzi subpopulations based on microsatellite markers by showing the absence of multiple peaks within a single locus. Conversely, SPBA showed patterns of multiple peaks within a single locus suggesting multiclonal events. The biological consequences of these results and the debate between multiclonality and aneuploidy are

  20. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-15

    A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand-receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand-receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts.

  1. Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild and domestic animals/ Paracoccidiodomicose em animais silvestres e domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Ono

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidiodomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin América, mainly in Brazil. Although many studies have been done about the pathology and diagnosis of this mycosis little is known about the eco-epidemiology of the etiological agent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The fungus habitat also is unknown although is thought that the fungus lives as a saprobe in soil. The participation of other animal species in P. brasiliensis ecology is poorly understood and fungus isolation from animals as bat and penguin were not reproducible. The armadillos Dasypus novencinctus probably play a role in the fungus eco-epidemiology taking into account that several isolates were obtained from these animals. Seroepidemiologic studies have shown that dogs are infected by P. brasiliensis mainly in rural areas and recently was reported the first case o natural paracoccidioidomycosis in dogs. The role of other animal species in the eco-epidemiology of P. brasiliensis remains doubtful.A paracoccidioidomicose é a micose sistêmica mais prevalente na América Latina, principalmente no Brasil. Apesar de existirem vários estudos sobre o diagnóstico e patologia dessa micose, pouco se conhece sobre a ecologia do agente etiológico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Seu habitat ainda não foi determinado, mas provavelmente o fungo vive saprofiticamente no solo. Há também pouca informação quanto a participação de outras espécies de animais na eco-epidemiologia do fungo e os isolamentos obtidos de animais como morcego e pingüim não foram reprodutíveis. Até o presente, o fungo tem sido isolado com maior freqüência do tatu, Dasypus novencinctus. Estudos soroepidemiológicos demonstraram que a infecção é freqüente em cães, principalmente da área rural e recentemente foi relatado o primeiro caso de paracoccidiodomicose natural em cão. O papel de outras espécies de animais na eco-epidemiologia do fungo ainda não está esclarecido.

  2. Taxonomic Notes on the Asiatic House Martin(Delichon dasypus) in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省烟腹毛脚燕及其种名修订

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伯文

    2002-01-01

    @@ 毛脚燕(Delichon urbica)有5个亚种,在我国东北地区的分布,过去认为是lagopoda亚种[1~4].其中dacypus亚种没有分布的报道,现根据笔者的调查和标本的鉴定,认为分布于黑龙江省的是dacypus亚种.而该亚种现已和cashmeriensis、 nigrimentalis两亚种一起从毛脚燕中分离出来,单立为独立的种--烟腹毛脚燕(D. dacypus )[5~8].在黑龙江省分布的是指名亚种,并为东北地区及黑龙江省鸟类分布新记录种.标本衡量度如下.

  3. Caracterização comparativa do intestino das espécies da Ordem Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O sucesso na manutenção de uma espécie depende de vários fatores entre eles a eficiência digestiva, sendo assim parâmetros morfométricos do tubo digestório são necessários para o conhecimento dos processos digestivos dos alimentos no organismo animal além de indicar a preferência alimentar de uma espécie. Este trabalho visou descrever morfologicamente os intestinos delgado e grosso, órgãos do sistema digestório de representantes da ordem Xenarthra a fim de fornecer subsídios para a avaliação da dieta e realização de procedimentos clínicos nestes animais, sejam eles de vida livre ou de cativeiro. Foram utilizados 7 espécimes entre preguiças-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus, tatu-verdadeiro (Dasypus novemcinctus e tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla. Todos as amostras foram processadas seguindo procedimentos de rotina efetuados nos laboratórios de Anatomia Animal e Histologia da FZEA/USP. Os intestinos de B. torquatus se apresentaram curtos e simples, enquanto que nos exemplares de D. novemcintus e M. tridactyla o intestino era longo e com algumas peculiaridades. No duodeno de todos os espécimes notamos a presença das glândulas de Brünner e estruturas para aumentar a superfície de absorção. Apenas em preguiças, o mesentério mantém o jejuno preso à parede dorsal da cavidade abdominal. O íleo representou a menor porção nas preguiças e tatus, exceto em tamanduáque apresentava o íleo como a maior parte depois do jejuno. O ceco em tatus e tamanduás apresentavam tamanho considerável e a presença de glândulas na mucosa, nestas espécies destacamos a funcionalidade do ceco, uma vez que este se apresentou repleto de restos alimentares. Na mucosa do cólon de todos os espécimes, haviam criptas de Lieberkühn, sendo mais numerosas em D. novemcinctus e M. tridactyla. Apenas em B. torquatus, o reto apresentou maior diâmetro e rigidez em relação ao cólon. No reto de todas as espécies estudadas, a

  4. Densidade e tamanho populacional de mamíferos cinegéticos em duas Unidades de Conservação do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Density and population size of game mammals in two Conservation Units of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. de Araújo

    2008-09-01

    hunting, loss of habitat, and wildlife trade. In the State of Rio de Janeiro there are only two Federal Biological Reserves of lowland Atlantic Rain Forest, the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve and the União Biological Reserve. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence and putative influence of illegal hunting on the mammals in these two Conservation Units. Surveys were conducted using a line-transect method; 375 kilometers were covered during the period between December 2003 and January 2005. The data for the population density estimate was analyzed using the program DISTANCE 5.0. Twelve species were confirmed through visual encounters during the surveys, whereas are regularly hunted in the region studied. The species that presented higher density were brown capuchin monkey (Cebus nigritus Erxleben, 1777, howler monkey (Alouatta guariba Lacépède, 1799, nine-banded long-nosed armadillo (Dasypus novemcintus Linnaeus, 1758, and the seven-banded long-nosed armadillo (Dasypus septemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758. The most rare or absent species were the brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris Brünnich, 1771, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana Rafinesque, 1817 and the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari Link, 1795. In these two study areas both direct and indirect evidence of illegal hunting was observed, indicating that hunting is a common practice inside these Biological Reserves. The long-term survival of the hunted species is questionable, because the remaining populations living in fragments that are small and isolated, making them more susceptible to extinction even under low hunting pressure.

  5. [Diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Marcial, Malinalli; Briones-Salas, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The use of camera traps and mammal track search are complementary methods to monitoring species of which is not well documented their natural history, as in the case of medium and large mammals. To ensure its conservation and good management, it is necessary to generate information about the structure of the community and their populations. The objective of the present study was to estimate the diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest located in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samplings were conducted in three month intervals, from September 2011 to May 2013. We used photographic-sampling and track search, two complementary sampling methods. For photographic-sampling, 12 camera traps were placed covering an area of 60 km2, while for the tracks search a monthly tour of four line-transect surveys of three kilometers length each was undertaken. We obtained a total of 344 pictures with 5292 trap-days total sampling effort; in addition, 187 track records in a total of 144 km. With both methods we registered 21 species of mammals, in 13 families and seven orders, and five species resulted in new records to the area. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener obtained with the method of tracks was H' = 2.41, while the most abundant species were Urocyon cinereoargen- teus (IAR = 0.23) and Pecari tajacu (IAR = 0.20). By the method of trap the most abundant species were P. tajacu (IAR = 2.62) and Nasua narica (IAR = 1.28). In terms of patterns of activity P. tajacu, N. narica and Odocoileus virginianus were primarily diurnal species; Canis latrans and Leopardus pardalis did not show preference for any schedule in particular, and Didelphis virginiana and Dasypus novemcinctus preferred to have nocturnal activity. This information can be of help to the creation of programs of management and conservation of mam- mals of medium and large in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México.

  6. I Feel Like an Armadillo: A Look at College Seniors and Recent Graduates Using Erik Erikson's Model of "Identity Versus Role-Diffusion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurigue, Rebecca

    Developmental psychologist Erik Erikson observed that achieving a sense of self, an identity, was the important psychosocial task facing adolescents. The conflict lies in discovering and defining that identity despite parental and societal demands, changing values and opportunities, the influence of friends, and lovers, education, and finances.…

  7. Efectos del Haloperidol sobre el aprendizaje de discriminación visual y su extinción, en el armadillo chaetophractus villosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R. Papini

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Haloperidol, a depressing drug, were studíed on leaming and extinction of a visual díscrímínation task, In a maze situation, the experimental animals (Chaetophractus villosus receíved 0.5 mgjkg of Haloperidol, while the control animals received 0.1 cm3jkg. of physiological solutíon, The difference was significant for learning and for extinction between the experimental and the control groups.

  8. armadillo, bazooka, and stardust are critical for early stages in formation of the zonula adherens and maintenance of the polarized blastoderm epithelium in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H A; Wieschaus, E

    1996-07-01

    Cellularization of the Drosophila embryo results in the formation of a cell monolayer with many characteristics of a polarized epithelium. We have used antibodies specific to cellular junctions and nascent plasma membranes to study the formation of the zonula adherens (ZA) in relation to the establishment of basolateral membrane polarity. The same approach was then used as a test system to identify X-linked zygotically active genes required for ZA formation. We show that ZA formation begins during cellularization and that the basolateral membrane domain is established at mid-gastrulation. By creating deficiencies for defined regions of the X chromosome, we have identified genes that are required for the formation of the ZA and the generation of basolateral membrane polarity. We show that embryos mutant for both stardust (sdt) and bazooka (baz) fail to form a ZA. In addition to the failure to establish the ZA, the formation of the monolayered epithelium is disrupted after cellularization, resulting in formation of a multilayered cell sheet by mid-gastrulation. SEM analysis of mutant embryos revealed a conversion of cells exhibiting epithelial characteristics into cells exhibiting mesenchymal characteristics. To investigate how mutations that affect an integral component of the ZA itself influence ZA formation, we examined embryos with reduced maternal and zygotic supply of wild-type Arm protein. These embryos, like embryos mutant for both sdt and baz, exhibit an early disruption of ZA formation. These results suggest that early stages in the assembly of the ZA are critical for the stability of the polarized blastoderm epithelium.

  9. Study on Genetic Association Between the Polymorphism of Armadillo Repeat Gene Deletion in Velocardiofacial Syndrome and Schizophrenia%ARVCF基因多态性与精神分裂症的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢林; 鞠桂芝; 刘树铮; 史杰萍; 于雅琴; 桑红; 尉军

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨腭心面综合征中缺失的犰狳重复基因(ARVCF)的基因多态性与精神分裂症的关系.方法:在116个汉族精神分裂症核心家系中,以PCR和限制性片段长度多态(RFLP)方法对ARVCF基因编码区序列第3675碱基A/G单核苷酸多态性(SNP)进行检测.结果:父母组和患者组ARVCF等位基因和基因型分布无差异;单体型相对风险分析(HRR)结果显示ARVCF基因A/G多态性与精神分裂症无关联;传递不平衡检验(TDT)结果提示杂合子父母传递给患病子女致病等位基因频率没有偏离50%;ARVCF基因型与精神分裂症的阴性症状情感迟钝淡漠有关(χ2=10.386,P<0.05).结论:对于中国汉族精神分裂症患者来说,本研究尚不能确定ARVCF基因多态性与精神分裂症有关联及连锁,但不能排除它在精神分裂症症状中所起的作用.

  10. Expression and Clinical Significance of Neural Plakophilin-related Armadillo Protein in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer%NPRAP蛋白在非小细胞肺癌中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊毅; 李蕾; 李欣

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨NPRAP在非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)中的表达及其与患者预后的关系.方法:本文应用免疫组化检测70例NSCLC标本(其中35例具有配对的淋巴结转移标本)中NPRAP的表达及其与临床病理因素之间的关系.另选30例新鲜肺癌及癌旁正常肺组织用于NPRAP的mRNA和蛋白检测.结果:与正常肺组织相比,NPRAP的mRNA和蛋白在肺癌组织中表达显著增高,且NPRAP的高表达与肺癌的高分期及淋巴结转移密切相关(P<0.05).结论:NPRAP的阳性表达与非小细胞肺癌患者的不良预后显著相关,NPRAP在肿瘤的发生发展过程中可能具有重要作用.%10.3969/j.issn.1000-8179.2012.16.013

  11. Tættere på krigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Ole

    2011-01-01

    Tema-artikel om den danske krigsdokumentar Armadillo. Autentiske billeder spændt ud mellem dokumentarens og fiktionsfilmens historiske og genrebetonede konventioner.......Tema-artikel om den danske krigsdokumentar Armadillo. Autentiske billeder spændt ud mellem dokumentarens og fiktionsfilmens historiske og genrebetonede konventioner....

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHD258 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available restriction enzymes : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone prefix : VCS1E). 36 2.5 3 DQ241798 |D...Q241798.1 Sclerophasma paresisensis mitochondrion, complete genome. 32 2.6 2 AC199311 |AC199311.2 Dasypus no

  13. A low cost, modular robotics tool carrier for precision agriculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Søren Hundevadt; Bøgild, Anders

    platforms suitable for research within precision agriculture. This paper presents Armadillo, a $50k field robotic tool carrier with a modular design which makes the robot configurable and adaptable to a wide range of precision agriculture research projects. Armadillo weighs around 425 kg and consists of two...... 18x80 cm footprint track modules each with an integrated 3.5 kW electric motor, gear and motor controller. The track modules are mounted on the side of an exchangeable tool platform which allows an adjustable width and clearing height of the robot. The 48 V lithium power pack lasts 10 hours...... developed for research within precision agriculture and the design is highly modular in order to optimize with respect to extensibility, scalability, short development time and code reuse. All FroboMind software components used for the Armadillo robot are released as open-source. A prototype of Armadillo...

  14. Naamlijst van de Nederlandse landpissebedden (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Checklist of Dutch woodlice (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea). An updated checklist for the terrestrial isopods of The Netherlands is presented. Four species, Armadillo officinalis, Eluma purpurascens, Miktoniscus patiencei, and Trichoniscoides sarsi are new to the woodlice fauna of The Netherlands co

  15. Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Padgett-Flohr, Gretchen E; Field, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Amphibian population declines in Honduras have long been attributed to habitat degradation and pollution, but an increasing number of declines are now being observed from within the boundaries of national parks in pristine montane environments. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines and was recently documented in Honduras from samples collected in Pico Bonito National Park in 2003. This report now confirms Cusuco National Park, a protected cloud forest reserve with reported amphibian declines, to be the second known site of infection for Honduras. B. dendrobatidis infection was detected in 5 amphibian species: Craugastor rostralis, Duellmanohyla soralia, Lithobates maculata, Plectrohyla dasypus, and Ptychohyla hypomykter. D. soralia, P. dasypus, and P. hypomykter are listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have severely fragmented or restricted distributions. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether observed infection levels indicate an active B. dendrobatidis epizootic with the potential to cause further population declines and extinction.

  16. Defining components of the ß-catenin destruction complex and exploring its regulation and mechanisms of action during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Roberts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A subset of signaling pathways play exceptionally important roles in embryonic and post-embryonic development, and mis-regulation of these pathways occurs in most human cancers. One such pathway is the Wnt pathway. The primary mechanism keeping Wnt signaling off in the absence of ligand is regulated proteasomal destruction of the canonical Wnt effector ßcatenin (or its fly homolog Armadillo. A substantial body of evidence indicates that SCF(βTrCP mediates βcat destruction, however, an essential role for Roc1 has not been demonstrated in this process, as would be predicted. In addition, other E3 ligases have also been proposed to destroy βcat, suggesting that βcat destruction may be regulated differently in different tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used cultured Drosophila cells, human colon cancer cells, and Drosophila embryos and larvae to explore the machinery that targets Armadillo for destruction. Using RNAi in Drosophila S2 cells to examine which SCF components are essential for Armadillo destruction, we find that Roc1/Roc1a is essential for regulating Armadillo stability, and that in these cells the only F-box protein playing a detectable role is Slimb. Second, we find that while embryonic and larval Drosophila tissues use the same destruction complex proteins, the response of these tissues to destruction complex inactivation differs, with Armadillo levels more elevated in embryos. We provide evidence consistent with the possibility that this is due to differences in armadillo mRNA levels. Third, we find that there is no correlation between the ability of different APC2 mutant proteins to negatively regulate Armadillo levels, and their recently described function in positively-regulating Wnt signaling. Finally, we demonstrate that APC proteins lacking the N-terminal Armadillo-repeat domain cannot restore Armadillo destruction but retain residual function in negatively-regulating Wnt signaling. CONCLUSIONS

  17. Environmental Mapping of Paracoccidioides spp. in Brazil Reveals New Clues into Genetic Diversity, Biogeography and Wild Host Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Thales Domingos; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are the etiological agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), and are easily isolated from human patients. However, due to human migration and a long latency period, clinical isolates do not reflect the spatial distribution of these pathogens. Molecular detection of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii from soil, as well as their isolation from wild animals such as armadillos, are important for monitoring their environmental and geographical distribution. This study aimed to detect and, for the first time, evaluate the genetic diversity of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii for Paracoccidioidomycosis in endemic and non-endemic areas of the environment, by using Nested PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. Methods/Principal Findings Aerosol (n = 16) and soil (n = 34) samples from armadillo burrows, as well as armadillos (n = 7) were collected in endemic and non-endemic areas of PCM in the Southeastern, Midwestern and Northern regions of Brazil. Both P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii were detected in soil (67.5%) and aerosols (81%) by PCR of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region (60%), and also by in situ hybridization (83%). Fungal isolation from armadillo tissues was not possible. Sequences from both species of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii were detected in all regions. In addition, we identified genetic Paracoccidioides variants in soil and aerosol samples which have never been reported before in clinical or armadillo samples, suggesting greater genetic variability in the environment than in vertebrate hosts. Conclusions/Significance Data may reflect the actual occurrence of Paracoccidioides species in their saprobic habitat, despite their absence/non-detection in seven armadillos evaluated in regions with high prevalence of PCM infection by P. lutzii. These results may indicate a possible ecological difference between P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii concerning their wild hosts. PMID:27045486

  18. Environmental Mapping of Paracoccidioides spp. in Brazil Reveals New Clues into Genetic Diversity, Biogeography and Wild Host Association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Domingos Arantes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are the etiological agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, and are easily isolated from human patients. However, due to human migration and a long latency period, clinical isolates do not reflect the spatial distribution of these pathogens. Molecular detection of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii from soil, as well as their isolation from wild animals such as armadillos, are important for monitoring their environmental and geographical distribution. This study aimed to detect and, for the first time, evaluate the genetic diversity of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii for Paracoccidioidomycosis in endemic and non-endemic areas of the environment, by using Nested PCR and in situ hybridization techniques.Aerosol (n = 16 and soil (n = 34 samples from armadillo burrows, as well as armadillos (n = 7 were collected in endemic and non-endemic areas of PCM in the Southeastern, Midwestern and Northern regions of Brazil. Both P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii were detected in soil (67.5% and aerosols (81% by PCR of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region (60%, and also by in situ hybridization (83%. Fungal isolation from armadillo tissues was not possible. Sequences from both species of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii were detected in all regions. In addition, we identified genetic Paracoccidioides variants in soil and aerosol samples which have never been reported before in clinical or armadillo samples, suggesting greater genetic variability in the environment than in vertebrate hosts.Data may reflect the actual occurrence of Paracoccidioides species in their saprobic habitat, despite their absence/non-detection in seven armadillos evaluated in regions with high prevalence of PCM infection by P. lutzii. These results may indicate a possible ecological difference between P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii concerning their wild hosts.

  19. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and Construction of the Panama City-Bay County International Airport (PFN) Doppler Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC) to Tyndall Air Force Base (TAFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    vicinity of TAFB include largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), red-breasted sunfish (Lepomis auritus), catfish ...Approximately nine, round burrows were observed onsite, presumably occupied by small mammals and armadillos, as evidenced by tracks observed at the...Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta T T Marine, barrier island Southern Hognose Snake Heterodon simus Sandhill, pine flatwood, dunes MAMMALS

  20. Structure and biochemical function of a prototypical Arabidopsis U-box domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille; Kragelund, Birthe B; Olsen, Addie N;

    2004-01-01

    U-box proteins, as well as other proteins involved in regulated protein degradation, are apparently over-represented in Arabidopsis compared with other model eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis protein AtPUB14 contains a typical U-box domain followed by an Armadillo repeat region, a domain organization t...

  1. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2016-01-01

    and executed an automated, large-scale field trial supported by the Armadillo autonomous tool carrier robot. The field trial consisted of 299 maize plots. Half of the plots (parcels) were planned with additional seeded weeds; the other half were planned with naturally occurring weeds. The in-situ evaluation...

  2. beta-Catenin regulates airway smooth muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Sepp R.; Van Ziel, Anna M.; Baarsma, Hoeke A.; Gosens, Reinoud

    2010-01-01

    Jansen SR, Van Ziel AM, Baarsma HA, Gosens R. beta-Catenin regulates airway smooth muscle contraction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 299: L204-L214, 2010. First published May 14, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00020.2010.-beta-Catenin is an 88-kDa member of the armadillo family of proteins that is a

  3. Andre scener fra Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlev, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Filmen 'Armadillo' viser, at indsatsen i Afghanistan er formålsløs. At det ikke nytter. At drengene er storforbrugere af cola og porno, og at afghanerne synes, at vi skal tage hjem. At soldaterne har sjove film på deres computere, kan ikke provokere mig. Det kan til gengæld et ensidigt og fortegnet...

  4. 新潮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    不怕停车难Armadillo-T可折叠电动车韩国研究发明了一款可折叠的电动车Armadillo—T。使用智能手机控制可以让它折叠为一半大小,从而减少停车时占用的面积。

  5. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    1999-01-01

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  6. Priodontes maximus (Cingulata: Chlamyphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tracy S.; Superina, Mariella; Leslie,, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792), called the giant armadillo, is monotypic and by far the largest extant armadillo. Average adult weight is about 30kg (in captivity, as high as 80kg). Its carapace extends about halfway down its sides, making it impossible to curl up tightly. It is dark brown to black dorsally, with a broad light band around the lower part of its carapace. It primarily digs to escape, enhanced by its 20-cm, sickle-shaped nail on its 3rd forefingers. P. maximus is widely distributed in South America but nowhere abundant. It is affected by habitat loss and fragmentation, agriculture, hunting, collection for museum specimens, and illegal animal trafficking. P. maximus is listed as “Vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

  7. Isolation of fungi from nature in the region of Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Montenegro

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to isolate Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from nature 887 samples of soil from Botucatu, SP, Brazil, were collected cultured in brain heart infusion agar supplemented with dextrose, in potato dextrose agar and in yeast extract starch dextrose agar, all with antibiotics, at 25º and 37ºC. Five thermo-dependent dimorphic fungi morphologically resembling P. brasiliensis were isolated; two from armadillo holes; further studies of the biology, antigenicity and genetic features of the five dimorphic fungi are necessary to clarify their taxonomy and their possible relation to P. brasiliensis. In addition, 98 dematiaceous fungi and 581 different species of Aspergillus spp. were also isolated. Our findings emphasize that armadillos and their environment are associated with thermo-dimorphic fungi and confirm the ubiquity of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi and Aspergillus spp.

  8. ICAT Inhibits beta-Catenin Binding to Tcf/Lef-Family Transcription Factors and in the General Coactivator p300 Using Independent Structural Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    In the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, {beta}-catenin activates target genes through its interactions with Tcf/Lef-family transcription factors and additional transcriptional coactivators. The crystal structure of ICAT, an inhibitor of {beta}-catenin-mediated transcription, bound to the armadillo repeat domain of {beta}-catenin, has been determined. ICAT contains an N-terminal helilical domain that binds to repeats 11 and 12 of {beta}-catenin, and an extended C-terminal region that binds to repeats 5-10 in a manner similar that of Tcfs and other {beta}-catenin ligands. Full-length ICAT dissociates complexes of {beta}-catenin, Lef-1, and the transcriptional coactivator p300, whereas the helical domain alone selectively blocks binding to p300. The C-terminal armadillo repeats of {beta}-catenin may be an attractive target for compounds designed to disrupt aberrant {beta}-catenin-mediated transcription associated with various cancers.

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_066982.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_066982.3 chr4 Armadillo repeat d1g3ja_ chr4/NP_066982.3/NP_066982.3_apo_44-605.p...db d1th1b_ chr4/NP_066982.3/NP_066982.3_holo_44-605.pdb psi-blast 78K,83R,112R,116N,119Y,120D,121S,122H,125R

  10. Reference: 602 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available contains leucine-rich repeats and Armadillo repeats. AtPLAI hydrolyzes phospholipids at both the sn-1 and s...n-2 positions, but prefers galactolipids to phospholipids as substrates. Profilin... levels of phosphatidylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, suggesting that hydrolysis of plastidic polar lipids...ced production of JA, free linolenic acid, or hydrolysis of plastidic lipids. Still, AtPLAI-deficient plants

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_775901.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_775901.3 chr18 THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-CATENIN ARMADILLO REPEAT COMPLEXED ...WITH A PHOSPHORYLATED APC 20MER REPEAT. d1g3ja_ chr18/NP_775901.3/NP_775901.3_apo_1615-2171.pdb c1v18a_ chr18/NP_775901.3/NP_775901.3_holo_1615-2171.pdb psi-blast 1 ...

  12. Developing Strategies to Block Beta-Catenin Action in Signaling and Cell Adhesion During Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Chapel Hill NC July, 2001 "Cell adhesion, signal transduction, and cancer: the Armadillo Connection." Department of Embryology , Carnegie Institution...Published online May 30, 2001 Copyright © 2001 by Academic Prcss. All rights of reproduction in any form rescrved. Article Abelson kinase regulates epithelial...in APC2 divisions, when astral microtubules are prominent during late mutants: (1 ) abnormal mitoses owing to pseudocleavage furrow mitosis (Fig. 3i,j

  13. Validation of qPCR Methods for the Detection of Mycobacterium in New World Animal Reservoirs.

    OpenAIRE

    Genevieve Housman; Joanna Malukiewicz; Vanner Boere; Grativol, Adriana D.; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M.; Ita de Oliveira Silva; Carlos R. Ruiz-Miranda; Richard Truman; Anne C Stone

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens that cause leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, MTBC) continue to impact modern human populations. Therefore, methods able to survey mycobacterial infection in potential animal hosts are necessary for proper evaluation of human exposure threats. Here we tested for mycobacterial-specific single- and multi-copy loci using qPCR. In a trial study in which armadillos were artificially infected with M. leprae, these techniques were ...

  14. β catenin in health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β catenin belongs to the armadillo family of proteins. It plays a crucial role in developmental and homeostatic processes. Wnts are a family of 19 secreted glycoproteins that transduce multiple signaling cascades, including the canonical Wnt/β catenin pathway, Wnt/Ca 2+ pathway and the Wnt/polarity pathway. This is a review on β catenin, Wnt proteins and their secretion, the signaling pathway, the associated factors and the crucial role of β catenin in odontogenesis.

  15. The PCP pathway regulates Baz planar distribution in epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins along the Z-axis of epithelial cells is well understood while their distribution in the plane of the epithelium is poorly characterised. Here we provide a systematic description of the planar localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins in the Drosophila ommatidial epithelium. We show that the adherens junction proteins Shotgun and Armadillo, as well as the baso-lateral complexes, are bilateral, i.e. present on both sides of cell interfaces. ...

  16. Crystal Structure of a Full-Length [beta]-Catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yi; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi; Liu, Jing; Berndt, Jason D.; Zheng, Jie J.; Moon, Randall T.; Xu, Wenqing (UW-MED); (SJCH)

    2008-08-19

    {beta}-catenin plays essential roles in cell adhesion and Wnt signaling, while deregulation of {beta}-catenin is associated with multiple diseases including cancers. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length zebrafish {beta}-catenin and a human {beta}-catenin fragment that contains both the armadillo repeat and the C-terminal domains. Our structures reveal that the N-terminal region of the C-terminal domain, a key component of the C-terminal transactivation domain, forms a long {alpha} helix that packs on the C-terminal end of the armadillo repeat domain, and thus forms part of the {beta}-catenin superhelical core. The existence of this helix redefines our view of interactions of {beta}-catenin with some of its critical partners, including ICAT and Chibby, which may form extensive interactions with this C-terminal domain {alpha} helix. Our crystallographic and NMR studies also suggest that the unstructured N-terminal and C-terminal tails interact with the ordered armadillo repeat domain in a dynamic and variable manner.

  17. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert V

    2006-12-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans.

  18. Découverte d'une mégafaune holocène à la Toca do Serrote do Artur (aire archéologique de São Raimundo Nonato, Piauî, Brésil). A gruta do Serrote do Artur (área arqueológica de São Raimundo Nonato, Piaúi, Brasil): dataçoes holocênicas para megafáuna de mamíferos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Martine; Guérin, Claude; Parenti, Fabio

    1999-09-01

    The cave of Toca do Serrote do Artur (São Raimundo Nonato Archaeological Area, southeastern Piauí, Brazil) has yielded a Mammalian community constituted of Dasypus septemcinctus, Propraopus cf. sulcatus, Hoplophorus euphractus, Glyptodon clavipes, Conepatus sp., Panthera onca, Equus neogaeus, Dicotyles tajacu, Tayassu pecari, Palaeolama major, Mazama guazoubira, Mazama americana and a large Cervid. In comparison with the Mammalian fauna of the other sites from the same area, such a list shows a comparatively reduced biodiversity together with the presence of rare ( Hoplophorus, Conepatus) or unknown ( Propraopus, Palaeolama major) taxa. Explanation lies in the more recent age of the fossiliferous layers, probably Lower Holocene, as demonstrated by two 14C dating of 8 490 ± 120 BP and 6 890 ± 60 BP of the highest one. Moreover, that fauna shows the late survival of some genera ( Propraopus, Hoplophorus, Glyptodon, Equus, Palaeolama) together with climatic modifications related to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  19. Epidemiologia da doença de Chagas no Ceará VIII - estudo da infecção de animais por T. cruzi no município de Morada Nova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Alencar

    1977-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 1.368 mamíferos em ecótopos naturais ou artificiais: 443 cães com 2,5% positivos; 605 gatos com 0,7%, 65 roedores domésticos com 4,6%, 6 coelhos e 10 cobaias negativos. Dentre os animais silvestres, foram examinados 115 preás (Galea s. spixii com 2,3% positivos, 12 "cassacos" (Didelphis azarae dos quais 9 positivos; 5 quirópteros, 5 punáres (Cercomys c. laurentius e 3 pebas (Dasypus sexcinctus negativos. A amostra apresentada é suficiente para considerada a existência de ciclos doméstico e silvestre de T. cruzi na área estudada e considerada endêmica da Doença de Chagas.

  20. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  1. Interactions of Plakoglobin and [beta]-Catenin with Desmosomal Cadherins BASIS OF SELECTIVE EXCLUSION OF [alpha]- AND [beta]-CATENIN FROM DESMOSOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Gross, Julia C.; Pokutta, Sabine; Weis, William I.; Stanford-MED

    2009-11-18

    Plakoglobin and {beta}-catenin are homologous armadillo repeat proteins found in adherens junctions, where they interact with the cytoplasmic domain of classical cadherins and with {alpha}-catenin. Plakoglobin, but normally not {beta}-catenin, is also a structural constituent of desmosomes, where it binds to the cytoplasmic domains of the desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins and desmocollins. Here, we report structural, biophysical, and biochemical studies aimed at understanding the molecular basis of selective exclusion of {beta}-catenin and {alpha}-catenin from desmosomes. The crystal structure of the plakoglobin armadillo domain bound to phosphorylated E-cadherin shows virtually identical interactions to those observed between {beta}-catenin and E-cadherin. Trypsin sensitivity experiments indicate that the plakoglobin arm domain by itself is more flexible than that of {beta}-catenin. Binding of plakoglobin and {beta}-catenin to the intracellular regions of E-cadherin, desmoglein1, and desmocollin1 was measured by isothermal titration calorimetry. Plakoglobin and {beta}-catenin bind strongly and with similar thermodynamic parameters to E-cadherin. In contrast, {beta}-catenin binds to desmoglein-1 more weakly than does plakoglobin. {beta}-Catenin and plakoglobin bind with similar weak affinities to desmocollin-1. Full affinity binding of desmoglein-1 requires sequences C-terminal to the region homologous to the catenin-binding domain of classical cadherins. Although pulldown assays suggest that the presence of N- and C-terminal {beta}-catenin 'tails' that flank the armadillo repeat region reduces the affinity for desmosomal cadherins, calorimetric measurements show no significant effects of the tails on binding to the cadherins. Using purified proteins, we show that desmosomal cadherins and {alpha}-catenin compete directly for binding to plakoglobin, consistent with the absence of {alpha}-catenin in desmosomes.

  2. Review: The evolving placenta: Different developmental paths to a hemochorial relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M

    2012-01-01

    , often leading to a similar relationship in the spongy zone and labyrinth. Old World monkeys, apes and humans have a lacunar stage prior to establishing a villous hemochorial condition. New World monkeys lack a true lacunar stage, retaining portions of maternal vessels for some time and initially forming...... a trabecular arrangement similar to though differently arrived at than that in the tarsier. In armadillos, preexisting maternal venous sinuses are converted into an intervillous blood space by intruding fetal villi. Variations from the major patterns of development also occur. The way in which the definitive...

  3. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jull, A.J.T. E-mail: jull@email.arizona.edu; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O' Malley, J.M.; MacPhee, R.D.E.; McDonald, H.G.; Martin, P.S.; Moody, J.; Rincon, A

    2004-08-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 {+-} 280 to 11 880 {+-} 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

    2004-08-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

  5. OpenMP for 3D potential boundary value problems solved by PIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuŻelewski, Andrzej; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is examination of an application of modern parallel computing technique OpenMP to speed up the calculation in the numerical solution of parametric integral equations systems (PIES). The authors noticed, that solving more complex boundary problems by PIES sometimes requires large computing time. This paper presents the use of OpenMP and fast C++ linear algebra library Armadillo for boundary value problems modelled by 3D Laplace's equation and solved using PIES. The testing example shows that the use of mentioned technologies significantly increases speed of calculations in PIES.

  6. Apo and InsP[subscript 3]-bound crystal structures of the ligand-binding domain of an InsP[subscript 3] receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Baek, Kyuwon; Lu, Zhe (UPENN)

    2012-05-08

    We report the crystal structures of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of a rat inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP{sub 3}R) in its apo and InsP{sub 3}-bound conformations. Comparison of these two conformations reveals that LBD's first {beta}-trefoil fold ({beta}-TF1) and armadillo repeat fold (ARF) move together as a unit relative to its second {beta}-trefoil fold ({beta}-TF2). Whereas apo LBD may spontaneously transition between gating conformations, InsP{sub 3} binding shifts this equilibrium toward the active state.

  7. CRAN - Package msgl (Version:2.0.125.0)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Sparse group lasso multiclass classification, suitable for high dimensional problems with many classes. Fast algorithm for solving the multinomial sparse group lasso convex optimization problem. This package apply template metaprogramming techniques, therefore – when compiling the package from so...... source – a high level of optimization is needed to gain full speed (e.g. for the GCC compiler use -O3). Use of multiple processors for cross validation and subsampling is supported through OpenMP. The Armadillo C++ library is used as the primary linear algebra engine....

  8. Methods for extracting climate indicator data from social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, M. Z.; Fuka, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper shows how we've used the R software suite to extract climate indicator data from Twitter. In the course of this research we've collected extensive data sets of unsolicited observations ("tweets") for hundreds of climate-related phenological, biological, epidemiological and meteorological effects. R has proved itself in our work as a useful tool for manipulating those large data sets. Our experience from this effort has yielded a variety of insights on using R to extract geophysics-specific information from publicly accessible social media sources. We illustrate our methodology by mapping tweeted US armadillo sightings to explore the impact of climate variability on the extent of the animal's range. This example usefully demonstrates R's technical capabilities in collecting, time-stamping, geolocating, analyzing, visualizing and otherwise processing climate-related data derived from unsolicited social media postings. We also "mash-up" the data sets with those acquired by more traditional means, for example, temperature and precipitation data across the armadillo's US range. Our data-handling practice is extendable to social sharing services other than Twitter, providing the environmental modeling community an opportunity to access largely untapped resources of non-traditional climate indicator data to better understand the effects of climate change at local, regional and global scales.

  9. δ-Catenin promotes prostate cancer cell growth and progression by altering cell cycle and survival gene profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan-Hua

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background δ-Catenin is a unique member of β-catenin/armadillo domain superfamily proteins and its primary expression is restricted to the brain. However, δ-catenin is upregulated in human prostatic adenocarcinomas, although the effects of δ-catenin overexpression in prostate cancer are unclear. We hypothesized that δ-catenin plays a direct role in prostate cancer progression by altering gene profiles of cell cycle regulation and cell survival. Results We employed gene transfection and small interfering RNA to demonstrate that increased δ-catenin expression promoted, whereas its knockdown suppressed prostate cancer cell viability. δ-Catenin promoted prostate cancer cell colony formation in soft agar as well as tumor xenograft growth in nude mice. Deletion of either the amino-terminal or carboxyl-terminal sequences outside the armadillo domains abolished the tumor promoting effects of δ-catenin. Quantitative RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays demonstrated gene alterations involved in cell cycle and survival regulation. δ-Catenin overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 and cdc34, increased phosphorylated histone-H3, and promoted the entry of mitosis. In addition, δ-catenin overexpression resulted in increased expression of cell survival genes Bcl-2 and survivin while reducing the cell cycle inhibitor p21Cip1. Conclusion Taken together, our studies suggest that at least one consequence of an increased expression of δ-catenin in human prostate cancer is the alteration of cell cycle and survival gene profiles, thereby promoting tumor progression.

  10. Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richini-Pereira Virgínia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al.

  11. Insights from animal models on the immunogenetics of leprosy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda B Adams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of host immunogenetic factors appear to influence both an individual's susceptibility to infection with Mycobacterium leprae and the pathologic course of the disease. Animal models can contribute to a better understanding of the role of immunogenetics in leprosy through comparative studies helping to confirm the significance of various identified traits and in deciphering the underlying mechanisms that may be involved in expression of different disease related phenotypes. Genetically engineered mice, with specific immune or biochemical pathway defects, are particularly useful for investigating granuloma formation and resistance to infection and are shedding new light on borderline areas of the leprosy spectrum which are clinically unstable and have a tendency toward immunological complications. Though armadillos are less developed in this regard, these animals are the only other natural hosts of M. leprae and they present a unique opportunity for comparative study of genetic markers and mechanisms associable with disease susceptibility or resistance, especially the neurological aspects of leprosy. In this paper, we review the recent contributions of genetically engineered mice and armadillos toward our understanding of the immunogenetics of leprosy.

  12. Drosophila Tel2 is expressed as a translational fusion with EpsinR and is a regulator of wingless signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available Tel2, a protein conserved from yeast to vertebrates, is an essential regulator of diverse cellular processes including telomere maintenance, DNA damage checkpoints, DNA repair, biological clocks, and cell signaling. The Drosophila Tel2 protein is produced as a translational fusion with EpsinR, a Clathrin adapter that facilitates vesicle trafficking between the Golgi and endosomes. EpsinR and Tel2 are encoded by a Drosophila gene called lqfR. lqfR is required for viability, and its specific roles include cell growth, proliferation, and planar cell polarity. We find that all of these functions of lqfR are attributed entirely to Tel2, not EpsinR. In addition, we find that Drosophila LqfR/Tel2 is a component of one or more protein complexes that contain E-cadherin and Armadillo. Moreover, Tel2 modulates E-cadherin and Armadillo cellular dynamics. We propose that at least one of the functions of Drosophila Tel2 is regulation of Wingless signaling.

  13. Low rate of genomic repatterning in Xenarthra inferred from chromosome painting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobigny, G; Yang, F; O'Brien, P C M; Volobouev, V; Kovács, A; Pieczarka, J C; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Robinson, T J

    2005-01-01

    Comparative cytogenetic studies on Xenarthra, one of the most basal mammalian clades in the Placentalia, are virtually absent, being restricted largely to descriptions of conventional karyotypes and diploid numbers. We present a molecular cytogenetic comparison of chromosomes from the two-toed (Choloepus didactylus, 2n = 65) and three-toed sloth species (Bradypus tridactylus, 2n = 52), an anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, 2n = 54) which, together with some data on the six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus, 2n = 58), collectively represent all the major xenarthran lineages. Our results, based on interspecific chromosome painting using flow-sorted two-toed sloth chromosomes as painting probes, show the sloth species to be karyotypically closely related but markedly different from the anteater. We also test the synteny disruptions and segmental associations identified within Pilosa (anteaters and sloths) against the chromosomes of the six-banded armadillo as outgroup taxon. We could thus polarize the 35 non-ambiguously identified chromosomal changes characterizing the evolution of the anteater and sloth genomes and map these to a published sequence-based phylogeny for the group. These data suggest a low rate of genomic repatterning when placed in the context of divergence estimates based on molecular and fossil data. Finally, our results provide a glimpse of a likely ancestral karyotype for the extant Xenarthra, a pivotal group for understanding eutherian genome evolution.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of noctilucoid dinoflagellates (Noctilucales, Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación

    2010-07-01

    The order Noctilucales or class Noctiluciphyceae encompasses three families of aberrant dinoflagellates (Noctilucaceae, Leptodiscaceae and Kofoidiniaceae) that, at least in some life stages, lack typical dinoflagellate characters such as the ribbon-like transversal flagellum or condensed chromosomes. Noctiluca scintillans, the first dinoflagellate to be described, has been intensively investigated. However, its phylogenetic position based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence is unstable and controversial. Noctiluca has been placed either as an early diverging lineage that diverged after Oxyrrhis and before the dinokaryotes -core dinoflagellates- or as a recent lineage branching from unarmoured dino fl agellates in the order Gymnodiniales. So far, the lack of other noctilucoid sequences has hampered the elucidation of their phylogenetic relationships to other dino fl agellates. Furthermore, even the monophyly of the noctilucoids remained uncertain. We have determined SSU rRNA gene sequences for Kofoidiniaceae, those of the type Spatulodinium (=Gymnodinium) pseudonoctiluca and another Spatulodinium species, as well as of two species of Kofoidinium, and the first gene sequence of Leptodiscaceae, that of Abedinium (=Leptophyllus) dasypus. These taxa were collected from their type localities, the English Channel and the NW Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses place the Noctilucales as a monophyletic group at a basal position close to parasites of the Marine Alveolate Group I (MAGI) and the Syndiniales (MAGII), before the core of dinokaryotic dinoflagellates, although with moderate support.

  15. Effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in determining species presence in a tropical savanna landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Skalski, John R; Machado, Ricardo B; Groom, Martha J; Jácomo, Anah T A; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Ramos Neto, Mario B; Pomilla, Cristina; Silveira, Leandro; Smith, Heath; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-02-01

    Most protected areas are too small to sustain populations of wide-ranging mammals; thus, identification and conservation of high-quality habitat for those animals outside parks is often a high priority, particularly for regions where extensive land conversion is occurring. This is the case in the vicinity of Emas National Park, a small protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado. Over the last 40 years the native vegetation surrounding the park has been converted to agriculture, but the region still supports virtually all of the animals native to the area. We determined the effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in detecting presence of five species of mammals threatened with extinction by habitat loss: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), puma (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), and giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus). The probability of scat detection varied among the five species and among survey quadrats of different size, but was consistent across team, season, and year. The probability of occurrence, determined from the presence of scat, in a randomly selected site within the study area ranged from 0.14 for jaguars, which occur primarily in the forested areas of the park, to 0.91 for maned wolves, the most widely distributed species in our study area. Most occurrences of giant armadillos in the park were in open grasslands, but in the agricultural matrix they tended to occur in riparian woodlands. At least one target species occurred in every survey quadrat, and giant armadillos, jaguars, and maned wolves were more likely to be present in quadrats located inside than outside the park. The effort required for detection of scats was highest for the two felids. We were able to detect the presence for each of five wide-ranging species inside and outside the park and to assign occurrence probabilities to specific survey sites. Thus, scat dogs provide an effective survey tool for rare species even when accurate detection

  16. Diferença de susceptibilidade à infecção com T. Cruzi entre espécies de triatomíneos alimentados em cão, tatu e camundongo infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversas espécies de triatomíneos foram alimentadas em cão, tatu e camundongos infectados pelo T. cruzi, para verificação de suas susceptibilidades. Em cão T. infestans e P. megistus se infectaram melhor. Em tatus T. iníestans e T. brasiliensis acusaram melhores índices de infecção, enquanto em camundongos as espécies de Rhodnius e T. brasiliensis foram as melhores infectadas. A positividade dos xenos não pareceu obrigatoriamente relacionada com a riqueza da parasitemia evidenciada através da hemoscopia direta. A positividade dos xenos em camundongos variou de 26 a 96%. Quando a mesma espécie de triatomineos foi usada em tipos diversos de animais, pareceu haver uma tendência para apresentarem diferentes taxas de infecções, de acordo com o animal empregado. Dessa forma, a susceptibilidade dos triatomíneos poderia estar dependente dos fatores: cepa do tripanosoma, espécie e fase do triatomíneo e o tipo do animal infectante.Our observations suggest that T. infestans and P. megistus were easier to infect with Trypanosoma cruzi after feeding on infected dog than two species of Rhodnius. In armadillo better infection rates for T. infestans and T. brasiliensis were obtained while those of species of Rhodnius was low. Also, P. megistus recorded high levei of infection but this results could not be compared. During two months after inoculated, beginning at the 5th day, trypanosomes were detected through xenodiagnosis in armadillos. In mice, four species of triatomids used simultaneously with Rhodnius had a higher infection rate, but Rhodnius was more susceptible than other species. Eight out 10 mices inoculated with two different virulent strains of T. cruzi died in a period of four months, two surviving for more than 11 months. The per- centage of positive xenodiagnosis of these mices during the first two months after inoculation varied from 28-96 %. The positivity of xenodiagnosis could not always be correlated with patent

  17. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) phosphorylates the small SPOC family protein Spenito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, D N; Steinmetz, E L; Walldorf, U

    2014-12-01

    The Drosophila homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) is a versatile regulator involved in a variety of pathways, such as Notch and Wingless signalling, thereby acting in processes including the promotion of eye development or control of cell numbers in the nervous system. In vertebrates, extensive studies have related its homologue HIPK2 to important roles in the control of p53-mediated apoptosis and tumour suppression. Spenito (Nito) belongs to the group of small SPOC family proteins and has a role, amongst others, as a regulator of Wingless signalling downstream of Armadillo. In the present study, we show that both proteins have an enzyme-substrate relationship, adding a new interesting component to the broad range of Hipk interactions, and we map several phosphorylation sites of Nito. Furthermore, we were able to define a preliminary consensus motif for Hipk target sites, which will simplify the identification of new substrates of this kinase.

  18. Cullin4B/E3-ubiquitin ligase negatively regulates -catenin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachana Tripathi; Satya Keerthi Kota; Usha K Srinivas

    2007-09-01

    -catenin is the key transducer of Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member (Wnt) signalling, upregulation of which is the cause of cancer of the colon and other tissues. In the absence of Wnt signals, -catenin is targeted to ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation. Here we present the functional characterization of E3-ubiquitin ligase encoded by cul4B. RNAi-mediated knock-down of Cul4B in a mouse cell line C3H T10 (1/2) results in an increase in -catenin levels. Loss-of-function mutation in Drosophila cul4 also shows increased -catenin/Armadillo levels in developing embryos and displays a characteristic naked-cuticle phenotype. Immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Cul4B and -catenin are part of a signal complex in Drosophila, mouse and human. These preliminary results suggest a conserved role for Cul4B in the regulation of -catenin levels.

  19. Injuries caused by animals to young imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arruda plants in native and degraded caatinga areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Teixeira de Lima Brito

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of evaluating the injuries caused by animals to young imbu tree (Spondias tuberosa Arruda plants in native and degraded Caatinga areas, between the years 1997 and 2002. One thousand imbu tree scions were planted, being 500 in a degraded Caatinga area at the community of Alto do Angico, Petrolina-PE, and 500 in a native Caatinga area at the Caatinga Experimental Station of Embrapa Tropical Semi-Arid, Petrolina-PE. At every 30 days after having planted the scions, data were collected regarding survival and injuries caused by animals to the plants. The results showed that goats are responsible for the reduction on survival rates and for the slow development of young imbu tree in the degraded Caatinga area. In the native Caatinga area, of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu and armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus caused the highest injury levels.

  20. Environmental perception and use of fauna from a Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN in Brazilian semiarid - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.8763

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mycarla Míria Araujo de Lucena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Environmental Perception about the potential use of wildlife resources by the population surrounding the RPPN Stoessel de Britto. Through open and closed questions, we interviewed 90 residents at Laginhas community (87% of domiciles, which performed 367 citations for 79 species, belonging to 78 genera and 55 families. The interviewees showed the utility of 41 species, for various purposes, the feeding purpose was the most mentioned. The most cited animal (27 was Tolypeutes tricinctus (Linnaeus, 1758, the three-banded armadillo. The knowledge of this community is rich and could be considered and used to define conservation strategies and as subsidies to elaborate the Plan of Management of Conservation Units.

  1. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  2. Adenomatous polyposis coli regulates axon arborization and cytoskeleton organization via its N-terminus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjun Chen

    Full Text Available Conditional deletion of APC leads to marked disruption of cortical development and to excessive axonal branching of cortical neurons. However, little is known about the cell biological basis of this neuronal morphological regulation. Here we show that APC deficient cortical neuronal growth cones exhibit marked disruption of both microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. Functional analysis of the different APC domains revealed that axonal branches do not result from stabilized β-catenin, and that the C-terminus of APC containing microtubule regulatory domains only partially rescues the branching phenotype. Surprisingly, the N-terminus of APC containing the oligomerization domain and the armadillo repeats completely rescues the branching and cytoskeletal abnormalities. Our data indicate that APC is required for appropriate axon morphological development and that the N-terminus of APC is important for regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton.

  3. Changing dietary habits among Akwen Xerente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Evangelista da Silva Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify the current feed of Xerente people in Indian villages Porteira and Funil in the city of Tocantinia / TO. It was used a qualitative ethnographic approach. Conducted from September 2013 to August 2014. The data were presented in a diary, through participant observation of food practices with the guidance of a script. A process of dietary change that permeates the culture of this people is taking place. Factors such as the deficit in the planting gardens, the recent arrival of energy, and therefore the technology has allowed access to processed foods. But some families still maintain the farming of cassava, yam, and beans. The main animals that are hunted in the village are peccary, deer and armadillo. It was possible to point which foods are inserted in the Xerente feed and factors related to this situation.

  4. Optimization conditions of samples saponification for tocopherol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aloisio Henrique Pereira; Gohara, Aline Kirie; Rodrigues, Ângela Claudia; Ströher, Gisely Luzia; Silva, Danielle Cristina; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Souza, Nilson Evelázio; Matsushita, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    A full factorial design 2(2) (two factors at two levels) with duplicates was performed to investigate the influence of the factors agitation time (2 and 4 h) and the percentage of KOH (60% and 80% w/v) in the saponification of samples for the determination of α, β and γ+δ-tocopherols. The study used samples of peanuts (cultivar armadillo), produced and marketed in Maringá, PR. The factors % KOH and agitation time were significant, and an increase in their values contributed negatively to the responses. The interaction effect was not significant for the response δ-tocopherol, and the contribution of this effect to the other responses was positive, but less than 10%. The ANOVA and response surfaces analysis showed that the most efficient saponification procedure was obtained using a 60% (w/v) solution of KOH and with an agitation time of 2 h.

  5. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

  6. Th e design and rapid prototyping for crafts based on reverse engineering%基于逆向工程的工艺品设计及快速成型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙进; 朱兴龙; 闫大战; 陈晓波

    2015-01-01

    为解决复杂工艺品的逆向建模及成型问题,以犰狳工艺品为例,应用Geomagic Studio 软件和3 D打印切片软件Cura进行逆向设计和快速成型,实现了模型的快速复制和创新,提高了复杂型面的产品设计开发能力,缩短了产品开发周期。%Aiming at reverse model and forming of the complex armadillo craft , it applies Geomagic Studio system and rapid prototyping Cure technology , combines the technique of reverse engineering and rapid prototyping tech-nology , achieves quick replication and innovation models .The result shows that the method shortens the time for complex product design and rapid prototyping cycle .

  7. 韩国发明折叠电动汽车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    全球不少大城市都面临交通拥挤、停车位严重不足的问题。韩国近日研发了一款可折叠的电动汽车,可减少停车时占据的空间,有助于解决停车难的问题。 据韩国科研人员介绍,这款被称为“Armadillo-T”的车子可搭载两人,最高速度为60公里/小时,充电10分钟可走100公里。驾驶员还可利用智能手机应用程序,在车子外部发出折叠或展开指令。

  8. 敲减Wingless/Wnt1基因表达对赤拟谷盗发育中的影响%Knocking-down of Wingless/Wnt1 Influences the Development of Tribolium castaneum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭亚男; 李承军; 李斌; 李卓玉

    2012-01-01

    Known as highly conserved during evolution, the Wnt signaling pathway plays a vital role in regulating animal embryonic axis, embryonic differentiation, and deciding cell polarity and maintaining adult dynamic equilibrium. Mutations or deregulations of its components might cause the occurrence of carcinoma. We studied the role of Wingless/Wnt1 during larva-adult development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, with dsRNA-mediated Wingless(Wg)/Wntl gene knocked down. The treated late larvae metamorphosed into pupae with drastically increased wing interval and decreased wing width ( P < 0. 01 ). The pursuant pupa-adult eclosion was also severely affected and most of pupae died during this period. The qPCR result showed that the mRNA level of Cadherin-like and Smoothened (Smo) genes were up-regulated greatly, and that of armadillo-2 was slightly higher, after Wingless/Wntl gene was knocked down. We drew the conclusion that Wnt-1 signaling pathway is closely related to the proper wing development and adult metamorphosis of Tribolium. In addition, the elevated expression of Cadherin-like and Armadillo-2 may be accountable for the reduced wing width and enlarged wing interval caused by wg gene silencing, because those alterations can either enhance cell adhesion or change cell morphology. Importantly, the up-regulation of smo gene indicates that Hedgehog signaling pathway may be affected by the RNAi of Wg and involved in the abnormal or lethal phenotypes observed in our experiment.%Wnt信号通路是进化中高度保守的一条信号转导途径,在调控动物的胚胎轴向正常发育、胚胎分化、决定细胞极性、维持成体动态平衡等方面发挥重要作用.该信号通路的异常激活还与肿瘤的发生密切相关.本实验将体外人工合成的Wingless( Wg)/Wnt1基因dsRNA显微注射入赤拟谷盗晚期幼虫体内,研究Wingless/Wnt1蛋白在赤拟谷盗发育过程中发挥的作用.实验结果显示,注射Wingless(wg)/Wnt1基

  9. Plakoglobin: Role in Tumorigenesis and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackie Aktary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plakoglobin (γ-catenin is a member of the Armadillo family of proteins and a homolog of β-catenin. As a component of both the adherens junctions and desmosomes, plakoglobin plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Furthermore, similar to β-catenin, plakoglobin is capable of participating in cell signaling. However, unlike β-catenin that has well-documented oncogenic potential through its involvement in the Wnt signaling pathway, plakoglobin generally acts as a tumor/metastasis suppressor. The exact roles that plakoglobin plays during tumorigenesis and metastasis are not clear; however, recent evidence suggests that it may regulate gene expression, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration. In this paper, we describe plakoglobin, its discovery and characterization, its role in regulating cell-cell adhesion, and its signaling capabilities in regulation of tumorigenesis and metastasis.

  10. 国际车型秀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培

    2007-01-01

    在第12届上海国际车展上,德国曼的此款阿莫迪罗(ARMADILLO)军车,仅是全车高级无光油漆的外表,就让小记为之一震。再看看其配置,实力自然不容小觑。阿莫迪罗配装的是德国MAN TGA33.430 6×6重型越野车底盘、柴油共轨发动机,功率可达316千瓦:ZF16挡手排变速器、米其林×ZL北约战术

  11. Localization of the human {beta}-catenin gene (CTNNB1) to 3p21: A region implicated in tumor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, C.; Liehr, T.; Ballhausen, G. [Institut fuer Humangenetik der Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The human {beta}-catenin locus (CTNNB1) was mapped by in situ fluorescence analysis to band p21 on the short arm of chromosome 3, a region frequently affected by somatic alterations in a variety of tumors. PCR primers for the genomic amplification of {beta}-catenin sequences were selected on the basis of homology to exon 4 of the Drosophila armadillo gene. Analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids confirmed the localization of {beta}-catenin on human chromosome 3. Furthermore, exclusion mapping of three hybrids carrying defined fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 3 allowed us to determine the position of the CTNNB1 locus close to the marker D3S2 in 3p21. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Interaction of a novel Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr) glycoprotein with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Wu, J H; Shen, F

    1994-01-14

    A naturally occurring Tn glycoprotein (Native ASG-Tn) with GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr as the only carbohydrate side chains, has been prepared from armadillo submandibular glands. In a quantitative precipitin assay, this glycoprotein completely precipitated Maclura pomifera (MPA), Vicia villosa B4 (VVL-B4) and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, AIL). It also reacted well with Helix pomatia (HPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) and precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added, but poorly with Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), ricin, peanut (Arachis hypogaea, PNA), Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA). This finding suggests that this novel Tn-glycoprotein may serve as a useful reagent for differentiating Tn and T specific monoclonal antibodies and lectins.

  13. [American cutaneous leishmaniasis in municipalities in the northwestern region of Paraná State: use of remote sensing for analysis of vegetation types and places with disease occurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraes, Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides; Veit, Renata Tonon; Bernal, Marcos Vinícius Zandonadi; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Nanni, Marcos Rafael

    2008-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic disease in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil, is transmitted by phlebotomines to man and animals like dogs, armadillos, opossums and wild rodents. This disease has been occurring in places where forests have been felled and on the banks of rivers and lakes with arboreal vegetation, where man comes into contact with infected insects. This disease is a public health problem because of the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks throughout Paraná. Because of the importance of finding out about endemic areas, this study used epidemiological file data on patients attended between 1999 and 2004. These data were correlated with areas of forest felling that were identified by means of satellite remote sensing techniques and products. The results showed that the occurrences of cases in the municipalities of this region coincided with the presumed likely areas for patient infection.

  14. STUDY ON NUDE MICE INOCULATED WITH MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE BY MULTIPLE ROUTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荷英; 张伟云; 喻林冲; 施美琴; 刘季和

    1995-01-01

    Immune-defieient nude mice were inoculated with nude mouse derived Mycobacterium leprae by multiple routes (intravenously, subcutaneously at the foot pads and ears). The results showed that these inoculated animals were capable of producing a great number of Mycohecteritma leprae to a level 1011-12 per gram of tissue, and were detected histopathologically to have heavy lepromatous lesions. The dissemination of the infeetion was found particulerly in sites with lower body temperature. The ccgaulsms have a partiality to striated muscles and peripheral nerves. The authors suggest that experimental lepeosy in nude mice is a very useful tool for leprosy resarch, especially Jn cotmtries without armadillos. Compared with the single-route inoculation reported previously, multiple-route inoculation is more available.

  15. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  16. Basophil leucocyte response in leprosy with lepromin-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhandiar R

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of ′Basophil Leucocyte Response′ in two polar groups of leprosy patients (tuberculoid and lepromatous was undertaken employing Lepromin-A (Armadillo by the method of Open Window Technique of Rebuck. Significant infiltration of Basophils at the test side is demonstrated both at 48 hours and at 72 hours in lepromatous leprosy as compared to the control groups i.e., in placebo and tuberculin positive healthy volunteers as well as against tuberculoid leprosy group (p value being less than 0.05 and 0.001. The basophils also go into degeneration and degranulation at 72 hours. . The role of basophils in the different types of allergic reactions is discussed in context of above finding. The possible effect of high infiltration of basophils in lepromatous leprosy with its subsequent release of histamine and other factors by degranulation, and its possible role in immuno-regulation through specialised suppressor cells is postulated in the light of available data.

  17. Armc5 deletion causes developmental defects and compromises T-cell immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Lao, Linjiang; Mao, Jianning; Jin, Wei; Luo, Hongyu; Charpentier, Tania; Qi, Shijie; Peng, Junzheng; Hu, Bing; Marcinkiewicz, Mieczyslaw Martin; Lamarre, Alain; Wu, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) is a cytosolic protein with no enzymatic activities. Little is known about its function and mechanisms of action, except that gene mutations are associated with risks of primary macronodular adrenal gland hyperplasia. Here we map Armc5 expression by in situ hybridization, and generate Armc5 knockout mice, which are small in body size. Armc5 knockout mice have compromised T-cell proliferation and differentiation into Th1 and Th17 cells, increased T-cell apoptosis, reduced severity of experimental autoimmune encephalitis, and defective immune responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. These mice also develop adrenal gland hyperplasia in old age. Yeast 2-hybrid assays identify 16 ARMC5-binding partners. Together these data indicate that ARMC5 is crucial in fetal development, T-cell function and adrenal gland growth homeostasis, and that the functions of ARMC5 probably depend on interaction with multiple signalling pathways. PMID:28169274

  18. Evolution of trappin genes in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutani Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trappin is a multifunctional host-defense peptide that has antiproteolytic, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The numbers and compositions of trappin paralogs vary among mammalian species: human and sheep have a single trappin-2 gene; mouse and rat have no trappin gene; pig and cow have multiple trappin genes; and guinea pig has a trappin gene and two other derivativegenes. Independent duplications of trappin genes in pig and cow were observed recently after the species were separated. To determine whether these trappin gene duplications are restricted only to certain mammalian lineages, we analyzed recently-developed genome databases for the presence of duplicate trappin genes. Results The database analyses revealed that: 1 duplicated trappin multigenes were found recently in the nine-banded armadillo; 2 duplicated two trappin genes had been found in the Afrotherian species (elephant, tenrec, and hyrax since ancient days; 3 a single trappin-2 gene was found in various eutherians species; and 4 no typical trappin gene has been found in chicken, zebra finch, and opossum. Bayesian analysis estimated the date of the duplication of trappin genes in the Afrotheria, guinea pig, armadillo, cow, and pig to be 244, 35, 11, 13, and 3 million-years ago, respectively. The coding regions of trappin multigenes of almadillo, bovine, and pig evolved much faster than the noncoding exons, introns, and the flanking regions, showing that these genes have undergone accelerated evolution, and positive Darwinian selection was observed in pig-specific trappin paralogs. Conclusion These results suggest that trappin is an eutherian-specific molecule and eutherian genomes have the potential to form trappin multigenes.

  19. The phenotypic plasticity of developmental modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aabha I. Sharma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organisms develop and evolve in a modular fashion, but how individual modules interact with the environment remains poorly understood. Phenotypically plastic traits are often under selection, and studies are needed to address how traits respond to the environment in a modular fashion. In this study, tissue-specific plasticity of melanic spots was examined in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Results Although the size of the abdominal melanic bands varied according to rearing temperatures, wing melanic bands were more robust. To explore the regulation of abdominal pigmentation plasticity, candidate genes involved in abdominal melanic spot patterning and biosynthesis of melanin were analyzed. While the knockdown of dopa decarboxylase (Ddc led to lighter pigmentation in both the wings and the abdomen, the shape of the melanic elements remained unaffected. Although the knockdown of Abdominal-B (Abd-B partially phenocopied the low-temperature phenotype, the abdominal bands were still sensitive to temperature shifts. These observations suggest that regulators downstream of Abd-B but upstream of DDC are responsible for the temperature response of the abdomen. Ablation of wings led to the regeneration of a smaller wing with reduced melanic bands that were shifted proximally. In addition, the knockdown of the Wnt signaling nuclear effector genes, armadillo 1 and armadillo 2, altered both the melanic bands and the wing shape. Thus, the pleiotropic effects of Wnt signaling may constrain the amount of plasticity in wing melanic bands. Conclusions We propose that when traits are regulated by distinct pre-patterning mechanisms, they can respond to the environment in a modular fashion, whereas when the environment impacts developmental regulators that are shared between different modules, phenotypic plasticity can manifest as a developmentally integrated system.

  20. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  1. VISÃO DE COMUNIDADES RURAIS EM JUAZEIRINHO/PB REFERENTE À EXTINÇÃO DA BIODIVERSIDADE DA CAATINGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lânia Isis Ferreira Alves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current model of economic development is based on a predatory and exculpatory vision, which discloses a way of being inhuman. Implying in changes of perception, thoughts and values, it has seen, that the form as the nature is explored in accordance with varies the ambient perception of the community or group. This work objectified to analyze the perception of Juazeirinho/PB agricultural communities referring the extinction of biodiversity of caatinga, aiming at to delineate sensitization strategies that make possible the valuation of this biome. The work portrays a carried through participant research with the communities Escurinha and Mendonça. For the collection of data direct comment was used, with visits to the communities, dynamics, half-structuralized interview and accomplishment of meeting. According to community some vegetal and animal species are disappearing. Between the animals they are cited: corduniz (Nothura sp, gato do mato (Felisa tigrina, gato maracajá (Felis wildi, mocó (Kerodon rupestris, preá (Gálea sprixii, Tejo (Família Teiidae, tatu peba (Euphractus sexcinctus, tatu verdadeiro (Dasypus novmcinctus e o guaxinim (Procyon camcrivorus.Between vegetables they had been cited: Aveloz (Euphorbia gimnoclada, Imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa, Aroeira (Myracroduom unrudeuva, Caatingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidali, Baraúna (Schnopsis brasiliensis, Quixabeira (Bumelia sertorum, Mufumbo (Combretum leprosum. We can verify that it is necessary to promote changes in the ambient perception of the studied communities, thus allowing, to awake for problematic ambient, to point and to search solutions, that take the valuation of local biodiversity.

  2. VISÃO DE COMUNIDADES RURAIS EM JUAZEIRINHO/PB REFERENTE À EXTINÇÃO DA BIODIVERSIDADE DA CAATINGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lânia Isis Ferreira Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current model of economic development is based on a predatory and exculpatory vision, which discloses a way of being inhuman. Implying in changes of perception, thoughts and values, it has seen, that the form as the nature is explored in accordance with varies the ambient perception of the community or group. This work objectified to analyze the perception of Juazeirinho/PB agricultural communities referring the extinction of biodiversity of caatinga, aiming at to delineate sensitization strategies that make possible the valuation of this biome. The work portrays a carried through participant research with the communities Escurinha and Mendonça. For the collection of data direct comment was used, with visits to the communities, dynamics, half-structuralized interview and accomplishment of meeting. According to community some vegetal and animal species are disappearing. Between the animals they are cited: corduniz (Nothura sp, gato do mato (Felisa tigrina, gato maracajá (Felis wildi, mocó (Kerodon rupestris, preá (Gálea sprixii, Tejo (Família Teiidae, tatu peba (Euphractus sexcinctus, tatu verdadeiro (Dasypus novmcinctus e o guaxinim (Procyon camcrivorus.Between vegetables they had been cited: Aveloz (Euphorbia gimnoclada, Imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa, Aroeira (Myracroduom unrudeuva, Caatingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidali, Baraúna (Schnopsis brasiliensis, Quixabeira (Bumelia sertorum, Mufumbo (Combretum leprosum. We can verify that it is necessary to promote changes in the ambient perception of the studied communities, thus allowing, to awake for problematic ambient, to point and to search solutions, that take the valuation of local biodiversity.

  3. Camera trap records of animal activity prior to a M=7 earthquake in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R.; Raulin, J.; Freund, F.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake (EQ) preparation is associated with geophysical changes occurring over many scales. Some pre-earthquake (pre-EQ) processes affect the ionosphere, others leave their mark on biota. We report (i) on ionospheric anomalies recorded prior to the M=7 Contamana EQ [1] in North-Eastern Peru, 134 km deep, associated with the subduction of the Nazca plate underneath the Northern Andes, (ii) on changes in animal activity recorded in the Yanachaga National Park, about 320 km from the EQ epicentre, over a 30 day period leading up to the M=7 seismic event. Night-time Very Low Frequency (VLF) phase data were analyzed for the period 01 June to 31 Oct. 2011 using propagation paths passing close to the Yanachaga Park from the NAA emitter (USA) to receivers PIU in Piura and PLO in Lima (Peru). Ionospheric phase perturbations were observed starting 2 weeks before the EQ with periodicities from few tens of secs to few minutes. Animal activity data were obtained by evaluating the images of a cluster of 10 motion-triggered cameras of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network www.teamnetwork.org. We analyzed 1359 photographic records for the pre-EQ period and 1491 photographic records for a control period with low seismicity. Animal activity started to noticeably decline 3 weeks before the EQ. Different animal species were found to react differently. The number of rodents declined to zero about one week before the EQ and so did the number of tapirs. Armadillos, a burrowing animal, were recorded in larger numbers. Though the armadillos were presumably also flushed out of their holes, they apparently did not hide like the rodents. We discuss the results in the context of recent advances in solid state physics, which provide plausible mechanisms for pre-EQ ionospheric anomalies and for changes in animal behavior. [1] Tavera, H. (2012), Report on the 24 Aug. 2011 M 7.0 Contamana, Peru, Intermediate Depth Earthquake Seismological Research Letters, 83, 1007-1013, doi: 10.1785/0220120005

  4. Genomic organization of the human {beta}-catenin gene (CTNNB1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nollet, F.; Berx, G.; Molemans, F.; Roy, F. van [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium)

    1996-03-05

    The cytoplasmic {beta}-catenin protein is implicated in signal transduction and associates with both the cell-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin and the tumor suppressor gene product APC. We determined the primary structure of the human {beta}-catenin gene (CTNNB1) by analysis cDNA and genomic clones. The size of the complete gene was determined to be 23.2 kb. Restriction mapping and partial sequence analysis revealed 16 exons. All splice donor and acceptor sites were conformable to the GT/AG rule. The exon size ranged from 61 to 790 bp. Half of the introns were smaller than 550 bp, with the smallest being 84 pb and the longest being 6700 bp. The intron-exon boundaries did not coincide either with conserved sites in the 12 armadillo repeat sequences of {beta}-catenin or with intron-exon boundaries in the armadillo gene of Drosophila. A major site for transcription initiation was identified as an A residue 214 nucleotides upstream of the ATG initiation codon. The resulting transcript is 3362 nucleotides long. Compared to the previously published mRNA sequence, additional residues were identified, 16 at the 5{prime} end and 766 at the 3{prime} end of the mRNA. An alternative splice acceptor site within exon 16 reduced the 3{prime} UTR sequence by 159 bp. Polymerase chain reaction on cDNA from 14 human cell lines demonstrated the general occurrence of both splice variants. The 5{prime}-flanking region is highly GC-rich and lacks a CCAAT box, but contains a TATA box and potential binding sites for several transcription factors, such as NFkB, SP1, AP2, and EGR1. Both a 437-bp fragment and a 6-kb fragment, containing about 4.7 kb of the 5{prime}-flanking region in addition to the noncoding exon 1 and 1 kb of intron 1, showed clear promoter activity when these fragments were linked to a secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene and transfected into a mouse epithelial cell line. 53 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Zooarqueología de una unidad doméstica Formativa: El caso de Loma Alta (Catamarca, Argentina Zooarchaeology of a Formative domestic unit: The case of Loma Alta (Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Darío Izeta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es el de aportar datos e interpretaciones de la economía de una unidad doméstica de un sitio del Período Formativo del noroeste argentino (Loma Alta Núcleo E relacionada con el manejo de camélidos. El registro proporcionalmente menor del resto de los animales (aves, armadillos, roedores y ciervos hace casi imposible evaluar su significación económica sino es por comparación con la de los camélidos andinos. Por ello se tratarán en detalle los restos de camélidos con el fin de ofrecer algunas interpretaciones sobre la obtención, uso y manejo de estos animales entre los antiguos habitantes de este núcleo habitacional. Principalmente se estudió el conjunto de camélidos teniendo en cuenta las especies presentes, su proporción, así como las clases de edad representadas en esta muestra. A través del análisis del conjunto se pudo identificar la presencia de actividades pastoriles complementadas con prácticas de caza. En cuanto al uso específico de estos animales e independientemente de la edad se pudo establecer una estrategia general orientada hacia el consumo de unidades anatómicas de mayor valor económico.The aim of this paper is to present data and interpretations of the household economy of a Formative Period archaeological site from northwestern Argentina (Loma Alta Núcleo E based on the analysis of the camelid record. The occurrence of other taxa (birds, armadillos, rodents, and cervids is relatively poor, making their interpretation in economic terms very difficult without a comparison with camelid remains. Subsequently, camelid species presence and age classes (based on bone fusion stages are considered in order to evaluate the acquisition, use and management of those animals by the old inhabitants of this domestic unit. The study of the camelid assemblage allows us to interpret the presence of herding strategies complemented with hunting activities. Lastly, a general tendency towards the

  6. Characterization of bbtTICAM from amphioxus suggests the emergence of a MyD88-independent pathway in basal chordates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManyiYang; ShaochunYuan; Shengfeng Huang; Jun Li; Liqun Xu; Huiqing Huang; Xin Tao; Jian peng; Anlong Xu

    2011-01-01

    The MyD88-independent pathway,one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes,Is thought to be a vertebrate innovation.However,a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor,designated bbtTICAM,which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus,links this pathway to invertebrates.The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate TICAM1 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-1,also known as TRIF),while phylogenetic analysis based on the TIR domain indicated that bbtTICAM is the oldest ortholog of vertebrate TICAMI and TICAM2(TIR-containing adaptor molecule-2,also known as TRAM).Similar to human TICAM1,bbtTICAM activates NF-κB in a MyD88-independent manner by interacting with receptor interacting protein (RIP) via its RHIM motif.Such activation requires bbtTICAM to form homodimers in endosomes,and it may be negatively regulated by amphioxus SARM (sterile a and armadillo motif-containing protein) and TRAF2.However,bbtTICAM did not induce the production of type I interferon.Thus,our study not only presents the ancestral features of vertebrate TICAM I and TICAM2,but also reveals the evolutionary origin of the MyD88-independent pathway from basal chordates,which will aid in understanding the development of the vertebrate TLR network.

  7. Molecular decay of the tooth gene Enamelin (ENAM mirrors the loss of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Meredith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vestigial structures occur at both the anatomical and molecular levels, but studies documenting the co-occurrence of morphological degeneration in the fossil record and molecular decay in the genome are rare. Here, we use morphology, the fossil record, and phylogenetics to predict the occurrence of "molecular fossils" of the enamelin (ENAM gene in four different orders of placental mammals (Tubulidentata, Pholidota, Cetacea, Xenarthra with toothless and/or enamelless taxa. Our results support the "molecular fossil" hypothesis and demonstrate the occurrence of frameshift mutations and/or stop codons in all toothless and enamelless taxa. We then use a novel method based on selection intensity estimates for codons (omega to calculate the timing of iterated enamel loss in the fossil record of aardvarks and pangolins, and further show that the molecular evolutionary history of ENAM predicts the occurrence of enamel in basal representatives of Xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, armadillos even though frameshift mutations are ubiquitous in ENAM sequences of living xenarthrans. The molecular decay of ENAM parallels the morphological degeneration of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals and provides manifest evidence for the predictive power of Darwin's theory.

  8. Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buckley

    Full Text Available For over 200 years, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas that have ranged from giant ground sloths to the 'native' South American ungulates, groups of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America. Ground sloths belong to the South American xenarthrans, a group with modern although morphologically and ecologically very different representatives (anteaters, armadillos and sloths, which has been proposed to be one of the four main eutherian clades. Recently, proteomics analyses of bone collagen have recently been used to yield a molecular phylogeny for a range of mammals including the unusual 'Malagasy aardvark' shown to be most closely related to the afrotherian tenrecs, and the south American ungulates supporting their morphological association with condylarths. However, proteomics results generate partial sequence information that could impact upon the phylogenetic placement that has not been appropriately tested. For comparison, this paper examines the phylogenetic potential of proteomics-based sequencing through the analysis of collagen extracted from two extinct giant ground sloths, Lestodon and Megatherium. The ground sloths were placed as sister taxa to extant sloths, but with a closer relationship between Lestodon and the extant sloths than the basal Megatherium. These results highlight that proteomics methods could yield plausible phylogenies that share similarities with other methods, but have the potential to be more useful in fossils beyond the limits of ancient DNA survival.

  9. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  10. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

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    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  11. COMPOSITION OF MEDIUM AND LARGE MAMMALS IN FOREST RESERVE IN THE CERRADO OF BRAZIL CENTRAL

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    Rodrigo Jose Viana Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge about fauna location and distribution is very important for animal biology understanding. Conservation Units are relevant to biodiversity when considering factors such as hunting, agricultural expansion and forest fires. The conservation of native vegetation fragments under more suitable management plans, recovery areas and surveys are essential to the mammals preservation. This study aimed to survey the mammals of medium and large size of the Brasilia National Forest Area 1. To carry out this study it was performed weekly rounds in search for direct and indirect mammals traces existing at forest reserve. It is reported the presence of 27 species in the study area. According to the IUCN Red List, four species are vulnerable to extinction: tapir (Tapirus terrestris, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus and oncilla (Leopardus guttulus. Two species were recorded nearly threatened species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus. Also according to the same list, 48% (n=13 of species are declining in population trend and 26% (n=7 for this data is unknown. Differences in the area were observed, with mammal species presence associated to Cerrado vegetation types and in distribution of records over the period.

  12. Vespucci: A Free, Cross-Platform Tool for Spectroscopic Data Analysis and Imaging

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    Daniel P. Foose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespucci is a software application developed for imaging and analysis of hyperspectral datasets. Vespucci offers several advantages over other software packages, including a simple user interface with a small learning curve, no cost, and less restrictive licensing. Vespucci expands several analysis techniques including univariate imaging, principal components analysis, partial-least-squares regression, and vertex components analysis with endmember extraction, and k-means clustering. Additionally, Vespucci can perform a number of useful data-processing operations, including filtering, normalization, baseline correction, and background subtraction. Datasets that consist of spatial or temporal data with a corresponding digital signal, including spectroscopic images, mass spectrometric images, and X-ray diffraction data can be processed in this software. A few use cases for Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies are provided. Vespucci is written in C++ and makes use of the MLPACK [3], Armadillo [9], Qt, and QCustomPlot libraries. Vespucci is a graphically-driven package that is designed with ease-of-use in mind and is equally capable to other available tools. Vespucci’s capabilities are extended by interfaces to Octave and R to allow existing research code to be run from a common environment. Additionally, Vespucci’s C++ classes can be used to construct more specialized programs when an application programming interface (API is desired. The source code and a Windows binary distribution can be accessed at https://github.com/dpfoose/Vespucci.

  13. CELLULAR LOCALIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF pygo DURING DROSOPHILA DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINXin-da; LINXin-hua; CHENGJia-an

    2003-01-01

    Wg/Wnt signaling is a key signaling pathway in Drosophila. Many genes involved in Wingless(wg) signal transduction pathway downstream of Wg, or it'' s vertebrate Wg homologue Wnt, have been identified.Transduction of the Wg signal downstream of Wg is mediated by nuclear TCF/LEF-1, through association with Ar-madillo (Arm)/β-catenin. Pygopus (pygo) is a new identified component in this pathway . Cellular localization experiment showed that pygo was expressed specifically in the nucleus. The expression profile of pygo in embryos was examined using in situ hybridization. Although pygo expressed ubiquitously in the embryos, it expressed at relatively high level in pre-blastoderm embryos which indicate a high degree of maternally provided message, fol-lowed by a low level of ubiquitous zygotic expression. This continues into larval tissues (including wing disc, eye disc and leg disc), where pygo appears to be expressed at low level. Comparison of pygo expression levels, in the wing disc, eye disc and leg disc, showed pygo expression level in the wing disc pouch and leg disc were rela-tive higher.

  14. Stability of hard plates on soft substrates and application to the design of bioinspired segmented armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, R.; Barthelat, F.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention from their unique and attractive combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. In particular, the extreme contrast of stiffness between hard plates and surrounding soft tissues give rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as model for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite a growing interest in bio-inspired flexible protection, there is little guidelines as to the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective plates. In this work, we focus on a failure mode we recently observed on natural and bio-inspired scaled armors: the unstable tilting of individual scales subjected to off-centered point forces. We first present a series of experiments on this system, followed by a model based on contact mechanics and friction. We condense the result into a single stability diagram which capture the key parameters that govern the onset of plate tilting from a localized force. We found that the stability of individual plates is governed by the location of the point force on the plate, by the friction at the surface of the plate, by the size of the plate and by the stiffness of the substrate. We finally discuss how some of these parameters can be optimized at the design stage to produce bio-inspired protective systems with desired combination of surface hardness, stability and flexural compliance.

  15. Morphology of the thoracic limb bones in the giant anteater

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    Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant anteater has a grayish-brown pelage with white and black tones, its skull is elongated, cylindrical, and there are no teeth. Its tail is long, with thick and long bristles, resembling a flag. This is an endangered species, due to the constant degradation of its habitat, in addition to deaths caused by fires and roadkills. Thus, this paper aimed to describe the morphology of the thoracic limb bones in Myrmecophaga tridactyla, focusing on its main bone accidents. We used two specimens of giant anteater collected on highways in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, after death due to being run over. The scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, and the hand bones showed particular characteristics adapted to the species’ lifestyle and habits. In general, the scapula resembles that in human beings and the humerus is similar to that in armadillo, the radius and ulna exhibit articular surfaces which enable a wide range of rotational movements in the forearm, the carpal bones are also similar in number and shape to those in human beings, and the fingers are well developed in the giant anteater, having long, strong and sharp claws, especially in the third finger. Thus, the anatomical description of the thoracic limb bones in the giant anteater showed to be important, providing a deeper understanding both of the functional aspects of the thoracic limb and the comparative anatomy of wild animals.

  16. Ascaridoid nematodes of South American mammals, with a definition of a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprent, J F

    1982-09-01

    Ascaridoid nematodes occurring in South American mammals are divided into categories based on their possible origin. The affinities are discussed of five species so far known only from the Neotropical Region. Toxocara alienata (Rudolphi 1819) is reported from Nasua rufa socialis, Procyon cancrivorus, and Tayassus torquatus. The specimens from T. torquatus are described and found most closely to resemble Toxocara mackerrasae from south-east Asian and Austrialian rodents. Anisakis insignis from Inia geoffrensis is transferred back to Peritrachelius Diesing, 1851, on account of the structure of the lips and spicules. P. insignis is shown to exhibit remarkable convergence of lip structure with Lagochilascaris turgida from Didelphis marsupialis. Galeiceps longispiculum (Freitas & Lent, 1941) from Pteronura brasiliensis is confirmed as a species distinct from G. cucullus (Linstow, 1899) and G. spinicollis (Baylis, 1923), but G. simiae (Mosgovoy, 1951) is considered to be a synonym of G. spinicollis. An error in the host record of G. spinicollis is corrected from Cercopithecus leucampyx kandti to Lutra maculicollis kivuana. Ascaris dasypodina Baylis, 1922 from armadillos, including Cabassous unicinctus and Tolypeutes matacos, is redescribed and placed in a new genus Bairdascaris. The question is raised as to whether some species in Lagochilascaris, Galeiceps, and Toxocara may have crossed directly by sea from Africa to South America, rather than entering via North America.

  17. Heart- and muscle-derived signaling system dependent on MED13 and Wingless controls obesity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2014-07-01

    Obesity develops in response to an imbalance of energy homeostasis and whole-body metabolism. Muscle plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis through consumption of energy and signaling to adipose tissue. We reported previously that MED13, a subunit of the Mediator complex, acts in the heart to control obesity in mice. To further explore the generality and mechanistic basis of this observation, we investigated the potential influence of MED13 expression in heart and muscle on the susceptibility of Drosophila to obesity. Here, we show that heart/muscle-specific knockdown of MED13 or MED12, another Mediator subunit, increases susceptibility to obesity in adult flies. To identify possible muscle-secreted obesity regulators, we performed an RNAi-based genetic screen of 150 genes that encode secreted proteins and found that Wingless inhibition also caused obesity. Consistent with these findings, muscle-specific inhibition of Armadillo, the downstream transcriptional effector of the Wingless pathway, also evoked an obese phenotype in flies. Epistasis experiments further demonstrated that Wingless functions downstream of MED13 within a muscle-regulatory pathway. Together, these findings reveal an intertissue signaling system in which Wingless acts as an effector of MED13 in heart and muscle and suggest that Wingless-mediated cross-talk between striated muscle and adipose tissue controls obesity in Drosophila. This signaling system appears to represent an ancestral mechanism for the control of systemic energy homeostasis.

  18. The inner ear of Megatherium and the evolution of the vestibular system in sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, G; Germain, D; Ruf, I; de Muizon, C; Hautier, L

    2013-12-01

    Extant tree sloths are uniquely slow mammals with a very specialized suspensory behavior. To improve our understanding of their peculiar evolution, we investigated the inner ear morphology of one of the largest and most popular fossil ground sloths, Megatherium americanum. We first address the predicted agility of this animal from the scaling of its semicircular canals (SC) relative to body mass, based on recent work that provided evidence that the size of the SC in mammals correlates with body mass and levels of agility. Our analyses predict intermediate levels of agility for Megatherium, contrasting with the extreme slowness of extant sloths. Secondly, we focus on the morphology of the SC at the inner ear scale and investigate the shape and proportions of these structures in Megatherium and in a large diversity of extant xenarthrans represented in our database. Our morphometric analyses demonstrate that the giant ground sloth clearly departs from the SC morphology of both extant sloth genera (Choloepus, Bradypus) and is in some aspects closer to that of armadillos and anteaters. Given the close phylogenetic relationships of Megatherium with the extant genus Choloepus, these results are evidence of substantial homoplasy of the SC anatomy in sloths. This homoplasy most likely corresponds to an outstanding convergent evolution between extant suspensory sloth genera.

  19. Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Michael; Fariña, Richard A; Lawless, Craig; Tambusso, P Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Carlini, Alfredo A; Powell, Jaime E; Martinez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    For over 200 years, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas that have ranged from giant ground sloths to the 'native' South American ungulates, groups of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America. Ground sloths belong to the South American xenarthrans, a group with modern although morphologically and ecologically very different representatives (anteaters, armadillos and sloths), which has been proposed to be one of the four main eutherian clades. Recently, proteomics analyses of bone collagen have recently been used to yield a molecular phylogeny for a range of mammals including the unusual 'Malagasy aardvark' shown to be most closely related to the afrotherian tenrecs, and the south American ungulates supporting their morphological association with condylarths. However, proteomics results generate partial sequence information that could impact upon the phylogenetic placement that has not been appropriately tested. For comparison, this paper examines the phylogenetic potential of proteomics-based sequencing through the analysis of collagen extracted from two extinct giant ground sloths, Lestodon and Megatherium. The ground sloths were placed as sister taxa to extant sloths, but with a closer relationship between Lestodon and the extant sloths than the basal Megatherium. These results highlight that proteomics methods could yield plausible phylogenies that share similarities with other methods, but have the potential to be more useful in fossils beyond the limits of ancient DNA survival.

  20. Cognitive Function Related to the Sirh11/Zcchc16 Gene Acquired from an LTR Retrotransposon in Eutherians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Irie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting of mouse Sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologue 11/Zinc finger CCHC domain-containing 16 (Sirh11/Zcchc16 causes abnormal behaviors related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory. Sirh11/Zcchc16 encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high homology to an LTR retrotransposon Gag protein. Upon microdialysis analysis of the prefrontal cortex region, the recovery rate of noradrenaline (NA was reduced compared with dopamine (DA after perfusion of high potassium-containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid in knockout (KO mice. These data indicate that Sirh11/Zcchc16 is involved in cognitive function in the brain, possibly via the noradrenergic system, in the contemporary mouse developmental systems. Interestingly, it is highly conserved in three out of the four major groups of the eutherians, euarchontoglires, laurasiatheria and afrotheria, but is heavily mutated in xenarthran species such as the sloth and armadillo, suggesting that it has contributed to brain evolution in the three major eutherian lineages, including humans and mice. Sirh11/Zcchc16 is the first SIRH gene to be involved in brain function, instead of just the placenta, as seen in the case of Peg10, Peg11/Rtl1 and Sirh7/Ldoc1.

  1. Validation of qPCR Methods for the Detection of Mycobacterium in New World Animal Reservoirs.

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    Genevieve Housman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic pathogens that cause leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, MTBC continue to impact modern human populations. Therefore, methods able to survey mycobacterial infection in potential animal hosts are necessary for proper evaluation of human exposure threats. Here we tested for mycobacterial-specific single- and multi-copy loci using qPCR. In a trial study in which armadillos were artificially infected with M. leprae, these techniques were specific and sensitive to pathogen detection, while more traditional ELISAs were only specific. These assays were then employed in a case study to detect M. leprae as well as MTBC in wild marmosets. All marmosets were negative for M. leprae DNA, but 14 were positive for the mycobacterial rpoB gene assay. Targeted capture and sequencing of rpoB and other MTBC genes validated the presence of mycobacterial DNA in these samples and revealed that qPCR is useful for identifying mycobacterial-infected animal hosts.

  2. Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American 'ungulates'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Michael

    2015-05-07

    Since the late eighteenth century, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas, revealing a previously unimagined chapter in the history of mammals. The most bizarre of these are the 'native' South American ungulates thought to represent a group of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America, but with an uncertain affinity to any particular placental lineage. Many authors have considered them descended from Laurasian 'condylarths', which also includes the probable ancestors of perissodactyls and artiodactyls, whereas others have placed them either closer to the uniquely South American xenarthrans (anteaters, armadillos and sloths) or the basal afrotherians (e.g. elephants and hyraxes). These hypotheses have been debated owing to conflicting morphological characteristics and the hitherto inability to retrieve molecular information. Of the 'native' South American mammals, only the toxodonts and litopterns persisted until the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene. Owing to known difficulties in retrieving ancient DNA (aDNA) from specimens from warm climates, this research presents a molecular phylogeny for both Macrauchenia patachonica (Litopterna) and Toxodon platensis (Notoungulata) recovered using proteomics-based (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) sequencing analyses of bone collagen. The results place both taxa in a clade that is monophyletic with the perissodactyls, which today are represented by horses, rhinoceroses and tapirs.

  3. Condensin HEAT subunits required for DNA repair, kinetochore/centromere function and ploidy maintenance in fission yeast.

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    Xingya Xu

    Full Text Available Condensin, a central player in eukaryotic chromosomal dynamics, contains five evolutionarily-conserved subunits. Two SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes subunits contain ATPase, hinge, and coiled-coil domains. One non-SMC subunit is similar to bacterial kleisin, and two other non-SMC subunits contain HEAT (similar to armadillo repeats. Here we report isolation and characterization of 21 fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants for three non-SMC subunits, created using error-prone mutagenesis that resulted in single-amino acid substitutions. Beside condensation, segregation, and DNA repair defects, similar to those observed in previously isolated SMC and cnd2 mutants, novel phenotypes were observed for mutants of HEAT-repeats containing Cnd1 and Cnd3 subunits. cnd3-L269P is hypersensitive to the microtubule poison, thiabendazole, revealing defects in kinetochore/centromere and spindle assembly checkpoints. Three cnd1 and three cnd3 mutants increased cell size and doubled DNA content, thereby eliminating the haploid state. Five of these mutations reside in helix B of HEAT repeats. Two non-SMC condensin subunits, Cnd1 and Cnd3, are thus implicated in ploidy maintenance.

  4. Pauci- and Multibacillary Leprosy: Two Distinct, Genetically Neglected Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschignard, Jean; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Thuc, Nguyen Van; Orlova, Marianna; Cobat, Aurélie; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Ba, Nguyen Ngoc; Thai, Vu Hong; Abel, Laurent; Schurr, Erwin; Alcaïs, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    After sustained exposure to Mycobacterium leprae, only a subset of exposed individuals develops clinical leprosy. Moreover, leprosy patients show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that extend from the paucibacillary (PB) to the multibacillary (MB) form of the disease. This “polarization” of leprosy has long been a major focus of investigation for immunologists because of the different immune response in these two forms. But while leprosy per se has been shown to be under tight human genetic control, few epidemiological or genetic studies have focused on leprosy subtypes. Using PubMed, we collected available data in English on the epidemiology of leprosy polarization and the possible role of human genetics in its pathophysiology until September 2015. At the genetic level, we assembled a list of 28 genes from the literature that are associated with leprosy subtypes or implicated in the polarization process. Our bibliographical search revealed that improved study designs are needed to identify genes associated with leprosy polarization. Future investigations should not be restricted to a subanalysis of leprosy per se studies but should instead contrast MB to PB individuals. We show the latter approach to be the most powerful design for the identification of genetic polarization determinants. Finally, we bring to light the important resource represented by the nine-banded armadillo model, a unique animal model for leprosy. PMID:27219008

  5. Ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 regulates axon branching through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in a Drosophila model for intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Joke; Langen, Marion; Zschätzsch, Marlen; Zschaetzsch, Marlen; Nijhof, Bonnie; Kramer, Jamie M; Brems, Hilde; Bauters, Marijke; Lauwers, Elsa; Srahna, Mohammed; Marynen, Peter; Verstreken, Patrik; Schenck, Annette; Hassan, Bassem A; Froyen, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that duplication of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 results in intellectual disability (ID) in male patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model to investigate the effect of increased HUWE1 levels on the developing nervous system. Similar to the observed levels in patients we overexpressed the HUWE1 mRNA about 2-fold in the fly. The development of the mushroom body and neuromuscular junctions were not altered, and basal neurotransmission was unaffected. These data are in agreement with normal learning and memory in the courtship conditioning paradigm. However, a disturbed branching phenotype at the axon terminals of the dorsal cluster neurons (DCN) was detected. Interestingly, overexpression of HUWE1 was found to decrease the protein levels of dishevelled (dsh) by 50%. As dsh as well as Fz2 mutant flies showed the same disturbed DCN branching phenotype, and the constitutive active homolog of β-catenin, armadillo, could partially rescue this phenotype, our data strongly suggest that increased dosage of HUWE1 compromises the Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly by enhancing the degradation of dsh.

  6. Ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 regulates axon branching through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in a Drosophila model for intellectual disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke Vandewalle

    Full Text Available We recently reported that duplication of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 results in intellectual disability (ID in male patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model to investigate the effect of increased HUWE1 levels on the developing nervous system. Similar to the observed levels in patients we overexpressed the HUWE1 mRNA about 2-fold in the fly. The development of the mushroom body and neuromuscular junctions were not altered, and basal neurotransmission was unaffected. These data are in agreement with normal learning and memory in the courtship conditioning paradigm. However, a disturbed branching phenotype at the axon terminals of the dorsal cluster neurons (DCN was detected. Interestingly, overexpression of HUWE1 was found to decrease the protein levels of dishevelled (dsh by 50%. As dsh as well as Fz2 mutant flies showed the same disturbed DCN branching phenotype, and the constitutive active homolog of β-catenin, armadillo, could partially rescue this phenotype, our data strongly suggest that increased dosage of HUWE1 compromises the Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly by enhancing the degradation of dsh.

  7. Ablation of p120-Catenin Altering the Activity of Small GTPase in Human Lung Cancer Cells

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    Nan LIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective p120-catenin (p120ctn, a member of the Armadillo gene family, has emerged as an important modulator of small GTPase activities. Therefore, it plays novel roles in tumor malignant phenotype, such as invasion and metastasis, whose mechanism are not well clarified yet. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of p120ctn on the regulation of small GTP family members in lung cancer and the effects to lung cancer invasions andmetastasis. Methods After p120ctn was knocked down by siRNA, in vivo and in vitro analysis was applied to investigate the role and possible mechanism of p120ctn in lung cancer, such as Western Blot, pull-down analysis, and nude mice models. Results p120ctn depletion inactivated RhoA, with the the activity of Cdc42 and Rac1 increased, the invasiveness of lung cancer cells was promoted both in vitro and in vivo . Conclusion p120ctn gene knockdown enhances the metastasis of lung cancer cells, probably by altering expression of small GTPase, such as inactivation of RhoA and activation of Cdc42/Rac1.

  8. Using Remote Sensing and Random Forest to Assess the Conservation Status of Critical Cerrado Habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Jason Reynolds

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which may also be used to map critical habitat for endangered species. We used a Random Forest algorithm to perform a supervised classification on a set of Landsat 8 images. To determine habitat fragmentation for the Cerrado, we used Fragstats. A habitat connectivity analysis was performed using Linkage Mapper. Our final classification had an overall accuracy of 88%. Our classification produced higher accuracies (72% in predicting Cerrado than existing government maps. We found that remaining Cerrado habitats were severely fragmented. Four potential corridors were identified in the southwest of Mato Grosso do Sul, where large Cerrado patches are located. Only two large patches remain in Mato Grosso do Sul: one within the Kadiwéu Indian Reserve, and one near the southeastern edge of the Pantanal-dominated landscape. These results are alarming for rare species requiring larger tracts of habitat such as the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 promotes Caco-2 cell proliferation and migration by targeting CTNND1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; LIU Yu-lin; CHEN Guang-xiang; CUI Bin; WANG Jin-shen; SHI Yu-long; LI Le-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can be induced by inflammatory cytokines,oxidation,ischemia,hypoxia,and endotoxins.As a "graft survival protective gene," HO-1 is a hot spot in organ transplantation research.However,the role of HO-1 gene expression in the function of human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) cells has not been reported previously.Methods The role of HO-1 in the proliferation and migration of Caco-2 cells was analyzed using a stable HO-1 expression plasmid.We constructed a recombinant adeno-associated virus plasmid containing the HO-1 gene,heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1),which was transfected into Caco-2 intestinal cells.We identified a number of target genes by global microarray analysis combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.Results Our results showed that significant HO-1 upregulation was demonstrated in the Caco-2 cells after HO-1 transfection.Restoration of HO-1 expression promoted proliferation and invasion in vitro.The CTNND1 gene,a member of the armadillo protein family,was identified as a direct HO-1 target gene.Conclusion Overexpression of HO-1 promotes Caco-2 cell proliferation and migration by targeting the CTNND1 gene.

  10. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik Skov; Jensen, Kjeld; Christiansen, Martin Peter; Giselsson, Thomas Mosgaard; Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2016-01-01

    The stricter legislation within the European Union for the regulation of herbicides that are prone to leaching causes a greater economic burden on the agricultural industry through taxation. Owing to the increased economic burden, research in reducing herbicide usage has been prompted. High-resolution images from digital cameras support the studying of plant characteristics. These images can also be utilized to analyze shape and texture characteristics for weed identification. Instead of detecting weed patches, weed density can be estimated at a sub-patch level, through which even the identification of a single plant is possible. The aim of this study is to adapt the monocot and dicot coverage ratio vision (MoDiCoVi) algorithm to estimate dicotyledon leaf cover, perform grid spraying in real time, and present initial results in terms of potential herbicide savings in maize. The authors designed and executed an automated, large-scale field trial supported by the Armadillo autonomous tool carrier robot. The field trial consisted of 299 maize plots. Half of the plots (parcels) were planned with additional seeded weeds; the other half were planned with naturally occurring weeds. The in-situ evaluation showed that, compared to conventional broadcast spraying, the proposed method can reduce herbicide usage by 65% without measurable loss in biological effect. PMID:27827908

  11. A suppressor/enhancer screen in Drosophila reveals a role for wnt-mediated lipid metabolism in primordial germ cell migration.

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    Mark A McElwain

    Full Text Available Wnt proteins comprise a large family of secreted ligands implicated in a wide variety of biological roles. WntD has previously been shown to inhibit the nuclear accumulation of Dorsal/NF-κB protein during embryonic dorsal/ventral patterning and the adult innate immune response, independent of the well-studied Armadillo/β-catenin pathway. In this paper, we present a novel phenotype for WntD mutant embryos, suggesting that this gene is involved in migration of primordial germ cells (PGC to the embryonic gonad. Additionally, we describe a genetic suppressor/enhancer screen aimed at identifying genes required for WntD signal transduction, based on the previous observation that maternal overexpression of WntD results in lethally dorsalized embryos. Using an algorithm to narrow down our hits from the screen, we found two novel WntD signaling components: Fz4, a member of the Frizzled family, and the Drosophila Ceramide Kinase homolog, Dcerk. We show here that Dcerk and Dmulk (Drosophila Multi-substrate lipid kinase redundantly mediate PGC migration. Our data are consistent with a model in which the activity of lipid phosphate phosphatases shapes a concentration gradient of ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P, the product of Dcerk, allowing proper PGC migration.

  12. Applications of ultrasound to veterinary diagnostics in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C W; Wingfield, W E; Boon, J A

    1982-01-01

    Animal patients at Colorado State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital as well as beagles at the Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory (CRHL) have been routinely evaluated using a variety of ultrasonic procedures that are commonplace in human medicine. The results from these clinical investigations have provided diagnostic information which in many cases has not been available using other clinical testing methods. Dogs, cats, horses, and cattle have been the primary animals evaluated, but more exotic subjects such as rabbits, ferrets, goats, and armadillos have also been examined. Standard M mode echocardiographic and classic contact scanning have been used to evaluate the heart and abdominal-pelvic areas respectively. Recently, real time scanning has been added to our capabilities for evaluating animal subjects. These clinical studies, while obviously adding to veterinary diagnostics have also become an exciting new area in the veterinary teaching program. Ultrasound has shown potential in a variety of studies employing animal models, i.e., aging effects on the heart in beagles and anthracycline-induced myocardial dysfunction in rabbits.

  13. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Stigaard Laursen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The stricter legislation within the European Union for the regulation of herbicides that are prone to leaching causes a greater economic burden on the agricultural industry through taxation. Owing to the increased economic burden, research in reducing herbicide usage has been prompted. High-resolution images from digital cameras support the studying of plant characteristics. These images can also be utilized to analyze shape and texture characteristics for weed identification. Instead of detecting weed patches, weed density can be estimated at a sub-patch level, through which even the identification of a single plant is possible. The aim of this study is to adapt the monocot and dicot coverage ratio vision (MoDiCoVi algorithm to estimate dicotyledon leaf cover, perform grid spraying in real time, and present initial results in terms of potential herbicide savings in maize. The authors designed and executed an automated, large-scale field trial supported by the Armadillo autonomous tool carrier robot. The field trial consisted of 299 maize plots. Half of the plots (parcels were planned with additional seeded weeds; the other half were planned with naturally occurring weeds. The in-situ evaluation showed that, compared to conventional broadcast spraying, the proposed method can reduce herbicide usage by 65% without measurable loss in biological effect.

  14. The Troll in Toll: Mal and Tram as bridges for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheedy, Frederick J; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2007-08-01

    Signaling by two of the most important bacteria-sensing TLRs, TLR2 and TLR4, involves two adaptor proteins, MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal) and Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (Trif)-related adaptor molecule (TRAM). Recently, new insights into the functioning of these two adapters have emerged. Mal is required by both TLRs to act as a bridge to recruit the adaptor MyD88, leading ultimately to NF-kappaB activation. Similarly, TRAM acts as a bridge to recruit TRIF to the TLR4 complex, leading to activation of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3. Consistent with Mal and TRAM being key points of control, recent evidence suggests that they are subject to regulation by phosphorylation. Further, a variant in Mal in humans has been found to protect against multiple infectious diseases. Finally, another TIR domain-containing adaptor, sterile alpha and HEAT/armadillo motif protein (SARM), has been shown to act as an inhibitor of TRIF-dependent signaling. These recent discoveries add to the complexity of TLR signaling and highlight specific control mechanisms for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling.

  15. Functional analyses in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera) support a role for Wnt signaling in body segmentation but not appendage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, David R; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2005-07-15

    Specification of the proximal-distal (PD) axis of insect appendages is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, where conserved signaling molecules encoded by the genes decapentaplegic (dpp) and wingless (wg) play key roles. However, the development of appendages from imaginal discs as in Drosophila is a derived state, while more basal insects produce appendages from embryonic limb buds. Therefore, the universality of the Drosophila limb PD axis specification mechanism has been debated since dpp expression in more basal insect species differs dramatically from Drosophila. Here, we test the function of Wnt signaling in the development of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a species with the basal state of appendage development from limb buds. RNA interference of wg and pangolin (pan) produce defects in the germband and eyes, but not in the appendages. Distal-less and dachshund, two genes regulated by Wg signaling in Drosophila and expressed in specific PD domains along the limbs of both species, are expressed normally in the limbs of pan-depleted Oncopeltus embryos. Despite these apparently paradoxical results, Armadillo protein, the transducer of Wnt signaling, does not accumulate properly in the nuclei of cells in the legs of pan-depleted embryos. In contrast, engrailed RNAi in Oncopeltus produces cuticular and appendage defects similar to Drosophila. Therefore, our data suggest that Wg signaling is functionally conserved in the development of the germband, while it is not essential in the specification of the limb PD axis in Oncopeltus and perhaps basal insects.

  16. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

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    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  17. Identification of novel NPRAP/δ-catenin-interacting proteins and the direct association of NPRAP with dynamin 2.

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    Carolina Koutras

    Full Text Available Neural plakophilin-related armadillo protein (NPRAP or δ-catenin is a neuronal-specific protein that is best known for its interaction with presenilin 1 (PS1. Interestingly, the hemizygous loss of NPRAP is associated with severe mental retardation in cri du chat syndrome (CDCS, and mutations in PS1 cause an aggressive, early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease. Until recently, studies on the function of NPRAP have focused on its ability to modulate dendritic protrusion elaboration through its binding to cell adhesion and scaffolding molecules. However, mounting evidence indicates that NPRAP participates in intracellular signaling and exists in the nucleus, where it modulates gene expression. This apparent bifunctional nature suggests an elaborate neuronal role, but how NPRAP came to participate in such distinct subcellular events remains a mystery. To gain insight into this pathway, we immunoprecipitated NPRAP from human SH SY5Y cells and identified several novel interacting proteins by mass spectrometry. These included neurofilament alpha-internexin, interferon regulatory protein 2 binding factors, and dynamins 1 and 2. We further validated dynamin 2/NPRAP colocalization and direct interaction in vivo, confirming their bona fide partnership. Interestingly, dynamin 2 has established roles in endocytosis and actin assembly, and both of these processes have the potential to interface with the cell adhesion and intracellular signaling processes that involve NPRAP. Our data provide new avenues for approaching NPRAP biology and suggest a broader role for this protein than previously thought.

  18. A rewiew of the subgenus Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962; with description of a new species from the brazilian Amazon Basin (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

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    Jorge R. Arias

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The subgenus Trichopygomyia Barreto, 1962 of the phlebotomine genus Lutzomyia França, 1924 is reviewed. This subgenus corresponds to the informal species group longispina of Theodor (1965. Lutzomyia (Trichopygomya ratcliffei n.sp. from the Brazilian Amazon Basin is described. Figures, keys, distribution maps and notes on ecology are presented for all the known forms. The better known species are most frequently encountered in armadillo burrows and, therefore, could well be vectors of Leishmania.O subgênero Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962 do flebótomo Lutzomyia spp. França, 1924 é revisto e corresponde às espécies incomuns do grupo longispina de Theodor (1965. É também descrita Lutzomyia (Trichopygomyia ratcliffei n.sp. da Bacia Amazônica. Figuras, chaves, mapas de distribuição e notas sobre ecologia são apresentados para todas as formas conhecidas. As espécies mais conhecidas são freqüentemente encontradas em todas de tatu e, portanto, podem ser vetores de Leishmania.

  19. Functional and genomic analyses of alpha-solenoid proteins.

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    David Fournier

    Full Text Available Alpha-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others. While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some alpha-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of alpha-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of alpha-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of alpha-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known alpha-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that alpha-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of alpha-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that alpha-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of alpha-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/~ard2/.

  20. Toll-8/Tollo negatively regulates antimicrobial response in the Drosophila respiratory epithelium.

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    Idir Akhouayri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barrier epithelia that are persistently exposed to microbes have evolved potent immune tools to eliminate such pathogens. If mechanisms that control Drosophila systemic responses are well-characterized, the epithelial immune responses remain poorly understood. Here, we performed a genetic dissection of the cascades activated during the immune response of the Drosophila airway epithelium i.e. trachea. We present evidence that bacteria induced-antimicrobial peptide (AMP production in the trachea is controlled by two signalling cascades. AMP gene transcription is activated by the inducible IMD pathway that acts non-cell autonomously in trachea. This IMD-dependent AMP activation is antagonized by a constitutively active signalling module involving the receptor Toll-8/Tollo, the ligand Spätzle2/DNT1 and Ect-4, the Drosophila ortholog of the human Sterile alpha and HEAT/ARMadillo motif (SARM. Our data show that, in addition to Toll-1 whose function is essential during the systemic immune response, Drosophila relies on another Toll family member to control the immune response in the respiratory epithelium.

  1. Dynamic and Static Interactions between p120 Catenin and E-Cadherin Regulate the Stability of Cell-Cell Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, Noboru; Lee, Seung-Hye; Liu, Shuang; Li, Guang-Yao; Smith, Matthew J.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko (OCI); (UCSF)

    2010-04-26

    The association of p120 catenin (p120) with the juxtamembrane domain (JMD) of the cadherin cytoplasmic tail is critical for the surface stability of cadherin-catenin cell-cell adhesion complexes. Here, we present the crystal structure of p120 isoform 4A in complex with the JMD core region (JMD{sub core}) of E-cadherin. The p120 armadillo repeat domain contains modular binding pockets that are complementary to electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the JMD{sub core}. Single-residue mutations within the JMD{sub core}-binding site of p120 abolished its interaction with E- and N-cadherins in vitro and in cultured cells. These mutations of p120 enabled us to clearly differentiate between N-cadherin-dependent and -independent steps of neuronal dendritic spine morphogenesis crucial for synapse development. NMR studies revealed that p120 regulates the stability of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by associating with the majority of the JMD, including residues implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and Hakai-dependent ubiquitination of E-cadherin, through its discrete dynamic and static binding sites.

  2. LOSS OF ATARM GENE LEADS TO THE DEFECTION OF THERMOTOLRANCE IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA%缺失AtArm基因导致拟南芥耐热性下降

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘箭; 王翠; 张景霞

    2009-01-01

    生物信息学数据表明,At3g09350基因编码一种受高温诱导的armadillo,beta-catenin repeat蛋白,但其生物学功能迄今不详,我们利用基因组DNA PCR、RT-PCR和Western-blotting方法,对该T-DNA插入拟南芥突变体进行了筛选,获得At3g09350基因被敲除的T2代纯合突变体,通过表型分析,我们发现,该突变体的获得耐热性明显下降,呈现热敏感表型.分子进化分析结果表明,该基因为微牛物和动物Hsp70s的核苷酸交换因子的同源物,它的缺失可能导致Hsp70s分子伴侣活性下降,进而导致拟南芥耐热性下降.

  3. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tatsuo [Department of Medicinal Biotechnology, Institute for Medicinal Research, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-78 Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505 (Japan); Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko [Department of Molecular Biophysical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women' s University, Kodo, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan); Itoh, Kohji, E-mail: kitoh@ph.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biotechnology, Institute for Medicinal Research, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-78 Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505 (Japan); Kuwahara, Jun, E-mail: jkuwahar@dwc.doshisha.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biophysical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women' s University, Kodo, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  4. THE HEAT-SENSITIVE ANALYSIS OF THE atfes1a MUTANT SEEDS IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA%拟南芥atfes1a突变体种子的热敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖; 杨传燕; 刘箭

    2010-01-01

    根据基因芯片数据等生物信息学资料,我们锁定一些未知的且被高温诱导的基因,并获得了一个推测编码蛋白含armadillo/beta-catenin repeat(简称ARM)结构域的突变体salk-021784,该突变体缺失AtFes1A基因,该基因编码一种受高温诱导的ARM 蛋白.利用抗体检测了在拟南芥种子发育过程中AtFes1A的热诱导表达特征, 通过表型分析发现,热处理后的突变体种子萌发率明显低于热处理后的野生型,表明AtFes1A蛋白与拟南芥耐热有关.

  5. Pauci- and Multibacillary Leprosy: Two Distinct, Genetically Neglected Diseases.

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    Jean Gaschignard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available After sustained exposure to Mycobacterium leprae, only a subset of exposed individuals develops clinical leprosy. Moreover, leprosy patients show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that extend from the paucibacillary (PB to the multibacillary (MB form of the disease. This "polarization" of leprosy has long been a major focus of investigation for immunologists because of the different immune response in these two forms. But while leprosy per se has been shown to be under tight human genetic control, few epidemiological or genetic studies have focused on leprosy subtypes. Using PubMed, we collected available data in English on the epidemiology of leprosy polarization and the possible role of human genetics in its pathophysiology until September 2015. At the genetic level, we assembled a list of 28 genes from the literature that are associated with leprosy subtypes or implicated in the polarization process. Our bibliographical search revealed that improved study designs are needed to identify genes associated with leprosy polarization. Future investigations should not be restricted to a subanalysis of leprosy per se studies but should instead contrast MB to PB individuals. We show the latter approach to be the most powerful design for the identification of genetic polarization determinants. Finally, we bring to light the important resource represented by the nine-banded armadillo model, a unique animal model for leprosy.

  6. Sôbre o Phlebotomus Brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932 (Diptera, Psychodidae

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    O. Mangabeira

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1939, Mangabeira obtained, under laboratory conditions, the development of eggs of Phlebotomus brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932, collected at Lassance (typical locality, Minas Gerais, Brasil. He then studied the female and immature stages of this Phlebotomus. The results of these observations plus some more recent data on the male, geographical distribution and bionomics are presented. Morphologically it is closest to Phlebotomus runoides. However, the male Phlebotomus brasiliensis differs from all other Phlebotomus because of its very long spicules, similar to those of Brumptomyia. The female differs by its longer ducts, and by possessing only four horizontal teeth in the buccal cavity, whereas P. runoides has approximately 12 teeth. The pupae of P. brasiliensis is characterized by its two pre-alar setae, which are very simple and small and by the abdominal setae, which are not planted on a protruding tubercle. The fourth stage larvae main characteristics are very thin antennae, inserted on a protruding tuberculum, and slightly brush-like hind frontal setae. P. brasiliensis is here reported, for the first time, for the State of Bahia (Cachoeira, Pojuca and Salvador. The species has almost always been found in armadillo burrows. In the State of Bahia it is more frequent during the dry season. Under laboratory conditions, the female lays about 53 eggs.

  7. Expression of Plakophilins (PKP1, PKP2, and PKP3 in Gastric Cancers

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    Okumus Nilgun O

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of cell-cell junction proteins (including armadillo proteins in tumor biology is known, but limited with regard to plakophilins. We explored the relationship between plakophilins (PKP1, PKP2, PKP3 to gastric cancer via immunohistochemical techniques. Methods We compared the immunohistochemistry of PKPs in 34 gastric adenocarcinomas and 20 normal gastric tissues. Results In gastric cancer, PKP1 expression was unchanged but PKP2 and PKP3 were significantly decreased as compared to normal controls. There was no observable clinical association with PKP1 or PKP2 expression; however, low PKP3 level and poor prognosis appeared to correlate with regards to node number and tumor stage. The mean disease-free survival (DFS was 38 ± 3 months (range: 32 - 44 and mean overall survival (OS 42 ± 4 months (range: 38 - 50. Decreased PKP2 appeared to negatively impact DFS. Conclusion Decreased PKP2 and PKP3 may be early prognostic markers and loss of PKP3 expression during gastric carcinoma progression may indicate an invasive phenotype.

  8. Dermatitis herpetiformis bodies and autoantibodies to noncutaneous organs and mitochondria in dermatitis herpetiformis

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The precise nature of the previously described dermatitis herpetiformis bodies remains unknown.Aims: Our study was conducted to investigate the nature of dermatitis herpetiformis bodies in the skin in 7 cases of dermatitis herpetiformis, and to search for the presence of autoantibodies in other organsMethods: We utilized clinical, histopathologic, and immunologic methods to evaluate these patients.Results: Dermatitis herpetiformis bodies were found to be comprised of an amalgamation of immunoglobulins A and M, as well as molecules reactive with antibodies to armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome, desmoplakins 1 and 2, and plakophilin 4. In addition, we found immunologic colocalization with selected autoantibodies associated with mitochondria in the skin, heart, kidney, and peripheral nerves. The dermatitis herpetiformis bodies did not demonstrate immunologic colocalization with tissue/epidermal transglutaminase.Conclusion: The complete biochemical nature of dermatitis herpetiformis bodies requires further characterization. Dermatitis herpetiformis bodies in these patients appear to be distinctly different than cytoid bodies. Further studies are required to determine if the antibodies to noncutaneous organs are pathogenic, and/or contribute to systemic morbility in dermatitis herpetiformis patients.

  9. The Drosophila genes crumbs and stardust are involved in the biogenesis of adherens junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, F; Wodarz, A; Lee, B; Knust, E; Skaer, H

    1996-03-01

    Morphogenetic movements of epithelia during development underlie the normal elaboration of the final body plan. The tissue integrity critical for these movements is conferred by anchorage of the cytoskeleton by adherens junctions, initially spot and later belt-like, zonular structures, which encircle the apical side of the cell. Loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila genes crumbs and stardust lead to the loss of cell polarity in most ectodermally derived epithelia, followed in some, such as the epidermis, by extensive apoptosis. Here we show that both mutants fail to establish proper zonulae adherentes in the epidermis. Our results suggest that the two genes are involved in different aspects of this process. Further, they are compatible with the hypothesis that crumbs delimits the apical border, where the zonula adherens usually forms and where Crumbs protein is normally most abundant. In contrast, stardust seems to be required at an earlier stage for the assembly of the spot adherence junctions. In both mutants, the defect observed at the ultrastructural level are preceded by a misdistribution of Armadillo and DE-cadherin, the homologues of beta-catenin and E-cadherin, respectively, which are two constituents of the vertebrate adherens junctions. Strikingly, expansion of the apical membrane domain in epidermal cells by overexpression of crumbs also abolishes the formation of adherens junctions and results in the disruption of tissue integrity, but without loss of membrane polarity. This result supports the view that membrane polarity is independent of the formation of adherens junctions in epidermal cells.

  10. Palmitoylation of plakophilin is required for desmosome assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brett J.; Johnson, Kristen E.; McGuinn, Kathleen P.; Saowapa, Jintana; Svoboda, Robert A.; Mahoney, My G.; Johnson, Keith R.; Wahl, James K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Desmosomes are prominent adhesive junctions found in various epithelial tissues. The cytoplasmic domains of desmosomal cadherins interact with a host of desmosomal plaque proteins, including plakophilins, plakoglobin and desmoplakin, which, in turn, recruit the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell–cell contact. Although the individual components of the desmosome are known, mechanisms regulating the assembly of this junction are poorly understood. Protein palmitoylation is a posttranslational lipid modification that plays an important role in protein trafficking and function. Here, we demonstrate that multiple desmosomal components are palmitoylated in vivo. Pharmacologic inhibition of palmitoylation disrupts desmosome assembly at cell–cell borders. We mapped the site of plakophilin palmitoylation to a conserved cysteine residue present in the armadillo repeat domain. Mutation of this single cysteine residue prevents palmitoylation, disrupts plakophilin incorporation into the desmosomal plaque and prevents plakophilin-dependent desmosome assembly. Finally, plakophilin mutants unable to become palmitoylated act in a dominant-negative manner to disrupt proper localization of endogenous desmosome components and decrease desmosomal adhesion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that palmitoylation of desmosomal components is important for desmosome assembly and adhesion. PMID:25002405

  11. Structural basis for the regulation of nuclear import of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) by phosphorylation of the nuclear localization signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Ryohei; Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-02-26

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is expressed in every EBV-positive tumor and is essential for the maintenance, replication, and transcription of the EBV genome in the nucleus of host cells. EBNA1 is a serine phosphoprotein, and it has been shown that phosphorylation of S385 in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of EBNA1 increases the binding affinity to the nuclear import adaptor importin-α1 as well as importin-α5, and stimulates nuclear import of EBNA1. To gain insights into how phosphorylation of the EBNA1 NLS regulates nuclear import, we have determined the crystal structures of two peptide complexes of importin-α1: one with S385-phosphorylated EBNA1 NLS peptide, determined at 2.0 Å resolution, and one with non-phosphorylated EBNA1 NLS peptide, determined at 2.2 Å resolution. The structures show that EBNA1 NLS binds to the major and minor NLS-binding sites of importin-α1, and indicate that the binding affinity of the EBNA1 NLS to the minor NLS-binding site could be enhanced by phosphorylation of S385 through electrostatic interaction between the phosphate group of phospho-S385 and K392 of importin-α1 (corresponding to R395 of importin-α5) on armadillo repeat 8.

  12. Induction of cell-mediated immunity to Mycobacterium leprae in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, P.J.; Lefford, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The immune response of mice to armadillo-derived, irradiation-killed Mycobacterium leprae (I-ML) was investigated. Following injection of 100 microgram of I-ML into the left hind footpads of mice, a state of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was engendered to antigens of M. leprae. The evidence for CMI was as follows: (1) development of delayed-type hypersensitivity to both human tuberculin purified protein derivative and soluble M. leprae antigens; (2) T-lymphocyte-dependent macrophage activation at the inoculation site; (3) specific systemaic resistance to the cross-reactive species M. tuberculosis; and (4) immunopotentiation of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to an unrelated antigen. The CMI induced by I-ML in aqueous suspension was greater than that obtained with the same antigen in water-in-oil emulsion, even though the latter generated a more severe reaction at the site of immunization. I-ML also induced a stronger CMI response than the corresponding dose of heat-killed BCG.

  13. Structural basis for the recognition of Asef by adenomatous polyposis coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenyi Zhang; Ping Xu; Jian Zhang; Geng Wu; Leyi Chen; Lei Gao; Kui Lin; Liang Zhu; Yang Lu; Xiaoshan Shi; Yuan Gao; Jing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates cell-cell adhesion and cell migration through activating the APC-stimulated guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF; Aset),which is usually autoinhibited through the binding between its Src homology 3 (SH3) and Dbl homology (DH) domains.The APC-activated Asef stimulates the small GTPase Cdc42,which leads to decreased cell-cell adherence and enhanced cell migration.In colorectal cancers,truncated APC constitutively activates Asef and promotes cancer cell migration and angiogenesis.Here,we report crystal structures of the human APC/Asef complex.We find that the armadillo repeat domain of APC uses a highly conserved surface groove to recognize the APC-binding region (ABR) of Asef,conformation of which changes dramatically upon binding to APC.Key residues on APC and Asef for the complex formation were mutated and their importance was demonstrated by binding and activity assays.Structural superimposition of the APC/Asef complex with autoinhibited Asef suggests that the binding between APC and Asef might create a steric clash between AsefDH domain and APC,which possibly leads to a conformational change in Asef that stimulates its GEF activity.Our structures thus elucidate the molecular mechanism of Asef recognition by APC,as well as provide a potential target for pharmaceutical intervention against cancers.

  14. Plakophilin-1, a Novel Wnt Signaling Regulator, Is Critical for Tooth Development and Ameloblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Tooth morphogenesis is initiated by reciprocal interactions between the ectoderm and neural crest-derived mesenchyme, and the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in this process. We found that Plakophilin (PKP1, which is associated with diseases such as ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome, was highly expressed in teeth and skin, and was upregulated during tooth development. We hypothesized that PKP1 regulates Wnt signaling via its armadillo repeat domain in a manner similar to β-catenin. To determine its role in tooth development, we performed Pkp1 knockdown experiments using ex vivo organ cultures and cell cultures. Loss of Pkp1 reduced the size of tooth germs and inhibited dental epithelial cell proliferation, which was stimulated by Wnt3a. Furthermore, transfected PKP1-emerald green fluorescent protein was translocated from the plasma membrane to the nucleus upon stimulation with Wnt3a and LiCl, which required the PKP1 N terminus (amino acids 161 to 270. Localization of PKP1, which is known as an adhesion-related desmosome component, shifted to the plasma membrane during ameloblast differentiation. In addition, Pkp1 knockdown disrupted the localization of Zona occludens 1 in tight junctions and inhibited ameloblast differentiation; the two proteins were shown to directly interact by immunoprecipitation. These results implicate the participation of PKP1 in early tooth morphogenesis as an effector of canonical Wnt signaling that controls ameloblast differentiation via regulation of the cell adhesion complex.

  15. Identification of a novel mitochondrial protein, short postembryonic roots 1 (SPR1), involved in root development and iron homeostasis in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liqiang; Wu, Zhongchang; Hao, Xi; Carrie, Chris; Zheng, Libin; Whelan, James; Wu, Yunrong; Wang, Shoufeng; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao

    2011-02-01

    • A rice mutant, Oryza sativa short postembryonic roots 1 (Osspr1), has been characterized. It has short postembryonic roots, including adventitious and lateral roots, and a lower iron content in its leaves. • OsSPR1 was identified by map-based cloning. It encodes a novel mitochondrial protein with the Armadillo-like repeat domain. • Osspr1 mutants exhibited decreased root cell elongation. The iron content of the mutant shoots was significantly altered compared with that of wild-type shoots. A similar pattern of alteration of manganese and zinc concentrations in shoots was also observed. Complementation of the mutant confirmed that OsSPR1 is involved in post-embryonic root elongation and iron homeostasis in rice. OsSPR1 was found to be ubiquitously expressed in various tissues throughout the plant. The transcript abundance of various genes involved in iron uptake and signaling via both strategies I and II was similar in roots of wild-type and mutant plants, but was higher in the leaves of mutant plants. • Thus, a novel mitochondrial protein that is involved in root elongation and plays a role in metal ion homeostasis has been identified.

  16. The PCP pathway regulates Baz planar distribution in epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Le Bivic, André

    2016-01-01

    The localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins along the Z-axis of epithelial cells is well understood while their distribution in the plane of the epithelium is poorly characterised. Here we provide a systematic description of the planar localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins in the Drosophila ommatidial epithelium. We show that the adherens junction proteins Shotgun and Armadillo, as well as the baso-lateral complexes, are bilateral, i.e. present on both sides of cell interfaces. In contrast, we report that other key adherens junction proteins, Bazooka and the myosin regulatory light chain (Spaghetti squash) are unilateral, i.e. present on one side of cell interfaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate that planar cell polarity (PCP) and not the apical determinants Crumbs and Par-6 control Bazooka unilaterality in cone cells. Altogether, our work unravels an unexpected organisation and combination of apico-basal, cytoskeletal and planar polarity proteins that is different on either side of cell-cell interfaces and unique for the different contacts of the same cell. PMID:27624969

  17. Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Michael; Fariña, Richard A.; Lawless, Craig; Tambusso, P. Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Carlini, Alfredo A.; Powell, Jaime E.; Martinez, Jorge G.

    2015-01-01

    For over 200 years, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas that have ranged from giant ground sloths to the ‘native’ South American ungulates, groups of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America. Ground sloths belong to the South American xenarthrans, a group with modern although morphologically and ecologically very different representatives (anteaters, armadillos and sloths), which has been proposed to be one of the four main eutherian clades. Recently, proteomics analyses of bone collagen have recently been used to yield a molecular phylogeny for a range of mammals including the unusual ‘Malagasy aardvark’ shown to be most closely related to the afrotherian tenrecs, and the south American ungulates supporting their morphological association with condylarths. However, proteomics results generate partial sequence information that could impact upon the phylogenetic placement that has not been appropriately tested. For comparison, this paper examines the phylogenetic potential of proteomics-based sequencing through the analysis of collagen extracted from two extinct giant ground sloths, Lestodon and Megatherium. The ground sloths were placed as sister taxa to extant sloths, but with a closer relationship between Lestodon and the extant sloths than the basal Megatherium. These results highlight that proteomics methods could yield plausible phylogenies that share similarities with other methods, but have the potential to be more useful in fossils beyond the limits of ancient DNA survival. PMID:26540101

  18. Do apprehended saffron finches know how to survive predators? A careful look at reintroduction candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Luisa Mascarenhas Ladeia; Young, Robert John; Galdino, Conrado Aleksander Barbosa; Vasconcellos, Angélica da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Wildlife trafficking is a major factor contributing to the reduction of biological diversity. In Brazil, trafficked animals are apprehended by environmental agencies and released in the wild. The maintenance of wild animals in captivity may jeopardize their survival in the wild, for example, by reducing their ability to recognize a predator. Saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola) are among the most trafficked Brazilian birds. Twenty-eight apprehended saffron finches were submitted to Temperament and Predator-recognition tests, with presentation of predator and non-predator models: a live and a taxidermised hawk, a taxidermised armadillo and a Lego cube. The captive saffron finches have retained general anti-predator responses, such as increasing alertness, avoiding back-facing and keeping distance when presented with potential predators. The birds responded more strongly to the live hawk than to the cube. Although some responses to the other stimuli were not statistically different from each other, a decrease in intensity of response with the decrease in threat level was remarkable. We found no relationship between temperament traits and responses to predators: a possible consequence of husbandry practices in captivity. Our results indicate saffron finches may retain basic anti-predator responses in captivity, which favours release and reintroduction programmes: information relevant for conservation management.

  19. Influence of Tertiary paleoenvironmental changes on the diversification of South American mammals: a relaxed molecular clock study within xenarthrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcaíno Sergio F

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic data among organisms allow the reconstruction of their phylogenies and evolutionary time scales. Molecular timings have been recently used to suggest that environmental global change have shaped the evolutionary history of diverse terrestrial organisms. Living xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths constitute an ideal model for studying the influence of past environmental changes on species diversification. Indeed, extant xenarthran species are relicts from an evolutionary radiation enhanced by their isolation in South America during the Tertiary era, a period for which major climate variations and tectonic events are relatively well documented. Results We applied a Bayesian approach to three nuclear genes in order to relax the molecular clock assumption while accounting for differences in evolutionary dynamics among genes and incorporating paleontological uncertainties. We obtained a molecular time scale for the evolution of extant xenarthrans and other placental mammals. Divergence time estimates provide substantial evidence for contemporaneous diversification events among independent xenarthran lineages. This correlated pattern of diversification might possibly relate to major environmental changes that occurred in South America during the Cenozoic. Conclusions The observed synchronicity between planetary and biological events suggests that global change played a crucial role in shaping the evolutionary history of extant xenarthrans. Our findings open ways to test this hypothesis further in other South American mammalian endemics like hystricognath rodents, platyrrhine primates, and didelphid marsupials.

  20. The immune adaptor molecule SARM modulates tumor necrosis factor alpha production and microglia activation in the brainstem and restricts West Nile Virus pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szretter, Kristy J; Samuel, Melanie A; Gilfillan, Susan; Fuchs, Anja; Colonna, Marco; Diamond, Michael S

    2009-09-01

    Sterile alpha and HEAT/Armadillo motif (SARM) is a highly conserved Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-containing adaptor protein that is believed to negatively regulate signaling of the pathogen recognition receptors Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4. To test its physiological function in the context of a microbial infection, we generated SARM(-/-) mice and evaluated the impact of this deficiency on the pathogenesis of West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic flavivirus that requires TLR signaling to restrict infection. Although SARM was preferentially expressed in cells of the central nervous system (CNS), studies with primary macrophages, neurons, or astrocytes showed no difference in viral growth kinetics. In contrast, viral replication was increased specifically in the brainstem of SARM(-/-) mice, and this was associated with enhanced mortality after inoculation with a virulent WNV strain. A deficiency of SARM was also linked to reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), decreased microglia activation, and increased neuronal death in the brainstem after WNV infection. Thus, SARM appears to be unique among the TIR adaptor molecules, since it functions to restrict viral infection and neuronal injury in a brain region-specific manner, possibly by modulating the activation of resident CNS inflammatory cells.

  1. The alterations in the extracellular matrix composition guide the repair of damaged liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, Mariliis; Kangur, Triin; Viil, Janeli; Mäemets-Allas, Kristina; Minajeva, Ave; Vadi, Krista; Antsov, Mikk; Lapidus, Natalia; Järvekülg, Martin; Jaks, Viljar

    2016-06-06

    While the cellular mechanisms of liver regeneration have been thoroughly studied, the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in liver regeneration is still poorly understood. We utilized a proteomics-based approach to identify the shifts in ECM composition after CCl4 or DDC treatment and studied their effect on the proliferation of liver cells by combining biophysical and cell culture methods. We identified notable alterations in the ECM structural components (eg collagens I, IV, V, fibronectin, elastin) as well as in non-structural proteins (eg olfactomedin-4, thrombospondin-4, armadillo repeat-containing x-linked protein 2 (Armcx2)). Comparable alterations in ECM composition were seen in damaged human livers. The increase in collagen content and decrease in elastic fibers resulted in rearrangement and increased stiffness of damaged liver ECM. Interestingly, the alterations in ECM components were nonhomogenous and differed between periportal and pericentral areas and thus our experiments demonstrated the differential ability of selected ECM components to regulate the proliferation of hepatocytes and biliary cells. We define for the first time the alterations in the ECM composition of livers recovering from damage and present functional evidence for a coordinated ECM remodelling that ensures an efficient restoration of liver tissue.

  2. Efeito das atividades de ecoturismo sobre a riqueza e a abundância de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte na região do Cristalino, Mato Grosso, Brasil Effect of ecotourism activities on richness and abundance of species of medium and large mammals in the Cristalino region, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido nas Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural Cristalino (670 ha e Lote Cristalino (6.539 ha e no Parque Estadual Cristalino (184.900 ha. Essas unidades de conservação são contíguas e estão localizadas no extremo centro-norte do estado do Mato Grosso, em locais considerados prioritários para a conservação, em função da alta biodiversidade e endemismos, além da elevada pressão antrópica. Desta forma, este trabalho objetivou conhecer, avaliar e comparar a estrutura das populações de mamíferos de médio e grande porte, em termos de riqueza e abundância das espécies em ambientes sem turismo e com atividades de ecoturismo na região do Cristalino. Para tanto, no período compreendido entre maio de 2008 a fevereiro de 2010 foram amostrados ambientes com floresta primária, os quais apresentavam dois níveis de perturbação antrópica: sem turismo e com atividades de ecoturismo. Os dados foram coletados utilizando a amostragem de distâncias em transecções lineares, que totalizou 468,3 Km percorridos nos períodos diurno e noturno, e registro de pegadas em parcelas previamente preparadas (n = 660 parcelas vistoriadas, além de percursos fluviais no rio Cristalino e buscas aleatórias nos locais onde não ocorriam caminhos. Registros de 37 espécies de mamíferos foram obtidos, sendo 33 de médio e grande porte e quatro de pequeno porte. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na riqueza de espécies dos ambientes sem turismo e com ecoturismo, sendo que a similaridade de espécies entre eles foi alta (88%. No entanto, três táxons apresentaram abundância inferior nos ambientes com turismo: Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1766, Mazama spp. e Dasypus kappleri Krauss, 1862. Percebe-se, portanto, que o impacto negativo das atividades de ecoturismo desenvolvidas na área de estudo foi de pequena magnitude, em termos de riqueza e abundância de mamíferos de médio e grande porte. Assim

  3. 阵发性和持续性房颤的分类方法研究%Study on Classification Method for Paroxysmal and Sustained Atrial Fibrillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广雄; 饶妮妮; 钱梦瑶; 刘定宇; 李杰; 尹立雪; 陈序; 王刚

    2012-01-01

    目前,人们对房颤维持和终止的机制还没有完全了解,因此对阵发性房颤和持续性房颤的分类具有非常重要的研究意义.鉴于此,本研究提出一种新的分类方法.根据主成分分析从单导联心电信号中提取出房颤信号,其次计算提取到的房颤信号的特征,最后用分类器对阵发性和持续性房颤进行分类.提出将房颤波的复杂度作为房颤波波动复杂度的表征.对阵发性和持续性房颤分类的实验结果表明,预测的总正确率是90%.在1 000次随机性实验中,最高分类正确率可达到92%,平均正确率为77.12%.该方法可以很好的对两类房颤进行分类,对预测房颤的自发性终止有一定的指导意义.%Known as highly conserved during evolution,the Wnt signaling pathway plays a vital role in regulating animal embryonic axis,embryonic differentiation,and deciding cell polarity and maintaining adult dynamic equilibrium. Mutations or deregulations of its components might cause the occurrence of carcinoma.We studied the role of Wingless/Wntl during larva-adult development of the red flour beetle,Tribolium castaneum,with dsRNA-mediated Wingless( Wg )/Wnt1 gene knocked down.The treated late larvae metamorphosed into pupae with drastically increased wing interval and decreased wing width (P <0.01 ).The pursuant pupa-adult eclosion was also severely affected and most of pupae died during this period.The qPCR result showed that the mRNA level of Cadherin-like and Smoothened (Smo) genes were up-regulated greatly,and that of armadillo-2 was slightly higher,after Wingless/Wnt1 gene was knocked down.We drew the conclusion that Wnt-I signaling pathway is closely related to the proper wing development and adult metamorphosis of Tribolium.In addition,the elevated expression of Cadherin-like and Armadillo-2 may be accountable for the reduced wing width and enlarged wing interval caused by wg gene silencing,because those alterations can either enhance

  4. Pygo基因的细胞定位及其在果蝇发育过程中的表达%CELLULAR LOCALIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF pygo DURING DROSOPHILA DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林欣大; LIN Xin-hua; 程家安

    2003-01-01

    Wingless信号传导是果蝇胚胎和幼虫发育过程中的一个关键性的信号传导通路.已鉴定出来许多参与Wg/Wnt信号传导的Wg或其脊椎动物同源基因Wnt下游传导通路的基因.Wg下游的Wg信号传导是由核TCF/LEF-l通过Armadillo(Arm)/β-catenin介导的.pygopus(pygo)是一个最近发现的Wg/Wnt信号传导通路新成员.通过细胞定位实验发现pygo专一性的表达在细胞核中.运用反义mRNA作探针的原位杂交技术,观察到了pygo基因在果蝇胚胎中的表达特性.虽然pygo普遍表达于果蝇胚胎发生全过程,但pygo在前囊胚层(preblastoderm)中的表达水平相对较高,这说明胚胎发生过程中来自母方的贡献较高.在幼虫组织(包括翅成虫盘,眼成虫盘和腿成虫盘)的发育过程中,pygo的表达水平总的来说比较低.然而,比较翅成虫盘,眼成虫盘和腿成虫盘的pygo表达水平,则在翅成虫盘和腿成虫盘pygo的表达水平相对较高.%Wg/Wnt signaling is a key signaling pathway in Drosophila. Many genes involved in Wingless(wg) signal transduction pathway downstream of Wg, or it' s vertebrate Wg homologue Wnt, have been identified. Transduction of the Wg signal downstream of Wg is mediated by nuclear TCF/LEF-1, through association with Armadillo (Arm)/β-catenin. Pygopus (pygo) is a new identified component in this pathway . Cellular localization experiment showed that pygo was expressed specifically in the nucleus. The expression profile of pygo in embryos was examined using in situ hybridization. Although pygo expressed ubiquitously in the embryos, it expressed at relatively high level in pre-blastoderm embryos which indicate a high degree of maternally provided message, followed by a low level of ubiquitous zygotic expression. This continues into larval tissues (including wing disc, eye disc and leg disc), where pygo appears to be expressed at low level. Comparison of pygo expression levels, in the wing disc, eye disc and leg disc

  5. Hábito alimentar de Triatoma vitticeps no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Feeding patterns of Triatoma vitticeps in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina M Gonçalves

    2000-08-01

    , pig, armadillo, opossum, rodent, and bird. RESULTS: From the total analyzed, 79 were positive and 43 were negative to the nine antisera tested: armadillo (30.3% > human and pig (13.1% > bird and dog (11.5% > horse (5.7% > opossum (4.9% > rodent (4.1% > cow (3.3%. Blood meals ranged from 0 to 4 and 6 in the following distribution: 0 = 25.41%; 1 = 45.08%; 2 = 10.66%; 3 = 6.56%; 4 = 1.64%, and 6 = 0.82%. Nine of the 122 insects captured were not examined, 74 (65.54% were positive for T. cruzi infection and 39 (34.51% were negative. CONCLUSIONS: These results identified the T. vitticeps as being a sylvatic species and trypanosomiasis as being an enzootic disease. Epidemiological vigilance will be important to provide more information regarding the behavior of the species

  6. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Ribeira Valley Speleological Province - 1. Parque Estadual Intervales, state of São Paulo, Brazil Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae na Província Espeleológica do Vale do Ribeira - 1. Parque Estadual Intervales (PEI, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the sandfly fauna and investigation of some ecological aspects of its populations in areas frequented by tourists of the PEI, an Atlantic forest reserve with many caves, were the objective of this study. Captures were undertaken monthly from January 2001 to December 2002, with automatic light traps installed in 13 ecotopes, including caves, forests, domiciliary and peridomiciliary environments, and by aspiration in armadillo burrows. Additionally, although not at regular intervals, Shannon traps were installed in forests and anthropic environments, aspirations were made on cave walls, among roots and fallen leaves, and some insects were captured while biting researchers. A total of 891 sandflies belonging to 21 species were captured. Six hundred specimens representing 19 species were captured with light traps, 215 in anthropic (2.24 insects/trap and 385 in extra-domiciliary (1.46 insects/trap environments. Brumptomyia troglodytes was the most abundant species (the Standardised Index of Species Abundance = 0.705. Pintomyia monticola predominated in the Shannon traps and showed anthropophilic and diurnal activity. Psathyromyia pascalei predominated in the aspirations; the largest number being in armadillo burrows. Eleven species were captured in caves; although some might be troglophiles, the majority used these ecotopes as resting places. Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia neivai and Migonemyia migonei, implicated in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Southeastern Brazilian region, were all found, though in such low densities as to suggest minimal risk of the disease in the PEI.A identificação da fauna flebotomínea e de alguns aspectos ecológicos de suas populações em áreas freqüentadas por turistas no PEI, situado em reserva de mata Atlântica, constituem-se nos objetivos deste estudo. As capturas foram mensais de janeiro/2001 a dezembro/2002, com armadilhas automáticas luminosas em 13 ec

  7. Nuclear Localization of the Autism Candidate Gene Neurobeachin and Functional Interaction with the NOTCH1 Intracellular Domain Indicate a Role in Regulating Transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krizia Tuand

    Full Text Available Neurobeachin (NBEA is an autism spectrum disorders (ASD candidate gene. NBEA deficiency affects regulated secretion, receptor trafficking, synaptic architecture and protein kinase A (PKA-mediated phosphorylation. NBEA is a large multidomain scaffolding protein. From N- to C-terminus, NBEA has a concanavalin A-like lectin domain flanked by armadillo repeats (ACA, an A-kinase anchoring protein domain that can bind to PKA, a domain of unknown function (DUF1088 and a BEACH domain, preceded by a pleckstrin homology-like domain and followed by WD40 repeats (PBW. Although most of these domains mediate protein-protein interactions, no interaction screen has yet been performed.Yeast two-hybrid screens with the ACA and PBW domain modules of NBEA gave a list of interaction partners, which were analyzed for Gene Ontology (GO enrichment. Neuro-2a cells were used for confocal microscopy and nuclear extraction analysis. NOTCH-mediated transcription was studied with luciferase reporter assays and qRT-PCR, combined with NBEA knockdown or overexpression.Both domain modules showed a GO enrichment for the nucleus. PBW almost exclusively interacted with transcription regulators, while ACA interacted with a number of PKA substrates. NBEA was partially localized in the nucleus of Neuro-2a cells, albeit much less than in the cytoplasm. A nuclear localization signal was found in the DUF1088 domain, which was shown to contribute to the nuclear localization of an EGFP-DPBW fusion protein. Yeast two-hybrid identified the Notch1 intracellular domain as a physical interactor of the PBW domain and a role for NBEA as a negative regulator in Notch-mediated transcription was demonstrated.Defining novel interaction partners of conserved NBEA domain modules identified a role for NBEA as transcriptional regulator in the nucleus. The physical interaction of NBEA with NOTCH1 is most relevant for ASD pathogenesis because NOTCH signaling is essential for neural development.

  8. Searching for a Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene in the 22q11 Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN XIE; GUI-ZHI JU; SHU-ZHENG LIU; JIE-PING SHI; YA-QIN YU; JUN WEI

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate a genetic association for schizophrenia within chromosome 22q11 in a Chinese Han population. Methods The PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was used to detect three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs165655 (A/G base change) and rs165815 (C/T base change) present in the ARVCF (armadillo repeat gene deletion in velocardiofacial syndrome) locus, and rs756656 (A/C base change) in the LOC128979 (expressed sequence tags, EST) locus, among 100 Chinese family trios consisting of fathers, mothers and affected offspring with schizophrenia. Genotype data were analyzed by using linkage disequilibrium (LD) methods including haplotype relative risk (HRR) analysis, transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and haplotype transmission analysis. Results The genotype frequency distributions of three SNPs were all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). Both the HRR and the TDT analysis showed that rs165815 was associated with schizophrenia (χ2=6.447, df=1, P=0.011 and χ2=6.313, df=1, P=0.012, respectively), whereas the other two SNPs did not show any allelic association. The haplotype transmission analysis showed a biased transmission for the rs165655-rs165815 haplotype system (χ2=17.224, df=3, P=0.0006) and for the rs756656- rs165655-rs165815 hapoltype system (χ2=20.965, df=7, P=0.0038). Conclusion Either the ARVCF gene itself or a nearby locus may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population.

  9. Genetic variation and exchange in Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Roellig

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a multiclonal parasite with high levels of genetic diversity and broad host and geographic ranges. Molecular characterization of South American isolates of T. cruzi has demonstrated homologous recombination and nuclear hybridization, as well as the presence of 6 main genetic clusters or "discrete typing units" (DTUs. Few studies have extensively investigated such exchange events and genetic diversity in North American isolates. In the current study, we genetically characterized over 50 US isolates from wildlife reservoirs (e.g., raccoons, opossums, armadillos, skunks, domestic dogs, humans, nonhuman primates, and reduviid vectors from nine states (TX, CA, OK, SC, FL, GA, MD, LA, TN using a multilocus sequencing method. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in sequences of the mismatch-repair class 2 (MSH2 and Tc52 genes. Typing based on the two genes often paralleled genotyping by classic methodologies using mini-exon and 18S and 24Sα rRNA genes. Evidence for genetic exchange was obtained by comparing sequence phylogenies of nuclear and mitochondrial gene targets, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS and the cytochrome oxidase subunit II- NADH dehydrogenase subunit I region (COII-ND1, respectively. We observed genetic exchange in several US isolates as demonstrated by incongruent mitochondrial and nuclear genes phylogenies, which confirms a previous finding of a single genetic exchange event in a Florida isolate. The presence of SNPs and evidence of genetic exchange illustrates that strains from the US are genetically diverse, even though only two phylogenetic lineages have been identified in this region.

  10. KCTD1 suppresses canonical Wnt signaling pathway by enhancing β-catenin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Li

    Full Text Available The canonical Wnt signaling pathway controls normal embryonic development, cellular proliferation and growth, and its aberrant activity results in human carcinogenesis. The core component in regulation of this pathway is β-catenin, but molecular regulation mechanisms of β-catenin stability are not completely known. Here, our recent studies have shown that KCTD1 strongly inhibits TCF/LEF reporter activity. Moreover, KCTD1 interacted with β-catenin both in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation as well as in vitro through GST pull-down assays. We further mapped the interaction regions to the 1-9 armadillo repeats of β-catenin and the BTB domain of KCTD1, especially Position Ala-30 and His-33. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that KCTD1 promotes the cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin. Furthermore, protein stability assays revealed that KCTD1 enhances the ubiquitination/degradation of β-catenin in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells. And the degradation of β-catenin mediated by KCTD1 was alleviated by the proteasome inhibitor, MG132. In addition, KCTD1-mediated β-catenin degradation was dependent on casein kinase 1 (CK1- and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and enhanced by the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP. Moreover, KCTD1 suppressed the expression of endogenous Wnt downstream genes and transcription factor AP-2α. Finally, we found that Wnt pathway member APC and tumor suppressor p53 influence KCTD1-mediated downregulation of β-catenin. These results suggest that KCTD1 functions as a novel inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway.

  11. The thrill of the chase: uncovering illegal sport hunting in Brazil through YouTube™ posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani R. El Bizri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of unregulated sport hunting can severely affect populations of target game species. Because hunting in Brazil is limited by law, obtaining data on illegal sport hunting in this country is challenging. We used an unusual online resource, YouTube™, to detect the occurrence of sport hunting in Brazil, measure the impacts of the activity on the main Brazilian game species and biomes, evaluate the opinions of hunters and internet users on sport hunting, and discuss the need for policy interventions in wildlife conservation in this country. We found 383 videos related to Brazilian sport hunting on YouTube™, accounting for more than 15 million views. Most videos were produced in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah and approximately 70% of them depicted events of pursuit and killing of wild animals, especially lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca and armadillos (Family Dasypodidae. Videos were posted primarily in July and December, coinciding with the two main Brazilian vacation periods. Furthermore, the shotguns identified on videos show that sport hunters expend large sums of money to undertake their hunts. These results indicate that Brazilian sport hunters are possibly wealthier urban residents who travel to rural areas to hunt, contrasting with previous hunting studies in the country. Most viewers declared themselves in favor of sport hunting in comments (n = 2893 and ratings (n = 36,570 of the videos. Discussions generated by comments suggest that Brazilian sport hunters employ several informal management strategies to maintain game species stocks for future hunting and intensely question the restrictions of Brazilian environmental policies. Our results demonstrate that solutions are needed for the regulation of sport hunting in Brazil. Government actions, whether to increase surveillance or legalize hunting programs, should take into account the opinions of sport hunters and their perceptions on hunting dynamics to support effective policy

  12. Effects of gamma radiation on Sporothrix schenckii yeast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Camila M. de Sousa; Martins, Estefania Mara Nascimento; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: cmsl@cdtn.br, e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maressend@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Zoonotic transmission can occur after scratches or bites of animals, mainly cats, rodents, and armadillos. Up to the moment, no approved vaccine was reported for S. schenckii or to any important pathogenic fungi infection in humans, indicating the need to expand the research in this field and to explore new alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation in the viability, metabolic activity and reproductive ability of S. schenckii yeast cells for further studies on the development of a vaccine for immunization of cats and dogs. The culture of S. schenckii, in solid medium, was irradiated at doses ranging from 1.0 to 9.0 kGy. After each dose the reproductive capacity, viability and protein synthesis were estimated. The results showed that a reduction of 6 log{sub 10} cycles in the number of colonies was achieved at 6.0 kGy and after 8.0 kGy no colonies could be recovered. The viability analysis indicated that yeast cells remained viable up to 9.0 kGy. The results of protein synthesis analysis showed that the yeast cells, irradiated up to 9.0 kGy, were able to synthesize proteins. Our preliminary results indicated that for the yeast cells of S. schenckii, it is possible to find an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability, while retaining its viability, a necessary condition for the development of a radioattenuated yeast vaccine. (author)

  13. Genetic variation and exchange in Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M; Savage, Mason Y; Fujita, A Wendy; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel; Steurer, Frank J; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a multiclonal parasite with high levels of genetic diversity and broad host and geographic ranges. Molecular characterization of South American isolates of T. cruzi has demonstrated homologous recombination and nuclear hybridization, as well as the presence of 6 main genetic clusters or "discrete typing units" (DTUs). Few studies have extensively investigated such exchange events and genetic diversity in North American isolates. In the current study, we genetically characterized over 50 US isolates from wildlife reservoirs (e.g., raccoons, opossums, armadillos, skunks), domestic dogs, humans, nonhuman primates, and reduviid vectors from nine states (TX, CA, OK, SC, FL, GA, MD, LA, TN) using a multilocus sequencing method. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in sequences of the mismatch-repair class 2 (MSH2) and Tc52 genes. Typing based on the two genes often paralleled genotyping by classic methodologies using mini-exon and 18S and 24Sα rRNA genes. Evidence for genetic exchange was obtained by comparing sequence phylogenies of nuclear and mitochondrial gene targets, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and the cytochrome oxidase subunit II- NADH dehydrogenase subunit I region (COII-ND1), respectively. We observed genetic exchange in several US isolates as demonstrated by incongruent mitochondrial and nuclear genes phylogenies, which confirms a previous finding of a single genetic exchange event in a Florida isolate. The presence of SNPs and evidence of genetic exchange illustrates that strains from the US are genetically diverse, even though only two phylogenetic lineages have been identified in this region.

  14. Cloning, identification and functional analysis of a β-catenin homologue from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Shi, Lili; L, Kai; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-07-01

    Wnt signaling is known to control multiple of cellular processes such as cell differentiation, communication, apoptosis and proliferation, and is also reported to play a role during microbial infection. β-catenin is a key regulator of the Wnt signaling cascade. In the present study, we cloned and identified a β-catenin homologue from Litopenaeus vannamei termed Lvβ-catenin. The full-length of Lvβ-catenin transcript was 2797 bp in length within a 2451 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a protein of 816 amino acids. Lvβ-catenin protein was comprised of several characteristic domains such as an N-terminal region of GSK-β consensus phosphorylation site and Coed coil section, a central region of 12 continuous Armadillo/β-Catenin-like repeat (ARM) domains and a C-terminal region. Real-time PCR showed Lvβ-catenin expression was responsive to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Dual-reporter analysis showed that over-expression of Lvβ-catenin could induce activation of the promoter activities of several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as shrimp PEN4, suggesting that Lvβ-catenin could play a role in regulating the production of AMPs. Knockdown of Lvβ-catenin enhanced the sensitivity of shrimps to V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV challenge, suggesting Lvβ-catenin could play a positive role against bacterial and viral pathogens. In summary, the results presented in this study provided some insights into the function of Wnt/β-catenin of shrimp in regulating AMPs and the host defense against invading pathogens.

  15. Arm-Gal4 inheritance influences development and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, F A; Staveley, B E

    2015-10-19

    The UAS-Gal4 ectopic expression system is a widely used and highly valued tool that allows specific gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Yeast transcription factor Gal4 can be directed using D. melanogaster transcriptional control elements, and is often assumed to have little effect on the organism. By evaluation of the consequences of maternal and paternal inheritance of a Gal4 transgene under the transcriptional regulation of armadillo control elements (arm-Gal4), we demonstrated that Gal4 expression could be detrimental to development and longevity. Male progeny expressing arm-Gal4 in the presence of UAS-lacZ transgene had reduced numbers and size of ommatidia, compared to flies expressing UAS-lacZ transgene under the control of other Gal4 transgenes. Aged at 25°C, the median life span of male flies with maternally inherited elav-Gal4 was 70 days, without a responding transgene or with UAS-lacZ. The median life span of maternally inherited arm-Gal4 male flies without a responding transgene was 48 days, and 40 days with the UAS-lacZ transgene. A partial rescue of this phenotype was observed with the expression of UAS-lacZ under paternal arm-Gal4 control, having an average median lifespan of 60 days. This data suggests that arm-Gal4 has detrimental effects on Drosophila development and lifespan that are directly dependent upon parental inheritance, and that the benign responder and reporter gene UAS-lacZ may influence D. melanogaster development. These findings should be taken into consideration during the design and execution of UAS-Gal4 expression experiments.

  16. Chromosome painting in three-toed sloths: a cytogenetic signature and ancestral karyotype for Xenarthra

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    Azevedo Nathália F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenarthra (sloths, armadillos and anteaters represent one of four currently recognized Eutherian mammal supraorders. Some phylogenomic studies point to the possibility of Xenarthra being at the base of the Eutherian tree, together or not with the supraorder Afrotheria. We performed painting with human autosomes and X-chromosome specific probes on metaphases of two three-toed sloths: Bradypus torquatus and B. variegatus. These species represent the fourth of the five extant Xenarthra families to be studied with this approach. Results Eleven human chromosomes were conserved as one block in both B. torquatus and B. variegatus: (HSA 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21 and the X chromosome. B. torquatus, three additional human chromosomes were conserved intact (HSA 1, 3 and 4. The remaining human chromosomes were represented by two or three segments on each sloth. Seven associations between human chromosomes were detected in the karyotypes of both B. torquatus and B. variegatus: HSA 3/21, 4/8, 7/10, 7/16, 12/22, 14/15 and 17/19. The ancestral Eutherian association 16/19 was not detected in the Bradypus species. Conclusions Our results together with previous reports enabled us to propose a hypothetical ancestral Xenarthran karyotype with 48 chromosomes that would differ from the proposed ancestral Eutherian karyotype by the presence of the association HSA 7/10 and by the split of HSA 8 into three blocks, instead of the two found in the Eutherian ancestor. These same chromosome features point to the monophyly of Xenarthra, making this the second supraorder of placental mammals to have a chromosome signature supporting its monophyly.

  17. A Novel Protein RLS1 with NB-ARM Domains Is Involved in Chloroplast Degradation during Leaf Senescence in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin-Bin Jiao; Jian-Jun Wang; Xu-Dong Zhu; Long-Jun Zeng; Qun Li; Zu-Hua He

    2012-01-01

    Leaf senescence,a type of programmed cell death (PCD) characterized by chlorophyll degradation,is important to plant growth and crop productivity.It emerges that autophagy is involved in chloroplast degradation during leaf senescence.However,the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the process is not well understood.In this study,the genetic and physiological characteristics of the rice rls1 (rapid leaf senescence 1) mutant were identified.The rls1 mutant developed small,yellow-brown lesions resembling disease scattered over the whole surfaces of leaves that displayed earlier senescence than those of wild-type plants.The rapid loss of chlorophyll content during senescence was the main cause of accelerated leaf senescence in rls1.Microscopic observation indicated that PCD was misregulated,probably resulting in the accelerated degradation of chloroplasts in rls1 leaves.Map-based cloning of the RLS1 gene revealed that it encodes a previously uncharacterized NB (nucleotide-binding site)-containing protein with an ARM (armadillo) domain at the carboxyl terminus.Consistent with its involvement in leaf senescence,RLS1 was up-regulated during dark-induced leaf senescence and down-regulated by cytokinin.Intriguingly,constitutive expression of RLS1 also slightly accelerated leaf senescence with decreased chlorophyll content in transgenic rice plants.Our study identified a previously uncharacterized NB-ARM protein involved in PCD during plant growth and development,providing a unique tool for dissecting possible autophagymediated PCD during senescence in plants.

  18. VICHADA: LA HOSPITALIDAD DEL ORINOCO. Pag. 150-157

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Velandia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Donde el cielo y la sabana se unen en el infinito, se vislumbra una sola montaña en la lejanía, parece un gigante, antiguo y oscuro al final de la inmensidad un “Tepuye”, después de unas cuantas horas de camino se acerca este gran anciano que data del precámbrico, pero no está solo. Se observan algunos compañeros iguales a él, se podrían considerar como los guardianes del imponente y hermoso Orinoko, considerado en lengua Sikuani como la gran serpiente enroscada acompañada de una gran riqueza paisajística cultural y biodiversa; bosques de galería, diferentes tipos de sabana, esteros, lagunas, morichales, bosques inundables, las que recorren aguas blancas, negras y mixtas, rodeadas por diferentes etnias y grupos indígenas como Piaroas, Sikuanis – Guahibos, Cuibas y Amoruas, que viven en forma pacífica con llaneros y colonos, orgullosos de estas tierras, amables y hospitalarios que desde hace muchos años comparten este paraíso con: bagres, pirañas, anguilas, rayas, arawanas, anacondas, ranas, sapos, caimanes, babos, iguanas, tortugas, loros, búhos, guacamayas, azucareros, pavones, paujiles, águilas, zamuros, aulladores, armadillos, ocarros, chigüiros, osos hormigueros, ocelotes, jaguares, nutrias, murciélagos, cuerpo espines, zorros, venados y delfines, que pasan sus días entre; cedros, moriches, saladillos, caraños, yarumos, laureles, caimos, guaduas, guamos, alcornoques, chaparros, arepillos, palmiches y gualtes.

  19. Dynamic modeling and mobility analysis of the transforming roving-rolling explorer (TRREx) as it Traverses Rugged Martian Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Lionel E.; Mazzoleni, Andre P.

    2016-03-01

    All planetary surface exploration missions thus far have employed traditional rovers with a rocker-bogie suspension. These rovers can navigate moderately rough and flat terrain, but are not designed to traverse rugged terrain with steep slopes. The fact is, however, that the most scientifically interesting missions require exploration platforms with capabilities for navigating such types of rugged terrain. This issue motivates the development of new kinds of rovers that take advantage of the latest advances in robotic technologies to traverse rugged terrain efficiently. This work analyzes one such rover concept called the Transforming Roving-Rolling Explorer (TRREx) that is principally aimed at addressing the above issue. Biologically inspired by the way the armadillo curls up into a ball when threatened, and the way the golden wheel spider uses the dynamic advantages of a sphere to roll down hills when escaping danger, the TRREx rover can traverse like a traditional 6-wheeled rover over conventional terrain, but can also transform itself into a sphere, when necessary, to travel down steep inclines, or navigate rough terrain. This paper investigates the mobility of the TRREx when it is in its rolling mode, i.e. when it is a sphere and can steer itself through actuations that shift its center of mass to achieve the desired direction of roll. A mathematical model describing the dynamics of the rover in this spherical configuration is presented, and actuated rolling is demonstrated through computer simulation. Parametric analyzes that investigate the rover's mobility as a function of its design parameters are also presented. This work highlights the contribution of the spherical rolling mode to the enhanced mobility of the TRREx rover and how it could enable challenging surface exploration missions in the future.

  20. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation

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    Enders Allen C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it

  1. Different APC genotypes in proximal and distal sporadic colorectal cancers suggest distinct WNT/β-catenin signalling thresholds for tumourigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, M; Jorissen, R N; Mouradov, D; Sakthianandeswaren, A; Li, S; Day, F; Tsui, C; Lipton, L; Desai, J; Jones, I T; McLaughlin, S; Ward, R L; Hawkins, N J; Ruszkiewicz, A R; Moore, J; Burgess, A W; Busam, D; Zhao, Q; Strausberg, R L; Simpson, A J; Tomlinson, I P M; Gibbs, P; Sieber, O M

    2013-09-26

    Biallelic protein-truncating mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are prevalent in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Mutations may not be fully inactivating, instead producing WNT/β-catenin signalling levels 'just-right' for tumourigenesis. However, the spectrum of optimal APC genotypes accounting for both hits, and the influence of clinicopathological features on genotype selection remain undefined. We analysed 630 sporadic CRCs for APC mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) using sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, respectively. Truncating APC mutations and/or LOH were detected in 75% of CRCs. Most truncating mutations occurred within a mutation cluster region (MCR; codons 1282-1581) leaving 1-3 intact 20 amino-acid repeats (20AARs) and abolishing all Ser-Ala-Met-Pro (SAMP) repeats. Cancers commonly had one MCR mutation plus either LOH or another mutation 5' to the MCR. LOH was associated with mutations leaving 1 intact 20AAR. MCR mutations leaving 1 vs 2-3 intact 20AARs were associated with 5' mutations disrupting or leaving intact the armadillo-repeat domain, respectively. Cancers with three hits had an over-representation of mutations upstream of codon 184, in the alternatively spliced region of exon 9, and 3' to the MCR. Microsatellite unstable cancers showed hyper-mutation at MCR mono- and di-nucleotide repeats, leaving 2-3 intact 20AARs. Proximal and distal cancers exhibited different preferred APC genotypes, leaving a total of 2 or 3 and 0 to 2 intact 20AARs, respectively. In conclusion, APC genotypes in sporadic CRCs demonstrate 'fine-tuned' interdependence of hits by type and location, consistent with selection for particular residual levels of WNT/β-catenin signalling, with different 'optimal' thresholds for proximal and distal cancers.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the β-catenin gene from fine-wool sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Yang, Zu; Darwish, Hesham; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ge, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xiyue; Li, Rongni; Deng, Xuemei

    2014-08-10

    β-Catenin is an evolutionarily conserved molecule that functions as a crucial effector in both cell-to-cell adhesion and Wnt signaling. To gain a better understanding of its role in the development of hair follicles, we cloned the cDNA sequence of the β-catenin gene from the skin of Aohan fine-wool sheep and performed a variety of bioinformatics analyses. We obtained the full-length sequence, which was 4573-bp long and contained a 2346-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 781 amino acids. The protein had a predicted molecular weight of 85.4 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.57. Domain architecture analysis of the β-catenin protein revealed an armadillo repeat region, which is a common feature of β-catenin in other species. The ovine β-catenin gene shares 97.91%, 94.25%, 94.59%, 83.89%, and 89.39% sequence identity with its homologs in Bos taurus, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Gallus gallus, and Mus musculus, respectively, while the amino acid sequence is more than 99% identical with each of these species. The expression of β-catenin mRNA was detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skin, muscle, and adipose tissue. Expression levels were maximal in the lung and minimal in the muscle, and the difference in expression in these tissues was significant (P<0.01). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of the β-catenin protein in all tissues examined; expression was lowest in the skin and adipose tissues.

  3. Attenuated traumatic axonal injury and improved functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in mice lacking Sarm1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Nils; Bouley, James; Sikoglu, Elif M; An, Jiyan; Moore, Constance M; King, Jean A; Bowser, Robert; Freeman, Marc R; Brown, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event in many acute and chronic neurological disorders. It has been consistently observed after traumatic brain injury, but whether axon degeneration is a driver of traumatic brain injury remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of traumatic brain injury have not been defined, and there is no efficacious treatment for traumatic brain injury. Here we show that mice lacking the mouse Toll receptor adaptor Sarm1 (sterile α/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) gene, a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration, demonstrate multiple improved traumatic brain injury-associated phenotypes after injury in a closed-head mild traumatic brain injury model. Sarm1(-/-) mice developed fewer β-amyloid precursor protein aggregates in axons of the corpus callosum after traumatic brain injury as compared to Sarm1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking Sarm1 had reduced plasma concentrations of the phophorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, indicating that axonal integrity is maintained after traumatic brain injury. Strikingly, whereas wild-type mice exibited a number of behavioural deficits after traumatic brain injury, we observed a strong, early preservation of neurological function in Sarm1(-/-) animals. Finally, using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy we found tissue signatures consistent with substantially preserved neuronal energy metabolism in Sarm1(-/-) mice compared to controls immediately following traumatic brain injury. Our results indicate that the SARM1-mediated prodegenerative pathway promotes pathogenesis in traumatic brain injury and suggest that anti-SARM1 therapeutics are a viable approach for preserving neurological function after traumatic brain injury.

  4. Tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life

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    Kristin K. Jernigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem-repeat protein domains, composed of repeated units of conserved stretches of 20–40 amino acids, are required for a wide array of biological functions. Despite their diverse and fundamental functions, there has been no comprehensive assessment of their taxonomic distribution, incidence, and associations with organismal lifestyle and phylogeny. In this study, we assess for the first time the abundance of armadillo (ARM and tetratricopeptide (TPR repeat domains across all three domains in the tree of life and compare the results to our previous analysis on ankyrin (ANK repeat domains in this journal. All eukaryotes and a majority of the bacterial and archaeal genomes analyzed have a minimum of one TPR and ARM repeat. In eukaryotes, the fraction of ARM-containing proteins is approximately double that of TPR and ANK-containing proteins, whereas bacteria and archaea are enriched in TPR-containing proteins relative to ARM- and ANK-containing proteins. We show in bacteria that phylogenetic history, rather than lifestyle or pathogenicity, is a predictor of TPR repeat domain abundance, while neither phylogenetic history nor lifestyle predicts ARM repeat domain abundance. Surprisingly, pathogenic bacteria were not enriched in TPR-containing proteins, which have been associated within virulence factors in certain species. Taken together, this comparative analysis provides a newly appreciated view of the prevalence and diversity of multiple types of tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life. A central finding of this analysis is that tandem repeat domain-containing proteins are prevalent not just in eukaryotes, but also in bacterial and archaeal species.

  5. Structure And Function of the Yeast U-Box-Containing Ubiquitin Ligase Ufd2p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, D.; Li, W.; Ye, Y.; Brunger, A.T.

    2009-06-04

    Proteins conjugated by Lys-48-linked polyubiquitin chains are preferred substrates of the eukaryotic proteasome. Polyubiquitination requires an activating enzyme (E1), a conjugating enzyme (E2), and a ligase (E3). Occasionally, these enzymes only assemble short ubiquitin oligomers, and their extension to full length involves a ubiquitin elongating factor termed E4. Ufd2p, as the first E4 identified to date, is involved in the degradation of misfolded proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and of a ubiquitin-{beta}-GAL fusion substrate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mechanism of action of Ufd2p is unknown. Here we describe the crystal structure of the full-length yeast Ufd2p protein. Ufd2p has an elongated shape consisting of several irregular Armadillo-like repeats with two helical hairpins protruding from it and a U-box domain flexibly attached to its C terminus. The U-box of Ufd2p has a fold similar to that of the RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain that is present in certain ubiquitin ligases. Accordingly, Ufd2p has all of the hallmarks of a RING finger-containing ubiquitin ligase: it associates with its cognate E2 Ubc4p via its U-box domain and catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 active site to Ufd2p itself or to an acceptor ubiquitin molecule to form unanchored diubiquitin oligomers. Thus, Ufd2p can function as a bona fide E3 ubiquitin ligase to promote ubiquitin chain elongation on a substrate.

  6. Intracellular shuttling of a Drosophila APC tumour suppressor homolog

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    Mieszczanek Julius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumour suppressor is found in multiple discrete subcellular locations, which may reflect sites of distinct functions. In Drosophila epithelial cells, the predominant APC relative (E-APC is concentrated at the apicolateral adherens junctions. Genetic analysis indicates that this junctional association is critical for the function of E-APC in Wnt signalling and in cellular adhesion. Here, we ask whether the junctional association of E-APC is stable, or whether E-APC shuttles between the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. Results We generated a Drosophila strain that expresses E-APC (dAPC2 tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP-E-APC and we analysed its junctional association with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP experiments in live embryos. This revealed that the junctional association of GFP-E-APC in epithelial cells is highly dynamic, and is far less stable than that of the structural components of the adherens junctions, E-cadherin, α-catenin and Armadillo. The shuttling of GFP-E-APC to and from the plasma membrane is unaltered in mutants of Drosophila glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, which mimic constitutive Wingless signalling. However, the stability of E-APC is greatly reduced in these mutants, explaining their apparent delocalisation from the plasma membrane as previously observed. Finally, we show that GFP-E-APC forms dynamic patches at the apical plasma membrane of late embryonic epidermal cells that form denticles, and that it shuttles up and down the axons of the optic lobe. Conclusions We conclude that E-APC is a highly mobile protein that shuttles constitutively between distinct subcellular locations.

  7. Structure and Function of the PLAA/Ufd3-p97/Cdc48 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Liyan; Pashkova, Natasha; Walker, John R.; Winistorfer, Stanley; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Akutsu, Masato; Piper, Robert; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano (Iowa); (Toronto)

    2010-02-11

    PLAA (ortholog of yeast Doa1/Ufd3, also know as human PLAP or phospholipase A2-activating protein) has been implicated in a variety of disparate biological processes that involve the ubiquitin system. It is linked to the maintenance of ubiquitin levels, but the mechanism by which it accomplishes this is unclear. The C-terminal PUL (PLAP, Ufd3p, and Lub1p) domain of PLAA binds p97, an AAA ATPase, which among other functions helps transfer ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome for degradation. In yeast, loss of Doa1 is suppressed by altering p97/Cdc48 function indicating that physical interaction between PLAA and p97 is functionally important. Although the overall regions of interaction between these proteins are known, the structural basis has been unavailable. We solved the high resolution crystal structure of the p97-PLAA complex showing that the PUL domain forms a 6-mer Armadillo-containing domain. Its N-terminal extension folds back onto the inner curvature forming a deep ridge that is positively charged with residues that are phylogenetically conserved. The C terminus of p97 binds in this ridge, where the side chain of p97-Tyr805, implicated in phosphorylation-dependent regulation, is buried. Expressed in doa1{Delta} null cells, point mutants of the yeast ortholog Doa1 that disrupt this interaction display slightly reduced ubiquitin levels, but unlike doa1{Delta} null cells, showed only some of the growth phenotypes. These data suggest that the p97-PLAA interaction is important for a subset of PLAA-dependent biological processes and provides a framework to better understand the role of these complex molecules in the ubiquitin system.

  8. Examination of actin and microtubule dependent APC localisations in living mammalian cells

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    Adams Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trafficking of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumour suppressor protein in mammalian cells is a perennially controversial topic. Immunostaining evidence for an actin-associated APC localisation at intercellular junctions has been previously presented, though live imaging of mammalian junctional APC has not been documented. Results Using live imaging of transfected COS-7 cells we observed intercellular junction-associated pools of GFP-APC in addition to previously documented microtubule-associated GFP-APC and a variety of minor localisations. Although both microtubule and junction-associated populations could co-exist within individual cells, they differed in their subcellular location, dynamic behaviour and sensitivity to cytoskeletal poisons. GFP-APC deletion mutant analysis indicated that a protein truncated immediately after the APC armadillo repeat domain retained the ability to localise to adhesive membranes in transfected cells. Supporting this, we also observed junctional APC immunostaining in cultures of human colorectal cancer cell line that express truncated forms of APC. Conclusion Our data indicate that APC can be found in two spatially separate populations at the cell periphery and these populations can co-exist in the same cell. The first localisation is highly dynamic and associated with microtubules near free edges and in cell vertices, while the second is comparatively static and is closely associated with actin at sites of cell-cell contact. Our imaging confirms that human GFP-APC possesses many of the localisations and behaviours previously seen by live imaging of Xenopus GFP-APC. However, we report the novel finding that GFP-APC puncta can remain associated with the ends of shrinking microtubules. Deletion analysis indicated that the N-terminal region of the APC protein mediated its junctional localisation, consistent with our observation that truncated APC proteins in colon cancer cell lines are

  9. Cloning, Characteristics and Functional Analysis of Rabbit NADPH Oxidase 5

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    Feng Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nox5 was the last member of the Nox enzyme family to be identified. Functionally distinct from the other Nox isoforms, our understanding of its physiological significance has been hampered by the absence of Nox5 in mouse and rat genomes. Nox5 is present in the genomes of other species such as the rabbit that have broad utility as models of cardiovascular disease. However, the mRNA sequence, characteristics and functional analysis of rabbit Nox5 has not been fully defined and were the goals of the current study. Methods: Rabbit Nox5 was amplified from rabbit tissue, cloned and sequenced. COS-7 cells were employed for expression and functional analysis via Western blotting and measurements of superoxide. We designed and synthesized miRNAs selectively targeting rabbit Nox5. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of rabbit Nox5 were aligned with those of putative rabbit isoforms (X1, X2, X3, and X4. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the mRNA sequence for Nox5 from rabbit and other species. Results: Sequence alignment revealed that the identified rabbit Nox5 was highly conserved with the predicted sequence of rabbit Nox5. Cell based experiments reveal that rabbit Nox5 was robustly expressed and produced superoxide at rest and in a calcium and PMA-dependent manner that was susceptible to superoxide dismutase and the flavoprotein inhibitor, DPI. miRNA-1 was shown to be most effective in down-regulating the expression of rabbit Nox5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between rabbit and armadillo Nox5. Rabbit Nox5 was relatively closely related to human Nox5, but lies in a distinct cluster. Conclusion: Our study establishes the suitability of the rabbit as a model organism to further our understanding of the role of Nox5 in cardiovascular and other diseases and provides new information on the genetic relationship of Nox5 genes in different species.

  10. Indigenous Cases of Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) in Southern Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Luis A; Dobbs, Thomas; Walker, Sue; Waller, William; Stryjewska, Barbara M

    2015-07-01

    Hansen's disease or leprosy is a chronic infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae. In the U.S., leprosy is mainly reported in immigrants, but indigenous leprosy cases have been also reported in this country, especially in semitropical southern states (i.e., Texas, Louisiana). The objective of this series of cases is to describe indigenous leprosy cases reported in southern Mississippi (MS) during the period 2012-2014. Information was collected from medical records at Hattiesburg Clinic and the MS Department of Health. Four cases were reported during the period of study (3 Caucasian males, 1 African-American woman). Non of visited endemic leprosy country. The age ranged from 60 to 83 years (median: 75.5 years). Of the four cases, three presented with a slowly progressive erythematous rash disseminated mainly on the thorax and abdomen, with a lesser degree on the extremities. The time between onset of rash until the diagnosis ranged from 5 to 16 months (median: 7 months). Only one case had direct contact with armadillos (blood exposure). Non of these patients had a history of immunosuppression. The most common symptoms were neuropathic pain (n=2), generalized pruritus (n=2) and loss of sensation in extremities (n=2). One case had severe peripheral neuropathy with muscle weakness, atrophy in left arm, and wasting on left hand. Skin biopsies showed diffuse granulomatous infiltrate with foamy histiocytes along with acid fast bacilli by Fite stain. By Ridley-Jopling classification system, three cases were diagnosis as lepromatous leprosy, and one, borderline lepromatous. Treatment included clofazimine, dapsone and rifampin that was offered free of charge by the National Hansen's Diseases Program, Baton Rouge, L.A. One patient did not tolerate therapy. In conclusion, a slowly progressive disseminated erythematous skin rash on the trunk should raise suspicion for leprosy in the elderly population in south MS.

  11. Immunocytochemical studies of the interactions of cadherins and catenins in the early Xenopus embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, T; Fesenko, I V; Schneider, S; Münchberg, F E; Joos, T O; Spieker, T P; Hausen, P

    1999-06-01

    Linkage of cadherins to the cytoskeleton is crucial for their adhesive function. Since alpha- and beta-catenin play a key role in this linkage, these proteins are possible targets for processes that control cell-cell adhesion. To achieve a better understanding of the regulation of cell-cell adhesion in embryonic morphogenesis, we used immunohistology to investigate how in Xenopus blastomeres catenins respond to disturbances in the expression of maternal cadherins. Overexpression of myc-tagged maternal cadherin leads to a proportionate increase of the level of beta-catenin. The two proteins colocalize in the endoplasmic reticulum, in cytoplasmic vesicles, and along the cell membrane, indicating that the beta-catenin binds to overexpressed cadherin early in its passage to the plasma membrane. Expression of cadherin is essential for the stable presence of beta-catenin, as depletion from maternal cadherin mRNA leads to a complete loss of beta-catenin from the blastomeres. alpha-Catenin behaves differently. Overexpression of cadherin leaves the amount and localization of alpha-catenin largely unaffected, and additional cadherin inserts itself into the membrane without a proportionate rise in the level of membrane-bound alpha-catenin. However, cadherin mRNA depletion leads to a redistribution of alpha-catenin from the membrane to the cytoplasm. Thus, cadherin is required to localize alpha-catenin to the membrane, but the amount of alpha-catenin along the membrane seems to be restricted to a certain level which cannot be exceeded. The relevance of these observations for the regulation of cadherin-mediated cell adhesion in the Xenopus embryo is discussed. Additionally, we demonstrate that plakoglobin, like beta-catenin an armadillo repeat protein, shows neither accumulation after overexpression nor colocalization with the overexpressed cadherin.

  12. Vertical stratification and development aspects of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest tree species in a metropolitan region in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A M; Silva, V P M; Queiroz, P V S; Andrade, H T A; Loiola, M I B; Ximenes, M F F M

    2007-12-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Norte in northeast Brazil, cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur mainly in the periurban areas of the city of Natal. Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae), a vector of Leishmania chagasi (Protozoa: Trypanosomatidae) to humans, is found throughout the state. Flora and fauna influence the distribution of sand fly species, whose horizontal or vertical stratification can be used as a parameter for identifying potential vectors, considering the presence of vertebrate hosts in the area. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sand flies in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, and associate it with the presence of other animals in the peridomiciliary environment as well as to analyze, under laboratory conditions, aspects of L. longipalpis reproduction in wild females. The sand flies were captured with light traps hung at different heights in species of Atlantic Forest trees and in a peridomiciliary environment in animal shelters. The traps were placed between 17:30 and 6:00 of the following day, in a peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary area of a forest fragment in both dry and rainy months. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. The biological cycle of L. longipalpis was followed from the eggs of 200 wild females. Specimens of L. lenti, L. walkeri, and L. migonei were captured. The comparison and statistical analysis showed that L. longipalpis is more abundant at a height of 3 m and L. evandroi at 1 m. In the animal shelters (chickens, horses, and armadillos), we captured mainly specimens of L. longipalpis and L. evandroi. The duration of the biological cycle of L. longipalpis was approximately 38 days at a temperature of 28 degrees C.

  13. PONS2train: tool for testing the MLP architecture and local traning methods for runoff forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maca, P.; Pavlasek, J.; Pech, P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of presented poster is to introduce the PONS2train developed for runoff prediction via multilayer perceptron - MLP. The software application enables the implementation of 12 different MLP's transfer functions, comparison of 9 local training algorithms and finally the evaluation the MLP performance via 17 selected model evaluation metrics. The PONS2train software is written in C++ programing language. Its implementation consists of 4 classes. The NEURAL_NET and NEURON classes implement the MLP, the CRITERIA class estimates model evaluation metrics and for model performance evaluation via testing and validation datasets. The DATA_PATTERN class prepares the validation, testing and calibration datasets. The software application uses the LAPACK, BLAS and ARMADILLO C++ linear algebra libraries. The PONS2train implements the first order local optimization algorithms: standard on-line and batch back-propagation with learning rate combined with momentum and its variants with the regularization term, Rprop and standard batch back-propagation with variable momentum and learning rate. The second order local training algorithms represents: the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with and without regularization and four variants of scaled conjugate gradients. The other important PONS2train features are: the multi-run, the weight saturation control, early stopping of trainings, and the MLP weights analysis. The weights initialization is done via two different methods: random sampling from uniform distribution on open interval or Nguyen Widrow method. The data patterns can be transformed via linear and nonlinear transformation. The runoff forecast case study focuses on PONS2train implementation and shows the different aspects of the MLP training, the MLP architecture estimation, the neural network weights analysis and model uncertainty estimation.

  14. Efeito das atividades de ecoturismo sobre a riqueza e a abundância de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte na região do Cristalino, Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido nas Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural Cristalino (670 ha e Lote Cristalino (6.539 ha e no Parque Estadual Cristalino (184.900 ha. Essas unidades de conservação são contíguas e estão localizadas no extremo centro-norte do estado do Mato Grosso, em locais considerados prioritários para a conservação, em função da alta biodiversidade e endemismos, além da elevada pressão antrópica. Desta forma, este trabalho objetivou conhecer, avaliar e comparar a estrutura das populações de mamíferos de médio e grande porte, em termos de riqueza e abundância das espécies em ambientes sem turismo e com atividades de ecoturismo na região do Cristalino. Para tanto, no período compreendido entre maio de 2008 a fevereiro de 2010 foram amostrados ambientes com floresta primária, os quais apresentavam dois níveis de perturbação antrópica: sem turismo e com atividades de ecoturismo. Os dados foram coletados utilizando a amostragem de distâncias em transecções lineares, que totalizou 468,3 Km percorridos nos períodos diurno e noturno, e registro de pegadas em parcelas previamente preparadas (n = 660 parcelas vistoriadas, além de percursos fluviais no rio Cristalino e buscas aleatórias nos locais onde não ocorriam caminhos. Registros de 37 espécies de mamíferos foram obtidos, sendo 33 de médio e grande porte e quatro de pequeno porte. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na riqueza de espécies dos ambientes sem turismo e com ecoturismo, sendo que a similaridade de espécies entre eles foi alta (88%. No entanto, três táxons apresentaram abundância inferior nos ambientes com turismo: Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1766, Mazama spp. e Dasypus kappleri Krauss, 1862. Percebe-se, portanto, que o impacto negativo das atividades de ecoturismo desenvolvidas na área de estudo foi de pequena magnitude, em termos de riqueza e abundância de mamíferos de médio e grande porte. Assim

  15. Shifting species ranges and changing phenology: A new approach to mining social media for ecosystems observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, M. Z.; Osborne-Gowey, J. D.; Fuka, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscientists & ecologists are increasingly using social media to solicit 'citizen scientists' to participate in the data collection process. However, social media users are also a largely untapped resource of spontaneous, unsolicited observations of the natural world. Of particular interest are observations of species phenology & range to better develop a predictive understanding of how ecosystems are affected by a changing climate and human-mediated influences. Social media users' observations include information on phenological & biological phenomena such as flowers blooming, native & invasive species sightings, unusual behaviors, animal tracks, droppings, damage, feeding, nesting, etc. Our AGU2011 pilot study on the North American armadillo suggests that useful observational data can be extracted from Twitter to map current species ranges to compare with past ranges. We have expanded that work by mining Twitter for a number of North American species and ecosystem observations to determine usefulness for environmental applications such as: 1) supplementing existing databases, 2) identifying outlier phenomena, 3) guiding additional crowd-sourced studies and data collection efforts, 4) recruiting citizen scientists, 5) gauging sentiment about the observations and 6) informing ecosystems policy-making and education. We present the results for our evaluation of a representative sample from a list of 200+ species for which we've collected data since August 2011. Our results include frequency of reports and sightings by day, week and month, where the number of observations range from a few per month to ten or more per day. We discuss challenges, best practices and tools for distilling information from crowd-sourced observations gathered via Twitter in the form of 140-character 'tweets'. For example, geolocation is a critical issue. Despite the prevalence of smart phones, specific latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates are included in fewer than 10% of the

  16. Changing dietary habits among Akwen Xerente.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Tatiana Evangelista da Silva; Silva, Reijane Pinheiro da; Nascimento, Maira Messias do

    2016-06-01

    The research aimed to identify the current feed of Xerente people in Indian villages Porteira and Funil in the city of Tocantinia / TO. It was used a qualitative ethnographic approach. Conducted from September 2013 to August 2014. The data were presented in a diary, through participant observation of food practices with the guidance of a script. A process of dietary change that permeates the culture of this people is taking place. Factors such as the deficit in the planting gardens, the recent arrival of energy, and therefore the technology has allowed access to processed foods. But some families still maintain the farming of cassava, yam, and beans. The main animals that are hunted in the village are peccary, deer and armadillo. It was possible to point which foods are inserted in the Xerente feed and factors related to this situation. A pesquisa objetivou identificar a alimentação atual do povo Xerente, nas aldeias indígenas Porteira e Funil, no município de Tocantínia / TO. Utilizou-se uma abordagem etnográfica qualitativa. Realizada entre setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. Os dados foram descritos através de um diário de campo, por meio da observação das práticas alimentares com a orientação de um roteiro. Está ocorrendo um processo de mudança alimentar na cultura deste povo. Fatores como o déficit no plantio das roças, a chegada da energia, e consequentemente a tecnologia, permitiu o acesso a alimentos industrializados. Mas algumas famílias ainda mantem o cultivo de mandioca, inhame, feijão andu. Os principais animais que são caçados na aldeia são caititu, veado e tatu. Foi possível encontrar a presença de alimentos industrializados inseridos na alimentação do Xerente e isso tem provocado alterações nos hábitos desse povo.

  17. Are we headed towards the defaunation of the last large Atlantic Forest remnants? Poaching activities in one of the largest remnants of the Tabuleiro forests in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, José Adelson C; Srbek-Araujo, Ana C

    2017-03-01

    Hunting is a problem to animal conservation in different parts of the world and it has caused the local extinction of several species. The aim of this study was to characterize the poaching activities in one of the main tabuleiro forest remnants of Brazil, the Linhares-Sooretama Block (LSB). Poaching records from 2010 to 2013 were gathered from the agencies responsible for monitoring and combating environmental crimes in the LSB. A total of 693 records (mean = 173 events/year) were collected involving direct (hunted animals, firearms, handmade firearms, traps, poachers, and various hunting supplies) and indirect (tree stands, baits, and poacher signs) evidences of poaching. No differences in the monthly cumulative number of records were found among years, but the distribution of records differed according to the type of evidence. A total of 40 animal seizure events were recorded involving a total of at least 15 taxa directly affected by poaching (reptiles = 2, birds = 6, mammals = 7) and 75 individuals seized (19 individuals/year). Five of the poached species are threatened. Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) and armadillos were the most poached mammals in the region. Most of the poachers conduct such activities for fun (entertainment) and/or professionally (commercial hunting). The collected data show an approximately 32% increase in the number of poaching events in the region compared with the historical data available for LSB. It may have resulted from a gradual decrease in protection, both in terms of the number of agents deployed and the levels of effort of the teams, which began in 2009. The data demonstrate that poaching is a significant threat to the conservation of the LSB fauna, as it is in other Atlantic Forest remnants and in other regions of the world. Protection activities must be intensified to effectively combat the impacts of poaching in the LSB region, thereby contributing to the conservation of species in one of the few Atlantic Forest

  18. Inactivation of C4orf26 in toothless placental mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Starrett, James; Morin, Phillip A; Lanzetti, Agnese; Hayashi, Cheryl; Gatesy, John

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have reported inactivated copies of six enamel-related genes (AMBN, AMEL, AMTN, ENAM, KLK4, MMP20) and one dentin-related gene (DSPP) in one or more toothless vertebrates and/or vertebrates with enamelless teeth, thereby providing evidence that these genes are enamel or tooth-specific with respect to their critical functions that are maintained by natural selection. Here, we employ available genome sequences for edentulous and enamelless mammals to evaluate the enamel specificity of four genes (WDR72, SLC24A4, FAM83H, C4orf26) that have been implicated in amelogenesis imperfecta, a condition in which proper enamel formation is abrogated during tooth development. Coding sequences for WDR72, SCL24A4, and FAM83H are intact in four edentulous taxa (Chinese pangolin, three baleen whales) and three taxa (aardvark, nine-banded armadillo, Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) with enamelless teeth, suggesting that these genes have critical functions beyond their involvement in tooth development. By contrast, genomic data for C4orf26 reveal inactivating mutations in pangolin and bowhead whale as well as evidence for deletion of this gene in two minke whale species. Hybridization capture of exonic regions and PCR screens provide evidence for inactivation of C4orf26 in eight additional baleen whale species. However, C4orf26 is intact in all three species with enamelless teeth that were surveyed, as well as in 95 additional mammalian species with enamel-capped teeth. Estimates of selection intensity suggest that dN/dS ratios on branches leading to taxa with enamelless teeth are similar to the dN/dS ratio on branches leading to taxa with enamel-capped teeth. Based on these results, we conclude that C4orf26 is tooth-specific, but not enamel-specific, with respect to its essential functions that are maintained by natural selection. A caveat is that an alternative splice site variant, which translates exon 3 in a different reading frame, is putatively functional in

  19. Agent-based modeling for the landuse change of hunter-gather societies and the impacts on biodiversity in Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, T.; Fragoso, J.; Lambin, E.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions with animals are vital to the Amerindian, indigenous people, of Rupunini savannah-forest in Guyana. Their connections extend from basic energy and protein resource to spiritual bonding through "paring" to a certain animal in the forest. We collected extensive dataset of 23 indigenous communities for 3.5 years, consisting 9900 individuals from 1307 households, as well as animal observation data in 8 transects per communities (47,000 data entries). In this presentation, our research interest is to model the driver of land use change of the indigenous communities and its impacts on the ecosystem in the Rupunini area under global change. Overarching question we would like to answer with this program is to find how and why "tipping-point" from hunting gathering society to the agricultural society occurs in the future. Secondary question is what is the implication of the change to agricultural society in terms of biodiversity and carbon stock in the area, and eventually the well-being of Rupunini people. To answer the questions regarding the society shift in agriculture activities, we built as simulation with Agent-Based Modeling (Multi Agents Simulation). We developed this simulation by using Netlogo, the programming environment specialized for spatially explicit agent-based modeling (ABM). This simulation consists of four different process in the Rupunini landscape; forest succession, animal population growth, hunting of animals, and land clearing for agriculture. All of these processes are carried out by a set of computational unit, called "agents". In this program, there are four types of agents - patches, villages, households, and animals. Here, we describe the impacts of hunting on the biodiversity based on actual demographic data from one village named Crush Water. Animal population within the hunting territory of the village stabilized but Agouti/Paca dominates the landscape with little population of armadillos and peccaries. White-tailed deers

  20. An LTR Retrotransposon-Derived Gene Displays Lineage-Specific Structural and Putative Species-Specific Functional Variations in Eutherians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Masahito; Koga, Akihiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the 11 eutherian-specific genes acquired from a sushi-ichi retrotransposon is the CCHC type zinc-finger protein-encoding gene SIRH11/ZCCHC16. Its contribution to eutherian brain evolution is implied because of its involvement in cognitive function in mice, possibly via the noradrenergic system. Although, the possibility that Sirh11/Zcchc16 functions as a non-coding RNA still remains, dN/dS ratios in pairwise comparisons between its orthologs have provided supportive evidence that it acts as a protein. It became a pseudogene in armadillos (Cingulata) and sloths (Pilosa), the only two extant orders of xenarthra, which prompted us to examine the lineage-specific variations of SIRH11/ZCCHC16 in eutherians. We examined the predicted SIRH11/ZCCHC16 open reading frame (ORF) in 95 eutherian species based on the genomic DNA information in GenBank. A large variation in the SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORF was detected in several lineages. These include a lack of a CCHC RNA-binding domain in its C-terminus, observed in gibbons (Hylobatidae: Primates) and megabats (Megachiroptera: Chiroptera). A lack of the N-terminal half, on the other hand, was observed in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini: Primates) and species belonging to New World and African Hystricognaths (Caviomorpha and Bathyergidae: Rodents) along with Cetacea and Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla). Among the hominoids, interestingly, three out of four genera of gibbons have lost normal SIRH11/ZCCHC16 function by deletion or the lack of the CCHC RNA-binding domain. Our extensive dN/dS analysis suggests that such truncated SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORFs are functionally diversified even within lineages. Combined, our results show that SIRH11/ZCCHC16 may contribute to the diversification of eutherians by lineage-specific structural changes after its domestication in the common eutherian ancestor, followed by putative species-specific functional changes that enhanced fitness and occurred as a consequence of complex natural selection events

  1. Cloning and Expression Analysis of the Importin Gene from Litopenaeus vannamei%凡纳滨对虾输入蛋白α4基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章双; 董晓慧; 杨奇慧; 迟淑艳; 刘泓宇; 谭北平

    2016-01-01

    输入蛋白α(importin α)是核转运蛋白家族中的重要成员,在帮助有核定位信号的蛋白质的入核中起到了至关重要的作用,然而在对虾中,还没有输入蛋白α家族的成员被发现.本研究首次克隆并鉴定了一种凡纳滨对虾中的importinα基因,命名为LvIMα4,其基因全长cDNA为2 147 bp,包含长度为1572bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORE),编码524个氨基酸,包括一个N端的输入蛋白β结合(importin-β-binding,IBB)域和一个包含8个串联重复序列(tandem armadillo,ARM)的核定位信号(nuclear location signal,NLS)中央结合结构域.实时荧光定量PCR (RT-PCR)分析表明LvIMα4在被测试的所有组织中都有表达,其中在表皮、胃、神经、肌肉和肠中的表达量较高.白斑综合征病毒(white spot syndrome virus,WSSV)感染后,凡纳滨对虾血液中LvIMα4基因的表达量呈先下降后上升趋势,在感染后12h降至最低,随后逐渐升高,在感染后72 h达到最高水平.副溶血弧菌(V ibrio parahaemolyticus)感染后凡纳滨对虾血细胞中LvIMα4基因表达量都低于对照组,24 h达到最低水平,为对照组的0.34倍.所有实验结果表明,LvIMα4基因可能参与凡纳滨对虾抗病免疫应答途径.

  2. Transforming Roving-Rolling Explorer (TRREx) for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Lionel Ernest

    All planetary surface exploration missions thus far have employed traditional rovers with a rocker-bogie suspension. These rovers can navigate moderately rough and flat terrain, but are not designed to traverse rugged terrain with steep slopes. The fact is, however, that many scientifically interesting missions require exploration platforms with capabilities for navigating such types of chaotic terrain. This issue motivates the development of new kinds of rovers that take advantage of the latest advances in robotic technologies to traverse rugged terrain efficiently. This dissertation proposes and analyses one such rover concept called the Transforming Roving-Rolling Explorer (TRREx) that is principally aimed at addressing the above issue. Biologically inspired by the way the armadillo curls up into a ball when threatened, and the way the golden wheel spider uses the dynamic advantages of a sphere to roll down hills when escaping danger, the novel TRREx rover can traverse like a traditional 6-wheeled rover over conventional terrain, but can also transform itself into a sphere, when necessary, to travel down steep inclines, or navigate rough terrain. This work presents the proposed design architecture and capabilities followed by the development of mathematical models and experiments that facilitate the mobility analysis of the TRREx in the rolling mode. The ability of the rover to self-propel in the rolling mode in the absence of a negative gradient increases its versatility and concept value. Therefore, a dynamic model of a planar version of the problem is first used to investigate the feasibility and value of such self-propelled locomotion - 'actuated rolling'. Construction and testing of a prototype Planar/Cylindrical TRREx that is capable of demonstrating actuated rolling is presented, and the results from the planar dynamic model are experimentally validated. This planar model is then built upon to develop a mathematical model of the spherical TRREx in the

  3. Nuclear exportin receptor CAS regulates the NPI-1-mediated nuclear import of HIV-1 Vpr.

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    Eri Takeda

    Full Text Available Vpr, an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in viral replication. We have previously shown that the region between residues 17 and 74 of Vpr (Vpr(N17C74 contained a bona fide nuclear localization signal and it is targeted Vpr(N17C74 to the nuclear envelope and then imported into the nucleus by importin α (Impα alone. The interaction between Impα and Vpr is important not only for the nuclear import of Vpr but also for HIV-1 replication in macrophages; however, it was unclear whether full-length Vpr enters the nucleus in a manner similar to Vpr(N17C74. This study investigated the nuclear import of full-length Vpr using the three typical Impα isoforms, Rch1, Qip1 and NPI-1, and revealed that full-length Vpr is selectively imported by NPI-1, but not Rch1 and Qip1, after it makes contact with the perinuclear region in digitonin-permeabilized cells. A binding assay using the three Impα isoforms showed that Vpr bound preferentially to the ninth armadillo repeat (ARM region (which is also essential for the binding of CAS, the export receptor for Impα in all three isoforms. Comparison of biochemical binding affinities between Vpr and the Impα isoforms using surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated almost identical values for the binding of Vpr to the full-length isoforms and to their C-terminal domains. By contrast, the data showed that, in the presence of CAS, Vpr was released from the Vpr/NPI-1 complex but was not released from Rch1 or Qip1. Finally, the NPI-1-mediated nuclear import of Vpr was greatly reduced in semi-intact CAS knocked-down cells and was recovered by the addition of exogenous CAS. This report is the first to show the requirement for and the regulation of CAS in the functioning of the Vpr-Impα complex.

  4. A core MRB1 complex component is indispensable for RNA editing in insect and human infective stages of Trypanosoma brucei.

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    Michelle L Ammerman

    Full Text Available Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing is a unique and vital process in kinetoplastids, required for creation of translatable open reading frames in most mitochondrially-encoded RNAs. Emerging as a key player in this process is the mitochondrial RNA binding 1 (MRB1 complex. MRB1 comprises an RNA-independent core complex of at least six proteins, including the GAP1/2 guide RNA (gRNA binding proteins. The core interacts in an RNA-enhanced or -dependent manner with imprecisely defined TbRGG2 subcomplexes, Armadillo protein MRB10130, and additional factors that comprise the dynamic MRB1 complex. Towards understanding MRB1 complex function in RNA editing, we present here functional characterization of the pentein domain-containing MRB1 core protein, MRB11870. Inducible RNAi studies demonstrate that MRB11870 is essential for proliferation of both insect vector and human infective stage T. brucei. MRB11870 ablation causes a massive defect in RNA editing, affecting both pan-edited and minimally edited mRNAs, but does not substantially affect mitochondrial RNA stability or processing of precursor transcripts. The editing defect in MRB1-depleted cells occurs at the initiation stage of editing, as pre-edited mRNAs accumulate. However, the gRNAs that direct editing remain abundant in the knockdown cells. To examine the contribution of MRB11870 to MRB1 macromolecular interactions, we tagged core complexes and analyzed their composition and associated proteins in the presence and absence of MRB11870. These studies demonstrated that MRB11870 is essential for association of GAP1/2 with the core, as well as for interaction of the core with other proteins and subcomplexes. Together, these data support a model in which the MRB1 core mediates functional interaction of gRNAs with the editing machinery, having GAP1/2 as its gRNA binding constituents. MRB11870 is a critical component of the core, essential for its structure and function.

  5. Structural characterisation of the nuclear import receptor importin alpha in complex with the bipartite NLS of Prp20.

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    Noelia Roman

    Full Text Available The translocation of macromolecules into the nucleus is a fundamental eukaryotic process, regulating gene expression, cell division and differentiation, but which is impaired in a range of significant diseases including cancer and viral infection. The import of proteins into the nucleus is generally initiated by a specific, high affinity interaction between nuclear localisation signals (NLSs and nuclear import receptors in the cytoplasm, and terminated through the disassembly of these complexes in the nucleus. For classical NLSs (cNLSs, this import is mediated by the importin-α (IMPα adaptor protein, which in turn binds to IMPβ to mediate translocation of nuclear cargo across the nuclear envelope. The interaction and disassembly of import receptor:cargo complexes is reliant on the differential localisation of nucleotide bound Ran across the envelope, maintained in its low affinity, GDP-bound form in the cytoplasm, and its high affinity, GTP-bound form in the nucleus. This in turn is maintained by the differential localisation of Ran regulating proteins, with RanGAP in the cytoplasm maintaining Ran in its GDP-bound form, and RanGEF (Prp20 in yeast in the nucleus maintaining Ran in its GTP-bound form. Here, we describe the 2.1 Å resolution x-ray crystal structure of IMPα in complex with the NLS of Prp20. We observe 1,091 Å(2 of buried surface area mediated by an extensive array of contacts involving residues on armadillo repeats 2-7, utilising both the major and minor NLS binding sites of IMPα to contact bipartite NLS clusters (17RAKKMSK(23 and (3KR(4, respectively. One notable feature of the major site is the insertion of Prp20NLS Ala(18 between the P0 and P1 NLS sites, noted in only a few classical bipartite NLSs. This study provides a detailed account of the binding mechanism enabling Prp20 interaction with the nuclear import receptor, and additional new information for the interaction between IMPα and cargo.

  6. The molecular evolution of the p120-catenin subfamily and its functional associations.

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    Robert H Carnahan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: p120-catenin (p120 is the prototypical member of a subclass of armadillo-related proteins that includes δ-catenin/NPRAP, ARVCF, p0071, and the more distantly related plakophilins 1-3. In vertebrates, p120 is essential in regulating surface expression and stability of all classical cadherins, and directly interacts with Kaiso, a BTB/ZF family transcription factor. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To clarify functional relationships between these proteins and how they relate to the classical cadherins, we have examined the proteomes of 14 diverse vertebrate and metazoan species. The data reveal a single ancient δ-catenin-like p120 family member present in the earliest metazoans and conserved throughout metazoan evolution. This single p120 family protein is present in all protostomes, and in certain early-branching chordate lineages. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that gene duplication and functional diversification into "p120-like" and "δ-catenin-like" proteins occurred in the urochordate-vertebrate ancestor. Additional gene duplications during early vertebrate evolution gave rise to the seven vertebrate p120 family members. Kaiso family members (i.e., Kaiso, ZBTB38 and ZBTB4 are found only in vertebrates, their origin following that of the p120-like gene lineage and coinciding with the evolution of vertebrate-specific mechanisms of epigenetic gene regulation by CpG island methylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The p120 protein family evolved from a common δ-catenin-like ancestor present in all metazoans. Through several rounds of gene duplication and diversification, however, p120 evolved in vertebrates into an essential, ubiquitously expressed protein, whereas loss of the more selectively expressed δ-catenin, p0071 and ARVCF are tolerated in most species. Together with phylogenetic studies of the vertebrate cadherins, our data suggest that the p120-like and δ-catenin-like genes co-evolved separately with non-neural (E- and P

  7. Coevolved Mutations Reveal Distinct Architectures for Two Core Proteins in the Bacterial Flagellar Motor.

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    Alessandro Pandini

    Full Text Available Switching of bacterial flagellar rotation is caused by large domain movements of the FliG protein triggered by binding of the signal protein CheY to FliM. FliG and FliM form adjacent multi-subunit arrays within the basal body C-ring. The movements alter the interaction of the FliG C-terminal (FliGC "torque" helix with the stator complexes. Atomic models based on the Salmonella entrovar C-ring electron microscopy reconstruction have implications for switching, but lack consensus on the relative locations of the FliG armadillo (ARM domains (amino-terminal (FliGN, middle (FliGM and FliGC as well as changes during chemotaxis. The generality of the Salmonella model is challenged by the variation in motor morphology and response between species. We studied coevolved residue mutations to determine the unifying elements of switch architecture. Residue interactions, measured by their coevolution, were formalized as a network, guided by structural data. Our measurements reveal a common design with dedicated switch and motor modules. The FliM middle domain (FliMM has extensive connectivity most simply explained by conserved intra and inter-subunit contacts. In contrast, FliG has patchy, complex architecture. Conserved structural motifs form interacting nodes in the coevolution network that wire FliMM to the FliGC C-terminal, four-helix motor module (C3-6. FliG C3-6 coevolution is organized around the torque helix, differently from other ARM domains. The nodes form separated, surface-proximal patches that are targeted by deleterious mutations as in other allosteric systems. The dominant node is formed by the EHPQ motif at the FliMMFliGM contact interface and adjacent helix residues at a central location within FliGM. The node interacts with nodes in the N-terminal FliGc α-helix triad (ARM-C and FliGN. ARM-C, separated from C3-6 by the MFVF motif, has poor intra-network connectivity consistent with its variable orientation revealed by structural data. ARM

  8. Overlapping and divergent signaling pathways for ARK1 and AGD1 in the control of root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Cheol-Min eYoo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that seedlings harboring mutations in genes encoding ARK1, an armadillo repeat-containing kinesin, or AGD1, a class 1 ARF-GAP, have root hairs that exhibit wavy/spiral growth and two tips originating from one initiation site. These root hair defects were accompanied by bundling of endoplasmic microtubules and filamentous actin (F-actin that extended to the extreme root hair apex. The similar phenotypes of ark1 and agd1 mutants suggest a tight coordination between the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in the control of root hair polarity. Indeed, cell biological and genetic studies of the agd1 mutant provided evidence that AGD1’s involvement in root hair development involves cross-talk among phosphoinositides (PIs, the actin cytoskeleton and other small GTPases such as ROP2 and RABA4b. Here we show that ark1 root hairs mirror those of agd1 with regard to altered targeting of ROP2 and RABA4b, as well as abnormal tonoplast organization. Furthermore, like agd1, enhanced root hair defects in double mutants in ARK1 and genes encoding a type B phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3, a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI-4P phosphatase (RHD4, a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (COW1, and a vegetative actin isoform (ACT2, were observed. However, root hair shape of some ark1 double mutant combinations, particularly those with act2, pip5k3 and rhd4 (ark1 act2, ark1 pip5k3, ark1 rhd4, differed in some respects from agd1 act2, agd1 pip5k3 and agd1 rhd4. Taken together our results continue to point to commonalities between ARK1 and AGD1 in specifying root hair polarity, but that these two modulators of tip-growth can also regulate root hair development through divergent signaling routes with AGD1 acting predominantly during root hair initiation and ARK1 functioning primarily in sustained tip growth.

  9. Defining carbohydrate specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin as Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc (II) > Gal beta 1-->3GlcNAc (I) > Gal alpha 1-->3Gal (B) > Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc (T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J H; Herp, A; Wu, A M

    1993-03-01

    To define carbohydrate specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), the combining site of RCA1 was further characterized by quantitative precipitin (QPA) and precipitin-inhibition assays (QPIA). Among the oligosaccharides tested for QPIA, Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc (II, human blood group type II precursor sequence) was found to be 7.1 times more active than Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc (T, Thomsen-Friedenreich sequence) and about 1.7 times more active than the other three disaccharides tested--Gal beta 1-->4Man, Gal beta 1-->3DAra and Gal beta 1-->6GalNAc. Gal alpha 1-->4Gal, the receptor of the uropathogenic E. coli ligand was 3.6 times less active than the II sequence. These results indicate that the beta 1-->4 linkage of the terminal Gal to subterminal GlcNAc is important as this beta 1-->4GlcNAc sequence is at least 1.6 times more active than other types of disaccharides. Among the glycoproteins examined for QPA, native and desialized bovine submandibular glycoproteins, native and desialized human plasma alpha 1-acid glycoproteins, as well as crude hog stomach mucin and its three mild acid hydrolyzed products reacted well with the lectin. These glycoproteins precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added indicating that RCA1 has the ability to recognize Gal beta 1-->4/3GlcNAc and/or the related residues at the non-reducing ends and at positions in the interior of the chains. However, Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr sequence) rich glycoproteins such as desialized ovine submandibular glycoprotein and desialized armadillo salivary glycoprotein, in which over 90% of the carbohydrate side chains are Tn determinants with none or only a trace of I/II or T determinants, precipitated poorly with RCA1. From the present and previous results obtained, the carbohydrate specificity of RCA1 can be constructed and summarized in decreasing order by lectin determinants as follows: II (Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc) > I (Gal beta 1-->3GlcNAc) > E (Gal alpha 1-->4Gal) and B (Gal alpha 1-->3Gal

  10. EL REGISTRO ARQUEOLÓGICO EN EL SITIO LA OLLA (SAN RAFAEL, MENDOZA: IMPLICACIONES PARA LAS OCUPACIONES HUMANAS EN EL VALLE MEDIO DEL RÍO ATUEL / Archeological record of “La Olla” site (San Rafael, Mendoza: Implications for the human occupations in the mi

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    Miguel Angel Giardina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el registro arqueológico recuperado en el sitio La Olla, el cual comprende materiales cerámicos, líticos, arqueobotánicos, zooarqueológicos y bioantropológicos. Dicho sitio se encuentra localizado en el valle del río Atuel (Mendoza, Argentina. El trabajo intenta ajustar el conocimiento de la dispersión agrícola prehispánica utilizando información en sectores no estudiado previamente. Se definen dos pulsos discontinuos en el depósito de La Olla, el más antiguo en torno a 1900 años 14C AP y el otro entre 700 y 400 años 14C AP. El análisis confirma una estabilidad en la subsistencia y dieta humana basada en recursos de bajo retorno energético compuesta entre otros por algarrobo y animales pequeños como peces y dasipódidos. Por otra parte, se evidencian cambios en la organización tecnológica que son interpretados en términos de movilidad y rangos de acción. De este modo, el sitio La Olla muestra cómo se manifestarían ocupaciones penecontemporáneas y espacialmente cercanas a los Contextos Atuel I y Atuel II. Abstract  This paper presents the archaeological record of La Olla site, located in the Atuel river valley (Mendoza, Argentina. Materials found and analyzed include lithics, ceramics, archaeobotanical, zooarchaeological and human remains. The paper attempts to adjust the state of knowledge of the pre-Hispanic agricultural dispersal using new information. Two discontinuous temporal pulses were recorded in La Olla, the former around 1900 RCYBP and the later between 700 and 400 years RCYBP. The archaeological analysis confirms stability in human subsistence and human diet based on low rank resources which included carob (mesquite and small animals such as fish and armadillo. Changes in the technological organization were also recorded, which are interpreted in terms of mobility and action ranges. The archaeological record of La Olla site shows a different perspective about the human occupation to the classic

  11. Mechanisms of pulmonary cyst pathogenesis in Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome: The stretch hypothesis.

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    Kennedy, John C; Khabibullin, Damir; Henske, Elizabeth P

    2016-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the folliculin gene (FLCN) on chromosome 17p cause Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (BHD), which is associated with cystic lung disease. The risk of lung collapse (pneumothorax) in BHD patients is 50-fold higher than in the general population. The cystic lung disease in BHD is distinctive because the cysts tend to be basilar, subpleural and lentiform, differentiating BHD from most other cystic lung diseases. Recently, major advances in elucidating the primary functions of the folliculin protein have been made, including roles in mTOR and AMPK signaling via the interaction of FLCN with FNIP1/2, and cell-cell adhesion via the physical interaction of FLCN with plakophilin 4 (PKP4), an armadillo-repeat containing protein that interacts with E-cadherin and is a component of the adherens junctions. In addition, in just the last three years, the pulmonary impact of FLCN deficiency has been examined for the first time. In mouse models, evidence has emerged that AMPK signaling and cell-cell adhesion are involved in alveolar enlargement. In addition, the pathologic features of human BHD cysts have been recently comprehensively characterized. The "stretch hypothesis" proposes that cysts in BHD arise because of fundamental defects in cell-cell adhesion, leading to repeated respiration-induced physical stretch-induced stress and, over time, expansion of alveolar spaces particularly in regions of the lung with larger changes in alveolar volume and at weaker "anchor points" to the pleura. This hypothesis ties together many of the new data from cellular and mouse models of BHD and from the human pathologic studies. Critical questions remain. These include whether the consequences of stretch-induced cyst formation arise through a destructive/inflammatory program or a proliferative program (or both), whether cyst initiation involves a "second hit" genetic event inactivating the remaining wild-type copy of FLCN (as is known to occur in BHD-associated renal cell

  12. Estudio eco-epidemiológico de la tripanosomiasis americana en el municipio de Amalfi (Antioquia

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    J. Arboleda

    2000-02-01

    . geniculatus y P. rufotuberculatus, los cuales fueron corroborados por morfología en ninfas y adultos y por microscopía electrónica de barrido en huevos, teniendo como base de comparación huevos de colonias preestablecidas de ambas especies.

    Se capturaron 33 animales silvestres pertenecientes a géneros como: Didelphis, Marteja, Marmosa, Hoplomys, Dasypus, Proechymis, Poechinus, Oryzomis, Philander y Rodentia. Un 20.0% de ellos resultaron positivos para T. cruzi, mediante ELISA. En cuanto a los reservorios domésticos, el 47.6 % de las muestras de caninos fueron positivas por ELISA, el 10 % por ELISA e IFI.

    Al determinar la seroprevalencia humana se encontró en la vereda La Gardenia una mujer de 22 años, que presentó positividad por T. cruzi para las pruebas de ELISA e IFI con títulos de 1:160, éste sería el primer caso de seropositividad confirmada para T. cruzi en Antioquia.

    Debido a la presencia T. cruzi en vectores, reservorios y en un humano y a las evidencias de reproducción intradomiciliaria, éste es el primer caso para Colombia donde se demuestra el alto riesgo y la importante tendencia a la domiciliación, de dos especies del género Panstrongylus, no consideradas vectoras de la enfermedad de Chagas.

  13. Manifestações cutâneo-mucosas da coccidioidomicose: estudo de trinta casos procedentes dos estados do Piauí e Maranhão Skin and mucous membrane manifestations of coccidioidomycosis: a study of thirty cases in the Brazilian states of Piauí and Maranhão

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    Antônio de Deus Filho

    2010-02-01

    involving 30 patients from the Brazilian states of Piauí and Maranhão with coccidioidomycosis diagnosed by direct microscopy, sputum culture or screening serology using agar gel double immunodiffusion, in association with anamnesis and physical examination. RESULTS: Extrapulmonary lesions were found in 13 cases (43.3%, consisting predominantly of dermatological manifestations of hypersensitivity: erythema nodosum (26.6%, exanthema with erythematosquamous lesions (26.6% and erythema multiforme (23.3%, as well as ulcerations of the tongue (13.3%, lip ulcers (6.6% and subcutaneous abscess (3.3%. These manifestations were seen during the acute phase of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Skin manifestations associated with an acute respiratory infection reinforce the hypothesis of a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis, particularly in individuals who hunt armadillos or in those exposed to soil excavation.

  14. Evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary ethics has a long history, dating all the way back to Charles Darwin. Almost immediately after the publication of the Origin, an immense interest arose in the moral implications of Darwinism and whether the truth of Darwinism would undermine traditional ethics. Though the biological thesis was certainly exciting, nobody suspected that the impact of the Origin would be confined to the scientific arena. As one historian wrote, 'whether or not ancient populations of armadillos were transformed into the species that currently inhabit the new world was certainly a topic about which zoologists could disagree. But it was in discussing the broader implications of the theory...that tempers flared and statements were made which could transform what otherwise would have been a quiet scholarly meeting into a social scandal' (Farber 1994, 22). Some resistance to the biological thesis of Darwinism sprung from the thought that it was incompatible with traditional morality and, since one of them had to go, many thought that Darwinism should be rejected. However, some people did realize that a secular ethics was possible so, even if Darwinism did undermine traditional religious beliefs, it need not have any effects on moral thought. Before I begin my discussion of evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore, I would like to make some more general remarks about its development. There are three key events during this history of evolutionary ethics. First, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of the Species (Darwin 1859). Since one did not have a fully developed theory of evolution until 1859, there exists little work on evolutionary ethics until then. Shortly thereafter, Herbert Spencer (1898) penned the first systematic theory of evolutionary ethics, which was promptly attacked by T.H. Huxley (Huxley 1894). Second, at about the turn of the century, moral philosophers entered the fray and attempted to demonstrate logical errors in Spencer's work; such errors were alluded

  15. PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos

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    S. DÍEZ

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspondendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de

  16. 京海黄鸡繁殖性状与29个多态位点的关联性%Association Between Reproduction Traits and 29 Loci in Jinghai Yellow Chicken(Gallus gallus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊庆灿; 王金玉; 张跟喜; 张涛; 王文浩; 顾玉萍; 王永娟

    2014-01-01

    为了寻找影响鸡(Gallus gallus)繁殖性状的候选基因,本研究利用单核苷酸多态(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)芯片分型技术,利用已报道的影响鸡繁殖性状的29个位点对396只京海黄鸡母鸡的29个位点直接进行SNP分型,并对11个繁殖性状进行关联分析.结果发现,29个SNP中,有12个SNP与至少1个繁殖性状关联显著(P<0.05),其中有7个SNP同时与2个繁殖性状关联显著(P<0.05).所有繁殖性状中,与京海黄鸡开产体重关联显著的SNP有1个,与京海黄鸡462 d产蛋数关联显著的SNP有2个,与蛋重关联显著的SNP有6个,与开产体重关联显著的SNP有6个,与综合选择指数关联显著的SNP有2个,与后代健雏率关联显著的SNP有1个,没有发现与300 d产蛋数、300~462 d产蛋数和后代孵化率关联显著的SNP.同时,根据这些位点的群体遗传参数发现,12个SNP的平均多态信息含量偏低,说明京海黄鸡有持续选育提高的可能性和必要性.大部分有利基因型为纯合基因型,但有部分基因型为杂合基因型.对与12个SNP最近的功能基因犰狳(Priodontes maximus)重复基因(armadillo repeat gene deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome,ARVCF)、集落刺激因子3受体基因(colony stimulating factor 3 receptor,CSF3R)和ODZ同源物2基因(odz,odd Oz/ten-m homolog 2,ODZ2)的功能探讨发现,这些基因可以通过不同的途径影响鸡的繁殖性状.本研究为鸡繁殖性状候选基因的进一步研究提供了基础资料.

  17. Assessment and validation of a suite of reverse transcription-quantitative PCR reference genes for analyses of density-dependent behavioural plasticity in the Australian plague locust

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    Blondin Laurence

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera, is among the most promising species to unravel the suites of genes underling the density-dependent shift from shy and cryptic solitarious behaviour to the highly active and aggregating gregarious behaviour that is characteristic of locusts. This is because it lacks many of the major phenotypic changes in colour and morphology that accompany phase change in other locust species. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is the most sensitive method available for determining changes in gene expression. However, to accurately monitor the expression of target genes, it is essential to select an appropriate normalization strategy to control for non-specific variation between samples. Here we identify eight potential reference genes and examine their expression stability at different rearing density treatments in neural tissue of the Australian plague locust. Results Taking advantage of the new orthologous DNA sequences available in locusts, we developed primers for genes encoding 18SrRNA, ribosomal protein L32 (RpL32, armadillo (Arm, actin 5C (Actin, succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa, glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a and annexin IX (AnnIX. The relative transcription levels of these eight genes were then analyzed in three treatment groups differing in rearing density (isolated, short- and long-term crowded, each made up of five pools of four neural tissue samples from 5th instar nymphs. SDHa and GAPDH, which are both involved in metabolic pathways, were identified as the least stable in expression levels, challenging their usefulness in normalization. Based on calculations performed with the geNorm and NormFinder programs, the best combination of two genes for normalization of gene expression data following crowding in the Australian plague locust was EF1a and Arm. We applied their use to studying a target gene

  18. One novel mutation and copy number variation of NF1 gene in Chinese patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis%NF1基因新突变及我国首例NF1基因拷贝数目变异报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓佳; 邓伟平; 钟诚; 胡彬; 王一鸣

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mutations and the copy number variation of neurofibromatosis l(NFl') gene in 2 sporadic patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis in China. METHODS: All coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of NF1 were amplified by PCR. The PCR products were sequenced. The DNA samples from 50 normal subjects were also sequenced for control. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was also employed to detect the copy number variation of NF1 gene in these patients. Long range PCR was used for the identification of the breakpoint in the large deletion of the gene. RESULTS: The novel mutation, c. 6345_6346 ins G (p. Leu2116Alafs * 4) , was detected in patient S736. This mutation was absent in her parents and the controls, indicating a de novo mutation. It caused open reading frame shifting, introducing a premature stop codon and resulting in the truncation of the 721 amino acids at the C terminus of the wild-type protein. This truncation cut off part of the armadillo (ARM)-type fold domain in the wild-type protein. A 1.3 ~ 1. 9 Mb deletion of the gene was also detected in the other patient S743. The deletion spanned the whole NF1 gene and part of the flanking regions in both ends, but the breaking point was still unknown. CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel mutation of NF1, c.6345_6346 ins G (p. Leu2116Alafs *4) . We also first report the copy number variation of NF1 gene in Chinese patients. The investigation will be helpful for the molecular diagnosis and understanding the pathogenesis of the disease.%目的:对2例散发性1型神经纤维瘤患者进行致病基因NF1编码序列的突变筛查以及拷贝数变异(copy number variation,CNV)研究,寻找致病性突变.方法:PCR扩增NF1基因的编码区及外显子-内含子交界区,对产物进行直接测序.在50例正常对照中进行新发现突变位点的测序分析,以排除多态性.用多重连接探针扩增技术(MLPA)对患者进行NF1基

  19. NPRAP蛋白通过调节小GTP酶活性促进肺癌细胞的恶性转化%NPRAP protein promotes malignant transformation of lung cancer cells by regulating the activity of small GTPases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊毅; 董彩凤; 刘晓辉; 林璐璐; 于佳乐; 刘帅莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of NPRAP (neural plakophilin-related armadillo protein) expression on biological behavior of lung cancer cells and its possible mechanism.Methods:The expression level of NPRAP was regulated by plasmid transfection and RNA interference methods in two lung cancer cell lines SK-MES-1 and NCI-H460,respectively.Western blotting was used to detect the expression of NPRAP in cancer cells.Then,the abilities of proliferation and invasion and the morphology of the cancer cells were detected by MTT,Transwell,G-LISA and Pull-Down methods,respectively.The activities of small GTPases (including RhoA,Cdc42,and Rac1) in cancer cells were detected by immunofluorescence assay.At the same time,ML141,an inhibitor of Cdc42 and Rac1 activities,was used to explore whether the change of the activity of small GTPases was involved in the influence of NPRAP on biological behavior of cancer cells or not.Results:Over-expression of NPRAP decreased RhoA activity and increased Cdc42/Rac1 activity,and also promoted the proliferation and invasion abilities of lung cancer cells (P < 0.05),as well as the pseudopodia formation.Conversely,the down-regulation of endogenous NPRAP expression level induced by siRNA (small interference RNA) could increase RhoA activity and decrease Cdc42/Rac1 activity,and also inhibit the proliferation,invasion and pseudopodia formation of lung cancer cells (P < 0.05).In addition,the influence of NPRAP on biological behavior of cancer cells was weakened by using ML1 41 (P < 0.05).Conclusion:NPRAP protein probably results in cytoskeleton reassembly by regulating the activity of small GTPases,and then promotes malignant transformation of lung cancer cells.%目的:探讨NPRAP蛋白表达对肺癌细胞生物学行为的影响及其可能的机制.方法:应用质粒转染和RNA干扰的方法分别调节肺癌细胞株SK-MES-1和NCI-H460中NPRAP的表达水平,蛋白质印迹法检测NPRAP蛋白表达情况后,通过MTT、Transwell、

  20. Contribuição ao estudo da Tripanosomiase Americana

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    Bichat de Almeida Rodrigues

    1942-01-01

    ; nor was there any symptomatology attributable to the disease. 3 Out of the six xenodiagnoses made on domestic animals (five dogs and one cat, only one dog was found infected. This animal belonged to the house where the greatest infestation by triatomid bugs with a high index of infection was verified. However, for the reasons given in the text, the hypothesis that the dog might have become infected by eating organs of infected wild animals has been suggested. 4 Of the 115 animals whose blood was examined in thick blood film, 9 (7,8% proved to be infected by Schizotrypanum. Out of 47 xenodiagnoses carried out on wild animals, 15 (32.6% showed positive results (11 opossums, 3 ant-eaters, 1 armadillo. The ant-eater T. tetradactylus is a new vertebrate-host of Schizotrupanum. 5 During 11 months of research, each house being inspected at least once every fortnight, triatomid bugs were found in 7 out of the 36 houses of the village. The 39 specimens collected were all adults; an exhaustive search did not reveal the existence of any young insects in the houses. According to their order of frequency, the species found were the following: P. geniculatus (29 specimens, 7 infected, R. pictipes (9 specimens, 2 infected and E. mucronatus (1 uninfected specimen. The great majority of the insects was captured during the second half of the year (summer period. 6 In the very midst of the forest, in the hole of an ant-eater (T. tetradactylus, larvae, nymphs and adults of P. geniculatus were found. The house nearest to the hole presented the highest index of infestation by this bug (22 specimens, all in adult stage. In the hole of Potus flavus (“macaco da noite” a triatomid larva and an adult Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus have been found. 7 Strains of Schizotrypanum isolated from wild animals showed a weak virulence. The dog strain, although easily infecting laboratory animals, differs from the typical human strains, as DIAS and FREITAS proved in their biometrical studies. 8 The

  1. 7ª Contribuição ao estudo dos Flebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae: descrição dos machos de 24 novas espécies

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    O. Mangabeira Filho

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The A. and his co-workers captured in trips in the hinterland of Brazil more tham 17.000 flebotomi from which 35 are new ones, 11 discribed by, him in previous papers. The A. found these insects in groups of species living in different habitats, some ones of them not yet known: ondoors, or outdoors attracted by light or animal baits, without Shannon’s trap, in great or small caves, in the jungle in tree’s holes, holes in stones, holes in the soil habited by animals like armadillos, pacas (Aguti paca, wild rats, cururú toad (Bufo sp.. He observed the life history of 13 species: Flebotomus longipalpis Lutz& Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus intermedius Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus avellari Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus aragãoi costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus lutzianus Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus limai fonseca, 1935, Flebotomus rickardi Costa Lima, 1936, Flebotomus dasipodogeton Castro, 1939, Flebotomus oswaldoi n. sp., Flebotomus villelai n. sp., Flebotomus triacanthus n. sp., Flebotomus longispinus n. sp. And flebotomus travassosi n. sp. He describes the male of 24 n. sp., explaining the differential diagnose of group or nearly allied species. He inclued F. rooti n. sp. And F. hirsutus n. sp. In the sub-genus Shannonomyia. The first one, very allied to F. davisi Root is different from it, for presenting in the dorsal side of the abdomen bristles and not scales and to have the median claspers longer than his inner appendage and F. hirsutus quite different from the others which show 3 spines on distal segment of the upper clasper and for being the only one who presents the bristles of inner appendage of median clasper longer than it. Only the females of F. amazonensis Root and f. chagasi Costa Lima, are known and then it is possible that they belong to one of the species of this sub-genus from whom only the male have been described. F. choti Floch & Abonnenc, captured also at Pará, F. triacanthus n. sp. F. trispinosus n. sp. And F. equatorialis n. sp